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Sample records for optometry

  1. Optometry Specialist (AFSC 91255).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kille, Michael O.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for optometry specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are optometry clinic administration (optometry career and field training, ethical relationships and professionalism, eligibility for optometric care and appointment…

  2. Professional Trends in American Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.

    1991-01-01

    A review of optometry's twentieth-century history looks at curriculum standardization and recognition of the doctorate in Optometry, federal legislation, public health movement, optometry in universities, use of pharmaceuticals, the primary care concept, Optometry in group health care, growth of professional publications, and entry into health…

  3. American Academy of Optometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Search Promoting the art and science of vision care through lifelong learning. Login Meetings Scientific Program ( ... in Optometry Nutrition, Disease Prevention, and Wellness Retina Vision in Aging Sections Anterior Segment Become a Diplomate ...

  4. Teaching Programs in Geriatric Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Albert A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian optometry programs concerning curriculum design, clinical and residency training programs, continuing education, and research projects planned or under way in geriatric optometry are presented and discussed. (MSE)

  5. Geriatric Optometry Programs of Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Satya B.

    1985-01-01

    The curriculum design, philosophy, and innovation of four programs in geriatric optometry are described: the Pennsylvania College of Optometry and the colleges of Optometry at the State University of New York, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and University of Houston. (MSE)

  6. Optometry: a discipline of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzia, Boleslaw

    1998-10-01

    Optometry is a branch of science whose roots are in optics development as well as in physiology development. Among Polish scholars, whose names are firmly engraved in the history of optometry, two names should be mentioned first, they are Witelo (1237 - 1290) and Majer (1808 - 1899). Contemporary optometry began around the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the United States of America where some states erected legal regulations for those opticians who were performing refractions. Since 1993 optometry has been defined by the World Council of Optometry as a health care profession which is autonomous, educated and regulated (licensed/registered). Nevertheless, the question arises: Is optometry a separate part of science or is it only a set of practical procedures useful in vision care? In other words: does optometry have a system of definitions, laws and hypothesis with such logical interrelations that all less general statements may be derived from the most general? Even at this moment the system is not fully developed, yet we can say that optometry is a set of statements important and enough proved to be taught at the university level, being a category by itself and being sufficiently rich to be a subject for teaching as separate discipline.

  7. Women optometry students: how qualified?

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1988-08-01

    This study compares the academic and personal qualifications of women and men entering the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) over a 6-year period, as well as the performance of these women and men throughout 4 years of optometry school. As predicted, women, as a group, presented somewhat higher grade point averages (GPA's) upon application to optometry, whereas men presented higher scores on science, especially physics, and math sections of the Optometry College Admission Test (OCAT). Women also scored significantly higher on an inventory of positive personality traits generally associated with achievement in higher education. Despite these differences, women and men performed at essentially equivalent levels throughout optometry school, both in the classroom and in the clinic. Women were under-represented as dropouts and over-represented as summa cum laude graduates; men received more clinical performance awards. In terms of personality traits, women were more similar to their male peers and female medical students than to college women in general. Strong motivation to achieve, independence, self-confidence, interpersonal skillfulness, and a sensitivity to others--traits generally associated with leadership--typified optometry students, especially women. These findings suggest that the increasing numbers of women graduates will bring to the profession young optometrists who are well qualified, not only to practice optometry, but also to fill positions of leadership in the profession. PMID:3177593

  8. Optometry: Careers with Vision. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    This brochure gives basic facts about optometry which may be helpful in considering such a career. Included are a discussion as to what an optometrist is, the development of the profession, the need for practitioners projected by State to 1980, types of services rendered, and the variety of employment opportunities available. Over one-third of the…

  9. Validity of the Optometry Admission Test in Predicting Performance in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Gene A.; Johnston, JoElle

    1997-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between Optometry Admission Test scores and pre-optometry or undergraduate grade point average (GPA) with first and second year performance in optometry schools. The test's predictive validity was limited but significant, and comparable to those reported for other admission tests. In addition, the scores…

  10. Faculty Preparedness in Geriatric Optometry Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, Gary L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of chief academic officers and faculty (n=27) in 16 schools of optometry found that, since 1986, there has been a 75% increase in institutions requiring coursework in geriatric optometry and an 83% increase in those offering continuing professional education in this field. However, 67% of faculty report no formal training. Three faculty…

  11. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  12. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  13. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  14. The New York State optometry workforce study.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Mort

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an analysis of the current optometry workforce, both as a unique profession and more broadly within the context of all eye care providers (optometry and ophthalmology) in New York State. The supply and distribution of eye care practitioners provides useful information for policy makers while providing insights as to the impact of the one optometry school within the state. Several databases were employed and a web based survey was developed for completion by all optometrists. The questionnaire included demographic data, whether they were actively practicing in New York State or any other state, were they full time or part time, their primary mode of practice, or if they provided care within institutional settings. Access to care was gauged by the respondents' availability for appointments during evenings or weekends. Access to eye care services in New York State has improved significantly during the past 30 years as the supply of optometrists increased. Before this study was conducted it was generally believed that there were more optometrists than ophthalmologists in every state of the nation except New York, Maryland and the District of Columbia. Findings of this study demonstrate there are 37% more optometrists in New York State than ophthalmologists and more evenly distributed as optometrists are located in almost every county of the state. Sixteen counties have no ophthalmologists. This is attributed to the presence of the College of Optometry established in 1971. More than 60% of all optometrists in the state are SUNY College of Optometry graduates.

  15. The New York State optometry workforce study.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Mort

    2012-04-01

    This study presents an analysis of the current optometry workforce, both as a unique profession and more broadly within the context of all eye care providers (optometry and ophthalmology) in New York State. The supply and distribution of eye care practitioners provides useful information for policy makers while providing insights as to the impact of the one optometry school within the state. Several databases were employed and a web based survey was developed for completion by all optometrists. The questionnaire included demographic data, whether they were actively practicing in New York State or any other state, were they full time or part time, their primary mode of practice, or if they provided care within institutional settings. Access to care was gauged by the respondents' availability for appointments during evenings or weekends. Access to eye care services in New York State has improved significantly during the past 30 years as the supply of optometrists increased. Before this study was conducted it was generally believed that there were more optometrists than ophthalmologists in every state of the nation except New York, Maryland and the District of Columbia. Findings of this study demonstrate there are 37% more optometrists in New York State than ophthalmologists and more evenly distributed as optometrists are located in almost every county of the state. Sixteen counties have no ophthalmologists. This is attributed to the presence of the College of Optometry established in 1971. More than 60% of all optometrists in the state are SUNY College of Optometry graduates. PMID:21877108

  16. Curriculum Model for Optometry: Outcomes of the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Morris S.

    1994-01-01

    A national conference of colleges of optometry focused on planning for optometric curricular reform and faculty development. Issues addressed included changes needed to meet entry-level professional needs, available resources, changes in optometry practice, and optometry's role in health care reform. Task forces worked together to develop a…

  17. Predictors of Academic Success for Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA),…

  18. Introducing Optometry Students to Clinical Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Eileen M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the innovative content and structure of an introductory course on clinical patient care at the Illinois College of Optometry. Critiques its success based on student grades and feedback, concluding that it was successful in imparting skills of data analysis but had minimal impact on students' ability to empathize with patients. (EV)

  19. Attributes of Students Graduating from Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This report by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry identifies desired attributes of students graduating from schools and colleges of optometry. Introductory information includes information on the report's development and assumptions. Personal and professional attributes are then listed followed by a list of 10 knowledge-area…

  20. A Survey of Managed Care Education at Optometry Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soroka, Mort; Reis, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    Studied the courses and topics offered at schools of optometry and the total hours devoted to managed care. Responses from the 17 schools of optometry reveal significant variations in curricular coverage of managed care, although a core set of materials was found to exist that could be the basis for more standard curriculum. (SLD)

  1. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  2. The Vocational Interests of a Sample of Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emling, Robert C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, with a vocational title called Optometry, was used to profile a sample of second-year optometry students and to compare them with samples of practicing optometrists. One conclusion questions these students' compatibility with older practitioners. (MLW)

  3. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of a study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) is provided. The data covered aspects of recently graduated O.D.s' experience in obtaining a state license, becoming established in practice, and their practice characteristics. (Author/MLW)

  4. Optometry Today: The Vision Care Profession. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    Included in this booklet are facts about optometry which would be helpful for those considering entering the profession. The need for optometry, its history, accredited schools, distribution of manpower, and what the optometrist does are outlined. Over one-third of the booklet is a "Profile of a Profession" which discusses specialized optometric…

  5. Residencies at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Arthur H.; Klopfer, Joann

    1983-01-01

    An optometric residency program at The Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry that focuses on clinical training in the areas of low vision rehabilitation, pediatric optometry, visual training, behavioral vision, primary care optometry and hospital based optometry is discussed. (MSW)

  6. Interior, second floor, northeast corner, office of chief of optometry, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor, northeast corner, office of chief of optometry, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Administration Building, Southeast Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. World optometry: the challenges of leadership for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Anthony

    2002-06-01

    The World Council of Optometry has developed a mission and organizational strategies to improve the delivery of eye and vision care around the world, as well as to advance the profession of optometry. Its growth over the past several years is a tribute to the early pioneers in international optometry who unselfishly volunteered their time and expertise to improving the profession and eye and vision care. It also underscores the continued spirit of global volunteerism that energizes the recent leaders who have sustained this growth. Over the past decades, optometry has seen the steady growth of its educational infrastructure, scope of practice, and professional image. It has faced adversity and seized opportunities. Throughout, the overarching raison d'être has been optometry's responsiveness to the public health needs of society. The future growth of optometry within the global health community will depend on expanding this professional growth at an international level, and forging durable strategic alliances that address the significant prevention of blindness imperatives of our generation. PMID:12365681

  8. The Learning Disabilities Unit at the State College of Optometry/SUNY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.

    1986-01-01

    The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)

  9. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  10. A Survey of State Boards of Optometry Concerning Educational Requirements in Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of state optometry licensing requirements for coursework in pharmacology, intended as a tool for optometry curriculum development, suggest a need for training in pharmacology in both the college curriculum and continuing education. (MSE)

  11. What kinds of leaders are entering optometry schools?

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the parameters of leadership of students entering one optometry school, assess the relation between personality types and leadership during optometry school, and forecast potential for leadership beyond school. Personality inventories of 269 students entering University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) from 1988 through 1990 were analyzed for personality type according to Gough's two-vector system (V1 = extroversion/introversion; V2 = norm-favoring/norm-doubting) which results in four types or life styles: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta. Although some sex and ethnic differences were found, most (71%) optometry students were Alphas (extroverted/norm-favoring), accepted leaders who strive to maintain and advance consensual values. Alphas achieved well in classroom and clinic and were student leaders. A lesser number (10%), mostly women, were Gammas; extroverted but norm-questioning, Gammas can provide creative and progressive leadership. Remaining types were Betas (15%) and Deltas (4%), both introverted types who avoid leadership positions. In sum, traditional and, to a lesser degree, innovative leadership potential appears strong among optometry students; they should serve the profession well.

  12. Demographic Characteristics of Ghanaian Optometry Students and Factors Influencing Their Career Choice and Institution of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Halladay, Abraham Carl

    2015-01-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This…

  13. [The status quo and expectation of optometry research in China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The eye care problems related to optometry involve a wide range, including visual problems during eye disease recovery, visual quality in surgical or non-surgical refractive corrections, and the etiological investigation of functional eye diseases like myopia. This article covers the current challenges to visual health care and the academic developments and contributions of optometry in China, including fundamental researches of myopia, refractive surgery and visual quality, and functional eye disease investigations. Some of the researches have certain impacts both domestically and overseas. Furthermore, scientific evidences to solve clinical problems and the current academic focuses that we should pay attention to are provided.

