Science.gov

Sample records for optometry

  1. Optometry Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force School of Health Care Sciences, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This course is designed to help military personnel to attain the rating of optometry specialist in the Air Force. The packet includes both a teacher's plan of instruction and five student study guides/workbooks. The teacher's plan of instruction contains lesson plans, lists of student instructional materials and audiovisual aids, and suggested…

  2. Optometry Specialist (AFSC 91255).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kille, Michael O.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for optometry specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are optometry clinic administration (optometry career and field training, ethical relationships and professionalism, eligibility for optometric care and appointment…

  3. Professional Trends in American Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.

    1991-01-01

    A review of optometry's twentieth-century history looks at curriculum standardization and recognition of the doctorate in Optometry, federal legislation, public health movement, optometry in universities, use of pharmaceuticals, the primary care concept, Optometry in group health care, growth of professional publications, and entry into health…

  4. Teaching Programs in Geriatric Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Albert A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian optometry programs concerning curriculum design, clinical and residency training programs, continuing education, and research projects planned or under way in geriatric optometry are presented and discussed. (MSE)

  5. Geriatric Optometry Programs of Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Satya B.

    1985-01-01

    The curriculum design, philosophy, and innovation of four programs in geriatric optometry are described: the Pennsylvania College of Optometry and the colleges of Optometry at the State University of New York, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and University of Houston. (MSE)

  6. Optometry: a discipline of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzia, Boleslaw

    1998-10-01

    Optometry is a branch of science whose roots are in optics development as well as in physiology development. Among Polish scholars, whose names are firmly engraved in the history of optometry, two names should be mentioned first, they are Witelo (1237 - 1290) and Majer (1808 - 1899). Contemporary optometry began around the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the United States of America where some states erected legal regulations for those opticians who were performing refractions. Since 1993 optometry has been defined by the World Council of Optometry as a health care profession which is autonomous, educated and regulated (licensed/registered). Nevertheless, the question arises: Is optometry a separate part of science or is it only a set of practical procedures useful in vision care? In other words: does optometry have a system of definitions, laws and hypothesis with such logical interrelations that all less general statements may be derived from the most general? Even at this moment the system is not fully developed, yet we can say that optometry is a set of statements important and enough proved to be taught at the university level, being a category by itself and being sufficiently rich to be a subject for teaching as separate discipline.

  7. Optometry: A Profession in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Larry

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of current changes in optometry looks at the expanding for-profit health sector, changing student characteristics and enrollment patterns, the changing scope of optometric care and technology, and the demise of professionalism and ethics. Implications for pharmaceutical education are considered. (MSE)

  8. Optometry: Careers with Vision. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    This brochure gives basic facts about optometry which may be helpful in considering such a career. Included are a discussion as to what an optometrist is, the development of the profession, the need for practitioners projected by State to 1980, types of services rendered, and the variety of employment opportunities available. Over one-third of the…

  9. Validity of the Optometry Admission Test in Predicting Performance in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; Johnston, JoElle

    1997-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Optometry Admission Test scores and pre-optometry or undergraduate grade point average (GPA) with first and second year performance in optometry schools. The test's predictive validity was limited but significant, and comparable to those reported for other admission tests. In addition, the scores…

  10. Faculty Preparedness in Geriatric Optometry Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, Gary L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of chief academic officers and faculty (n=27) in 16 schools of optometry found that, since 1986, there has been a 75% increase in institutions requiring coursework in geriatric optometry and an 83% increase in those offering continuing professional education in this field. However, 67% of faculty report no formal training. Three faculty…

  11. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  12. The status of the study of optometry history.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2007-01-01

    The status of optometry history was examined by searching online databases for publications on the history of optometry and the history of other health care professions and some medical specialties. There have been many fewer publications on the history of optometry than on most other health care professions or on medical specialties. Further, there are common misconceptions about optometry history even among its own practitioners. The importance of the study of optometry history is emphasized and suggestions to improve its status are discussed.

  13. A Proposed Curriculum Model for Geriatric Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Albert A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for a geriatric optometry curriculum that defines key content areas and addresses the values essential for effective practice and basic therapeutic modalities used in treatment regimens with older adults is outlined. (MSE)

  14. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  15. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  16. The New York State optometry workforce study.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Mort

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an analysis of the current optometry workforce, both as a unique profession and more broadly within the context of all eye care providers (optometry and ophthalmology) in New York State. The supply and distribution of eye care practitioners provides useful information for policy makers while providing insights as to the impact of the one optometry school within the state. Several databases were employed and a web based survey was developed for completion by all optometrists. The questionnaire included demographic data, whether they were actively practicing in New York State or any other state, were they full time or part time, their primary mode of practice, or if they provided care within institutional settings. Access to care was gauged by the respondents' availability for appointments during evenings or weekends. Access to eye care services in New York State has improved significantly during the past 30 years as the supply of optometrists increased. Before this study was conducted it was generally believed that there were more optometrists than ophthalmologists in every state of the nation except New York, Maryland and the District of Columbia. Findings of this study demonstrate there are 37% more optometrists in New York State than ophthalmologists and more evenly distributed as optometrists are located in almost every county of the state. Sixteen counties have no ophthalmologists. This is attributed to the presence of the College of Optometry established in 1971. More than 60% of all optometrists in the state are SUNY College of Optometry graduates.

  17. Curriculum Model for Optometry: Outcomes of the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Morris S.

    1994-01-01

    A national conference of colleges of optometry focused on planning for optometric curricular reform and faculty development. Issues addressed included changes needed to meet entry-level professional needs, available resources, changes in optometry practice, and optometry's role in health care reform. Task forces worked together to develop a…

  18. Introducing Optometry Students to Clinical Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Eileen M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the innovative content and structure of an introductory course on clinical patient care at the Illinois College of Optometry. Critiques its success based on student grades and feedback, concluding that it was successful in imparting skills of data analysis but had minimal impact on students' ability to empathize with patients. (EV)

  19. Predictors of Academic Success for Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA),…

  20. One hundred years ago: Start of the Optometry School at Columbia University.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2010-10-01

    An optometry school at Columbia University entered its first students in 1910. This was the first optometry school at a university. This article examines what was said in optometry periodicals of 1910 and 1911 about this significant development.

  1. Policy Analysis of Military Optometry Special Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-25

    four policy proposals to rectify an outdated recruitment and retention law/policy for Army optometrists . This paper illustrates variables of Army...variable Retention Special Pay to enhance the recruitment and retention of Army optometrists . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Optometry, Special Pay, Recruitment...Statement of Ethical Conduct in Research The author is an Army optometrist . The confidentiality of individual members of the study population was protected

  2. Optometry Today: The Vision Care Profession. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    Included in this booklet are facts about optometry which would be helpful for those considering entering the profession. The need for optometry, its history, accredited schools, distribution of manpower, and what the optometrist does are outlined. Over one-third of the booklet is a "Profile of a Profession" which discusses specialized optometric…

  3. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  4. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of a study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) is provided. The data covered aspects of recently graduated O.D.s' experience in obtaining a state license, becoming established in practice, and their practice characteristics. (Author/MLW)

  5. The Vocational Interests of a Sample of Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emling, Robert C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, with a vocational title called Optometry, was used to profile a sample of second-year optometry students and to compare them with samples of practicing optometrists. One conclusion questions these students' compatibility with older practitioners. (MLW)

  6. A Survey of Managed Care Education at Optometry Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soroka, Mort; Reis, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    Studied the courses and topics offered at schools of optometry and the total hours devoted to managed care. Responses from the 17 schools of optometry reveal significant variations in curricular coverage of managed care, although a core set of materials was found to exist that could be the basis for more standard curriculum. (SLD)

  7. Attributes of Students Graduating from Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This report by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry identifies desired attributes of students graduating from schools and colleges of optometry. Introductory information includes information on the report's development and assumptions. Personal and professional attributes are then listed followed by a list of 10 knowledge-area…

  8. Residencies at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Arthur H.; Klopfer, Joann

    1983-01-01

    An optometric residency program at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry that focuses on clinical training in the areas of low vision rehabilitation, pediatric optometry, visual training, behavioral vision, primary care optometry and hospital based optometry is discussed. (MSW)

  9. Profile: The School of Optometry, University of Waterloo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The school of optometry at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, is described including location, facilities, administration, programs, faculty, research, graduate study, residency programs, and interprofessional relationships. (JMF)

  10. Interior, second floor, northeast corner, office of chief of optometry, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor, northeast corner, office of chief of optometry, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Administration Building, Southeast Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Barry Collin: a visionary for a new direction in optometry.

    PubMed

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2009-02-01

    Dr. Barry Collin represents the best in academic optometry. An educator, scientist, and visionary, he has throughout his long and distinguished career made important contributions to our understanding of ophthalmic pathology. He has also had an enormous impact on raising the level of optometric education and expanding the scope of optometric practice. This profile covers much of Dr. Collin's professional career, offering insights into what has made him one of the key leaders in Australian and international optometry.

  12. The United States Air force optometry residency program.

    PubMed

    Kent, J F

    1995-04-01

    The USAF Optometry Residency Program promotes an educational climate that facilitates the education and development of the resident doctor not only as an optometrist but also as a military officer. Development of self-directed education and decision making within the training period is emphasized. Residents are encouraged to examine and challenge existing ideas and to develop physiological concepts and principles so the practical application of these skills is reflected in active clinical practice and effective professional relationships. The Air Force Optometry Residency Program will train career-oriented Air Force optometrists in advanced clinical and diagnostic techniques, aerospace optometry, and clinic management including the latest continuous quality improvement concepts. Recent changes have enlarged the scope of practice for Air Force optometrists. This expanded scope of practice has created a need for a nucleus of residency-trained optometrists, skilled in the latest techniques of eye care, who return to the field and train their associates in these advanced techniques. Over 40 percent of Air Force optometry clinics are manned by one doctor of optometry. Residency-trained optometrists are able to provide a high level of comprehensive optometric care at these facilities. Through this program the Air Force can keep pace with the evolution of optometry and meet the challenge of providing the highest quality care to our patients.

  13. World optometry: the challenges of leadership for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Anthony

    2002-06-01

    The World Council of Optometry has developed a mission and organizational strategies to improve the delivery of eye and vision care around the world, as well as to advance the profession of optometry. Its growth over the past several years is a tribute to the early pioneers in international optometry who unselfishly volunteered their time and expertise to improving the profession and eye and vision care. It also underscores the continued spirit of global volunteerism that energizes the recent leaders who have sustained this growth. Over the past decades, optometry has seen the steady growth of its educational infrastructure, scope of practice, and professional image. It has faced adversity and seized opportunities. Throughout, the overarching raison d'être has been optometry's responsiveness to the public health needs of society. The future growth of optometry within the global health community will depend on expanding this professional growth at an international level, and forging durable strategic alliances that address the significant prevention of blindness imperatives of our generation.

  14. A Survey of State Boards of Optometry Concerning Educational Requirements in Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of state optometry licensing requirements for coursework in pharmacology, intended as a tool for optometry curriculum development, suggest a need for training in pharmacology in both the college curriculum and continuing education. (MSE)

  15. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  16. The Learning Disabilities Unit at the State College of Optometry/SUNY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.

    1986-01-01

    The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)

  17. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  18. [The status quo and expectation of optometry research in China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The eye care problems related to optometry involve a wide range, including visual problems during eye disease recovery, visual quality in surgical or non-surgical refractive corrections, and the etiological investigation of functional eye diseases like myopia. This article covers the current challenges to visual health care and the academic developments and contributions of optometry in China, including fundamental researches of myopia, refractive surgery and visual quality, and functional eye disease investigations. Some of the researches have certain impacts both domestically and overseas. Furthermore, scientific evidences to solve clinical problems and the current academic focuses that we should pay attention to are provided.

  19. Requirements for Hepatitis B Vaccinations among Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Norma K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data on the incidence of hepatitis B viral infection are examined, and a telephone survey of 19 schools of optometry concerning administrative policy about student immunization is reported. Results show less than one-third of schools require student vaccination. It is recommended that schools mandate immunization for all students. (MSE)

  20. Looking Toward the Future: An Affiliated Educational System for Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    An opportunity exists for the Veterans Administration, Association of Schools of Optometry, and American Optometric Association to establish a large-scale affiliated optometric education system, enhancing optometric care, education, and clinical research opportunities. These agencies can develop an efficient, cost-effective national model for eye…

  1. Women and Perceived Barriers Relative to Optometry as a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoener, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Barriers to success for women in optometry are reviewed including social pressures discouraging women applicants, role conflicts, access to informal networks, and discriminatory feelings of faculty. A 1968 National Center for Health Statistics survey of practice patterns of women optometrists, female enrollment, and practice preferences of women…

  2. University of Houston College of Optometry Externship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussenblatt, Harris

    1982-01-01

    The University of Houston College of Optometry external clinical program, which provides fourth year students with multidisciplinary clinical activities in facilities serving underserved areas, is described. The multidisciplinary practice setting allows the students to learn about the role of the optometrist and to communicate with other health…

  3. Teaching Ethics in the Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, D. Leonard

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 16 optometry schools found 12 had a required course or portion of a required course dedicated to teaching ethics. Classroom hours varied from 0 to 60; the median was 7. Topics covered varied. Courses were usually offered in the first and third years. Faculty were typically, though not exclusively, optometrists. (MSE)

  4. The Optometry Program at Universidad Autonoma de la Laguna, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Agustin L.

    1995-01-01

    A description of the optometry program at the Universidad Autonoma de la Laguna (Mexico) provides information on the composition of the faculty, design of the five-year program as compared with the traditional four-year program, curriculum content, clinical education, visiting lecturer program, and certification of graduates. (MSE)

  5. The Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Program: Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Depeuw M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 101 graduates of the New England College of Optometry's (Massachusetts) accelerated doctoral program through 1995 and 141 graduates of the four-year program in 1990-95 illustrate the accelerated program's success in terms of graduate involvement in optometric education, medical education, and/or research, professional leadership,…

  6. The Prevalence of Unethical Student Behavior in Optometry Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, D. Leonard; Heiberger, Michael H.; Feldman, Jerome; Johnston, Edward

    2000-01-01

    A survey of second and third year students (n=1,092) at 16 optometric schools found 5.5 percent admitted to cheating in optometry school (and 13.9 percent admitted cheating in college), a finding similar to that found for medical students, whose self-reported cheating ranged from 4.7 percent to 10 percent. (Author/DB)

  7. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  8. Detainee optometry at Camp Cropper, Iraq, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas M; Elledge, James B

    2012-06-01

    This article details the first in-depth analysis of an Optometry Service working with a large Middle Eastern detainee population composed entirely of Iraqi males. The mission of the Camp Cropper Optometry Service was to provide eye care services to the detainee population consistent with the standards of optometric care that would be provided to any U.S. military member in the same geographic area. This included providing detainees with eyeglasses, therapeutic treatment of eye disease, and referral for treatment of medical conditions and surgical care, if it was needed and available at the U.S. military facilities in the Iraq Theater. Diagnoses, services provided, and medications given to the detainees are listed in detail and demonstrate the complexity of pathology encountered in this population.

  9. Demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students and factors influencing their career choice and institution of learning.

    PubMed

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Carl Halladay, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This information is important as it will assist optometry institutions to formulate effective student recruitment strategies. To assess the demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students, the factors that influence their selection of optometry as a career and institution of learning. We conducted a cross sectional study among Ghanaian optometry students using a structured questionnaire to collect data on the demographic characteristics and factors that might influence their choice of optometry as a career as well as choice of institution of learning. Two hundred and eighty students from the two optometry training institutions in Ghana; University of Cape Coast (48.2%) and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (51.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 17 to 28 years with most being males (72.5%), and the majority (79%) being from urban areas. The main factors that influenced their career choice were job availability after graduation (90%) and desire to help other people (89.2%). Factors that influenced their institution choice were preference for an institution (36.8%) and proximity to home (24.4%). In the absence of adequate optometry jobs in the public health sector, women will remain marginalised specifically those in rural areas. This marginalisation is however, a reflection of a broader societal disadvantage for women. Greater effort needs to be made to recruit high school students from rural areas to study optometry and more institutions need to provide optometry instruction throughout the country.

  10. Profile: Southern College of Optometry--A Leader in the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Debbie

    1979-01-01

    A profile of the Southern College of Optometry is provided with information covering the history, students, education (including Doctor of Optometry program, technician program, faculty), clinics, buildings, finances, and new programs and services (including the Memphis Health Center, multiple patient VT program, closed circuit color TV,…

  11. A Survey of Hypertension Curriculum in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Optometry, as a primary eye/vision care provider, serves as a valuable resource in providing detection, education, referral, and follow-up services for patients with high blood pressure. A 1977 survey of 500 optometrists and a 1980 survey of schools and colleges of optometry are discussed. (MLW)

  12. Effects of Optometry School Recruitment Efforts on Urban and Suburban High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Andrew D.; Shepard, Jodi; Orleans, Elizabeth; Chae, Eunmi; Ng-Sarver, Joy

    1999-01-01

    In two Oakland (California) high schools, one urban and one suburban, an audiovisual presentation designed to enhance student interest in optometry as a career was given. Results of the presentation, measured by a questionnaire, suggest that few high school students are considering pursuing an optometry doctoral degree, but an on-site presentation…

  13. Publications by Faculty of the School of Optometry University of Waterloo 1976 to 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Susan; Woo, George

    1980-01-01

    A list of optometric research activities of the University of Waterloo School of Optometry are provided to inform educators and researchers of their activities and to encourage interaction with others with similar interests. Bibliographic information is given. The scope ranges fron single-cell recording to continuing education in optometry.…

  14. Colour vision experimental studies in teaching of optometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Fomins, Sergejs

    2005-10-01

    Following aspects related to human colour vision are included in experimental lessons for optometry students of University of Latvia. Characteristics of coloured stimuli (emitting and reflective), determination their coordinates in different colour spaces. Objective characteristics of transmitting of colour stimuli through the optical system of eye together with various types of appliances (lenses, prisms, Fresnel prisms). Psychophysical determination of mono- and polychromatic stimuli perception taking into account physiology of eye, retinal colour photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity, spatial and temporal characteristics of retinal receptive fields. Ergonomics of visual perception, influence of illumination and glare effects, testing of colour vision deficiencies.

  15. Webcams as a tool for teaching in Optometry training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo, A.; Arines, J.

    2015-04-01

    Clinical Optometry lab training is devoted to develop the students skills needed in eye healthcare professional practice. Nevertheless, students always find difficulties in the management of some optometric instruments and in the understanding of the evaluation techniques. Moreover, teachers also have problems in explaining the eye evaluation tests or making demonstrations of instruments handling. In order to facilitate the learning process, webcams adapted to the optometric devices represent a helpful and useful tool. In this work we present the use of webcams in some of the most common clinical test in Optometry as ocular refraction, colour vision test, eye health evaluation with slip-lamp, retinoscopy, ophthalmoscopy and contact lens fitting. Our experience shows that with this simple approach we can do things easier: show the instrument handling to all the students at the same time; take pictures or videos of different eye health conditions or exploratory routines for posterior visualization with all the students; recreate visual experience of the patient during optometric exam; simulate colour vision pathologies; increase the interactions between students allowing them to help and correct each other; and also record the final routine exam in order to make possible its revision with the students.

  16. A short history of the Australian College of Optometry 1940-2015.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2015-09-01

    This paper gives an account of the history of the Australian College of Optometry from its foundation in 1940 and its achievements in optometric education, research and clinical service over the ensuing 75 years.

  17. PRESBYOPIA OPTOMETRY METHOD BASED ON DIOPTER REGULATION AND CHARGE COUPLE DEVICE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Wu, X X; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, R F; Gao, J

    2015-01-01

    With the development of photoelectric technology and single-chip microcomputer technology, objective optometry, also known as automatic optometry, is becoming precise. This paper proposed a presbyopia optometry method based on diopter regulation and Charge Couple Device (CCD) imaging technology and, in the meantime, designed a light path that could measure the system. This method projects a test figure to the eye ground and then the reflected image from the eye ground is detected by CCD. The image is then automatically identified by computer and the far point and near point diopters are determined to calculate lens parameter. This is a fully automatic objective optometry method which eliminates subjective factors of the tested subject. Furthermore, it can acquire the lens parameter of presbyopia accurately and quickly and can be used to measure the lens parameter of hyperopia, myopia and astigmatism.

  18. Teaching optics in a multi-disciplinary curriculum: experience from optometry programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2007-06-01

    The Optometry program in Schools and Colleges of Optometry leads to a Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree in north America and is usually a post-baccalaureate course of study of four years duration. Historically Optometry developed out of Physics and/or applied optics programs. Optics, and more specifically, geometric optics and it's applications to the human eye plays a significant role in the education of an optometrist. In addition, optometrists are trained in physical optics as well as in radiometry/photometry. Considering the fact that most optometry students come to the program with a biological sciences background implies that educating these students require elucidation of "real-world" applications and clinical relevance to hold their interest. Even though the trend in optometric education in the past few years is to put more emphasis on biological sciences due to the increased scope of practice of the optometrist, optics still continues to play a major role in the training and career of an optometrist, especially with the advent of new technologies in treating low vision, measurement and correction of aberrations of the eye, etc.

  19. Comparison of Pharmacology Courses for Optometry and Medical Students, Indiana University, Bloomington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Sally

    1983-01-01

    Due to criticism that optometrists are not adequately trained to use drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, the course of study taken by optometry students was compared to that taken by medical students in terms of faculty capability, courses content, and relationship to career needs.

  20. Optometry Specialist, 10-7. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These lesson plans and study guides for a secondary/postsecondary level course in optometry comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the 128-hour course is to train students in basic ocular anatomy…

  1. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VI: Women in Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  2. Integrating Outcomes Assessment into Optometry Education: A Strategic Guide for Enhancing Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Diane E.; Daum, Kent M.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines eight steps that will help optometry schools transition a faculty from "denial" of the need for assessment to "institutionalization": establish a collaborative environment, establish an infrastructure that makes assessment an integral activity, recruit a leader for full implementation of outcomes assessment, conduct a needs assessment,…

  3. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  4. A.M. Skeffington: the father of behavioral optometry--his contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, Willis C.

