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Sample records for optometry

  1. Optometry Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force School of Health Care Sciences, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This course is designed to help military personnel to attain the rating of optometry specialist in the Air Force. The packet includes both a teacher's plan of instruction and five student study guides/workbooks. The teacher's plan of instruction contains lesson plans, lists of student instructional materials and audiovisual aids, and suggested…

  2. Optometry Specialist (AFSC 91255).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kille, Michael O.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for optometry specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are optometry clinic administration (optometry career and field training, ethical relationships and professionalism, eligibility for optometric care and appointment…

  3. Optometry Specialist (AFSC 91255).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kille, Michael O.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for optometry specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are optometry clinic administration (optometry career and field training, ethical relationships and professionalism, eligibility for optometric care and appointment…

  4. Professional Trends in American Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.

    1991-01-01

    A review of optometry's twentieth-century history looks at curriculum standardization and recognition of the doctorate in Optometry, federal legislation, public health movement, optometry in universities, use of pharmaceuticals, the primary care concept, Optometry in group health care, growth of professional publications, and entry into health…

  5. Teaching Programs in Geriatric Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Albert A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian optometry programs concerning curriculum design, clinical and residency training programs, continuing education, and research projects planned or under way in geriatric optometry are presented and discussed. (MSE)

  6. Geriatric Optometry Programs of Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Satya B.

    1985-01-01

    The curriculum design, philosophy, and innovation of four programs in geriatric optometry are described: the Pennsylvania College of Optometry and the colleges of Optometry at the State University of New York, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and University of Houston. (MSE)

  7. Optometry: a discipline of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzia, Boleslaw

    1998-10-01

    Optometry is a branch of science whose roots are in optics development as well as in physiology development. Among Polish scholars, whose names are firmly engraved in the history of optometry, two names should be mentioned first, they are Witelo (1237 - 1290) and Majer (1808 - 1899). Contemporary optometry began around the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the United States of America where some states erected legal regulations for those opticians who were performing refractions. Since 1993 optometry has been defined by the World Council of Optometry as a health care profession which is autonomous, educated and regulated (licensed/registered). Nevertheless, the question arises: Is optometry a separate part of science or is it only a set of practical procedures useful in vision care? In other words: does optometry have a system of definitions, laws and hypothesis with such logical interrelations that all less general statements may be derived from the most general? Even at this moment the system is not fully developed, yet we can say that optometry is a set of statements important and enough proved to be taught at the university level, being a category by itself and being sufficiently rich to be a subject for teaching as separate discipline.

  8. Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... new process. Welcome to the website of the Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry (ARBO). ARBO's web ... state legislatures. Mission Statement The mission of the Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry is to represent ...

  9. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  10. Optometry: A Profession in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Larry

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of current changes in optometry looks at the expanding for-profit health sector, changing student characteristics and enrollment patterns, the changing scope of optometric care and technology, and the demise of professionalism and ethics. Implications for pharmaceutical education are considered. (MSE)

  11. Optometry: Careers with Vision. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    This brochure gives basic facts about optometry which may be helpful in considering such a career. Included are a discussion as to what an optometrist is, the development of the profession, the need for practitioners projected by State to 1980, types of services rendered, and the variety of employment opportunities available. Over one-third of the…

  12. Validity of the Optometry Admission Test in Predicting Performance in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; Johnston, JoElle

    1997-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Optometry Admission Test scores and pre-optometry or undergraduate grade point average (GPA) with first and second year performance in optometry schools. The test's predictive validity was limited but significant, and comparable to those reported for other admission tests. In addition, the scores…

  13. Faculty Preparedness in Geriatric Optometry Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, Gary L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of chief academic officers and faculty (n=27) in 16 schools of optometry found that, since 1986, there has been a 75% increase in institutions requiring coursework in geriatric optometry and an 83% increase in those offering continuing professional education in this field. However, 67% of faculty report no formal training. Three faculty…

  14. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  15. The status of the study of optometry history.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2007-01-01

    The status of optometry history was examined by searching online databases for publications on the history of optometry and the history of other health care professions and some medical specialties. There have been many fewer publications on the history of optometry than on most other health care professions or on medical specialties. Further, there are common misconceptions about optometry history even among its own practitioners. The importance of the study of optometry history is emphasized and suggestions to improve its status are discussed.

  16. A Proposed Curriculum Model for Geriatric Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Albert A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for a geriatric optometry curriculum that defines key content areas and addresses the values essential for effective practice and basic therapeutic modalities used in treatment regimens with older adults is outlined. (MSE)

  17. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  18. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  19. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. The New York State optometry workforce study.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Mort

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an analysis of the current optometry workforce, both as a unique profession and more broadly within the context of all eye care providers (optometry and ophthalmology) in New York State. The supply and distribution of eye care practitioners provides useful information for policy makers while providing insights as to the impact of the one optometry school within the state. Several databases were employed and a web based survey was developed for completion by all optometrists. The questionnaire included demographic data, whether they were actively practicing in New York State or any other state, were they full time or part time, their primary mode of practice, or if they provided care within institutional settings. Access to care was gauged by the respondents' availability for appointments during evenings or weekends. Access to eye care services in New York State has improved significantly during the past 30 years as the supply of optometrists increased. Before this study was conducted it was generally believed that there were more optometrists than ophthalmologists in every state of the nation except New York, Maryland and the District of Columbia. Findings of this study demonstrate there are 37% more optometrists in New York State than ophthalmologists and more evenly distributed as optometrists are located in almost every county of the state. Sixteen counties have no ophthalmologists. This is attributed to the presence of the College of Optometry established in 1971. More than 60% of all optometrists in the state are SUNY College of Optometry graduates.

  1. Curriculum Model for Optometry: Outcomes of the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Morris S.

    1994-01-01

    A national conference of colleges of optometry focused on planning for optometric curricular reform and faculty development. Issues addressed included changes needed to meet entry-level professional needs, available resources, changes in optometry practice, and optometry's role in health care reform. Task forces worked together to develop a…

  2. Predictors of Academic Success for Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA),…

  3. Introducing Optometry Students to Clinical Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Eileen M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the innovative content and structure of an introductory course on clinical patient care at the Illinois College of Optometry. Critiques its success based on student grades and feedback, concluding that it was successful in imparting skills of data analysis but had minimal impact on students' ability to empathize with patients. (EV)

  4. Predictors of Academic Success for Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA),…

  5. Policy Analysis of Military Optometry Special Pay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-25

    four policy proposals to rectify an outdated recruitment and retention law/policy for Army optometrists . This paper illustrates variables of Army...variable Retention Special Pay to enhance the recruitment and retention of Army optometrists . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Optometry, Special Pay, Recruitment...Statement of Ethical Conduct in Research The author is an Army optometrist . The confidentiality of individual members of the study population was protected

  6. Optometry Australia Scope of Practice Survey 2015.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patricia M; Cappuccio, Skye; McIntyre, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents results from the inaugural Scope of Practice Survey of Optometry Australia members conducted in October 2015. The survey gathered information related to confidence in detecting and diagnosing key ocular conditions, grading diabetic retinopathy, prescribing scheduled medicines, access to equipment, confidence using equipment, incidence of patients requiring therapeutic management, referral practices and services provided. The survey was developed, piloted, modified and administered to members of Optometry Australia (excluding student and retired members), who had a current email address. Results were collated and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Of the 587 optometrists in clinical practice who responded, 254 (43 per cent) had therapeutic endorsement of registration. The majority of respondents practised in a major city or surrounding suburbs (63 per cent). Independent practice was the most frequently cited practice type (58 per cent). The estimated average number of patients seen in a week was 48; there was a steady decrease in the number of patients per week with increasing age, from 53 for optometrists in their 20s to 27 for optometrists aged over 70. There was very high confidence (over 93 per cent) in ability to grade diabetic retinopathy and diagnose a range of ocular conditions. Confidence in performance of more advanced techniques was higher for endorsed than non-endorsed optometrists. Approximately 12 per cent of patients required a Schedule 4 therapeutic prescription. The most frequently recommended over-the-counter medications were for dry eye for both endorsed and non-endorsed optometrists. The most frequently prescribed Schedule 4 medications were anti-inflammatories. The most challenging conditions to prescribe for were glaucoma, microbial keratitis and uveitis. Approximately one in six therapeutically endorsed optometrists reported unexpected side effects of medications they had prescribed. Information from the survey will guide

  7. One hundred years ago: Start of the Optometry School at Columbia University.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2010-10-01

    An optometry school at Columbia University entered its first students in 1910. This was the first optometry school at a university. This article examines what was said in optometry periodicals of 1910 and 1911 about this significant development.

  8. Optometry Today: The Vision Care Profession. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    Included in this booklet are facts about optometry which would be helpful for those considering entering the profession. The need for optometry, its history, accredited schools, distribution of manpower, and what the optometrist does are outlined. Over one-third of the booklet is a "Profile of a Profession" which discusses specialized optometric…

  9. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  10. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of a study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) is provided. The data covered aspects of recently graduated O.D.s' experience in obtaining a state license, becoming established in practice, and their practice characteristics. (Author/MLW)

  11. The Vocational Interests of a Sample of Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emling, Robert C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, with a vocational title called Optometry, was used to profile a sample of second-year optometry students and to compare them with samples of practicing optometrists. One conclusion questions these students' compatibility with older practitioners. (MLW)

  12. A Survey of Managed Care Education at Optometry Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soroka, Mort; Reis, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    Studied the courses and topics offered at schools of optometry and the total hours devoted to managed care. Responses from the 17 schools of optometry reveal significant variations in curricular coverage of managed care, although a core set of materials was found to exist that could be the basis for more standard curriculum. (SLD)

  13. Attributes of Students Graduating from Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This report by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry identifies desired attributes of students graduating from schools and colleges of optometry. Introductory information includes information on the report's development and assumptions. Personal and professional attributes are then listed followed by a list of 10 knowledge-area…

  14. Residencies at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Arthur H.; Klopfer, Joann

    1983-01-01

    An optometric residency program at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry that focuses on clinical training in the areas of low vision rehabilitation, pediatric optometry, visual training, behavioral vision, primary care optometry and hospital based optometry is discussed. (MSW)

  15. Profile: The School of Optometry, University of Waterloo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The school of optometry at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, is described including location, facilities, administration, programs, faculty, research, graduate study, residency programs, and interprofessional relationships. (JMF)

  16. Profile: The School of Optometry, University of Waterloo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The school of optometry at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, is described including location, facilities, administration, programs, faculty, research, graduate study, residency programs, and interprofessional relationships. (JMF)

  17. Interior, second floor, northeast corner, office of chief of optometry, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor, northeast corner, office of chief of optometry, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Administration Building, Southeast Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Barry Collin: a visionary for a new direction in optometry.

    PubMed

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2009-02-01

    Dr. Barry Collin represents the best in academic optometry. An educator, scientist, and visionary, he has throughout his long and distinguished career made important contributions to our understanding of ophthalmic pathology. He has also had an enormous impact on raising the level of optometric education and expanding the scope of optometric practice. This profile covers much of Dr. Collin's professional career, offering insights into what has made him one of the key leaders in Australian and international optometry.

  19. The United States Air force optometry residency program.

    PubMed

    Kent, J F

    1995-04-01

    The USAF Optometry Residency Program promotes an educational climate that facilitates the education and development of the resident doctor not only as an optometrist but also as a military officer. Development of self-directed education and decision making within the training period is emphasized. Residents are encouraged to examine and challenge existing ideas and to develop physiological concepts and principles so the practical application of these skills is reflected in active clinical practice and effective professional relationships. The Air Force Optometry Residency Program will train career-oriented Air Force optometrists in advanced clinical and diagnostic techniques, aerospace optometry, and clinic management including the latest continuous quality improvement concepts. Recent changes have enlarged the scope of practice for Air Force optometrists. This expanded scope of practice has created a need for a nucleus of residency-trained optometrists, skilled in the latest techniques of eye care, who return to the field and train their associates in these advanced techniques. Over 40 percent of Air Force optometry clinics are manned by one doctor of optometry. Residency-trained optometrists are able to provide a high level of comprehensive optometric care at these facilities. Through this program the Air Force can keep pace with the evolution of optometry and meet the challenge of providing the highest quality care to our patients.

  20. World optometry: the challenges of leadership for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Anthony

    2002-06-01

    The World Council of Optometry has developed a mission and organizational strategies to improve the delivery of eye and vision care around the world, as well as to advance the profession of optometry. Its growth over the past several years is a tribute to the early pioneers in international optometry who unselfishly volunteered their time and expertise to improving the profession and eye and vision care. It also underscores the continued spirit of global volunteerism that energizes the recent leaders who have sustained this growth. Over the past decades, optometry has seen the steady growth of its educational infrastructure, scope of practice, and professional image. It has faced adversity and seized opportunities. Throughout, the overarching raison d'être has been optometry's responsiveness to the public health needs of society. The future growth of optometry within the global health community will depend on expanding this professional growth at an international level, and forging durable strategic alliances that address the significant prevention of blindness imperatives of our generation.

  1. Factors influencing Saudi Arabian optometry candidates' career choices and institution of learning. Why do Saudi students choose to study optometry?

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Briggs, Stella T; Chijuka, John C; Alanazi, Saud A; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2014-09-01

    Optometry is a primary health-care profession (PHCP) and this study aimed to elucidate the factors influencing the choice of optometry as a career for Saudi students, the students' perceptions of optometry and the effect of gender. Two hundred and forty-seven students whose average age was 21.7 ± 1.5 (SD) years and who are currently enrolled in two colleges of optometry in Saudi Arabia--King Saud University (KSU) and Qassim University (QU)--completed self-administered questionnaires. The survey included questions concerning demography, career first choice, career perception and factors influencing career choices. The response rate was 87.6 per cent and there were 161 male (64.9 per cent) students. Seventy-nine per cent of the participants were from KSU (males and females) and 20.6 per cent were from QU (only males). Seventy-three per cent come from Riyadh and 19 per cent are from Qassim province. Regarding the first choice for their careers, the females (92 per cent) were 0.4 times more likely (p = 0.012) to choose optometry than males (78.3 per cent). The males were significantly more likely to be influenced by the following factors: the Doctor of Optometry (OD) programs run at both universities, good salary and prospects (p < 0.05, for all). The women were significantly less likely to be influenced by another individual (p = 0.0004). Generally, more than two-thirds of the respondents viewed the desire to help others, professional prestige and the new OD programs as the three most influential factors in opting for a career in optometry. Females were more likely to opt for a career in optometry and males were more likely to be influenced by the new OD programs, good salary and job prospects. Service provision to others in the community was a primary motivation to opt for a career in optometry among young Saudis. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  2. A Survey of State Boards of Optometry Concerning Educational Requirements in Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of state optometry licensing requirements for coursework in pharmacology, intended as a tool for optometry curriculum development, suggest a need for training in pharmacology in both the college curriculum and continuing education. (MSE)

  3. A Survey of State Boards of Optometry Concerning Educational Requirements in Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of state optometry licensing requirements for coursework in pharmacology, intended as a tool for optometry curriculum development, suggest a need for training in pharmacology in both the college curriculum and continuing education. (MSE)

  4. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  5. The Learning Disabilities Unit at the State College of Optometry/SUNY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.

    1986-01-01

    The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)

  6. [The status quo and expectation of optometry research in China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The eye care problems related to optometry involve a wide range, including visual problems during eye disease recovery, visual quality in surgical or non-surgical refractive corrections, and the etiological investigation of functional eye diseases like myopia. This article covers the current challenges to visual health care and the academic developments and contributions of optometry in China, including fundamental researches of myopia, refractive surgery and visual quality, and functional eye disease investigations. Some of the researches have certain impacts both domestically and overseas. Furthermore, scientific evidences to solve clinical problems and the current academic focuses that we should pay attention to are provided.

  7. Preoptometry and optometry school grade point average and optometry admissions test scores as predictors of performance on the national board of examiners in optometry part I (basic science) examination.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J E; Yackle, K A; Yuen, M T; Voorhees, L I

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate preoptometry and optometry school grade point averages and Optometry Admission Test (OAT) scores as predictors of performance on the National Board of Examiners in Optometry NBEO Part I (Basic Science) (NBEOPI) examination. Simple and multiple correlation coefficients were computed from data obtained from a sample of three consecutive classes of optometry students (1995-1997; n = 278) at Southern California College of Optometry. The GPA after year two of optometry school was the highest correlation (r = 0.75) among all predictor variables; the average of all scores on the OAT was the highest correlation among preoptometry predictor variables (r = 0.46). Stepwise regression analysis indicated a combination of the optometry GPA, the OAT Academic Average, and the GPA in certain optometry curricular tracks resulted in an improved correlation (multiple r = 0.81). Predicted NBEOPI scores were computed from the regression equation and then analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (roc) and statistic of agreement (kappa) methods. From this analysis, we identified the predicted score that maximized identification of true and false NBEOPI failures (71% and 10%, respectively). Cross validation of this result on a separate class of optometry students resulted in a slightly lower correlation between actual and predicted NBEOPI scores (r = 0.77) but showed the criterion-predicted score to be somewhat lax. The optometry school GPA after 2 years is a reasonably good predictor of performance on the full NBEOPI examination, but the prediction is enhanced by adding the Academic Average OAT score. However, predicting performance in certain subject areas of the NBEOPI examination, for example Psychology and Ocular/Visual Biology, was rather insubstantial. Nevertheless, predicting NBEOPI performance from the best combination of year two optometry GPAs and preoptometry variables is better than has been shown in previous studies predicting optometry GPA from the best

  8. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  9. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  10. The Optometry Program at Universidad Autonoma de la Laguna, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Agustin L.

    1995-01-01

    A description of the optometry program at the Universidad Autonoma de la Laguna (Mexico) provides information on the composition of the faculty, design of the five-year program as compared with the traditional four-year program, curriculum content, clinical education, visiting lecturer program, and certification of graduates. (MSE)

  11. Women and Perceived Barriers Relative to Optometry as a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoener, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Barriers to success for women in optometry are reviewed including social pressures discouraging women applicants, role conflicts, access to informal networks, and discriminatory feelings of faculty. A 1968 National Center for Health Statistics survey of practice patterns of women optometrists, female enrollment, and practice preferences of women…

  12. University of Houston College of Optometry Externship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussenblatt, Harris

    1982-01-01

    The University of Houston College of Optometry external clinical program, which provides fourth year students with multidisciplinary clinical activities in facilities serving underserved areas, is described. The multidisciplinary practice setting allows the students to learn about the role of the optometrist and to communicate with other health…

  13. Teaching Ethics in the Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, D. Leonard

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 16 optometry schools found 12 had a required course or portion of a required course dedicated to teaching ethics. Classroom hours varied from 0 to 60; the median was 7. Topics covered varied. Courses were usually offered in the first and third years. Faculty were typically, though not exclusively, optometrists. (MSE)

  14. Requirements for Hepatitis B Vaccinations among Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Norma K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data on the incidence of hepatitis B viral infection are examined, and a telephone survey of 19 schools of optometry concerning administrative policy about student immunization is reported. Results show less than one-third of schools require student vaccination. It is recommended that schools mandate immunization for all students. (MSE)

  15. A survey of optometry leadership: participation in disaster response.

    PubMed

    Psoter, Walter J; Glotzer, David L; Weiserbs, Kera Fay; Baek, Linda S; Karloopia, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    A study was completed to assess the academic and state-level professional optometry leadership views regarding optometry professionals as surge responders in the event of a catastrophic event. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 21-question, self-administered, structured questionnaire. All U.S. optometry school deans and state optometric association presidents were mailed a questionnaire and instructions to return it by mail on completion; 2 repeated mailings were made. Descriptive statistics were produced and differences between deans and association presidents were tested by Fisher exact test. The questionnaire response rate was 50% (25 returned/50 sent) for the state association presidents and 65% (11/17) for the deans. There were no statistically significant differences between the leadership groups for any survey questions. All agreed that optometrists have the skills, are ethically obligated to help, and that optometrists should receive additional training for participation in disaster response. There was general agreement that optometrists should provide first-aid, obtain medical histories, triage, maintain infection control, manage a point of distribution, prescribe medications, and counsel the "worried well." Starting intravenous lines, interpreting radiographs, and suturing were less favorably supported. There was some response variability between the 2 leadership groups regarding potential sources for training. The overall opinion of optometry professional leadership is that with additional training, optometrists can and should provide an important reserve pool of catastrophic event responders. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Looking Toward the Future: An Affiliated Educational System for Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    An opportunity exists for the Veterans Administration, Association of Schools of Optometry, and American Optometric Association to establish a large-scale affiliated optometric education system, enhancing optometric care, education, and clinical research opportunities. These agencies can develop an efficient, cost-effective national model for eye…

  17. Meeting Future Demands for Educators in Geriatric Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumosa, Nina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A University of Missouri-St. Louis program combines a two-year optometric residency with a master of science degree in gerontology to prepare clinicians as teachers of geriatric optometry. The interdisciplinary program's components include optometric care of elderly patients, supervised student teaching, and coursework in geriatrics. (Author/MSE)

  18. Requirements for Hepatitis B Vaccinations among Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Norma K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data on the incidence of hepatitis B viral infection are examined, and a telephone survey of 19 schools of optometry concerning administrative policy about student immunization is reported. Results show less than one-third of schools require student vaccination. It is recommended that schools mandate immunization for all students. (MSE)

  19. The Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Program: Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Depeuw M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 101 graduates of the New England College of Optometry's (Massachusetts) accelerated doctoral program through 1995 and 141 graduates of the four-year program in 1990-95 illustrate the accelerated program's success in terms of graduate involvement in optometric education, medical education, and/or research, professional leadership,…

  20. The Prevalence of Unethical Student Behavior in Optometry Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, D. Leonard; Heiberger, Michael H.; Feldman, Jerome; Johnston, Edward

    2000-01-01

    A survey of second and third year students (n=1,092) at 16 optometric schools found 5.5 percent admitted to cheating in optometry school (and 13.9 percent admitted cheating in college), a finding similar to that found for medical students, whose self-reported cheating ranged from 4.7 percent to 10 percent. (Author/DB)

  1. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  2. Detainee optometry at Camp Cropper, Iraq, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas M; Elledge, James B

    2012-06-01

    This article details the first in-depth analysis of an Optometry Service working with a large Middle Eastern detainee population composed entirely of Iraqi males. The mission of the Camp Cropper Optometry Service was to provide eye care services to the detainee population consistent with the standards of optometric care that would be provided to any U.S. military member in the same geographic area. This included providing detainees with eyeglasses, therapeutic treatment of eye disease, and referral for treatment of medical conditions and surgical care, if it was needed and available at the U.S. military facilities in the Iraq Theater. Diagnoses, services provided, and medications given to the detainees are listed in detail and demonstrate the complexity of pathology encountered in this population.

  3. Demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students and factors influencing their career choice and institution of learning.

    PubMed

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Carl Halladay, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This information is important as it will assist optometry institutions to formulate effective student recruitment strategies. To assess the demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students, the factors that influence their selection of optometry as a career and institution of learning. We conducted a cross sectional study among Ghanaian optometry students using a structured questionnaire to collect data on the demographic characteristics and factors that might influence their choice of optometry as a career as well as choice of institution of learning. Two hundred and eighty students from the two optometry training institutions in Ghana; University of Cape Coast (48.2%) and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (51.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 17 to 28 years with most being males (72.5%), and the majority (79%) being from urban areas. The main factors that influenced their career choice were job availability after graduation (90%) and desire to help other people (89.2%). Factors that influenced their institution choice were preference for an institution (36.8%) and proximity to home (24.4%). In the absence of adequate optometry jobs in the public health sector, women will remain marginalised specifically those in rural areas. This marginalisation is however, a reflection of a broader societal disadvantage for women. Greater effort needs to be made to recruit high school students from rural areas to study optometry and more institutions need to provide optometry instruction throughout the country.

  4. Colour vision experimental studies in teaching of optometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Fomins, Sergejs

    2005-10-01

    Following aspects related to human colour vision are included in experimental lessons for optometry students of University of Latvia. Characteristics of coloured stimuli (emitting and reflective), determination their coordinates in different colour spaces. Objective characteristics of transmitting of colour stimuli through the optical system of eye together with various types of appliances (lenses, prisms, Fresnel prisms). Psychophysical determination of mono- and polychromatic stimuli perception taking into account physiology of eye, retinal colour photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity, spatial and temporal characteristics of retinal receptive fields. Ergonomics of visual perception, influence of illumination and glare effects, testing of colour vision deficiencies.

  5. National health and optometry: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Levi, D M; Wong, S G; Allens, D C

    1976-08-01

    A stratified probability sample of the Houston, Texas population was interviewed with a previously described questionnaire (Allen, D., and D. Levi, National Health and Optometry--a survey of public attitudes. Am. J. Optom., 52 (4): 291-300, (1975) to assess present opinion of national health care and public awareness of vision care and its role in a national health care system. Of the population surveyed, 72% favored a national health care bill, some 10% lower than reported 1 year previously. A large percentage of the population sampled favored inclusion of vision care. The results are described in terms of demographic trends for those who have received optometric and ophthalmological care.

  6. Profile: Southern College of Optometry--A Leader in the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Debbie

    1979-01-01

    A profile of the Southern College of Optometry is provided with information covering the history, students, education (including Doctor of Optometry program, technician program, faculty), clinics, buildings, finances, and new programs and services (including the Memphis Health Center, multiple patient VT program, closed circuit color TV,…

  7. A Survey of Hypertension Curriculum in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Optometry, as a primary eye/vision care provider, serves as a valuable resource in providing detection, education, referral, and follow-up services for patients with high blood pressure. A 1977 survey of 500 optometrists and a 1980 survey of schools and colleges of optometry are discussed. (MLW)

  8. Effects of Optometry School Recruitment Efforts on Urban and Suburban High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Andrew D.; Shepard, Jodi; Orleans, Elizabeth; Chae, Eunmi; Ng-Sarver, Joy

    1999-01-01

    In two Oakland (California) high schools, one urban and one suburban, an audiovisual presentation designed to enhance student interest in optometry as a career was given. Results of the presentation, measured by a questionnaire, suggest that few high school students are considering pursuing an optometry doctoral degree, but an on-site presentation…

  9. Publications by Faculty of the School of Optometry University of Waterloo 1976 to 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Susan; Woo, George

    1980-01-01

    A list of optometric research activities of the University of Waterloo School of Optometry are provided to inform educators and researchers of their activities and to encourage interaction with others with similar interests. Bibliographic information is given. The scope ranges fron single-cell recording to continuing education in optometry.…

  10. Webcams as a tool for teaching in Optometry training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo, A.; Arines, J.

    2015-04-01

    Clinical Optometry lab training is devoted to develop the students skills needed in eye healthcare professional practice. Nevertheless, students always find difficulties in the management of some optometric instruments and in the understanding of the evaluation techniques. Moreover, teachers also have problems in explaining the eye evaluation tests or making demonstrations of instruments handling. In order to facilitate the learning process, webcams adapted to the optometric devices represent a helpful and useful tool. In this work we present the use of webcams in some of the most common clinical test in Optometry as ocular refraction, colour vision test, eye health evaluation with slip-lamp, retinoscopy, ophthalmoscopy and contact lens fitting. Our experience shows that with this simple approach we can do things easier: show the instrument handling to all the students at the same time; take pictures or videos of different eye health conditions or exploratory routines for posterior visualization with all the students; recreate visual experience of the patient during optometric exam; simulate colour vision pathologies; increase the interactions between students allowing them to help and correct each other; and also record the final routine exam in order to make possible its revision with the students.

  11. A short history of the Australian College of Optometry 1940-2015.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2015-09-01

    This paper gives an account of the history of the Australian College of Optometry from its foundation in 1940 and its achievements in optometric education, research and clinical service over the ensuing 75 years.

  12. PRESBYOPIA OPTOMETRY METHOD BASED ON DIOPTER REGULATION AND CHARGE COUPLE DEVICE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Wu, X X; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, R F; Gao, J

    2015-01-01

    With the development of photoelectric technology and single-chip microcomputer technology, objective optometry, also known as automatic optometry, is becoming precise. This paper proposed a presbyopia optometry method based on diopter regulation and Charge Couple Device (CCD) imaging technology and, in the meantime, designed a light path that could measure the system. This method projects a test figure to the eye ground and then the reflected image from the eye ground is detected by CCD. The image is then automatically identified by computer and the far point and near point diopters are determined to calculate lens parameter. This is a fully automatic objective optometry method which eliminates subjective factors of the tested subject. Furthermore, it can acquire the lens parameter of presbyopia accurately and quickly and can be used to measure the lens parameter of hyperopia, myopia and astigmatism.

  13. Predicting the academic performance of Asian, black, and Hispanic optometry students.

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1990-03-01

    As optometry schools receive increasing numbers of Asian, Black, and Hispanic applications, it is appropriate for us to ask whether minority students differ in meaningful ways from nonminority students in measures used in admissions, and whether these variables have differential validity in predicting their achievement in optometry school. This study compares Asian, Black, Hispanic, and nonminority students at entry to the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) from 1981 through 1986 and tests the validity of admissions indices to predict optometry grades, academic dropout, and high-level achievement for these ethnic groups. Although preoptometry grade point average (GPA) was the best predictor of optometry grades for all students, measures of verbal ability were additional predictors for Asian students and, for Black and Hispanic students, ability in study/reading and math were predictors. In addition, personality inventory measures and ratings of the competitiveness of the undergraduate institution were important in differentiating minority academic dropouts from retained students. Suggestions are made for optometry college programs which will enhance the probability of success for minority students.

  14. Teaching optics in a multi-disciplinary curriculum: experience from optometry programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2007-06-01

    The Optometry program in Schools and Colleges of Optometry leads to a Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree in north America and is usually a post-baccalaureate course of study of four years duration. Historically Optometry developed out of Physics and/or applied optics programs. Optics, and more specifically, geometric optics and it's applications to the human eye plays a significant role in the education of an optometrist. In addition, optometrists are trained in physical optics as well as in radiometry/photometry. Considering the fact that most optometry students come to the program with a biological sciences background implies that educating these students require elucidation of "real-world" applications and clinical relevance to hold their interest. Even though the trend in optometric education in the past few years is to put more emphasis on biological sciences due to the increased scope of practice of the optometrist, optics still continues to play a major role in the training and career of an optometrist, especially with the advent of new technologies in treating low vision, measurement and correction of aberrations of the eye, etc.

  15. "Eye-T": information technology adoption and use in Canada's optometry practices.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; McKillop, Ian; McMurray, Josephine; Strong, J Graham; Jones, Deborah A; Hildebrand, Jenna M

    2011-03-01

    While information technology (IT) is playing an increasing role in the delivery of optometric services, little specific information is available about how IT is changing the practice of optometry in Canada or whether optometry schools are adequately preparing their students to use this technology when they graduate. Quantitative data on how IT is being used, as well as related barriers and potential benefits, were obtained in a survey of Canadian optometrists (N = 474). Three site visits were made to geographically dispersed Canadian optometry practices identified as exemplars of IT adoption. More than 96% of Canadian optometrists use computers in their practices, but fewer have integrated computers into their examination rooms. Optometrists are regularly using computers to manage their practices and medical record keeping. The automated perimeter is the clinical assessment technology most used (88.4%), followed by the autorefractor (83.9%) and the autokeratometer (72.2%). The anterior segment camera is the technology most likely to be acquired within the next 5 years (36.9%), followed by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (26.8%). Major benefits of IT for optometrists include being better able to provide patients with images and information to explain results and to inspire greater patient confidence that the practice is state of the art. Perceived barriers include the need for frequent updates, lack of resources for training, and cost. There is support for increased exposure to IT as part of training in optometry. Use of IT in optometry practices is widespread and likely to continue to increase in the years ahead. IT may be a key element in the future success of optometry practices in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Perceptions of high investment and training costs are barriers to further adoption. Optometrists may benefit from increased exposure to IT as part of their training. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Optometry Specialist, 10-7. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These lesson plans and study guides for a secondary/postsecondary level course in optometry comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the 128-hour course is to train students in basic ocular anatomy…

  17. Attending to Audience: Comparing Optometry Student Talk "with" and "about" Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Jenna M.; Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.

    2009-01-01

    We explored mediating concepts that affect clinical novices shifting between their talk "with" patients in eye examinations and their talk "about" patients in case presentations (nCPs). In a Canadian optometry teaching clinic, patient "chief concern or request", "illness experience", and…

  18. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VI: Women in Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  19. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VI: Women in Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  20. Comparison of Pharmacology Courses for Optometry and Medical Students, Indiana University, Bloomington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Sally

    1983-01-01

    Due to criticism that optometrists are not adequately trained to use drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, the course of study taken by optometry students was compared to that taken by medical students in terms of faculty capability, courses content, and relationship to career needs.

  1. Plan for Development of an Educational Program in Rehabilitative Optometry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, Washington, DC.