  14. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  15. The Prevalence of Unethical Student Behavior in Optometry Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, D. Leonard; Heiberger, Michael H.; Feldman, Jerome; Johnston, Edward

    2000-01-01

    A survey of second and third year students (n=1,092) at 16 optometric schools found 5.5 percent admitted to cheating in optometry school (and 13.9 percent admitted cheating in college), a finding similar to that found for medical students, whose self-reported cheating ranged from 4.7 percent to 10 percent. (Author/DB)

  16. An Evaluation of U.S. Optometry School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Heidi M.; Grenier, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Compares the 1995-96 curricula of U.S. optometry schools, focusing on clock hours and proportion of curriculum devoted to specific content areas. Results indicate greater variation in some areas than in others, and changes in curricular emphasis since a previous study, particularly consolidation in hours devoted to basic sciences and expansion in…

  17. The Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Program: Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Depeuw M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 101 graduates of the New England College of Optometry's (Massachusetts) accelerated doctoral program through 1995 and 141 graduates of the four-year program in 1990-95 illustrate the accelerated program's success in terms of graduate involvement in optometric education, medical education, and/or research, professional leadership,…

  18. Requirements for Hepatitis B Vaccinations among Optometry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Norma K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data on the incidence of hepatitis B viral infection are examined, and a telephone survey of 19 schools of optometry concerning administrative policy about student immunization is reported. Results show less than one-third of schools require student vaccination. It is recommended that schools mandate immunization for all students. (MSE)

  19. Detainee optometry at Camp Cropper, Iraq, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas M; Elledge, James B

    2012-06-01

    This article details the first in-depth analysis of an Optometry Service working with a large Middle Eastern detainee population composed entirely of Iraqi males. The mission of the Camp Cropper Optometry Service was to provide eye care services to the detainee population consistent with the standards of optometric care that would be provided to any U.S. military member in the same geographic area. This included providing detainees with eyeglasses, therapeutic treatment of eye disease, and referral for treatment of medical conditions and surgical care, if it was needed and available at the U.S. military facilities in the Iraq Theater. Diagnoses, services provided, and medications given to the detainees are listed in detail and demonstrate the complexity of pathology encountered in this population.

  20. Demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students and factors influencing their career choice and institution of learning.

    PubMed

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Antwi-Boasiako, Daniel; Carl Halladay, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Optometry is only provided at tertiary level in two institutions in Ghana, with an average of 50 students graduating each year for a population of approximately 24.6 million. No information on the demography of optometry students and factors that influence their choice of optometry as a career and institution of learning is available. This information is important as it will assist optometry institutions to formulate effective student recruitment strategies. To assess the demographic characteristics of Ghanaian optometry students, the factors that influence their selection of optometry as a career and institution of learning. We conducted a cross sectional study among Ghanaian optometry students using a structured questionnaire to collect data on the demographic characteristics and factors that might influence their choice of optometry as a career as well as choice of institution of learning. Two hundred and eighty students from the two optometry training institutions in Ghana; University of Cape Coast (48.2%) and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (51.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 17 to 28 years with most being males (72.5%), and the majority (79%) being from urban areas. The main factors that influenced their career choice were job availability after graduation (90%) and desire to help other people (89.2%). Factors that influenced their institution choice were preference for an institution (36.8%) and proximity to home (24.4%). In the absence of adequate optometry jobs in the public health sector, women will remain marginalised specifically those in rural areas. This marginalisation is however, a reflection of a broader societal disadvantage for women. Greater effort needs to be made to recruit high school students from rural areas to study optometry and more institutions need to provide optometry instruction throughout the country.

  1. A Survey of Hypertension Curriculum in Schools and Colleges of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitener, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Optometry, as a primary eye/vision care provider, serves as a valuable resource in providing detection, education, referral, and follow-up services for patients with high blood pressure. A 1977 survey of 500 optometrists and a 1980 survey of schools and colleges of optometry are discussed. (MLW)

  2. Effects of Optometry School Recruitment Efforts on Urban and Suburban High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Andrew D.; Shepard, Jodi; Orleans, Elizabeth; Chae, Eunmi; Ng-Sarver, Joy

    1999-01-01

    In two Oakland (California) high schools, one urban and one suburban, an audiovisual presentation designed to enhance student interest in optometry as a career was given. Results of the presentation, measured by a questionnaire, suggest that few high school students are considering pursuing an optometry doctoral degree, but an on-site presentation…

  3. Profile: Southern College of Optometry--A Leader in the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Debbie

    1979-01-01

    A profile of the Southern College of Optometry is provided with information covering the history, students, education (including Doctor of Optometry program, technician program, faculty), clinics, buildings, finances, and new programs and services (including the Memphis Health Center, multiple patient VT program, closed circuit color TV,…

  4. Publications by Faculty of the School of Optometry University of Waterloo 1976 to 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Susan; Woo, George

    1980-01-01

    A list of optometric research activities of the University of Waterloo School of Optometry are provided to inform educators and researchers of their activities and to encourage interaction with others with similar interests. Bibliographic information is given. The scope ranges fron single-cell recording to continuing education in optometry.…

  5. Colour vision experimental studies in teaching of optometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Fomins, Sergejs

    2005-10-01

    Following aspects related to human colour vision are included in experimental lessons for optometry students of University of Latvia. Characteristics of coloured stimuli (emitting and reflective), determination their coordinates in different colour spaces. Objective characteristics of transmitting of colour stimuli through the optical system of eye together with various types of appliances (lenses, prisms, Fresnel prisms). Psychophysical determination of mono- and polychromatic stimuli perception taking into account physiology of eye, retinal colour photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity, spatial and temporal characteristics of retinal receptive fields. Ergonomics of visual perception, influence of illumination and glare effects, testing of colour vision deficiencies.

  6. Webcams as a tool for teaching in Optometry training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo, A.; Arines, J.

    2015-04-01

    Clinical Optometry lab training is devoted to develop the students skills needed in eye healthcare professional practice. Nevertheless, students always find difficulties in the management of some optometric instruments and in the understanding of the evaluation techniques. Moreover, teachers also have problems in explaining the eye evaluation tests or making demonstrations of instruments handling. In order to facilitate the learning process, webcams adapted to the optometric devices represent a helpful and useful tool. In this work we present the use of webcams in some of the most common clinical test in Optometry as ocular refraction, colour vision test, eye health evaluation with slip-lamp, retinoscopy, ophthalmoscopy and contact lens fitting. Our experience shows that with this simple approach we can do things easier: show the instrument handling to all the students at the same time; take pictures or videos of different eye health conditions or exploratory routines for posterior visualization with all the students; recreate visual experience of the patient during optometric exam; simulate colour vision pathologies; increase the interactions between students allowing them to help and correct each other; and also record the final routine exam in order to make possible its revision with the students.

  7. PRESBYOPIA OPTOMETRY METHOD BASED ON DIOPTER REGULATION AND CHARGE COUPLE DEVICE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Wu, X X; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, R F; Gao, J

    2015-01-01

    With the development of photoelectric technology and single-chip microcomputer technology, objective optometry, also known as automatic optometry, is becoming precise. This paper proposed a presbyopia optometry method based on diopter regulation and Charge Couple Device (CCD) imaging technology and, in the meantime, designed a light path that could measure the system. This method projects a test figure to the eye ground and then the reflected image from the eye ground is detected by CCD. The image is then automatically identified by computer and the far point and near point diopters are determined to calculate lens parameter. This is a fully automatic objective optometry method which eliminates subjective factors of the tested subject. Furthermore, it can acquire the lens parameter of presbyopia accurately and quickly and can be used to measure the lens parameter of hyperopia, myopia and astigmatism.

  8. A short history of the Australian College of Optometry 1940-2015.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2015-09-01

    This paper gives an account of the history of the Australian College of Optometry from its foundation in 1940 and its achievements in optometric education, research and clinical service over the ensuing 75 years.

  9. Teaching optics in a multi-disciplinary curriculum: experience from optometry programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2007-06-01

    The Optometry program in Schools and Colleges of Optometry leads to a Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree in north America and is usually a post-baccalaureate course of study of four years duration. Historically Optometry developed out of Physics and/or applied optics programs. Optics, and more specifically, geometric optics and it's applications to the human eye plays a significant role in the education of an optometrist. In addition, optometrists are trained in physical optics as well as in radiometry/photometry. Considering the fact that most optometry students come to the program with a biological sciences background implies that educating these students require elucidation of "real-world" applications and clinical relevance to hold their interest. Even though the trend in optometric education in the past few years is to put more emphasis on biological sciences due to the increased scope of practice of the optometrist, optics still continues to play a major role in the training and career of an optometrist, especially with the advent of new technologies in treating low vision, measurement and correction of aberrations of the eye, etc.

  10. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  11. Faculty Promotion and Tenure Processes and Standards Revisited at the New England College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampariello, David A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996-97 the New England College of Optometry revised the faculty promotion and tenure process by recognizing the diverse and unique contributions of all faculty. The redefined process is structured to accommodate ongoing changes within the academic community. The institution's governance structure, guiding principles for tenure and promotion,…

  12. Clinical Curriculum Reform and Advanced Care Training at the New England College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the New England College of Optometry has expanded clinical education so graduates are equipped to handle new and advanced clinical and patient-care responsibilities and meet the changing standards of professional entry-level competency. The reform process, third- and fourth-year curriculum components, rotations, and plans for…

  13. An Evaluation of the New Curriculum at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael G.; Kashani, Sandy; Saroj, Namrata

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the new curriculum at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Optometry by comparing the content of the new curriculum to the old curriculum and by surveying faculty and students regarding their opinion of the new curriculum. Findings indicated that the curriculum is successful in implementing desired changes, including reduced…

  14. Integrating Outcomes Assessment into Optometry Education: A Strategic Guide for Enhancing Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Diane E.; Daum, Kent M.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines eight steps that will help optometry schools transition a faculty from "denial" of the need for assessment to "institutionalization": establish a collaborative environment, establish an infrastructure that makes assessment an integral activity, recruit a leader for full implementation of outcomes assessment, conduct a needs assessment,…

  15. Student Self-Assessment of Professional Communication Skills at the Illinois College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Sanford M.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.; Cornick, Michelle L.; Wong, Kenneth K. W.

    2000-01-01

    A self-evaluation of communication skills was administered to approximately 500 optometry students before, during, and after a curriculum intervention to enhance these skills. Findings indicated that the intervention had a modest impact that was differential over the skill categories (interpersonal skills, patient care, interdisciplinary skills,…

  16. A.M. Skeffington: the father of behavioral optometry--his contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, Willis C.

    1998-10-01

    Life of Dr. A. M. Skeffington, his model of vision, and his contributions to optometry are reviewed. In particular, vision as s spatial information processing system and dual sensing ocular system are discussed to answer the questions: `where is the object in space?' and `what is the object in space?'.

  17. Optometry Specialist, 10-7. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These lesson plans and study guides for a secondary/postsecondary level course in optometry comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the 128-hour course is to train students in basic ocular anatomy…

  18. Attending to Audience: Comparing Optometry Student Talk "with" and "about" Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Jenna M.; Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.

    2009-01-01

    We explored mediating concepts that affect clinical novices shifting between their talk "with" patients in eye examinations and their talk "about" patients in case presentations (nCPs). In a Canadian optometry teaching clinic, patient "chief concern or request", "illness experience", and "management" utterances were observed in ten eye…

  19. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Methods Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. Results There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each). The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6). The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5). Conclusions Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences. PMID:27233041

  20. Balancing patient care and student education: learning to deliver bad news in an optometry teaching clinic.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.