    1998-10-01

    Life of Dr. A. M. Skeffington, his model of vision, and his contributions to optometry are reviewed. In particular, vision as s spatial information processing system and dual sensing ocular system are discussed to answer the questions: `where is the object in space?' and `what is the object in space?'.

  5. Attending to Audience: Comparing Optometry Student Talk "with" and "about" Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Jenna M.; Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.

    2009-01-01

    We explored mediating concepts that affect clinical novices shifting between their talk "with" patients in eye examinations and their talk "about" patients in case presentations (nCPs). In a Canadian optometry teaching clinic, patient "chief concern or request", "illness experience", and…

  6. Student Self-Assessment of Professional Communication Skills at the Illinois College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Sanford M.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.; Cornick, Michelle L.; Wong, Kenneth K. W.

    2000-01-01

    A self-evaluation of communication skills was administered to approximately 500 optometry students before, during, and after a curriculum intervention to enhance these skills. Findings indicated that the intervention had a modest impact that was differential over the skill categories (interpersonal skills, patient care, interdisciplinary skills,…

  7. [Recent developments on the scientific research in optometry and visual science in China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia

    2010-10-01

    The current text reviewed the situation of the scientific research in the field of Optometry and visual sciences in the recent 5 to 6 years in our country. It showed the advancement and achievement in the myopic fundamental research and the application research of visual science. In addition, it also analyzed the guidance of research in solving the clinical visual issues and the significance of community service of research in eye care in public. This text indicated by the concrete current situation and the result data of research that the biology and optics, the double property of the eye endowed the distinguished feature to the research in Ophthalmology and Optometry, and that the cross cooperation of multidisciplinary promoted the innovation in the fields of Optometry and visual research. In future, the fields of Optometry and visual science in China will face up to more and more anticipations of the original and systematic research. The prophylaxis and treatment of myopia would be still a long-term and rough exploration theme in these fields.

  8. An Evaluation of the New Curriculum at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael G.; Kashani, Sandy; Saroj, Namrata

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the new curriculum at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Optometry by comparing the content of the new curriculum to the old curriculum and by surveying faculty and students regarding their opinion of the new curriculum. Findings indicated that the curriculum is successful in implementing desired changes, including reduced…

  9. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek K.; Gupta, Veer B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines. PMID:27854266

  10. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek K; Gupta, Veer B

    2016-11-15

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines.

  11. Optometry/Ophthalmology Assistants, AFSC 4V0X1/A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Administer contrast sensitivity tests 54 F 161 Administer Farnsworth- Munsell 100 Hue tests 55 F165 Administer Randot Stereo depth perception tests 56...Visual Screening 1 F160 Administer Farnsworth D-15 Hue tests 2 F 162 Administer keratometer tests 3 F 166 Administer Schirmer tear tests 4 F 192 Log...personnel perform more administrative and visual testing functions than do the 3-skill level personnel. At the 7-skill level, Optometry assistants

  12. Robert M. Lockwood and George A. Rogers, early twentieth century optometry authors.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2010-03-01

    A significant factor in the continuing development and maturation of professional optometry in the early twentieth century was book and journal literature. Some of the prominent optometric writers of that era do not seem to be remembered today. Two examples are Robert Minturn Lockwood (1857-1920) and George A. Rogers (1852-1935). This article provides biographical sketches of each of them and brief descriptions of the contents of the books they published.

  13. Establishment of a Separate Optometry Service at Tripler Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Optometry; Ophthalmology; Staff satisfaction ; Patient satisfactton 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number). - At...Tripler Army Medical Center (TAM), a separate Optcaetry Service ues established in May, 1988. An implementation plan was developed as well as an...measures of ccmplaints, staff satisfaction , patient satisfaction , access, and external/internal quality review of the Optanetry Service were examined. ’The

  14. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Methods Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. Results There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each). The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5). Conclusions Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences. PMID:27233041

  15. Collaborative telemedicine between optometry and ophthalmology: an initiative from the University of Houston.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, D; Schiffman, J S; Tang, R

    1999-01-01

    The University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) has developed a strong Telemedicine Optometry/Ophthalmology program. Patient care, clinical teaching and research benefit from utilizing Telemedicine technology. This initiative between Optometry and Ophthalmology is at the forefront of eyecare! Presented here: clinical teaching opportunities via tele-education including retinal, uveitic, neuro-ophthalmic disorders and glaucoma. Seminars introduce students to this technology and enhance their clinical experience through exposure to eye pathologies often related to systemic diseases. UHCO's affiliated clinics include multidisciplinary centers staffed by optometrists: the Frost Eye Clinic (HIV multidisciplinary care), Good Neighbor Health Clinic and Rusk School Health Promotion Project (indigent multidisciplinary care). These centers can converse on line with eyecare professionals. Large sites interested in low vision/visual rehabilitation include: The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), the Social Security Hospital (Lima, Peru), the Matagorda General Hospital and the Quentin Mease Hospital. These sites, do offer quality care but require visual rehabilitation programs provided by UHCO. These sites also provide exposure to pathology for the students. A residency program trains optometrists in Telemedicine. The research program focuses on optics and imaging necessary to diagnose glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and neuro-ophthalmic disorders through Telemedicine. UHCO supports the advancement of standards in tele-eyecare.

  16. Balancing patient care and student education: learning to deliver bad news in an optometry teaching clinic.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.

  17. E. Leroy Ryer (1880-1972) and Elmer E. Hotaling (1887-1950), optometric leaders and authors, and partners in optometry practice.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-04-01

    E. LeRoy Ryer and Elmer E. Hotaling were very prominent optometrists of the first half of the twentieth century and made numerous contributions to the profession. They were among the early pioneers of professional optometry practice. They published many articles in optometry journals, and did work in instrument design. They were charter members of the American Academy of Optometry in 1922, Ryer having suggested such an organization in 1905. In the first decade of the twentieth century, they were briefly faculty members in a two-year optometry school, an unusual length of study for the time. This paper presents brief biographical sketches of each, along with discussion of the two books they coauthored, Optometric Procedure and Ophthalmometry. The former book contained much of their views on how optometry should be practiced.

  18. Evidence-based practice instruction by faculty members and librarians in North American optometry and ophthalmology programs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katherine A; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Spafford, Marlee M

    2014-07-01

    North American optometry and ophthalmology faculty members and vision science librarians were surveyed online (14% response rate) about teaching evidence-based practice (EBP). Similar to studies of other health care programs, all five EBP steps (Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply, Assess) were taught to varying degrees. Optometry and ophthalmology EBP educators may want to place further emphasis on (1) the Apply and Assess steps, (2) faculty- and student-generated questions and self-assessment in clinical settings, (3) online teaching strategies, (4) programmatic integration of EBP learning objectives, and (5) collaboration between faculty members and librarians.

  19. Use of Interactive Sessions and E-Learning in Teaching Anatomy to First-Year Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Gabriel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in the Optometry program at the University of Manchester are required to take a functional anatomy course during the first year of their studies. Low mean scores in the written examination of this unit for the past two academic years energized staff to rethink the teaching format. Interactive sessions lasting 20 minutes each were…

  20. The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A; Eperjesi, F; Gilmartin, B

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the most efficient method available for the analysis of experimental data. Analysis of variance is a method of considerable complexity and subtlety, with many different variations, each of which applies in a particular experimental context. Hence, it is possible to apply the wrong type of ANOVA to data and, therefore, to draw an erroneous conclusion from an experiment. This article reviews the types of ANOVA most likely to arise in clinical experiments in optometry including the one-way ANOVA ('fixed' and 'random effect' models), two-way ANOVA in randomised blocks, three-way ANOVA, and factorial experimental designs (including the varieties known as 'split-plot' and 'repeated measures'). For each ANOVA, the appropriate experimental design is described, a statistical model is formulated, and the advantages and limitations of each type of design discussed. In addition, the problems of non-conformity to the statistical model and determination of the number of replications are considered.

  1. Light and optics conceptual evaluation findings from first year optometry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Damber; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2014-07-01

    The Light and Optics Conceptual Evaluation (LOCE) was developed to examine conceptual understanding of basic geometric and physical optics for the Active Learning in Optics and Photonics program administered by UNESCO. This 50 item test (46 multiple choice, 4 ray-tracing short answer) was administered to entering students in the Optometry professional degree (OD) program. We wanted to determine how much of the physics/optics concepts from undergraduate physics courses (a pre-requisite for entry to the OD program) were retained. In addition, the test was administered after the first year students had taken a required course in geometric and visual optics as part of their first semester courses. The LOCE was completed by two consecutive classes to the program in 2010 (n=89) and 2011 (n=84). The tests were administered the first week of the term and the test was given without any prior notice. In addition, the test was administered to the class of 2010 students after they had completed the course in geometric and visual optics. The means of the test were 22.1 (SD=4.5; range: 12-35) and 21.3(SD=5.1; range: 11-35) for the two entering classes. There was no statistical significance between the two classes (t-test, p<0.05). Similarly there was no difference between the scores in terms of gender. The post-course test (administered during the first week of the second term) showed a statistically significant improvement (mean score went from 22.1 to 31.1, a 35% improvement). It should be noted that both groups of students performed worse in questions related to physical optics as well as lens imaging, while scoring best in questions related to refraction and reflection. These data should be taken into consideration when designing optics curricula for optometry (and other allied health programs such as opticianry or ophthalmology).

  2. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  3. Effect of the Health and Social Security Bill 1984 on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S P

    1986-05-01

    The United Kingdom government introduced a Bill to Parliament in 1984 called The Health and Social Security Bill. This was, according to the government, introduced to break the monopoly on the supply of spectacles by qualified opticians. The subsequent changes in the law brought about by the new Act are outlined, and brief comments presented on the consequences of the new Act on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

  4. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  5. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    McAlinden, Colm; Khadka, Jyoti; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2011-07-01

    The ever-expanding choice of ocular metrology and imaging equipment has driven research into the validity of their measurements. Consequently, studies of the agreement between two instruments or clinical tests have proliferated in the ophthalmic literature. It is important that researchers apply the appropriate statistical tests in agreement studies. Correlation coefficients are hazardous and should be avoided. The 'limits of agreement' method originally proposed by Altman and Bland in 1983 is the statistical procedure of choice. Its step-by-step use and practical considerations in relation to optometry and ophthalmology are detailed in addition to sample size considerations and statistical approaches to precision (repeatability or reproducibility) estimates.

  6. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  7. An introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with special reference to data from clinical experiments in optometry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A; Slade, S V; Eperjesi, F

    2000-05-01

    This article is aimed primarily at eye care practitioners who are undertaking advanced clinical research, and who wish to apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) to their data. ANOVA is a data analysis method of great utility and flexibility. This article describes why and how ANOVA was developed, the basic logic which underlies the method and the assumptions that the method makes for it to be validly applied to data from clinical experiments in optometry. The application of the method to the analysis of a simple data set is then described. In addition, the methods available for making planned comparisons between treatment means and for making post hoc tests are evaluated. The problem of determining the number of replicates or patients required in a given experimental situation is also discussed.

  8. American Academy of Optometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... care through lifelong learning. Login Meetings Academy 2017 Chicago 2017 Call for Courses 2017 Exhibitor Information Scientific ... Our Partners About Community Home Join us in Chicago! October 11 - 14, 2017 at McCormick Place. More... ...

  9. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  10. The incunabula of American optometry.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Only a very few American opticians (optometrists) wrote textbooks or manuals before the end of the 19th century. The important hand-book by William Bohne has already been excellently covered by David Goss but three others appear to have been largely unnoticed. These are manuals by Walter Alden, August Morck and J W Queen & Co.: pioneer works that can be regarded as the incunabula or cradle of printing of optometric publishing in the United States.

  11. Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPE Overview Course Submission Course Qualification Course Review Fees Submit a Course Activity/Event Submission Activity/Event Accreditation Info Activity/Event Fees Become a COPE Administrator COPE Administrator Login COPE ...

  12. A National Study of Assisting Manpower in Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.; And Others

    As a basis for providing meaningful job opportunities for the disadvantaged in health occupations, this study has investigated the current number, duties, and education and training of ancillary optometric personnel and the projected need for such employees. The study further describes the type of formal training program required to meet the…

  13. Image processing and analysis using neural networks for optometry area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netto, Antonio V.; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria C.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we describe the framework of a functional system for processing and analyzing images of the human eye acquired by the Hartmann-Shack technique (HS), in order to extract information to formulate a diagnosis of eye refractive errors (astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia). The analysis is to be carried out using an Artificial Intelligence system based on Neural Nets, Fuzzy Logic and Classifier Combination. The major goal is to establish the basis of a new technology to effectively measure ocular refractive errors that is based on methods alternative those adopted in current patented systems. Moreover, analysis of images acquired with the Hartmann-Shack technique may enable the extraction of additional information on the health of an eye under exam from the same image used to detect refraction errors.

  14. Multicolour LEDs in educational demonstrations of physics and optometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulins, Paulis; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2014-07-01

    LED light sources are used to design experimental setup for university courses teaching human color vision. The setup allows to demonstrate various vision characteristics and to apply for student practical exercises to study eye spectral sensitivity in different spectral range using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Technique can be used in laboratory works for students to acquire knowledge in visual perception, basics of electronics and measuring, or it can be applied as fully computer control experiment. Besides studies of the eye spectral sensitivity students can practice in trichromatic color matching and other visual perception tasks

  15. The Study Of Optometry Apparatus Of Laser Speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao-cheng, Wang; Kun, Yao; Xiu-qing, Wu; Chang-ying, Long; Jia-qi, Shi; Shi-zhong, Shi

    1988-01-01

    Based on the regularity of laser speckles movement the method of exam the uncorrected eyes is determined. The apparatus with micro-computer and optical transformation is made. Its practical function is excellent.

  16. An Analysis of Pharmacology Training in Schools of Optometry, Medicine and Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waigandt, Marti; Waigandt, Alex

    1985-01-01

    Controversy over the issue of drug licensure for optometrists is discussed. A study to analyze optometrists in terms of academic qualifications as compared to clinicians currently licensed to use pharmaceuticals is described. (MLW)

  17. What Are the Appropriate Skills and Knowledge Required for Entry into the Practice of Optometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penna, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level skills needed of optometrists, as of allied health occupations practitioners, include thinking skills, communication skills, sensitivity to personal and professional values and ethics, awareness of self and individual social responsibility, lifelong learning skills and habits, interpersonal and group competence, and management…

  18. [Accuracy of three common optometry methods in examination of refraction in juveniles].

    PubMed

    Su, Ting; Min, Xiaoshan; Liu, Shuangzhen; Li, Fengyun; Tan, Xingping; Zhong, Yanni; Deng, Shaoling

    2016-02-01

    目的:使用视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪与视网膜检影等3种常用验光方法比较分析青少年屈光不正患者散瞳前后的检测结果。方法:对78例(156只眼)53~17岁青少年分别在自然瞳孔下应用WelchAllyn Suresight手持式视力筛查仪及NIDEK ARK-510A型自动电脑验光仪进行验光。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后,行视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪和视网膜检影3种验光法。结果:各方法散瞳前球镜代数值均低于散瞳后,数值更偏近视(P<0.05);散瞳前视力筛查仪与散瞳后的检影验光比较,球镜值、柱镜值和散光轴位差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),两者的一致性优于电脑验光与视网膜检影,但是所得数值偏近视倾向;散瞳前电脑验光与检影验光比较,球镜值和柱镜值差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);散瞳后视力筛查仪与检影验光比较,球镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而散瞳后电脑验光与检影验光比较,柱镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对于青少年验光,睫状肌麻痹散瞳后检影验光必不可少。自然瞳孔下,视力筛查仪验光优于电脑验光,尤其在判断屈光不正的性质方面(球镜值更准)。但是两者都有高估近视程度的倾向。散瞳后,电脑验光准确性高于视力筛查仪,可作为试镜的参考。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后视网膜检影验光结合主观试镜仍是检查屈光不正最为有效的方法。.

  19. Optometry services in Ontario: supply - and demand-side factors from 2011 to 2036.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Philip Sj; Sweetman, Arthur; Zhang, Xue Helen

    2014-01-01

    Optometric labour market projections are provided. First, population growth and ageing-based estimates of the rate of increase of eye-care services in Ontario from 2011 to 2$ are presented, holding the age-sex structure of utilization constant. Then, using data on the 2011 supply and working hours of Ontario's optometrists, the number of optometrists needed to keep the level of optometric services per age-sex-adjusted person comparable over time is estimated. The projections suggest that the number of Ontario optometrists should grow by approximately 30-40 full-time equivalents per year; to offset retirements and account for decreasing work hours, this suggests 77-90 new practitioners are required each year. However, in recent years, the number of Ontario optometrists has been growing faster than this, suggesting either that demand has exceeded supply and/or surpluses will accumulate if this trend continues.

  20. Developing and Evaluating an Interactive Multimedia Instructional Tool: Learning Outcomes and User Experiences of Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This study developed an interactive multimedia-based software program for Optics instruction, which was expected to overcome the imperfection of traditional optical labs. The researcher evaluated the effectiveness of the program through an experimental study that compared the learning outcomes of the students who used and did not use the software.…

  1. Balancing Patient Care and Student Education: Learning to Deliver Bad News in an Optometry Teaching Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…

  2. Assessment of the Need for Optometric Education in Puerto Rico: Projected Impact of the IAU School of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Edwin C.

    1983-01-01

    Using several assumptions about the supply, productivity, and use of optometrists in Puerto Rico to 2000, several possible supply-demand situations are projected. The role of the Inter American University in these situations is discussed, based on graduates' probable practice locations and the school's program design. (MSE)

  3. Quantitative electroencephalograms and neuro-optometry: a case study that explores changes in electrophysiology while wearing therapeutic eyeglasses.

    PubMed

    Zelinsky, Deborah; Feinberg, Corey

    2017-01-01

    The brain is equipped with a complex system for processing sensory information, including retinal circuitry comprising part of the central nervous system. Retinal stimulation can influence brain function via customized eyeglasses at both subcortical and cortical levels. We investigated cortical effects from wearing therapeutic eyeglasses, hypothesizing that they can create measureable changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) tracings. A Z-Bell(SM) test was performed on a participant to select optimal lenses. An EEG measurement was recorded before and after the participant wore the eyeglasses. Equivalent quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) analyses (statistical analysis on raw EEG recordings) were performed and compared with baseline findings. With glasses on, the participant's readings were found to be closer to the normed database. The original objective of our investigation was met, and additional findings were revealed. The Z-bell(SM) test identified lenses to influence neurotypical brain activity, supporting the paradigm that eyeglasses can be utilized as a therapeutic intervention. Also, EEG analysis demonstrated that encephalographic techniques can be used to identify channels through which neuro-optomertric treatments work. This case study's preliminary exploration illustrates the potential role of QEEG analysis and EEG-derived brain imaging in neuro-optometric research endeavors to affect brain function.

  4. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or... scope of practice of a doctor of dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry;...

  5. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; (iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or... scope of practice of a doctor of dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry;...

  6. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or...

  7. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or...

  8. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or...

  9. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Air Force Optometry Augmentation Team (FFDOT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-09

    for a range of non- surgical injuries and illnesses that would typically be seen and treated by an optometrist and one technician working 12-hour days...Code 800.13. FFDOT Materiel Solutions 7 Capability The FFDOT AS is used by optometrists as a component of the Aerospace Medical Contingency... optometrist (42E3) and an optometric technician (4V071). Results Change Justification Changes to the AS are categorized as modernization, clinical

  10. The Optometric Residency: Its Bloom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleything, Willard B.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for proposed residencies in optometry are presented for pediatric, rehabilitative, and hospital optometry. Their significance in terms of costs, patient population, faculty expertise, and critical mass are discussed. (JMF)

  11. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  12. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  13. The Expanding Role of the Optometrist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in the current health care system impacting upon optometry and optometric care are highlighted including changes in health care organizations and delivery, emerging concepts in health care, and changes in optometry and optometric care. (JMF)

  14. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  15. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  16. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... functions which he or she is legally authorized by the State to perform; (iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or she practices; (v) A chiropractor who... dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry; a chiropractor; or...

  17. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authorized by the State to perform; (iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or she practices; (v) A chiropractor who is licensed by the State or..., or optometry; a chiropractor; or clinical psychologist, as that scope is— (A) Defined by the...

  18. Developing Ideal Student and Residency Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvin, Gerald J.

    1993-01-01

    The Veterans Administration (VA) is a primary educator of optometry students, with each college of optometry being affiliated with at least one VA hospital. Ideally, fourth-year optometry students rotate through a specific VA facility for about 12 weeks. Guidelines are designed to provide optimum care in a rich learning environment. (MSE)

  19. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... functions which he or she is legally authorized by the State to perform; (iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or she practices; (v) A chiropractor who... dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry; a chiropractor; or...

  20. Flight and Operational Medicine Clinic (FOMC) Task Process Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    optometry testing IAW 48-123 Provide all immunization as required Complete ARMA and physical exam AMS Review all diagnostic testing, and labs...this risk Is Snellen eye exam required? Refer to optometry Identify and address all CPS IAW local PHA business rules Print out all paperwork and...accomplished by Tech Complete all requirement optometry testing IAW 48-123 Provide all immunization(s) as required Complete ARMA and Physical

  1. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which... equivalent degree, doctor of podiatry or an equivalent degree, bachelor of science in pharmacy or...

  2. 75 FR 28331 - Meaningful Access to United States Currency for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...: doctors of medicine, doctors of osteopathy, doctors of optometry, registered nurses, and licensed practical nurses. Alternatively, if a person who is blind or visually impaired has verification of...

  3. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  4. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  5. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  6. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  7. 77 FR 22789 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ..., osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, and pharmacy. The NSL... records, student records, and repayment records until all student loans are repaid in full and all...

  8. 75 FR 16136 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... allopathic medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine...: (1) The borrower's consent to release medical records to the Department of Health and Human...

  9. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathic medicine, school of pharmacy, school...

  10. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., or dentistry eligible for assistance under subpart B of this part, providing for effective control...