    The development of a model educational program in rehabilitative optometry is examined in terms of a statement of the scope of practice of the profession, analysis of existing educational programs in the field, and competency objectives to which the model educational program is directed. A survey of nine of the 13 institution members of the…

  2. Integrating Outcomes Assessment into Optometry Education: A Strategic Guide for Enhancing Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Diane E.; Daum, Kent M.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines eight steps that will help optometry schools transition a faculty from "denial" of the need for assessment to "institutionalization": establish a collaborative environment, establish an infrastructure that makes assessment an integral activity, recruit a leader for full implementation of outcomes assessment, conduct a needs assessment,…

  3. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  4. A.M. Skeffington: the father of behavioral optometry--his contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, Willis C.

    1998-10-01

    Life of Dr. A. M. Skeffington, his model of vision, and his contributions to optometry are reviewed. In particular, vision as s spatial information processing system and dual sensing ocular system are discussed to answer the questions: `where is the object in space?' and `what is the object in space?'.

  5. Attending to Audience: Comparing Optometry Student Talk "with" and "about" Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Jenna M.; Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.

    2009-01-01

    We explored mediating concepts that affect clinical novices shifting between their talk "with" patients in eye examinations and their talk "about" patients in case presentations (nCPs). In a Canadian optometry teaching clinic, patient "chief concern or request", "illness experience", and…

  6. Student Self-Assessment of Professional Communication Skills at the Illinois College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Sanford M.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.; Cornick, Michelle L.; Wong, Kenneth K. W.

    2000-01-01

    A self-evaluation of communication skills was administered to approximately 500 optometry students before, during, and after a curriculum intervention to enhance these skills. Findings indicated that the intervention had a modest impact that was differential over the skill categories (interpersonal skills, patient care, interdisciplinary skills,…

  7. [Recent developments on the scientific research in optometry and visual science in China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia

    2010-10-01

    The current text reviewed the situation of the scientific research in the field of Optometry and visual sciences in the recent 5 to 6 years in our country. It showed the advancement and achievement in the myopic fundamental research and the application research of visual science. In addition, it also analyzed the guidance of research in solving the clinical visual issues and the significance of community service of research in eye care in public. This text indicated by the concrete current situation and the result data of research that the biology and optics, the double property of the eye endowed the distinguished feature to the research in Ophthalmology and Optometry, and that the cross cooperation of multidisciplinary promoted the innovation in the fields of Optometry and visual research. In future, the fields of Optometry and visual science in China will face up to more and more anticipations of the original and systematic research. The prophylaxis and treatment of myopia would be still a long-term and rough exploration theme in these fields.

  8. An Evaluation of the New Curriculum at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael G.; Kashani, Sandy; Saroj, Namrata

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the new curriculum at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Optometry by comparing the content of the new curriculum to the old curriculum and by surveying faculty and students regarding their opinion of the new curriculum. Findings indicated that the curriculum is successful in implementing desired changes, including reduced…

  9. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek K.; Gupta, Veer B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines. PMID:27854266

  10. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek K; Gupta, Veer B

    2016-11-15

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines.

  11. Robert M. Lockwood and George A. Rogers, early twentieth century optometry authors.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2010-03-01

    A significant factor in the continuing development and maturation of professional optometry in the early twentieth century was book and journal literature. Some of the prominent optometric writers of that era do not seem to be remembered today. Two examples are Robert Minturn Lockwood (1857-1920) and George A. Rogers (1852-1935). This article provides biographical sketches of each of them and brief descriptions of the contents of the books they published.

  12. Establishment of a Separate Optometry Service at Tripler Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Optometry; Ophthalmology; Staff satisfaction ; Patient satisfactton 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number). - At...Tripler Army Medical Center (TAM), a separate Optcaetry Service ues established in May, 1988. An implementation plan was developed as well as an...measures of ccmplaints, staff satisfaction , patient satisfaction , access, and external/internal quality review of the Optanetry Service were examined. ’The

  13. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each). The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5). Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences.

  14. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Methods Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. Results There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each). The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5). Conclusions Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences. PMID:27233041

  15. Collaborative telemedicine between optometry and ophthalmology: an initiative from the University of Houston.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, D; Schiffman, J S; Tang, R

    1999-01-01

    The University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) has developed a strong Telemedicine Optometry/Ophthalmology program. Patient care, clinical teaching and research benefit from utilizing Telemedicine technology. This initiative between Optometry and Ophthalmology is at the forefront of eyecare! Presented here: clinical teaching opportunities via tele-education including retinal, uveitic, neuro-ophthalmic disorders and glaucoma. Seminars introduce students to this technology and enhance their clinical experience through exposure to eye pathologies often related to systemic diseases. UHCO's affiliated clinics include multidisciplinary centers staffed by optometrists: the Frost Eye Clinic (HIV multidisciplinary care), Good Neighbor Health Clinic and Rusk School Health Promotion Project (indigent multidisciplinary care). These centers can converse on line with eyecare professionals. Large sites interested in low vision/visual rehabilitation include: The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), the Social Security Hospital (Lima, Peru), the Matagorda General Hospital and the Quentin Mease Hospital. These sites, do offer quality care but require visual rehabilitation programs provided by UHCO. These sites also provide exposure to pathology for the students. A residency program trains optometrists in Telemedicine. The research program focuses on optics and imaging necessary to diagnose glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and neuro-ophthalmic disorders through Telemedicine. UHCO supports the advancement of standards in tele-eyecare.

  16. Balancing patient care and student education: learning to deliver bad news in an optometry teaching clinic.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.

  17. A Comparison of Spectacles Purchased Online and in UK Optometry Practice.

    PubMed

    Alderson, Alison J; Green, Alison; Whitaker, David; Scally, Andrew J; Elliott, David B

    2016-10-01

    To compare spectacles bought online with spectacles from optometry practices. Thirty-three participants consisting of single vision spectacle wearers with either a low (N = 12, mean age 34 ± 14 years) or high prescription (N = 11, mean age 28 ± 9 years) and 10 presbyopic participants (mean age 59 ± 4 years) wearing progressive addition lenses (PALs) purchased 154 pairs of spectacles online and 154 from UK optometry practices. The spectacles were compared via participant-reported preference, acceptability, and safety; the assessment of lens, frame, and fit quality; and the accuracy of the lens prescriptions to international standard ISO 21987:2009. Participants preferred the practice spectacles (median ranking 4th, IQR 1-6) more than online (6th, IQR 4-8; Mann-Whitney U = 7345, p < 0.001) and practice PALs (median ranking 2nd, IQR 1-4) were particularly preferred (online 6.5th, IQR 4-9, Mann-Whitney U = 455, p < 0.001). Of those deemed unacceptable and unsafe, significantly more were bought online (unacceptable: online 43/154 vs. practice 15/154, Fisher's exact p = 0.0001; unsafe: online 14/154 vs. practice 5/154, Fisher's exact p = 0.03). Participants preferred spectacles from optometry practice rather than those bought online, despite lens quality and prescription accuracy being similar. A greater number of online spectacles were deemed unsafe or unacceptable because of poor spectacle frame fit, poor cosmetic appearance, and inaccurate optical centration. This seems particularly pertinent to PAL lenses, which are known to increase falls risk. Recommendations are made to improve both forms of spectacle provision.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in the area of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Povedano Montero, F J; López-Muñoz, F; Hidalgo Santa Cruz, F

    2016-04-01

    Using a bibliometric approach an analysis was made of the scientific publications of Spanish investigators in the area of optometry, from 1974 until 2013. The EMBASE database was used for this study, employing optomtr*, optic*, visual, vision, eye*, and ophthalm* as search terms. The most common bibliometric indicators were applied for the selected publications. The number of published articles retrieved for Spain from 1974-2013 was 1,055. The growth of publications was more exponential (R=0.93) than linear (R= 0.71). The doubling time of scientific production was 3.63 years. The level of productivity primarily corresponded to small producers (Transience index of 64%). The collaboration index was 4.4 authors per paper. The majority of the output was generated in academic settings (62.27%). The Bradford core was formed by four journals, in which Optometry and Vision Science accounted for the majority of publications, with 11.85%. Research in the area of optometry in Spain is in a phase of exponential growth, containing a high level of transient authors, which may indicate either a low productivity or the presence of investigators from other related fields that have published in a sporadic manner in this area. A small number of research groups are responsible for producing the majority of articles, primarily in an academic setting. There is a high concentration of publications in a few journals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence-based practice instruction by faculty members and librarians in North American optometry and ophthalmology programs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katherine A; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Spafford, Marlee M

    2014-07-01

    North American optometry and ophthalmology faculty members and vision science librarians were surveyed online (14% response rate) about teaching evidence-based practice (EBP). Similar to studies of other health care programs, all five EBP steps (Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply, Assess) were taught to varying degrees. Optometry and ophthalmology EBP educators may want to place further emphasis on (1) the Apply and Assess steps, (2) faculty- and student-generated questions and self-assessment in clinical settings, (3) online teaching strategies, (4) programmatic integration of EBP learning objectives, and (5) collaboration between faculty members and librarians.

  20. E. Leroy Ryer (1880-1972) and Elmer E. Hotaling (1887-1950), optometric leaders and authors, and partners in optometry practice.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-04-01

    E. LeRoy Ryer and Elmer E. Hotaling were very prominent optometrists of the first half of the twentieth century and made numerous contributions to the profession. They were among the early pioneers of professional optometry practice. They published many articles in optometry journals, and did work in instrument design. They were charter members of the American Academy of Optometry in 1922, Ryer having suggested such an organization in 1905. In the first decade of the twentieth century, they were briefly faculty members in a two-year optometry school, an unusual length of study for the time. This paper presents brief biographical sketches of each, along with discussion of the two books they coauthored, Optometric Procedure and Ophthalmometry. The former book contained much of their views on how optometry should be practiced.

  1. Health Professions Team Building through Pharmacy, Dentistry, Optometry, and Podiatry: The 1992-93 AACP Argus Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The Argus Commission, asked to examine the interface between academic pharmacy and education programs in dentistry, optometry, and podiatry, envisioned a primary health care team and considered mechanisms for encouraging development of such teams and reducing competition. Its conclusions and recommendations are summarized here. (MSE)

  2. Improving access to optometry services for people at risk of preventable sight loss: a qualitative study in five UK locations

    PubMed Central

    Leamon, S.; Hayden, C.; Lee, H.; Trudinger, D.; Appelbee, E.; Hurrell, D.-L.; Richardson, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing preventable sight loss is an increasing priority for public health and health care providers. We examined the factors affecting people's use of optometry services in population groups at increased risk of sight loss. Methods This is a qualitative study in five UK locations. In England, participants were from the Pakistani and Black Caribbean communities; in Scotland from the Pakistani community; and in Northern Ireland and Wales from white socio-economically deprived communities. Thirty-four focus groups were conducted (n = 289). The study included people who attend optometry services and people not engaged with services. Results Barriers to access included limited awareness of eye health and eye disease, concern about the cost of spectacles and the appropriateness of optometry in a commercial setting. Attendance at the optometrist was primarily symptom led. A positive previous experience or continuing relationship with the optometrist helped to alleviate the barriers and promote attendance. Conclusion Addressing the disparity between the broader messages about eye health and the current perception of the function of optometry could help improve access to services. Uptake may be improved through the co-production of interventions that better resonate with local communities. Non-retail service delivery options should be explored. PMID:24408903

  3. Use of Interactive Sessions and E-Learning in Teaching Anatomy to First-Year Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Gabriel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in the Optometry program at the University of Manchester are required to take a functional anatomy course during the first year of their studies. Low mean scores in the written examination of this unit for the past two academic years energized staff to rethink the teaching format. Interactive sessions lasting 20 minutes each were…

  4. Use of Interactive Sessions and E-Learning in Teaching Anatomy to First-Year Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Gabriel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in the Optometry program at the University of Manchester are required to take a functional anatomy course during the first year of their studies. Low mean scores in the written examination of this unit for the past two academic years energized staff to rethink the teaching format. Interactive sessions lasting 20 minutes each were…

  5. The influence of learning styles, enrollment status and gender on academic performance of optometry undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Bhavna; Dunne, Mark; Bartlett, Hannah; Cubbidge, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether the academic performance of optometry undergraduates is influenced by enrollment status, learning style or gender. Three hundred and sixty undergraduates in all 3 years of the optometry degree course at Aston University during 2008-2009 were asked for their informed consent to participate in this study. Enrollment status was known from admissions records. An Index of Learning Styles (http://www4.nscu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Learning-Styles.html) determined learning style preference with respect to four different learning style axes; active-reflective, sensing-intuitive, visual-verbal and sequential-global. The influence of these factors on academic performance was investigated. Two hundred and seventy students agreed to take part (75% of the cohort). 63% of the sample was female. There were 213 home non-graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher), 14 home graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher), 28 international non-graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher) and 15 international graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher). The majority of students were balanced learners (between 48% and 64% across four learning style axes). Any preferences were towards active, sensing, visual and sequential learning styles. Of the factors investigated in this study, learning styles were influenced by gender; females expressed a disproportionate preference for the reflective and visual learning styles. Academic performance was influenced by enrollment status; international graduates (95% confidence limits: 64-72%) outperformed all other student groups (home non graduates, 60-62%; international non graduates, 55-63%) apart from home graduates (57-69%). Our research has shown that the majority of optometry students

  6. The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A; Eperjesi, F; Gilmartin, B

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the most efficient method available for the analysis of experimental data. Analysis of variance is a method of considerable complexity and subtlety, with many different variations, each of which applies in a particular experimental context. Hence, it is possible to apply the wrong type of ANOVA to data and, therefore, to draw an erroneous conclusion from an experiment. This article reviews the types of ANOVA most likely to arise in clinical experiments in optometry including the one-way ANOVA ('fixed' and 'random effect' models), two-way ANOVA in randomised blocks, three-way ANOVA, and factorial experimental designs (including the varieties known as 'split-plot' and 'repeated measures'). For each ANOVA, the appropriate experimental design is described, a statistical model is formulated, and the advantages and limitations of each type of design discussed. In addition, the problems of non-conformity to the statistical model and determination of the number of replications are considered.

  7. Light and optics conceptual evaluation findings from first year optometry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Damber; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2014-07-01

    The Light and Optics Conceptual Evaluation (LOCE) was developed to examine conceptual understanding of basic geometric and physical optics for the Active Learning in Optics and Photonics program administered by UNESCO. This 50 item test (46 multiple choice, 4 ray-tracing short answer) was administered to entering students in the Optometry professional degree (OD) program. We wanted to determine how much of the physics/optics concepts from undergraduate physics courses (a pre-requisite for entry to the OD program) were retained. In addition, the test was administered after the first year students had taken a required course in geometric and visual optics as part of their first semester courses. The LOCE was completed by two consecutive classes to the program in 2010 (n=89) and 2011 (n=84). The tests were administered the first week of the term and the test was given without any prior notice. In addition, the test was administered to the class of 2010 students after they had completed the course in geometric and visual optics. The means of the test were 22.1 (SD=4.5; range: 12-35) and 21.3(SD=5.1; range: 11-35) for the two entering classes. There was no statistical significance between the two classes (t-test, p<0.05). Similarly there was no difference between the scores in terms of gender. The post-course test (administered during the first week of the second term) showed a statistically significant improvement (mean score went from 22.1 to 31.1, a 35% improvement). It should be noted that both groups of students performed worse in questions related to physical optics as well as lens imaging, while scoring best in questions related to refraction and reflection. These data should be taken into consideration when designing optics curricula for optometry (and other allied health programs such as opticianry or ophthalmology).

  8. The History of Ethics and Professionalism within Optometry in the United States of America 1898-2015, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Bailey, R Norman

    2016-01-01

    The history surrounding the development of codes of ethics and other official statements of desired professional conduct adopted by the American Optometric Association (AOA) reveals the struggle optometry faced in the United States ofAmerica (USA) in establishing itself as a leading primary health care profession. Information regarding the events and documents reported in this paper were obtained through research of the historical literature and archival material held in The Archives & Museum of Optometry at the American Optometric Association's headquarters at 243 N. Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO; through current Association documents; and from discussions with those participating in the drafting of the more recent updates to the Association's ethical statements; codes, oaths, standards, and resolutions. This writing is an update to an earlier paper by the author, The history of ethics in the American Optometric Association 1898-1994. J Am Optom Assoc 1994; 65:427-444, which was written to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the then current Code of Ethics of the AOA. An additional purpose of this present writing is to help the reader understand, from a historical perspective, some of the driving forces and imperatives for the advancement of optometry's professional stature. Forces outside as well as within the profession were found to have influenced the drafting and redrafting of the official ethical and professional conduct statements meant to guide the professional behavior of the membership of the AOA. Ethical codes and other statements of desired conduct have been essential to the establishment of the profession of optometry. As optometry has grown and matured as a provider of primary eye and vision care services, so have its ethical emphases. To further understand the ethical and legal challenges for optometry as it worked to establish itself as a reputable profession, it is suggested the reader investigate in more detail the information provided in the

  9. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  10. Effect of the Health and Social Security Bill 1984 on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S P

    1986-05-01

    The United Kingdom government introduced a Bill to Parliament in 1984 called The Health and Social Security Bill. This was, according to the government, introduced to break the monopoly on the supply of spectacles by qualified opticians. The subsequent changes in the law brought about by the new Act are outlined, and brief comments presented on the consequences of the new Act on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

  11. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  12. A proposed minimum data set for international primary care optometry: a modified Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Davey, Christopher J; Slade, Sarah V; Shickle, Darren

    2017-07-01

    To identify a minimum list of metrics of international relevance to public health, research and service development which can be extracted from practice management systems and electronic patient records in primary optometric practice. A two stage modified Delphi technique was used. Stage 1 categorised metrics that may be recorded as being part of a primary eye examination by their importance to research using the results from a previous survey of 40 vision science and public health academics. Delphi stage 2 then gauged the opinion of a panel of seven vision science academics and achieved consensus on contentious metrics and methods of grading/classification. A consensus regarding inclusion and response categories was achieved for nearly all metrics. A recommendation was made of 53 metrics which would be appropriate in a minimum data set. This minimum data set should be easily integrated into clinical practice yet allow vital data to be collected internationally from primary care optometry. It should not be mistaken for a clinical guideline and should not add workload to the optometrist. A pilot study incorporating an additional Delphi stage prior to implementation is advisable to refine some response categories. © 2017 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  13. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    McAlinden, Colm; Khadka, Jyoti; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2011-07-01

    The ever-expanding choice of ocular metrology and imaging equipment has driven research into the validity of their measurements. Consequently, studies of the agreement between two instruments or clinical tests have proliferated in the ophthalmic literature. It is important that researchers apply the appropriate statistical tests in agreement studies. Correlation coefficients are hazardous and should be avoided. The 'limits of agreement' method originally proposed by Altman and Bland in 1983 is the statistical procedure of choice. Its step-by-step use and practical considerations in relation to optometry and ophthalmology are detailed in addition to sample size considerations and statistical approaches to precision (repeatability or reproducibility) estimates.

  14. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  15. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  16. An introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with special reference to data from clinical experiments in optometry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A; Slade, S V; Eperjesi, F

    2000-05-01

    This article is aimed primarily at eye care practitioners who are undertaking advanced clinical research, and who wish to apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) to their data. ANOVA is a data analysis method of great utility and flexibility. This article describes why and how ANOVA was developed, the basic logic which underlies the method and the assumptions that the method makes for it to be validly applied to data from clinical experiments in optometry. The application of the method to the analysis of a simple data set is then described. In addition, the methods available for making planned comparisons between treatment means and for making post hoc tests are evaluated. The problem of determining the number of replicates or patients required in a given experimental situation is also discussed.

  17. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05) being from urban respondents for the latter two issues only. Conclusion Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remote areas of the country. Opinions des étudiants sud-africains en optométrie sur la possibilité de travailler dans les zones rurales après l’obtention de leur diplôme. Contexte Les problèmes des yeux et de vision sont plus courants dans les zones rurales qu’en ville; et une forte proportion de Sud-africains vit dans les zones rurales. Objectif Examiner les opinions des étudiants sud

  18. 3D printed reproductions of orbital dissections: a novel mode of visualising anatomy for trainees in ophthalmology or optometry.

    PubMed

    Adams, Justin W; Paxton, Lisa; Dawes, Kathryn; Burlak, Kateryna; Quayle, Michelle; McMenamin, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    The teaching of human head, neck and orbital anatomy forms a critical part of undergraduate and postgraduate medical and allied health professional training, including optometry. While still largely grounded in cadaveric dissection, this method of instruction is constrained in some countries and regional areas by access to real human cadavers, costs of cadaver bequest programmes, health and safety of students and staff and the shortage of adequate time in modern curricula. Many candidates choosing a postgraduate pathway in ophthalmological training, such as those accepted into the Royal Colleges of Ophthalmology in the UK, Australia and New Zealand programmes and the American Academy of Ophthalmologists in the USA, are compelled as adult learners to revise or revisit human orbital anatomy, ocular anatomy and select areas of head and neck anatomy. These candidates are often then faced with the issue of accessing facilities with dissected human cadaveric material. In light of these difficulties, we developed a novel means of creating high-resolution reproductions of prosected human cadaver orbits suitable for education and training. 3D printed copies of cadaveric orbital dissections (superior, lateral and medial views) showing a range of anatomical features were created. These 3D prints offer many advantages over plastinated specimens as they are suitable for rapid reproduction and as they are not human tissue they avoid cultural and ethical issues associated with viewing cadaver specimens. In addition, they are suitable for use in the office, home, laboratory or clinical setting in any part of the world for patient and doctor education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. American Academy of Optometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... care through lifelong learning. Login Meetings Academy 2017 Chicago 2017 Call for Courses 2017 Exhibitor Information Scientific ... News Wednesday Eye-Mail® Daily - From Academy 2017 Chicago Wed, 10/11/2017 10 Things to Help ...

  20. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  1. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  2. The incunabula of American optometry.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Only a very few American opticians (optometrists) wrote textbooks or manuals before the end of the 19th century. The important hand-book by William Bohne has already been excellently covered by David Goss but three others appear to have been largely unnoticed. These are manuals by Walter Alden, August Morck and J W Queen & Co.: pioneer works that can be regarded as the incunabula or cradle of printing of optometric publishing in the United States.

  3. Optometry/Ophthalmology Specialty AFSC 912X5/A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    TEMPLES 96 G268 NEUTRALIZE LENSES 95 G277 SELECT FRAME SIZES 95 G280 VERIFY SPECTACLES 95 F󈧩 PERFORM NONCONTACT TONOMETRY (NCT) 94 G274 REPLACE HINGE...EQUIPMENT REQUESTS 89 G280 VERIFY SPECTACLES 87 G252 ADJUST SPECTACLES 87 F237 PERFORM NONCONTACT TONOMETRY (NCT) 87 G269 NOTIFY PATIENTS OF SPECTACLE ORDER...OPHTHALMIC SOLUTIONS FOR DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSES 6.52 80 4.06 G265 MEASURE INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCES 6.40 95 3.90 G280 VERIFY SPECTACLES 6.28 94 4.15 G252 ADJUST

  4. A National Study of Assisting Manpower in Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.; And Others

    As a basis for providing meaningful job opportunities for the disadvantaged in health occupations, this study has investigated the current number, duties, and education and training of ancillary optometric personnel and the projected need for such employees. The study further describes the type of formal training program required to meet the…

  5. National health and optometry--a survey of public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Allen, D C; Levi, D M

    1975-04-01

    A stratified probability sample of the Houston, Texas population was interviewed to assess public opinion of national health care and public awareness of vision care and its role in a national health care system. Over 80% of the population surveyed are in favor of a national health care bill, with a large percentage of the population favoring inclusion of vision care. Demographic trends are reported as they relate to various questions in the survey, and comparisons are made to a similar questionnaire one year earlier.

  6. Multicolour LEDs in educational demonstrations of physics and optometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulins, Paulis; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2014-07-01

    LED light sources are used to design experimental setup for university courses teaching human color vision. The setup allows to demonstrate various vision characteristics and to apply for student practical exercises to study eye spectral sensitivity in different spectral range using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Technique can be used in laboratory works for students to acquire knowledge in visual perception, basics of electronics and measuring, or it can be applied as fully computer control experiment. Besides studies of the eye spectral sensitivity students can practice in trichromatic color matching and other visual perception tasks

  7. Image processing and analysis using neural networks for optometry area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netto, Antonio V.; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria C.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we describe the framework of a functional system for processing and analyzing images of the human eye acquired by the Hartmann-Shack technique (HS), in order to extract information to formulate a diagnosis of eye refractive errors (astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia). The analysis is to be carried out using an Artificial Intelligence system based on Neural Nets, Fuzzy Logic and Classifier Combination. The major goal is to establish the basis of a new technology to effectively measure ocular refractive errors that is based on methods alternative those adopted in current patented systems. Moreover, analysis of images acquired with the Hartmann-Shack technique may enable the extraction of additional information on the health of an eye under exam from the same image used to detect refraction errors.

  8. The Study Of Optometry Apparatus Of Laser Speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao-cheng, Wang; Kun, Yao; Xiu-qing, Wu; Chang-ying, Long; Jia-qi, Shi; Shi-zhong, Shi

    1988-01-01

    Based on the regularity of laser speckles movement the method of exam the uncorrected eyes is determined. The apparatus with micro-computer and optical transformation is made. Its practical function is excellent.

  9. Optometry/Ophthalmology Assistants, AFSC 4V0X1/A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    concerning wear of spectacles 87 G280 Modify spectacles to fit individual patients 84 G282 Notify patients of arrival of spectacle orders 84 F204 Measure...appointments for patients 86 G280 Modify spectacles against prescriptions 86 C52 Conduct self-inspections 86 A4 TABLE A5 OPHTHALMOLOGY TECHNICIANS JOB (ST0025...segment heights 11 G278 Measure gas mask inserts 12 G280 Modify spectacles to fit individual patients 13 G281 Neutralize spectacle lenses 14 G282 Notify

  10. An Analysis of Pharmacology Training in Schools of Optometry, Medicine and Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waigandt, Marti; Waigandt, Alex

    1985-01-01

    Controversy over the issue of drug licensure for optometrists is discussed. A study to analyze optometrists in terms of academic qualifications as compared to clinicians currently licensed to use pharmaceuticals is described. (MLW)

  11. What Are the Appropriate Skills and Knowledge Required for Entry into the Practice of Optometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penna, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level skills needed of optometrists, as of allied health occupations practitioners, include thinking skills, communication skills, sensitivity to personal and professional values and ethics, awareness of self and individual social responsibility, lifelong learning skills and habits, interpersonal and group competence, and management…

  12. [Accuracy of three common optometry methods in examination of refraction in juveniles].

    PubMed

    Su, Ting; Min, Xiaoshan; Liu, Shuangzhen; Li, Fengyun; Tan, Xingping; Zhong, Yanni; Deng, Shaoling

    2016-02-01

    目的:使用视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪与视网膜检影等3种常用验光方法比较分析青少年屈光不正患者散瞳前后的检测结果。方法:对78例(156只眼)53~17岁青少年分别在自然瞳孔下应用WelchAllyn Suresight手持式视力筛查仪及NIDEK ARK-510A型自动电脑验光仪进行验光。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后,行视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪和视网膜检影3种验光法。结果:各方法散瞳前球镜代数值均低于散瞳后,数值更偏近视(P<0.05);散瞳前视力筛查仪与散瞳后的检影验光比较,球镜值、柱镜值和散光轴位差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),两者的一致性优于电脑验光与视网膜检影,但是所得数值偏近视倾向;散瞳前电脑验光与检影验光比较,球镜值和柱镜值差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);散瞳后视力筛查仪与检影验光比较,球镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而散瞳后电脑验光与检影验光比较,柱镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对于青少年验光,睫状肌麻痹散瞳后检影验光必不可少。自然瞳孔下,视力筛查仪验光优于电脑验光,尤其在判断屈光不正的性质方面(球镜值更准)。但是两者都有高估近视程度的倾向。散瞳后,电脑验光准确性高于视力筛查仪,可作为试镜的参考。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后视网膜检影验光结合主观试镜仍是检查屈光不正最为有效的方法。.

  13. Optometry services in Ontario: supply - and demand-side factors from 2011 to 2036.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Philip Sj; Sweetman, Arthur; Zhang, Xue Helen

    2014-01-01

    Optometric labour market projections are provided. First, population growth and ageing-based estimates of the rate of increase of eye-care services in Ontario from 2011 to 2$ are presented, holding the age-sex structure of utilization constant. Then, using data on the 2011 supply and working hours of Ontario's optometrists, the number of optometrists needed to keep the level of optometric services per age-sex-adjusted person comparable over time is estimated. The projections suggest that the number of Ontario optometrists should grow by approximately 30-40 full-time equivalents per year; to offset retirements and account for decreasing work hours, this suggests 77-90 new practitioners are required each year. However, in recent years, the number of Ontario optometrists has been growing faster than this, suggesting either that demand has exceeded supply and/or surpluses will accumulate if this trend continues.

  14. Developing and Evaluating an Interactive Multimedia Instructional Tool: Learning Outcomes and User Experiences of Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This study developed an interactive multimedia-based software program for Optics instruction, which was expected to overcome the imperfection of traditional optical labs. The researcher evaluated the effectiveness of the program through an experimental study that compared the learning outcomes of the students who used and did not use the software.…

  15. Balancing Patient Care and Student Education: Learning to Deliver Bad News in an Optometry Teaching Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…

  16. Quantitative electroencephalograms and neuro-optometry: a case study that explores changes in electrophysiology while wearing therapeutic eyeglasses.

    PubMed

    Zelinsky, Deborah; Feinberg, Corey

    2017-01-01

    The brain is equipped with a complex system for processing sensory information, including retinal circuitry comprising part of the central nervous system. Retinal stimulation can influence brain function via customized eyeglasses at both subcortical and cortical levels. We investigated cortical effects from wearing therapeutic eyeglasses, hypothesizing that they can create measureable changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) tracings. A Z-Bell(SM) test was performed on a participant to select optimal lenses. An EEG measurement was recorded before and after the participant wore the eyeglasses. Equivalent quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) analyses (statistical analysis on raw EEG recordings) were performed and compared with baseline findings. With glasses on, the participant's readings were found to be closer to the normed database. The original objective of our investigation was met, and additional findings were revealed. The Z-bell(SM) test identified lenses to influence neurotypical brain activity, supporting the paradigm that eyeglasses can be utilized as a therapeutic intervention. Also, EEG analysis demonstrated that encephalographic techniques can be used to identify channels through which neuro-optomertric treatments work. This case study's preliminary exploration illustrates the potential role of QEEG analysis and EEG-derived brain imaging in neuro-optometric research endeavors to affect brain function.

  17. Assessment of the Need for Optometric Education in Puerto Rico: Projected Impact of the IAU School of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Edwin C.

    1983-01-01

    Using several assumptions about the supply, productivity, and use of optometrists in Puerto Rico to 2000, several possible supply-demand situations are projected. The role of the Inter American University in these situations is discussed, based on graduates' probable practice locations and the school's program design. (MSE)

  18. Telemedicine for a General Screening of Retinal Disease Using Nonmydriatic Fundus Cameras in Optometry Centers: Three-Year Results.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Miguel A; Arcos, Gabriel; Fonollosa, Alex; Abraldes, Maximino; Oleñik, Andrea; Gutierrez, Estanislao; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Describe the first 3 years of highly specialized retinal screening through a web platform using a retinologists' network for image reading. All patients who came to centers in the network and consented to fundus photography were included. Images were evaluated by ophthalmologists. We describe number of patients, age, visual acuity, retinal abnormalities, medical recommendations, and factors associated with abnormal retinographies. Fifty thousand three hundred eighty-four patients were included; mean age 52.3 years (range 3-99). Mean visual acuity 20/25. Of the total cohort, 75% had normal retinographies, 22% had abnormalities, 1% referred acute floaters, 1% referred acute symptoms with normal retinography, and 1% could not be assessed. Ophthalmological referral was recommended in 12,634 patients: 9% urgent visit, 11% preferential (2-3 weeks), and 80% an ordinary visit. Age-related maculopathy signs were the most common abnormalities (2,456 patients, 4.8%). Epiretinal membrane was the second (764 cases, 1.5%). Diabetic retinopathy was suspected in 543 patients (1%), and nevi in 358 patients (0.7%). Patients older than 50 years had significantly more retinal abnormalities (31.5%) than younger ones (11.1%) (p < 0.0001; odds ratio [OR] 2.47; confidence interval [CI] 2.37-2.57). Patients with almost one eye with a myopic defect greater than -5 spherical equivalent had a higher risk of presenting abnormalities (p < 0.001; OR 1.04; CI 1.03-1.05). A high rate of asymptomatic retinal abnormalities was detected in this general screening, justifying this practice. Many patients who visit optometrists in Spain are unaware that they would benefit from ophthalmological monitoring. The ophthalmic community should lead initiatives of the type presented to preserve and guarantee quality standards.