  1. Collaborative telemedicine between optometry and ophthalmology: an initiative from the University of Houston.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, D; Schiffman, J S; Tang, R

    1999-01-01

    The University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) has developed a strong Telemedicine Optometry/Ophthalmology program. Patient care, clinical teaching and research benefit from utilizing Telemedicine technology. This initiative between Optometry and Ophthalmology is at the forefront of eyecare! Presented here: clinical teaching opportunities via tele-education including retinal, uveitic, neuro-ophthalmic disorders and glaucoma. Seminars introduce students to this technology and enhance their clinical experience through exposure to eye pathologies often related to systemic diseases. UHCO's affiliated clinics include multidisciplinary centers staffed by optometrists: the Frost Eye Clinic (HIV multidisciplinary care), Good Neighbor Health Clinic and Rusk School Health Promotion Project (indigent multidisciplinary care). These centers can converse on line with eyecare professionals. Large sites interested in low vision/visual rehabilitation include: The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), the Social Security Hospital (Lima, Peru), the Matagorda General Hospital and the Quentin Mease Hospital. These sites, do offer quality care but require visual rehabilitation programs provided by UHCO. These sites also provide exposure to pathology for the students. A residency program trains optometrists in Telemedicine. The research program focuses on optics and imaging necessary to diagnose glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and neuro-ophthalmic disorders through Telemedicine. UHCO supports the advancement of standards in tele-eyecare.

  2. E. Leroy Ryer (1880-1972) and Elmer E. Hotaling (1887-1950), optometric leaders and authors, and partners in optometry practice.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-04-01

    E. LeRoy Ryer and Elmer E. Hotaling were very prominent optometrists of the first half of the twentieth century and made numerous contributions to the profession. They were among the early pioneers of professional optometry practice. They published many articles in optometry journals, and did work in instrument design. They were charter members of the American Academy of Optometry in 1922, Ryer having suggested such an organization in 1905. In the first decade of the twentieth century, they were briefly faculty members in a two-year optometry school, an unusual length of study for the time. This paper presents brief biographical sketches of each, along with discussion of the two books they coauthored, Optometric Procedure and Ophthalmometry. The former book contained much of their views on how optometry should be practiced.

  3. A Comparison of Spectacles Purchased Online and in UK Optometry Practice

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, Alison J.; Green, Alison; Whitaker, David; Scally, Andrew J.; Elliott, David B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To compare spectacles bought online with spectacles from optometry practices. Methods Thirty-three participants consisting of single vision spectacle wearers with either a low (N = 12, mean age 34 ± 14 years) or high prescription (N = 11, mean age 28 ± 9 years) and 10 presbyopic participants (mean age 59 ± 4 years) wearing progressive addition lenses (PALs) purchased 154 pairs of spectacles online and 154 from UK optometry practices. The spectacles were compared via participant-reported preference, acceptability, and safety; the assessment of lens, frame, and fit quality; and the accuracy of the lens prescriptions to international standard ISO 21987:2009. Results Participants preferred the practice spectacles (median ranking 4th, IQR 1–6) more than online (6th, IQR 4–8; Mann-Whitney U = 7345, p < 0.001) and practice PALs (median ranking 2nd, IQR 1–4) were particularly preferred (online 6.5th, IQR 4–9, Mann-Whitney U = 455, p < 0.001). Of those deemed unacceptable and unsafe, significantly more were bought online (unacceptable: online 43/154 vs. practice 15/154, Fisher’s exact p = 0.0001; unsafe: online 14/154 vs. practice 5/154, Fisher’s exact p = 0.03). Conclusions Participants preferred spectacles from optometry practice rather than those bought online, despite lens quality and prescription accuracy being similar. A greater number of online spectacles were deemed unsafe or unacceptable because of poor spectacle frame fit, poor cosmetic appearance, and inaccurate optical centration. This seems particularly pertinent to PAL lenses, which are known to increase falls risk. Recommendations are made to improve both forms of spectacle provision. PMID:27536974

  4. Evidence-based practice instruction by faculty members and librarians in North American optometry and ophthalmology programs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katherine A; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Spafford, Marlee M

    2014-07-01

    North American optometry and ophthalmology faculty members and vision science librarians were surveyed online (14% response rate) about teaching evidence-based practice (EBP). Similar to studies of other health care programs, all five EBP steps (Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply, Assess) were taught to varying degrees. Optometry and ophthalmology EBP educators may want to place further emphasis on (1) the Apply and Assess steps, (2) faculty- and student-generated questions and self-assessment in clinical settings, (3) online teaching strategies, (4) programmatic integration of EBP learning objectives, and (5) collaboration between faculty members and librarians.

  5. Evidence-based practice instruction by faculty members and librarians in North American optometry and ophthalmology programs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katherine A; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Spafford, Marlee M

    2014-07-01

    North American optometry and ophthalmology faculty members and vision science librarians were surveyed online (14% response rate) about teaching evidence-based practice (EBP). Similar to studies of other health care programs, all five EBP steps (Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply, Assess) were taught to varying degrees. Optometry and ophthalmology EBP educators may want to place further emphasis on (1) the Apply and Assess steps, (2) faculty- and student-generated questions and self-assessment in clinical settings, (3) online teaching strategies, (4) programmatic integration of EBP learning objectives, and (5) collaboration between faculty members and librarians. PMID:25031564

  6. Use of Interactive Sessions and E-Learning in Teaching Anatomy to First-Year Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Gabriel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in the Optometry program at the University of Manchester are required to take a functional anatomy course during the first year of their studies. Low mean scores in the written examination of this unit for the past two academic years energized staff to rethink the teaching format. Interactive sessions lasting 20 minutes each were…

  7. The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A; Eperjesi, F; Gilmartin, B

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the most efficient method available for the analysis of experimental data. Analysis of variance is a method of considerable complexity and subtlety, with many different variations, each of which applies in a particular experimental context. Hence, it is possible to apply the wrong type of ANOVA to data and, therefore, to draw an erroneous conclusion from an experiment. This article reviews the types of ANOVA most likely to arise in clinical experiments in optometry including the one-way ANOVA ('fixed' and 'random effect' models), two-way ANOVA in randomised blocks, three-way ANOVA, and factorial experimental designs (including the varieties known as 'split-plot' and 'repeated measures'). For each ANOVA, the appropriate experimental design is described, a statistical model is formulated, and the advantages and limitations of each type of design discussed. In addition, the problems of non-conformity to the statistical model and determination of the number of replications are considered.

  8. Light and optics conceptual evaluation findings from first year optometry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Damber; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2014-07-01

    The Light and Optics Conceptual Evaluation (LOCE) was developed to examine conceptual understanding of basic geometric and physical optics for the Active Learning in Optics and Photonics program administered by UNESCO. This 50 item test (46 multiple choice, 4 ray-tracing short answer) was administered to entering students in the Optometry professional degree (OD) program. We wanted to determine how much of the physics/optics concepts from undergraduate physics courses (a pre-requisite for entry to the OD program) were retained. In addition, the test was administered after the first year students had taken a required course in geometric and visual optics as part of their first semester courses. The LOCE was completed by two consecutive classes to the program in 2010 (n=89) and 2011 (n=84). The tests were administered the first week of the term and the test was given without any prior notice. In addition, the test was administered to the class of 2010 students after they had completed the course in geometric and visual optics. The means of the test were 22.1 (SD=4.5; range: 12-35) and 21.3(SD=5.1; range: 11-35) for the two entering classes. There was no statistical significance between the two classes (t-test, p<0.05). Similarly there was no difference between the scores in terms of gender. The post-course test (administered during the first week of the second term) showed a statistically significant improvement (mean score went from 22.1 to 31.1, a 35% improvement). It should be noted that both groups of students performed worse in questions related to physical optics as well as lens imaging, while scoring best in questions related to refraction and reflection. These data should be taken into consideration when designing optics curricula for optometry (and other allied health programs such as opticianry or ophthalmology).

  9. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  10. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  11. Attending to audience: comparing optometry student talk with and about patients.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Jenna M; Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F

    2009-12-01

    We explored mediating concepts that affect clinical novices shifting between their talk with patients in eye examinations and their talk about patients in case presentations (nCPs). In a Canadian optometry teaching clinic, patient 'chief concern or request', 'illness experience', and 'management' utterances were observed in ten eye examinations and nCPs. Twenty-three participants (8 students, 5 instructors, and 10 patients) were observed; 22 were subsequently interviewed. Of 10 nCPs, the 'chief concern or request' was absent in four, the 'illness experience' was incomplete or absent in 9 and 5 of 19 (35.7%) 'management' topics were not discussed with patients. During eye exams, 17 of 31 (54.8%) 'management' discussions with patients were not discussed with instructors during nCPs. Instructional 'scaffolding' (Bruner and Sherwood in Play: its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) appeared limited regarding talk with and about patients. The limited and recontextualized reporting of patient concerns and experiences in nCPs represented lost opportunities to provide and learn patient-centered care. While Goffman's (The presentation of the self in everyday life, p. 114, 1969) 'front stage' performances and Mishler's (The discourse of medicine: dialectics of medical interviews, p. 14, 1984) healthcare 'voices' suggest separate worlds of talk before patients and instructors, we found these worlds were not wholly separate for neophyte speakers. Mediating concepts that influence clinical novices shifting their performances before their audiences, included: (1) pedagogical inconsistencies, (2) incompatible values associated with talk, (3) discordance between patient care and student education, (4) time limitations for teaching, and (5) insufficient instructional 'scaffolding' about talk. PMID:19399636

  12. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    McAlinden, Colm; Khadka, Jyoti; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2011-07-01

    The ever-expanding choice of ocular metrology and imaging equipment has driven research into the validity of their measurements. Consequently, studies of the agreement between two instruments or clinical tests have proliferated in the ophthalmic literature. It is important that researchers apply the appropriate statistical tests in agreement studies. Correlation coefficients are hazardous and should be avoided. The 'limits of agreement' method originally proposed by Altman and Bland in 1983 is the statistical procedure of choice. Its step-by-step use and practical considerations in relation to optometry and ophthalmology are detailed in addition to sample size considerations and statistical approaches to precision (repeatability or reproducibility) estimates.

  13. An introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with special reference to data from clinical experiments in optometry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A; Slade, S V; Eperjesi, F

    2000-05-01

    This article is aimed primarily at eye care practitioners who are undertaking advanced clinical research, and who wish to apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) to their data. ANOVA is a data analysis method of great utility and flexibility. This article describes why and how ANOVA was developed, the basic logic which underlies the method and the assumptions that the method makes for it to be validly applied to data from clinical experiments in optometry. The application of the method to the analysis of a simple data set is then described. In addition, the methods available for making planned comparisons between treatment means and for making post hoc tests are evaluated. The problem of determining the number of replicates or patients required in a given experimental situation is also discussed.