  11. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, public health, chiropractic, health administration and clinical psychology. The...

  12. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  13. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  14. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  15. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  16. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  17. ILAMO: Partner in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dablemont, Maria

    1984-01-01

    The history, organization, function, holdings, regulations, and services of the International Library, Museum and Archives of Optometry, a section of the American Optometric Association, are outlined. (MSE)

  18. An Optometric Clinical Practicum Examination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Jess B.

    1979-01-01

    A practical clinical examination model for use by state board examiners in optometry is described including purpose, format, examination design, procedures, evaluation examples and administration. (JMF)

  19. Designing Clinical Remediation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Susan C.

    1989-01-01

    Elements and considerations in the provision of effective remediation for optometry students not achieving in clinical competence are discussed. Remediation of technical, cognitive, and noncognitive skills are included. A course in professional communication offered by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry is described. (MSE)

  20. Rehabilitation of Visual and Perceptual Dysfunction after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    for the virtual-mall walking-simulator collision detection task was presented at the American Academy of Optometry 2012 meeting in October.  An...England College of Optometry about the methodology and early results from the study  Dr Luo’s postdoctoral fellow gave a talk at Schepens about the

  1. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  2. Using Problem-Based Learning with Large Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzelli, Andrew R.

    1994-01-01

    At the Pennsylvania College of Optometry, a core course in pediatric optometry was revised to use a problem-centered approach and implemented with a class of 147 students. Students were assigned specific roles to distribute work evenly. A survey found students responded positively to this approach. (MSE)

  3. Optometric Grand Rounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John C.; Selvin, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical program developed for Veterans Administration optometry residents and rotating Southern California College of Optometry interns consisted of clinical patient examination followed by case discussion, a formal lecture corresponding to the ocular and systemic diseases presented in the examination, and student testing. (MSE)

  4. What Type of Faculty and Training Are Required for a Successful Basic Sciences Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Science education for optometry must go beyond therapeutic patient management to more preparation for biologically based care. Optometry faculty should be involved in research driven by specific patient problems and should prepare professionals to address patient quality-of-life and daily living needs. Interdisciplinary collaboration is needed.…

  5. The Accelerated O.D. Program: Graduates of the First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Depew M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the practice patterns, licensing, and distribution of graduates of the New England College of Optometry's accelerated doctor of optometry program indicates its success as a source of optometric educators with advanced expertise in scientific research. (Author/MSE)

  6. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  7. Evaluation of a Core Curriculum for Optometric Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.; Suchoff, Irvin B.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of residents and residency supervisors at three Veterans' Administration hospitals affiliated with one school of optometry investigated attitudes toward core optometry curriculum activities. Activities were generally rated well for content and effectiveness of presentation, and the study also provided information for program improvement.…

  8. Use of Information Technology in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Jimmy H.

    1999-01-01

    To enhance the information technology literacy of optometry students, the Southern College of Optometry (Tennessee) developed an academic assignment, the Electronic Media Paper, in which second-year students must search two different electronic media for information. Results suggest Internet use for searching may be a useful tool for specific…

  9. Ultimate Success Rates on National Board Examinations: A Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.; Wallis, Norman E.; Present, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the percentage of optometry students successfully completing the four-component National Board of Examiners in Optometry examination at graduation between 1995 to 1997. Ultimate pass rates for all four components ranged from 87.0% to 90.9%. Results are discussed in relation to the 1993 test-sequence expansion and to the number…

  10. The Vision of Children with Learning Difficulties: The Role of the Teacher and Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of optometry in the study of learning difficulties and the problems of interpreting research results in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology are discussed. Limitations of school visual screening are described, and it is suggested that many children with learning difficulties should be referred for a full clinical visual examination.…

  11. Academic Affiliations with the Department of Veterans Affairs: Characteristics of the Ohio State University Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Robert D.; Hill, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    The Ohio State University School of Optometry affiliation with four Veterans Administration (VA) health care facilities is characterized by a central governing committee, regular faculty appointments for all participating VA staff, substantial interaction with each site, strong orientation for rotating senior optometry students, and joint…

  12. A Markov Model for Forecasting Inventory Levels for U.S Navy Medical Service Corps Healthcare Administrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Administration, Medical Allied Sciences, Optometry , and Pharmacy. Today, the MSC comprises 31 subspecialties, organized under three major categories...Exper Psych 30 4% Clinical Dietetics 26 3% Financial Mgt 78 8% Research Psych 17 3% Optometry 109 11% MPT&E 31 3% Entomology 39 6% Pharmacy, General 136

  13. The Effectiveness of a Patient Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Harue J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports data from three consecutive classes of first- year optometry students at the Southern California College of Optometry, who were tested preceding and following completion of a patient communication course. Findings indicated that students improved their ability to respond to patients and were better able to discriminate among various levels…

  14. The Impact of the Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Fund on Navy Military Treatment Facilities’ Demand-to-Capacity Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Physical Therapy, Optometry , Audiology, Tele-Dermatology and Eyes, Nose & Throat (ENT); (3) Dental Care, i.e., General Dentistry, Oral Surgery...Physical Therapy, Chiropractic, Optometry , Audiology, Public Health and Eyes, Nose & Throat (ENT); (3) Dental Care, including General Dentistry

  15. Children's vision--a 20/20 outlook.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R W

    1975-10-01

    Twenty years ago, A. M. Skeffington, O.D., talked about the "uniqueness" of optometry which included prevention, remediation and enhancement. Fifteen years ago, Arnold Gesell, M.D., urged optometry to pay attention to the preschool years and to examine and supervise (with optometric expertise) the vision of these children and to learn to identify those children who would present difficulties in learning. At the same time, Darell Boyd Harmon, Ph.D., suggested that optometry "gear up" for an expected avalanche of visually-related learning problems. Optometry did listen and learn, the avalanche is here and developmental optometry has prospered. This paper briefly explores some of the long and short-range benefits of vision therapy.

  16. Optometric education in Africa: historical perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oduntan, Olalekan A; Mashige, Khathutshelo P; Kio, Franklin E; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel B

    2014-03-01

    The African continent, with a population of more than one billion and 55 recognized developing countries, is still grappling in some countries with socioeconomic and other challenges inherent in developing countries. The continent is working toward a single political entity known as the African Union, and development is taking place faster than ever in most countries. The continent is known to have high levels of health problems, including visual impairment and blindness. Most nations in the continent are making efforts to reduce the scourge of health problems including visual impairment and blindness. Visual impairment in the continent is mostly caused by refractive errors. Consequently, optometry can help reduce the prevalence of visual impairment on the continent. The educational programs currently offered by the different institutions include Diploma in Optometry (DipOptom), Bachelor of Optometry (BOptom), and Doctor of Optometry (OD). There are 17 established institutions offering optometry degree programs on the continent, of which 14 are fully accredited. Considering the optometric manpower needed in the continent, more optometry institutions need to be established. Staffing and infrastructural and training facilities are major challenges facing the majority of the existing institutions. There is also a need to place greater emphasis on postgraduate education to meet the institutional, national, and international professional training standards and to ensure sustainability of optometry education. This article addresses the historical development, educational issues, challenges, and needs, as well as recommendations, for improving the standard and sustainability of optometric education.

  17. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  18. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  19. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  20. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  1. 77 FR 3269 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans; Announcement Type...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Psy.D. (d) Counseling Psychology: Ph.D. (e) Social Work: Masters level only. (f) Chemical Dependency..., nursing, public health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social work, marriage and family therapy, chiropractic medicine, environmental health...

  2. 75 FR 65060 - Advisory Committee on Prosthetics and Special-Disabilities Programs; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Strategic Healthcare Group; Director of Optometry Service; and Chief Consultant for Dental Services. On... public may direct questions or submit written statements for review by the Committee in advance of...

  3. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2)...

  4. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  5. Diversity within the Profession. Part One: Trends and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, which reveals intolerance in the form of harassment and discrimination, and inequalities in the patterns of practice, power, and economics. (EV)

  6. Training the Trainer: Developing Educators for Continuing Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canellos, Harriete; Medio, Franklin J.; Mozlin, Rochelle; Perry, Claudia A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program at the State University of New York College of Optometry targeted at training younger clinical faculty who wish to become involved in continuing professional education. Covers the program's purpose and the institution's experiences with implementation. (DB)

  7. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  8. The Hillman Rotation: An External Clinic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Joan M.; Veith, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Describes the external optometric education program at the Sidney Hillman Health Centre (Chicago, Illinois). Discusses the history of the clinic, its administrative and educational philosophy, and its affiliation with two prominent hospitals and the Illinois College of Optometry. (DB)

  9. Diversity within the Profession. Part Two: Initiatives Promoting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, describing programs geared either toward increasing diversity or facilitating acceptance of diversity within the optometric profession, including affirmative action and other institutional support structures. (EV)

  10. A Search for a New Aircrew Spectacle Frame.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    replacement frames for the HGIJ-4/P spectacle frame. The optometry chiefs of the Air Force and Navy met in fo rmal ly wi th a Fort Rucker —based...to determine which manufacturer had the best product . The Navy and Air Force optometry chiefs did not concur because of perceived drawbacks in...KY - 50 Charleston AFB SC - 100 Canal Zone, Panama - 50 Ft Richardson AK - 50 Volunteers in aircrew fli ght support status agreed to wear their

  11. Trauma, Disasters and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    skills was represented including physicians, dentists, nurses, and personnel from mental and environmental health, optometry , X-ray, logistics...represented including physicians, dentists, nurses, personnel from mental health, environmental health, optometry , x-ray, logistics, administration, and...one passenger. The C-141B had left Norton Air Force Base on Monday headed for Howard Air Base in Panama on a routine re-supply mission. It stopped to

  12. Medical Care for Echelons Above Divisions - Is Medical Force 2000 Adequate to Need?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    exercised during Operation Just Cause in Panama proved to be such a workable concept that it was also exercised during the Gulf conflict. Similar...Medical Battalion becomes a multifunctional organization encompassing preventive medicine, optometry , mental health, and medical supply in the medical...Provides Preventive Medicine, Combat Stress, Optometry , and Emergency Surgery to the Division. Provides Class VIII supply/resupply for Division from

  13. United States Army Medical Materiel Development Activity - 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    fabrication laboratories. o Fabrication of Optometry Field Sets was completed on 6 October 1989. Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA, received these field sets for...M-17 CB Protective Mask Laser Protective Outserts will undergo limited user testing in 4Q90-1Q91. o Fielding of the Optometry Field Set will coumence...was approved to allow PentAota to be used for the treatment of U.S. Service Personnel. Studius are continuing in Panama and Guatemala to evaluate

  14. Medical Services: Composition, Mission, and Functions of the Army Medical Department

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Optometry Section. An officer is selected and certified by TSG and the Chief of the MSC to be Chief of each Section; each officer concurrently is designated...engineering. d. Optometry Section. 2–15. Duties of MSC officers. a. Officers of the branch perform a wide variety of administra- tive, technical...PSC), WASH DC 20310. For po- sitions that are on medical TDA within the continental United States (CONUS), Alaska, Hawaii, Panama , 7th Medical Command

  15. Central and Off-Axis Spatial Contrast Sensitivity Measured with Gabor Patches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    to Dr. Felix Barker and the Pennsylvania College of Optometry of the Salus University for providing the necessary support facilities and laboratory...mean age = 25.4 ± 1.6 years) were tested after informed consent was obtained from each using the Salus University institutional review board...Pennsylvania College of Optometry/ Salus University. Subjects were excluded if there was a history of eye disease or visual disorder. Further, all

  16. Evaluation of Physicians and Physician Extenders: Manpower Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    increase than dentistry with a nine percent increase, optometry with a 24 percent increase, and pharmacy with an eight percent increase. The increasing...10,135 10,881 11,274 11,603 11,815 12,260 Forensic Pathology ---- 193 187 192 186 203 206 Psychiatr/ *y------------- 20,901 22,319 23,075...health professions schools) Profession Year Medicine ’Osteopathy Dentistry Optometry Pharmacy Number of graduates 1950 -------------- 5,553 373 2,830 961

  17. Merton C. Flom, OD, PhD--a paradigm of optometric leadership.

    PubMed

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2007-11-01

    Dr. Merton Flom serves as the quintessential model for demonstrating what it takes to be an outstanding scientist, clinician, and educator. Professor Flom's career as a clinician, vision scientist, and visionary in optometry is well known to most faculty in optometric institutions, but many in the profession may not be aware of his enormous contributions. This profile captures Dr. Flom's professional and personal views about optometry, vision research, and education.

  18. Clinically Normal Stereopsis Does Not Ensure Performance Benefit from Stereoscopic 3D Depth Cues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Stereopsis, Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 16...Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 1 Distribution A: Approved...disparities (up to ~20 arc min) that are fused into a single binocular percept when presented briefly, and that result in increased perceptions of depth

  19. The role of optometrists in India: an integral part of an eye health team.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Neilsen; Cui, Yu; Looi, Stephanie; Paudel, Prakash; Shinde, Lakshmi; Kumar, Krishna; Berwal, Rajbir; Wadhwa, Rajesh; Daniel, Vinod; Flanagan, Judith; Holden, Brien

    2012-01-01

    India has a proud tradition of blindness prevention, being the first country in the world to implement a blindness control programme which focused on a model to address blinding eye disease. However, with 133 million people blind or vision impaired due to the lack of an eye examination and provision of an appropriate pair of spectacles, it is imperative to establish a cadre of eye care professionals to work in conjunction with ophthalmologists to deliver comprehensive eye care. The integration of highly educated four year trained optometrists into primary health services is a practical means of correcting refractive error and detecting ocular disease, enabling co-managed care between ophthalmologists and optometrists. At present, the training of optometrists varies from two year trained ophthalmic assistants/optometrists or refractionists to four year degree trained optometrists. The profession of optometry in India is not regulated, integrated into the health care system or recognised by the majority of people in India as provider of comprehensive eye care services. In the last two years, the profession of optometry in India is beginning to take the necessary steps to gain recognition and regulation to become an independent primary health care profession. The formation of the Indian Optometry Federation as the single peak body of optometry in India and the soon to be established Optometry Council of India are key organisations working towards the development and regulation of optometry.

  20. Symposium: The Role of Biological Sciences in the Optometric Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Rapp, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Papers from a symposium probing some of the curricular elements of the program in biological sciences at a school or college of optometry are provided. The overall program sequence in the biological sciences, microbiology, pharmacology, and the curriculum in the biological sciences from a clinical perspective are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  1. Managed Care in the Military: The Catchment Area Management Demonstrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Sill, where routine optometry examinations--which might otherwise be unavailable to retirees and their dependents--are made available to all...closest hospital. c. Includes other Army catchment areas in the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Panama that are under the authority of

  2. Navy-NGO Coordination for Health-Related HCA Missions: A Suggested Planning Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    SOUTHCOM deployed USNS Comfort (an- other hospital ship) to 12 Central American, South American, and Caribbean nations (Belize, Guatemala, Panama ...stipulated that the Surgeon General would host ship- board regional pandemic influenza conferences in the vicinity of Trinidad/Tobago and Panama [11...cataracts) • Optometry checks and eyewear distribution • General surgery • Obstetrical and gynecological consultative care • Pharmaceutical

  3. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 12, Number 3, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    AFB by Mr. Joe Piccorossi; Panama City Beach tornado by Ms. Jacqui Barker; flipped planes at Hurlburt Field and boat carried ashore at Hurlburt...began in June 2004, and is expected to be finished in November 2006. The 47,716-square-foot facility will include optometry , dentistry, a family

  4. The Impact of the Perceived Value of Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denial, A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2003-2007 at the New England College of Optometry, the Integrative Seminar Course (ISC) was used to facilitate students' learning of clinical reasoning. To examine students' perceptions and experiences regarding their learning, an end-of-year Likert-style survey was administered to 96 first-year students after completion of the ISC. Analysis…

  5. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  6. Six-Month Evaluation of Extended Wear Soft Contact Lenses Among Armored Troops. Part 1. Clinical Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Doctini Cou i Id s K.. ’rned A’ ’is TeSI I oumicroscorry onl asyr iptoirnac coritact-lens-wearing recruits Ar. I vili riili a I To a, QiiuviiridW ,’a...Optometry The University of Alabama, Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294 About the Authors William G. Bachman received the Doctor of Op- tometry degree from

  7. Mike O’Callaghan Federal Medical Center Campus Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    sulfide (H2S) concentrations. Conditions in the Las Vegas Valley exceed federal air quality standards for CO on a seasonal basis and a portion of the...Sleep Lab Records TPC Radiology Allergy /Immunizations PRIMARY/ PREVENTIVE CARE-- SPECIALTIES...SPECIALTY CLINICS OPTOMETRY / OPHTHALMOLOGY SGOS/CC, IPTS/CC WOMEN’S HEALTH LABOR & DELIVERY N CATH LAB ALLERGY / IMMU *Colors are

  8. 42 CFR 60.50 - Which schools are eligible to be HEAL schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to conduct a course of study leading to one of the following degrees: Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Doctor of Dentistry or equivalent degree Bachelor or Master of Science in Pharmacy or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent...

  9. 42 CFR 60.50 - Which schools are eligible to be HEAL schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to conduct a course of study leading to one of the following degrees: Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Doctor of Dentistry or equivalent degree Bachelor or Master of Science in Pharmacy or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent...

  10. Integrating Graphics and Speech. A Neural Sciences Computer-Assisted Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    A new optometry-oriented program for the Macintosh computer has been written for the Neural Sciences Computer-Assisted Learning Package to include graphics and synthesized speech. It has 21 modules in 6 categories: anatomical drawings; diagrams illustrating physiological concepts; records from experiments; flow charts of neuroanatomical pathways;…

  11. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-11

    regarding optometry) health care for rural areas) re- search on health professions issues) chiropractic demonstration projects and residency training...Extension service* Extension activities* Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service FY 1995 Appropriations Authorized: $ 1,730,000,000 Unauthorized FY...Reconciliation Act of 1990 * Grants to states to improve their child care licensing and registration requirements and procedures FY 1994 Appropriations Authorized

  12. Air Force Health Care Providers: Automation Concerns Relating to - Needs, Experience, and Support,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-22

    aerospace physiology clinical psychology clinical social work alcohol rehabilitation dietitian occupational theraphy pharmacy optometry podiatry... occupational medicine family practice primary care pediatrics pathology radiology radiation therapy neuroradiology nuclear medicine diagnostic...operations. (5) Coputerized Occupational Health Program (CCFI) (a) COHP supports the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. It

  13. Optometric care for the handicapped.

    PubMed

    Ronis, M F

    1989-01-01

    The need for optometric vision care for handicapped people is discussed. The high incidence of functional vision problems among the disabled population is presented. A vision clinic operated jointly by the New England College of Optometry and the Cotting School, a school for physically disabled children, is described. Suggestions for achieving successful involvement with the vision care of disabled people are presented.

  14. Predictors of Success of Black Americans in a College-Level Pre-Health Professions Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Predictors of success for black freshmen entering Xavier University of Louisiana with an interest in the health professions were studied. Health professions were considered as the mainline fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, and pharmacy. Students majoring in biology, chemistry, or…

  15. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Model at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ramona Ann; Gottlieb, Helmut; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C.; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a private University in South Texas sought to prepare eight cohorts of 25 nursing, optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and health care administration students with an interprofessional education activity as a model for collaborative learning. The two semester interprofessional activity used a blended model (Blackboard Learn®,…

  16. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume I: Data Analysis, Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The study focused on women's education in eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as school applicants and students. Almost 600 interviews were conducted with…

  18. Study of How Health Professions Students Finance Their Education, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocniak, Nina; And Others

    Expenses that health professions students incurred, sources of income to meet those expenditures, and indebtedness incurred by the students during the 1976-77 school year were studied. A questionnaire, which is appended, was mailed to a sample of students registered in schools of dentistry, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, podiatry,…

  19. Costs of Education in the Health Professions: Report of a Study Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Resources Development.

    This report contains aggregate data on costs for all schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, and nursing, and the average education costs per student in these fields for a sample of schools during the 1972-73 academic year. Context for the study is provided by an appraisal of the educational…

  20. Construction Grants for Educational Facilities. Fiscal Years 1965-76. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    This publication provides information on construction assistance awarded during fiscal years 1965 through 1976 by the Bureau of Health Manpower (BHM) and its predecessors to schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, and nursing. In addition, it provides data…

  1. Institutional Resource Requirements and Cost Per Student for Contemporary Pharmaceutical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swintosky, Joseph V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the IOM study that determined the average annual education costs per student, for the first professional degree. Colleges of pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, veterinary medicine, podiatry, optometry, and nursing were included. The data are assessed with particular reference to the University of Kentucky.…

  2. How Health Professions Students Finance Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    This report was based on a survey to determine how students in the health professions of medicine osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine financed their educations during the 1970-71 school year. The purpose of this nationwide survey was to provide information on patterns of student expenses and on the sources…

  3. The Optometric Residency Accreditation Process--Planning for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchoff, Irwin B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The American Optometric Association's current review of procedures for accrediting optometric residencies is discussed. Reasons for the review (projected growth of programs and revised standards) are discussed, procedures currently in place for accrediting programs in osteopathy, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatry, and optometry are summarized; and…

  4. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    Enrollment data are provided for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1977-78. In one section, the schools are classified by discipline, and within each discipline the schools are sorted alphabetically by state; discipline totals are also…

  5. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The study focused on eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as medical/professional school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination process that limits…

  6. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Smauel; And Others

    Enrollment data are presented for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1981-82. Projections for future years are made from the length of the academic program for current enrollees. The data are segmented by program type, and include the actual…

  7. Applying the Department of Health and Human Services Underserved Area Criteria to Army Dental Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    The Act also applied to students in schools of medicine, osteopathy , or optometry, and was based on county practitioner-population ratios. By 1971...primatry cam physician (Ui) Othier tourists (non-residtnt) may osteopathy (D.O.) providing direct ratio of less than 2.50:1I but greater be included

  8. A Report on Health Sciences Education Planning for California: 1980-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Health sciences education planning for California for 1980-82 is examined. The adequacy of educational programs in meeting the needs of California for professional personnel in medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and optometry is assessed. Data on enrollments and graduation rates in these fields are updated from the 1978 plan, and similar data…

  9. Health Manpower Source Book. Manpower Supply and Educational Statistics for Selected Health Occupations: 1968. Public Health Service Publication Number 263, Section 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Professions Education and Manpower Training.