  19. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or... scope of practice of a doctor of dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry;...

  20. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; (iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or... scope of practice of a doctor of dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry;...

  1. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or...

  2. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or...

  3. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or...

  4. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Air Force Optometry Augmentation Team (FFDOT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-09

    for a range of non- surgical injuries and illnesses that would typically be seen and treated by an optometrist and one technician working 12-hour days...Code 800.13. FFDOT Materiel Solutions 7 Capability The FFDOT AS is used by optometrists as a component of the Aerospace Medical Contingency... optometrist (42E3) and an optometric technician (4V071). Results Change Justification Changes to the AS are categorized as modernization, clinical

  5. Steps towards Smarter Solutions in Optometry and Ophthalmology—Inter-Device Agreement of Subjective Methods to Assess the Refractive Errors of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ohlendorf, Arne; Leube, Alexander; Wahl, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the inter-device agreement and mean differences between a newly developed digital phoropter and the two standard methods (trial frame and manual phoropter). Methods: Refractive errors of two groups of participants were measured by two examiners (examiner 1 (E1): 36 subjects; examiner 2 (E2): 38 subjects). Refractive errors were assessed using a trial frame, a manual phoropter and a digital phoropter. Inter-device agreement regarding the measurement of refractive errors was analyzed for differences in terms of the power vector components (spherical equivalent (SE) and the cylindrical power vector components J0 and J45) between the used methods. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC’s) were calculated to evaluate correlations between the used methods. Results: Analyzing the variances between the three methods for SE, J0 and J45 using a two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the methods (SE: p = 0.13, J0: p = 0.58 and J45: p = 0.96) for examiner 1 and for examiner 2 (SE: p = 0.88, J0: p = 0.95 and J45: p = 1). Mean differences and ±95% Limits of Agreement for each pair of inter-device agreement regarding the SE for both examiners were as follows: Trial frame vs. digital phoropter: +0.10 D ± 0.56 D (E1) and +0.19 D ± 0.60 D (E2), manual phoropter vs. trial frame: −0.04 D ± 0.59 D (E1) and −0.12 D ± 0.49 D (E2) and for manual vs. digital phoropter: +0.06 D ± 0.65 D (E1) and +0.08 D ± 0.45 D (E2). ICCs revealed high correlations between all methods for both examiner (p < 0.001). The time to assess the subjective refraction was significantly smaller with the digital phoropter (examiner 1: p < 0.001; examiner 2: p < 0.001). Conclusion: “All used subjective methods show a good agreement between each other terms of ICC (>0.9). Assessing refractive errors using different subjective methods, results in similar mean differences and 95% limits of agreement, when compared to those reported in studies comparing subjective refraction non-cylcoplegic retinoscopy or autorefraction”. PMID:27417629

  6. The Optometric Residency: Its Bloom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleything, Willard B.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for proposed residencies in optometry are presented for pediatric, rehabilitative, and hospital optometry. Their significance in terms of costs, patient population, faculty expertise, and critical mass are discussed. (JMF)

  7. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  8. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  9. The Expanding Role of the Optometrist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in the current health care system impacting upon optometry and optometric care are highlighted including changes in health care organizations and delivery, emerging concepts in health care, and changes in optometry and optometric care. (JMF)

  10. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  11. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... podiatric medicine, school of optometry, or school of veterinary medicine as defined in section 799(1)(A)...

  12. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authorized by the State to perform; (iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or she practices; (v) A chiropractor who is licensed by the State or..., or optometry; a chiropractor; or clinical psychologist, as that scope is— (A) Defined by the...

  13. Developing Ideal Student and Residency Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvin, Gerald J.

    1993-01-01

    The Veterans Administration (VA) is a primary educator of optometry students, with each college of optometry being affiliated with at least one VA hospital. Ideally, fourth-year optometry students rotate through a specific VA facility for about 12 weeks. Guidelines are designed to provide optimum care in a rich learning environment. (MSE)

  14. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... functions which he or she is legally authorized by the State to perform; (iv) A doctor of optometry who is legally authorized to practice optometry by the State in which he or she practices; (v) A chiropractor who... dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, or optometry; a chiropractor; or...

  15. Flight and Operational Medicine Clinic (FOMC) Task Process Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    optometry testing IAW 48-123 Provide all immunization as required Complete ARMA and physical exam AMS Review all diagnostic testing, and labs...this risk Is Snellen eye exam required? Refer to optometry Identify and address all CPS IAW local PHA business rules Print out all paperwork and...accomplished by Tech Complete all requirement optometry testing IAW 48-123 Provide all immunization(s) as required Complete ARMA and Physical

  16. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, public health, chiropractic, health administration and clinical psychology. The...

  17. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  18. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  19. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  20. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  1. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., or dentistry eligible for assistance under subpart B of this part, providing for effective control...

  2. 77 FR 22789 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ..., osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, and pharmacy. The NSL... records, student records, and repayment records until all student loans are repaid in full and all...

  3. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., or dentistry eligible for assistance under subpart B of this part, providing for effective control by...

  4. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathic medicine, school of pharmacy, school of...

  5. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, public health, chiropractic, health administration and clinical psychology. The basic...

  6. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, public health, chiropractic, health administration and clinical psychology. The basic...

  7. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, public health, chiropractic, health administration and clinical psychology. The basic...

  8. 42 CFR 60.1 - What is the HEAL program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, public health, chiropractic, health administration and clinical psychology. The basic...

  9. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  10. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  11. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  12. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  13. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...

  14. ILAMO: Partner in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dablemont, Maria

    1984-01-01

    The history, organization, function, holdings, regulations, and services of the International Library, Museum and Archives of Optometry, a section of the American Optometric Association, are outlined. (MSE)

  15. An Optometric Clinical Practicum Examination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Jess B.

    1979-01-01

    A practical clinical examination model for use by state board examiners in optometry is described including purpose, format, examination design, procedures, evaluation examples and administration. (JMF)

  16. The Vision of Children with Learning Difficulties: The Role of the Teacher and Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of optometry in the study of learning difficulties and the problems of interpreting research results in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology are discussed. Limitations of school visual screening are described, and it is suggested that many children with learning difficulties should be referred for a full clinical visual examination.…

  17. Optometric Grand Rounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John C.; Selvin, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical program developed for Veterans Administration optometry residents and rotating Southern California College of Optometry interns consisted of clinical patient examination followed by case discussion, a formal lecture corresponding to the ocular and systemic diseases presented in the examination, and student testing. (MSE)

  18. VisionCite: A Vision Science-Related Database.

    PubMed

    Lamson, Karen S; Hinton, Elizabeth G

    2017-01-01

    VisionCite is a database dedicated to the visual sciences. This paid subscription database provides bibliographic information for optometry and ophthalmology-related resources and is maintained by the Illinois College of Optometry (ICO) Library. A sample search is provided, highlighting different features of the newly redesigned database.

  19. Designing Clinical Remediation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Susan C.

    1989-01-01

    Elements and considerations in the provision of effective remediation for optometry students not achieving in clinical competence are discussed. Remediation of technical, cognitive, and noncognitive skills are included. A course in professional communication offered by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry is described. (MSE)

  20. Rehabilitation of Visual and Perceptual Dysfunction after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    for the virtual-mall walking-simulator collision detection task was presented at the American Academy of Optometry 2012 meeting in October.  An...England College of Optometry about the methodology and early results from the study  Dr Luo’s postdoctoral fellow gave a talk at Schepens about the

  1. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  2. Using Problem-Based Learning with Large Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzelli, Andrew R.

    1994-01-01

    At the Pennsylvania College of Optometry, a core course in pediatric optometry was revised to use a problem-centered approach and implemented with a class of 147 students. Students were assigned specific roles to distribute work evenly. A survey found students responded positively to this approach. (MSE)

  3. Optometric Grand Rounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John C.; Selvin, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical program developed for Veterans Administration optometry residents and rotating Southern California College of Optometry interns consisted of clinical patient examination followed by case discussion, a formal lecture corresponding to the ocular and systemic diseases presented in the examination, and student testing. (MSE)

  4. What Type of Faculty and Training Are Required for a Successful Basic Sciences Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Science education for optometry must go beyond therapeutic patient management to more preparation for biologically based care. Optometry faculty should be involved in research driven by specific patient problems and should prepare professionals to address patient quality-of-life and daily living needs. Interdisciplinary collaboration is needed.…

  5. The Accelerated O.D. Program: Graduates of the First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Depew M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the practice patterns, licensing, and distribution of graduates of the New England College of Optometry's accelerated doctor of optometry program indicates its success as a source of optometric educators with advanced expertise in scientific research. (Author/MSE)

  6. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  7. Evaluation of a Core Curriculum for Optometric Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.; Suchoff, Irvin B.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of residents and residency supervisors at three Veterans' Administration hospitals affiliated with one school of optometry investigated attitudes toward core optometry curriculum activities. Activities were generally rated well for content and effectiveness of presentation, and the study also provided information for program improvement.…

  8. Use of Information Technology in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Jimmy H.

    1999-01-01

    To enhance the information technology literacy of optometry students, the Southern College of Optometry (Tennessee) developed an academic assignment, the Electronic Media Paper, in which second-year students must search two different electronic media for information. Results suggest Internet use for searching may be a useful tool for specific…

  9. Ultimate Success Rates on National Board Examinations: A Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.; Wallis, Norman E.; Present, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the percentage of optometry students successfully completing the four-component National Board of Examiners in Optometry examination at graduation between 1995 to 1997. Ultimate pass rates for all four components ranged from 87.0% to 90.9%. Results are discussed in relation to the 1993 test-sequence expansion and to the number…

  10. The Vision of Children with Learning Difficulties: The Role of the Teacher and Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of optometry in the study of learning difficulties and the problems of interpreting research results in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology are discussed. Limitations of school visual screening are described, and it is suggested that many children with learning difficulties should be referred for a full clinical visual examination.…

  11. Academic Affiliations with the Department of Veterans Affairs: Characteristics of the Ohio State University Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Robert D.; Hill, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    The Ohio State University School of Optometry affiliation with four Veterans Administration (VA) health care facilities is characterized by a central governing committee, regular faculty appointments for all participating VA staff, substantial interaction with each site, strong orientation for rotating senior optometry students, and joint…

  12. A Markov Model for Forecasting Inventory Levels for U.S Navy Medical Service Corps Healthcare Administrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Administration, Medical Allied Sciences, Optometry , and Pharmacy. Today, the MSC comprises 31 subspecialties, organized under three major categories...Exper Psych 30 4% Clinical Dietetics 26 3% Financial Mgt 78 8% Research Psych 17 3% Optometry 109 11% MPT&E 31 3% Entomology 39 6% Pharmacy, General 136

  13. The Effectiveness of a Patient Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Harue J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports data from three consecutive classes of first- year optometry students at the Southern California College of Optometry, who were tested preceding and following completion of a patient communication course. Findings indicated that students improved their ability to respond to patients and were better able to discriminate among various levels…

  14. The Impact of the Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Care Fund on Navy Military Treatment Facilities’ Demand-to-Capacity Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Physical Therapy, Optometry , Audiology, Tele-Dermatology and Eyes, Nose & Throat (ENT); (3) Dental Care, i.e., General Dentistry, Oral Surgery...Physical Therapy, Chiropractic, Optometry , Audiology, Public Health and Eyes, Nose & Throat (ENT); (3) Dental Care, including General Dentistry

  15. Children's vision--a 20/20 outlook.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R W

    1975-10-01

    Twenty years ago, A. M. Skeffington, O.D., talked about the "uniqueness" of optometry which included prevention, remediation and enhancement. Fifteen years ago, Arnold Gesell, M.D., urged optometry to pay attention to the preschool years and to examine and supervise (with optometric expertise) the vision of these children and to learn to identify those children who would present difficulties in learning. At the same time, Darell Boyd Harmon, Ph.D., suggested that optometry "gear up" for an expected avalanche of visually-related learning problems. Optometry did listen and learn, the avalanche is here and developmental optometry has prospered. This paper briefly explores some of the long and short-range benefits of vision therapy.

  16. Optometric education in Africa: historical perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oduntan, Olalekan A; Mashige, Khathutshelo P; Kio, Franklin E; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel B

    2014-03-01

    The African continent, with a population of more than one billion and 55 recognized developing countries, is still grappling in some countries with socioeconomic and other challenges inherent in developing countries. The continent is working toward a single political entity known as the African Union, and development is taking place faster than ever in most countries. The continent is known to have high levels of health problems, including visual impairment and blindness. Most nations in the continent are making efforts to reduce the scourge of health problems including visual impairment and blindness. Visual impairment in the continent is mostly caused by refractive errors. Consequently, optometry can help reduce the prevalence of visual impairment on the continent. The educational programs currently offered by the different institutions include Diploma in Optometry (DipOptom), Bachelor of Optometry (BOptom), and Doctor of Optometry (OD). There are 17 established institutions offering optometry degree programs on the continent, of which 14 are fully accredited. Considering the optometric manpower needed in the continent, more optometry institutions need to be established. Staffing and infrastructural and training facilities are major challenges facing the majority of the existing institutions. There is also a need to place greater emphasis on postgraduate education to meet the institutional, national, and international professional training standards and to ensure sustainability of optometry education. This article addresses the historical development, educational issues, challenges, and needs, as well as recommendations, for improving the standard and sustainability of optometric education.

  17. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2)...

  18. 77 FR 3782 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities..., osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, and pharmacy. The NSL...

  19. 75 FR 65060 - Advisory Committee on Prosthetics and Special-Disabilities Programs; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... technology. The Committee also provides advice to the Secretary on special disabilities programs which are... Strategic Healthcare Group; Director of Optometry Service; and Chief Consultant for Dental Services. On...

  20. 42 CFR 60.5 - Who is an eligible student borrower?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Podiatric..., research or special studies that the school considers sufficient to classify the student as full time. (d...

  1. A Simulation of Amblyopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Michael W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A simulation of the decreased visual acuity of individuals with amblyopia is used in one optometry program to help students understand how amblyopia patients see. Students act as patient, then as doctor, proceeding through clinical diagnosis. (MSE)

  2. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  3. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  4. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  5. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  6. Training the Trainer: Developing Educators for Continuing Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canellos, Harriete; Medio, Franklin J.; Mozlin, Rochelle; Perry, Claudia A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program at the State University of New York College of Optometry targeted at training younger clinical faculty who wish to become involved in continuing professional education. Covers the program's purpose and the institution's experiences with implementation. (DB)

  7. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  8. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  9. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  10. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  11. Diversity within the Profession. Part One: Trends and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, which reveals intolerance in the form of harassment and discrimination, and inequalities in the patterns of practice, power, and economics. (EV)

  12. Training the Trainer: Developing Educators for Continuing Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canellos, Harriete; Medio, Franklin J.; Mozlin, Rochelle; Perry, Claudia A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program at the State University of New York College of Optometry targeted at training younger clinical faculty who wish to become involved in continuing professional education. Covers the program's purpose and the institution's experiences with implementation. (DB)

  13. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  14. The Hillman Rotation: An External Clinic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Joan M.; Veith, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Describes the external optometric education program at the Sidney Hillman Health Centre (Chicago, Illinois). Discusses the history of the clinic, its administrative and educational philosophy, and its affiliation with two prominent hospitals and the Illinois College of Optometry. (DB)

  15. Diversity within the Profession. Part Two: Initiatives Promoting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, describing programs geared either toward increasing diversity or facilitating acceptance of diversity within the optometric profession, including affirmative action and other institutional support structures. (EV)

  16. Clinically Normal Stereopsis Does Not Ensure Performance Benefit from Stereoscopic 3D Depth Cues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    Stereopsis, Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 16...Binocular Vision, Optometry, Depth Perception , 3D vision, 3D human factors, Stereoscopic displays, S3D, Virtual environment 1 Distribution A: Approved...disparities (up to ~20 arc min) that are fused into a single binocular percept when presented briefly, and that result in increased perceptions of depth

  17. Merton C. Flom, OD, PhD--a paradigm of optometric leadership.

    PubMed

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2007-11-01

    Dr. Merton Flom serves as the quintessential model for demonstrating what it takes to be an outstanding scientist, clinician, and educator. Professor Flom's career as a clinician, vision scientist, and visionary in optometry is well known to most faculty in optometric institutions, but many in the profession may not be aware of his enormous contributions. This profile captures Dr. Flom's professional and personal views about optometry, vision research, and education.

  18. Evaluation of Physicians and Physician Extenders: Manpower Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    increase than dentistry with a nine percent increase, optometry with a 24 percent increase, and pharmacy with an eight percent increase. The increasing...10,135 10,881 11,274 11,603 11,815 12,260 Forensic Pathology ---- 193 187 192 186 203 206 Psychiatr/ *y------------- 20,901 22,319 23,075...health professions schools) Profession Year Medicine ’Osteopathy Dentistry Optometry Pharmacy Number of graduates 1950 -------------- 5,553 373 2,830 961

  19. A Search for a New Aircrew Spectacle Frame.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    replacement frames for the HGIJ-4/P spectacle frame. The optometry chiefs of the Air Force and Navy met in fo rmal ly wi th a Fort Rucker —based...to determine which manufacturer had the best product . The Navy and Air Force optometry chiefs did not concur because of perceived drawbacks in...KY - 50 Charleston AFB SC - 100 Canal Zone, Panama - 50 Ft Richardson AK - 50 Volunteers in aircrew fli ght support status agreed to wear their

  20. Trauma, Disasters and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    skills was represented including physicians, dentists, nurses, and personnel from mental and environmental health, optometry , X-ray, logistics...represented including physicians, dentists, nurses, personnel from mental health, environmental health, optometry , x-ray, logistics, administration, and...one passenger. The C-141B had left Norton Air Force Base on Monday headed for Howard Air Base in Panama on a routine re-supply mission. It stopped to

  1. Medical Care for Echelons Above Divisions - Is Medical Force 2000 Adequate to Need?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    exercised during Operation Just Cause in Panama proved to be such a workable concept that it was also exercised during the Gulf conflict. Similar...Medical Battalion becomes a multifunctional organization encompassing preventive medicine, optometry , mental health, and medical supply in the medical...Provides Preventive Medicine, Combat Stress, Optometry , and Emergency Surgery to the Division. Provides Class VIII supply/resupply for Division from

  2. Medical Services: Composition, Mission, and Functions of the Army Medical Department

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Optometry Section. An officer is selected and certified by TSG and the Chief of the MSC to be Chief of each Section; each officer concurrently is designated...engineering. d. Optometry Section. 2–15. Duties of MSC officers. a. Officers of the branch perform a wide variety of administra- tive, technical...PSC), WASH DC 20310. For po- sitions that are on medical TDA within the continental United States (CONUS), Alaska, Hawaii, Panama , 7th Medical Command

  3. The role of optometrists in India: an integral part of an eye health team.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Neilsen; Cui, Yu; Looi, Stephanie; Paudel, Prakash; Shinde, Lakshmi; Kumar, Krishna; Berwal, Rajbir; Wadhwa, Rajesh; Daniel, Vinod; Flanagan, Judith; Holden, Brien

    2012-01-01

    India has a proud tradition of blindness prevention, being the first country in the world to implement a blindness control programme which focused on a model to address blinding eye disease. However, with 133 million people blind or vision impaired due to the lack of an eye examination and provision of an appropriate pair of spectacles, it is imperative to establish a cadre of eye care professionals to work in conjunction with ophthalmologists to deliver comprehensive eye care. The integration of highly educated four year trained optometrists into primary health services is a practical means of correcting refractive error and detecting ocular disease, enabling co-managed care between ophthalmologists and optometrists. At present, the training of optometrists varies from two year trained ophthalmic assistants/optometrists or refractionists to four year degree trained optometrists. The profession of optometry in India is not regulated, integrated into the health care system or recognised by the majority of people in India as provider of comprehensive eye care services. In the last two years, the profession of optometry in India is beginning to take the necessary steps to gain recognition and regulation to become an independent primary health care profession. The formation of the Indian Optometry Federation as the single peak body of optometry in India and the soon to be established Optometry Council of India are key organisations working towards the development and regulation of optometry.

  4. Perceptions of acceptable conducts by university students.

    PubMed

    Marques, Dora Nazaré; Macedo, António Filipe

    2016-01-01

    To determine perceptions of acceptable conducts amongst under and postgraduate optometry students and to compare them with students from other disciplines. Students (under/postgraduate) of optometry (n=156) and other courses (n=54) from University of Minho participated in a voluntary online questionnaire about perception of conducts, classifying as acceptable or unacceptable 15 academic or professional scenarios. 210 questionnaires were analyzed. Differences in perceptions were found between optometry under and postgraduates in scenario 5, Chi-square(2,156)=4.3, p=0.038, and scenario 7, Chi-square(2,156)=7.0, p=0.008 (both with cheating more acceptable for postgrads). Differences between under and postgraduates from other courses were found in scenario 9 (taking supplies from classroom more acceptable for undergrads), Chi-square(1,54)=5.0, p=0.025, and scenario 14 (forging a signature more acceptable for postgrads), Chi-square(1,54)=3.9, p=0.046. Differences between optometry and other courses undergraduates were observed in scenario 2 (plagiarism more acceptable for optometry undergrads), Chi-square(1,154)=8.3, p=0.004 and scenario 9 (taking supplies from classroom more acceptable for other undergrads), chi-square(1,54)=7.8, p=0.005. Differences between optometry and other courses postgraduates were observed in scenario 7, Chi-square(1,56)=5.8, p=0.016, scenario 10 (both with cheating more acceptable for optometry postgrads), chi-square(1,54)=8.1, p=0.004 and scenario 14 (forging a signature more acceptable for other postgrads), Chi-square(1,54)=6.1, p=0.026. Academic misconducts were mainly considered more acceptable than professional misconducts. Our results show that perceptions of acceptable conducts amongst optometry students are not very different from other students, and, against our initial prediction, do not show a general change in misconduct perception when students become more mature. Universities should pay more attention to this problem and take

  5. Christian Henry Brown (1857-1933) and the Philadelphia Optical College.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2010-10-01

    Christian Henry Brown, M.D., (1857-1933) was an oculist who operated the Philadelphia Optical College for over forty years. This paper provides a brief biographical sketch of C.H. Brown and a history of the Philadelphia Optical College. The Philadelphia Optical College offered attendance and correspondence courses in optometry, and claimed to have had several thousand graduates. It did not fare well in a rating of optometry schools in the mid-1920s. Brown authored several significant textbooks, most notably Optician's Manual, later retitled Optometrist's Manual.

  6. The Health Professional as Writer: Two Models for Integrating Writing into the Curricula of Baccalaureate Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haneline, Douglas

    Current changes in health care professions requiring practitioners to have more and better communications skills are necessitating the integration of writing into the health curricula of higher education programs. At Ferris State University, a number of models (in Optometry, Dental Hygiene, Health Systems Management, Nursing, Pharmacy, Medical…

  7. Health Professionals Special Pays Study: Report to Congress on Armed Forces Health Professionals Special Pays -- Other Health Care Providers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Language Hearing Association (ASHA) is the regulatory and governing body for audiology and speech pathology . Before earning national board certification from...agency, the speech pathologist evaluates, diagnoses and determines the treatment course. Only in cases with vocal pathology , cancer, dysphagia , and...veterinary medicine, optometry, pharmacy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, occupational therapy, audiology, speech pathology , podiatry, social work

  8. Symposium: The Role of Biological Sciences in the Optometric Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Rapp, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Papers from a symposium probing some of the curricular elements of the program in biological sciences at a school or college of optometry are provided. The overall program sequence in the biological sciences, microbiology, pharmacology, and the curriculum in the biological sciences from a clinical perspective are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  9. Development of the Air Force-Army Military Skill Linkage System (MISL).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Orthopedic Surgeon, Sports Medicine Orthopedic Surgeon, Spine Surgery Orthopedic Surgeon, Oncology Orthopedic Surgeon, Replacement Arthroplasty...0 67B Laboratory Sciences o 67C Preventive Medicine Sciences o 67D Behavioral Sciences 0 67E Pharmacy 0 67F Optometry o 67G Podiatry o 67J

  10. Understanding, Predicting, and Reducing Appointment No-Shows in a Military Medical Treatment Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Orthopedics 8171 1013 11.0% Pediatrics 25022 1780 6.6% Physical Therapy 13717 2910 17.5% Podiatry 2863 473 14.2% Sports Medicine 1863 491 20.9% Urology...clinics at the Naval Hospital, the five with the highest no-show rates include optometry (25%), mental health (21.9%), sports medicine (20.9

  11. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Smauel; And Others

    Enrollment data are presented for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1981-82. Projections for future years are made from the length of the academic program for current enrollees. The data are segmented by program type, and include the actual…

  12. 38 CFR 17.601 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... level of academic standing means the level at which a student retains eligibility to continue in... osteopathy, doctor of dentistry, doctor of optometry, doctor of podiatry, or an associate degree... number of credit hours in any academic term to complete the course of study within not more than the...

  13. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    Enrollment data are provided for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1977-78. In one section, the schools are classified by discipline, and within each discipline the schools are sorted alphabetically by state; discipline totals are also…

  14. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  15. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  16. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  17. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences...

  18. 21 CFR 808.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue in effect any requirement with... and Drugs may, upon application by a State or political subdivision, allow imposition of a requirement..., optometry, pharmacy, nursing, podiatry, or any other of the healing arts or allied medical sciences or...

  19. A Strategic Approach to Humanitarian Medical Manpower Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    population dynamics, nutrition , reproductive health, health financing, medical resources and usage, immunization, infectious diseases , HIV/Aids, and...maternal health, nutrition , optometry, and preventive health. A second data request by disease cluster to NMCSD for M-2 data focused on capturing...increasing, see Figure 3. In addition, the top ten diseases are identified as ear infection, rheumatism , eye infections, urinary tract infections

  20. How to Make Low Vision "Sexy": A Starting Point for Interdisciplinary Student Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Strong, Graham; Renaud, Judith; Southall, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Professionals in the field of low vision are increasingly concerned about the paucity of optometry students who are expressing any interest in low vision as a clinical subspecialty. Concurrent with this apparent disinterest is an increased demand for these services as the baby boomer population becomes more predisposed to age-related vision loss.…

  1. Curriculum Model for Oculomotor. Binocular, and Visual Perception Dysfunctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A curriculum for disorders of oculomotor control, binocular vision, and visual perception, adopted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, is outlined. The curriculum's 14 objectives in physiology, perceptual and cognitive development, epidemiology, public health, diagnosis and management, environmental influences, care delivery,…

  2. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES... and other practitioners licensed and practicing in the field of medical science and healing or any of... bachelors of science in optometry). (c) Employees engaged in internship or resident programs, whether or not...

  3. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES... and other practitioners licensed and practicing in the field of medical science and healing or any of... bachelors of science in optometry). (c) Employees engaged in internship or resident programs, whether or not...

  4. 29 CFR 541.304 - Practice of law or medicine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES... and other practitioners licensed and practicing in the field of medical science and healing or any of... bachelors of science in optometry). (c) Employees engaged in internship or resident programs, whether or not...

  5. Academic Restructuring: Options and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freddo, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    For the primary eye care practitioner in the 1990s and beyond, the basic biomedical sciences have supplanted physiological optics as the primary academic discipline underlying the practice of optometry. Several curriculum development options are available to incorporate the needed material, but a core curriculum is essential at all institutions.…

  6. PATHWAYS TO HEALTH CAREERS, EXPLORING HEALTH OCCUPATIONS AND PROFESSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Careers Council of Illinois, Chicago.

    CAREERS IN THE AREAS OF DENTISTRY, DIETETICS, MEDICAL RECORD LIBRARY SCIENCE, MEDICAL LABORATORY WORK, MEDICINE, NURSING, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY, OPTOMETRY, PHARMACY, PHYSICAL THERAPY, PODIATRY, PUBLIC HEALTH, RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, SOCIAL WORK, VETERINARY MEDICINE, HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION, AND OTHER HEALTH OCCUPATIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE…

  7. The Impact of the Perceived Value of Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denial, A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2003-2007 at the New England College of Optometry, the Integrative Seminar Course (ISC) was used to facilitate students' learning of clinical reasoning. To examine students' perceptions and experiences regarding their learning, an end-of-year Likert-style survey was administered to 96 first-year students after completion of the ISC. Analysis…

  8. Recertification and Relicensure--Implications for the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, George B.; Swinford, David N.

    1975-01-01

    The study surveyed the extent of the movement to require continuing education in 14 professions: accountancy, architecture, dentistry, dietetics, engineering, law, medicine, nursing, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, physical therapy, real estate, social work, and veterinary medicine. The report provides some general conclusions and a summary of…

  9. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume I: Data Analysis, Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The study focused on women's education in eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as school applicants and students. Almost 600 interviews were conducted with…

  10. Study of How Health Professions Students Finance Their Education, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocniak, Nina; And Others

    Expenses that health professions students incurred, sources of income to meet those expenditures, and indebtedness incurred by the students during the 1976-77 school year were studied. A questionnaire, which is appended, was mailed to a sample of students registered in schools of dentistry, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, podiatry,…

  11. Costs of Education in the Health Professions: Report of a Study Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Resources Development.

    This report contains aggregate data on costs for all schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, and nursing, and the average education costs per student in these fields for a sample of schools during the 1972-73 academic year. Context for the study is provided by an appraisal of the educational…

  12. Construction Grants for Educational Facilities. Fiscal Years 1965-76. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    This publication provides information on construction assistance awarded during fiscal years 1965 through 1976 by the Bureau of Health Manpower (BHM) and its predecessors to schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, and nursing. In addition, it provides data…

  13. Institutional Resource Requirements and Cost Per Student for Contemporary Pharmaceutical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swintosky, Joseph V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the IOM study that determined the average annual education costs per student, for the first professional degree. Colleges of pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, veterinary medicine, podiatry, optometry, and nursing were included. The data are assessed with particular reference to the University of Kentucky.…

  14. How Health Professions Students Finance Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    This report was based on a survey to determine how students in the health professions of medicine osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine financed their educations during the 1970-71 school year. The purpose of this nationwide survey was to provide information on patterns of student expenses and on the sources…

  15. The Optometric Residency Accreditation Process--Planning for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchoff, Irwin B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The American Optometric Association's current review of procedures for accrediting optometric residencies is discussed. Reasons for the review (projected growth of programs and revised standards) are discussed, procedures currently in place for accrediting programs in osteopathy, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatry, and optometry are summarized; and…

  16. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    Enrollment data are provided for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1977-78. In one section, the schools are classified by discipline, and within each discipline the schools are sorted alphabetically by state; discipline totals are also…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The study focused on eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as medical/professional school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination process that limits…

  18. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Smauel; And Others

    Enrollment data are presented for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1981-82. Projections for future years are made from the length of the academic program for current enrollees. The data are segmented by program type, and include the actual…

  19. Applying the Department of Health and Human Services Underserved Area Criteria to Army Dental Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    The Act also applied to students in schools of medicine, osteopathy , or optometry, and was based on county practitioner-population ratios. By 1971...primatry cam physician (Ui) Othier tourists (non-residtnt) may osteopathy (D.O.) providing direct ratio of less than 2.50:1I but greater be included

  20. A Report on Health Sciences Education Planning for California: 1980-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Health sciences education planning for California for 1980-82 is examined. The adequacy of educational programs in meeting the needs of California for professional personnel in medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and optometry is assessed. Data on enrollments and graduation rates in these fields are updated from the 1978 plan, and similar data…

  1. Health Manpower Source Book. Manpower Supply and Educational Statistics for Selected Health Occupations: 1968. Public Health Service Publication Number 263, Section 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Professions Education and Manpower Training.

    This publication is a compilation of statistics on supply and education of health manpower in medicine and osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, nursing, public health, and eight selected allied health occupations. The material is organized by occupations and the following information is presented for each…

  2. The Impact of the Perceived Value of Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denial, A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2003-2007 at the New England College of Optometry, the Integrative Seminar Course (ISC) was used to facilitate students' learning of clinical reasoning. To examine students' perceptions and experiences regarding their learning, an end-of-year Likert-style survey was administered to 96 first-year students after completion of the ISC. Analysis…

  3. Comparison of Optometric and Dental Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Kyle; Dinh, Michael; Harris, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A study comparing the medically relevant educational requirements of the University of California, Berkeley School of Optometry to that of the University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry finds that the curriculums are generally equivalent, supporting the argument for an expanded scope of optometric practice. (EV)

  4. Predictors of Success of Black Americans in a College-Level Pre-Health Professions Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Predictors of success for black freshmen entering Xavier University of Louisiana with an interest in the health professions were studied. Health professions were considered as the mainline fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, and pharmacy. Students majoring in biology, chemistry, or…

  5. Utilizing the Patient Management Problem as a Student Clinical Evaluation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, Lee Ann; Roggenkamp, John R.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional patient management problem test was designed to measure third-year optometry students' clinical competency at Pacific University (Oregon). Results suggest this evaluation method is valid and may be useful in identifying students needing to improve their clinical thinking skills. Some issues in test administration and scoring…

  6. Recertification and Relicensure--Implications for the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, George B.; Swinford, David N.