  14. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05) being from urban respondents for the latter two issues only. Conclusion Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remote areas of the country. Opinions des étudiants sud-africains en optométrie sur la possibilité de travailler dans les zones rurales après l’obtention de leur diplôme. Contexte Les problèmes des yeux et de vision sont plus courants dans les zones rurales qu’en ville; et une forte proportion de Sud-africains vit dans les zones rurales. Objectif Examiner les opinions des étudiants sud

  15. Grader agreement, and sensitivity and specificity of digital photography in a community optometry-based diabetic eye screening program

    PubMed Central

    Sellahewa, Luckni; Simpson, Craig; Maharajan, Prema; Duffy, John; Idris, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    Background Digital retinal photography with mydriasis is the preferred modality for diabetes eye screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate agreement in grading levels between primary and secondary graders and to calculate their sensitivity and specificity for identifying sight-threatening disease in an optometry-based retinopathy screening program. Methods This was a retrospective study using data from 8,977 patients registered in the North Nottinghamshire retinal screening program. In all cases, the ophthalmology diagnosis was used as the arbitrator and considered to be the gold standard. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate the level of agreement between graders. Results Agreement between primary and secondary graders was 51.4% and 79.7% for detecting no retinopathy (R0) and background retinopathy (R1), respectively. For preproliferative (R2) and proliferative retinopathy (R3) at primary grading, agreement between the primary and secondary grader was 100%. Where there was disagreement between the primary and secondary grader for R1, only 2.6% (n=41) were upgraded by an ophthalmologist. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting R3 was 78.2% and 98.1%, respectively. None of the patients upgraded from any level of retinopathy to R3 required photocoagulation therapy. The observed kappa between the primary and secondary grader was 0.3223 (95% confidence interval 0.2937–0.3509), ie, fair agreement, and between the primary grader and ophthalmology for R3 was 0.5667 (95% confidence interval 0.4557–0.6123), ie, moderate agreement. Conclusion These data provide information on the safety of a community optometry-based retinal screening program for screening as a primary and as a secondary grader. The level of agreement between the primary and secondary grader at a higher level of retinopathy (R2 and R3) was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity for R3 were 78.2% and 98.1%, respectively. None of the false-negative results required photocoagulation therapy

  16. Use of interactive sessions and e-learning in teaching anatomy to first-year optometry students.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Gabriel, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in the Optometry program at the University of Manchester are required to take a functional anatomy course during the first year of their studies. Low mean scores in the written examination of this unit for the past two academic years energized staff to rethink the teaching format. Interactive sessions lasting 20 minutes each were introduced during the two hour lecture sessions. In these sessions students reinforced their anatomical knowledge learned in lectures, through playing games such as anatomy bingo and solving anatomical anagrams. In addition, five e-learning modules were also introduced for students to complete in their own time. A pre- and postcourse questionnaire were distributed to obtain student views on their expectations of the course and interactive sessions. Comparisons were made between written examination results from 2008 to 2009 to written examination results from the previous five academic years to see if the interactive sessions and e-learning modules had any impact on student knowledge. In addition, comparisons were made between student performances on the functional anatomy course with their performance in all of the other assessments taken by the students during their first year of study. Analysis of the questionnaires showed that student's expectations of the course were fulfilled and the interactive sessions were well received by the majority. There was a significant increase (P < or = 0.01) in the mean examination score in 2008-2009 after introduction of the interactive sessions and e-learning modules compared with scores in previous years. The introduction of interactive sessions has increased student enjoyment of the module and along with the e-learning modules have had a positive impact on student examination results.

  17. The incunabula of American optometry.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Only a very few American opticians (optometrists) wrote textbooks or manuals before the end of the 19th century. The important hand-book by William Bohne has already been excellently covered by David Goss but three others appear to have been largely unnoticed. These are manuals by Walter Alden, August Morck and J W Queen & Co.: pioneer works that can be regarded as the incunabula or cradle of printing of optometric publishing in the United States.

  18. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  19. The incunabula of American optometry.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Only a very few American opticians (optometrists) wrote textbooks or manuals before the end of the 19th century. The important hand-book by William Bohne has already been excellently covered by David Goss but three others appear to have been largely unnoticed. These are manuals by Walter Alden, August Morck and J W Queen & Co.: pioneer works that can be regarded as the incunabula or cradle of printing of optometric publishing in the United States. PMID:23057222

  20. Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry

    MedlinePlus

    ... COPE Overview Course Submission Course Qualification Course Review Fees Submit a Course Event Submission Event Approval Info Event Fees Become a COPE Administrator COPE Administrator Login COPE ...

  1. Multicolour LEDs in educational demonstrations of physics and optometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulins, Paulis; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2014-07-01

    LED light sources are used to design experimental setup for university courses teaching human color vision. The setup allows to demonstrate various vision characteristics and to apply for student practical exercises to study eye spectral sensitivity in different spectral range using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Technique can be used in laboratory works for students to acquire knowledge in visual perception, basics of electronics and measuring, or it can be applied as fully computer control experiment. Besides studies of the eye spectral sensitivity students can practice in trichromatic color matching and other visual perception tasks

  2. The Study Of Optometry Apparatus Of Laser Speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao-cheng, Wang; Kun, Yao; Xiu-qing, Wu; Chang-ying, Long; Jia-qi, Shi; Shi-zhong, Shi

    1988-01-01

    Based on the regularity of laser speckles movement the method of exam the uncorrected eyes is determined. The apparatus with micro-computer and optical transformation is made. Its practical function is excellent.

  3. Image processing and analysis using neural networks for optometry area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netto, Antonio V.; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria C.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we describe the framework of a functional system for processing and analyzing images of the human eye acquired by the Hartmann-Shack technique (HS), in order to extract information to formulate a diagnosis of eye refractive errors (astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia). The analysis is to be carried out using an Artificial Intelligence system based on Neural Nets, Fuzzy Logic and Classifier Combination. The major goal is to establish the basis of a new technology to effectively measure ocular refractive errors that is based on methods alternative those adopted in current patented systems. Moreover, analysis of images acquired with the Hartmann-Shack technique may enable the extraction of additional information on the health of an eye under exam from the same image used to detect refraction errors.

  4. Why optometry must work from urban and regional Aboriginal Health Services.

    PubMed

    Anjou, Mitchell D; Boudville, Andrea I; Taylor, Hugh R

    2012-11-01

    The gap in vision and ocular health between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and other Australians continues to be significant, yet three-quarters of the identified Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population live in urban and regional areas of Australia where existing eye-care services are available. In urban Australia, an improvement in the access and use of eye-health services is required to provide equitable eye-care outcomes for Australia's Indigenous peoples. Optometric services need to be available within Aboriginal Health Services in urban areas to effectively close the gap for vision.

  5. Optometry services in Ontario: supply - and demand-side factors from 2011 to 2036.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Philip Sj; Sweetman, Arthur; Zhang, Xue Helen

    2014-01-01

    Optometric labour market projections are provided. First, population growth and ageing-based estimates of the rate of increase of eye-care services in Ontario from 2011 to 2$ are presented, holding the age-sex structure of utilization constant. Then, using data on the 2011 supply and working hours of Ontario's optometrists, the number of optometrists needed to keep the level of optometric services per age-sex-adjusted person comparable over time is estimated. The projections suggest that the number of Ontario optometrists should grow by approximately 30-40 full-time equivalents per year; to offset retirements and account for decreasing work hours, this suggests 77-90 new practitioners are required each year. However, in recent years, the number of Ontario optometrists has been growing faster than this, suggesting either that demand has exceeded supply and/or surpluses will accumulate if this trend continues.

  6. Developing and Evaluating an Interactive Multimedia Instructional Tool: Learning Outcomes and User Experiences of Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This study developed an interactive multimedia-based software program for Optics instruction, which was expected to overcome the imperfection of traditional optical labs. The researcher evaluated the effectiveness of the program through an experimental study that compared the learning outcomes of the students who used and did not use the software.…

  7. Balancing Patient Care and Student Education: Learning to Deliver Bad News in an Optometry Teaching Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of…

  8. [Accuracy of three common optometry methods in examination of refraction in juveniles].

    PubMed

    Su, Ting; Min, Xiaoshan; Liu, Shuangzhen; Li, Fengyun; Tan, Xingping; Zhong, Yanni; Deng, Shaoling

    2016-02-01

    目的:使用视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪与视网膜检影等3种常用验光方法比较分析青少年屈光不正患者散瞳前后的检测结果。方法:对78例(156只眼)53~17岁青少年分别在自然瞳孔下应用WelchAllyn Suresight手持式视力筛查仪及NIDEK ARK-510A型自动电脑验光仪进行验光。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后,行视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪和视网膜检影3种验光法。结果:各方法散瞳前球镜代数值均低于散瞳后,数值更偏近视(P<0.05);散瞳前视力筛查仪与散瞳后的检影验光比较,球镜值、柱镜值和散光轴位差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),两者的一致性优于电脑验光与视网膜检影,但是所得数值偏近视倾向;散瞳前电脑验光与检影验光比较,球镜值和柱镜值差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);散瞳后视力筛查仪与检影验光比较,球镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而散瞳后电脑验光与检影验光比较,柱镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对于青少年验光,睫状肌麻痹散瞳后检影验光必不可少。自然瞳孔下,视力筛查仪验光优于电脑验光,尤其在判断屈光不正的性质方面(球镜值更准)。但是两者都有高估近视程度的倾向。散瞳后,电脑验光准确性高于视力筛查仪,可作为试镜的参考。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后视网膜检影验光结合主观试镜仍是检查屈光不正最为有效的方法。.

  9. Steps towards Smarter Solutions in Optometry and Ophthalmology—Inter-Device Agreement of Subjective Methods to Assess the Refractive Errors of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ohlendorf, Arne; Leube, Alexander; Wahl, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the inter-device agreement and mean differences between a newly developed digital phoropter and the two standard methods (trial frame and manual phoropter). Methods: Refractive errors of two groups of participants were measured by two examiners (examiner 1 (E1): 36 subjects; examiner 2 (E2): 38 subjects). Refractive errors were assessed using a trial frame, a manual phoropter and a digital phoropter. Inter-device agreement regarding the measurement of refractive errors was analyzed for differences in terms of the power vector components (spherical equivalent (SE) and the cylindrical power vector components J0 and J45) between the used methods. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC’s) were calculated to evaluate correlations between the used methods. Results: Analyzing the variances between the three methods for SE, J0 and J45 using a two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the methods (SE: p = 0.13, J0: p = 0.58 and J45: p = 0.96) for examiner 1 and for examiner 2 (SE: p = 0.88, J0: p = 0.95 and J45: p = 1). Mean differences and ±95% Limits of Agreement for each pair of inter-device agreement regarding the SE for both examiners were as follows: Trial frame vs. digital phoropter: +0.10 D ± 0.56 D (E1) and +0.19 D ± 0.60 D (E2), manual phoropter vs. trial frame: −0.04 D ± 0.59 D (E1) and −0.12 D ± 0.49 D (E2) and for manual vs. digital phoropter: +0.06 D ± 0.65 D (E1) and +0.08 D ± 0.45 D (E2). ICCs revealed high correlations between all methods for both examiner (p < 0.001). The time to assess the subjective refraction was significantly smaller with the digital phoropter (examiner 1: p < 0.001; examiner 2: p < 0.001). Conclusion: “All used subjective methods show a good agreement between each other terms of ICC (>0.9). Assessing refractive errors using different subjective methods, results in similar mean differences and 95% limits of agreement, when compared to those reported in studies comparing subjective refraction non-cylcoplegic retinoscopy or autorefraction”. PMID:27417629

  10. Undiagnosed Eye Problems Pose Risks for Migrant Farm Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... appears in the October issue of the journal Optometry and Vision Science . Quandt is a professor of ... of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C. SOURCE: Optometry and Vision Science , news release, Oct. 4, 2016 ...

  11. The Expanding Role of the Optometrist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Alden N.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in the current health care system impacting upon optometry and optometric care are highlighted including changes in health care organizations and delivery, emerging concepts in health care, and changes in optometry and optometric care. (JMF)

  12. The Optometric Residency: Its Bloom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleything, Willard B.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines for proposed residencies in optometry are presented for pediatric, rehabilitative, and hospital optometry. Their significance in terms of costs, patient population, faculty expertise, and critical mass are discussed. (JMF)

  13. Optometric Trajectory--Gerald Westheimer.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    A narrative starting with the author's entering the Optometry program at the Sydney Technical College in 1940, taking him through his days as an optometry and science student, an optometrist in private practice, and participant in organized optometry in Sydney. It described his steps to become an optometric scientist and his service as faculty member in three optometry schools in the United States. Finally, it follows him into a long career in vision science and neurophysiology at Berkeley.