    This publication is a compilation of statistics on supply and education of health manpower in medicine and osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, nursing, public health, and eight selected allied health occupations. The material is organized by occupations and the following information is presented for each…

  10. The Health Professional as Writer: Two Models for Integrating Writing into the Curricula of Baccalaureate Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haneline, Douglas

    Current changes in health care professions requiring practitioners to have more and better communications skills are necessitating the integration of writing into the health curricula of higher education programs. At Ferris State University, a number of models (in Optometry, Dental Hygiene, Health Systems Management, Nursing, Pharmacy, Medical…

  11. Recertification and Relicensure--Implications for the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, George B.; Swinford, David N.

    1975-01-01

    The study surveyed the extent of the movement to require continuing education in 14 professions: accountancy, architecture, dentistry, dietetics, engineering, law, medicine, nursing, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, physical therapy, real estate, social work, and veterinary medicine. The report provides some general conclusions and a summary of…

  12. Utilizing the Patient Management Problem as a Student Clinical Evaluation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, Lee Ann; Roggenkamp, John R.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional patient management problem test was designed to measure third-year optometry students' clinical competency at Pacific University (Oregon). Results suggest this evaluation method is valid and may be useful in identifying students needing to improve their clinical thinking skills. Some issues in test administration and scoring…

  13. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences or... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 808.1...

  14. PATHWAYS TO HEALTH CAREERS, EXPLORING HEALTH OCCUPATIONS AND PROFESSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Careers Council of Illinois, Chicago.

    CAREERS IN THE AREAS OF DENTISTRY, DIETETICS, MEDICAL RECORD LIBRARY SCIENCE, MEDICAL LABORATORY WORK, MEDICINE, NURSING, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY, OPTOMETRY, PHARMACY, PHYSICAL THERAPY, PODIATRY, PUBLIC HEALTH, RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, SOCIAL WORK, VETERINARY MEDICINE, HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION, AND OTHER HEALTH OCCUPATIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE…

  15. Academic Restructuring: Options and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freddo, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    For the primary eye care practitioner in the 1990s and beyond, the basic biomedical sciences have supplanted physiological optics as the primary academic discipline underlying the practice of optometry. Several curriculum development options are available to incorporate the needed material, but a core curriculum is essential at all institutions.…

  16. Evaluation of Quality Assurance Programs for Externships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskiewicz, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The procedures of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry's Office of External Educational Programs are reviewed to show how quality assurance techniques can be categorized. The format was designed to evaluate quality assurance procedures for both the educational and service aspects of eye care. (MLW)

  17. Including Optometric Services for the Homebound Elderly in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Benjamin; Kirstein, Mark

    1995-01-01

    A mobile eye care service is offered to homebound elderly residents of New York City (New York) by the State University of New York's College of Optometry. Fourth-year students are required to participate, learning techniques with hand-held equipment to examine a population with a high rate of ocular disease who might otherwise not receive…

  18. 76 FR 8748 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social...: Allopathic and Osteopathic. (b) Nurse: Associate, B.S., and M.S. Degree. (c) Clinical Psychology: Ph.D. and Psy.D. (d) Social Work: Masters level only. (e) Chemical Dependency Counseling: Baccalaureate...

  19. 78 FR 7787 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...: Ph.D. and Psy.D. (d) Counseling Psychology: Ph.D. (e) Social Work: Masters level only. (f) Chemical..., public health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social work, marriage and family therapy, chiropractic medicine, environmental health and engineering,...

  20. Licensed Optometrists in Alaska 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of Alaska. The survey was conducted in 1973 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Since there was a 100 percent…

  1. Predictors of Rural Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel-Flom, Penelope

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes toward the urban environment and place of origin were found to be the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. Findings of this study imply that optometry students most likely to enter rural practice can be objectively identified early in their training and that the predictive equation presented may be useful in the…

  2. A Report to the President & Congress on the Status of Health Professions Personnel in the United States. [Advance Issue, August 1978].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    This report, the first of a series of annual reports mandated by the Public Health Service Act as amended by the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-484), describes and analyzes the status of health professions personnel in the United States. The professions covered are medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry,…

  3. Licensed Optometrists in North Dakota 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of North Dakota. The survey was conducted in 1973 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Approximately 97 percent…

  4. Professional Development and Administration: Report of the ASCO Project Team on Professional Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    An outline for a professional development and administration course in an optometry curriculum model is provided. It is designed to develop organizational, communicative, and management skills so the optometrist can become successful in the development and administration of a professional practice. Legal and professional development bibliographies…

  5. A Proposed Regional Plan for the Expansion of Optometric Education in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Wesley N.; And Others

    Concern about the adequacy of existing optometry schools to meet the needs and demands for optometric education in the South prompted a study, to result in a proposal for expansion of education in the field. The results showed that there is a shortage of optometrists in each of the 14 states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region,…

  6. Preparation of Basic and Clinical Sciences Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of basic and clinical science teaching in optometry in the next decade looks at the changing role of primary care and specialist optometrists, the training needs of current and future faculty, recommended curriculum changes, and decision making about delivery of this training. The roles of graduate training, residencies, and…

  7. Licensed Optometrists in South Carolina 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of South Carolina. The surveys was conducted in 1972 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Approximately 96…

  8. Licensed Optometrists in Wisconsin 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of Wisconsin. The survey was conducted in 1972 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Approximately 95 percent of…

  9. Do Tinted Lenses Really Help Students with Reading Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Donald N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article translates research from the fields of optometry, ophthalmology, neurology, and medicine on the efficacy of tinted lenses for students with reading disabilities into understandable information for lay people. The paper concludes that the treatment does not significantly improve reading, although some reports indicate improvement in a…

  10. The Role of Selected Health Problems in the Causation of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers sociological theories of delinquency causation in order to attempt to integrate research from the fields of optometry, audiology, neurology, and pediatric medicine into the mainstream of sociological theories of delinquency causation. Found strong and consistent relationships between the presence of these health problems and delinquency.…

  11. How to Make Low Vision "Sexy": A Starting Point for Interdisciplinary Student Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Strong, Graham; Renaud, Judith; Southall, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Professionals in the field of low vision are increasingly concerned about the paucity of optometry students who are expressing any interest in low vision as a clinical subspecialty. Concurrent with this apparent disinterest is an increased demand for these services as the baby boomer population becomes more predisposed to age-related vision loss.…

  12. Defense Force Management: Occupation Distribution and Composition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    diitteseilss lyve medicine, veterinary medicine. optometry, phlysilolgy. diet therapy . medical equipmerint main- s2. Clericaj/Personne-Includes combined...Includes ecology, zoý- 61. Health Services Administration Officers-4n. ology, botany, horticulture , conservatioand at cludles all medical and health

  13. Comparison of Optometric and Dental Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Kyle; Dinh, Michael; Harris, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A study comparing the medically relevant educational requirements of the University of California, Berkeley School of Optometry to that of the University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry finds that the curriculums are generally equivalent, supporting the argument for an expanded scope of optometric practice. (EV)

  14. A Strategic Approach to Humanitarian Medical Manpower Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    population dynamics, nutrition , reproductive health, health financing, medical resources and usage, immunization, infectious diseases , HIV/Aids, and...maternal health, nutrition , optometry, and preventive health. A second data request by disease cluster to NMCSD for M-2 data focused on capturing...increasing, see Figure 3. In addition, the top ten diseases are identified as ear infection, rheumatism , eye infections, urinary tract infections

  15. 42 CFR 60.50 - Which schools are eligible to be HEAL schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to conduct a course of study leading to one of the following degrees: Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Doctor of Dentistry or equivalent degree Bachelor or Master of Science in Pharmacy or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent...

  16. Health Professions Education Facilities in the Non-Profit Sector. 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    In this study of the physical facilities of the nation's health professions schools, all schools of dentistry, medicine, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, podiatry, public health, and veterinary medicine, and all parent institutions of the schools, were surveyed in May of 1973. The major goals of this pioneering survey were to assess the nature and…

  17. Curriculum Model for Oculomotor. Binocular, and Visual Perception Dysfunctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A curriculum for disorders of oculomotor control, binocular vision, and visual perception, adopted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, is outlined. The curriculum's 14 objectives in physiology, perceptual and cognitive development, epidemiology, public health, diagnosis and management, environmental influences, care delivery,…

  18. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  19. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  20. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  1. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  2. The Perfect Eye A Novel Model for Teaching the Theory of Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The Perfect Eye model simplifies solutions to a wide variety of optometry instructional problems by facilitating student understanding of the interaction among lenses, objects, accommodation, and ametropia. The model is based on the premise that inside every eye is a perfect (emmetropic) eye, and that the physiological eye is a combination of the…

  3. A Comprehensive Approach To Critically Evaluate an Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachimowicz, Ruth A.; Lee, David Y.

    1999-01-01

    At Illinois College of Optometry a peer-review committee evaluates the exams of both basic science and clinical courses to provide an objective means of evaluating a faculty member's teaching ability. Five aspects of the exam (content, construction, statistical analysis, adjusted questions, instructor's rationale) are evaluated to determine the…

  4. Rethinking Student Loan Debt: Tools and Strategies for Debt Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan G.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes student loan debt at the University of Missouri-St. Louis School of Optometry, showing the need for a comprehensive debt management program. Presents a model for determining manageable amounts of student loan debt developed from conventional lending criteria and data on earnings for optometrists. (EV)

  5. Optometric Education: A Summary Report. National Study of Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    This document is a lengthy summary of the Report of the National Study of Optometric Education. Contents include: introductory material; evolution of optometric training; vision care; institutions providing optometric education and their objectives; the scope of optometry; educational implications of contemporary developments in optometric…

  6. Student Indebtedness: The Challenge of Financing an Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Lawrence H.

    2000-01-01

    Examines data from annual surveys of member institutions of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry concerning cost of education, student financial assistance, and student indebtedness. Twelve tables and six figures detail cost and indebtedness factors from 1989/90 through 1996/97. Finds costs and indebtedness have gone up…

  7. Modifying the Curriculum: Teaching Clinical Students about Caring for Patients with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the curricula of optometry programs can be modified to prepare graduates to meet the needs of patients from special populations. Addresses student attitudes and the clinical encounter, including the case history, clinical examination, clinical decision making and determination of patient management plans, and case discussion of the…

  8. Laser Optometric Assessment Of Visual Display Viewability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murch, Gerald M.

    1983-08-01

    Through the technique of laser optometry, measurements of a display user's visual accommodation and binocular convergence were used to assess the visual impact of display color, technology, contrast, and work time. The studies reported here indicate the potential of visual-function measurements as an objective means of improving the design of visual displays.

  9. SUNY at Sixty: The Promise of the State University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, W. Bruce, Ed.; Clark, John B., Ed.; O'Brien, Kenneth P., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The State University of New York is America's largest comprehensive public university system, with sixty-four campuses, including community colleges, colleges of technology, university colleges, research universities, medical schools, academic medical centers, and specialized campuses in fields as diverse as optometry, ceramics, horticulture,…

  10. Optics education in an optometric setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Raghuram, Aparna

    2003-10-01

    We discuss optics education within the context of an Optometric professional program leading to a degree of Doctor of Optometry (O.D.). Basic course work in Geometric, Physical, Ophthalmic and Visual Optics will be described and we will discuss how basic optical phenomena can be made relevant to the Optometric student with different academic backgrounds.

  11. The Intelligent Anatomy Spotter: A New Approach to Incorporate Higher Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L.

    2016-01-01

    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of…

  12. Cooperative Learning Combined with Short Periods of Lecturing: A Good Alternative in Teaching Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Santander, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The informal activities of cooperative learning and short periods of lecturing has been combined and used in the university teaching of biochemistry as part of the first year course of Optics and Optometry in the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The lessons were previously elaborated by the teacher and included all that is necessary to…

  13. Interim Outcomes Assessment of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolls, Dorothy Bazzinotti; Carlson, Nancy; Wilson, Roger; Richman, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the viability of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation, introduced at The New England College of Optometry in 1996 in clinical student assessment. Analyzed faculty and student feedback and consistency with previous evaluations, between evaluators, and between clinical sites and tracts. Found satisfaction with…

  14. Pharmacology Curriculum Model--A Report of the ADCO Council on Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A curriculum model for various schools and colleges to use in assessing the scope of their individual pharmacology programs is presented. The Council on Academic Affairs of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry prepared this model because of modifications in state laws to allow the use of pharmaceutical agents in the practice of…

  15. Making a Difference. Visual Health Needs of People with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlade, Anne; Bickerstaff, David; Lindsay, Jennifer; McConkey, Roy; Jackson, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings from a study to assess the impact of corrective eye treatment in adults with a learning disability. The Special Visual Assessment Clinic (SVAC) is an optometry led multi professional service delivered in a Resource Centre in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The study, which included user and carer input in its design,…

  16. Studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, M.; Kowalczyk, A.

    2007-02-01

    This contribution demonstrates potential of Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) for studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine occurring at various time scales. Several examples from ophthalmology, optometry, surgery, neurology are given to illustrate the extension of SOCT beyond pure morphological investigations.

  17. Assessing Outcomes in Optometric Education: A Commentary by the Council on Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    A statement of the Council for Optometric Education (COE) defines and characterizes educational outcomes, outcomes assessment, and outcomes data, and explains the reasons for outcomes assessment, its relationship to curricular design, and its function in accreditation of optometry programs. Stated COE standards and expectations of optometry…

  18. Perceived Barriers to Faculty Achievement in the Area of Scholarly Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Mary Beth; Gross, Sanford M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 35 Illinois College of Optometry faculty investigated perceived barriers to scholarly activity, including time management, communication skills, knowledge of research design and statistics, computer literacy, institutional support, use of human or material resources, and library resource skills. A majority felt their skills were…

  19. Student Attitudes on the Purchase of Required Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Stanley W.; Cron, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of second- and third-year students at two optometry schools investigated how many students bought required textbooks, utility of the book, prices students were willing to pay, feelings about book price in relation to tuition, and reasons for not buying the text. Class size was also considered. (MSE)

  20. Recruitment and Selection Strategies in Optometric Education towards Addressing Human Resource Disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodley, V. R.; Loughman, James; Naidoo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The dire need for eye care services and a dearth of human resources (HR) in sub-Saharan Africa motivated the setting up of new optometry programmes. However, to make a meaningful impact, geographical, gender, economic and educational disparities must additionally be addressed. A qualitative study utilizing purposive sampling to select academic…

  1. Identifying the potential rural optometrist.

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1976-09-01

    Rural optometrists were found to differ from urban optometrists in background, environmental attitude, and interest patterns. Attitude toward the urban environment and place of origin were the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. When "urbanism" and "origin" were scaled and placed in a multiple regression equation to predict practice location, identification of an optometrist's location as rural or urban was highly accurate. Most importantly, scores on the equation were predictive of optometry students' future practice locations. A single cut-off point on the equation correctly identified 79% of students who entered rural or isolated small city practice and 81% of those who entered urban practice. The findings suggest that optometry students most likely to enter rural (or indeed urban) practice can be objectively identified early in, or even prior to, training. Such identification may assist educators in selecting and training optometrists who will deliver vision care to people in areas of greatest need.

  2. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 25, Numbers 1 and 2, Fall 2002/Winter 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    measures within the region. These tropical islands are in proximity to major sea lines of communication - the Panama Canal and Caribbean Sea areas. They...destroyed 18,621 small arms and light weapons. In Panama , coincident with Operation Just Cause in 1990-91, U.S. forces destroyed 77,553 small arms...civic action plans (e.g. medical, dental, optometry , and veterinary), rudimentary construction to include non-revenue producing infrastructure projects

  3. Enhancing Sensitivity to Visual Motion and Enhancing Visual Sensitivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    R., and Harp , S.A (1982) Contrast sensitivity predicts pilots’ performance in aircraft simulators, American Journal of Optometry & Physiological...Fortunately, these problems were resolved, allowing us to conduct a full-scale study at Williams AFB [reported in Ginsburg, Evans, Sekuler and Harp ...Display 21 219-227. Ginsburg, A.P., Evans, D.W., Sekuler, R., and Harp , S.A (1982) Contrast sensitivity predicts pilots’ performance in aircraft

  4. Identification of Text and Symbols on a Liquid Crystal Display Part 2: Contrast and Luminance Settings to Optimise Legibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    L. (1981). Task Complexity and Visual Acuity in Senile Macular Degeneration . Australian Journal of Optometry, 64, 235-242. Legge, G. E., Parish, D...symbols can be made without impacting upon readability. The ability to identify text and symbols displayed on a computer screen will be influenced by...DSTO-TR-2144 males and females. All participants had normal colour vision , as tested by the 12 plate Ishihara colour vision test, and 6/6 or better

  5. The Dark Focus of Visual Accommodation: Its Existence, Its Measurement, Its Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    underestimated. 91 11 £ (I, 1 120 REFERENCES Allen, M. The stimulus to accommodation. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological 0 , 1955 , U2, 79-84. Baldwin ...the time men turned to written recoras to preserve their accumulated knowledge. Indeed, seeing has inspired countless diverse poetry and prose and...state. v Allen ( 1955 ), investigating the stimulus to accommodation, found fluctuations in accommodation that were not reflected in convergence V

  6. Muscular and intraocular pressure responses among ocular-hypertensive subjects: is there a rationale for biofeedback?

    PubMed

    Raczynski, J M; Mason, D A; Wilson, R P; Silvia, E S; Kleinstein, R N

    1985-12-01

    Several animal and human investigations have indicated that intraocular pressure (IOP) levels may be associated with extreme drug-induced changes in the extraocular muscles. Further, recent data suggest that, among individuals with normal IOP level, moderate increases in facial muscle (EMG) activity around the eye while the eye is open are associated with increases in IOP. To investigate further the relationship between facial EMG activity and IOP levels and to examine a group of individuals with elevated IOP levels, subjects were recruited from outpatients at an optometry clinic. Three groups of subjects were selected: a group of ocular hypertensive subjects who showed elevated pressures at the optometry clinic and upon the day of testing, a group of labile ocular hypertensive subjects who evinced elevated pressures during their visit to the optometry clinic but lower pressures on the day of testing, and a group of normal IOP subjects who showed normal pressures both during their optometry clinic visit and on the day of testing. To investigate anxiety differences, subjects were administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, but subsequent analysis revealed no group differences. To evaluate the role of stress upon muscle (EMG) functioning around the eye, subjects were subjected to imagery and standardized mental arithmetic stressors; analyses of these results also revealed no significant group differences. Finally, subjects were given EMG biofeedback for muscle activity around the eye while IOP was assessed during five alternating periods in which they made decreases and increases in EMG activity. Results revealed significant group, period, and group by period interaction effects. The pattern of results is interpreted as implicating EMG activity in IOP fluctuations; the implications of these data for potential biofeedback and stress management treatments are discussed.

  7. Health Partners of Western Ohio: Integrated Care Case Study.

    PubMed

    Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V

    2016-03-01

    Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio.

  8. Visual Search in the Detection of Retinal Injury: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    D, Heyes A. et al. Mobility of people with retinitis pigmentosa as a function of vision and psychological variables. Optometry and Vision Science...AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2013-0019 Visual Search in the Detection of Retinal Injury: A Feasibility Study Thomas Kuyk TASC, Inc. Lei Liu The...Detection of Retinal Injury: A Feasibility Study" 2013 0019 LEON N. McLIN, JR., DR-III, DAF Work Unit Manager 711 HPW/ RHDO POLHAMUS.GARR ETT.D

  9. Proceedings of a Conference on Wraparound Visual Displays Held in Waltham, Massachusetts on 14-15 January 1988 (Motion Sickness, Visual Displays, and Armored Vehicle Design)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    ingtoa~, DC 3. SPON9ORING; MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADORESS4ES) 10. SPUZOVA / MONITORING US Army Ballistic Researh Laboratory AGENCY SEP06...LEn B.ANK. --------- - -- WORKING GROUP ON WRAPAROUND VISUAL DISPIAYS HERSCHEL LEIBOWITZ (Chair), Department of Psychology , Pcnnsylvania State...University SHELDON EBENHOLTZ, College of Optometry, State University of New York RICHARD HELD (NAS), Department of Psychology , Massachusetts Institute of

  10. The Future Role of Army National Guard Special Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    also possess a working knowledge of dentistry , veterinary care, public sanitation, water quality and optometry. Finally, there is one senior and one...soldiers work with law enforcement agencies and community based organizations to interdict and perform anti- drug activities in the fight against...illicit drugs . This program has been in effect since 15 1989 and currently over 2,500 soldiers support more than 5,000 agencies at the local

  11. Gradient-index crystalline lens model: A new method for determining the paraxial properties by the axial and field rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, María. Angeles; Pérez, María. Victoria; Bao, Carmen; Flores-Arias, María. Teresa; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Gradient-index (GRIN) models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering the effect of inhomogeneity of the refractive index on the optical properties of the lens. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine analytically cardinal elements, magnifications and refractive power of the lens by the axial and field rays in order to study the paraxial light propagation through the human lens from its GRIN nature.

  12. Some experiments with thin prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, P. C. B.

    1980-11-01

    In most attempts at modernizing the college physics curriculum one of the first branches of physics to be eliminated is geometrical optics. However, in developing countries where the curriculum must give emphasis to applied areas (if physics is to survive at all!), geometrical optics has a role to play, especially in its relationship to the professional course ''Optometry.'' The author presents a few experiments in geometrical optics with an ophthalmic opitics bias, which could be introduced into the college physics laboratory.

  13. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  14. Gradient parameter and axial and field rays in the gradient-index crystalline lens model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. V.; Bao, C.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Rama, M. A.; Gómez-Reino, C.