    1975-01-01

    The study surveyed the extent of the movement to require continuing education in 14 professions: accountancy, architecture, dentistry, dietetics, engineering, law, medicine, nursing, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, physical therapy, real estate, social work, and veterinary medicine. The report provides some general conclusions and a summary of…

  7. Integrating Graphics and Speech. A Neural Sciences Computer-Assisted Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    A new optometry-oriented program for the Macintosh computer has been written for the Neural Sciences Computer-Assisted Learning Package to include graphics and synthesized speech. It has 21 modules in 6 categories: anatomical drawings; diagrams illustrating physiological concepts; records from experiments; flow charts of neuroanatomical pathways;…

  8. Licensed Optometrists in Alaska 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of Alaska. The survey was conducted in 1973 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Since there was a 100 percent…

  9. Predictors of Rural Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel-Flom, Penelope

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes toward the urban environment and place of origin were found to be the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. Findings of this study imply that optometry students most likely to enter rural practice can be objectively identified early in their training and that the predictive equation presented may be useful in the…

  10. A Report to the President & Congress on the Status of Health Professions Personnel in the United States. [Advance Issue, August 1978].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    This report, the first of a series of annual reports mandated by the Public Health Service Act as amended by the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-484), describes and analyzes the status of health professions personnel in the United States. The professions covered are medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry,…

  11. Licensed Optometrists in North Dakota 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of North Dakota. The survey was conducted in 1973 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Approximately 97 percent…

  12. Professional Development and Administration: Report of the ASCO Project Team on Professional Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    An outline for a professional development and administration course in an optometry curriculum model is provided. It is designed to develop organizational, communicative, and management skills so the optometrist can become successful in the development and administration of a professional practice. Legal and professional development bibliographies…

  13. A Proposed Regional Plan for the Expansion of Optometric Education in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Wesley N.; And Others

    Concern about the adequacy of existing optometry schools to meet the needs and demands for optometric education in the South prompted a study, to result in a proposal for expansion of education in the field. The results showed that there is a shortage of optometrists in each of the 14 states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region,…

  14. Preparation of Basic and Clinical Sciences Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of basic and clinical science teaching in optometry in the next decade looks at the changing role of primary care and specialist optometrists, the training needs of current and future faculty, recommended curriculum changes, and decision making about delivery of this training. The roles of graduate training, residencies, and…

  15. Licensed Optometrists in South Carolina 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of South Carolina. The surveys was conducted in 1972 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Approximately 96…

  16. Licensed Optometrists in Wisconsin 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Manpower Intelligence.

    This report presents preliminary findings from a mail survey of all optometrists licensed to practice in the State of Wisconsin. The survey was conducted in 1972 by the International Association of Boards of Examiners in Optometry as part of a national endeavor to collect data on all optometrists in the United States. Approximately 95 percent of…

  17. The Role of Selected Health Problems in the Causation of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers sociological theories of delinquency causation in order to attempt to integrate research from the fields of optometry, audiology, neurology, and pediatric medicine into the mainstream of sociological theories of delinquency causation. Found strong and consistent relationships between the presence of these health problems and delinquency.…

  18. 78 FR 7787 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...: Ph.D. and Psy.D. (d) Counseling Psychology: Ph.D. (e) Social Work: Masters level only. (f) Chemical..., public health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social work, marriage and family therapy, chiropractic medicine, environmental health and engineering, an...

  19. 76 FR 8748 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social...: Allopathic and Osteopathic. (b) Nurse: Associate, B.S., and M.S. Degree. (c) Clinical Psychology: Ph.D. and Psy.D. (d) Social Work: Masters level only. (e) Chemical Dependency Counseling: Baccalaureate and...

  20. 77 FR 3269 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans; Announcement Type...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Psy.D. (d) Counseling Psychology: Ph.D. (e) Social Work: Masters level only. (f) Chemical Dependency..., nursing, public health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social work, marriage and family therapy, chiropractic medicine, environmental health and...

  1. Comparison of Optometric and Dental Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Kyle; Dinh, Michael; Harris, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A study comparing the medically relevant educational requirements of the University of California, Berkeley School of Optometry to that of the University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry finds that the curriculums are generally equivalent, supporting the argument for an expanded scope of optometric practice. (EV)

  2. 45 CFR 83.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Civil Rights of the Department. (f) Entity means (1) a school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathy, school of pharmacy, school of optometry, school of podiatry, school of veterinary medicine, or school of public health, as defined by section 724 of the Act; (2) A school of nursing, as...

  3. 45 CFR 83.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Civil Rights of the Department. (f) Entity means (1) a school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathy, school of pharmacy, school of optometry, school of podiatry, school of veterinary medicine, or school of public health, as defined by section 724 of the Act; (2) A school of nursing, as...

  4. 45 CFR 83.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Civil Rights of the Department. (f) Entity means (1) a school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathy, school of pharmacy, school of optometry, school of podiatry, school of veterinary medicine, or school of public health, as defined by section 724 of the Act; (2) A school of nursing, as...

  5. 45 CFR 83.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Civil Rights of the Department. (f) Entity means (1) a school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathy, school of pharmacy, school of optometry, school of podiatry, school of veterinary medicine, or school of public health, as defined by section 724 of the Act; (2) A school of nursing, as...

  6. Predictors of Success of Black Americans in a College-Level Pre-Health Professions Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Predictors of success for black freshmen entering Xavier University of Louisiana with an interest in the health professions were studied. Health professions were considered as the mainline fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, and pharmacy. Students majoring in biology, chemistry, or…

  7. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Model at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ramona Ann; Gottlieb, Helmut; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C.; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a private University in South Texas sought to prepare eight cohorts of 25 nursing, optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and health care administration students with an interprofessional education activity as a model for collaborative learning. The two semester interprofessional activity used a blended model (Blackboard Learn®,…

  8. Do Tinted Lenses Really Help Students with Reading Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Donald N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article translates research from the fields of optometry, ophthalmology, neurology, and medicine on the efficacy of tinted lenses for students with reading disabilities into understandable information for lay people. The paper concludes that the treatment does not significantly improve reading, although some reports indicate improvement in a…

  9. The Role of Selected Health Problems in the Causation of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers sociological theories of delinquency causation in order to attempt to integrate research from the fields of optometry, audiology, neurology, and pediatric medicine into the mainstream of sociological theories of delinquency causation. Found strong and consistent relationships between the presence of these health problems and delinquency.…

  10. Health Professions Education Facilities in the Non-Profit Sector. 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    In this study of the physical facilities of the nation's health professions schools, all schools of dentistry, medicine, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, podiatry, public health, and veterinary medicine, and all parent institutions of the schools, were surveyed in May of 1973. The major goals of this pioneering survey were to assess the nature and…

  11. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume VII: Women in Podiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students, and to describe the discrimination…

  12. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools: Volume VIII: Women in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    In an exploratory study conducted for the Women's Action Program of HEW, the aims were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as MODVOPPP (Medicine, Osteopathic medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary medicine, Optometry, Podiatry, Pharmacy, and Public health) school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The study focused on eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as medical/professional school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination process that limits…

  14. Directory of Medical Libraries in New York State. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Library, Albany.

    Intended to facilitate cooperation among all types of libraries and to assist the medical and health sciences communities, this directory lists 152 medical libraries in New York State: hospital, industrial, medical research, schools of medicine, and schools of nursing, optometry, and pharmacy. Most of the libraries are open to research by…

  15. How to Make Low Vision "Sexy": A Starting Point for Interdisciplinary Student Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Strong, Graham; Renaud, Judith; Southall, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Professionals in the field of low vision are increasingly concerned about the paucity of optometry students who are expressing any interest in low vision as a clinical subspecialty. Concurrent with this apparent disinterest is an increased demand for these services as the baby boomer population becomes more predisposed to age-related vision loss.…

  16. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  17. Recruitment and Selection Strategies in Optometric Education towards Addressing Human Resource Disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodley, V. R.; Loughman, James; Naidoo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The dire need for eye care services and a dearth of human resources (HR) in sub-Saharan Africa motivated the setting up of new optometry programmes. However, to make a meaningful impact, geographical, gender, economic and educational disparities must additionally be addressed. A qualitative study utilizing purposive sampling to select academic…

  18. The Vision Education Centre: A Multi-Level Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junghans, Barbara M.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    1992-01-01

    The University of New South Wales (Australia) has established the Vision Education Centre, a clinic designed to attract more pediatric patients for care by senior optometry students. The center uses interactive learning principles to teach elementary school children about optics, provides screening, and offers research opportunities. (MSE)

  19. Including Optometric Services for the Homebound Elderly in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Benjamin; Kirstein, Mark

    1995-01-01

    A mobile eye care service is offered to homebound elderly residents of New York City (New York) by the State University of New York's College of Optometry. Fourth-year students are required to participate, learning techniques with hand-held equipment to examine a population with a high rate of ocular disease who might otherwise not receive…

  20. Academic Restructuring: Options and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freddo, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    For the primary eye care practitioner in the 1990s and beyond, the basic biomedical sciences have supplanted physiological optics as the primary academic discipline underlying the practice of optometry. Several curriculum development options are available to incorporate the needed material, but a core curriculum is essential at all institutions.…

  1. Evaluation of Quality Assurance Programs for Externships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskiewicz, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The procedures of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry's Office of External Educational Programs are reviewed to show how quality assurance techniques can be categorized. The format was designed to evaluate quality assurance procedures for both the educational and service aspects of eye care. (MLW)

  2. Including Optometric Services for the Homebound Elderly in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Benjamin; Kirstein, Mark

    1995-01-01

    A mobile eye care service is offered to homebound elderly residents of New York City (New York) by the State University of New York's College of Optometry. Fourth-year students are required to participate, learning techniques with hand-held equipment to examine a population with a high rate of ocular disease who might otherwise not receive…

  3. Recruitment and Selection Strategies in Optometric Education towards Addressing Human Resource Disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodley, V. R.; Loughman, James; Naidoo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The dire need for eye care services and a dearth of human resources (HR) in sub-Saharan Africa motivated the setting up of new optometry programmes. However, to make a meaningful impact, geographical, gender, economic and educational disparities must additionally be addressed. A qualitative study utilizing purposive sampling to select academic…

  4. Utilizing the Patient Management Problem as a Student Clinical Evaluation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, Lee Ann; Roggenkamp, John R.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional patient management problem test was designed to measure third-year optometry students' clinical competency at Pacific University (Oregon). Results suggest this evaluation method is valid and may be useful in identifying students needing to improve their clinical thinking skills. Some issues in test administration and scoring…

  5. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  6. SUNY at Sixty: The Promise of the State University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, W. Bruce, Ed.; Clark, John B., Ed.; O'Brien, Kenneth P., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The State University of New York is America's largest comprehensive public university system, with sixty-four campuses, including community colleges, colleges of technology, university colleges, research universities, medical schools, academic medical centers, and specialized campuses in fields as diverse as optometry, ceramics, horticulture,…

  7. Do Tinted Lenses Really Help Students with Reading Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Donald N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article translates research from the fields of optometry, ophthalmology, neurology, and medicine on the efficacy of tinted lenses for students with reading disabilities into understandable information for lay people. The paper concludes that the treatment does not significantly improve reading, although some reports indicate improvement in a…

  8. Optometric care for the handicapped.

    PubMed

    Ronis, M F

    1989-01-01

    The need for optometric vision care for handicapped people is discussed. The high incidence of functional vision problems among the disabled population is presented. A vision clinic operated jointly by the New England College of Optometry and the Cotting School, a school for physically disabled children, is described. Suggestions for achieving successful involvement with the vision care of disabled people are presented.

  9. Six-Month Evaluation of Extended Wear Soft Contact Lenses Among Armored Troops. Part 1. Clinical Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Doctini Cou i Id s K.. ’rned A’ ’is TeSI I oumicroscorry onl asyr iptoirnac coritact-lens-wearing recruits Ar. I vili riili a I To a, QiiuviiridW ,’a...Optometry The University of Alabama, Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294 About the Authors William G. Bachman received the Doctor of Op- tometry degree from

  10. Effects of Induced Astigmatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G.; Walton, Howard N.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship of astigmatism to reading and the possible detrimental effects it might have on reading were investigated. The greatest incidence of astigmatism was for the with-the-rule type ranging from .50 to 1.00 diopter. This type of astigmatism was induced in 35 seniors from the Los Angeles College of Optometry by placing cylindrical lenses…

  11. Symposium: The Role of Biological Sciences in the Optometric Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Rapp, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Papers from a symposium probing some of the curricular elements of the program in biological sciences at a school or college of optometry are provided. The overall program sequence in the biological sciences, microbiology, pharmacology, and the curriculum in the biological sciences from a clinical perspective are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  12. Construction Grants for Educational Facilities, Fiscal Years 1965-77. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Bella U.; Rosenthal, Samuel

    This publication provides information on construction assistance awarded to schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, and nursing. In addition it provides data on grants awarded to schools of allied health, medical libraries, and health research facilities.…

  13. Making a Difference. Visual Health Needs of People with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlade, Anne; Bickerstaff, David; Lindsay, Jennifer; McConkey, Roy; Jackson, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings from a study to assess the impact of corrective eye treatment in adults with a learning disability. The Special Visual Assessment Clinic (SVAC) is an optometry led multi professional service delivered in a Resource Centre in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The study, which included user and carer input in its design,…

  14. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  15. Air Force Health Care Providers: Automation Concerns Relating to - Needs, Experience, and Support,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-22

    handle and transfer the wounded. Helicopters pick up the wounded on the front lines and transfer them to staging areas. After stabilization, the patients...radiology surgery urology ophthalmology otorhinolaryngology anesthesiology obstetrics/gynecology physical medicine psychiatry internal medicine oncology...aerospace physiology clinical psychology clinical social work alcohol rehabilitation dietitian occupational theraphy pharmacy optometry podiatry

  16. The Perfect Eye A Novel Model for Teaching the Theory of Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The Perfect Eye model simplifies solutions to a wide variety of optometry instructional problems by facilitating student understanding of the interaction among lenses, objects, accommodation, and ametropia. The model is based on the premise that inside every eye is a perfect (emmetropic) eye, and that the physiological eye is a combination of the…

  17. A Comprehensive Approach To Critically Evaluate an Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachimowicz, Ruth A.; Lee, David Y.

    1999-01-01

    At Illinois College of Optometry a peer-review committee evaluates the exams of both basic science and clinical courses to provide an objective means of evaluating a faculty member's teaching ability. Five aspects of the exam (content, construction, statistical analysis, adjusted questions, instructor's rationale) are evaluated to determine the…

  18. Rethinking Student Loan Debt: Tools and Strategies for Debt Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan G.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes student loan debt at the University of Missouri-St. Louis School of Optometry, showing the need for a comprehensive debt management program. Presents a model for determining manageable amounts of student loan debt developed from conventional lending criteria and data on earnings for optometrists. (EV)

  19. Optometric Education: A Summary Report. National Study of Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    This document is a lengthy summary of the Report of the National Study of Optometric Education. Contents include: introductory material; evolution of optometric training; vision care; institutions providing optometric education and their objectives; the scope of optometry; educational implications of contemporary developments in optometric…

  20. Student Indebtedness: The Challenge of Financing an Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Lawrence H.

    2000-01-01

    Examines data from annual surveys of member institutions of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry concerning cost of education, student financial assistance, and student indebtedness. Twelve tables and six figures detail cost and indebtedness factors from 1989/90 through 1996/97. Finds costs and indebtedness have gone up…

  1. Modifying the Curriculum: Teaching Clinical Students about Caring for Patients with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the curricula of optometry programs can be modified to prepare graduates to meet the needs of patients from special populations. Addresses student attitudes and the clinical encounter, including the case history, clinical examination, clinical decision making and determination of patient management plans, and case discussion of the…

  2. Laser Optometric Assessment Of Visual Display Viewability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murch, Gerald M.

    1983-08-01

    Through the technique of laser optometry, measurements of a display user's visual accommodation and binocular convergence were used to assess the visual impact of display color, technology, contrast, and work time. The studies reported here indicate the potential of visual-function measurements as an objective means of improving the design of visual displays.

  3. SUNY at Sixty: The Promise of the State University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, W. Bruce, Ed.; Clark, John B., Ed.; O'Brien, Kenneth P., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The State University of New York is America's largest comprehensive public university system, with sixty-four campuses, including community colleges, colleges of technology, university colleges, research universities, medical schools, academic medical centers, and specialized campuses in fields as diverse as optometry, ceramics, horticulture,…

  4. Optics education in an optometric setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Raghuram, Aparna

    2003-10-01

    We discuss optics education within the context of an Optometric professional program leading to a degree of Doctor of Optometry (O.D.). Basic course work in Geometric, Physical, Ophthalmic and Visual Optics will be described and we will discuss how basic optical phenomena can be made relevant to the Optometric student with different academic backgrounds.

  5. The Intelligent Anatomy Spotter: A New Approach to Incorporate Higher Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L.

    2016-01-01

    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of…

  6. Cooperative Learning Combined with Short Periods of Lecturing: A Good Alternative in Teaching Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Santander, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The informal activities of cooperative learning and short periods of lecturing has been combined and used in the university teaching of biochemistry as part of the first year course of Optics and Optometry in the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The lessons were previously elaborated by the teacher and included all that is necessary to…

  7. Interim Outcomes Assessment of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolls, Dorothy Bazzinotti; Carlson, Nancy; Wilson, Roger; Richman, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the viability of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation, introduced at The New England College of Optometry in 1996 in clinical student assessment. Analyzed faculty and student feedback and consistency with previous evaluations, between evaluators, and between clinical sites and tracts. Found satisfaction with…

  8. Pharmacology Curriculum Model--A Report of the ADCO Council on Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A curriculum model for various schools and colleges to use in assessing the scope of their individual pharmacology programs is presented. The Council on Academic Affairs of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry prepared this model because of modifications in state laws to allow the use of pharmaceutical agents in the practice of…

  9. Making a Difference. Visual Health Needs of People with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlade, Anne; Bickerstaff, David; Lindsay, Jennifer; McConkey, Roy; Jackson, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings from a study to assess the impact of corrective eye treatment in adults with a learning disability. The Special Visual Assessment Clinic (SVAC) is an optometry led multi professional service delivered in a Resource Centre in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The study, which included user and carer input in its design,…

  10. Studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, M.; Kowalczyk, A.

    2007-02-01

    This contribution demonstrates potential of Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) for studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine occurring at various time scales. Several examples from ophthalmology, optometry, surgery, neurology are given to illustrate the extension of SOCT beyond pure morphological investigations.

  11. Assessing Outcomes in Optometric Education: A Commentary by the Council on Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    A statement of the Council for Optometric Education (COE) defines and characterizes educational outcomes, outcomes assessment, and outcomes data, and explains the reasons for outcomes assessment, its relationship to curricular design, and its function in accreditation of optometry programs. Stated COE standards and expectations of optometry…

  12. Perceived Barriers to Faculty Achievement in the Area of Scholarly Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Mary Beth; Gross, Sanford M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 35 Illinois College of Optometry faculty investigated perceived barriers to scholarly activity, including time management, communication skills, knowledge of research design and statistics, computer literacy, institutional support, use of human or material resources, and library resource skills. A majority felt their skills were…

  13. Managed Care in the Military: The Catchment Area Management Demonstrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Sill, where routine optometry examinations--which might otherwise be unavailable to retirees and their dependents--are made available to all...closest hospital. c. Includes other Army catchment areas in the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Panama that are under the authority of

  14. Navy-NGO Coordination for Health-Related HCA Missions: A Suggested Planning Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    SOUTHCOM deployed USNS Comfort (an- other hospital ship) to 12 Central American, South American, and Caribbean nations (Belize, Guatemala, Panama ...stipulated that the Surgeon General would host ship- board regional pandemic influenza conferences in the vicinity of Trinidad/Tobago and Panama [11...cataracts) • Optometry checks and eyewear distribution • General surgery • Obstetrical and gynecological consultative care • Pharmaceutical

  15. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 12, Number 3, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    AFB by Mr. Joe Piccorossi; Panama City Beach tornado by Ms. Jacqui Barker; flipped planes at Hurlburt Field and boat carried ashore at Hurlburt...began in June 2004, and is expected to be finished in November 2006. The 47,716-square-foot facility will include optometry , dentistry, a family

  16. Defense Force Management: Occupation Distribution and Composition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    diitteseilss lyve medicine, veterinary medicine. optometry, phlysilolgy. diet therapy . medical equipmerint main- s2. Clericaj/Personne-Includes combined...Includes ecology, zoý- 61. Health Services Administration Officers-4n. ology, botany, horticulture , conservatioand at cludles all medical and health

  17. Student Attitudes on the Purchase of Required Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Stanley W.; Cron, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of second- and third-year students at two optometry schools investigated how many students bought required textbooks, utility of the book, prices students were willing to pay, feelings about book price in relation to tuition, and reasons for not buying the text. Class size was also considered. (MSE)

  18. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations.

    PubMed

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M

    1994-12-01

    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  19. Identifying the potential rural optometrist.

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1976-09-01

    Rural optometrists were found to differ from urban optometrists in background, environmental attitude, and interest patterns. Attitude toward the urban environment and place of origin were the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. When "urbanism" and "origin" were scaled and placed in a multiple regression equation to predict practice location, identification of an optometrist's location as rural or urban was highly accurate. Most importantly, scores on the equation were predictive of optometry students' future practice locations. A single cut-off point on the equation correctly identified 79% of students who entered rural or isolated small city practice and 81% of those who entered urban practice. The findings suggest that optometry students most likely to enter rural (or indeed urban) practice can be objectively identified early in, or even prior to, training. Such identification may assist educators in selecting and training optometrists who will deliver vision care to people in areas of greatest need.

  20. The Future Role of Army National Guard Special Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    also possess a working knowledge of dentistry , veterinary care, public sanitation, water quality and optometry. Finally, there is one senior and one...soldiers work with law enforcement agencies and community based organizations to interdict and perform anti- drug activities in the fight against...illicit drugs . This program has been in effect since 15 1989 and currently over 2,500 soldiers support more than 5,000 agencies at the local

  1. Same Day Surgery at the 121st General Hospital Seoul, South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Therapy Clinic Optometry Clinic Pharmacy Services Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic Physical Therapy Clinic Orthopedic Clinic Pre-Admission Unit...most conducive to BAMC’s current operating environment; and seventh, recommend a location for the physical layout of the same-day surgery areas at... physical and financial constraints of the 12 1st GH over a several year period, hospital-based integrated SDS has developed minus the correct coding of

  2. Socioeconomic Impact Analysis Study. Disposal and Reuse of Mather Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    facifty, and small arms range. In addition, the department seeks to create a regional handicapped center, an oak woodland forest. multi- sports compie...offered in -eea and family practice, pediatrics, ktema medicine, gynecology. obstetrics, neurology. urology, psychiatry. surgery, optometry, podiatry ...attractions assocad with greater Northern CUaoNla, such as the theaters, wkini historic and cultural sites, and sporting events o the S•n Francisco Bay ares

  3. Proceedings of a Conference on Wraparound Visual Displays Held in Waltham, Massachusetts on 14-15 January 1988 (Motion Sickness, Visual Displays, and Armored Vehicle Design)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    ingtoa~, DC 3. SPON9ORING; MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADORESS4ES) 10. SPUZOVA / MONITORING US Army Ballistic Researh Laboratory AGENCY SEP06...LEn B.ANK. --------- - -- WORKING GROUP ON WRAPAROUND VISUAL DISPIAYS HERSCHEL LEIBOWITZ (Chair), Department of Psychology , Pcnnsylvania State...University SHELDON EBENHOLTZ, College of Optometry, State University of New York RICHARD HELD (NAS), Department of Psychology , Massachusetts Institute of

  4. Hypoxic Hypoxia at Moderate Altitudes: State of the Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Guinet, A., and Travers, S. 2003. Normo- and hypobaric hypoxia: are there any physiological differences? European Journal of Applied Physiology...and Hendley, C. D. 1952. Visual functions as indices of physiological changes in the acid-base balance of the blood. American Journal of Optometry...of safety. Journal of the Australian Society of Aerospace Medicine. 5(1): 4-6. Chevion, S. et al. 2007. Reactive oxygen species production in

  5. Visual Search in the Detection of Retinal Injury: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    D, Heyes A. et al. Mobility of people with retinitis pigmentosa as a function of vision and psychological variables. Optometry and Vision Science...AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2013-0019 Visual Search in the Detection of Retinal Injury: A Feasibility Study Thomas Kuyk TASC, Inc. Lei Liu The...Detection of Retinal Injury: A Feasibility Study" 2013 0019 LEON N. McLIN, JR., DR-III, DAF Work Unit Manager 711 HPW/ RHDO POLHAMUS.GARR ETT.D

  6. Supporting Desert Shield: An Analysis of the Response by the United States Army Medical Department Activity, Fort Stewart to Radical Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    However, there were exceptions to this rule, the most notable of which was the Division’s large scale purchase of bottled water, insect repellent...manufacturers of the aerosol insect repellent and foot powder warned that these products could explode at temperatures exceeding 120 degrees. Materiel...tests (as clinically indicated); vital signs; optometry; audiology; head and neck; chest; abdomen ; extremities; rectal; pelvic exam; x-ray (if needed

  7. Publications and Presentations of the Ophthalmology Branch, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 2001-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    FLIGHT SURGEON PROFILES: AN INTERVIEW WITH COL (RET) THOMAS TREDICI Douglas X Files Flight lines, Vol 20 No. 1, March 2004. 2. KERATOCONUS IN USAF...Ivan, F. J. Lorusso, and W. T. Thompson Optometry and Vision Science, Vol 81, No. 7, July 2004. 19 2004 PUBLICATIONS 9. BACKGROUND PAPER ON COLOR...Association Meeting, Anchorage Alaska, May 3, 2004. 8. KERATOCONUS IN USAF PILOT APPLICANTS Gooch J., M. Thornsberry, D. Ivan, B. Thompson Presentation

  8. The Dark Focus of Visual Accommodation: Its Existence, Its Measurement, Its Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    underestimated. 91 11 £ (I, 1 120 REFERENCES Allen, M. The stimulus to accommodation. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological 0 , 1955 , U2, 79-84. Baldwin ...the time men turned to written recoras to preserve their accumulated knowledge. Indeed, seeing has inspired countless diverse poetry and prose and...state. v Allen ( 1955 ), investigating the stimulus to accommodation, found fluctuations in accommodation that were not reflected in convergence V

  9. [Development of slit-lamp microscope and its applications in optics].

    PubMed

    Qi, Haohui

    2013-11-01

    This paper mainly introduces the origin and development of the slit-lamp microscope, the basic structure, working principle and test methods, focuses on diffuse illumination, direct focal illumination, indirect illumination, retro illumination, zone of specular reflection and slit-lamp filter used in the optical inspection, to provide the reference for clinical general optometry practitioners and using slit-lamp microscope widely and standardized.

  10. Muscular and intraocular pressure responses among ocular-hypertensive subjects: is there a rationale for biofeedback?

    PubMed

    Raczynski, J M; Mason, D A; Wilson, R P; Silvia, E S; Kleinstein, R N

    1985-12-01

    Several animal and human investigations have indicated that intraocular pressure (IOP) levels may be associated with extreme drug-induced changes in the extraocular muscles. Further, recent data suggest that, among individuals with normal IOP level, moderate increases in facial muscle (EMG) activity around the eye while the eye is open are associated with increases in IOP. To investigate further the relationship between facial EMG activity and IOP levels and to examine a group of individuals with elevated IOP levels, subjects were recruited from outpatients at an optometry clinic. Three groups of subjects were selected: a group of ocular hypertensive subjects who showed elevated pressures at the optometry clinic and upon the day of testing, a group of labile ocular hypertensive subjects who evinced elevated pressures during their visit to the optometry clinic but lower pressures on the day of testing, and a group of normal IOP subjects who showed normal pressures both during their optometry clinic visit and on the day of testing. To investigate anxiety differences, subjects were administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, but subsequent analysis revealed no group differences. To evaluate the role of stress upon muscle (EMG) functioning around the eye, subjects were subjected to imagery and standardized mental arithmetic stressors; analyses of these results also revealed no significant group differences. Finally, subjects were given EMG biofeedback for muscle activity around the eye while IOP was assessed during five alternating periods in which they made decreases and increases in EMG activity. Results revealed significant group, period, and group by period interaction effects. The pattern of results is interpreted as implicating EMG activity in IOP fluctuations; the implications of these data for potential biofeedback and stress management treatments are discussed.

  11. Identification of Text and Symbols on a Liquid Crystal Display Part 2: Contrast and Luminance Settings to Optimise Legibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    L. (1981). Task Complexity and Visual Acuity in Senile Macular Degeneration . Australian Journal of Optometry, 64, 235-242. Legge, G. E., Parish, D...symbols can be made without impacting upon readability. The ability to identify text and symbols displayed on a computer screen will be influenced by...DSTO-TR-2144 males and females. All participants had normal colour vision , as tested by the 12 plate Ishihara colour vision test, and 6/6 or better

  12. Brain Injury Vision Symptom Survey (BIVSS) Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Hannu; Scheiman, Mitchell; Hayes, John R

    2017-01-01

    Validation of the Brain Injury Vision Symptom Survey (BIVSS), a self-administered survey for vision symptoms related to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A 28-item vision symptom questionnaire was completed by 107 adult subjects (mean age 42.1, 16.2 SD, range 18-75) who self-reported as having sustained mild-to-moderate TBI and two groups of reference adult subjects (first-year optometry students: mean age 23.2, 2.8 SD, range 20-39; and 71 third-year optometry students: mean age 26.0, 2.9 SD, range 22-42) without TBI. Both a Likert-style method of analysis with factor analysis and a Rasch analysis were used. Logistic regression was used to determine sensitivity and specificity. At least 27 of 28 questions were completed by 93.5% of TBI subjects, and all 28 items were completed by all of the 157 reference subjects. BIVSS sensitivity was 82.2% for correctly predicting TBI and 90.4% for correctly predicting the optometry students. Factor analysis identified eight latent variables; six factors were positive in their risk for TBI. Other than dry eye and double vision, the TBI patients were significantly more symptomatic than either cohort of optometry students by at least one standard deviation (p < 0.001). Twenty-five of 28 questions were within limits for creating a single-dimension Rasch scale. Nearly all of the adult TBI subjects were able to self-complete the BIVSS, and there was significant mean score separation between TBI and non-TBI groups. The Rasch analysis revealed a single dimension associated with TBI. Using the Likert method with the BIVSS, it may be possible to identify different vision symptom profiles with TBI patients. The BIVSS seems to be a promising tool for better understanding the complex and diverse nature of vision symptoms that are associated with brain injury.

  13. Health Partners of Western Ohio: Integrated Care Case Study.

    PubMed

    Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V

    2016-03-01

    Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio.

  14. Enhancing Sensitivity to Visual Motion and Enhancing Visual Sensitivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    R., and Harp , S.A (1982) Contrast sensitivity predicts pilots’ performance in aircraft simulators, American Journal of Optometry & Physiological...Fortunately, these problems were resolved, allowing us to conduct a full-scale study at Williams AFB [reported in Ginsburg, Evans, Sekuler and Harp ...Display 21 219-227. Ginsburg, A.P., Evans, D.W., Sekuler, R., and Harp , S.A (1982) Contrast sensitivity predicts pilots’ performance in aircraft

  15. A Study of Veterans Administration/Department of Defense Health Care Resources Sharing at Keller Army Community Hospital West Point, New York 10996

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) 2. PSYCHIATRY SERVICE (39 M.D’s, 4 P.A.’s) A. Triage Unit - Screening and Evaluation. B. Inpatient Programs (1) Acute...FUNCTION TEST 1. Double consult to Inhallation Therapy . 2. Need patient’s height, weight, and age. 3. Specify: a. Screening (FEVi, FVC & FEVI/FVC b...Angiogram 9. OPTOMETRY (3 Optometrists) Full Services 10. AUDIOLOGY CLINIC (1 Audiologist) Full Services 11. PHYSICAL THERAPY (3 PTs) Full Services 12

  16. Gradient-index crystalline lens model: A new method for determining the paraxial properties by the axial and field rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, María. Angeles; Pérez, María. Victoria; Bao, Carmen; Flores-Arias, María. Teresa; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Gradient-index (GRIN) models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering the effect of inhomogeneity of the refractive index on the optical properties of the lens. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine analytically cardinal elements, magnifications and refractive power of the lens by the axial and field rays in order to study the paraxial light propagation through the human lens from its GRIN nature.