  14. Developing Ideal Student and Residency Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvin, Gerald J.

    1993-01-01

    The Veterans Administration (VA) is a primary educator of optometry students, with each college of optometry being affiliated with at least one VA hospital. Ideally, fourth-year optometry students rotate through a specific VA facility for about 12 weeks. Guidelines are designed to provide optimum care in a rich learning environment. (MSE)

  15. 75 FR 30407 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... allopathic medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine... associations, credit unions, pension funds, State agencies, HEAL schools, and insurance companies, made...

  16. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  17. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  18. 42 CFR 411.12 - Charges imposed by an immediate relative or member of the beneficiary's household.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of conducting the practice of medicine, osteopathy dentistry, podiatry, optometry, or chiropractic, or is owned by other health care professionals as authorized by State law. (c) Applicability of...

  19. ILAMO: Partner in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dablemont, Maria

    1984-01-01

    The history, organization, function, holdings, regulations, and services of the International Library, Museum and Archives of Optometry, a section of the American Optometric Association, are outlined. (MSE)

  20. An Optometric Clinical Practicum Examination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Jess B.

    1979-01-01

    A practical clinical examination model for use by state board examiners in optometry is described including purpose, format, examination design, procedures, evaluation examples and administration. (JMF)

  1. The Vision of Children with Learning Difficulties: The Role of the Teacher and Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of optometry in the study of learning difficulties and the problems of interpreting research results in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology are discussed. Limitations of school visual screening are described, and it is suggested that many children with learning difficulties should be referred for a full clinical visual examination.…

  2. Optometric Grand Rounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John C.; Selvin, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical program developed for Veterans Administration optometry residents and rotating Southern California College of Optometry interns consisted of clinical patient examination followed by case discussion, a formal lecture corresponding to the ocular and systemic diseases presented in the examination, and student testing. (MSE)

  3. Evaluation of a Core Curriculum for Optometric Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiberger, Michael H.; Suchoff, Irvin B.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of residents and residency supervisors at three Veterans' Administration hospitals affiliated with one school of optometry investigated attitudes toward core optometry curriculum activities. Activities were generally rated well for content and effectiveness of presentation, and the study also provided information for program improvement.…

  4. The Effectiveness of a Patient Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Harue J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports data from three consecutive classes of first- year optometry students at the Southern California College of Optometry, who were tested preceding and following completion of a patient communication course. Findings indicated that students improved their ability to respond to patients and were better able to discriminate among various levels…

  5. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An interview with the new president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, John Schoessler, considers issues the president wishes to focus on during his presidency, changes in optometry students over the years, people who influenced his educational ideas, and research currently being conducted at Ohio State University College of…

  6. Academic Affiliations with the Department of Veterans Affairs: Characteristics of the Ohio State University Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Robert D.; Hill, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    The Ohio State University School of Optometry affiliation with four Veterans Administration (VA) health care facilities is characterized by a central governing committee, regular faculty appointments for all participating VA staff, substantial interaction with each site, strong orientation for rotating senior optometry students, and joint…

  7. Focus on the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In an interview, the incoming president of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO), Thomas L. Lewis, discusses his goals for the association, the challenges facing optometric education in the next decade, cooperation between ASCO and other professional organizations in optometry, his mentors in the profession, his focus as a…

  8. What Type of Faculty and Training Are Required for a Successful Basic Sciences Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Science education for optometry must go beyond therapeutic patient management to more preparation for biologically based care. Optometry faculty should be involved in research driven by specific patient problems and should prepare professionals to address patient quality-of-life and daily living needs. Interdisciplinary collaboration is needed.…

  9. Designing Clinical Remediation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Susan C.

    1989-01-01

    Elements and considerations in the provision of effective remediation for optometry students not achieving in clinical competence are discussed. Remediation of technical, cognitive, and noncognitive skills are included. A course in professional communication offered by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry is described. (MSE)

  10. Using Problem-Based Learning with Large Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzelli, Andrew R.

    1994-01-01

    At the Pennsylvania College of Optometry, a core course in pediatric optometry was revised to use a problem-centered approach and implemented with a class of 147 students. Students were assigned specific roles to distribute work evenly. A survey found students responded positively to this approach. (MSE)

  11. The Accelerated O.D. Program: Graduates of the First Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Depew M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the practice patterns, licensing, and distribution of graduates of the New England College of Optometry's accelerated doctor of optometry program indicates its success as a source of optometric educators with advanced expertise in scientific research. (Author/MSE)

  12. Use of Information Technology in Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Jimmy H.

    1999-01-01

    To enhance the information technology literacy of optometry students, the Southern College of Optometry (Tennessee) developed an academic assignment, the Electronic Media Paper, in which second-year students must search two different electronic media for information. Results suggest Internet use for searching may be a useful tool for specific…

  13. Ultimate Success Rates on National Board Examinations: A Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.; Wallis, Norman E.; Present, Richard K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the percentage of optometry students successfully completing the four-component National Board of Examiners in Optometry examination at graduation between 1995 to 1997. Ultimate pass rates for all four components ranged from 87.0% to 90.9%. Results are discussed in relation to the 1993 test-sequence expansion and to the number…

  14. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or an...) which, although not owned by such school, has a written agreement with a school of medicine,...

  15. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or an...) which, although not owned by such school, has a written agreement with a school of medicine,...

  16. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which..., doctor of dental surgery or an equivalent degree, doctor of osteopathy, doctor of optometry or an...) which, although not owned by such school, has a written agreement with a school of medicine,...

  17. Children's vision--a 20/20 outlook.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R W

    1975-10-01

    Twenty years ago, A. M. Skeffington, O.D., talked about the "uniqueness" of optometry which included prevention, remediation and enhancement. Fifteen years ago, Arnold Gesell, M.D., urged optometry to pay attention to the preschool years and to examine and supervise (with optometric expertise) the vision of these children and to learn to identify those children who would present difficulties in learning. At the same time, Darell Boyd Harmon, Ph.D., suggested that optometry "gear up" for an expected avalanche of visually-related learning problems. Optometry did listen and learn, the avalanche is here and developmental optometry has prospered. This paper briefly explores some of the long and short-range benefits of vision therapy.

  18. Children's vision--a 20/20 outlook.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R W

    1975-10-01

    Twenty years ago, A. M. Skeffington, O.D., talked about the "uniqueness" of optometry which included prevention, remediation and enhancement. Fifteen years ago, Arnold Gesell, M.D., urged optometry to pay attention to the preschool years and to examine and supervise (with optometric expertise) the vision of these children and to learn to identify those children who would present difficulties in learning. At the same time, Darell Boyd Harmon, Ph.D., suggested that optometry "gear up" for an expected avalanche of visually-related learning problems. Optometry did listen and learn, the avalanche is here and developmental optometry has prospered. This paper briefly explores some of the long and short-range benefits of vision therapy. PMID:1078341

  19. Optometric education in Africa: historical perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oduntan, Olalekan A; Mashige, Khathutshelo P; Kio, Franklin E; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel B

    2014-03-01

    The African continent, with a population of more than one billion and 55 recognized developing countries, is still grappling in some countries with socioeconomic and other challenges inherent in developing countries. The continent is working toward a single political entity known as the African Union, and development is taking place faster than ever in most countries. The continent is known to have high levels of health problems, including visual impairment and blindness. Most nations in the continent are making efforts to reduce the scourge of health problems including visual impairment and blindness. Visual impairment in the continent is mostly caused by refractive errors. Consequently, optometry can help reduce the prevalence of visual impairment on the continent. The educational programs currently offered by the different institutions include Diploma in Optometry (DipOptom), Bachelor of Optometry (BOptom), and Doctor of Optometry (OD). There are 17 established institutions offering optometry degree programs on the continent, of which 14 are fully accredited. Considering the optometric manpower needed in the continent, more optometry institutions need to be established. Staffing and infrastructural and training facilities are major challenges facing the majority of the existing institutions. There is also a need to place greater emphasis on postgraduate education to meet the institutional, national, and international professional training standards and to ensure sustainability of optometry education. This article addresses the historical development, educational issues, challenges, and needs, as well as recommendations, for improving the standard and sustainability of optometric education.

  20. Diversity within the Profession. Part One: Trends and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, which reveals intolerance in the form of harassment and discrimination, and inequalities in the patterns of practice, power, and economics. (EV)

  1. Issues in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawamura, Mark H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on concerns raised at a workshop at the Southern California College of Optometry, addresses critical issues in the process of peer review of faculty teaching and possible alternatives to these issues as applied to an optometric institution. (EV)

  2. Training the Trainer: Developing Educators for Continuing Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canellos, Harriete; Medio, Franklin J.; Mozlin, Rochelle; Perry, Claudia A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program at the State University of New York College of Optometry targeted at training younger clinical faculty who wish to become involved in continuing professional education. Covers the program's purpose and the institution's experiences with implementation. (DB)

  3. Diversity within the Profession. Part Two: Initiatives Promoting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, describing programs geared either toward increasing diversity or facilitating acceptance of diversity within the optometric profession, including affirmative action and other institutional support structures. (EV)

  4. The Hillman Rotation: An External Clinic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Joan M.; Veith, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Describes the external optometric education program at the Sidney Hillman Health Centre (Chicago, Illinois). Discusses the history of the clinic, its administrative and educational philosophy, and its affiliation with two prominent hospitals and the Illinois College of Optometry. (DB)

  5. The Didactic Therapeutics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Jimmy D.

    1986-01-01

    Considerations to be made in designing an optometry curriculum for treating patients with eye diseases are reviewed, including the scope of practice and specific areas of instruction in the biomedical, basic vision, and clinical vision sciences. (MSE)

  6. A Simulation of Amblyopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Michael W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A simulation of the decreased visual acuity of individuals with amblyopia is used in one optometry program to help students understand how amblyopia patients see. Students act as patient, then as doctor, proceeding through clinical diagnosis. (MSE)

  7. 42 CFR 495.100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... professionals: (1) A doctor of medicine or osteopathy. (2) A doctor of dental surgery or medicine. (3) A doctor of podiatric medicine. (4) A doctor of optometry. (5) A chiropractor. Geographic health...

  8. The relationship of contrast sensitivity functions to sports vision.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L G; Polan, G; Powell, J

    1984-10-01

    Contrast sensitivity, a more recent test of visual function, has never been studied in its relationship to sports vision. The hypothesis that contrast sensitivity functions among college varsity level baseball players significantly differs from that of a random sample of optometry students was tested using Arden grating plates. A statistically significant difference was found at the 98 percent confidence level, demonstrating that in this study, a sample of college varsity level baseball players have higher level contrast sensitivity functions than those of a randomly selected sample of Southern California College of Optometry students.

  9. 42 CFR 60.5 - Who is an eligible student borrower?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Doctor of Dentistry or equivalent degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Podiatric Medicine or equivalent degree Bachelor or Master of Science in Pharmacy or equivalent degree Graduate...

  10. 42 CFR 60.50 - Which schools are eligible to be HEAL schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to conduct a course of study leading to one of the following degrees: Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Doctor of Dentistry or equivalent degree Bachelor or Master of Science in Pharmacy or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent...

  11. 42 CFR 60.50 - Which schools are eligible to be HEAL schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to conduct a course of study leading to one of the following degrees: Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Doctor of Dentistry or equivalent degree Bachelor or Master of Science in Pharmacy or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent...