    2003-09-01

    Gradient-index models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering how changes in the refractive index profile with age and accommodation may affect refractive power. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine gradient parameter and axial and field rays of the human lens in order to study the paraxial propagation of light through the crystalline lens of the eye.

  15. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  16. Correlation among auto-refractor, wavefront aberration, and subjective manual refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ren, Qiushi

    2005-01-01

    Three optometry methods which include auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective manual refraction were studied and compared in measuring low order aberrations of 60 people"s 117 normal eyes. Paired t-test and linear regression were used to study these three methods" relationship when measuring myopia with astigmatism. In order to make the analysis more clear, we divided the 117 normal eyes into different groups according to their subjective manual refraction and redid the statistical analysis. Correlations among three methods show significant in sphere, cylinder and axis in all groups, with sphere"s correlation coefficients largest(R>0.98, P<0.01) and cylinder"s smallest (0.90optometry methods in measuring sphere was significant (P<0.01) while axis"s difference was not significant (P>0.01). Auto-refractor had significant change from the other two methods when measuring cylinder (P<0.01). The results after grouping differed a little from the analysis among total people. Although three methods showed significant change from each other in certain parameters, the amplitude of these differences were not large, which indicated that the coherence of auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective refraction is good. However, we suggested that wavefront aberration measurement could be a good starting point of optometry, subjective refraction is still necessary for refinement.

  17. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  18. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  19. Repeated Four-Hour Dives With PO2 = 1.35 ATM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Navy Experimental Diving Unit TA 02-22 321 Bullfinch Rd. NEDU TR 04-29 Panama City, FL 32407-7015 July 2004 REPEATED FOUR-HOUR DIVES WITH P0 2 =1.35...Experimental Diving Unit 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and Zip Code) 321 Bullfinch Road, Panama City, FL 32407-7015 8a...referred to the optometry clinic at Tyndall Air Force Base for complete eye examinations during the week before diving and during the week following

  20. Institute for the Study of Human Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Jill Peters M.S. Auditory Perception Petersime, Tim M.S. Psychology Martin Rickert M.S. Auditory Research Martha Rinker B.S. Tactile Perception Catherine...Function in Cataract Patients 7/90-7/91 A. Bradley, L. Casser , L.Thibos - Direct Costs $5,000 Anti-reflection Coating Council of America A Visual...1989 Annual meeting of the American Academy of Optometry. Optom. Vis. Sci., 66 (suppl.), 220. 28. Casser , L., McConnaha, D. and Bradley, A. (1989

  1. On geodesics of the rotation group SO(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelia, Alyssa; O'Reilly, Oliver M.

    2015-11-01

    Geodesics on SO(3) are characterized by constant angular velocity motions and as great circles on a three-sphere. The former interpretation is widely used in optometry and the latter features in the interpolation of rotations in computer graphics. The simplicity of these two disparate interpretations belies the complexity of the corresponding rotations. Using a quaternion representation for a rotation, we present a simple proof of the equivalence of the aforementioned characterizations and a straightforward method to establish features of the corresponding rotations.

  2. Inconsistencies Exist in National Estimates of Eye Care Services Utilization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited research and substantial uncertainty about the level of eye care utilization in the United States. Objectives. Our study estimated eye care utilization using, to our knowledge, every known nationally representative, publicly available database with information on office-based optometry or ophthalmology services. Research Design. We analyzed the following national databases to estimate eye care utilization: the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), Joint Canada/US Survey of Health (JCUSH), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Subjects. US adults aged 18 and older. Measures. Self-reported utilization of eye care services. Results. The weighted number of adults seeing or talking with any eye doctor ranges from 87.9 million to 99.5 million, and the number of visits annually ranges from 72.9 million to 142.6 million. There were an estimated 17.2 million optometry visits and 55.8 million ophthalmology visits. Conclusions. The definitions and estimates of eye care services vary widely across national databases, leading to substantial differences in national estimates of eye care utilization.

  3. The rhetoric of patient voice: reported talk with patients in referral and consultation letters.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Lingard, Lorelei

    2008-01-01

    Referral and consultation letters are written to enable the exchange of patient information and facilitate the trajectory of patients through the healthcare system. Yet, these letters, written about yet apart from patients, also sustain and constrain professional relationships and influence attitudes towards patients. We analysed 35 optometry referral letters and 35 corresponding ophthalmology consultation letters for reported 'patient voice' coded as 'experience' or 'agenda' and we interviewed 15 letter writers (eight optometry students, six optometrists, and one community ophthalmologist). There were 80 instances of reported 'patient voice' in 35 letters. The majority (68%) of the instances occurred in referral letters, likely due to differences in both 'letter function' and 'professional stance.' Reported 'patient voice' occurred predominantly as 'experience' (81%) rather than 'agenda' instances. Letters writers focused on their readers' needs, thus a biomedical voice dominated the letters and instances of reported 'patient voice' were recontextualized for the professional audience. While reporting 'patient voice' was not the norm in these letters, its inclusion appeared to accomplish specific work: to persuade reader action, to question patient credibility, and to highlight patient agency. These letter strategies reflect professional attitudes about patients and their care.

  4. Teaching applied optics at the Univ. of Minho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    1995-10-01

    In this communication we make a brief presentation of the branch of Applied Optics of the University of Mihno's undergraduate course of Applied Physics. The course of Applied Physics began in the year 1988/89. Previously we had just a course devoted to the formation of future physics and chemistry teachers at high school level. The Applied Physics course specialized in Optics appeared due to the growth of the physics department and due to request from the industry. The Applied Physics course has two specialization's on the field of applied optics: Optometry; and Optics and Lasers. The topics covered in the two first years of the course ar common to the two branches. On the second semester of the third year the students must choose between either one. The number of students on the Optometry branch was usually almost four times the number of Applied Optics and Lasers students. Nevertheless this tendency is rapidly changing. A short analysis of the result obtained will be presented focusing on last couple of years' advances. Presented will also be the results of an inquest made on students's opinions about the quality of the course, and their own performance and expectations.

  5. Slit-lamp management in contact lenses laboratory classes: learning upgrade with monitor visualization of webcam video recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arines, Justo; Gargallo, Ana

    2014-07-01

    The training in the use of the slit lamp has always been difficult for students of the degree in Optics and Optometry. Instruments with associated cameras helps a lot in this task, they allow teachers to observe and control if the students evaluate the eye health appropriately, correct use errors and show them how to do it with a visual demonstration. However, these devices are more expensive than those that do not have an integrated camera connected to a display unit. With the aim to improve students' skills in the management of slit lamp, we have adapted USB HD webcams (Microsoft Lifecam HD-5000) to the objectives of the slit lamps available in our contact lenses laboratory room. The webcams are connected to a PC running Linux Ubuntu 11.0; therefore that is a low-cost device. Our experience shows that single method has several advantages. It allows us to take pictures with a good quality of different conditions of the eye health; we can record videos of eye evaluation and make demonstrations of the instrument. Besides it increases the interactions between students because they could see what their colleagues are doing and take conscious of the mistakes, helping and correcting each others. It is a useful tool in the practical exam too. We think that the method supports the training in optometry practice and increase the students' confidence without a huge outlay.

  6. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  7. Internet based post-graduate course in spectacle lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalie, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The complexity of spectacle lenses has increased enormously over the last three decades. The advent of aspheric lenses for the normal power range and the, now commonplace, progressive lenses for the correction of presbyopia, are just two examples of 21st Century technology. Freeform surfaces are now employed to personalize lenses to wearer's needs and these may be both progressive and atoroidal in nature. At the same time, optometry has taken a sideways step from optics and physics into a more general primary health care profession with an ever-increasing amount of biological and medical content added to an already brimming curriculum, hence the need for persons without optometry training to undertake the study of spectacle lenses. Some years ago a post-graduate course was designed for opticians who had a good grasp of mathematics and the ability to pay close attention to detail in the lengthy trigonometric ray-tracing techniques employed in lens design calculations. The year-long course, is undertaken by distance learning, and has been undertaken via the internet by students from many countries around the world. Final assessment is by means of examination held by the Association of British Dispensing Opticians and takes the form of two three-hour papers, Paper One consisting of the determination of the aberrations of a spectacle lens by accurate trigonometric ray tracing and the second, a general paper on the optics of ophthalmic lenses. It leads to the professional qualification, ABDO (Hons) SLD.

  8. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  9. Integrating Direct Electronic Collection of Data from Patients into the Process of Care for Eye Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, David F.; Waters, M. Andrew; Keatts, Shelley; Kimrey, Kathy L.; Caldwell, Jennifer V.; Rafferty, William; Asrani, Sanjay; Lee, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    Enabling collection of clinical data directly from patients has the potential to increase data accuracy and augment patient engagement in the care process. Most patient data entry systems have been created independent of electronic health records, and few studies have explored how patient entered data can be integrated in the documentation of a clinical encounter. In this paper we describe a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies through which we identified requirements for direct data entry by patients and the subsequent incorporation of these data into the documentation process. The greatest challenges included ensuring confidentiality of records between patients, capturing medication histories from patients, displaying and distinguishing new and previously entered data for provider review, and supporting patient educational needs. The resulting computer tablet-based data collection tool has been deployed to 30 primary care optometry practices where it is successfully used to document care for patients with glaucoma. PMID:21347020

  10. Integrating direct electronic collection of data from patients into the process of care for eye care professionals.

    PubMed

    Lobach, David F; Waters, M Andrew; Keatts, Shelley; Kimrey, Kathy L; Caldwell, Jennifer V; Rafferty, William; Asrani, Sanjay; Lee, Paul P

    2010-11-13

    Enabling collection of clinical data directly from patients has the potential to increase data accuracy and augment patient engagement in the care process. Most patient data entry systems have been created independent of electronic health records, and few studies have explored how patient entered data can be integrated in the documentation of a clinical encounter. In this paper we describe a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies through which we identified requirements for direct data entry by patients and the subsequent incorporation of these data into the documentation process. The greatest challenges included ensuring confidentiality of records between patients, capturing medication histories from patients, displaying and distinguishing new and previously entered data for provider review, and supporting patient educational needs. The resulting computer tablet-based data collection tool has been deployed to 30 primary care optometry practices where it is successfully used to document care for patients with glaucoma.

  11. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C

    2007-11-01

    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  12. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort and injuries in Australian optometrists.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Stapleton, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort and injuries are reported by optometrists. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used to investigate work-related discomfort in Australian optometrists. A multistage project was conducted which included questionnaires, interviews and onsite observations. Participants, with and without self-reported discomfort, included clinical optometrists, optometry students and clinical teachers. The various stages of the study developed over the course of the project, primarily in response to results collected at various stages. A multistage approach proved valuable for confirming results and testing hypotheses, and for investigating different groups of workers (clinicians, teachers and students). General guidelines to reduce the risk of work-related discomfort in optometrists can be developed from this project. Specific recommendations and teaching curricula have been identified in this project as areas of future research and development.

  13. Questioning vision readiness in the aviation community of the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Erneston, A G; Murchland, M R

    1994-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substandard visual acuity in a representative sample of the aviation community. In addition, mobility readiness (ocular), ocular diseases, length of time since last visual examination, and adherence to ocular requirements per AFR 160-43 were assessed. Comprehensive eye examinations were performed in the Optometry Clinic on 68 randomly chosen members scheduled by the participating squadron. Of the 68 individuals, 51 (75%) had not had a professional eye examination in the last 2 years, 17 (25%) were not mobility ready, 15 (22%) had inadequate visual acuity per AFR 160-43, and 3 (4%) had ocular disease. The study suggests that comprehensive visual examinations be performed on a regularly scheduled basis by an optometrist or ophthalmologist to ensure that members see properly to perform assigned duties, that members have required optical materials to be deployment ready, and that members who develop ocular diseases be identified in a timely manner.

  14. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  15. Toward building an anatomically correct solid eye model with volumetric representation of retinal morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Rowe, T. Scott; Fuller, Alfred R.; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S.

    2010-02-01

    An accurate solid eye model (with volumetric retinal morphology) has many applications in the field of ophthalmology, including evaluation of ophthalmic instruments and optometry/ophthalmology training. We present a method that uses volumetric OCT retinal data sets to produce an anatomically correct representation of three-dimensional (3D) retinal layers. This information is exported to a laser scan system to re-create it within solid eye retinal morphology of the eye used in OCT testing. The solid optical model eye is constructed from PMMA acrylic, with equivalent optical power to that of the human eye (~58D). Additionally we tested a water bath eye model from Eyetech Ltd. with a customized retina consisting of five layers of ~60 μm thick biaxial polypropylene film and hot melt rubber adhesive.

  16. Design of a reading test for low-vision image warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. Shane

    1993-08-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision -- maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer- generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  17. Design of a reading test for low vision image warping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision - maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer-generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We will describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  18. Application of laser differential confocal technique in back vertex power measurement for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Li, Lin; Ding, Xiang; Liu, Wenli

    2012-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in optometry and the back vertex power (BVP) is one of the most important parameters to evaluate the refraction characteristics of a phoropter. In this paper, a new laser differential confocal vertex-power measurement method which takes advantage of outstanding focusing ability of laser differential confocal (LDC) system is proposed for measuring the BVP of phoropters. A vertex power measurement system is built up. Experimental results are presented and some influence factor is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the method based on LDC technique has higher measurement precision and stronger environmental anti-interference capability compared to existing methods. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the measurement error of the method is about 0.02m-1.

  19. Image analysis of ocular fundus for retinopathy characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela; Cuadros, Jorge

    2010-02-05

    Automated analysis of ocular fundus images is a common procedure in countries as England, including both nonemergency examination and retinal screening of patients with diabetes mellitus. This involves digital image capture and transmission of the images to a digital reading center for evaluation and treatment referral. In collaboration with the Optometry Department, University of California, Berkeley, we have tested computer vision algorithms to segment vessels and lesions in ground-truth data (DRIVE database) and hundreds of images of non-macular centric and nonuniform illumination views of the eye fundus from EyePACS program. Methods under investigation involve mathematical morphology (Figure 1) for image enhancement and pattern matching. Recently, we have focused in more efficient techniques to model the ocular fundus vasculature (Figure 2), using deformable contours. Preliminary results show accurate segmentation of vessels and high level of true-positive microaneurysms.

  20. Trends in optical coherence tomography applied to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications on optical coherence tomography (OCT) continues to double every three years. Traditionally applied to imaging the eye, OCT is now being extended to fields outside ophthalmology and optometry. Widening its applicability, progress in the core engine of the technology, and impact on development of novel optical sources, make OCT a very active and rapidly evolving field. Trends in the developments of different specific devices, such as optical sources, optical configurations and signal processing will be presented. Encompassing studies on both the configurations as well as on signal processing themes, current research in Kent looks at combining spectral domain with time domain imaging for long axial range and simultaneous imaging at several depths. Results of the collaborative work of the Applied Optics Group in Kent with organisers of this conference will be presented, with reference to 3D monitoring of abfraction.

  1. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  2. Physiological approach to optimal stereographic game programming: a technical guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, William L.; McRuer, Robert; Childs, C. Timothy; Viirree, Erik

    1996-04-01

    With the advent of mass distribution of consumer VR games comes an imperative to set health and safety standards for the hardware and software used to deliver stereographic content. This is particularly important for game developers who intend to present this stereographic content via head-mounted display (HMD). The visual discomfort that is commonly reported by the user of HMD-based VR games presumably could be kept to a minimum if game developers were provided with standards for the display of stereographic imagery. In this paper, we draw upon both results of research in binocular vision and practical methods from clinical optometry to develop some technical guidelines for programming stereographic games that have the end user's comfort and safety in mind. This paper will provide generate strategies for user- centered implementation of 3D virtual worlds, as well as pictorial examples demonstrating a natural means for rendering stereographic imagery more comfortable to view in games employing first-person perspective.

  3. Fast and robust estimation of ophthalmic wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Keith

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rising levels of myopia, particularly in the developing world, have led to an increased need for inexpensive and automated approaches to optometry. A simple and robust technique is provided for estimating major ophthalmic aberrations using a gradient-based wavefront sensor. The approach is based on the use of numerical calculations to produce diverse combinations of phase components, followed by Fourier transforms to calculate the coefficients. The approach does not utilize phase unwrapping nor iterative solution of inverse problems. This makes the method very fast and tolerant to image artifacts, which do not need to be detected and masked or interpolated as is needed in other techniques. These features make it a promising algorithm on which to base low-cost devices for applications that may have limited access to expert maintenance and operation.

  4. Physics education through computational tools: the case of geometrical and physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Y.; Santana, A.; Mendoza, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, with the development of more powerful and accurate computational tools, the inclusion of new didactic materials in the classroom is known to have increased. However, the form in which these materials can be used to enhance the learning process is still under debate. Many different methodologies have been suggested for constructing new relevant curricular material and, among them, just-in-time teaching (JiTT) has arisen as an effective and successful way to improve the content of classes. In this paper, we will show the implemented pedagogic strategies for the courses of geometrical and optical physics for students of optometry. Thus, the use of the GeoGebra software for the geometrical optics class and the employment of new in-house software for the physical optics class created using the high-level programming language Python is shown with the corresponding activities developed for each of these applets.

  5. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>−0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between −0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. PMID:25000872

  6. Relevant Factors of Estrogen Changes of Myopia in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Juan-Fen; Xie, Hong-Li; Mao, Xin-Jie; Zhu, Xue-Bo; Xie, Zuo-Kai; Yang, Hai-Hong; Gao, Yang; Jin, Xiao-Feng; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myopia were recruited. Spherical lens, cylindrical lens, axis, interpupillary distance (IPD), and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry, with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2nd or 3rd days, 14th days, and 28th days, respectively. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above. Results: In young females with myopia, the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001). The cylindrical lens, axis, and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (χ2 = 6.35, P = 0.042). The vision during the 14th and 28th day was higher compared to that on the 2nd or 3rd days (P = 0.021). Serum E2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). E2 levels reached its maximum value on the 14th day and the minimum value on the 2nd or 3rd day. Conclusions: In adolescent females, the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E2 in menstrual cycle. Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage. PMID:25698200

  7. Development and Validation of a Diabetic Retinopathy Referral Algorithm Based on Single-Field Fundus Photography

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Shetty, Sharan; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Sharma, Tarun; Raman, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simplified algorithm to identify and refer diabetic retinopathy (DR) from single-field retinal images specifically for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy for appropriate care (ii) to determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm as a pilot study among optometrists versus “gold standard” (retinal specialist grading). Methods The severity of DR was scored based on colour photo using a colour coded algorithm, which included the lesions of DR and number of quadrants involved. A total of 99 participants underwent training followed by evaluation. Data of the 99 participants were analyzed. Fifty posterior pole 45 degree retinal images with all stages of DR were presented. Kappa scores (κ), areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), sensitivity and specificity were determined, with further comparison between working optometrists and optometry students. Results Mean age of the participants was 22 years (range: 19–43 years), 87% being women. Participants correctly identified 91.5% images that required immediate referral (κ) = 0.696), 62.5% of images as requiring review after 6 months (κ = 0.462), and 51.2% of those requiring review after 1 year (κ = 0.532). The sensitivity and specificity of the optometrists were 91% and 78% for immediate referral, 62% and 84% for review after 6 months, and 51% and 95% for review after 1 year, respectively. The AUC was the highest (0.855) for immediate referral, second highest (0.824) for review after 1 year, and 0.727 for review after 6 months criteria. Optometry students performed better than the working optometrists for all grades of referral. Conclusions The diabetic retinopathy algorithm assessed in this work is a simple and a fairly accurate method for appropriate referral based on single-field 45 degree posterior pole retinal images. PMID:27661981

  8. Functional Outcomes of the Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Deemer, Ashley D.; Massof, Robert W.; Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Piersol, Catherine V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of behavioral activation (BA) plus low vision rehabilitation with an occupational therapist (OT-LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) on visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with AMD patients with subsyndromal depressive symptoms (n = 188). All subjects had two outpatient low vision rehabilitation optometry visits, then were randomized to in-home BA + OT-LVR or ST. Behavioral activation is a structured behavioral treatment aiming to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Functional vision was assessed with the activity inventory (AI) in which participants rate the difficulty level of goals and corresponding tasks. Participants were assessed at baseline and 4 months. Results Improvements in functional vision measures were seen in both the BA + OT-LVR and ST groups at the goal level (d = 0.71; d = 0.56 respectively). At the task level, BA + OT-LVR patients showed more improvement in reading, inside-the-home tasks and outside-the-home tasks, when compared to ST patients. The greatest effects were seen in the BA + OT-LVR group in subjects with a visual acuity ≥20/70 (d = 0.360 reading; d = 0.500 inside the home; d = 0.468 outside the home). Conclusions Based on the trends of the AI data, we suggest that BA + OT-LVR services, provided by an OT in the patient's home following conventional low vision optometry services, are more effective than conventional optometric low vision services alone for those with mild visual impairment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00769015.) PMID:28273318

  9. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  10. Constellation-X Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Women in Science Conferences are designed to allow young women in grades 7 through 12 to learn first-hand about careers in science, mathematics, and technology from accomplished professional women. Results of an international science and mathematics study conducted in 2000 indicated that "children in the United States were among the leaders in the 4th grade assessment, but by high school graduation, they were almost last." Part of the problem is that many girls and young women in junior and senior high school lose interest in science and technological careers. The goal of the WIS-Conferences held at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and at Central Wyoming College in Riverton, are to directly address this problem. The conferences will be a cooperative effort supported by local agencies, schools, and businesses, in addition to several state agencies. By presenting positive role models in the science, mathematics, and technological fields, we hope to encourage all students (especially young women and minorities) to pursue higher education and careers in mathematics and science. The workshop topics include: 1) Engineering; 2) Robotics; 3) Physics/Astronomy; 4) Geology; 5) Paleontology; 6) Remote Sensing (GPS/GIS); 7) Molecular Biology; 8) Veterinary Medicine; 9) Optometry; 10) Data Encryption; and 11) Wildlife Biology.