  17. Some experiments with thin prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, P. C. B.

    1980-11-01

    In most attempts at modernizing the college physics curriculum one of the first branches of physics to be eliminated is geometrical optics. However, in developing countries where the curriculum must give emphasis to applied areas (if physics is to survive at all!), geometrical optics has a role to play, especially in its relationship to the professional course ''Optometry.'' The author presents a few experiments in geometrical optics with an ophthalmic opitics bias, which could be introduced into the college physics laboratory.

  18. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  19. Gradient parameter and axial and field rays in the gradient-index crystalline lens model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. V.; Bao, C.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Rama, M. A.; Gómez-Reino, C.

    2003-09-01

    Gradient-index models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering how changes in the refractive index profile with age and accommodation may affect refractive power. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine gradient parameter and axial and field rays of the human lens in order to study the paraxial propagation of light through the crystalline lens of the eye.

  20. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 25, Numbers 1 and 2, Fall 2002/Winter 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    measures within the region. These tropical islands are in proximity to major sea lines of communication - the Panama Canal and Caribbean Sea areas. They...destroyed 18,621 small arms and light weapons. In Panama , coincident with Operation Just Cause in 1990-91, U.S. forces destroyed 77,553 small arms...civic action plans (e.g. medical, dental, optometry , and veterinary), rudimentary construction to include non-revenue producing infrastructure projects

  1. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  2. Academic dropout or academic success: a model for prediction.

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1986-09-01

    Why do some students who qualify for admission to optometry school become academic dropouts while others succeed? This question was addressed in a study which compared the admission records of 21 academic dropouts from three classes at the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) with 269 retained students. Academic dropouts were found to have significantly lower preoptometry grades, lower Optometry College Admission Test (OCAT) scores, attended less competitive (i.e., less selective) undergraduate institutions, scored lower on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and were older than retained students. When these differentiating admission variables, excepting age, were applied to a new entering class, prediction of subsequent academic dismissal or serious academic difficulty was highly accurate. However, it was found that such prediction must take into account not only areas of weakness, i.e., academic and psychological factors which place a student at risk, but also areas of strength which give the student an advantage. For all students, regardless of age, sex, or ethnic origin, it was the ratio of "advantage" factors to "risk" factors which gave the most valid prediction of academic success or failure.

  3. Correlation among auto-refractor, wavefront aberration, and subjective manual refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ren, Qiushi

    2005-01-01

    Three optometry methods which include auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective manual refraction were studied and compared in measuring low order aberrations of 60 people"s 117 normal eyes. Paired t-test and linear regression were used to study these three methods" relationship when measuring myopia with astigmatism. In order to make the analysis more clear, we divided the 117 normal eyes into different groups according to their subjective manual refraction and redid the statistical analysis. Correlations among three methods show significant in sphere, cylinder and axis in all groups, with sphere"s correlation coefficients largest(R>0.98, P<0.01) and cylinder"s smallest (0.90optometry methods in measuring sphere was significant (P<0.01) while axis"s difference was not significant (P>0.01). Auto-refractor had significant change from the other two methods when measuring cylinder (P<0.01). The results after grouping differed a little from the analysis among total people. Although three methods showed significant change from each other in certain parameters, the amplitude of these differences were not large, which indicated that the coherence of auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective refraction is good. However, we suggested that wavefront aberration measurement could be a good starting point of optometry, subjective refraction is still necessary for refinement.

  4. The influence of a novel simulated learning environment upon student clinical subjective refraction performance: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Woodman-Pieterse, Emily C; De Souza, Neilsen J; Vincent, Stephen J

    2016-07-01

    Optometry students are taught the process of subjective refraction through lectures and laboratory-based practicals before progressing to supervised clinical practice. Simulated leaning environments (SLEs) form part of an emerging technology used in a range of health disciplines; however, there is limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of clinical simulators as educational tools. Forty optometry students (20 fourth year and 20 fifth year) were assessed twice by a qualified optometrist (two examinations separated by four to eight weeks), while completing a monocular non-cycloplegic subjective refraction on the same patient with an unknown refractive error, simulated using contact lenses. Half of the students were granted access to an online simulated learning environment, The Brien Holden Vision Institute (BHVI) Virtual Refractor, and the remaining students formed a control group. The primary outcome measures at each visit were; accuracy of the clinical refraction compared to a qualified optometrist and relative to the Optometry Council of Australia and New Zealand (OCANZ) subjective refraction examination criteria. Secondary measures of interest included descriptors of student SLE engagement, student self-reported confidence levels and correlations between performance in the simulated and real-world clinical environment. Eighty per cent of students in the intervention group interacted with the simulated learning environment (for an average of 100 minutes); however, there was no correlation between measures of student engagement with the BHVI Virtual Refractor and speed or accuracy of clinical subjective refractions. Fifth year students were typically more confident and refracted more accurately and more quickly than fourth year students. A year group by experimental group interaction (p = 0.03) was observed for accuracy of the spherical component of refraction and post hoc analysis revealed that less experienced students exhibited greater gains in

  5. Smoking cessation referrals in optometric practice: a canadian pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Spafford, Marlee M; Schultz, Annette S H; Iley, Matthew D; Zawada, Violet

    2011-06-01

    The current pilot study sought to understand optometrists' attitudes toward addressing tobacco use within the scope of their practice, and to identify opportunities within Canada to integrate optometrists as health care partners into the national tobacco cessation network. A descriptive qualitative design was used to conduct this pilot study. Five focus groups were conducted with 29 informants, including 11 practicing community optometrists and 18 senior Doctor of Optometry students from the University of Waterloo. Rationales, barriers, and opportunities to practice patterns were identified. Optometrists and optometry students knew the association of smoking with eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and cataract; however, some informants selectively asked patients about smoking behavior based on patient age or visit type. Most informants indicated that they did inform their patients who smoke of their increased risk of developing certain eye diseases; however, very few informants assessed whether their patients wanted to stop smoking and no informants reported that they had ever provided a patient with explicit support for tobacco cessation. This limited role in smoking cessation support for patients due, in part, to insufficient: financial incentives, training and educational tools and materials, knowledge of community resources for cessation treatments, and time during appointments. Several opportunities were identified to better integrate optometry into tobacco control efforts such as optometrists' access to patients, patients' fear of blindness as a tool to motivate behavior changes, and practitioners' openness to change. Optometrists can be a helpful addition to a smoking cessation healthcare network that already involves more than a dozen health care professions including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, and dental hygiene. The findings of this study will be used to develop a national survey of Canadian optometrists' practice patterns

  6. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  7. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Neisha M; Romero, Angel F

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>-0.50D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50 D, and emmetropia as a SE between -0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0-55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5-37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1-17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8-73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of optometrists and optometric practices in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Ntodie, Michael; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Antwi Osei, Kwaku

    2015-09-01

    The study was conducted to profile optometrists and optometric practices in Ghana. An online survey was conducted among 146 optometrists, who were registered with the Ghana Optometric Association (GOA). It included questions on their demographics, equipment, ophthalmic procedures routinely conducted and the barriers to providing a full scope of optometric services. Ninety registered optometrists (62 per cent) responded, their mean age being 28.97 ± 3.36 years. There were more males (68.9 per cent) than females and most had the Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree, the profession's highest degree in Ghana. There were more practitioners in urban centres (71.1 per cent) and most practices had basic optometric instruments, such as direct ophthalmoscopes, slitlamp biomicroscopes and retinoscopes. Many optometrists routinely conducted direct ophthalmoscopy (100 per cent), slitlamp biomicroscopy (87.5 per cent) and contact tonometry (55.7 per cent); however, few provided contact lens (10.2 per cent) and low vision (9.1 per cent) assessments, with 76 per cent stating that it was due to the unavailability of low vision devices, poor sources of contact lenses (27 per cent) and perceived insufficient training (11.2 per cent). Many practitioners (97 per cent) reported the use of diagnostic pharmaceutical agents and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents (96.6 per cent). Most practitioners (52.9 per cent) preferred conferences for the delivery of continuous professional development over publications (26.4 per cent) and internet resources (12.6 per cent). The data elicited in this study provide a basis for addressing the country's unmet eye-care needs and can be used to determine training and support guidelines for the profession. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  9. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  10. Quality-assured screening for diabetic retinopathy delivered in primary care in Ireland: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hugh, Sheena Mc; Buckley, Claire; Murphy, Katie; Doherty, Sue; O’Keeffe, Gabrielle; Alade, Joseph; Keane, Elizabeth; James, Mark; Coughlan, Ciaran; Traynor, John; Bradley, Colin P; Perry, Ivan J; Moran, Joe; Quinlan, Diarmuid

    2013-01-01

    Background At present, there is no national population-based retinopathy screening programme for people in Ireland who have diabetes, such as those operating in the UK for over a decade. Aim To evaluate a community-based initiative that utilised existing resources in general practice and community optometry/ophthalmology services to provide screening for diabetic retinopathy. Design and setting Cross-sectional study using electronic ophthalmic patient screening records in community optometry clinics in Cork, Ireland. Method A purposive sample of 32 practices was recruited from Diabetes in General Practice, a general practice-led initiative in the South of Ireland. Practices invited all adult patients registered with diabetes to participate in free retinopathy screening (n = 3598), provided by 15 community optometry practices and two community ophthalmologists. Data were recorded on an electronic database used by optometrists and the performance was benchmarked against proposed national standards for retinopathy screening. Result In total, 30 practices participated (94%). After 6 months, 49% of patients (n = 1763) had been screened, following one invitation letter and no reminder. Forty-three per cent of those invited consented to their data being used in the study and subsequent analyses are based on that sample (n = 1542). The mean age of the patients screened was 65 years (standard deviation = 13.0 years), 57% were male (n = 884), and 86% had type 2 diabetes (n = 1320). In total, 26% had some level of retinopathy detected (n = 395); 21% had background retinopathy (n = 331), 3% had pre-proliferative retinopathy (n = 53), and 0.7% had proliferative retinopathy (n = 11). Conclusion The detection of retinopathy among 26% of those screened highlights the need for a national retinopathy screening programme in Ireland. Significant learning, derived from the implementation of this initiative, will inform the national programme. PMID:23561692

  11. Comparison of the VISX wavescan and OPD-scan III with the subjective refraction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R; Long, K-L; Wu, X-M; Li, Q-D

    2016-07-01

    To compare the refractive errors measured by the VISX WaveScan, OPD-Scan III and the subjective refraction. The optometry accuracy of computer operated aberrometer used before refractive surgery has been debatable. Hence, a clear study on the role of such automated equipment in optometry is the need of the hour as compared to subjective refraction. Seventy-six patients (152 eyes) were recruited from January 2013 to December 2013. All patients were measured with subjective refraction by the phoropter (NIDEK, RT-5100), objective refraction by the WaveScan (AMO Company, USA), OPD-Scan III (Nidek Technologies, Japan). The sphere, cylinder, axis of the three methods were compared and analyzed. The diopter of sphere power measured by WaveScan was lower than that of the subjective refraction and the difference was 0.13 ± 0. 30D (t = 3. 753, p <0. 001). While the diopter of cylinder power was higher and the difference was 0.13 ±0.43D (t = 3. 664, p <0. 001). There was no significance for sphere, cylinder and spherical equivalent between OPD-Scan III and subjective refraction (p >0. 05). The value of the difference between WaveScan and subjective refraction was 5.87°±6.19°on average, while the difference between OPD-Scan III and subjective refraction was 3.82°±3.95°on average. The differences between the two were statistically significant (t =2. 817, p =0. 006). The results of sphere and cylinder measured by WaveScan and subjective refraction were different. As the latest integrated equipment, the Nidek OPD-Scan III gives a more accurate measurement of objective refraction when compared with subjective refraction. The latest Nidek OPD-Scan III may prove to be an useful tool for preoperative optometry deviation based on objective refraction.

  12. Contact lens technology to 2020 and beyond: a review of recent patent literature.

    PubMed

    Papas, Eric B

    2017-09-01

    Contact lenses have been a common means of vision correction for more than half a century. Recent developments raise the possibility that the next several years will see the range of applications in which they are used broaden considerably, with an associated expansion in both the number and type of individuals who consider them to be a valuable option. To describe this new landscape, a review of recent patent submissions covering the period 1 January 2014 to 1 February 2017 was undertaken. The results show that in the main, areas where contact lenses will be applied include drug delivery, visual augmentation and biosensing. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  13. Combining primary and piggyback intraocular lenses to treat extreme myopic astigmatism in stable keratoconus following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yi Wei; Misra, Stuti; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N J

    2013-03-01

    The majority of those with keratoconus can maximise visual acuity with spectacle or contact lens correction as they age; however, as subjects enter their sixties, cataracts may supervene and contact lens tolerance diminishes with consequent reduction in visual acuity. Following cataract extraction, the complex refractive error associated with keratoconus may not be readily corrected by an intraocular lens alone. This report highlights the planned implantation of a primary posterior chamber toric intraocular lens with a secondary piggyback, sulcus-based, intraocular lens in advanced but stable keratoconus with extreme myopic astigmatism and cataract. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  14. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Necrotising herpetic retinopathies: a review and progressive outer retinal necrosis case report.

    PubMed

    Ittner, Erica A; Bhakhri, Raman; Newman, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Necrotising retinopathies can be visually devastating. Most often associated with the viral family Herpesviridae and seen in both immune-competent and immunocompromised hosts, possible complications of necrotising retinopathies include progressive retinal necrosis with or without macular involvement, optic neuropathy and ultimately, secondary retinal detachment. Examples include progressive outer retinal necrosis, acute retinal necrosis and cytomegaloviral retinitis. If diagnosed early and treated aggressively, visual complications can be prevented; however, there is no current consensus on the most appropriate antiviral regimen for each of the different varieties of necrotising herpetic retinopathy. This paper reviews aspects of varieties of necrotising herpetic retinopathy, including pathophysiology, treatment and diagnostic testing. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  16. Institute for the Study of Human Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Jill Peters M.S. Auditory Perception Petersime, Tim M.S. Psychology Martin Rickert M.S. Auditory Research Martha Rinker B.S. Tactile Perception Catherine...Function in Cataract Patients 7/90-7/91 A. Bradley, L. Casser , L.Thibos - Direct Costs $5,000 Anti-reflection Coating Council of America A Visual...1989 Annual meeting of the American Academy of Optometry. Optom. Vis. Sci., 66 (suppl.), 220. 28. Casser , L., McConnaha, D. and Bradley, A. (1989

  17. [Visual quality needs to be improved in non-surgical optical correction].

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying

    2016-01-01

    Optical correction is the basis of optometry. Optimized visual quality through optical correction is more challenging and more scientific as visual quality is becoming more closely related to social integration and development. There are many visual quality problems associated with various non-surgical optical correction methods in different aspects and degrees. This article discusses in depth some of the problems regarding optical correction with spectacles for different age groups, from children to seniors. The use of soft contact lenses, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses, and orthokeratology lenses is also evaluated. Moreover, some suggestions and recommendations on promoting visual quality through optical correction are provided.

  18. Development of the Environmental Observation scale for the Visual Impaired.

    PubMed

    Sinoo, Marianne; Kort, Helianthe

    2015-01-01

    In order to raise awareness of professional care, an Environmental Observation scale for the Visual Impaired (EOVI) was developed. It is the purpose of this tool that professional caregivers learn to observe the nursing home environment and consequently propose and discuss potential changes in the short and long term. The mean time of filling out the EOVI in eight wards of a nursing home by two student researchers was 17 minutes (min mean 12, max mean 22,5). All of 10 optometry students reported that the EOVI changed their awareness.

  19. On geodesics of the rotation group SO(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelia, Alyssa; O'Reilly, Oliver M.

    2015-11-01

    Geodesics on SO(3) are characterized by constant angular velocity motions and as great circles on a three-sphere. The former interpretation is widely used in optometry and the latter features in the interpolation of rotations in computer graphics. The simplicity of these two disparate interpretations belies the complexity of the corresponding rotations. Using a quaternion representation for a rotation, we present a simple proof of the equivalence of the aforementioned characterizations and a straightforward method to establish features of the corresponding rotations.

  20. Repeated Four-Hour Dives With PO2 = 1.35 ATM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Navy Experimental Diving Unit TA 02-22 321 Bullfinch Rd. NEDU TR 04-29 Panama City, FL 32407-7015 July 2004 REPEATED FOUR-HOUR DIVES WITH P0 2 =1.35...Experimental Diving Unit 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and Zip Code) 321 Bullfinch Road, Panama City, FL 32407-7015 8a...referred to the optometry clinic at Tyndall Air Force Base for complete eye examinations during the week before diving and during the week following

  1. Distribution of optometric practices relative to deprivation index in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Legge, Robin; Strang, Niall C; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-07-19

    The UK National Health Service aims to provide universal availability of healthcare, and eye-care availability was a primary driver in the development of the Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) model. Accordingly, a relatively equal distribution of optometry practices across socio-economic areas is required. We examined practice distribution relative to deprivation. 672 practices were sampled from nine Health Boards within Scotland. Practices were assigned a deprivation ranking by referencing their postcode with the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) tool (Scottish Executive National Statistics: General Report. 2016). Averaged across Health Boards, the share of practices for the five deprivation quintiles was 25, 33, 18, 14 and 11% from most to least deprived area, respectively. Although there was some variation of relative practice distribution in individual Health Boards, 17 of the 45 regions (nine Health Boards, five quintiles) had a close balance between population and share of practices. There was no clear pattern of practice distribution as a function of deprivation rank. Analysis revealed good correlation between practice and population share for each Health Board, and for the combined data (R2 = 0.898, P < 0.01). Distribution of optometry practices is relatively balanced across socio-economic areas, suggesting that differences in eye-examination uptake across social strata are unrelated to service availability.

  2. Effect of retinal defocus on basketball free throw shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Bulson, Ryan C; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Hayes, John; Ludlam, Diana P

    2015-07-01

    Vision plays a critical role in athletic performance; however, previous studies have demonstrated that a variety of simulated athletic sensorimotor tasks can be surprisingly resilient to retinal defocus (blurred vision). The purpose of the present study was to extend this work to determine the effect of retinal defocus on overall basketball free throw performance, as well as for the factors gender, refractive error and experience. Forty-four young adult participants of both genders were recruited. They had a range of refractive errors and basketball experience. Each performed 20 standard basketball free throws under five lens defocus conditions in a randomised manner: plano, +1.50 D, +3.00 D, +4.50 D and +10.00 D. Overall, free throw performance was significantly reduced under the +10.00 D lens defocus condition only. Previous experience, but neither refractive error nor gender, yielded a statistically significant difference in performance. Consistent with previous studies of complex sensorimotor tasks, basketball free throw performance was resilient to low and moderate levels of retinal defocus. Thus, for a relatively non-dynamic motor task at a fixed far distance, such as the basketball free throw, precise visual clarity was not critical. Other factors such as motor memory may be important. However, in the dynamic athletic competitive environment it is likely that visual clarity plays a more critical role in one's performance level, at least for specific task demands. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  3. Corneal biomechanics: a review.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Alcón, Natividad

    2015-03-01

    Biomechanics is often defined as 'mechanics applied to biology'. Due to the variety and complexity of the behaviour of biological structures and materials, biomechanics is better defined as the development, extension and application of mechanics for a better understanding of physiology and physiopathology and consequently for a better diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury. Different methods for the characterisation of corneal biomechanics are reviewed in detail, including those that are currently commercially available (Ocular Response Analyzer and CorVis ST). The clinical applicability of the parameters provided by these devices are discussed, especially in the fields of glaucoma, detection of ectatic disorders and orthokeratology. Likewise, other methods are also reviewed, such as Brillouin microscopy or dynamic optical coherence tomography and others with potential application to clinical practice but not validated for in vivo measurements, such as ultrasonic elastography. Advantages and disadvantages of all these techniques are described. Finally, the concept of biomechanical modelling is revised as well as the requirements for developing biomechanical models, with special emphasis on finite element modelling. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometry Australia.

  4. Inconsistencies Exist in National Estimates of Eye Care Services Utilization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited research and substantial uncertainty about the level of eye care utilization in the United States. Objectives. Our study estimated eye care utilization using, to our knowledge, every known nationally representative, publicly available database with information on office-based optometry or ophthalmology services. Research Design. We analyzed the following national databases to estimate eye care utilization: the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), Joint Canada/US Survey of Health (JCUSH), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Subjects. US adults aged 18 and older. Measures. Self-reported utilization of eye care services. Results. The weighted number of adults seeing or talking with any eye doctor ranges from 87.9 million to 99.5 million, and the number of visits annually ranges from 72.9 million to 142.6 million. There were an estimated 17.2 million optometry visits and 55.8 million ophthalmology visits. Conclusions. The definitions and estimates of eye care services vary widely across national databases, leading to substantial differences in national estimates of eye care utilization.

  5. A multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision problems.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Helland, Magne

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision issues by including optometry as a part of the problem-solving team. Computer workstation design is increasing in complexity. There are at least ten different professions who contribute to workstation design or who provide advice to improve worker comfort, safety and efficiency. Optometrists have a role identifying and solving computer-related vision issues and in prescribing appropriate optical devices. However, it is possible that advice given by optometrists to improve visual comfort may conflict with other requirements and demands within the workplace. A multidisciplinary approach has been advocated for solving computer related vision issues. There are opportunities for optometrists to collaborate with ergonomists, who coordinate information from physical, cognitive and organisational disciplines to enact holistic solutions to problems. This paper proposes a model of collaboration and examples of successful partnerships at a number of professional levels including individual relationships between optometrists and ergonomists when they have mutual clients/patients, in undergraduate and postgraduate education and in research. There is also scope for dialogue between optometry and ergonomics professional associations. A multidisciplinary approach offers the opportunity to solve vision related computer issues in a cohesive, rather than fragmented way. Further exploration is required to understand the barriers to these professional relationships. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  6. An analysis of observer-rated functional vision in patients implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System at three years.

    PubMed

    Geruschat, Duane R; Richards, Thomas P; Arditi, Aries; da Cruz, Lyndon; Dagnelie, Gislin; Dorn, Jessy D; Duncan, Jacque L; Ho, Allen C; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Sahel, José-Alain; Stanga, Paulo E; Thumann, Gabriele; Wang, Vizhong; Greenberg, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to compare observer-rated tasks in patients implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System, when the device is ON versus OFF. The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) instrument was administered to 26 blind patients implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System at a mean follow-up of 36 months. FLORA is a multi-component instrument that consists in part of observer-rated assessment of 35 tasks completed with the device ON versus OFF. The ease with which a patient completes a task is scored using a four-point scale, ranging from easy (score of 1) to impossible (score of 4). The tasks are evaluated individually and organised into four discrete domains, including 'Visual orientation', 'Visual mobility', 'Daily life and 'Interaction with others'. Twenty-six patients completed each of the 35 tasks. Overall, 24 out of 35 tasks (69 per cent) were statistically significantly easier to achieve with the device ON versus OFF. In each of the four domains, patients' performances were significantly better (p < 0.05) with the device ON versus OFF, ranging from 19 to 38 per cent improvement. Patients with an Argus II Retinal Prosthesis implanted for 18 to 44 months (mean 36 months), demonstrated significantly improved completion of vision-related tasks with the device ON versus OFF. © 2016 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Optometry published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Optometry Australia.

  7. Utilization of health resources in South Asian, Chinese and white patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiao; Nijjar, Aman; Quan, Hude; Shah, Baiju R; Rabi, Doreen; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Khan, Nadia A

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether there are differences in health resource utilization among South Asian (SA), Chinese and White patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. We used province-wide administrative data from British Columbia, Canada (1997-2006) to determine proportion of patients with ≥2 visits/year for all outpatient and family physician (FP) visits, proportion of patients with at least one annual visit to specialists, ophthalmology/optometry and hospital admissions by ethnic group. There were 9529 South Asian, 14,084 Chinese and 143,630 White patients with newly diagnosed diabetes in the study. Over 90% of each of the ethnic groups visited their FP ≥2 visits/year. Chinese patients were less likely to visit FP, ophthalmology/optometrists and specialists compared to White patients. SA patients had fewer ophthalmology/optometry visits compared to White populations. White patients had higher rates of hospitalization. Although all groups had high proportion of patients with appropriate frequency of FP visits, other aspects of health care utilization varied significantly by ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing the impact of teleophthalmology in Australia: Analysis of structural and economic drivers in a state service.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Hessom; Copeland, Stephen Paul; Turner, Angus Warwick

    2017-02-01

    Despite its potential to improve service provision for country patients, teleophthalmology is currently underused in Australia. There is an associated lack of cost-effectiveness data for teleophthamology. Retrospective and prospective hospital-based clinical audits of 5456 patients; descriptive survey of available telehealth equipment in 129 regional facilities; cost calculations for teleophthalmology, patient transfers and outreach services. Primary (optometry, general practice [GP], Aboriginal Medical Service [AMS]) and secondary (hospital) sites in regional Western Australia; a tertiary hospital in Perth. Proportion of patients suitable for teleophthalmology; proportion of regional practices with telehealth technology; capital expenditure to equip regional practices for teleophthalmology; total savings from increased utilisation of teleophthalmology. Advocacy for funding, regulatory, training and infrastructure recommendations, in order to support efficient models of teleophthalmology. A total of 15% and 24% of urgent patient transfers and outreach consultations, respectively, were found to be suitable for teleophthalmology, equating to a potential total cost saving of $1.1 million/year. Capital expenditure required for basic telehealth equipment was negligible for optometrists, compared to $20 500 per GP/AMS practice. Successful advocacy led to funding, training and policy changes to support optometry-led teleophthalmology for country patients in Australia. Public-private partnerships can result in significant cost-savings for the Australian health system. Targeted, evidence-based advocacy can inform government health reforms. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. [Common competencies and contents in public health in graduate programs].

    PubMed

    Davó, M A Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Benavides, Fernando García; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Segura-Benedicto, Andreu; Icart, Teresa; Astasio, Paloma; Gil, Angel; Ortiz, M Del Rocío; García, Angel; Ronda, Elena; Bosch, Félix

    2011-01-01

    To identify fundamental public health competencies and contents in nursing, pharmacy, teaching, medicine, human nutrition and dietetics, optics and optometry, labor relations and human resources, and social work in graduate programs and to formulate proposals for their improvement. The workshop on Public health contents in graduate programs in the XXI Menorca Public Health School was organized as follows: eight groups were set up, coordinated by 37 Spanish university teachers participating in the workshop and selected through key informants and snowball techniques. Two studies on public health professional competencies and the participants' own graduate programs were used to discuss public health professional competencies and contents and establish recommendations to improve public health programs. Each group worked on a particular degree course and the results were shared in plenary. Professional competencies for the three essential public health functions were indentified in all the degrees, except teaching, optics and optometry, and social work. Some of the competencies included in degrees in nursing, teaching, human nutrition and dietetics, and social work were rewritten to highlight the role of each type of professional in public health functions. The groups agreed on the introductory topics (basic concepts and health determinants) and intervention strategies. Common competencies and contents were identified in graduate programs. Updating public health contents in graduate programs would help to define and promote the profile of public health professionals. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The rhetoric of patient voice: reported talk with patients in referral and consultation letters.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Lingard, Lorelei

    2008-01-01

    Referral and consultation letters are written to enable the exchange of patient information and facilitate the trajectory of patients through the healthcare system. Yet, these letters, written about yet apart from patients, also sustain and constrain professional relationships and influence attitudes towards patients. We analysed 35 optometry referral letters and 35 corresponding ophthalmology consultation letters for reported 'patient voice' coded as 'experience' or 'agenda' and we interviewed 15 letter writers (eight optometry students, six optometrists, and one community ophthalmologist). There were 80 instances of reported 'patient voice' in 35 letters. The majority (68%) of the instances occurred in referral letters, likely due to differences in both 'letter function' and 'professional stance.' Reported 'patient voice' occurred predominantly as 'experience' (81%) rather than 'agenda' instances. Letters writers focused on their readers' needs, thus a biomedical voice dominated the letters and instances of reported 'patient voice' were recontextualized for the professional audience. While reporting 'patient voice' was not the norm in these letters, its inclusion appeared to accomplish specific work: to persuade reader action, to question patient credibility, and to highlight patient agency. These letter strategies reflect professional attitudes about patients and their care.

  11. Awareness, knowledge and self-care practices toward glaucoma among final year health science university students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel B; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo P; Hansraj, Rekha; Abraham, Carl Halladay; Ocansey, Stephen; Agbedzie, Elvis L

    2015-03-01

    In the absence of adequate services, patients have to rely on the few health professionals that they do come into contact with to advise them on their treatment options. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of glaucoma, and the association between these factors and self-care practices among final year health science university students in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey involving the use of a structured questionnaire was conducted among 273 final year students (67 per cent) studying at any one of eight health science programs in three selected public universities in Ghana. All 273 respondents were aware of glaucoma but only 37.7 per cent had knowledge of it. The majority (65.9 per cent) defined glaucoma as raised intraocular pressure, and confused glaucoma with ocular hypertension. Over half (56.8 per cent) had acquired their knowledge of glaucoma during the course of their training. The media also played a major role in glaucoma awareness; however, it played a limited role in impacting on the knowledge of glaucoma. Only 28.6 per cent of respondents had previously undergone glaucoma screening. Although all respondents were aware of glaucoma, their level of knowledge of glaucoma was low. Self-care practices were also generally poor among the respondents. This information may be useful for glaucoma health education in Ghana. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometry Australia.

  12. Teaching applied optics at the Univ. of Minho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    1995-10-01

    In this communication we make a brief presentation of the branch of Applied Optics of the University of Mihno's undergraduate course of Applied Physics. The course of Applied Physics began in the year 1988/89. Previously we had just a course devoted to the formation of future physics and chemistry teachers at high school level. The Applied Physics course specialized in Optics appeared due to the growth of the physics department and due to request from the industry. The Applied Physics course has two specialization's on the field of applied optics: Optometry; and Optics and Lasers. The topics covered in the two first years of the course ar common to the two branches. On the second semester of the third year the students must choose between either one. The number of students on the Optometry branch was usually almost four times the number of Applied Optics and Lasers students. Nevertheless this tendency is rapidly changing. A short analysis of the result obtained will be presented focusing on last couple of years' advances. Presented will also be the results of an inquest made on students's opinions about the quality of the course, and their own performance and expectations.

  13. Slit-lamp management in contact lenses laboratory classes: learning upgrade with monitor visualization of webcam video recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arines, Justo; Gargallo, Ana

    2014-07-01

    The training in the use of the slit lamp has always been difficult for students of the degree in Optics and Optometry. Instruments with associated cameras helps a lot in this task, they allow teachers to observe and control if the students evaluate the eye health appropriately, correct use errors and show them how to do it with a visual demonstration. However, these devices are more expensive than those that do not have an integrated camera connected to a display unit. With the aim to improve students' skills in the management of slit lamp, we have adapted USB HD webcams (Microsoft Lifecam HD-5000) to the objectives of the slit lamps available in our contact lenses laboratory room. The webcams are connected to a PC running Linux Ubuntu 11.0; therefore that is a low-cost device. Our experience shows that single method has several advantages. It allows us to take pictures with a good quality of different conditions of the eye health; we can record videos of eye evaluation and make demonstrations of the instrument. Besides it increases the interactions between students because they could see what their colleagues are doing and take conscious of the mistakes, helping and correcting each others. It is a useful tool in the practical exam too. We think that the method supports the training in optometry practice and increase the students' confidence without a huge outlay.

  14. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  15. Internet based post-graduate course in spectacle lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalie, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The complexity of spectacle lenses has increased enormously over the last three decades. The advent of aspheric lenses for the normal power range and the, now commonplace, progressive lenses for the correction of presbyopia, are just two examples of 21st Century technology. Freeform surfaces are now employed to personalize lenses to wearer's needs and these may be both progressive and atoroidal in nature. At the same time, optometry has taken a sideways step from optics and physics into a more general primary health care profession with an ever-increasing amount of biological and medical content added to an already brimming curriculum, hence the need for persons without optometry training to undertake the study of spectacle lenses. Some years ago a post-graduate course was designed for opticians who had a good grasp of mathematics and the ability to pay close attention to detail in the lengthy trigonometric ray-tracing techniques employed in lens design calculations. The year-long course, is undertaken by distance learning, and has been undertaken via the internet by students from many countries around the world. Final assessment is by means of examination held by the Association of British Dispensing Opticians and takes the form of two three-hour papers, Paper One consisting of the determination of the aberrations of a spectacle lens by accurate trigonometric ray tracing and the second, a general paper on the optics of ophthalmic lenses. It leads to the professional qualification, ABDO (Hons) SLD.