  12. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Model at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ramona Ann; Gottlieb, Helmut; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C.; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a private University in South Texas sought to prepare eight cohorts of 25 nursing, optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and health care administration students with an interprofessional education activity as a model for collaborative learning. The two semester interprofessional activity used a blended model (Blackboard Learn®,…

  13. The Standardized 2-Dimensional PMP: A New Assessment Technique in Optometric Credentialing and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.

    1983-01-01

    A written clinical simulation exercise known as patient management problems (PMP) developed by the National Board of Examiners in Optometry is discussed. The new PMP format is considered standardized in the sense that the "visible" portion of the problem will be identical. (MLW)

  14. Modifying the Curriculum: Teaching Clinical Students about Caring for Patients with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the curricula of optometry programs can be modified to prepare graduates to meet the needs of patients from special populations. Addresses student attitudes and the clinical encounter, including the case history, clinical examination, clinical decision making and determination of patient management plans, and case discussion of the…

  15. Cooperative Learning Combined with Short Periods of Lecturing: A Good Alternative in Teaching Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Santander, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The informal activities of cooperative learning and short periods of lecturing has been combined and used in the university teaching of biochemistry as part of the first year course of Optics and Optometry in the academic years 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The lessons were previously elaborated by the teacher and included all that is necessary to…

  16. Pharmacology Curriculum Model--A Report of the ADCO Council on Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A curriculum model for various schools and colleges to use in assessing the scope of their individual pharmacology programs is presented. The Council on Academic Affairs of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry prepared this model because of modifications in state laws to allow the use of pharmaceutical agents in the practice of…

  17. Optics education in an optometric setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Raghuram, Aparna

    2003-10-01

    We discuss optics education within the context of an Optometric professional program leading to a degree of Doctor of Optometry (O.D.). Basic course work in Geometric, Physical, Ophthalmic and Visual Optics will be described and we will discuss how basic optical phenomena can be made relevant to the Optometric student with different academic backgrounds.

  18. Laser Optometric Assessment Of Visual Display Viewability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murch, Gerald M.

    1983-08-01

    Through the technique of laser optometry, measurements of a display user's visual accommodation and binocular convergence were used to assess the visual impact of display color, technology, contrast, and work time. The studies reported here indicate the potential of visual-function measurements as an objective means of improving the design of visual displays.

  19. The Perfect Eye A Novel Model for Teaching the Theory of Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The Perfect Eye model simplifies solutions to a wide variety of optometry instructional problems by facilitating student understanding of the interaction among lenses, objects, accommodation, and ametropia. The model is based on the premise that inside every eye is a perfect (emmetropic) eye, and that the physiological eye is a combination of the…

  20. Assessing Outcomes in Optometric Education: A Commentary by the Council on Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    A statement of the Council for Optometric Education (COE) defines and characterizes educational outcomes, outcomes assessment, and outcomes data, and explains the reasons for outcomes assessment, its relationship to curricular design, and its function in accreditation of optometry programs. Stated COE standards and expectations of optometry…

  1. Comparison of Optometric and Dental Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Kyle; Dinh, Michael; Harris, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A study comparing the medically relevant educational requirements of the University of California, Berkeley School of Optometry to that of the University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry finds that the curriculums are generally equivalent, supporting the argument for an expanded scope of optometric practice. (EV)

  2. How to Make Low Vision "Sexy": A Starting Point for Interdisciplinary Student Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Strong, Graham; Renaud, Judith; Southall, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Professionals in the field of low vision are increasingly concerned about the paucity of optometry students who are expressing any interest in low vision as a clinical subspecialty. Concurrent with this apparent disinterest is an increased demand for these services as the baby boomer population becomes more predisposed to age-related vision loss.…

  3. Student Indebtedness: The Challenge of Financing an Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Lawrence H.

    2000-01-01

    Examines data from annual surveys of member institutions of the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry concerning cost of education, student financial assistance, and student indebtedness. Twelve tables and six figures detail cost and indebtedness factors from 1989/90 through 1996/97. Finds costs and indebtedness have gone up…

  4. A Comprehensive Approach To Critically Evaluate an Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachimowicz, Ruth A.; Lee, David Y.

    1999-01-01

    At Illinois College of Optometry a peer-review committee evaluates the exams of both basic science and clinical courses to provide an objective means of evaluating a faculty member's teaching ability. Five aspects of the exam (content, construction, statistical analysis, adjusted questions, instructor's rationale) are evaluated to determine the…

  5. Making a Difference. Visual Health Needs of People with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlade, Anne; Bickerstaff, David; Lindsay, Jennifer; McConkey, Roy; Jackson, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings from a study to assess the impact of corrective eye treatment in adults with a learning disability. The Special Visual Assessment Clinic (SVAC) is an optometry led multi professional service delivered in a Resource Centre in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The study, which included user and carer input in its design,…

  6. Rethinking Student Loan Debt: Tools and Strategies for Debt Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan G.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes student loan debt at the University of Missouri-St. Louis School of Optometry, showing the need for a comprehensive debt management program. Presents a model for determining manageable amounts of student loan debt developed from conventional lending criteria and data on earnings for optometrists. (EV)

  7. Perceived Barriers to Faculty Achievement in the Area of Scholarly Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Mary Beth; Gross, Sanford M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 35 Illinois College of Optometry faculty investigated perceived barriers to scholarly activity, including time management, communication skills, knowledge of research design and statistics, computer literacy, institutional support, use of human or material resources, and library resource skills. A majority felt their skills were…

  8. Case History Skill Assessment: Breadth versus Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haine, Charles L.; Gross, Leon J.

    1999-01-01

    Study investigated whether poor performance on the case history portion of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry clinical skills examination was due to candidates' failure to inquire about major issues or explore issues thoroughly. Data from tests administered to 1,266 candidates were analyzed. Results indicate candidates generally…

  9. Optometric Education: A Summary Report. National Study of Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    This document is a lengthy summary of the Report of the National Study of Optometric Education. Contents include: introductory material; evolution of optometric training; vision care; institutions providing optometric education and their objectives; the scope of optometry; educational implications of contemporary developments in optometric…

  10. Interim Outcomes Assessment of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolls, Dorothy Bazzinotti; Carlson, Nancy; Wilson, Roger; Richman, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the viability of the Comprehensive Clinical Performance Grid for Student Evaluation, introduced at The New England College of Optometry in 1996 in clinical student assessment. Analyzed faculty and student feedback and consistency with previous evaluations, between evaluators, and between clinical sites and tracts. Found satisfaction with…

  11. SUNY at Sixty: The Promise of the State University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, W. Bruce, Ed.; Clark, John B., Ed.; O'Brien, Kenneth P., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The State University of New York is America's largest comprehensive public university system, with sixty-four campuses, including community colleges, colleges of technology, university colleges, research universities, medical schools, academic medical centers, and specialized campuses in fields as diverse as optometry, ceramics, horticulture,…

  12. The Role of Selected Health Problems in the Causation of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers sociological theories of delinquency causation in order to attempt to integrate research from the fields of optometry, audiology, neurology, and pediatric medicine into the mainstream of sociological theories of delinquency causation. Found strong and consistent relationships between the presence of these health problems and delinquency.…

  13. Recent Optometric Education Developments in the Republic of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Two optometry schools, established at the University of the North and the University of Durban-Westville in South Africa which were authorized by separate government departments for Black and Indian ethnic categories, are described. No attempt is made to evaluate the relative quality of the two programs. (MLW)

  14. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medical specialist services and contracts for other medical services. The Under Secretary for Health is... and § 17.210 and which may be negotiated pursuant to the provisions of 41 CFR 8-3.204(c); (b) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and...

  15. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medical specialist services and contracts for other medical services. The Under Secretary for Health is... and § 17.210 and which may be negotiated pursuant to the provisions of 41 CFR 8-3.204(c); (b) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and...

  16. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medical specialist services and contracts for other medical services. The Under Secretary for Health is... and § 17.210 and which may be negotiated pursuant to the provisions of 41 CFR 8-3.204(c); (b) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and...

  17. 42 CFR 57.213 - Continuation of provisions for cancellation of loans made prior to November 18, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213 Continuation of... professions student loans as students of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry or optometry prior to... loans made prior to November 18, 1971. 57.213 Section 57.213 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  18. 42 CFR 57.213 - Continuation of provisions for cancellation of loans made prior to November 18, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213 Continuation of... professions student loans as students of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry or optometry prior to... loans made prior to November 18, 1971. 57.213 Section 57.213 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  19. 42 CFR 57.213 - Continuation of provisions for cancellation of loans made prior to November 18, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213 Continuation of... professions student loans as students of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry or optometry prior to... loans made prior to November 18, 1971. 57.213 Section 57.213 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  20. 42 CFR 57.213 - Continuation of provisions for cancellation of loans made prior to November 18, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213 Continuation of... professions student loans as students of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry or optometry prior to... loans made prior to November 18, 1971. 57.213 Section 57.213 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  1. 42 CFR 57.213 - Continuation of provisions for cancellation of loans made prior to November 18, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.213 Continuation of... professions student loans as students of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry or optometry prior to... loans made prior to November 18, 1971. 57.213 Section 57.213 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  2. The Health Professional as Writer: Two Models for Integrating Writing into the Curricula of Baccalaureate Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haneline, Douglas

    Current changes in health care professions requiring practitioners to have more and better communications skills are necessitating the integration of writing into the health curricula of higher education programs. At Ferris State University, a number of models (in Optometry, Dental Hygiene, Health Systems Management, Nursing, Pharmacy, Medical…

  3. Recruitment and Selection Strategies in Optometric Education towards Addressing Human Resource Disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodley, V. R.; Loughman, James; Naidoo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The dire need for eye care services and a dearth of human resources (HR) in sub-Saharan Africa motivated the setting up of new optometry programmes. However, to make a meaningful impact, geographical, gender, economic and educational disparities must additionally be addressed. A qualitative study utilizing purposive sampling to select academic…

  4. The Impact of the Perceived Value of Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denial, A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2003-2007 at the New England College of Optometry, the Integrative Seminar Course (ISC) was used to facilitate students' learning of clinical reasoning. To examine students' perceptions and experiences regarding their learning, an end-of-year Likert-style survey was administered to 96 first-year students after completion of the ISC. Analysis…

  5. 76 FR 8748 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social...: Allopathic and Osteopathic. (b) Nurse: Associate, B.S., and M.S. Degree. (c) Clinical Psychology: Ph.D. and Psy.D. (d) Social Work: Masters level only. (e) Chemical Dependency Counseling: Baccalaureate...

  6. Curriculum Model for Oculomotor. Binocular, and Visual Perception Dysfunctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Optometric Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A curriculum for disorders of oculomotor control, binocular vision, and visual perception, adopted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, is outlined. The curriculum's 14 objectives in physiology, perceptual and cognitive development, epidemiology, public health, diagnosis and management, environmental influences, care delivery,…

  7. The Intelligent Anatomy Spotter: A New Approach to Incorporate Higher Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L.

    2016-01-01

    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of…

  8. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  9. Studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, M.; Kowalczyk, A.

    2007-02-01

    This contribution demonstrates potential of Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) for studies of dynamic processes in biomedicine occurring at various time scales. Several examples from ophthalmology, optometry, surgery, neurology are given to illustrate the extension of SOCT beyond pure morphological investigations.

  10. Symposium: The Role of Biological Sciences in the Optometric Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Rapp, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Papers from a symposium probing some of the curricular elements of the program in biological sciences at a school or college of optometry are provided. The overall program sequence in the biological sciences, microbiology, pharmacology, and the curriculum in the biological sciences from a clinical perspective are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  11. Construction Grants for Educational Facilities, Fiscal Years 1965-77. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Bella U.; Rosenthal, Samuel

    This publication provides information on construction assistance awarded to schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, and nursing. In addition it provides data on grants awarded to schools of allied health, medical libraries, and health research facilities.…

  12. 45 CFR 83.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Civil Rights of the Department. (f) Entity means (1) a school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathy, school of pharmacy, school of optometry, school of podiatry, school of veterinary medicine, or school of public health, as defined by section 724 of the Act; (2) A school of nursing,...