  11. Automated retinal image analysis over the internet.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Madore, Benjamin; Leotta, Matthew J; Sofka, Michal; Yang, Gehua; Majerovics, Anna; Tanenbaum, Howard L; Stewart, Charles V; Roysam, Badrinath

    2008-07-01

    Retinal clinicians and researchers make extensive use of images, and the current emphasis is on digital imaging of the retinal fundus. The goal of this paper is to introduce a system, known as retinal image vessel extraction and registration system, which provides the community of retinal clinicians, researchers, and study directors an integrated suite of advanced digital retinal image analysis tools over the Internet. The capabilities include vasculature tracing and morphometry, joint (simultaneous) montaging of multiple retinal fields, cross-modality registration (color/red-free fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms), and generation of flicker animations for visualization of changes from longitudinal image sequences. Each capability has been carefully validated in our previous research work. The integrated Internet-based system can enable significant advances in retina-related clinical diagnosis, visualization of the complete fundus at full resolution from multiple low-angle views, analysis of longitudinal changes, research on the retinal vasculature, and objective, quantitative computer-assisted scoring of clinical trials imagery. It could pave the way for future screening services from optometry facilities.

  12. Extrinsic curvature, geometric optics, and lamellar order on curved substrates.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Randall D; Nelson, David R; Santangelo, Christian D; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2009-11-01

    When thermal energies are weak, two-dimensional lamellar structures confined on a curved substrate display complex patterns arising from the competition between layer bending and compression in the presence of geometric constraints. We present broad design principles to engineer the geometry of the underlying substrate so that a desired lamellar pattern can be obtained by self-assembly. Two distinct physical effects are identified as key factors that contribute to the interaction between the shape of the underlying surface and the resulting lamellar morphology. The first is a local ordering field for the direction of each individual layer, which tends to minimize its curvature with respect to the three-dimensional embedding. The second is a nonlocal effect controlled by the intrinsic geometry of the surface that forces the normals to the (nearly incompressible) layers to lie on geodesics, leading to caustic formation as in optics. As a result, different surface morphologies with predominantly positive or negative Gaussian curvature can act as converging or diverging lenses, respectively. By combining these ingredients, as one would with different optical elements, complex lamellar morphologies can be obtained. This smectic optometry enables the manipulation of lamellar configurations for the design of materials.

  13. Electronic Referrals and Digital Imaging Systems in Ophthalmology: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Hall, H Nikki; Sanders, Roshini

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmology departments face intensifying pressure to expedite sight-saving treatments and reduce the global burden of disease. The use of electronic communication systems, digital imaging, and redesigned service care models is imperative for addressing such demands. The recently developed Scottish Eyecare Integration Project involves an electronic referral system from community optometry to the hospital ophthalmology department using National Health Service (NHS) email with digital ophthalmic images attached, via a virtual private network connection. The benefits over the previous system include reduced waiting times, improved triage, e-diagnosis in 20% without the need for hospital attendance, and rapid electronic feedback to referrers. We draw on the experience of the Scottish Eyecare Integration Project and discuss the global applications of this and other advances in teleophthalmology. We focus particularly on the implications for management and screening of chronic disease, such as glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, and ophthalmic disease, such as retinopathy of prematurity where diagnosis is almost entirely and critically dependent on fundus appearance. Currently in Scotland, approximately 75% of all referrals are electronic from community to hospital. The Scottish Eyecare Integration Project is globally the first of its kind and unique in a national health service. Such speedy, safe, and efficient models of communication are geographically sensitive to service provision, especially in remote and rural regions. Along with advances in teleophthalmology, such systems promote the earlier detection of sight-threatening disease and safe follow-up of non-sight-threatening disease in the community.

  14. Controllable liquid colour-changing lenses with microfluidic channels for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering based on soft lithography fabrication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Li, Songjing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, liquid colour-changing lenses for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering are developed by circulating colour liquids through microfluidic channels on the lenses manually. Soft lithography technology is applied to fabricate the silicone liquid colour-changing layers with microfluidic channels on the lenses instead of mechanical machining. To increase the hardness and abrasion resistance of the silicone colour-changing layers on the lenses, proper fabrication parameters such as 6:1 (mass ration) mixing proportion and 100 °C curing temperature for 2 h are approved for better soft lithography process of the lenses. Meanwhile, a new surface treatment for the irreversible bonding of silicone colour-changing layer with optical resin (CR39) substrate lens by using 5 % (volume ratio) 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane solution is proposed. Vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering functions of the lenses are investigated with different designs of the channels and multi-layer structures. Each application can not only well achieve their functional demands, but also shows the advantages of functional flexibility, rapid prototyping and good controllability compared with traditional ways. Besides optometry, some other designs and applications of the lenses are proposed for potential utility in the future.

  15. The Health and Social Security Act 1984 and the price of spectacles among corporate practices in the United Kingdom (1980-2007): a review.

    PubMed

    Calver, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The Health and Social Security Act 1984 deregulated certain aspects of optometry in the United Kingdom, including advertising and the supply of spectacles, in the hope that greater competition would reduce spectacle prices. The effects of this legislation are tested by plotting the mean prices of private spectacles purchased from corporate optometric practices, from 1980 to 2007. Historical evidence is used to gauge the effect on prices of other factors such as National Health Service (NHS) payments, sight test fees and pressure exerted by consumer organisations. The high prices in 1980 reduced markedly throughout the rest of the 1980s, remained low for most of the 1990s and rose between 1999 and 2003, before falling. Changes in price were associated with changes to the system of NHS payments and variations in private sight test fees, but prices have generally been lower since the deregulation of dispensing than they were before. Although the price of private spectacles remains heavily influenced by other factors, the deregulation of opticians' services has benefited the public by maintaining lower prices, as intended by proponents of the legislation.

  16. Efficient numerical modeling of the cornea, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, L.; Navarro, Rafael M.; Hdez-Matamoros, J. L.

    2004-10-01

    Corneal topography has shown to be an essential tool in the ophthalmology clinic both in diagnosis and custom treatments (refractive surgery, keratoplastia), having also a strong potential in optometry. The post processing and analysis of corneal elevation, or local curvature data, is a necessary step to refine the data and also to extract relevant information for the clinician. In this context a parametric cornea model is proposed consisting of a surface described mathematically by two terms: one general ellipsoid corresponding to a regular base surface, expressed by a general quadric term located at an arbitrary position and free orientation in 3D space and a second term, described by a Zernike polynomial expansion, which accounts for irregularities and departures from the basic geometry. The model has been validated obtaining better adjustment of experimental data than other previous models. Among other potential applications, here we present the determination of the optical axis of the cornea by transforming the general quadric to its canonical form. This has permitted us to perform 3D registration of corneal topographical maps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Other basic and clinical applications are also explored.

  17. Ophthalmology and vision science research. Part 1: Understanding and using journal impact factors and citation indices.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Victoria A; McGhee, Charles N J

    2005-10-01

    In an increasingly "publish or perish" clinical and academic environment, all clinicians and clinician-scientists involved in research must have a firm understanding of the measures commonly used to assess the quality of scientific journals and, by default, those extended to grade individual articles and authors. The publication of research is a vital part of clinical and experimental research, and citation analyses of research publications have increasingly been adopted as a means of assessing the apparent quality of journals and the research published therein. In the first of a series of articles for those embarking on ophthalmic and vision science research, this paper discusses the key features of citation analysis, concentrating on the 2004 Journal Citation Report figures for the field of ophthalmology that include 42 ophthalmology, vision science, physiological optics, and optometry journals. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) calculates a number of parameters including citation counts, Journal Impact Factor (JIF), Immediacy Index, and cited/citing half-life. This article discusses the methods of calculation and possible uses along with current controversies and potential abuses. The JIF and its relevance, potential bias, and limitations are discussed in depth as it has become the most widely used analysis of journal quality. The possible alternatives to ISI citation analysis are presented, and we conclude that citation analysis can be considered a reasonable measure of journal research quality only if used correctly.

  18. Screening for High Blood Pressure in Adults During Ambulatory Nonprimary Care Visits: Opportunities to Improve Hypertension Recognition.

    PubMed

    Handler, Joel; Mohan, Yasmina; Kanter, Michael H; Reynolds, Kristi; Li, Xia; Nguyen, Miki; Young, Deborah R; Koebnick, Corinna

    2015-06-01

    Visits with nonprimary care providers such as optometrists may be missed opportunities for the detection of high blood pressure (BP). For this study, normotensive adults with at least 12 months of health plan membership on January 1, 2009 (n=1,075,522) were followed-up for high BP through March 14, 2011. Of 111,996 patients with a BP measurement ≥140/90 mm Hg, 82.7% were measured during primary care visits and 17.3% during nonprimary care visits. Individuals with a BP ≥140/90 mm Hg measured during nonprimary care visits were older and more likely to be male and non-Hispanic white. The proportion of patients with follow-up and false-positives were comparable between primary and nonprimary care. The main nonprimary care specialty to identify a first BP ≥140/90 mm Hg was ophthalmology/optometry with 24.5% of all patients. Results suggest that expanding screening for hypertension to nonprimary care settings may improve the detection of hypertension.

  19. On call at the mall: a mixed methods study of U.S. medical malls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of the traditional U.S. shopping mall and a focus on more consumer- centered care have created an opportunity for “medical malls”. Medical malls are defined as former retail spaces repurposed for healthcare tenants or mixed-use medical/retail facilities. We aimed to describe the current reach of healthcare services in U.S. malls, characterize the medical mall model and emerging trends, and assess the potential of these facilities to serve low-income populations. Methods We used a mixed methods approach which included a comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a descriptive analysis of the Directory of Major Malls, an online retail database. Results Six percent (n = 89) of large, enclosed shopping malls in the U.S. include at least one non-optometry or dental healthcare tenant. We identified a total of 28 medical malls across the U.S., the majority of which opened in the past five years and serve middle or high income populations. Stakeholders felt the key strengths of medical malls were more convenient access including public transportation, greater familiarity for patients, and “one stop shopping” for primary care and specialty services as well as retail needs. Conclusions While medical malls currently account for a small fraction of malls in the US, they are a new model for healthcare with significant potential for growth. PMID:24209495

  20. Characteristics of a paediatric low vision population in a private eye hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, V K; Herse, P

    2000-05-01

    While private hospitals provide an important access point for low vision services for children in urban India, little is known about this service delivery route. A cross sectional survey was done of consecutive records of 220 children presenting at a newly opened paediatric low vision centre in a private eye hospital in Hyderabad. On presentation, 49% of the children were classified as moderately visually impaired, 31% were severely visually impaired and 20% were blind. The four major causes of visual impairment were the hereditary/genetic conditions of congenital glaucoma, hereditary macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and albinism. Approach magnification was sufficient for required near tasks in all pre-school children and about 50% of school children. Provision of a distance refraction decreased the prevalence of severe visual impairment and blindness by 31%. The most commonly prescribed low vision devices were spectacles indicating a key role for optometry in the management of visual impairment in Indian children. Establishment of low vision clinics in existing Indian eye hospitals using associated optometric staff would be a cost effective method to minimise visual impairment in Indian children.

  1. The intelligent anatomy spotter: A new approach to incorporate higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L

    2016-10-01

    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of Manchester study the functional anatomy of the eye in the first semester of their first year. Included in the assessment of this unit is a spotter examination worth 45% of the total unit mark. Due to the factors listed above, a new spotter format was designed. Students had to answer three questions per specimen where the answers to the questions were the labeled structures themselves (A, B, C, or D). They had to work out the answer to the question and then work out which of the labeled structures was the correct structure, negating the "cueing effect" of standard multiple choice questions. Examination results were analyzed over a six-year period (control groups 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011; treatment groups 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014). There were no significant differences between marks obtained for the new spotter format when compared with the traditional format. The new format spotter tested comprehension rather than just knowledge, and facilitated marking because subjectiveness was erased, and less time was spent determining whether an answer was correct or not. Anat Sci Educ 9: 440-445. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Comparing optical systems, and the concept of the converter system.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F; van Gool, R D

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a complete and general method for comparing the first-order optical character of optical systems. The method provides a common basis for quantifying the difference between systems of all kinds including thin lenses, ophthalmic prisms, eyes before and after accommodation, eyes before and after refractive surgery, etc. Systems may be astigmatic or stigmatic, coaxial or noncoaxial. In special cases, the method reduces to being equivalent in essence to ostensibly incommensurate comparisons implicit or explicit in current optometric and ophthalmological usage (difference in power for refractions, corneas, and thin lenses, difference in prismatic power for prisms, ratio of magnifications for afocal telescopes, etc.). The method uses the concept of a converter system that when placed in front of or behind one system, converts its first-order optical character to the equivalent of a second system. Equations are presented for the ray transferences of the anterior and posterior converter systems for pair-wise comparisons in general. For any two systems, the transferences of the converter systems always exist and are unique. Numerical examples are presented; they illustrate converter systems that may be thin in special cases but thick otherwise. The transference of a converter system embodies and quantifies the optical difference between systems or characterizes the change from one state of a system (presurgical or preaccommodative, for example) to another (postsurgical or postaccommodative). The method provides a rational and uniform methodology for research and clinical applications in many areas of optometry and ophthalmology.

  3. The challenges of providing eye care for adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li, Josephine Ch; Wong, Katrina; Park, Adela Sy; Fricke, Timothy R; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This review is intended to raise awareness of the importance of providing high-quality eye care for people with intellectual disabilities and the increasing need for this eye care to be community-based. We describe the challenges to the provision of high-quality community-based eye care for people with intellectual disabilities and ideas, evidence and methods for overcoming them. The prevalence of visual impairment in people with intellectual disabilities has been reported to be at least 40 per cent, rising to as high as 100 per cent in those with profound and severe disabilities. A progressive move toward deinstitutionalisation has shifted the provision of care for people with intellectual disabilities. Individuals can have the freedom to access health-care services of their choice. This has posed challenges to the health-care system, including how to deliver high-quality community-based eye care, creating a current significant unmet need for eye-care services. Undiagnosed refractive error and under-prescription of spectacles are major reasons for avoidable visual impairment among people with disabilities. There is an apparent reluctance of optometrists to engage in this work due to the perceived difficulties of working with people with intellectual and multiple disabilities. There are challenges associated with diagnosis and management of ocular conditions in people with intellectual disabilities and the demand is clear. Small shifts in training, knowledge and awareness would place optometry well to meet the challenges of this specialised area of eye care.

  4. Distribution of ophthalmologists and optometrists in Islamic Republic of Iran and their associated factors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, S-F; Lashay, M-R; Ashrafi, E; Haghdoust, A-A; Alinia, C; Lashay, A-R; Asadi-Lari, M; Mohammadi, S-M; Hatef, E

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to determine the distribution of ophthalmic care providers and its correlation with health and socioeconomic status and health system indicators. Data were gathered from the Iran Medical Council and the Iranian Societies of Ophthalmology and Optometry. Concurrent indicators were collected from the Statistical Center of Iran and national studies. A population-adjusted number of combined ophthalmologists and optometrists was used as the main dependent variable. Optometrist/ophthalmologist ratio was 0.9. We had 1 ophthalmologist and 1 optometrist for every 40 000 and 45 000 individuals, respectively. We observed a direct correlation between the number of ophthalmologists, optometrists and life expectancy at the provincial level. Gross provincial income and expenditure and provincial literacy were correlated as well. Provincial unemployment had a negative correlation. Provincial hospital statistics and population density were also significantly correlated. The Islamic Republic of Iran has met the World Health Organization's desired per capita number of ophthalmologists and optometrists, but there is wide variation in their density.

  5. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, R. J.; Edwards, Michael C.; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. Methods The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Results Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users’ subjective experiences with contact lenses. Conclusions The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties. PMID:27383257

  6. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove, OR (USA)). Dr. Citek is Associate Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove (USA)). In their comprehensive evaluation of sunglasses, they found some disturbing results. Despite being endorsed by The Skin Cancer Foundation, the Walgreens eyewear samples offer only partial protection to the potential hazards of sunlight exposure. Those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with impact resistant polycarbonate lenses that provide 100% ultraviolet filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision (Nike Inc., Portland OR [USA]), available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features, as well as patented optical and tint designs. Numerous Nike styles offer interchangeable lens options to meet the changing environmental conditions encountered outdoors. These technologies are incorporated into performance-driven frame designs inspired by feedback from some of the world's best athletes. Nonprescription Nike eyewear are available on-line at http://www.nike.com/nikevision, as well as at various well-known retail outlets. Nonprescription and prescription Nike eyewear are also available at the offices of many eye care professionals. Even though our latest report did not include soft contact lens, it is important to emphasize that Dr. Reichow and Dr. Citek have played a leadership role in coordinating the development of the Nike MAXSIGHT, an innovative fully tinted soft contact lens. This contact lens provides distortion-free optics, whether or not you wear prescription contacts. They filter out more than 90% of harmful blue light and 95% of UVA and UVB. For the contact

  7. Improvements in performance following optometric vision therapy in a child with dyspraxia.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Caroline M F; Van de Weyer, Sarah; Smith, Claire; Adler, Paul M

    2006-03-01

    SS, an 8-year-old boy with dyspraxia, presented for behavioural optometry assessment. He had been diagnosed with a subtle form of dyspraxia by his paediatric occupational therapist, based on poor proprioception, delayed bilateral integration and poor visual perception. A full visual assessment was carried out. SS was given a programme of reflex inhibition exercises for 3 months. Then, a programme of optometric vision therapy (OVT) exercises was prescribed at home and in practice for a period of 8 months. SS was assessed using a battery of occupational therapy Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) before optometric intervention, and after OVT. There were significant improvements in fusional reserves, accommodative facility and oculomotor control of pursuit and saccadic eye movements. His reading level had changed by 4 years in 11 months. The SIPT results showed improvements in the visual and motor/visual perception subtests, confirming the significant changes in visual perceptual performance. Consideration is given to treatment modalities for dyspraxia, and the studies confirming their effectivity of approach. This case study provides evidence supporting the use of OVT eye exercises in dyspraxia, ocular motility, accommodative dysfunction, learning difficulties and sports performance. The need for further research and inter-professional working is discussed.

  8. How to pass a sensor acceptance test: using the gap between acceptance criteria and operational performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet

    2016-10-01

    When acquiring a new imaging system and operational task performance is a critical factor for success, it is necessary to specify minimum acceptance requirements that need to be met using a sensor performance model and/or performance tests. Currently, there exist a variety of models and test from different origin (defense, security, road safety, optometry) and they all do different predictions. This study reviews a number of frequently used methods and shows the effects that small changes in procedure or threshold criteria can have on the outcome of a test. For example, a system may meet the acceptance requirements but not satisfy the needs for the operational task, or the choice of test may determine the rank order of candidate sensors. The goal of the paper is to make people aware of the pitfalls associated with the acquisition process, by i) illustrating potential tricks to have a system accepted that is actually not suited for the operational task, and ii) providing tips to avoid this unwanted situation.

  9. UV Induced Degradation of Polycarbonate-Based Lens Materials and Implications for the Heath Care Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkay, J. R.; Henry, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Experimental research is being carried out at Keene State at the undergraduate level that utilizes facilities in both physics and chemistry to study the effects of mono- and polychromatic UV radiation from various sources, including a Deuterium lamp, a solarization unit (at Polyonics, a local industry), and the Sun, to study the photodegradation of polycarbonate-based lens materials used to produce eyewear. Literature in the field of optometry and ophthalmology indicates a correlation between exposure to the UVB band of natural sunlight and the onset of cataract formation, as well as other eye disorders. The public is usually advised that plastic eyeglass lenses will provide protection from this damaging radiation. It is well known that polycarbonate plastic ``yellows'' when exposed to intense sunlight and, particularly, UV light^1,2, either via photo-Fries rearrangement or by a photooxidative process, forming polyconjugated systems and is an industrial concern primarily for cosmetic reasons. We have preliminary data, however, that indicates that the yellowing'' is an indication of a more sinister problem in the case of eyeglasses in that it is accompanied by an increase in transmissivity in the UVB band where the wearer expects and needs protection. Our group includes a local optometrist who will share results with peers in his field. [1] A. Andrady, J. Polymer Sci., 42, 1991 [2] E. P. Gorelov, Inst. Khim. Fiz., Russian Federation

  10. Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander; Dainty, Chris

    2005-09-01

    We have designed an ocular aberrometer based on the Hartmann-Shack (HS) type wavefront sensor for use in optometry clinics. The optical system has enhanced versatility compared with commercial aberrometers, yet it is compact and user-friendly. The system has the capability to sense both on-axis and off-axis aberrations in the eye within an unobstructed 20 degree field. This capability is essential to collect population data for off-axis aberrations. This data will be useful in designing future adaptive optics (AO) systems to improve image quality of eccentric retinal areas, in particular, for multi-conjugate AO systems. The ability of the examiner to control the accommodation demand is a unique feature of the design that commercial instruments are capable of only after modification. The pupil alignment channel is re-combined with the sensing channel in a parallel path and imaged on a single CCD. This makes the instrument more compact, less expensive, and it helps to synchronize the pupil center with the HS spot coordinate system. Another advantage of the optical design is telecentric re-imaging of the HS spots, increasing the robustness to small longitudinal alignment errors. The optical system has been optimized with a ray-tracing program and its prototype is being constructed. Design considerations together with a description of the optical components are presented. Difficulties and future work are outlined.

  11. Development of Matlab GUI educational software to assist a laboratory of physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Elena; Fuentes, Rosa; García, Celia; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2014-07-01

    Physical optics is one of the subjects in the Grade of Optics and Optometry in Spanish universities. The students who come to this degree often have difficulties to understand subjects that are related to physics. For this reason, the aim of this work is to develop optics simulation software that provides a virtual laboratory for studying the effects of different aspects of physical optics phenomena. This software can let optical undergraduates simulate many optical systems for a better understanding of the practical competences associated with the theoretical concepts studied in class. This interactive environment unifies the information that brings the manual of the practices, provides the visualization of the physical phenomena and allows users to vary the values of the parameters that come into play to check its effect. So, this virtual tool is the perfect complement to learning more about the practices developed in the laboratory. This software will be developed through the choices which have the Matlab to generate Graphical User Interfaces or GUIs. A set of knobs, buttons and handles will be included in the GUI's in order to control the parameters of the different physics phenomena. Graphics can also be inserted in the GUIs to show the behavior of such phenomena. Specifically, by using this software, the student is able to analyze the behaviour of the transmittance and reflectance of the TE and TM modes, the polarized light through of the Malus'Law or degree of polarization.