  16. Veterinary school admission interviews, part 1: literature overview.

    PubMed

    Turnwald, G H; Spafford, M M; Edwards, J C

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of the admission interview used by schools in four health professions (veterinary medicine, allopathic medicine, optometry, and dentistry) portrays a largely similar approach to selection interviews: INTERVIEW USE: At least 80% of schools interview applicants. For schools that offer interviews, at least 40% of candidates are interviewed (a strong academic profile is the number one determinant of receiving an interview offer). The interview is one of the three most important selection tools used by schools. Less than 26% of schools fix the interview's weight in the selection process (fixed weights range from 31% to 35%). INTERVIEW PURPOSE AND CONTENT: The most common purposes of the interview are to (1) gather information, (2) make decisions, (3) verify information provided in other parts of the application, (4) recruit candidates, and/or (5) promote public relations. The most common characteristics and skills interviewers are interested in assessing are motivation for the profession, interpersonal skills, and communication skills. The desire to assess cognitive ability with the interview (>25% of schools) is surprising in view of the use of other selection tools (e.g., GPA). INTERVIEW FORMAT: Medical schools are more likely to offer two interviews per candidate, while optometry schools are more likely to offer one interview per candidate. Individual interviews (one interviewer, one candidate) are the predominant format among medical schools, while panel interviews (more than one interviewer, one candidate) are the most common format among optometry schools. The duration of the interview is 30 to 45 minutes. Interview questions most often address facts and knowledge, hypothetical situations, and the ability to meet program requirements. Most interviews do not meet the criteria for a structured interview, which has demonstrated greater validity and reliability than semi-structured or unstructured interviews. INTERVIEWERS: Interviewers are most likely to

  17. Ophthalmic digital image transfer: benefits to triage, patient care and resource.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Colin; Lunt, David; Reid, Suzanna; Sanders, Roshini

    2014-11-01

    Hospital capacity in the UK is currently significantly challenged due to new treatments, targets and resource limitations. There have been significant improvements in training, equipment and shared care services in community primary care optometry services. Despite this the challenges to ophthalmic service delivery are considerable. One area of potential benefit is the effect on outcome when a clinical image is attached to a referral. We aimed to quantify the effect of attaching digital images to ophthalmic referrals. Retrospective analysis of 358 consecutive optometry referrals to the Hospital Eye Service in Dunfermline, Scotland using electronic referral with digital images. All images were screened by consultant ophthalmologists. The patients were aged between 9 and 100 years (mean age 63.6 years). Sixty four (18%) referrals were deemed urgent (requiring appointment within 24-60 h), with the majority, 28 (8%) being wet macular degeneration. One hundred and seventy (48%) were deemed routine (appointment within 2-6 weeks), with categories including macular disease, glaucoma, cataract, optic disc and retinal abnormalities. Twenty seven (8%) patients were already attending the hospital eye service, or had been referred previously for the same condition. Categories were mainly glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and cataract. Ninety-five (25%) were 'e-diagnosed' based on image and referral information (i.e. with no secondary eye care appointment). Diagnosis included glaucoma suspect (22, 6%), macular pathology (12, 3%), abnormal looking discs (9, 2.5%) and cataract (9, 2.5%). The overall 'did not attend' rate for those patients seen in the hospital eye service (254) was <1% (two patients). The attachment of digital images improved the quality of referral triaging from optometry to secondary eye care in the hospital eye service. It allowed detection of sight threatening disease early and more appropriate allocation of patients to specific specialist clinics at first visit

  18. Questioning vision readiness in the aviation community of the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Erneston, A G; Murchland, M R

    1994-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substandard visual acuity in a representative sample of the aviation community. In addition, mobility readiness (ocular), ocular diseases, length of time since last visual examination, and adherence to ocular requirements per AFR 160-43 were assessed. Comprehensive eye examinations were performed in the Optometry Clinic on 68 randomly chosen members scheduled by the participating squadron. Of the 68 individuals, 51 (75%) had not had a professional eye examination in the last 2 years, 17 (25%) were not mobility ready, 15 (22%) had inadequate visual acuity per AFR 160-43, and 3 (4%) had ocular disease. The study suggests that comprehensive visual examinations be performed on a regularly scheduled basis by an optometrist or ophthalmologist to ensure that members see properly to perform assigned duties, that members have required optical materials to be deployment ready, and that members who develop ocular diseases be identified in a timely manner.

  19. Contact lenses for ophthalmic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hui, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Contact lenses as a means to deliver pharmaceuticals to the eye have seen a significant increase in research interest in the past few years. This review will detail the in vitro experiments which have investigated use of these contact lenses in the context of the desired pharmacological treatment goals in the management of infectious, inflammatory, allergic and glaucomatous diseases of the eye. The techniques researchers have employed to modify and tailor drug release rates from these materials, including the use of vitamin E diffusion barriers, modified ionicity, molecular imprinting and incorporation of drug reservoirs, will be discussed, as well as their impact on drug release kinetics. Finally, the demonstration of the feasibility of these materials when applied in vivo in animal models as well as in humans with and without disease will be presented and their results discussed relating to their implications for the future of the field. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  20. Design of a reading test for low vision image warping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision - maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer-generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We will describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  1. Epidemiology of contact lens-induced infiltrates: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Steele, Kelsy R; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta

    2017-09-01

    Corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) are well established as a risk associated with soft contact lens wear. The incidence of symptomatic CIEs during extended soft lens wear ranges from 2.5 to six per cent; when asymptomatic CIEs are included, the incidence can be as high as 20-25 per cent. In daily soft lens wear, the annual incidence of symptomatic CIEs is about three per cent. There are various accepted methods of categorising CIEs, and a scoring system based on clinical signs and symptoms is a good approach to grade severity. Lens-related risk factors include extended wear, silicone hydrogel material, the use of multipurpose solutions, bacterial bioburden and reusable lenses. Recent studies report that daily disposable lenses reduce the risk of CIEs. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  2. Vision readiness of the reserve forces of the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J L; McAlister, W H

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 and 1997, the Army conducted an exercise to assess the ability to rapidly mobilize the reserve forces. In accordance with Army requirements, each soldier was evaluated to determine if he or she met vision and optical readiness standards. Of the 1,947 individuals processed through the optometry section, 40% met vision requirements without correction and 32% met vision requirements with their current spectacles. The remaining 28% required examination. A major impediment to processing reserve units for deployment is the lack of vision and optical readiness. In the mobilization for the Persian Gulf War, significant delays were incurred because of the time required to perform eye examinations and fabricate eyewear. However, as a result of this exercise, current prescriptions will be available in the event of mobilization. To ensure readiness, all units should perform such exercises periodically.

  3. An update on retinal laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Lock, Jane Huan-Jing; Fong, Kenneth Choong Sian

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1940s, retinal photocoagulation has evolved immensely. Although the first photocoagulators used incandescent light, it was the invention of the laser that instigated the widespread use of photocoagulation for treatment of retinal diseases. Laser permits selection of electromagnetic wavelength, energy levels, spot size and pulse duration. These variables are crucial for accurate targeting of retinal tissue and prevention of detrimental side-effects such as central blind spots. There is ongoing clinical research dedicated to optimising such parameters and many innovative modes of laser delivery are now being offered. Laser photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for various retinal and macular diseases. Considering the escalating prevalence of such conditions and widespread use of photocoagulation, it is important for optometrists to grasp the basic principles and be aware of new developments in retinal laser therapy. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2010 Optometrists Association Australia.

  4. A shot in the dark: the use of darkness to investigate visual development and as a therapy for amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Donald E

    2013-07-01

    Extended periods of complete darkness have long been used among other early experiential manipulations to explore the role of visual experience in the development of the visual pathways. In the last decade, short periods of darkness have been used to facilitate the imposition of different or conflicting visual input each day to explore the manner by which processes of perinatal development controlled by gene action are refined subsequently by visual experience. Very recently, periods of complete darkness of intermediate length (10 days) have been shown to promote very fast recovery from amblyopia induced by prior monocular deprivation (MD). When imposed immediately after a period of MD, in certain circumstances, darkness appears to insulate against the development of amblyopia. It is proposed that complete darkness may reverse maturation of many of the so-called braking molecules in the visual cortex, so that it reverts to a more juvenile state. © 2013 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  5. Integrating Direct Electronic Collection of Data from Patients into the Process of Care for Eye Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, David F.; Waters, M. Andrew; Keatts, Shelley; Kimrey, Kathy L.; Caldwell, Jennifer V.; Rafferty, William; Asrani, Sanjay; Lee, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    Enabling collection of clinical data directly from patients has the potential to increase data accuracy and augment patient engagement in the care process. Most patient data entry systems have been created independent of electronic health records, and few studies have explored how patient entered data can be integrated in the documentation of a clinical encounter. In this paper we describe a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies through which we identified requirements for direct data entry by patients and the subsequent incorporation of these data into the documentation process. The greatest challenges included ensuring confidentiality of records between patients, capturing medication histories from patients, displaying and distinguishing new and previously entered data for provider review, and supporting patient educational needs. The resulting computer tablet-based data collection tool has been deployed to 30 primary care optometry practices where it is successfully used to document care for patients with glaucoma. PMID:21347020

  6. Integrating direct electronic collection of data from patients into the process of care for eye care professionals.

    PubMed

    Lobach, David F; Waters, M Andrew; Keatts, Shelley; Kimrey, Kathy L; Caldwell, Jennifer V; Rafferty, William; Asrani, Sanjay; Lee, Paul P

    2010-11-13

    Enabling collection of clinical data directly from patients has the potential to increase data accuracy and augment patient engagement in the care process. Most patient data entry systems have been created independent of electronic health records, and few studies have explored how patient entered data can be integrated in the documentation of a clinical encounter. In this paper we describe a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies through which we identified requirements for direct data entry by patients and the subsequent incorporation of these data into the documentation process. The greatest challenges included ensuring confidentiality of records between patients, capturing medication histories from patients, displaying and distinguishing new and previously entered data for provider review, and supporting patient educational needs. The resulting computer tablet-based data collection tool has been deployed to 30 primary care optometry practices where it is successfully used to document care for patients with glaucoma.

  7. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C

    2007-11-01

    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  8. Acute eclipse retinopathy: a small case series.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Nur; Knyazer, Boris; Lifshitz, Tova; Levy, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We present four young patients with acute severe solar retinopathy after observation of the total eclipse on January 4, 2011 without appropriate eye protection. Funduscopic findings were accompanied by optical coherence tomography (OCT) investigation of the macula. All our patients were young (range 14-29 years). In three of the four patients we have been able to repeat OCT evaluation revealing that the retinal changes were reversible, but delineating mild pathology in the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. Best-corrected visual acuity in the fourth case was 6/24. In addition, macular edema, which has been previously described in literature, could not be demonstrated by OCT. In the two cases we performed an early fluorescein angiogram, no pathology was seen. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort and injuries in Australian optometrists.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Stapleton, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort and injuries are reported by optometrists. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used to investigate work-related discomfort in Australian optometrists. A multistage project was conducted which included questionnaires, interviews and onsite observations. Participants, with and without self-reported discomfort, included clinical optometrists, optometry students and clinical teachers. The various stages of the study developed over the course of the project, primarily in response to results collected at various stages. A multistage approach proved valuable for confirming results and testing hypotheses, and for investigating different groups of workers (clinicians, teachers and students). General guidelines to reduce the risk of work-related discomfort in optometrists can be developed from this project. Specific recommendations and teaching curricula have been identified in this project as areas of future research and development.

  10. Improving vision awareness in autism services: Evaluation of a dedicated education programme for support practitioners.

    PubMed

    Long, Joseph J; Butchart, Maggie; Brown, Michael; Bain, Janice; McMillan, Anne; Karatzias, Thanos

    2017-02-20

    The research reported here sought to evaluate whether a dedicated education programme in vision awareness improved the knowledge and skills of autism support practitioners in identifying visual impairment in autistic people with intellectual disabilities and providing better support to those individuals identified as visually impaired. Researchers undertook a mixed methods evaluation. A survey questionnaire was devised and administered before and after training and focus groups were undertaken in order to gain qualitative data relating how practitioners implemented their learning in practice. Knowledge confidence and practice confidence scores of participants were significantly improved by the programme, which maintained its impact one year on. Practitioners reported increased access to optometry, changes to support practice and improvements to service environments as a result of the training. Autism support practitioners' skills in identifying and supporting people with visual impairments were demonstrably enhanced through dedicated vision training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The diagnosis and management of contact lens-related microbial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Carnt, Nicole; Samarawickrama, Chameen; White, Andrew; Stapleton, Fiona

    2017-09-01

    Contact lens-associated microbial keratitis poses a diagnostic dilemma for optometrists on two fronts. The distinction between sterile inflammation and microbial infection is often blurred. In addition, there is a requirement with nearly 50 per cent of the Australian and New Zealand optometric profession being therapeutically endorsed, to distinguish between cases of infection that can be managed in the community verses those that require escalation to public hospitals that have access to laboratory diagnostic tools and advanced imaging techniques, such as in vivo confocal microscopy. Pattern recognition and incorporation of knowledge of aetiology and risk factors assists optometrists to decide on optimal management strategies. Skilled optometrists will utilise emerging diagnostic and therapeutic technologies to ensure safe management strategies and better outcomes for these cases. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  12. Clinical imaging of macular pigment optical density and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Christopher M

    2017-07-01

    Clinical research continues to provide an increasing number of studies that reveal an association between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and both visual function and ocular health. As a result, there is a growing need for repeatable, accurate measures of MPOD that can describe peak optical density as well as spatial distribution. Measurement of MPOD in a research setting has an established history encompassing a number of both objective and subjective techniques. Transition of these techniques to a clinical setting has produced an array of commercial devices using three primary methods: heterochromatic flicker photometry, fundus autofluorescence and fundus reflectometry. The inherent differences among the techniques create difficulty in making direct comparisons between MPOD measurement devices. Understanding the limitations of each technique is critical in the clinical interpretation of MPOD results. Here, both the objective and subjective methods of MPOD measurement are reviewed with emphasis on the commercially available devices used in clinical settings. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  13. Long-term results of MyoRing treatment of keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Daxer, Albert; Ettl, Armin; Hörantner, Robert

    To study long-term results of MyoRing treatment of keratoconus. Retrospective study of MyoRing implantation into a corneal pocket for keratoconus. Corneal thickness at the thinnest point remained unchanged, SIM K's, manifest sphere and cylinder were significantly improved at the first follow-up 9 months postoperatively and remained stable until the last follow-up about 5 years after surgery. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA) were significantly improved at the first follow-up 9 months postoperatively and were further ameliorated until the last follow-up about 5 years after surgery. The treatment was safe and effective with continuing improvement of visual acuity during the 5 years after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A review of environmental risk factors for myopia during early life, childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Dharani; Lin Chua, Sharon Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. The increasing prevalence of myopia poses a huge socio-economic burden and progressive high myopia can lead to sight-threatening ocular complications. Hence, the prevention of early-onset myopia progressing to pathological high myopia is important. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that increased outdoor time is an important modifiable environmental factor that protects young children from myopia. This protective effect may be due to high light intensity outdoors, the chromaticity of daylight or increased vitamin D levels. This review summarises the possible underlying biological mechanisms for the protective association between time outdoors and myopia, including the potential role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in refractive error development. Recent evidence for the role of other environmental risk factors such as near work, birth seasons, parental smoking and birth order are also summarised. © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  15. Competency-based optics instruction.

    PubMed

    Long, W F

    2000-01-01

    The Competency-Based Instruction (CBI) system has been used to teach physics for more than 20 years in the Michigan State University Physics Department. In this approach, traditional lectures have been replaced by a learning environment that contains a variety of instructional aids, including written materials, computer-assisted instruction, and interactions with a consultant. The CBI system allows students to adjust their pace through the course, moving nearly as quickly as they are able, with constant feedback to the student on his or her progress. I have used an adapted version of the CBI system for use in the Physical Optics and Photometry course of the University of Missouri-St. Louis, School of Optometry for four years. This article will describe the mechanics of the system and discuss experiences with it.

  16. Multichannel perimetric alterations in systemic lupus erythematosus treated with hydroxychloroquine.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Monllor, Begoña; Camps, Vicente J; de Fez, Dolores

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. We report the first case of SLE in which visual alterations were evaluated with multichannel perimetry. Some achromatic and color vision alterations may be present in SLE, especially when treated with hydroxychloroquine. The sensitivity losses detected in the chromatic channels in the central zone of the visual field were consistent with the results of the FM 100 Hue color test. Likewise, the multichannel perimetry detected sensitivity losses in the parafoveal area for both chromatic channels, especially for the blue-yellow. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Severe chronic blepharitis and scarring ectropion associated with discoid lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Tsaousis, Konstantinos T; Tourtas, Theofilos; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis T

    2013-01-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus is a common form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects most of the human organs, including the skin, kidneys, joints, heart and lungs. We describe a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a 21-year history of eyelid redness and irritation. She had been treated with antibiotics, steroids and eyelid hygiene, a therapy that resulted to brief periods of relief of symptoms. In the last 12 months, her symptoms seemed to have exacerbated, despite the administration of a local therapy. Following biopsy, a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus was confirmed and the patient was placed on a systemic therapy with hydroxychloroquine. The eyelid inflammation decreased but severe scarring of the marginal eyelids persisted, resulting in cicatricial ectropion. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  18. Chiropractic’s unique evolution and its future status

    PubMed Central

    Wardwell, Walter I

    1996-01-01

    Chiropractic’s demise was regularly predicted but the AMA’s campaign to “contain and then eliminate” it did not succeed. Nor did chiropractic follow osteopathy toward fusion with medicine. D.D. and B.J. Palmer were charismatic outsiders who emphasized the differences between medicine and chiropractic. Chiropractic’s unique evolution and survival owed a lot to BJ’s activity in publishing books and brochures and in part, to motivating his followers to fight for separate and distinct licensure. This paper proposes that in the twenty-first century chiropractic is most likely to become well established as an independent limited medical profession like dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and psychology.

  19. Third-order aberrations in GRIN crystalline lens: a new method based on axial and field rays.

    PubMed

    Río, Arturo Díaz Del; Gómez-Reino, Carlos; Flores-Arias, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for calculating the third-order aberration of gradient-index (GRIN) lenses that combines an iterative numerical method with the Hamiltonian theory of aberrations in terms of two paraxial rays with boundary conditions on general curved end surfaces and, as a second algebraic step has been presented. Application of this new method to a GRIN human is analyzed in the framework of the bi-elliptical model. The different third-order aberrations are determined, except those that need for their calculation skew rays, because the study is made only for meridional rays. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  1. Toward building an anatomically correct solid eye model with volumetric representation of retinal morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Rowe, T. Scott; Fuller, Alfred R.; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S.

    2010-02-01

    An accurate solid eye model (with volumetric retinal morphology) has many applications in the field of ophthalmology, including evaluation of ophthalmic instruments and optometry/ophthalmology training. We present a method that uses volumetric OCT retinal data sets to produce an anatomically correct representation of three-dimensional (3D) retinal layers. This information is exported to a laser scan system to re-create it within solid eye retinal morphology of the eye used in OCT testing. The solid optical model eye is constructed from PMMA acrylic, with equivalent optical power to that of the human eye (~58D). Additionally we tested a water bath eye model from Eyetech Ltd. with a customized retina consisting of five layers of ~60 μm thick biaxial polypropylene film and hot melt rubber adhesive.

  2. Design of a reading test for low-vision image warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. Shane

    1993-08-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision -- maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer- generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  3. Design of a reading test for low vision image warping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision - maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer-generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We will describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  4. Application of laser differential confocal technique in back vertex power measurement for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Li, Lin; Ding, Xiang; Liu, Wenli

    2012-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in optometry and the back vertex power (BVP) is one of the most important parameters to evaluate the refraction characteristics of a phoropter. In this paper, a new laser differential confocal vertex-power measurement method which takes advantage of outstanding focusing ability of laser differential confocal (LDC) system is proposed for measuring the BVP of phoropters. A vertex power measurement system is built up. Experimental results are presented and some influence factor is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the method based on LDC technique has higher measurement precision and stronger environmental anti-interference capability compared to existing methods. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the measurement error of the method is about 0.02m-1.

  5. Image analysis of ocular fundus for retinopathy characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela; Cuadros, Jorge

    2010-02-05

    Automated analysis of ocular fundus images is a common procedure in countries as England, including both nonemergency examination and retinal screening of patients with diabetes mellitus. This involves digital image capture and transmission of the images to a digital reading center for evaluation and treatment referral. In collaboration with the Optometry Department, University of California, Berkeley, we have tested computer vision algorithms to segment vessels and lesions in ground-truth data (DRIVE database) and hundreds of images of non-macular centric and nonuniform illumination views of the eye fundus from EyePACS program. Methods under investigation involve mathematical morphology (Figure 1) for image enhancement and pattern matching. Recently, we have focused in more efficient techniques to model the ocular fundus vasculature (Figure 2), using deformable contours. Preliminary results show accurate segmentation of vessels and high level of true-positive microaneurysms.

  6. Trends in optical coherence tomography applied to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications on optical coherence tomography (OCT) continues to double every three years. Traditionally applied to imaging the eye, OCT is now being extended to fields outside ophthalmology and optometry. Widening its applicability, progress in the core engine of the technology, and impact on development of novel optical sources, make OCT a very active and rapidly evolving field. Trends in the developments of different specific devices, such as optical sources, optical configurations and signal processing will be presented. Encompassing studies on both the configurations as well as on signal processing themes, current research in Kent looks at combining spectral domain with time domain imaging for long axial range and simultaneous imaging at several depths. Results of the collaborative work of the Applied Optics Group in Kent with organisers of this conference will be presented, with reference to 3D monitoring of abfraction.

  7. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  8. Physiological approach to optimal stereographic game programming: a technical guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, William L.; McRuer, Robert; Childs, C. Timothy; Viirree, Erik

    1996-04-01

    With the advent of mass distribution of consumer VR games comes an imperative to set health and safety standards for the hardware and software used to deliver stereographic content. This is particularly important for game developers who intend to present this stereographic content via head-mounted display (HMD). The visual discomfort that is commonly reported by the user of HMD-based VR games presumably could be kept to a minimum if game developers were provided with standards for the display of stereographic imagery. In this paper, we draw upon both results of research in binocular vision and practical methods from clinical optometry to develop some technical guidelines for programming stereographic games that have the end user's comfort and safety in mind. This paper will provide generate strategies for user- centered implementation of 3D virtual worlds, as well as pictorial examples demonstrating a natural means for rendering stereographic imagery more comfortable to view in games employing first-person perspective.

  9. Fast and robust estimation of ophthalmic wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Keith

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rising levels of myopia, particularly in the developing world, have led to an increased need for inexpensive and automated approaches to optometry. A simple and robust technique is provided for estimating major ophthalmic aberrations using a gradient-based wavefront sensor. The approach is based on the use of numerical calculations to produce diverse combinations of phase components, followed by Fourier transforms to calculate the coefficients. The approach does not utilize phase unwrapping nor iterative solution of inverse problems. This makes the method very fast and tolerant to image artifacts, which do not need to be detected and masked or interpolated as is needed in other techniques. These features make it a promising algorithm on which to base low-cost devices for applications that may have limited access to expert maintenance and operation.

  10. Physics education through computational tools: the case of geometrical and physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Y.; Santana, A.; Mendoza, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, with the development of more powerful and accurate computational tools, the inclusion of new didactic materials in the classroom is known to have increased. However, the form in which these materials can be used to enhance the learning process is still under debate. Many different methodologies have been suggested for constructing new relevant curricular material and, among them, just-in-time teaching (JiTT) has arisen as an effective and successful way to improve the content of classes. In this paper, we will show the implemented pedagogic strategies for the courses of geometrical and optical physics for students of optometry. Thus, the use of the GeoGebra software for the geometrical optics class and the employment of new in-house software for the physical optics class created using the high-level programming language Python is shown with the corresponding activities developed for each of these applets.

  11. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  12. A comparision of short and long reading passages in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dustin; Taub, Marc B; Hoenes, Richard; Maples, W C

    2012-03-30

    The visual system is necessary for reading. Understanding the mechanics of eye movements during reading can give insight into the reading process. The ReadAlyzer is an electronic recording system that measures eye movements while reading. Long passages on the ReadAlyzer of 800 words have recently been introduced as a tool to assess the efficiency of reading eye movements. Previously, short passages of 100 words have been used exclusively. This project was designed to determine if passage length influences the quality of reading eye movements; Optometry students (N = 40) at Southern College of Optometry were separated into 2 equal groups (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) based on the College of Optometrists in Vision Development Quality of Life questionnaire score. Each subject then performed two reading passage recordings with the ReadAlyzer: one short, one long. The order of the passages was alternated to reduce fatigue effects. Data were collected based on the ratio of fixations-to-regressions; A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the difference between short and long paragraphs for the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups combined was significant (P = 0.001) but was not significant for the symptomatic group vs. the asymptomatic group ( P = 0. 651) . Post-hoc comparisons using estimated marginal means indicated for asymptomatic, short vs. long, P = .036 and for symptomatic, short vs. long, P = 0.008. Additionally, for short length, symptomatic vs. asymptomatic, P = 0.242 and for long length, symptomatic vs. asymptomatic, P = 0.176; This information indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients will have more difficulty on longer reading passages. This finding calls into question the use of shorter length reading tests to determine a diagnosis of ocular motor dysfunction and other visual efficiency problems. American Optometric Association.

  13. Stretch-dependent changes in surface profiles of the human crystalline lens during accommodation: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pour, Hooman Mohammad; Kanapathipillai, Sangarapillai; Zarrabi, Khosrow; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    A non-linear isotropic finite element (FE) model of a 29-year-old human crystalline lens was constructed to study the effects of various geometrical parameters on lens accommodation. The model simulates dis-accommodation by stretching of the lens and predicts the change in surface profiles of the lens capsule, cortex and nucleus at select states of stretching/accommodation. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) is used to develop a stretch-dependent mathematical model relating the lens sagittal height to the radial position of the lens surface as a function of dis-accommodative stretch. A load analysis is performed to compare the finite element results to empirical results from lens stretcher studies. Using the predicted geometrical changes, the optical response of the whole eye during accommodation was analysed by ray-tracing. Aspects of lens shape change relative to stretch were evaluated, including change in diameter, central thickness and accommodation. Maximum accommodation achieved was 10.29 D. From the multiple regression analysis, the stretch-dependent mathematical model of the lens shape related lens curvatures as a function of lens ciliary stretch well (maximum mean-square residual error 2.5 × 10(-3 ) μm, p < 0.001). The results are compared with those from in vitro studies. The finite element and ray-tracing predictions are consistent with Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) studies in terms of load and power change versus change in thickness. The mathematical stretch-dependent model of accommodation presented may have utility in investigating lens behaviour at states other than the relaxed or fully accommodated states. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  14. Computer vision syndrome in presbyopia and beginning presbyopia: effects of spectacle lens type.

    PubMed

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang; König, Mirjam; Mekontso, Tiofil M; Ohlendorf, Arne; Welscher, Monique

    2015-05-01

    This office field study investigated the effects of different types of spectacle lenses habitually worn by computer users with presbyopia and in the beginning stages of presbyopia. Computer vision syndrome was assessed through reported complaints and ergonomic conditions. A questionnaire regarding the type of habitually worn near-vision lenses at the workplace, visual conditions and the levels of different types of complaints was administered to 175 participants aged 35 years and older (mean ± SD: 52.0 ± 6.7 years). Statistical factor analysis identified five specific aspects of the complaints. Workplace conditions were analysed based on photographs taken in typical working conditions. In the subgroup of 25 users between the ages of 36 and 57 years (mean 44 ± 5 years), who wore distance-vision lenses and performed more demanding occupational tasks, the reported extents of 'ocular strain', 'musculoskeletal strain' and 'headache' increased with the daily duration of computer work and explained up to 44 per cent of the variance (rs = 0.66). In the other subgroups, this effect was smaller, while in the complete sample (n = 175), this correlation was approximately rs = 0.2. The subgroup of 85 general-purpose progressive lens users (mean age 54 years) adopted head inclinations that were approximately seven degrees more elevated than those of the subgroups with single vision lenses. The present questionnaire was able to assess the complaints of computer users depending on the type of spectacle lenses worn. A missing near-vision addition among participants in the early stages of presbyopia was identified as a risk factor for complaints among those with longer daily durations of demanding computer work. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  15. Standardised antibacterial Manuka honey in the management of persistent post-operative corneal oedema: a case series.

    PubMed

    Albietz, Julie M; Lenton, Lee M

    2015-09-01

    Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  16. Demographic and clinical characteristics of a paediatric low vision population in a low vision clinic in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guohong; Yu, Manrong; Dai, Jinhui; Xue, Feng; Wang, Xiaoying; Zou, Leilei; Chen, Minjie; Ma, Fei

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to describe the characteristics of the paediatric population attending the low vision clinic of the Eye and ENT Hospital, located in Shanghai, China. The clinical records of all the children attending the low vision clinic of Eye and ENT Hospital affiliated to Fudan University between January 1, 2009 and May 31, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The main data analysed were age, gender, education, visual demand, diagnosis, visual acuity and prescription of low vision aids. Of the 162 patients, 104 (64.20 per cent) were male. The age range of the study population was three to 20 years, with a mean of 10.73 ± 5.08 years. There were 43.21 per cent with moderate visual impairment, 26.54 per cent had severe visual impairment and 19.75 per cent were blind. The leading causes of visual impairment were congenital cataract (21.61 per cent), optic atrophy (14.20 per cent), macular dystrophy (11.73 per cent), nystagmus (9.88 per cent) and congenital glaucoma (9.26 per cent). The most frequently prescribed low vision devices for distant and near vision were binocular telescopes (23.57 per cent) and stand magnifiers (22.93 per cent), respectively. Young age (up to six years, 37.93 per cent), high cost (24.14 per cent), cosmetic reasons (17.24 per cent) and inconvenience (13.79 per cent) were the main reasons that children or parents refused to accept useful low vision aids. Congenital and hereditary diseases constituted the major causes of low vision in the study population. Strategies that make good-quality rehabilitation services available, affordable and accessible, especially in developing countries, will have the greatest impact on visual impairment. In China, both urban and rural, the coverage of low vision services should be strengthened. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  17. Audio-visual interaction in visual motion detection: Synchrony versus Asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Rosemann, Stephanie; Wefel, Inga-Maria; Elis, Volkan; Fahle, Manfred

    Detection and identification of moving targets is of paramount importance in everyday life, even if it is not widely tested in optometric practice, mostly for technical reasons. There are clear indications in the literature that in perception of moving targets, vision and hearing interact, for example in noisy surrounds and in understanding speech. The main aim of visual perception, the ability that optometry aims to optimize, is the identification of objects, from everyday objects to letters, but also the spatial orientation of subjects in natural surrounds. To subserve this aim, corresponding visual and acoustic features from the rich spectrum of signals supplied by natural environments have to be combined. Here, we investigated the influence of an auditory motion stimulus on visual motion detection, both with a concrete (left/right movement) and an abstract auditory motion (increase/decrease of pitch). We found that incongruent audiovisual stimuli led to significantly inferior detection compared to the visual only condition. Additionally, detection was significantly better in abstract congruent than incongruent trials. For the concrete stimuli the detection threshold was significantly better in asynchronous audiovisual conditions than in the unimodal visual condition. We find a clear but complex pattern of partly synergistic and partly inhibitory audio-visual interactions. It seems that asynchrony plays only a positive role in audiovisual motion while incongruence mostly disturbs in simultaneous abstract configurations but not in concrete configurations. As in speech perception in hearing-impaired patients, patients suffering from visual deficits should be able to benefit from acoustic information. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Salazar, Francisco; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Gomez-Campaña, Humberto; Cruz-Zamudio, Cinthia; Chaidez-Felix, Mariano; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Muro-Amador, Secundino; Guadron-Llanos, Alma Marlene; Martinez-Garcia, Javier J; Murillo-Llanes, Joel; Sanchez-Cuen, Jaime; Llausas-Vargas, Alejando; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; Irineo-Cabrales, Ana; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique; Ramirez-Luquin, Tito; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50), and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D). A negative cylinder was selected as a notation. The proportion (95% confidence interval) among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0), emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8), myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9) and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5). Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old), however, hyperopia increased among the aging population (40 to 79 years old), and astigmatism alone showed a decreasing trend with age (6 to 90y; from 19.7% to 10.8%). There was a relationship between age and all refractive errors (approximately 60%, aged 50 and older). The proportion of any clinically important refractive error was higher in males (61.2%) than in females (58.3%; P<0.0001). From fourteen states that collected information, the proportion of refractive error showed variability in different geographical areas of Mexico. Myopia is the most common refractive error in the population studied. This study provides the first data on refractive error in Mexico. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the Mexican population.