  13. 45 CFR 83.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Civil Rights of the Department. (f) Entity means (1) a school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathy, school of pharmacy, school of optometry, school of podiatry, school of veterinary medicine, or school of public health, as defined by section 724 of the Act; (2) A school of nursing,...

  14. PATHWAYS TO HEALTH CAREERS, EXPLORING HEALTH OCCUPATIONS AND PROFESSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Careers Council of Illinois, Chicago.

    CAREERS IN THE AREAS OF DENTISTRY, DIETETICS, MEDICAL RECORD LIBRARY SCIENCE, MEDICAL LABORATORY WORK, MEDICINE, NURSING, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY, OPTOMETRY, PHARMACY, PHYSICAL THERAPY, PODIATRY, PUBLIC HEALTH, RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, SOCIAL WORK, VETERINARY MEDICINE, HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION, AND OTHER HEALTH OCCUPATIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE…

  15. 42 CFR 60.5 - Who is an eligible student borrower?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Doctor of Dentistry or equivalent degree Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or equivalent degree Doctor of Optometry or equivalent degree Doctor of Podiatric... equivalent degree in Public Health Doctor of Chiropractic or equivalent degree Doctoral degree in...

  16. Health Professions Education Facilities in the Non-Profit Sector. 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    In this study of the physical facilities of the nation's health professions schools, all schools of dentistry, medicine, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, podiatry, public health, and veterinary medicine, and all parent institutions of the schools, were surveyed in May of 1973. The major goals of this pioneering survey were to assess the nature and…

  17. Quantifying the Risk of Blood Exposure in Optometric Clinical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    A study attempted to quantify risk of blood exposure in optometric clinical education by surveying optometric interns in their fourth year at the Southern California College of Optometry concerning their history of exposure or use of a needle. Results indicate blood exposure or needle use ranged from 0.95 to 18.71 per 10,000 patient encounters.…

  18. How Health Professions Students Finance Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    This report was based on a survey to determine how students in the health professions of medicine osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine financed their educations during the 1970-71 school year. The purpose of this nationwide survey was to provide information on patterns of student expenses and on the sources…

  19. Costs of Education in the Health Professions: Report of a Study Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Resources Development.

    This report contains aggregate data on costs for all schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, and nursing, and the average education costs per student in these fields for a sample of schools during the 1972-73 academic year. Context for the study is provided by an appraisal of the educational…

  20. A Report to the President & Congress on the Status of Health Professions Personnel in the United States. [Advance Issue, August 1978].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    This report, the first of a series of annual reports mandated by the Public Health Service Act as amended by the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-484), describes and analyzes the status of health professions personnel in the United States. The professions covered are medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry,…

  1. Construction Grants for Educational Facilities. Fiscal Years 1965-76. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    This publication provides information on construction assistance awarded during fiscal years 1965 through 1976 by the Bureau of Health Manpower (BHM) and its predecessors to schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, and nursing. In addition, it provides data…

  2. 38 CFR 17.601 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department of Veterans Affairs health care facility and a school of medicine or osteopathy. (d) Advanced clinical training means those programs of graduate training in medicine including osteopathy which (1) lead... osteopathy, doctor of dentistry, doctor of optometry, doctor of podiatry, or an associate...

  3. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume I: Data Analysis, Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The study focused on women's education in eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as school applicants and students. Almost 600 interviews were conducted with…

  4. Predictors of Success of Black Americans in a College-Level Pre-Health Professions Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Predictors of success for black freshmen entering Xavier University of Louisiana with an interest in the health professions were studied. Health professions were considered as the mainline fields of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, and pharmacy. Students majoring in biology, chemistry, or…

  5. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    Enrollment data are provided for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1977-78. In one section, the schools are classified by discipline, and within each discipline the schools are sorted alphabetically by state; discipline totals are also…

  6. The Optometric Residency Accreditation Process--Planning for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchoff, Irwin B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The American Optometric Association's current review of procedures for accrediting optometric residencies is discussed. Reasons for the review (projected growth of programs and revised standards) are discussed, procedures currently in place for accrediting programs in osteopathy, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatry, and optometry are summarized; and…

  7. A Report on Health Sciences Education Planning for California: 1980-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Health sciences education planning for California for 1980-82 is examined. The adequacy of educational programs in meeting the needs of California for professional personnel in medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and optometry is assessed. Data on enrollments and graduation rates in these fields are updated from the 1978 plan, and similar data…

  8. Health Professions Schools. Selected Enrollment Data 1970-71/1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Smauel; And Others

    Enrollment data are presented for each school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine for the academic years 1970-71 through 1981-82. Projections for future years are made from the length of the academic program for current enrollees. The data are segmented by program type, and include the actual…

  9. Study of How Health Professions Students Finance Their Education, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocniak, Nina; And Others

    Expenses that health professions students incurred, sources of income to meet those expenditures, and indebtedness incurred by the students during the 1976-77 school year were studied. A questionnaire, which is appended, was mailed to a sample of students registered in schools of dentistry, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, podiatry,…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The study focused on eight health professions: medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, and public health. Its central tasks were to identify and explore the barriers to success that women face as medical/professional school applicants and students and to describe the discrimination process that limits…

  11. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and § 17.210 and which may be negotiated pursuant to the provisions of 41 CFR 8-3.204(c); (b) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... will be negotiated pursuant to 41 CFR chapters 1 and 8. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 512, 513, 7409,...

  12. Institutional Resource Requirements and Cost Per Student for Contemporary Pharmaceutical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swintosky, Joseph V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the IOM study that determined the average annual education costs per student, for the first professional degree. Colleges of pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, veterinary medicine, podiatry, optometry, and nursing were included. The data are assessed with particular reference to the University of Kentucky.…

  13. Health Manpower Source Book. Manpower Supply and Educational Statistics for Selected Health Occupations: 1968. Public Health Service Publication Number 263, Section 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Professions Education and Manpower Training.

    This publication is a compilation of statistics on supply and education of health manpower in medicine and osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, nursing, public health, and eight selected allied health occupations. The material is organized by occupations and the following information is presented for each…

  14. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and § 17.210 and which may be negotiated pursuant to the provisions of 41 CFR 8-3.204(c); (b) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... will be negotiated pursuant to 41 CFR chapters 1 and 8. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 512, 513, 7409,...

  15. Recertification and Relicensure--Implications for the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, George B.; Swinford, David N.

    1975-01-01

    The study surveyed the extent of the movement to require continuing education in 14 professions: accountancy, architecture, dentistry, dietetics, engineering, law, medicine, nursing, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, physical therapy, real estate, social work, and veterinary medicine. The report provides some general conclusions and a summary of…

  16. "The Reading Assistant": user-friendly technology for the visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Yager, D

    1995-05-01

    One important way in which optometry must respond to the needs of persons with visual disabilities is to develop innovative applications of technologies that will allow these people to function productively in the workplace, where their performance depends on the ability to read at reasonable rates: to read such documents as letters, memos, contracts, instruction manuals, newspapers, magazines, and the like. In this paper I will describe one example of such an effort, a system that is being developed jointly by the SUNY College of Optometry, the National Eye Institute, and MerlinVision Industries, Inc., a company in Yorktown Heights, NY. I have an interest in what is reported here: I hold a part-time position as Director of Clinical Research at MerlinVision.

  17. Gradient-index crystalline lens model: A new method for determining the paraxial properties by the axial and field rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama, María. Angeles; Pérez, María. Victoria; Bao, Carmen; Flores-Arias, María. Teresa; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Gradient-index (GRIN) models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering the effect of inhomogeneity of the refractive index on the optical properties of the lens. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine analytically cardinal elements, magnifications and refractive power of the lens by the axial and field rays in order to study the paraxial light propagation through the human lens from its GRIN nature.

  18. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  19. Some experiments with thin prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, P. C. B.

    1980-11-01

    In most attempts at modernizing the college physics curriculum one of the first branches of physics to be eliminated is geometrical optics. However, in developing countries where the curriculum must give emphasis to applied areas (if physics is to survive at all!), geometrical optics has a role to play, especially in its relationship to the professional course ''Optometry.'' The author presents a few experiments in geometrical optics with an ophthalmic opitics bias, which could be introduced into the college physics laboratory.

  20. Gradient parameter and axial and field rays in the gradient-index crystalline lens model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. V.; Bao, C.; Flores-Arias, M. T.; Rama, M. A.; Gómez-Reino, C.

    2003-09-01

    Gradient-index models of the human lens have received wide attention in optometry and vision sciences for considering how changes in the refractive index profile with age and accommodation may affect refractive power. This paper uses the continuous asymmetric bi-elliptical model to determine gradient parameter and axial and field rays of the human lens in order to study the paraxial propagation of light through the crystalline lens of the eye.

  1. Health Partners of Western Ohio: Integrated Care Case Study.

    PubMed

    Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V

    2016-03-01

    Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio.

  2. Health Partners of Western Ohio: Integrated Care Case Study.

    PubMed

    Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V

    2016-03-01

    Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio. PMID:27044240

  3. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569

  4. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  5. Correlation among auto-refractor, wavefront aberration, and subjective manual refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ren, Qiushi

    2005-01-01

    Three optometry methods which include auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective manual refraction were studied and compared in measuring low order aberrations of 60 people"s 117 normal eyes. Paired t-test and linear regression were used to study these three methods" relationship when measuring myopia with astigmatism. In order to make the analysis more clear, we divided the 117 normal eyes into different groups according to their subjective manual refraction and redid the statistical analysis. Correlations among three methods show significant in sphere, cylinder and axis in all groups, with sphere"s correlation coefficients largest(R>0.98, P<0.01) and cylinder"s smallest (0.90optometry methods in measuring sphere was significant (P<0.01) while axis"s difference was not significant (P>0.01). Auto-refractor had significant change from the other two methods when measuring cylinder (P<0.01). The results after grouping differed a little from the analysis among total people. Although three methods showed significant change from each other in certain parameters, the amplitude of these differences were not large, which indicated that the coherence of auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective refraction is good. However, we suggested that wavefront aberration measurement could be a good starting point of optometry, subjective refraction is still necessary for refinement.

  6. Model of the Human Eye Based on ABCD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, G. Díaz; Castillo, M. David Iturbe

    2008-04-01

    At the moment several models of the human eye exist, nevertheless the gradient index models of the human lens (crystalline) have received little attention in optometry and vision sciences, although they consider how the refractive index and the refracting power can change with the accommodation. On the other hand, in study fields like ophthalmology and optometry, exist cases where there is a lack of information about the factors that influence the change of refractive power and therefore the focal length of the eye. By such reason, in this paper we present a model of the human eye based on the ABCD matrix in order to describe the propagation of light rays, that can be understood by professional people in optics, ophthalmology and optometry, and the dispersions of the different ocular mediums are taken into account,. The aim of the model is to obtain data about the refractive power of the eye under different considerations, such as: changes in wavelength, radius of curvature and thicknesses of the ocular mediums. We present results of simulations in Matlab of our model, assuming that the object is punctual and is placed to a certain distance of the eye, and considering at the beginning to the crystalline like a medium with fixed refractive index, and after like a gradient lens. By means of graphs, we show the total refractive power of the eye and its form and type of dependence with respect to variations in radius of curvature and thicknesses of the cornea and crystalline, as well as variations in the thickness of the previous and later cameras.

  7. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  8. On geodesics of the rotation group SO(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelia, Alyssa; O'Reilly, Oliver M.