  12. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation of design for multioptical-axis freeform progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, HuaZhong; Chen, JiaBi; Zhu, TianFen; Wei, YeFei; Fu, DongXiang

    2015-11-01

    A freeform progressive addition lens (PAL) provides a good solution to correct presbyopia and prevent juvenile myopia by distributing pupils' optical powers of distance zone, near zone, and intermediate zone and is more widely adopted in the present optometric study. However, there is still a lack of a single-optical-axis system for the design of a PAL. This paper focuses on the research for an approach for designing a freeform PAL. A multioptical-axis system based on real viewing conditions using the eyes is employed for the representation of the freeform surface. We filled small pupils in the intermediate zone as a progressive corridor and the distance- and near-vision portions were defined as the standard spherical surfaces delimited by quadratic curves. Three freeform PALs with a spherical surface as the front side and a freeform surface as the backside were designed. We demonstrate the fabrication and measurement technologies for the PAL surface using computer numerical control machine tools from Schneider Smart and a Visionix VM-2000 Lens Power Mapper. Surface power and astigmatic values were obtained. Preliminary results showed that the approach for the design and fabrication is helpful to advance the design procedure optimization and mass production of PALs in optometry.

  14. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory/University of California lighting program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.

    1981-12-01

    The objective of the Lighting Program is to assist and work in concert with the lighting community (composed of manufacturers, designers, and users) to achieve a more efficient lighting economy. To implement its objectives, the Lighting Program has been divided into three major categories: technical engineering, buildings applications, and human impacts (impacts on health and vision). The technical program aims to undertake research and development projects that are both long-range and high-risk and which the lighting industry has little interest in pursuing on its own, but from which significant benefits could accrue to both the public and the industry. The building applications program studies the effects that introducing daylighting in commercial buildings has on lighting and cooling electrical energy requirements as well as on peak demand. This program also examines optimization strategies for integrating energy-efficient design, lighting hardware, daylighting, and overall building energy requirements. The impacts program examines relationships between the user and the physical lighting environment, in particular how new energy-efficient technologies relate to human productivity and health. These efforts are interdisciplinary, involving engineering, optometry, and medicine. The program facilities are described and the personnel in the program is identified.

  15. Merging Psychophysical and Psychometric Theory to Estimate Global Visual State Measures from Forced-Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massof, Robert W.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Laby, Daniel M.; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David

    2013-09-01

    Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model.

  16. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  17. Course for undergraduate students: analysis of the retinal image quality of a human eye model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Pérez, Maria; Yebra, Ana; Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Ghinea, Razvan; Ionescu, Ana M.; Cardona, Juan C.

    2014-07-01

    In teaching of Vision Physics or Physiological Optics, the knowledge and analysis of the aberration that the human eye presents are of great interest, since this information allows a proper evaluation of the quality of the retinal image. The objective of the present work is that the students acquire the required competencies which will allow them to evaluate the optical quality of the human visual system for emmetropic and ammetropic eye, both with and without the optical compensation. For this purpose, an optical system corresponding to the Navarro-Escudero eye model, which allows calculating and evaluating the aberration of this eye model in different ammetropic conditions, was developed employing the OSLO LT software. The optical quality of the visual system will be assessed through determinations of the third and fifth order aberration coefficients, the impact diagram, wavefront analysis, calculation of the Point Spread Function and the Modulation Transfer Function for ammetropic individuals, with myopia or hyperopia, both with or without the optical compensation. This course is expected to be of great interest for student of Optics and Optometry Sciences, last courses of Physics or medical sciences related with human vision.

  18. Theoretical considerations and measurements for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Wenli; Sun, Jie

    2008-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in current optometry practice. The quality and verification of the instrument are of the utmost importance. In 1997, International Organization for Standardization published the first ISO standard for requirements of phoropters. However, in China, few standard and test method are suggested for phoropters. Research work on test method for phoropters was carried out early in 2004 by China National Institute of Metrology. In this paper, first, structure of phoropters is described. Then, theoretical considerations for its optical design are analyzed. Next, a newly developed instrument is introduced and measurements are taken. By calibration, the indication error of the instrument is not over 0.05m-1. Finally, measurement results show that the quality situation of phoropters is not as good as expected because of production and assembly error. Optical design shall be improved especially for combinations of both spherical and cylindrical lenses with higher power. Besides, optical requirements specified in ISO standard are found to be a little strict and hard to meet. A proposal for revision of this international standard is drafted and discussed on ISO meeting of 2007 held in Tokyo.

  19. Adaptive Optics Analysis of Visual Benefit with Higher-order Aberrations Correction of Human Eye - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.

  20. Visual resolution in incoherent and coherent light: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnowska-Habrat, Katarzyna; Dubik, Boguslawa; Zajac, Marek

    2001-05-01

    In ophthalmology and optometry a number of measures are used for describing quality of human vision such as resolution, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function, etc. In this paper we will concentrate on the vision quality understood as a resolution of periodic object being a set of equidistant parallel lines of given spacing and direction. The measurement procedure is based on presenting the test to the investigated person and determining the highest spatial frequency he/she can still resolve. In this paper we describe a number of experiments in which we use test tables illuminated with light both coherent and incoherent of different spectral characteristics. Our experiments suggest that while considering incoherent polychromatic illumination the resolution in blue light is substantially worse than in white light. In coherent illumination speckling effect causes worsening of resolution. While using laser light it is easy to generate a sinusoidal interference pattern which can serve as test object. In the paper we compare the results of resolution measurements with test tables and interference fringes.

  1. Extrinsic curvature, geometric optics, and lamellar order on curved substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamien, Randall D.; Nelson, David R.; Santangelo, Christian D.; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2009-11-01

    When thermal energies are weak, two-dimensional lamellar structures confined on a curved substrate display complex patterns arising from the competition between layer bending and compression in the presence of geometric constraints. We present broad design principles to engineer the geometry of the underlying substrate so that a desired lamellar pattern can be obtained by self-assembly. Two distinct physical effects are identified as key factors that contribute to the interaction between the shape of the underlying surface and the resulting lamellar morphology. The first is a local ordering field for the direction of each individual layer, which tends to minimize its curvature with respect to the three-dimensional embedding. The second is a nonlocal effect controlled by the intrinsic geometry of the surface that forces the normals to the (nearly incompressible) layers to lie on geodesics, leading to caustic formation as in optics. As a result, different surface morphologies with predominantly positive or negative Gaussian curvature can act as converging or diverging lenses, respectively. By combining these ingredients, as one would with different optical elements, complex lamellar morphologies can be obtained. This smectic optometry enables the manipulation of lamellar configurations for the design of materials.

  2. Optical inspection methods and their applications in the manufactured industrial sector: knowledge transfer to Panamanian industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Abdiel O.; Pladellorens, Josep

    2014-07-01

    A means of facilitating the transfer of Optical inspection methods knowledge and skills from academic institutions and their research partners into Panama optics and optical research groups is described. The process involves the creation of an Integrated Knowledge Group Research (IKGR), a partnership led by Polytechnic University of Panama with the support of the SENACYT and Optics and Optometry Department, Polytechnic University of Catalonia. This paper describes the development of the Project for knowledge transfer "Implementation of a method of optical inspection of low cost for improving the surface quality of rolled material of metallic and nonmetallic industrial use", this project will develop a method for measuring the surface quality using texture analysis speckle pattern formed on the surface to be characterized. The project is designed to address the shortage of key skills in the field of precision engineering for optical applications. The main issues encountered during the development of the knowledge transfer teaching and learning are discussed, and the outcomes from the first four months of knowledge transfer activities are described. In overall summary, the results demonstrate how the Integrated Knowledge Group Research and new approach to knowledge transfer has been effective in addressing the engineering skills gap in precision optics for manufactured industrial sector.

  3. Evaluation of response variables in computer-simulated virtual cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, Per G.; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf; Simawi, Wamidh; Nordqvist, Per; Skarman, Eva; Nordh, Leif

    2006-02-01

    We have developed a virtual reality (VR) simulator for phacoemulsification (phaco) surgery. The current work aimed at evaluating the precision in the estimation of response variables identified for measurement of the performance of VR phaco surgery. We identified 31 response variables measuring; the overall procedure, the foot pedal technique, the phacoemulsification technique, erroneous manipulation, and damage to ocular structures. Totally, 8 medical or optometry students with a good knowledge of ocular anatomy and physiology but naive to cataract surgery performed three sessions each of VR Phaco surgery. For measurement, the surgical procedure was divided into a sculpting phase and an evacuation phase. The 31 response variables were measured for each phase in all three sessions. The variance components for individuals and iterations of sessions within individuals were estimated with an analysis of variance assuming a hierarchal model. The consequences of estimated variabilities for sample size requirements were determined. It was found that generally there was more variability for iterated sessions within individuals for measurements of the sculpting phase than for measurements of the evacuation phase. This resulted in larger required sample sizes for detection of difference between independent groups or change within group, for the sculpting phase as compared to for the evacuation phase. It is concluded that several of the identified response variables can be measured with sufficient precision for evaluation of VR phaco surgery.

  4. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    PubMed

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation.

  5. Early wound healing of laser in situ keratomileusis–like flaps after treatment with human corneal stromal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Siân R.; Dooley, Erin P.; Kamma-Lorger, Christina; Funderburgh, James L.; Funderburgh, Martha L.; Meek, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use a well-established organ culture model to investigate the effects of corneal stromal stem cells on the optical and biomechanical properties of corneal wounds after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)–like flap creation. Setting School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom. Design Experimental study. Methods The LASIK-like flaps were produced in sheep corneas. The flap beds were treated with corneal stromal stem cells and were then replaced and allowed to heal for different periods of up to 3 weeks in organ culture. The optical transmission of the cornea, the force required to detach the flap, and the presence of myofibroblasts near the flap bed were measured. Results Corneal stromal stem cell–treated flap beds were statistically significantly more transparent after 3 weeks in culture than the untreated controls. At 3 weeks, the mean force necessary to detach the flap was more than twice the force required for the respective control samples. Concurrently, there were 44% activated cells immediately below the flap margin of the controls compared with 29% in the same region of the corneal stromal stem cell–treated flaps. Conclusions In this system, the presence of corneal stromal stem cells at the wound margin significantly increased the adherence of LASIK-like flaps while maintaining corneal transparency. It is postulated that this is achieved by the deposition of extracellular connective tissue similar to that found in the normal cornea and by the paucity of activated keratocytes (myofibroblasts), which are known to scatter a significant amount of the incident light. Financial Disclosure No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. PMID:27026456

  6. Teaching methodologies to promote creativity in the professional skills related to optics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peña-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.

    2014-07-01

    We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.

  7. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a ‘grey literature’ search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can

  8. A Low Vision Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Mild Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Heather E.; Whitaker, Diane; Potter, Guy; McConnell, Eleanor; Tripp, Fay; Sanders, Linda L.; Muir, Kelly W.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Cousins, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design and pilot test a low vision rehabilitation program for patients with macular disease and cognitive deficits. Methods The Memory or Reasoning Enhanced Low Vision Rehabilitation (MORE-LVR) program was created by a team representing optometry, occupational therapy, ophthalmology, neuropsychology, and geriatrics. Key components of MORE-LVR are: 1) repetitive training with a therapist twice weekly over a 6-week period, 2) simplified training experience addressing no more than three individualized goals in a minimally distracting environment, 3) involvement of an informal companion (friend or family member). Eligible patients were recruited from an LVR clinic; measures were compared before and after the 6 week program. Results Twelve non-demented patients (mean age 84.5 years, 75% female) who screened positive for cognitive deficits completed the MORE-LVR intervention. Participants demonstrated improved scores on the National Eye Institute’s Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) composite score (47.2±16.3 to 54.8±13.8, p=0.01) and near activities score (21.5±14.0 to 41.0±23.1, p=0.02), timed performance measures (writing a grocery list [p=0.03], filling in a crossword puzzle answer [p=0.003]), a score indicating satisfaction with independence (p=0.05), and logical memory (p=0.02). All patients and companions reported progress toward at least one individualized goal; >70% reported progress toward all three goals. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates feasibility of an LVR program for macular disease patients with mild cognitive deficits. Participants demonstrated improvements in vision-related function and cognitive measures and expressed high satisfaction. Future work is needed to determine if MORE-LVR is superior to usual outpatient LVR for persons with co-existing visual and cognitive impairments. PMID:23619914

  9. Visual impairment attributable to uncorrected refractive error and other causes in the Ghanaian youth: The University of Cape Coast Survey

    PubMed Central

    Abokyi, Samuel; Ilechie, Alex; Nsiah, Peter; Darko-Takyi, Charles; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Osei-Akoto, Yaw Jnr; Youfegan-Baanam, Mathurin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of visual impairment attributable to refractive error and other causes in a youthful Ghanaian population. Methods A prospective survey of all consecutive visits by first-year tertiary students to the Optometry clinic between August, 2013 and April, 2014. Of the 4378 first-year students aged 16–39 years enumerated, 3437 (78.5%) underwent the eye examination. The examination protocol included presenting visual acuity (PVA), ocular motility, and slit-lamp examination of the external eye, anterior segment and media, and non-dilated fundus examination. Pinhole acuity and fundus examination were performed when the PVA ≤ 6/12 in one or both eyes to determine the principal cause of the vision loss. Results The mean age of participants was 21.86 years (95% CI: 21.72–21.99). The prevalence of bilateral visual impairment (BVI; PVA in the better eye ≤6/12) and unilateral visual impairment UVI; PVA in the worse eye ≤6/12) were 3.08% (95% CI: 2.56–3.72) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.54–1.14), respectively. Among 106 participants with BVI, refractive error (96.2%) and corneal opacity (3.8%) were the causes. Of the 27 participants with UVI, refractive error (44.4%), maculopathy (18.5%) and retinal disease (14.8%) were the major causes. There was unequal distribution of BVI in the different age groups, with those above 20 years having a lesser burden. Conclusion Eye screening and provision of affordable spectacle correction to the youth could be timely to eliminate visual impairment. PMID:26025809

  10. Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromaticities differ.

    PubMed

    Lightstone, A; Lightstone, T; Wilkins, A

    1999-07-01

    Some individuals read more fluently when the text is coloured: i.e., when coloured sheets of plastic (overlays) are placed upon the page, or when coloured lenses are worn. Overlays provide a surface colour whereas lenses mimic a change in the colour of a light source. The neural mechanisms that underlie colour constancy ensure that the chromaticity of overlays and lenses is processed differently by the visual system. We investigated (1) the relationship between the optimal colours of overlays and lenses, and (2) how reading rate is affected by a particular colour in overlays and lenses. In 100 patients we noted (1) the overlay(s) chosen from among the 29 combinations of the 10 IOO Intuitive Overlays which sample chromaticity systematically and (2) the chromaticity co-ordinates of the lenses subsequently chosen using the intuitive Colorimeter, a device providing a light source that can be adjusted in hue, saturation and luminance independently. The relationship between the chromaticities of the overlays and the lenses showed considerable variation. In a second study, patients attending the Specific Learning Difficulties clinic at the Institute of Optometry, London, were given overlays to use for two months. Seventeen who derived benefit were examined using the Intuitive Colorimeter. Patients were asked to read aloud randomly ordered common words (Wilkins Rate of Reading Test): (1) with no colour, (2) with the chosen overlay, (3) with lenses matching the chosen overlay and (4) with lenses matching the Colorimeter setting. The aids increased reading rate significantly only in conditions (2) and (4). There was no significant improvement when lenses matching the overlay colour were used, and under this condition the reading rate was significantly poorer than in conditions (2) and (4). The colour of a lens will improve reading only if it is selected under conditions that mimic a change in the colour of a light source: coloured overlays give no clinically reliable guide

  11. Holistic Health Care for the Medically Uninsured: The Church Health Center of Memphis.

    PubMed

    Morris, G Scott

    2015-11-05

    The Church Health Center (CHC) in Memphis was founded in 1987 to provide quality, affordable health care for working, uninsured people and their families. With numerous, dedicated financial supporters and health care volunteers, CHC has become the largest faith-based health care organization of its type nationally, serving >61,000 patients. CHC embraces a holistic approach to health by promoting wellness in every dimension of life. It offers on-site services including medical care, dentistry, optometry, counseling, social work, and nutrition and fitness education, to promote wellness in every dimension of life. A 2012 economic analysis estimated that a $1 contribution to the CHC provided roughly $8 in health services. The CHC has trained >1200 Congregational Health Promoters to be health leaders and is conducting research on the effectiveness of faith community nurses partnering with congregations to assist in home care for patients recently discharged from Memphis hospitals. The MEMPHIS Plan, CHC's employer-sponsored health care plan for small business and the self-employed, offers uninsured people in lower-wage jobs access to quality, affordable health care. The CHC also conducts replications workshops several times a year to share their model with leaders in other communities. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) recently completed a case study that concluded: "The CHC is one of a very few organizations successfully embodying all three components of the IHI Triple Aim by improving population health outcomes, enhancing the individual's health care experience, and controlling costs. All three have been part of the Center's DNA since its inception, and as a transforming force in the community, the model is well worth national attention."

  12. Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Miriam L.; Evans, Bruce J. W.; Evans, Josephine C.; Suttle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Visual Stress (VS) is a condition in which words appear blurred, in motion, or otherwise distorted when reading. Some people diagnosed with VS find that viewing black text on white paper through coloured overlays or precision tinted lenses (PTLs) reduces symptoms attributed to VS. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the choice of colour of overlays or PTLs is influenced by a patient’s gender. Methods Records of all patients attending a VS assessment in two optometry practices between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who reported a significant and consistent reduction in symptoms with either overlay and or PTL were included in the analysis. Overlays and PTLs were categorized as stereotypical male, female or neutral colours based on gender preferences as described in the literature. Chi-square analysis was carried out to determine whether gender (across all ages or within age groups) was associated with overlay or PTL colour choice. Results 279 patients (133 males and 146 females, mean age 17 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with an overlay and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant association between the colour of overlay chosen and male or female gender (Chi-square 0.788, p = 0.674). 244 patients (120 males and 124 females, mean age 24.5 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with PTLs and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant association between stereotypical male/female/neutral colours of PTLs chosen and male/female gender (Chi-square 6.46, p = 0.040). More males preferred stereotypical male colour PTLs including blue and green while more females preferred stereotypical female colour PTLs including pink and purple. Conclusions For some VS patients, the choice of PTL colour is influenced not only by the alleviation of symptoms but also by other non-visual factors such as gender. PMID:27648842

  13. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  14. Publication analysis of the contact lens field: What are the current topics of interest?

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Genís; Sanz, Joan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the main current research interests of scientists working in the contact lens field. Methods All articles published in the 2011 issues of all journals included in the Journal Citation Reports subject category Ophthalmology were inspected to expose those papers related to the contact lens field. Information regarding source journal was obtained and authorship details were recorded to determine the top most prolific authors, institutions and countries. A comprehensive list of key words was compiled to generate a two-dimensional term map in which the frequency of occurrence of a particular term is defined by label size and the distance between two terms is an indication of the relatedness of these terms, based on their co-occurrences within groups of key words. Clusters of related terms were also identified. Results Visual examination of all articles uncovered a total of 156 papers, published in 28 different journals. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, Eye & Contact Lens and Optometry and Vision Science had 27 articles each. The most prolific authors and institutions revealed the predominance of countries with long research tradition in the contact lens field. Ten different word clusters or areas of interest were identified, including both traditional, yet unresolved issues (e.g., comfort or dry eye), and the latest research efforts (e.g., myopia control). Conclusions These findings, which revealed contact lenses to be a fertile area of research, may be of relevance to new researchers as well as to those interested in exploring the latest research trends in this scientific discipline. PMID:25649639

  15. Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen D.; Kraus, Martin F.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J.; Choi, WooJhon; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E.; Hornegger, Joachim; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an ultrahigh speed, handheld swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) ophthalmic instrument using a 2D MEMS mirror. A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 1060 nm center wavelength yielded a 350 kHz axial scan rate and 10 µm axial resolution in tissue. The long coherence length of the VCSEL enabled a 3.08 mm imaging range with minimal sensitivity roll-off in tissue. Two different designs with identical optical components were tested to evaluate handheld OCT ergonomics. An iris camera aided in alignment of the OCT beam through the pupil and a manual fixation light selected the imaging region on the retina. Volumetric and high definition scans were obtained from 5 undilated normal subjects. Volumetric OCT data was acquired by scanning the 2.4 mm diameter 2D MEMS mirror sinusoidally in the fast direction and linearly in the orthogonal slow direction. A second volumetric sinusoidal scan was obtained in the orthogonal direction and the two volumes were processed with a software algorithm to generate a merged motion-corrected volume. Motion-corrected standard 6 x 6 mm2 and wide field 10 x 10 mm2 volumetric OCT data were generated using two volumetric scans, each obtained in 1.4 seconds. High definition 10 mm and 6 mm B-scans were obtained by averaging and registering 25 B-scans obtained over the same position in 0.57 seconds. One of the advantages of volumetric OCT data is the generation of en face OCT images with arbitrary cross sectional B-scans registered to fundus features. This technology should enable screening applications to identify early retinal disease, before irreversible vision impairment or loss occurs. Handheld OCT technology also promises to enable applications in a wide range of settings outside of the traditional ophthalmology or optometry clinics including pediatrics, intraoperative, primary care, developing countries, and military medicine. PMID:24466495

  16. Single Cell Imaging of the Chick Retina with Adaptive Optics

    PubMed Central

    Headington, Kenneth; Choi, Stacey S.; Nickla, Debora; Doble, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The chick eye is extensively used as a model in the study of myopia and its progression; however, analysis of the photoreceptor mosaic has required the use of excised retina due to the uncorrected optical aberrations in the lens and cornea. This study implemented high resolution adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging to visualize the chick cone mosaic in vivo. Methods The New England College of Optometry (NECO) AO fundus camera was modified to allow high resolution in vivo imaging on 2 six-week-old White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) – labeled chick A and chick B. Multiple, adjacent images, each with a 2.5° field of view, were taken and subsequently montaged together. This process was repeated at varying retinal locations measured from the tip of the pecten. Automated software was used to determine the cone spacing and density at each location. Voronoi analysis was applied to determine the packing arrangement of the cones. Results In both chicks, cone photoreceptors were clearly visible at all retinal locations imaged. Cone densities measured at 36° nasal-12° superior retina from the pecten tip for chick A and 40° nasal-12° superior retina for chick B were 21,714±543 and 26,105±653 cones/mm2 respectively. For chick B, a further 11 locations immediately surrounding the pecten were imaged, with cone densities ranging from 20,980±524 to 25,148±629 cones/mm2. Conclusion In vivo analysis of the cone density and its packing characteristics are now possible in the chick eye through AO imaging, which has important implications for future studies of myopia and ocular disease research. PMID:21950701

  17. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  18. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  19. Act No. 18 of 7 August 1989 amending Articles 1 and 4 of and adding a new article to Act No. 6 of 1987.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Act provides the following benefits to all Panamanians and foreigners resident in Panama who have reached the age of 55, if women, and 60, if men, as well as to those who are pensioned and those retired because of disability: 1) a 50% discount on recreation and entertainment activities; 2) a public transportation discount ranging from 25 to 30%; 3) a lodging discount of 50% during the week and 30% on weekends; 4) a 25% discount on restaurants of the 1st and 2nd class; 5) a 15% discount in fast food establishments that are part of a national or international franchise; 6) a 10% discount in private hospitals and clinics when the person does not have hospital insurance; 7) a 10% discount on prescription medicines; 8) a 20% discount on general medical consultations and a 10% discount on dental, optometry, ophthalmology, cardiology, psychiatric and psychological, geriatric, and surgical services; 9) a 10% discount on technical and professional services, including legal, architectural, physiotherapy, and nursing services; 10) a 10% discount on prostheses; 11) a 50% discount on expenses and commissions related to financial, banking, and credit transactions; 12) a 15% discount on the maximum interest on personal and commercial loans; 13) a reduction of 1 percentage point in the interest on personal housing loans; 14) the freezing of the property tax on a personal home, as long as that home is the person's only property; 15) exemption from payment of the appraisal fee due on the transfer of property under the same circumstances as in 14 above; 16) a 50% discount on passports; 17) a 25% discount on electric bills under certain circumstances; and 18) a 50% discount on airport taxes or fees.