  19. Development and Validation of a Diabetic Retinopathy Referral Algorithm Based on Single-Field Fundus Photography

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Shetty, Sharan; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Sharma, Tarun; Raman, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simplified algorithm to identify and refer diabetic retinopathy (DR) from single-field retinal images specifically for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy for appropriate care (ii) to determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm as a pilot study among optometrists versus “gold standard” (retinal specialist grading). Methods The severity of DR was scored based on colour photo using a colour coded algorithm, which included the lesions of DR and number of quadrants involved. A total of 99 participants underwent training followed by evaluation. Data of the 99 participants were analyzed. Fifty posterior pole 45 degree retinal images with all stages of DR were presented. Kappa scores (κ), areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), sensitivity and specificity were determined, with further comparison between working optometrists and optometry students. Results Mean age of the participants was 22 years (range: 19–43 years), 87% being women. Participants correctly identified 91.5% images that required immediate referral (κ) = 0.696), 62.5% of images as requiring review after 6 months (κ = 0.462), and 51.2% of those requiring review after 1 year (κ = 0.532). The sensitivity and specificity of the optometrists were 91% and 78% for immediate referral, 62% and 84% for review after 6 months, and 51% and 95% for review after 1 year, respectively. The AUC was the highest (0.855) for immediate referral, second highest (0.824) for review after 1 year, and 0.727 for review after 6 months criteria. Optometry students performed better than the working optometrists for all grades of referral. Conclusions The diabetic retinopathy algorithm assessed in this work is a simple and a fairly accurate method for appropriate referral based on single-field 45 degree posterior pole retinal images. PMID:27661981

  20. Effects of rigid contact lenses on optical coherence tomographic parameters in eyes with keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Uzunel, Umut Duygu; Kusbeci, Tuncay; Yuce, Berna; Yüksel, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of irregular astigmatism on the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), macular thickness and ganglion cell analysis obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with keratoconus. Fifty-two eyes of 31 patients (20 females) with keratoconus that required correction of irregular astigmatism with rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses were included to this study. The average, superior, nasal, inferior, temporal and 12 clock hour sector's RNFL, ganglion cell and macular thickness analyses before and 30 minutes after RGP contact lens (Rose K2 -Menicon Z material, David Thomas Contact Lenses Ltd, Northampton, United Kingdom) wear were performed to all patients with Cirrus HD spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The average thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer, the thickness at the nasal quadrants and 1-2-3-4 o'clock hour sectors and mean signal strength were increased significantly by RGP contact lens wearing independent of the stage of keratoconus. Central sub-field thickness increased after correction with RGP contact lens (p = 0.037). After wearing RGP contact lenses, changes on ganglion cell analysis were not significant (all p values ≥ 0.111). OCT is a widely used device for retinal nerve fibre layer and macular thickness evaluation in patients with glaucoma and macular diseases. The study demonstrates that OCT parameters such as retinal nerve fibre layer, central sub-field thickness and mean signal strength are affected by irregular astigmatism. Correction of irregular astigmatism with RGP contact lenses should be recommended before analysing keratoconic eyes to obtain optimum results on OCT measurements. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  1. Agreement between clinical and laboratory methods assessing tonic and cross-link components of accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pascaline; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Philippe, Matthieu; Fuchs, Philippe; Roumes, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    Several tests are available to optometrists for investigating accommodation and vergence. This study sought to investigate the agreement between clinical and laboratory methods and to clarify which components are actually measured when tonic and cross-link of accommodation and vergence are assessed. Tonic vergence, tonic accommodation, accommodative vergence (AC/A) and vergence accommodation (CA/C) were measured using several tests. Clinical tests were compared to the laboratory assessment, the latter being regarded as an absolute reference. The repeatability of each test and the degree of agreement between the tests were quantified using Bland-Altman analysis. The values obtained for each test were found to be stable across repetitions; however, in most cases, significant differences were observed between tests supposed to measure the same oculomotor component. Tonic and cross-link components cannot be easily assessed because proximal and instrumental responses interfere with the assessment. Other components interfere with oculomotor assessment. Specifically, accommodative divergence interferes with tonic vergence estimation and the type of accommodation considered in the AC/A ratio affects its magnitude. Results on clinical tonic accommodation and clinical CA/C show that further investigation is needed to clarify the limitations associated with the use of difference of Gaussian as visual targets to open the accommodative loop. Although different optometric tests of accommodation and vergence rely on the same basic principles, the results of this study indicate that clinical and laboratory methods actually involve distinct components. These differences, which are induced by methodological choices, must be taken into account, when comparing studies or when selecting a test to investigate a particular oculomotor component. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  2. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>−0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between −0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. PMID:25000872

  3. Punctal function in lacrimal drainage: the 'pipette sign' and functional ectropion.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Bijan; Gupta, Deepak; Luo, Yvonne H-L; Saldana, Manuel; Georgalas, Ilias; Kalantzis, George; El-Hindy, Nabil

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to assess the movements of the inferior punctum during blinking and discuss pertinent clinical applications. This is a prospective, non-comparative observational case-series examining the function of inferior punctum during blinking using video recordings of the blinking action at the slitlamp with slow-motion analysis and comparison. In all 56 eyes of 28 patents, supero-medial movement of the lower punctum toward the medial canthus, together with a medially directed protrusion of the inferior punctum was noted. It was also noted that the punctum blanched during this projectile movement compared to the rest of the lid margin. Simultaneous posterior rotation of the punctum was also observed in 48 eyes (85.7 per cent; 23 right eyes and 25 left eyes), resulting in apposition of the punctum to the lacus lacrimalis. In eight eyes (14.3 per cent; five right eyes and three left) from six patients, co-existence of medial punctal ectropion led to failure of internal rotation of the punctum during blinking, even though punctal 'pipette formation' was preserved. These six patients all suffered from epiphora in the affected eyes. The presence of 'pipette' formation was calculated to have a sensitivity of 80 per cent and specificity of 100 per cent for punctal ectropion in our series. A two-tailed Fisher exact test showed that based on our 56 eyes, these results were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The inferior punctum plays an active and important role in the drainage of tears by the mechanism of supero-medial movement and medially directed protrusion ('pipetting action'), failure of which contributes to epiphora. This is a highly specific sign and should be sought in the evaluation of epiphora, even in the absence of frank ectropion. In punctual stenosis where location of the punctal orifice is proving difficult, inducing the pipette sign will help in its identification. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry

  4. Advanced imaging for the diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration: a case vignettes study.

    PubMed

    Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zangerl, Barbara; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnosis, staging, imaging and management preferences, and the effect of advanced imaging among practising optometrists in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Up to 20 case vignettes (computer-based case simulations) were completed online in a computer laboratory in random order by 81 practising optometrists of Australia. Each case presented findings from a randomly selected patient seen previously at the Centre for Eye Health for a macular assessment in the following order: case history, preliminary tests and colour fundus photography. Participants were prompted to provide their diagnosis, management and imaging preference. One additional imaging result (either modified fundus photographs and infrared images, fundus autofluorescence, or optical coherence tomography [OCT]) was then provided and the questions repeated. Finally, all imaging results were provided and the questions repeated a third time. A total of 1,436 responses were analysed. The presence of macular pathology in AMD was accurately detected in 94 per cent of instances. The overall diagnostic accuracy of AMD was 61 per cent using colour fundus photography. This improved by one per cent using one additional imaging modality and a further four per cent using all imaging. Across all responses, a greater improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of AMD occurred following the presentation of OCT findings (versus other modalities). OCT was the most preferred imaging modality for AMD, while multimodal imaging was of greatest benefit in cases more often misdiagnosed using colour fundus photography alone. Overall, the cohort also displayed a tendency to underestimate disease severity. Despite reports that imaging technologies improve the stratification of AMD, our findings suggest that this effect may be small when applied among practising optometrists without additional or specific training. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry published by John

  5. Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Salazar, Francisco; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Gomez-Campaña, Humberto; Cruz-Zamudio, Cinthia; Chaidez-Felix, Mariano; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Muro-Amador, Secundino; Guadron-Llanos, Alma Marlene; Martinez-Garcia, Javier J.; Murillo-Llanes, Joel; Sanchez-Cuen, Jaime; Llausas-Vargas, Alejando; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; Irineo-Cabrales, Ana; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique; Ramirez-Luquin, Tito; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. METHODS Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50), and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D). A negative cylinder was selected as a notation. RESULTS The proportion (95% confidence interval) among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0), emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8), myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9) and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5). Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old), however, hyperopia increased among the aging population (40 to 79 years old), and astigmatism alone showed a decreasing trend with age (6 to 90y; from 19.7% to 10.8%). There was a relationship between age and all refractive errors (approximately 60%, aged 50 and older). The proportion of any clinically important refractive error was higher in males (61.2%) than in females (58.3%; P<0.0001). From fourteen states that collected information, the proportion of refractive error showed variability in different geographical areas of Mexico. CONCLUSION Myopia is the most common refractive error in the population studied. This study provides the first data on refractive error in Mexico. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the Mexican population. PMID:28546940

  6. Comparison of progressive addition lenses for general purpose and for computer vision: an office field study.

    PubMed

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang; König, Mirjam; Mekontso, Tiofil M; Ohlendorf, Arne; Welscher, Monique

    2015-05-01

    Two types of progressive addition lenses (PALs) were compared in an office field study: 1. General purpose PALs with continuous clear vision between infinity and near reading distances and 2. Computer vision PALs with a wider zone of clear vision at the monitor and in near vision but no clear distance vision. Twenty-three presbyopic participants wore each type of lens for two weeks in a double-masked four-week quasi-experimental procedure that included an adaptation phase (Weeks 1 and 2) and a test phase (Weeks 3 and 4). Questionnaires on visual and musculoskeletal conditions as well as preferences regarding the type of lenses were administered. After eight more weeks of free use of the spectacles, the preferences were assessed again. The ergonomic conditions were analysed from photographs. Head inclination when looking at the monitor was significantly lower by 2.3 degrees with the computer vision PALs than with the general purpose PALs. Vision at the monitor was judged significantly better with computer PALs, while distance vision was judged better with general purpose PALs; however, the reported advantage of computer vision PALs differed in extent between participants. Accordingly, 61 per cent of the participants preferred the computer vision PALs, when asked without information about lens design. After full information about lens characteristics and additional eight weeks of free spectacle use, 44 per cent preferred the computer vision PALs. On average, computer vision PALs were rated significantly better with respect to vision at the monitor during the experimental part of the study. In the final forced-choice ratings, approximately half of the participants preferred either the computer vision PAL or the general purpose PAL. Individual factors seem to play a role in this preference and in the rated advantage of computer vision PALs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  7. Comparative analysis of the visual performance and aberrometric outcomes with a new hybrid and two silicone hydrogel multifocal contact lenses: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Ruiz-Fortes, Pedro; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the visual performance achieved with a new multifocal hybrid contact lens and to compare it with that obtained with two other currently available multifocal soft contact lenses. This pilot prospective comparative study comprised a total of 16 presbyopic eyes of eight patients ranging in age from 43 to 58 years. All patients were fitted with three different models of multifocal contact lens: Duette multifocal (SynergEyes), Air Optix AQUA multifocal (Alcon) and Biofinity multifocal (CooperVision). Fittings were performed randomly in each patient according to a random number sequence, with a wash-out period between fittings of seven days. At two weeks post-fitting, visual, photopic contrast sensitivity and ocular aberrometry were evaluated. No statistically significant differences were found in distance and near visual acuity achieved with the three different types of multifocal contact lens (p ≥ 0.05). Likewise, no significant differences between lenses were found in the monocular and binocular defocus curve (p ≥ 0.10). Concerning contrast sensitivity, better monocular contrast sensitivities for 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree were found with the Duette and Air Optix multifocal compared to Biofinity (p = 0.02). Binocularly, differences between lenses were not significant (p ≥ 0.27). Furthermore, trefoil aberration was significantly higher with Biofinity multifocal (p < 0.01) and Air Optix (p = 0.01) multifocal compared to Duette. The Duette multifocal hybrid contact lens seems to provide similar visual quality outcomes in presbyopic patients with low corneal astigmatism, when compared with other soft multifocal contact lenses. This preliminary result should be confirmed in studies with larger samples. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  8. Visual impairment attributable to uncorrected refractive error and other causes in the Ghanaian youth: The University of Cape Coast Survey.

    PubMed

    Abokyi, Samuel; Ilechie, Alex; Nsiah, Peter; Darko-Takyi, Charles; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Osei-Akoto, Yaw Jnr; Youfegan-Baanam, Mathurin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of visual impairment attributable to refractive error and other causes in a youthful Ghanaian population. A prospective survey of all consecutive visits by first-year tertiary students to the Optometry clinic between August, 2013 and April, 2014. Of the 4378 first-year students aged 16-39 years enumerated, 3437 (78.5%) underwent the eye examination. The examination protocol included presenting visual acuity (PVA), ocular motility, and slit-lamp examination of the external eye, anterior segment and media, and non-dilated fundus examination. Pinhole acuity and fundus examination were performed when the PVA≤6/12 in one or both eyes to determine the principal cause of the vision loss. The mean age of participants was 21.86 years (95% CI: 21.72-21.99). The prevalence of bilateral visual impairment (BVI; PVA in the better eye ≤6/12) and unilateral visual impairment UVI; PVA in the worse eye ≤6/12) were 3.08% (95% CI: 2.56-3.72) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.54-1.14), respectively. Among 106 participants with BVI, refractive error (96.2%) and corneal opacity (3.8%) were the causes. Of the 27 participants with UVI, refractive error (44.4%), maculopathy (18.5%) and retinal disease (14.8%) were the major causes. There was unequal distribution of BVI in the different age groups, with those above 20 years having a lesser burden. Eye screening and provision of affordable spectacle correction to the youth could be timely to eliminate visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term Effect of Scleral Lens on the Dry Eye Biomarkers in Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Carracedo, Gonzalo; Blanco, Maria Serramito; Martin-Gil, Alba; Zicheng, Wang; Alvarez, Jesús Carballo; Pintor, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the most important signs of dry eye, such as osmolarity, inflammation, and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap(4)A) concentration before and after wearing scleral lenses for 8 h in keratoconus patients. A pilot, experimental, short-term study involved 26 keratoconus patients (average age, 36.95 ± 8.95 years). They voluntarily enrolled in the study at the Optometry Clinic of the Faculty of Optics and Optometry in the University Complutense of Madrid. They were divided into two groups: patients with intrastromal corneal ring, the ICRS group, and patients without ICRS, the keratoconus (KC) group. Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, the Schirmer test without anesthesia, tear break-up time, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) concentration, osmolarity, and Ap4A concentration were evaluated before and after wearing a scleral lens for 8 h. The patients wore the scleral lenses from 6 to 9 h, with a mean of 7.59 ± 0.73 h. The mean scleral lens sag for all patients was 4310 ± 166.31 μm, ranging from 4200 μm to 4800 μm. No significant changes in the Schirmer test and tear break-up time were found for either group. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were statistically lower after wearing scleral lenses for both groups (p < 0.05). A significantly lower osmolarity and a significant rise of MMP-9 concentration after wearing scleral lenses were found in both groups (p < 0.05). Diadenosine tetraphosphate concentration was lower after wearing the scleral lens in the KC group (p < 0.05) but no significant difference was found for the ICRS group (p > 0.05). Short-term scleral lens wearing improves the symptomatology and some signs of dry eye, such as osmolarity and Ap4A concentration. The increase of MMP-9 concentration could be caused by tear film stagnation and use of preserved saline.

  10. A Proposed Model for Integrated Low-Vision Rehabilitation Services in Canada.

    PubMed

    Leat, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    The provision and funding of low-vision rehabilitation (LVR) are very variable across Canada. Quebec is well served by 14 government-funded rehabilitation centers. In most provinces, there are no such multidisciplinary services-optometrists offer LVR from their offices to a greater or lesser degree or undertake assessments in centers run by CNIB (formerly Canadian National Institute for the Blind). No integrated model for LVR exists across Canada. This document proposes such a model, which focuses on the profession of optometry, but may also be applicable to ophthalmology. This article describes different models of LV provision, the evidence for their relative effectiveness, the current situation in Canada, including the variability between areas and the need to increase referrals to LVR, and the current international consensus for LV provision. With the projected increase in people with LV, a generally accepted LV model for Canada is required to improve patient care. It has become recognized in the global community that a tiered system may be required to provide for patients who range in their visual rehabilitation needs and geographic locations. The proposed LVR model includes three levels: 1. Screening/recognition of a potential patient with LV followed by appropriate triage. All optometrists should be involved at this level. 2. Management of the patient with minimum visual impairment/disability. This level of LVR can take place in a local optometry office with a minimal of extra equipment or devices. Level 3: Comprehensive LVR for patients with more vision loss and greater disabilities. Level 3 requires collaboration with other professionals, and three mechanisms are proposed by this which may take place. The proposed model is expected to be useful for future education, policy decisions, and collaboration in Canada, and it may also be of interest for the development of LV services in other countries.

  11. Influence of Optic Disc Size on Identifying Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Gregory J; Watanabe, Ronald K; Sullivan-Mee, Michael; DeWilde, Anthony; Young, Lisa; Mitchell, G Lynn

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to use a large group of observers to test prior research findings that suggest optic disc size, clinical evaluation of the neuroretinal rim (ISNT rule), and practitioner characteristics influence the accuracy of differentiating normal from glaucomatous optic nerves. Participant observers were optometrists, optometry students, and vision scientists/researchers attending the 2013 American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting. Each observer viewed and judged six sets of stereoscopic photographs of normal and clinically confirmed glaucomatous optic nerves of different sizes presented in random order. Observers were queried on whether each nerve was glaucomatous or normal, whether the nerve followed the ISNT rule, and whether further evaluation with advanced imaging techniques was indicated. Of the 261 observers who participated, 59% were practicing optometrists, 7% were vision scientists, and 34% were residents or students. Of practicing optometrists and vision scientists, half (49%) had more than 15 years of experience, whereas 11% had less than 2 years of experience. Diagnostic accuracy differed based on optic nerve size: average-sized nerves were correctly identified by 90% of subjects, whereas small nerves and large nerves were correctly identified by 42% and 62%, respectively. Notably, only 9% of subjects correctly identified the small glaucomatous nerve, and only 34% correctly identified the large normal nerve. No practitioner characteristics were associated with diagnostic accuracy. Accurate identification of glaucomatous optic neuropathy was significantly influenced by optic disc size. This was particularly evident for the large normal nerve and the small glaucomatous nerve. The ISNT rule provided value for differentiating normal from glaucomatous nerves, but its subjective interpretation resulted in considerable intergrader variability. These findings agree with other studies utilizing smaller numbers of observers but larger numbers of

  12. Recommendations for analysis of repeated-measures designs: testing and correcting for sphericity and use of manova and mixed model analysis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    A common experimental design in ophthalmic research is the repeated-measures design in which at least one variable is a within-subject factor. This design is vulnerable to lack of 'sphericity' which assumes that the variances of the differences among all possible pairs of within-subject means are equal. Traditionally, this design has been analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-anova) but increasingly more complex methods such as multivariate anova (manova) and mixed model analysis (MMA) are being used. This article surveys current practice in the analysis of designs incorporating different factors in research articles published in three optometric journals, namely Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (OPO), Optometry and Vision Science (OVS), and Clinical and Experimental Optometry (CXO), and provides advice to authors regarding the analysis of repeated-measures designs. Of the total sample of articles, 66% used a repeated-measures design. Of those articles using a repeated-measures design, 59% and 8% analysed the data using RM-anova or manova respectively and 33% used MMA. The use of MMA relative to RM-anova has increased significantly since 2009/10. A further search using terms to select those papers testing and correcting for sphericity ('Mauchly's test', 'Greenhouse-Geisser', 'Huynh and Feld') identified 66 articles, 62% of which were published from 2012 to the present. If the design is balanced without missing data then manova should be used rather than RM-anova as it gives better protection against lack of sphericity. If the design is unbalanced or with missing data then MMA is the method of choice. However, MMA is a more complex analysis and can be difficult to set up and run, and care should be taken first, to define appropriate models to be tested and second, to ensure that sample sizes are adequate. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Functional Outcomes of the Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Deemer, Ashley D; Massof, Robert W; Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Piersol, Catherine V

    2017-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of behavioral activation (BA) plus low vision rehabilitation with an occupational therapist (OT-LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) on visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with AMD patients with subsyndromal depressive symptoms (n = 188). All subjects had two outpatient low vision rehabilitation optometry visits, then were randomized to in-home BA + OT-LVR or ST. Behavioral activation is a structured behavioral treatment aiming to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Functional vision was assessed with the activity inventory (AI) in which participants rate the difficulty level of goals and corresponding tasks. Participants were assessed at baseline and 4 months. Improvements in functional vision measures were seen in both the BA + OT-LVR and ST groups at the goal level (d = 0.71; d = 0.56 respectively). At the task level, BA + OT-LVR patients showed more improvement in reading, inside-the-home tasks and outside-the-home tasks, when compared to ST patients. The greatest effects were seen in the BA + OT-LVR group in subjects with a visual acuity ≥20/70 (d = 0.360 reading; d = 0.500 inside the home; d = 0.468 outside the home). Based on the trends of the AI data, we suggest that BA + OT-LVR services, provided by an OT in the patient's home following conventional low vision optometry services, are more effective than conventional optometric low vision services alone for those with mild visual impairment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00769015.).

  14. Relevant Factors of Estrogen Changes of Myopia in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Juan-Fen; Xie, Hong-Li; Mao, Xin-Jie; Zhu, Xue-Bo; Xie, Zuo-Kai; Yang, Hai-Hong; Gao, Yang; Jin, Xiao-Feng; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia. Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females. Methods: A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years, diagnosed with myopia were recruited. Spherical lens, cylindrical lens, axis, interpupillary distance (IPD), and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry, with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2nd or 3rd days, 14th days, and 28th days, respectively. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above. Results: In young females with myopia, the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001). The cylindrical lens, axis, and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (χ2 = 6.35, P = 0.042). The vision during the 14th and 28th day was higher compared to that on the 2nd or 3rd days (P = 0.021). Serum E2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). E2 levels reached its maximum value on the 14th day and the minimum value on the 2nd or 3rd day. Conclusions: In adolescent females, the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E2 in menstrual cycle. Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage. PMID:25698200

  15. Assessment of size and nucleo-cytoplasmic characteristics of the squamous cells of the corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to objectively assess size, nucleus and nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio features of squamous cells from the corneal epithelium The corneas of recent post-mortem sheep eyes were either glutaraldehyde-fixed for transmission electron microscopy or impression cytology samples taken, glutaraldehyde-fixed and stained with Giemsa. From the specimens for impression cytology, a representative region was photographed from 12 different samples taken from the central region and 16 different samples taken from mid-peripheral regions of the corneal epithelium. Images were subjected to morphometry after overlays were generated. Electron microscopy revealed a very distinctive stratified corneal epithelium with several superficial layers, confirming the squamous phenotype. Impression cytology from such superficial layers revealed a cell size of 60.1 ± 4.8 μm, nucleus dimension of 12.3 ± 1.5 μm, cell area of 2,419 ± 416 μm(2) and nucleus area of 131 ± 31 μm(2) . A nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio based on nucleus-to-cell length had a mean of 0.207 ± 0.022, while a cytoplasm-to-nucleus length ratio was 3.975 ± 0.474. Estimates of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio based on areas had a mean value of 0.059 ± 0.011. Very similar results were found for mid-peripheral corneal epithelium. The results strongly indicate that the squamous phenotype of the superficial corneal epithelial cells is characterised by a large size, large nucleus and low nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio. These morphological characteristics show a notable resemblance to data obtained from impression cytological studies on human conjunctival epithelial cells showing severe squamous metaplasia. © 2015 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  16. What percentage of patients presenting for routine eye examinations require referral for secondary care? A study of referrals from optometrists to ophthalmologists.

    PubMed

    Dobbelsteyn, David; McKee, Katherine; Bearnes, Reece D; Jayanetti, Sujani N; Persaud, David D; Cruess, Alan F

    2015-05-01

    Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  17. Functional Outcomes of the Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Deemer, Ashley D.; Massof, Robert W.; Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Piersol, Catherine V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of behavioral activation (BA) plus low vision rehabilitation with an occupational therapist (OT-LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) on visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with AMD patients with subsyndromal depressive symptoms (n = 188). All subjects had two outpatient low vision rehabilitation optometry visits, then were randomized to in-home BA + OT-LVR or ST. Behavioral activation is a structured behavioral treatment aiming to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Functional vision was assessed with the activity inventory (AI) in which participants rate the difficulty level of goals and corresponding tasks. Participants were assessed at baseline and 4 months. Results Improvements in functional vision measures were seen in both the BA + OT-LVR and ST groups at the goal level (d = 0.71; d = 0.56 respectively). At the task level, BA + OT-LVR patients showed more improvement in reading, inside-the-home tasks and outside-the-home tasks, when compared to ST patients. The greatest effects were seen in the BA + OT-LVR group in subjects with a visual acuity ≥20/70 (d = 0.360 reading; d = 0.500 inside the home; d = 0.468 outside the home). Conclusions Based on the trends of the AI data, we suggest that BA + OT-LVR services, provided by an OT in the patient's home following conventional low vision optometry services, are more effective than conventional optometric low vision services alone for those with mild visual impairment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00769015.) PMID:28273318

  18. Therapeutic treatment of keratoconus: a survey of local optometric practice criteria.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Christopher; Chan, Colin; Zantos, Steve; Kokkinakis, Jim; Stapleton, Fiona; Sutton, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    continue to work with optometry to develop guidelines for referral and co-management to optimise future outcomes for our patients. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  19. Shape discrimination thresholds among subjects with emmetropia and corrected myopia.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Narayanan; Tan, Eddie; Liyana, Raja; Metha, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    with corrected myopia compared to emmetropia. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  20. How Comprehensively Is Evidence-Based Practice Represented in Australian Health Professional Accreditation Documents? A Systematic Audit.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Maureen P; Crilly, Mike; Young, Taryn; Farrelly, Jane; Lewis, Lucy Kate

    2016-01-01

    PHENONENON: In many developed countries, accreditation documents, which reflect the practice standards of health professions, form the basis for evaluation of education programs for meeting the requirements for registration. The 2005 Sicily statement proposed a 5-step model of training in evidence-based practice (ask, access, appraise, apply, and assess). A key recommendation was that evidence-based practice should be incorporated into entry-level health professional training and registration. No previous research has assessed the extent to which this has occurred. We undertook a systematic audit of the accreditation documents for the registered health professions in Australia. The 11 health professional disciplines included in the audit were medicine, nursing and midwifery, pharmacy, physiotherapy, dentistry, psychology, occupational therapy, optometry, podiatry, osteopathy, and chiropractic. Two investigators independently identified the occurrence of the term evidence that related to "evidence-based practice" and the occurrences of terms related to the 5 steps in the accreditation documents. Occurrence of the term evidence as it relates specifically to "evidence-based practice" ranged from 0 (pharmacy, dentistry and occupational therapy) to 8 (physiotherapy) in the accreditation documents. Overall, there were 77 occasions when terms relating to any of the 5 steps of evidence-based practice were used across all 11 accreditation documents. All 5 steps were included in the physiotherapy and psychology documents; 4 steps in medicine and optometry; 3 steps in pharmacy; 2 steps each in documents for chiropractic, osteopathy, and podiatry; and 1 step for nursing. There was no inclusion of terms relating to any of the 5 steps in the dentistry and occupational therapy documents. Insights: Terminology relating explicitly to evidence-based practice and to the 5 steps of evidence-based practice appears to be lacking in the accreditation documents for health professions

  1. Framing professional programs within development projects: driving longer term recognition and integration.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Diane; Loughman, James; Naidoo, Kovin

    2016-04-19

    Optometry has, over the past ten years, emerged as a profession strategically positioned to address the burden of uncorrected refractive error in developing countries. Estimates suggest that 285 million people in the world are needlessly visually impaired, mainly due to the lack of trained eye health professionals in the developing world. Development initiatives in eye care have therefore moved away from vertical, service delivery approaches to supporting the establishment of more sustainable, locally owned training programs. This research is based on one the evaluation of one such initiative known as the Mozambique Eyecare Project. This study followed a qualitative research design. Ethical approval was granted by the Research Ethics Committee at the Dublin Institute of Technology, which followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. A qualitative, interview-based study was undertaken between 2012 and 2014 with eighteen key informants involved in the design, planning and implementation of the project. A semi-structured interview guide was developed to explore, inter alia, challenges relating to the establishment of the new profession of optometry in Mozambique. Data was coded and analysed thematically and results derived from a process of descriptive-interpretive analysis. The establishment of a new profession within the ambit of a development project presents several challenges, principally the establishment of the profession's identity in relation to similar professional cadres' in-country. The risk of not addressing professional regulatory requirements for new programs, where equal or similar qualifications have not previously existed, are that the profession may not be officially recognised by the relevant health authorities and therefore not mainstreamed into public health services, or that training standards and scope of practice may be inappropriate to local needs. Overall, the public may become vulnerable to unscrupulous health care practices. Health

  2. Human resources for refraction services in Central Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Himal; Murthy, G V S; Bascaran, Covadonga

    2015-07-01

    refraction services in the Central Region and in Nepal as a whole. The equitable distribution of the refractionists, their community-outreach services and awareness raising activities should be emphasised. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  3. Visual demands in modern Australian primary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2016-05-01

    to inform prescribing guidelines and develop paediatric vision screening protocols and referral criteria. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  4. Improvements in vision-related quality of life in blind patients implanted with the Argus II Epiretinal Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacque L; Richards, Thomas P; Arditi, Aries; da Cruz, Lyndon; Dagnelie, Gislin; Dorn, Jessy D; Ho, Allen C; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Stanga, Paulo E; Thumann, Gabriele; Wang, Yizhong; Greenberg, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    -term, durable improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Optometry Australia.

  5. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users.

    PubMed

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2015-07-01

    and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  6. Vision Impairment and Ocular Morbidity in a Refugee Population in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kaphle, Dinesh; Gyawali, Rajendra; Kandel, Himal; Reading, Angela; Msosa, Joseph Matiya

    2016-02-01

    To provide screening services and obtain information on the eye health status and distribution of visual impairments in a refugee population of the sole refugee camp in Malawi. A general eye screening at Dzaleka refugee settlement camp was organized in November 2012. Final-year optometry students conducted detailed optometry examinations, including visual acuity (VA) assessment for near and distance, retinoscopy, and subjective refraction in cases with distance VA less than 6/12 or near VA less than N8, anterior and posterior segment evaluation. Their findings were then verified by an optometrist. The World Health Organization definition of vision impairment was followed, and the cause of vision impairment was determined at the end of each examination. Where possible, participants requiring refractive correction were provided spectacles free of cost. Of a total 635 participants examined, around one-half were male with 61% in the 16 to 49 years age group. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness, severe vision impairment, and vision impairment were 1.3% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.5 to 2.4), 0.5% (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.1), and 3.6% (95% CI, 2.3 to 5.2), respectively. Overall vision impairment (VA <6/18) was present in 5.4% (95% CI, 3.6 to 7.1) of the participants. The principal causes of blindness, severe vision impairment, and vision impairment were cataracts, refractive errors, and corneal opacities, respectively; and more than 90% of the overall vision impairment was avoidable. Refractive errors and presbyopia were the most common morbidity, present in more than two-thirds of the participants examined. Only 5% of all the participants ever had a previous eye examination. The prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment in a refugee population are comparable with those of the general population. Lack of basic eye care services in the health center for refugees is a major concern. The health care facility in the settlement camp needs to be

  7. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  8. Extrinsic curvature, geometric optics, and lamellar order on curved substrates.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Randall D; Nelson, David R; Santangelo, Christian D; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2009-11-01

    When thermal energies are weak, two-dimensional lamellar structures confined on a curved substrate display complex patterns arising from the competition between layer bending and compression in the presence of geometric constraints. We present broad design principles to engineer the geometry of the underlying substrate so that a desired lamellar pattern can be obtained by self-assembly. Two distinct physical effects are identified as key factors that contribute to the interaction between the shape of the underlying surface and the resulting lamellar morphology. The first is a local ordering field for the direction of each individual layer, which tends to minimize its curvature with respect to the three-dimensional embedding. The second is a nonlocal effect controlled by the intrinsic geometry of the surface that forces the normals to the (nearly incompressible) layers to lie on geodesics, leading to caustic formation as in optics. As a result, different surface morphologies with predominantly positive or negative Gaussian curvature can act as converging or diverging lenses, respectively. By combining these ingredients, as one would with different optical elements, complex lamellar morphologies can be obtained. This smectic optometry enables the manipulation of lamellar configurations for the design of materials.

  9. Eyeglasses for Children - a Survey of Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    Hagander, C E; Traber, G; Landau, K; Jaggi, G P

    2016-04-01

    Glasses for children are recommended and prescribed by different groups of professionals. We set out to compare the prescription practices of ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists/opticians in Switzerland. Online questionnaire on the prescription and recommendation of glasses in fictitious cases of children of different ages, refractive values and symptoms. The questionnaire was sent out to members of the Swiss Ophthalmological Society, Swiss Orthoptics and Schweizerischer Berufsverband für Augenoptik und Optometrie. 307 questionnaires were analysed. Optometrists/opticians recommended glasses with a significantly smaller cycloplegic refraction value (p < 0.005) than did orthoptists and ophthalmologists. In the example of a 14-year-old asymptomatic child, ophthalmologists recommended glasses at + 2.64 [Dpt], orthoptists at + 2.44 [Dpt] and optometrists/opticians at + 1.32 [Dpt]. Optometrists/opticians tended to recommend slightly higher correction values in glasses than did ophthalmologists and orthoptists. In Switzerland, optometrists/opticians recommend glasses with significantly smaller cycloplegic refraction values than do orthoptists and ophthalmologists, regardless of age or symptoms described in these fictitious cases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A reliable and valid questionnaire was developed to measure computer vision syndrome at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Seguí, María del Mar; Cabrero-García, Julio; Crespo, Ana; Verdú, José; Ronda, Elena

    2015-06-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire to measure visual symptoms related to exposure to computers in the workplace. Our computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was based on a literature review and validated through discussion with experts and performance of a pretest, pilot test, and retest. Content validity was evaluated by occupational health, optometry, and ophthalmology experts. Rasch analysis was used in the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Criterion validity was determined by calculating the sensitivity and specificity, receiver operator characteristic curve, and cutoff point. Test-retest repeatability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance by Cohen's kappa (κ). The CVS-Q was developed with wide consensus among experts and was well accepted by the target group. It assesses the frequency and intensity of 16 symptoms using a single rating scale (symptom severity) that fits the Rasch rating scale model well. The questionnaire has sensitivity and specificity over 70% and achieved good test-retest repeatability both for the scores obtained [ICC = 0.802; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.673, 0.884] and CVS classification (κ = 0.612; 95% CI: 0.384, 0.839). The CVS-Q has acceptable psychometric properties, making it a valid and reliable tool to control the visual health of computer workers, and can potentially be used in clinical trials and outcome research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Constellation-X Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Women in Science Conferences are designed to allow young women in grades 7 through 12 to learn first-hand about careers in science, mathematics, and technology from accomplished professional women. Results of an international science and mathematics study conducted in 2000 indicated that "children in the United States were among the leaders in the 4th grade assessment, but by high school graduation, they were almost last." Part of the problem is that many girls and young women in junior and senior high school lose interest in science and technological careers. The goal of the WIS-Conferences held at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and at Central Wyoming College in Riverton, are to directly address this problem. The conferences will be a cooperative effort supported by local agencies, schools, and businesses, in addition to several state agencies. By presenting positive role models in the science, mathematics, and technological fields, we hope to encourage all students (especially young women and minorities) to pursue higher education and careers in mathematics and science. The workshop topics include: 1) Engineering; 2) Robotics; 3) Physics/Astronomy; 4) Geology; 5) Paleontology; 6) Remote Sensing (GPS/GIS); 7) Molecular Biology; 8) Veterinary Medicine; 9) Optometry; 10) Data Encryption; and 11) Wildlife Biology.

  12. Forensic application of optical correction.

    PubMed

    Collins, Randall S; Berg, Gregory E

    2008-04-01

    Prescription eyewear can be used to aid in forensic investigations. Until now, investigators and consulted eye professionals have been limited to a simple "match" or "no match" judgment. This article introduces optometry to a Web-based tool that can be used to assess the strength of a match between spectacle prescriptions and recorded patient information. Three databases with more than 385,000 individual prescriptions were used to create the Web tool that calculates the frequency with which a prescription occurs in various U.S. populations. A search for any prescription in the tool's database will result in a report of the number of times a given prescription occurred in the queried database(s) as well as the calculated frequency with which the combination of the given sphere power, cylinder power and axis are likely to occur. Practical application of the Web tool in 2 published cases has shown matches with frequency of occurrence of 5.33 x 10(-6) and 2.66 x 10(-6), respectively. This application currently is being used by the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command Central Identification Laboratory (JPAC-CIL) and other agencies when optical materials are available in forensic settings. Further, this application currently is contributing evidence in an active murder case. The creation of this easy-to-use Web tool allows eye care professionals to provide strong statistical assessments when serving as consultants to forensic investigators.

  13. Tear film evaluation and management in soft contact lens wear: a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Downie, Laura E; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-09-01

    The human tear film is a highly ordered structure consisting of a thin layer of lipid on the surface and a thicker aqueous-mucin phase, which increases in mucin concentration toward the corneal epithelial cell layer. The health of the tear film and ocular surface influences the likelihood of being able to achieve successful contact lens wear. Contact lens discomfort and dryness are the most frequent reasons why contact lens wearers experience reduced wearing times, which can eventually lead to contact lens discontinuation. Comprehensive clinical assessment of tear film integrity and ocular surface health is therefore essential prior to commencing contact lens wear, to enable the ocular surface environment to be optimised to support lens wear. These parameters should also be evaluated over the course of contact lens wear, in order to identify any aspects requiring clinical management and ensure maintenance of optimal lens-wearing conditions. This review summarises current knowledge relating to the effects of soft contact lens wear on the tear film and ocular surface. It also provides a systematic approach to evaluating tear film and ocular surface integrity, in order to guide the clinical management of tear film anomalies with respect to contact lens wear. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  14. Characteristics of a paediatric low vision population in a private eye hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, V K; Herse, P

    2000-05-01

    While private hospitals provide an important access point for low vision services for children in urban India, little is known about this service delivery route. A cross sectional survey was done of consecutive records of 220 children presenting at a newly opened paediatric low vision centre in a private eye hospital in Hyderabad. On presentation, 49% of the children were classified as moderately visually impaired, 31% were severely visually impaired and 20% were blind. The four major causes of visual impairment were the hereditary/genetic conditions of congenital glaucoma, hereditary macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and albinism. Approach magnification was sufficient for required near tasks in all pre-school children and about 50% of school children. Provision of a distance refraction decreased the prevalence of severe visual impairment and blindness by 31%. The most commonly prescribed low vision devices were spectacles indicating a key role for optometry in the management of visual impairment in Indian children. Establishment of low vision clinics in existing Indian eye hospitals using associated optometric staff would be a cost effective method to minimise visual impairment in Indian children.

  15. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory/University of California lighting program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.

    1981-12-01

    The objective of the Lighting Program is to assist and work in concert with the lighting community (composed of manufacturers, designers, and users) to achieve a more efficient lighting economy. To implement its objectives, the Lighting Program has been divided into three major categories: technical engineering, buildings applications, and human impacts (impacts on health and vision). The technical program aims to undertake research and development projects that are both long-range and high-risk and which the lighting industry has little interest in pursuing on its own, but from which significant benefits could accrue to both the public and the industry. The building applications program studies the effects that introducing daylighting in commercial buildings has on lighting and cooling electrical energy requirements as well as on peak demand. This program also examines optimization strategies for integrating energy-efficient design, lighting hardware, daylighting, and overall building energy requirements. The impacts program examines relationships between the user and the physical lighting environment, in particular how new energy-efficient technologies relate to human productivity and health. These efforts are interdisciplinary, involving engineering, optometry, and medicine. The program facilities are described and the personnel in the program is identified.

  16. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  17. Knocked by the shuttlecock: twelve sight-threatening blunt-eye injuries in Australian badminton players.

    PubMed

    Jao, Kathy K; Atik, Alp; Jamieson, Michael P; Sheales, Mariana P; Lee, Matthew H; Porter, Ashley; Roufas, Athena; Goldberg, Ivan; Zamir, Ehud; White, Andrew; Skalicky, Simon E

    2017-07-01

    Non-penetrating ocular injuries from badminton shuttlecocks can result in severe damage and life-long complications. This case series highlights the morbidity of such injuries, particularly in regard to post-traumatic glaucoma. This is a retrospective case series of 12 patients with shuttlecock-related blunt eye injuries sustained during badminton play without eye protection. By approaching colleagues through conference presentations and networking, the authors have attempted to gather all known cases of shuttlecock ocular injury managed in tertiary ocular emergency departments or private ophthalmological clinics in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia in 2015. This is the first multicentre case series to describe badminton-related ocular injuries in Australia. Our case series demonstrates, in particular, long-term glaucoma-related morbidity for patients over a large age range (16 to 77 years), with one patient requiring ongoing management 26 years following their initial injury. The cases reported further add to the literature promoting awareness of badminton-related ocular injury. We encourage player education and advocacy on badminton-related eye injuries and appropriate use of eye protection to reduce associated morbidity. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  18. Iconography in Bradshaw rock art: breaking the circularity.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Jack

    2011-09-01

    Interpreting the symbols found in the rock art of an extinct culture is hampered by the fact that such symbols are culturally determined. How does one break the circularity inherent in the fact that the knowledge of both the symbols and the culture comes from the same source? In this study, the circularity is broken for the Bradshaw rock art of the Kimberley by seeking anchors from outside the culture. Bradshaw rock art in the Kimberley region of Australia and Sandawe rock art in the Kolo region of Eastern Tanzania were surveyed in six visits on foot, by vehicle, by helicopter and from published or shared images, as well as from the published and online images of Khoisan rock art. Uniquely shared images between Bradshaw and Sandawe art, such as the 'mushroom head' symbol of psilocybin use, link the two cultures and indicate that they were shamanistic. Therefore, many mysterious features in the art can be understood in terms of trance visualisations. A number of other features uniquely link Bradshaw and Sandawe cultures, such as a special affinity for small mammals. There are also many references to baobabs in early Bradshaw art but not later. This can be explained in the context of the Toba super-volcano, the likely human transport of baobabs to the Kimberley and the extraordinary utility of the baobab. Many more mysterious symbols in Bradshaw rock art might await interpretation using the approaches adopted here. © 2011 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia.

  19. An atypical presentation of visual conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Foutch, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    Nonorganic vision loss accounts for up to 5% of patients and presents in two forms, malingering and visual conversion disorder (VCD). It is described a case of VCD in a new mother struggling both with her husband being deployed overseas and the recent death of her father. In addition, she had been evaluated for a concussion secondary to a motor vehicle accident three months prior. An inexpensive series of clinical tests were performed to rule out organic disease and obtained equivocal results. Some tests revealed intact vision in the affected eye while others supported a neurological cause for the vision loss. However, the patient quickly recovered normal visual acuity when encouraged to discuss situations that have been causing emotional stress. This almost immediate recovery of vision confirmed the diagnosis of VCD. This report should make primary eye care professionals more aware of visual conversion disorder and its clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Current status of corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus: a review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elsie; Snibson, Grant R

    2013-03-01

    Over the past decade, corneal collagen cross-linking has become commonplace as a treatment option for individuals with progressive keratoconus. This is based on laboratory data suggesting that cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet-A irradiation increases collagen diameter and the biomechanical strength of the treated cornea. Case series and limited randomised controlled trials support these findings with data demonstrating that cross-linking slows and possibly halts the progression of keratoconus. In some patients cross-linking results in an improvement in maximum corneal curvature, visual acuity, spherical equivalent and higher-order aberrations. The number of reported complications is small. More recently, variations in the treatment protocol have been described, although they have not yet been subject to comparative studies. While the published data indicate cross-linking is effective in modifying the natural history of keratoconus, the long-term impact of this treatment is still unknown. This paper reviews the theoretical basis, pre-clinical research and clinical results of corneal collagen cross-linking in keratoconus. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  1. Improvements in performance following optometric vision therapy in a child with dyspraxia.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Caroline M F; Van de Weyer, Sarah; Smith, Claire; Adler, Paul M

    2006-03-01

    SS, an 8-year-old boy with dyspraxia, presented for behavioural optometry assessment. He had been diagnosed with a subtle form of dyspraxia by his paediatric occupational therapist, based on poor proprioception, delayed bilateral integration and poor visual perception. A full visual assessment was carried out. SS was given a programme of reflex inhibition exercises for 3 months. Then, a programme of optometric vision therapy (OVT) exercises was prescribed at home and in practice for a period of 8 months. SS was assessed using a battery of occupational therapy Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) before optometric intervention, and after OVT. There were significant improvements in fusional reserves, accommodative facility and oculomotor control of pursuit and saccadic eye movements. His reading level had changed by 4 years in 11 months. The SIPT results showed improvements in the visual and motor/visual perception subtests, confirming the significant changes in visual perceptual performance. Consideration is given to treatment modalities for dyspraxia, and the studies confirming their effectivity of approach. This case study provides evidence supporting the use of OVT eye exercises in dyspraxia, ocular motility, accommodative dysfunction, learning difficulties and sports performance. The need for further research and inter-professional working is discussed.

  2. Constellation-X Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Women in Science Conferences are designed to allow young women in grades 7 through 12 to learn first-hand about careers in science, mathematics, and technology from accomplished professional women. Results of an international science and mathematics study conducted in 2000 indicated that "children in the United States were among the leaders in the 4th grade assessment, but by high school graduation, they were almost last." Part of the problem is that many girls and young women in junior and senior high school lose interest in science and technological careers. The goal of the WIS-Conferences held at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and at Central Wyoming College in Riverton, are to directly address this problem. The conferences will be a cooperative effort supported by local agencies, schools, and businesses, in addition to several state agencies. By presenting positive role models in the science, mathematics, and technological fields, we hope to encourage all students (especially young women and minorities) to pursue higher education and careers in mathematics and science. The workshop topics include: 1) Engineering; 2) Robotics; 3) Physics/Astronomy; 4) Geology; 5) Paleontology; 6) Remote Sensing (GPS/GIS); 7) Molecular Biology; 8) Veterinary Medicine; 9) Optometry; 10) Data Encryption; and 11) Wildlife Biology.

  3. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales.

    PubMed

    Wirth, R J; Edwards, Michael C; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R

    2016-08-01

    The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users' subjective experiences with contact lenses. The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties.

  4. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove, OR (USA)). Dr. Citek is Associate Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove (USA)). In their comprehensive evaluation of sunglasses, they found some disturbing results. Despite being endorsed by The Skin Cancer Foundation, the Walgreens eyewear samples offer only partial protection to the potential hazards of sunlight exposure. Those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with impact resistant polycarbonate lenses that provide 100% ultraviolet filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision (Nike Inc., Portland OR [USA]), available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features, as well as patented optical and tint designs. Numerous Nike styles offer interchangeable lens options to meet the changing environmental conditions encountered outdoors. These technologies are incorporated into performance-driven frame designs inspired by feedback from some of the world's best athletes. Nonprescription Nike eyewear are available on-line at http://www.nike.com/nikevision, as well as at various well-known retail outlets. Nonprescription and prescription Nike eyewear are also available at the offices of many eye care professionals. Even though our latest report did not include soft contact lens, it is important to emphasize that Dr. Reichow and Dr. Citek have played a leadership role in coordinating the development of the Nike MAXSIGHT, an innovative fully tinted soft contact lens. This contact lens provides distortion-free optics, whether or not you wear prescription contacts. They filter out more than 90% of harmful blue light and 95% of UVA and UVB. For the contact

  5. Electro-optic control of photographic imaging quality through ‘Smart Glass’ windows in optics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Paulins, Paulis

    2017-09-01

    An experimental setup allowing the modeling of conditions in optical devices and in the eye at various degrees of scattering such as cataract pathology in human eyes is presented. The scattering in cells of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) and ‘Smart Glass’ windows is used in the modeling experiments. Both applications are used as optical obstacles placed in different positions of the optical information flow pathway either directly on the stimuli demonstration computer screen or mounted directly after the image-formation lens of a digital camera. The degree of scattering is changed continuously by applying an AC voltage of up to 30-80 V to the PDLC cell. The setup uses a camera with 14 bit depth and a 24 mm focal length lens. Light-emitting diodes and diode-pumped solid-state lasers emitting radiation of different wavelengths are used as portable small-divergence light sources in the experiments. Image formation, optical system point spread function, modulation transfer functions, and system resolution limits are determined for such sample optical systems in student optics and optometry experimental exercises.

  6. Screening for High Blood Pressure in Adults During Ambulatory Nonprimary Care Visits: Opportunities to Improve Hypertension Recognition.

    PubMed

    Handler, Joel; Mohan, Yasmina; Kanter, Michael H; Reynolds, Kristi; Li, Xia; Nguyen, Miki; Young, Deborah R; Koebnick, Corinna

    2015-06-01

    Visits with nonprimary care providers such as optometrists may be missed opportunities for the detection of high blood pressure (BP). For this study, normotensive adults with at least 12 months of health plan membership on January 1, 2009 (n=1,075,522) were followed-up for high BP through March 14, 2011. Of 111,996 patients with a BP measurement ≥140/90 mm Hg, 82.7% were measured during primary care visits and 17.3% during nonprimary care visits. Individuals with a BP ≥140/90 mm Hg measured during nonprimary care visits were older and more likely to be male and non-Hispanic white. The proportion of patients with follow-up and false-positives were comparable between primary and nonprimary care. The main nonprimary care specialty to identify a first BP ≥140/90 mm Hg was ophthalmology/optometry with 24.5% of all patients. Results suggest that expanding screening for hypertension to nonprimary care settings may improve the detection of hypertension.

  7. The intelligent anatomy spotter: A new approach to incorporate higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L

    2016-10-01

    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of Manchester study the functional anatomy of the eye in the first semester of their first year. Included in the assessment of this unit is a spotter examination worth 45% of the total unit mark. Due to the factors listed above, a new spotter format was designed. Students had to answer three questions per specimen where the answers to the questions were the labeled structures themselves (A, B, C, or D). They had to work out the answer to the question and then work out which of the labeled structures was the correct structure, negating the "cueing effect" of standard multiple choice questions. Examination results were analyzed over a six-year period (control groups 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011; treatment groups 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014). There were no significant differences between marks obtained for the new spotter format when compared with the traditional format. The new format spotter tested comprehension rather than just knowledge, and facilitated marking because subjectiveness was erased, and less time was spent determining whether an answer was correct or not. Anat Sci Educ 9: 440-445. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Prevalence of color vision deficiency among arc welders.

    PubMed

    Heydarian, Samira; Mahjoob, Monireh; Gholami, Ahmad; Veysi, Sajjad; Mohammadi, Morteza

    This study was performed to investigate whether occupationally related color vision deficiency can occur from welding. A total of 50 male welders, who had been working as welders for at least 4 years, were randomly selected as case group, and 50 age matched non-welder men, who lived in the same area, were regarded as control group. Color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desatured panel D-15 test. The test was performed under the daylight fluorescent lamp with a spectral distribution of energy with a color temperature of 6500K and a color rendering index of 94 that provided 1000lx on the work plane. The test was carried out monocularly and no time limit was imposed. All data analysis were performed using SPSS, version 22. The prevalence of dyschromatopsia among welders was 15% which was statistically higher than that of nonwelder group (2%) (p=0.001). Among welders with dyschromatopsia, color vision deficiency in 72.7% of cases was monocular. There was positive relationship between the employment length and color vision loss (p=0.04). Similarly, a significant correlation was found between the prevalence of color vision deficiency and average working hours of welding a day (p=0.025). Chronic exposure to welding light may cause color vision deficiency. The damage depends on the exposure duration and the length of their employment as welders. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute red eye (non-ulcerative keratitis) associated with mini-scleral contact lens wear for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Adrian S; Nguyen, Leanne M

    2013-03-01

    Mini-scleral lenses are an increasingly popular contact lens modality; however, there are relatively few reports regarding the unique aspects of their fitting and potential complications. We report a complication of mini-scleral lens wear in a 44-year-old female patient using the lenses for keratoconus. Her mini-scleral contact lenses were non-fenestrated and fitted to vault over the cornea and seal at the periphery. The patient presented with an acute red eye (non-ulcerative keratitis), characterised by unilateral severe conjunctival and limbal hyperaemia, corneal infiltration and pain. Refitting the lens to increase the corneal vault clearance did not prevent recurrence of the keratitis, some five months later. Successful prevention of further episodes of the acute red eye was achieved through improved patient compliance with lens cleaning, disinfection and lens case procedures. Lens hygiene may be particularly important for mini-scleral lenses with a sealed fitting. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  10. Prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease in veterans with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Osamah; Ashraf, Hasan; Malouf, Marc; Slade, Eric P; Medoff, Deborah R; Li, Lan; Kreyenbuhl, Julie

    To compare the prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease and eye disease treatment between Veteran's Administration (VA) patients with and without serious mental illness (SMI). Retrospective comparison of diagnosed ocular disease and treatment prevalence among patients with and without diagnosed SMI in fiscal year 2011 in the VA Capitol Health Care System (VISN 5). We identified 6462 VA patients with SMI and 137,933 without SMI. The prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease was 22.7% in SMI patients and 35.4% in non-SMI patients (P<.001). Those with SMI had a higher prevalence of glaucoma (10.2% vs. 7.1%, P<.0001), cataract (12.6% vs. 9.2%, P<.0001) and dry eye (4.0% vs. 2.7%, P<.0001). Less than half (34.3%) of SMI subjects had been seen in ophthalmology or optometry vs. 23.0% of controls (P<.0001). VA patients with SMI have a greater prevalence of diagnosed ocular disease, particularly cataract, glaucoma and dry eye. While SMI patients utilize eye care services at a higher rate than the general VA population, the majority of subjects with SMI do not get recommended annual eye examinations. More consistent annual ocular screening among VA patients with SMI may be indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On call at the mall: a mixed methods study of U.S. medical malls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of the traditional U.S. shopping mall and a focus on more consumer- centered care have created an opportunity for “medical malls”. Medical malls are defined as former retail spaces repurposed for healthcare tenants or mixed-use medical/retail facilities. We aimed to describe the current reach of healthcare services in U.S. malls, characterize the medical mall model and emerging trends, and assess the potential of these facilities to serve low-income populations. Methods We used a mixed methods approach which included a comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a descriptive analysis of the Directory of Major Malls, an online retail database. Results Six percent (n = 89) of large, enclosed shopping malls in the U.S. include at least one non-optometry or dental healthcare tenant. We identified a total of 28 medical malls across the U.S., the majority of which opened in the past five years and serve middle or high income populations. Stakeholders felt the key strengths of medical malls were more convenient access including public transportation, greater familiarity for patients, and “one stop shopping” for primary care and specialty services as well as retail needs. Conclusions While medical malls currently account for a small fraction of malls in the US, they are a new model for healthcare with significant potential for growth. PMID:24209495

  12. The conspicuity of pedestrians at night: a review.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Richard A; Wood, Joanne M; Owens, D Alfred; Whetsel Borzendowski, Stephanie; Stafford Sewall, Ashley

    2016-09-01

    Drivers' visual limitations are a leading contributor to night-time traffic crashes involving pedestrians. This paper reviews the basic changes in vision that occur at night for young and old visually healthy drivers, as well as those with common ocular pathology. To maximise their safety at night, pedestrians should be conspicuous. That is, beyond being simply visible (detectable as an ambiguous object), they should attract the attention of drivers and be readily perceivable as pedestrians. Research has established that the conspicuity of pedestrians can be optimised by attaching retroreflective markings to the pedestrian's extremities. Doing so highlights the pedestrian's 'biological motion,' which facilitates the accurate perception of a person; however, retroreflective markings on the torso (for example, vests) are less effective. Importantly, behavioural evidence indicates that most road users - drivers and pedestrians alike - are not aware of the limitations of night vision. For example, drivers typically 'overdrive' the useful range of their headlight beams and under-use their high beam headlight setting. Further, pedestrians overestimate their own conspicuity at night and fail to appreciate the extent to which their own conspicuity depends on their clothing. The widespread misunderstanding of the challenges associated with night driving reflects a lack of awareness of the fundamental limitations of night vision. Educational interventions are needed to ameliorate these dangerous misunderstandings and to improve the safety of all road users at night. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  13. Single session, intrauser repeatability of anterior chamber biometric and corneal pachy-volumetric parameters using a new Scheimpflug+Placido device.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    To analyze single session, intrauser reliability of a Scheimpflug device for anterior chamber (AC) and corneal parameters. In this observational study, 100 normal candidates underwent Scheimpflug analysis with Sirius 3D Rotating Scheimpflug Camera and Topography System (Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Italy). Two scans in dark room conditions were performed by the same experienced user. The candidates were asked to keep both eyes closed for 5min before the scans. Exclusion criteria were previous ocular surgery, corneal scarring and anterior segment/posterior segment anomalies. Only the right eyes were used for the analysis. Both corneal (central, minimum, and apical thickness, volume, horizontal visible iris diameter, and apical curvature) and anterior chamber (volume, depth, angle, horizontal diameter) measurements were evaluated. There was no difference in the means of repeated measurements (p>0.05, ANOVA). Intraclass correlations between the measures were high and ranged from 0.995-0.997 for corneal to 0.964-0.997 for anterior chamber (AC) parameters. The precision of repeatability measures (1.96×Sw) was approximately 5μ for the central and minimum corneal thickness, 8μ for the apical corneal thickness, 0.06mm for AC (anterior chamber) depth and less than 2° for the AC angle. Sirius Scheimpflug system has high repeatability for both corneal and AC parameters in normal eyes. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of ophthalmologists and optometrists in Islamic Republic of Iran and their associated factors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, S-F; Lashay, M-R; Ashrafi, E; Haghdoust, A-A; Alinia, C; Lashay, A-R; Asadi-Lari, M; Mohammadi, S-M; Hatef, E

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to determine the distribution of ophthalmic care providers and its correlation with health and socioeconomic status and health system indicators. Data were gathered from the Iran Medical Council and the Iranian Societies of Ophthalmology and Optometry. Concurrent indicators were collected from the Statistical Center of Iran and national studies. A population-adjusted number of combined ophthalmologists and optometrists was used as the main dependent variable. Optometrist/ophthalmologist ratio was 0.9. We had 1 ophthalmologist and 1 optometrist for every 40 000 and 45 000 individuals, respectively. We observed a direct correlation between the number of ophthalmologists, optometrists and life expectancy at the provincial level. Gross provincial income and expenditure and provincial literacy were correlated as well. Provincial unemployment had a negative correlation. Provincial hospital statistics and population density were also significantly correlated. The Islamic Republic of Iran has met the World Health Organization's desired per capita number of ophthalmologists and optometrists, but there is wide variation in their density.

  15. The effects of preterm birth on visual development.

    PubMed

    Leung, Myra Ps; Thompson, Benjamin; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Alsweiler, Jane M

    2017-09-03

    Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care. However, routine screening may not detect other vision problems, such as reduced visual fields, impaired contrast sensitivity and deficits in cortical visual processing, that may occur in children born preterm. For example, visual functions associated with the dorsal visual processing stream, such as global motion perception and visuomotor integration, may be impaired by preterm birth. These impairments can continue into adolescence and adulthood and may contribute to the difficulties in learning (particularly reading and mathematics), attention, behaviour and cognition that some children born preterm experience. Improvements in understanding the mechanisms by which preterm birth affects vision will inform future screening and interventions for children born preterm. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  16. Contact lens trends over three decades in a hospital-based practice in India.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rajni; Mahadevan, Rajeswari; Thomas, Ann Mary; Bhattacharjee, Pradipta

    2017-09-26

    Contact lens fittings in a hospital-based practice are different from those in private practices because of specialised conditions. Few studies have been published on material preferences of such wearers, especially in long-term wearers. The aim of this study is to document contact lens prescribing trends in a hospital-based practice among long-term lens wearers and to identify their demographic profile. Subjects reporting to a contact lens clinic of a tertiary eye-care centre in India from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014, with a minimum of five years of lens wear, were included in the study. Data were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical charts of these subjects. Three hundred and sixty subjects were included in the study. The average duration of contact lens wear among the subjects was 9 ± 5 years (range: 5-35 years). The average age of the subjects was 31.38 ± 11.75 years (age range: 5-78 years). Hydrogel material and soft spherical type were preferred by most of the soft lens wearers (53 per cent). Eighty per cent of subjects followed hand hygiene and cleaning regimen practices. The preference for monthly replacement lenses and silicone hydrogel material increased over the years. Regular after-care consultations could enforce the need for compliance with hand hygiene and cleaning regimens among lens wearers. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  17. Impact of contact lens material and design on the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Alcocer, Javier; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Albarrán-Diego, César; Hernández-Verdejo, José Luis; Madrid-Costa, David

    2017-10-11

    To evaluate the impact on the ocular surface of a daily disposable hydrogel contact lens with high water content compared with two silicone hydrogel daily disposable lenses of lower water content. The hydrogel lens assessed was made from nesofilcon A and the silicone hydrogel lenses were made of delefilcon A and stenfilcon A. Contact lens thickness was measured to assess material stability during daily wear, and ocular surface parameters such as tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus area and central corneal thickness were also assessed. Optical quality was analysed for all cases by means of wavefront aberrometry. The nesofilcon A was shown to be the thinnest lens (p < 0.001), while no differences in lens thickness were found between the two silicone hydrogel lenses (p = 0.495). No significant differences were found in tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus area, central corneal thickness or corneal aberrations, either as a function of the lens measured or time of use (p > 0.05). In spite of having the thinnest lens and the highest water content, the hydrogel does not significantly impact on tear film and corneal swelling after one day of use in first-time wearers. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  18. Controllable liquid colour-changing lenses with microfluidic channels for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering based on soft lithography fabrication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Li, Songjing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, liquid colour-changing lenses for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering are developed by circulating colour liquids through microfluidic channels on the lenses manually. Soft lithography technology is applied to fabricate the silicone liquid colour-changing layers with microfluidic channels on the lenses instead of mechanical machining. To increase the hardness and abrasion resistance of the silicone colour-changing layers on the lenses, proper fabrication parameters such as 6:1 (mass ration) mixing proportion and 100 °C curing temperature for 2 h are approved for better soft lithography process of the lenses. Meanwhile, a new surface treatment for the irreversible bonding of silicone colour-changing layer with optical resin (CR39) substrate lens by using 5 % (volume ratio) 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane solution is proposed. Vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering functions of the lenses are investigated with different designs of the channels and multi-layer structures. Each application can not only well achieve their functional demands, but also shows the advantages of functional flexibility, rapid prototyping and good controllability compared with traditional ways. Besides optometry, some other designs and applications of the lenses are proposed for potential utility in the future.

  19. Corneal collagen cross-linking: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Brart, David P S

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to review the published literature on corneal collagen cross-linking. The emphasis was on the seminal publications, systemic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials. Where such an evidence did not exist, selective large series cohort studies, case controlled studies and case series with follow-up preferably greater than 12 months were included. Riboflavin/Ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal collagen cross-linking appears to be the first treatment modality to halt the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectatic disorders with improvement in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters documented by most investigators. Its precise mechanism of action at a molecular level is as yet not fully determined. Follow-up is limited to 4-6 years at present but suggests continued stability and improvement in corneal shape with time. Most published data are with epithelium-off techniques. Epithelium-on studies suggest some efficacy but less than with the epithelium-off procedures and long-term data are not currently available. The use of Riboflavin/UVA CXL for the management of infectious and non-infectious keratitis appears very promising. Its use in the management of bullous keratopathy is equivocal. Investigation of other methodologies for CXL are under investigation. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term results of corneal collagen crosslinking for progressive keratoconus.

    PubMed

    De Bernardo, Maddalena; Capasso, Luigi; Lanza, Michele; Tortori, Antonia; Iaccarino, Stefania; Cennamo, Michela; Borrelli, Maria; Rosa, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate long-term keratoconus stability after corneal crosslinking (CXL) with riboflavin. In this prospective study, 57 eyes of 55 patients with progressive keratoconus, consecutively treated with ultraviolet A (UVA) - riboflavin CXL, were examined with the corneal topographer Pentacam, the biometer IOLMaster and the analyzer of corneal biomechanics Ocular Response Analyzer before and during a 24 months follow-up after CXL. Twenty-four months after CXL, there was a significant improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (P<0.01), a significant decrease in corneal thinnest point (CTP), keratometry readings at the keratoconus apex (K max), and corneal volume (CV) (P<0.01), and a significant increase in axial eye length (AL) (P=0.01). No significant changes in anterior chamber volume (ACV) and depth (ACD), (P=0.8), corneal hysteresis (CH) (P=0.16) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) (P=0.06) were found. However, in the subgroup of patients with decreased K max readings 24 months after treatment, both CH and CRF showed a significant reduction (P<0.01). In the first month after the procedure, CXL induces a reduction in corneal volume. During the 24 months follow-up the cornea tends to recover its original volume with a persistence of the CXL efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.