  20. A survey of Alabama eye care providers in 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background State level information regarding eye care resources can provide policy makers with valuable information about availability of eye care services. The current study surveyed ophthalmologists, optometrists and vision rehabilitation providers practicing in Alabama. Methods Three mutually exclusive provider groups were identified, i.e., all ophthalmologists, optometrists, and vision rehabilitation providers working in Alabama in 2010. Eligible providers were contacted in 2010 and 2011 and information was requested regarding provider demographics and training, practice type and service characteristics, and patient characteristics. Descriptive statistics (e.g., means, proportions) were used to characterize provider groups by their demographic and training characteristics, practice characteristics, services provided and patients or clients served. In addition, county level figures demonstrate the numbers and per capita ophthalmologists and optometrists. Results Ophthalmologists were located in 24 of Alabama’s 67 counties, optometrists in 56, and 10 counties had neither an ophthalmologist nor an optometrist. Overall, 1,033 vision care professionals were identified as eligible to participate in the survey: 217 ophthalmologists, 638 optometrists, and 178 visual rehabilitation providers. Of those, 111 (51.2%) ophthalmologists, 246 (38.6%) optometrists, and 81 (45.5%) rehabilitation providers participated. Most participating ophthalmologists, optometrists, and vision rehabilitation providers identified themselves as non-Hispanic White. Ophthalmologists and optometrists estimated that 27% and 22%, respectively, of their patients had diabetes but that the proportion that adhered to eye care guidelines was 61% among ophthalmology patients and 53% among optometry patients. Conclusions A large number of Alabama communities are isolated from eye care services. Increased future demand for eye care is anticipated nationally given the aging of the population and decreasing

  1. Image remapping strategies applied as protheses for the visually impaired

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Curtis D.

    1993-01-01

    Maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa (rp) are two vision defects which render the afflicted person with impaired ability to read and recognize visual patterns. For some time there has been interest and work on the use of image remapping techniques to provide a visual aid for individuals with these impairments. The basic concept is to remap an image according to some mathematical transformation such that the image is warped around a maculopathic defect (scotoma) or within the rp foveal region of retinal sensitivity. NASA/JSC has been pursuing this research using angle invariant transformations with testing of the resulting remapping using subjects and facilities of the University of Houston, College of Optometry. Testing is facilitated by use of a hardware device, the Programmable Remapper, to provide the remapping of video images. This report presents the results of studies of alternative remapping transformations with the objective of improving subject reading rates and pattern recognition. In particular a form of conformal transformation was developed which provides for a smooth warping of an image around a scotoma. In such a case it is shown that distortion of characters and lines of characters is minimized which should lead to enhanced character recognition. In addition studies were made of alternative transformations which, although not conformal, provide for similar low character distortion remapping. A second, non-conformal transformation was studied for remapping of images to aid rp impairments. In this case a transformation was investigated which allows remapping of a vision field into a circular area representing the foveal retina region. The size and spatial representation of the image are selectable. It is shown that parametric adjustments allow for a wide variation of how a visual field is presented to the sensitive retina. This study also presents some preliminary considerations of how a prosthetic device could be implemented in a practical sense, vis

  2. A proposal on teaching methodology: cooperative learning by peer tutoring based on the case method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Durbán, Juan J.; Salas, Carlos; del Mar Lázaro, M.

    2014-07-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) proposes substantial changes in the teaching-learning model, moving from a model based mainly on the activity of teachers to a model in which the true protagonist is the student. This new framework requires that students develop new abilities and acquire specific skills. This also implies that the teacher should incorporate new methodologies in class. In this work, we present a proposal on teaching methodology based on cooperative learning and peer tutoring by case study. A noteworthy aspect of the case-study method is that it presents situations that can occur in real life. Therefore, students can acquire certain skills that will be useful in their future professional practice. An innovative aspect in the teaching methodology that we propose is to form work groups consisting of students from different levels in the same major. In our case, the teaching of four subjects would be involved: one subject of the 4th year, one subject of the 3rd year, and two subjects of the 2nd year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry of the University of Granada, Spain. Each work group would consist of a professor and a student of the 4th year, a professor and a student of the 3rd year, and two professors and two students of the 2nd year. Each work group would have a tutoring process from each professor for the corresponding student, and a 4th-year student providing peer tutoring for the students of the 2nd and 3rd year.

  3. Challenges in Evaluating Relationships Between Quantitative Data (Carbon Dioxide) and Qualitative Data (Self-Reported Visual Changes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, C. M.; Foy, M.; Mason, S.; Wear, M. L.; Meyers, V.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nuances in clinical data is critical in developing a successful data analysis plan. Carbon dioxide (CO2) data are collected on board the International Space Station (ISS) in a continuous stream. Clinical data on ISS are primarily collected via conversations between individual crewmembers and NASA Flight Surgeons during weekly Private Medical Conferences (PMC). Law, et.al, 20141 demonstrated a statistically significant association between weekly average CO2 levels on ISS and self-reported headaches over the reporting period from March 14, 2001 to May 31, 2012. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the evaluation of a possible association between visual changes and CO2 levels on ISS and to discuss challenges in developing an appropriate analysis plan. METHODS & PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A first analysis was conducted following the same study design as the published work on CO2 and self-reported headaches1; substituting self-reported changes in visual acuity in place of self-reported headaches. The analysis demonstrated no statistically significant association between visual impairment characterized by vision symptoms self-reported during PMCs and ISS average CO2 levels over ISS missions. Closer review of the PMC records showed that vision outcomes are not well-documented in terms of clinical severity, timing of onset, or timing of resolution, perhaps due to the incipient nature of vision changes. Vision has been monitored in ISS crewmembers, pre- and post-flight, using standard optometry evaluations. In-flight visual assessments were limited early in the ISS program, primarily consisting of self-perceived changes reported by crewmembers. Recently, on-orbit capabilities have greatly improved. Vision data ranges from self-reported post-flight changes in visual acuity, pre- to postflight changes identified during fundoscopic examination, and in-flight progression measured by advanced on-orbit clinical imaging capabilities at predetermined testing

  4. Cost-effectiveness of community versus hospital eye service follow-up for patients with quiescent treated age-related macular degeneration alongside the ECHoES randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Violato, M; Dakin, H; Chakravarthy, U; Reeves, B C; Peto, T; Hogg, R E; Harding, S P; Scott, L J; Taylor, J; Cappel-Porter, H; Mills, N; O'Reilly, D; Rogers, C A; Wordsworth, S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the cost-effectiveness of optometrist-led follow-up monitoring reviews for patients with quiescent neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in community settings (including high street opticians) compared with ophthalmologist-led reviews in hospitals. Design A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis with a 4-week time horizon, based on a ‘virtual’ non-inferiority randomised trial designed to emulate a parallel group design. Setting A virtual internet-based clinical assessment, conducted at community optometry practices, and hospital ophthalmology clinics. Participants Ophthalmologists with experience in the age-related macular degeneration service; fully qualified optometrists not participating in nAMD shared care schemes. Interventions The participating optometrists and ophthalmologists classified lesions from vignettes and were asked to judge whether any retreatment was required. Vignettes comprised clinical information, colour fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography images. Participants' classifications were validated against experts' classifications (reference standard). Resource use and cost information were attributed to these retreatment decisions. Main outcome measures Correct classification of whether further treatment is needed, compared with a reference standard. Results The mean cost per assessment, including the subsequent care pathway, was £411 for optometrists and £397 for ophthalmologists: a cost difference of £13 (95% CI −£18 to £45). Optometrists were non-inferior to ophthalmologists with respect to the overall percentage of lesions correctly assessed (difference −1.0%; 95% CI −4.5% to 2.5%). Conclusions In the base case analysis, the slightly larger number of incorrect retreatment decisions by optometrists led to marginally and non-significantly higher costs. Sensitivity analyses that reflected different practices across eye hospitals indicate that shared care pathways between

  5. Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Ho, Allen C.; Tasman, William S.

    2014-01-01

    depression will increase. Promoting interactions between ophthalmology, optometry, rehabilitation, psychiatry, and behavioral psychology may prevent depression in this population. PMID:25016366

  6. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  7. Aberration changes of the corneal anterior surface following discontinued use of rigid gas permeable contact lenses1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Wu, Jiang-Xiu; Zhang, He-Ning; Ye, Sheng; Dong, Shi-Qi; Zhang, Chen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    AIM To record aberrations with a corneal topographic device on the anterior surface of the cornea at different time-points prior to wearing and following discontinued use of rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. The effect of wearing RGP on the anterior surface of the cornea was discussed to provide guidance for clinical refractive error correction. METHODS The study objects were 24 eyes from 24 patients. All patients underwent identical examination procedures prior to lens use, as well as afterwards, including slit-lamp examination, non-contact tonometer measurement, computer optometry and corneal curvature measurement, subjective refraction test, and corneal topography analysis. The patients wore contact lenses everyday for 1 month and then discontinued. Corneal topographies were recorded at certain time points of 30 minutes, 1 day, 3, 7 and 14 days following use. RESULTS Total corneal aberration at each time point following discontinued use of RGP contact lenses was less than the time point prior to use. Detailed results were as follows: root mean square (RMS) (pre)=(1.438±0.328)µm, RMS (30 minutes)=(1.076±0.355)µm, RMS (1 day)=(1.362±0.402)µm, RMS (3 days)=(1.373±0.398)µm, RMS (7 days)=(1.387±0.415)µm, and RMS (14 days)=(1.430±0.423)µm. Results showed that at 30 minutes after discontinued use of RGP contact lenses, almost all 2nd- and 3rd-order aberrations change. Quadrafoil Z10 and spherical Z12 of the 4th-order were also changed. Alterations to Z5, Z6, and Z12 at 1 day after discontinued use were significant differences compared with the time period prior to RGP use: Z5 and Z6 decreased, and Z12 increased slightly. Z5 and Z6 remained decreased at 3 days after discontinued use, but Z9 and Z10 continued to increase and Z12 returned to levels prior to RGP use. At 14 days after discontinued use, all aberrations were not significantly different from the values prior to use. CONCLUSION The use RGP contact lenses greatly reduced total aberration of

  8. Assessing the role of optometrists in the control of systemic hypertension in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C; Almubrad, Turki M

    2013-01-01

    The low level of awareness, treatment, and control of systemic hypertension is a global problem, but it is much more serious in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the contribution made by Saudi optometrists in detection and management of patients with systemic hypertension. We surveyed a sample of 250 optometrists practicing in Saudi Arabia to evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness of their role in combating systemic hypertension. A 48.4% response rate was obtained from practicing optometrists. Of those responding, optometrists were very positive towards the use of blood pressure (BP) monitors in optometric practice on a routine basis. Forty-six percent of the optometrists had access to a BP monitor, and about 93% of these respondents actually used the monitors during clinic consultations. Automated monitors were the most common (54%). Fifty-one percent and 49% of the optometrists reported that they did routinely question their patients about high BP and about their current BP medications, respectively. The less frequently asked question concerned the cholesterol level of the patient (21%). The tests most widely used by the optometrists while examining hypertensive patients was direct ophthalmoscopy with red free filter (56%) and the least was binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (21%). Optometrists were more likely to refer patients suspected of systemic hypertension on the basis of elevated BP (74%) and presence of retinal hemorrhages (72%), but were less likely to refer patients with changes in arteriolar reflex (41%). The opinions were very positive towards the routine monitoring of BP within the Saudi optometry profession, as optometrists indicated that they had time within an eye examination to measure BP, it was financially rewarding (56% of respondents), and patients appreciated it (64% of respondents). Despite half of the optometrists having access to BP monitors (predominantly automated devices), many of the optometrists were unsure if they were

  9. GDx-MM: An imaging Mueller matrix retinal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twietmeyer, Karen Marie

    2007-12-01

    Retinal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although widely studied, disease mechanisms are not completely understood, and diagnostic tests may not detect disease early enough for timely intervention. The goal of this research is to contribute to research for more sensitive diagnostic tests that might use the interaction of polarized light with retinal tissue to detect subtle changes in the microstructure. This dissertation describes the GDx-MM, a scanning laser polarimeter which measures a complete 16-element Mueller matrix image of the retina. This full polarization signature may provide new comparative information on the structure of healthy and diseased retinal tissue by highlighting depolarizing structures as well as structures with varying magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation. The three major components of this dissertation are: (1) Development of methods for polarimeter optimization and error analysis; (2) Design, optimization, assembly, calibration, and validation of the GDx-MM polarimeter; and (3) Analysis of data for several human subjects. Development involved modifications to a Laser Diagnostics GDx, a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope with incomplete polarization capability. Modifications included installation of polarization components, development of a data acquisition system, and implementation of algorithms to convert raw data into polarization parameter images. Optimization involved visualization of polarimeter state trajectories on the Poincare sphere and a condition number analysis of the instrument matrix. Retinal images are collected non-invasively at 20 mum resolution over a 15° visual field in four seconds. Validation of the polarimeter demonstrates a polarimetric measurement accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. Retinal polarization data was collected on normal human subjects at the University of Arizona and at Indiana University School of Optometry. Calculated polarization parameter

  10. The Optics Option: Preparing For A Career In Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Rudolf

    1989-04-01

    We live in a visual world. Without vision, our perception of the environment would be severely limited. Visual stimuli are seen, recorded, and processed in many different ways. Astronomy, the process of imaging distant objects, and microscopy, the process of magnifying minute detail, are extensions of vision. Other extensions of vision include seeing things in different spectra, processing images for enhancement, making decisions automatically, and guiding and controlling sophisticated, complex industrial and military equipment. Optics is the study of this vision and its applications. Optics is a fascinating field that is growing rapidly. Students and practitioners of optics are attracted to the field for a variety of reasons. Hobbies such as photography, astronomy, and video recording, as well as academic pursuits, such as a high school physics or science project, may spawn an interest in optics; however, college training is the cornerstone of an optics career. Optics is part of physics, and as such, requires coursework in the areas of geometrical optics, physical optics, spectroscopy, electricity, magnetism, and solid state physics. In addition, mathematics is extremely important for optics design, analysis, and modeling. Optics is the successful synergism of these many disciplines. Many colleges and universities offer undergraduate and graduate optics curricula. Rochester University's Institute of Optics and the Optical Sciences Center of the University of Arizona are the most prestigious of these institutions. Further, such societies as the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) offer a wide variety of valuable short courses, tutorials, seminars, and papers at conferences that are held several times a year. Traditional optics fields, such as optometry, the examination of the eye and correction of its defects, or ophthalmology, the study of disease and treatment of the eye, are optics-oriented careers

  11. Lidar-based fracture characterization: An outcrop-scale study of the Woodford Shale, McAlister Shale Pit, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzel, Jason

    The use of lidar (light detection and ranging), a remote sensing tool based on principles of laser optometry, in mapping complex, multi-scale fracture networks had not been rigorously tested prior to this study despite its foreseeable utility in interpreting rock fabric with imprints of complex tectonic evolution. This thesis demonstrates lidar-based characterization of the Woodford Shale where intense fracturing could be due to both tectonism and mineralogy. The study area is the McAlister Shale Pit in south-central Oklahoma where both the upper and middle sections of the Woodford Shale are exposed and can be lidar-mapped. Lidar results are validated using hand-measured strike and dips of fracture planes, thin sections and mineral chemistry of selected samples using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Complexity of the fracture patterns as well as inaccessibility of multiple locations within the shale pit makes hand-measurement prone to errors and biases; lidar provides an opportunity for less biased and more efficient field mapping. Fracture mapping with lidar is a multi-step process. The lidar data are converted from point clouds into a mesh through triangulation. User-defined parameters such as size and orientation of the individual triangular elements are then used to group similar elements into surfaces. The strike and dip attribute of the simulated surfaces are visualized in an equal area lower hemisphere projection stereonet. Three fracture sets were identified in the upper and middle sections with common orientation but substantially different spatial density. Measured surface attributes and spatial density relations from lidar were validated using their hand-measured counterparts. Thin section analysis suggests that high fracture density in the upper Woodford measured by both the lidar and the hand-measured data could be due to high quartz. A significant finding of this study is the reciprocal relation between lidar intensity and gamma-ray (GR), which is generally

  12. Measuring aniseikonia using scattering filters to simulate cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms

  13. Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of

  14. A unified paraxial approach to astigmatic optics.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F

    1999-07-01

    In Gaussian optics properties such as dioptric power, lateral and angular magnification and thickness are simple scalar concepts. In linear optics, the optics of thick astigmatic systems, however, these concepts generalize to three-dimensional concepts in some cases (the dioptric power of thin systems, for example) and to four-dimensional concepts in general. As a result, the quantitative treatment of these properties in astigmatic systems presents challenges to the researcher in optometry, ophthalmology, and vision science. Considerable progress has been made only in the case of dioptric power. This paper presents a generalized approach to astigmatic optics which allows different physical properties to be treated in the same way: the theory is unified and, in a sense, complete. Mathematical and statistical methods developed for treating one concept become directly applicable to others. The paraxial optical properties of any optical system are completely defined by the 4 x 4 ray transfer matrix, called here the (ray) transference. The transference defines four fundamental properties of an optical system, tentatively called here positional magnification, optical thickness, divergence, and directional magnification. They are the four 2 x 2 submatrices A, B, C, and D of the transference. Each fundamental property is a modification of a familiar concept. Divergence is the negative of dioptric power expressed as the dioptric power matrix F. The four fundamental optical properties A, B, C, and D, and the derived property F, despite being different physically, all have the same underlying mathematical structure. This fact is exploited in developing a unified theory. The theory is complete in the sense that the fundamental properties fully characterize the paraxial optics of any system. The paper presents a general treatment that applies to any of the five properties. The implications are far reaching and extend beyond what can be described in the paper. Dioptric power of

  15. ClereMed: Lessons Learned From a Pilot Study of a Mobile Screening Tool to Identify and Support Adults Who Have Difficulty With Medication Labels

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Allison; Dolovich, Lisa; Slavcev, Roderick; Drimmie, Rob; Aghaei, Behzad; Poon, Calvin; Khan, Shamrozé; Leat, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to take medications safely and effectively, individuals need to be able to see, read, and understand the medication labels. However, one-half of medication labels are currently misunderstood, often because of low literacy, low vision, and cognitive impairment. We sought to design a mobile tool termed ClereMed that could rapidly screen for adults who have difficulty reading or understanding their medication labels. Objective The aim of this study was to build the ClereMed prototype; to determine the usability of the prototype with adults 55 and over; to assess its accuracy for identifying adults with low-functional reading ability, poor ability on a real-life pill-sorting task, and low cognition; and to assess the acceptability of a touchscreen device with older adults with age-related changes to vision and cognition. Methods This pilot study enrolled adults (≥55 years) who were recruited through pharmacies, retirement residences, and a low-vision optometry clinic. ClereMed is a hypertext markup language (HTML)-5 prototype app that simulates medication taking using an iPad, and also provides information on how to improve the accessibility of prescription labels. A paper-based questionnaire included questions on participant demographics, computer literacy, and the Systems Usability Scale (SUS). Cognition was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool, and functional reading ability was measured using the MNRead Acuity Chart. Simulation results were compared with a real-life, medication-taking exercise using prescription vials, tablets, and pillboxes. Results The 47 participants had a mean age of 76 (SD 11) years and 60% (28/47) were female. Of the participants, 32% (15/47) did not own a computer or touchscreen device. The mean SUS score was 76/100. ClereMed correctly identified 72% (5/7) of participants with functional reading difficulty, and 63% (5/8) who failed a real-life pill-sorting task, but only 21% (6/28) of participants with