    2015-11-01

    Geodesics on SO(3) are characterized by constant angular velocity motions and as great circles on a three-sphere. The former interpretation is widely used in optometry and the latter features in the interpolation of rotations in computer graphics. The simplicity of these two disparate interpretations belies the complexity of the corresponding rotations. Using a quaternion representation for a rotation, we present a simple proof of the equivalence of the aforementioned characterizations and a straightforward method to establish features of the corresponding rotations.

  9. Contact lens wear, use of eye cosmetics, and Meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Marren, S E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelations among contact lens wear, use of eye make up, eye rubbing, and Meibomian gland dysfunction. Fifty optometry students were evaluated for Meibomian gland function (number of lower lid glands expressing freely with gentle pressure) and fluorescein staining of the cornea and conjunctiva. Subjects were questioned regarding contact lens wear, use of eye cosmetics, and frequency of eye rubbing. No relation was detected among Meibomian gland clogging, contact lens wear, cosmetic use, or eye rubbing in these subjects. The data suggest a relation among clogged glands, contact lens wear, and fluorescein staining. Future studies of older contact lens wearers are warranted.

  10. [Visual quality needs to be improved in non-surgical optical correction].

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying

    2016-01-01

    Optical correction is the basis of optometry. Optimized visual quality through optical correction is more challenging and more scientific as visual quality is becoming more closely related to social integration and development. There are many visual quality problems associated with various non-surgical optical correction methods in different aspects and degrees. This article discusses in depth some of the problems regarding optical correction with spectacles for different age groups, from children to seniors. The use of soft contact lenses, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses, and orthokeratology lenses is also evaluated. Moreover, some suggestions and recommendations on promoting visual quality through optical correction are provided. PMID:26899215

  11. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  12. Teaching applied optics at the Univ. of Minho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    1995-10-01

    In this communication we make a brief presentation of the branch of Applied Optics of the University of Mihno's undergraduate course of Applied Physics. The course of Applied Physics began in the year 1988/89. Previously we had just a course devoted to the formation of future physics and chemistry teachers at high school level. The Applied Physics course specialized in Optics appeared due to the growth of the physics department and due to request from the industry. The Applied Physics course has two specialization's on the field of applied optics: Optometry; and Optics and Lasers. The topics covered in the two first years of the course ar common to the two branches. On the second semester of the third year the students must choose between either one. The number of students on the Optometry branch was usually almost four times the number of Applied Optics and Lasers students. Nevertheless this tendency is rapidly changing. A short analysis of the result obtained will be presented focusing on last couple of years' advances. Presented will also be the results of an inquest made on students's opinions about the quality of the course, and their own performance and expectations.

  13. Internet based post-graduate course in spectacle lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalie, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The complexity of spectacle lenses has increased enormously over the last three decades. The advent of aspheric lenses for the normal power range and the, now commonplace, progressive lenses for the correction of presbyopia, are just two examples of 21st Century technology. Freeform surfaces are now employed to personalize lenses to wearer's needs and these may be both progressive and atoroidal in nature. At the same time, optometry has taken a sideways step from optics and physics into a more general primary health care profession with an ever-increasing amount of biological and medical content added to an already brimming curriculum, hence the need for persons without optometry training to undertake the study of spectacle lenses. Some years ago a post-graduate course was designed for opticians who had a good grasp of mathematics and the ability to pay close attention to detail in the lengthy trigonometric ray-tracing techniques employed in lens design calculations. The year-long course, is undertaken by distance learning, and has been undertaken via the internet by students from many countries around the world. Final assessment is by means of examination held by the Association of British Dispensing Opticians and takes the form of two three-hour papers, Paper One consisting of the determination of the aberrations of a spectacle lens by accurate trigonometric ray tracing and the second, a general paper on the optics of ophthalmic lenses. It leads to the professional qualification, ABDO (Hons) SLD.

  14. Slit-lamp management in contact lenses laboratory classes: learning upgrade with monitor visualization of webcam video recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arines, Justo; Gargallo, Ana

    2014-07-01

    The training in the use of the slit lamp has always been difficult for students of the degree in Optics and Optometry. Instruments with associated cameras helps a lot in this task, they allow teachers to observe and control if the students evaluate the eye health appropriately, correct use errors and show them how to do it with a visual demonstration. However, these devices are more expensive than those that do not have an integrated camera connected to a display unit. With the aim to improve students' skills in the management of slit lamp, we have adapted USB HD webcams (Microsoft Lifecam HD-5000) to the objectives of the slit lamps available in our contact lenses laboratory room. The webcams are connected to a PC running Linux Ubuntu 11.0; therefore that is a low-cost device. Our experience shows that single method has several advantages. It allows us to take pictures with a good quality of different conditions of the eye health; we can record videos of eye evaluation and make demonstrations of the instrument. Besides it increases the interactions between students because they could see what their colleagues are doing and take conscious of the mistakes, helping and correcting each others. It is a useful tool in the practical exam too. We think that the method supports the training in optometry practice and increase the students' confidence without a huge outlay.

  15. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  16. Toward building an anatomically correct solid eye model with volumetric representation of retinal morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Rowe, T. Scott; Fuller, Alfred R.; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S.

    2010-02-01

    An accurate solid eye model (with volumetric retinal morphology) has many applications in the field of ophthalmology, including evaluation of ophthalmic instruments and optometry/ophthalmology training. We present a method that uses volumetric OCT retinal data sets to produce an anatomically correct representation of three-dimensional (3D) retinal layers. This information is exported to a laser scan system to re-create it within solid eye retinal morphology of the eye used in OCT testing. The solid optical model eye is constructed from PMMA acrylic, with equivalent optical power to that of the human eye (~58D). Additionally we tested a water bath eye model from Eyetech Ltd. with a customized retina consisting of five layers of ~60 μm thick biaxial polypropylene film and hot melt rubber adhesive.

  17. Design of a reading test for low vision image warping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision - maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer-generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We will describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  18. Application of laser differential confocal technique in back vertex power measurement for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Li, Lin; Ding, Xiang; Liu, Wenli

    2012-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in optometry and the back vertex power (BVP) is one of the most important parameters to evaluate the refraction characteristics of a phoropter. In this paper, a new laser differential confocal vertex-power measurement method which takes advantage of outstanding focusing ability of laser differential confocal (LDC) system is proposed for measuring the BVP of phoropters. A vertex power measurement system is built up. Experimental results are presented and some influence factor is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the method based on LDC technique has higher measurement precision and stronger environmental anti-interference capability compared to existing methods. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the measurement error of the method is about 0.02m-1.

  19. Design of a reading test for low-vision image warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. Shane

    1993-08-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision -- maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer- generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  20. Physiological approach to optimal stereographic game programming: a technical guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, William L.; McRuer, Robert; Childs, C. Timothy; Viirree, Erik

    1996-04-01

    With the advent of mass distribution of consumer VR games comes an imperative to set health and safety standards for the hardware and software used to deliver stereographic content. This is particularly important for game developers who intend to present this stereographic content via head-mounted display (HMD). The visual discomfort that is commonly reported by the user of HMD-based VR games presumably could be kept to a minimum if game developers were provided with standards for the display of stereographic imagery. In this paper, we draw upon both results of research in binocular vision and practical methods from clinical optometry to develop some technical guidelines for programming stereographic games that have the end user's comfort and safety in mind. This paper will provide generate strategies for user- centered implementation of 3D virtual worlds, as well as pictorial examples demonstrating a natural means for rendering stereographic imagery more comfortable to view in games employing first-person perspective.

  1. Observations of the new gravitational lens system UM 673 = Q 0142-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Magain, P.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Kayer, R.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kuhr, H.; Refsdal, S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars (HLQs). The observations are carried out with the 2.2 m telescope at ESO, and with the VLA at the NRAO, New Mexico. Following the first observing run at ESO, the authors have reported the discovery of a new gravitational lens system for the HLQ UM 673 = Q 0142-100. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here. Application of gravitational optometry to this system is given: a value of M0 = 2.4×1011M_sun; is derived for the mass of the lensing galaxy located between UM 673 A and B and a most likely estimate of Δt = 7 weeks is found for the expected delay between the arrival times of a similar variability event in the two lensed images of the quasar (H0 = 75 km s-1Mpc-1, q0 = 0).

  2. Trends in optical coherence tomography applied to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The number of publications on optical coherence tomography (OCT) continues to double every three years. Traditionally applied to imaging the eye, OCT is now being extended to fields outside ophthalmology and optometry. Widening its applicability, progress in the core engine of the technology, and impact on development of novel optical sources, make OCT a very active and rapidly evolving field. Trends in the developments of different specific devices, such as optical sources, optical configurations and signal processing will be presented. Encompassing studies on both the configurations as well as on signal processing themes, current research in Kent looks at combining spectral domain with time domain imaging for long axial range and simultaneous imaging at several depths. Results of the collaborative work of the Applied Optics Group in Kent with organisers of this conference will be presented, with reference to 3D monitoring of abfraction.

  3. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  4. An evaluation of four end-user systems for searching MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, M D; Nelson, L L

    1988-01-01

    This study compared features and determined which of four end-user systems (PaperChase, GRATEFUL MED, Med-Base, or Compact Cambridge: MEDLINE) would best serve the Medical Sciences and Optometry Libraries of Indiana University in providing biomedical information to faculty and graduate students through MEDLINE. Cost, ease of use, retrieval, training needs, equipment requirements, and adequacy of documentation were examined. The study consisted of a comparison of the features of each system based on available documentation; a controlled search performed by the investigators on each system and on regular NLM MEDLINE; and a user study based on observations, questionnaires, and interviews with eleven library patrons who performed the same search of their choice on each of the four systems. PMID:3285938

  5. An evaluation of four end-user systems for searching MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, M D; Nelson, L L

    1988-01-01

    This study compared features and determined which of four end-user systems (PaperChase, GRATEFUL MED, Med-Base, or Compact Cambridge: MEDLINE) would best serve the Medical Sciences and Optometry Libraries of Indiana University in providing biomedical information to faculty and graduate students through MEDLINE. Cost, ease of use, retrieval, training needs, equipment requirements, and adequacy of documentation were examined. The study consisted of a comparison of the features of each system based on available documentation; a controlled search performed by the investigators on each system and on regular NLM MEDLINE; and a user study based on observations, questionnaires, and interviews with eleven library patrons who performed the same search of their choice on each of the four systems. PMID:3285928

  6. Aberrations measurement of freeform spectacle lenses based on Hartmann wavefront technology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Fang, Fengzhou; Qiu, Zhongjun

    2015-02-10

    Freeform spectacle lenses have been popularized in the past few years. Traditional evaluation methods only focused on the refractive power parameters. The inspection technology of wavefront aberration has been introduced to optometry. In this paper, the wavefront aberration is used to evaluate the freeform spectacle lenses. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront technology is used to measure the same zones on the lenses with different designed forms. It shows that the aberration distributions are different from each other. The design with the freeform surface on the back can obtain the smallest aberrations in the entire surface. The aberrations on different zones for the same lens are analyzed. The blending zones show the greatest aberrations. The aberration on the progressive corridor is greater than the other zones. The Hartmann wavefront technology can be used to measure the wavefront aberration of freeform spectacle lenses. PMID:25968012

  7. Physics education through computational tools: the case of geometrical and physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Y.; Santana, A.; Mendoza, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, with the development of more powerful and accurate computational tools, the inclusion of new didactic materials in the classroom is known to have increased. However, the form in which these materials can be used to enhance the learning process is still under debate. Many different methodologies have been suggested for constructing new relevant curricular material and, among them, just-in-time teaching (JiTT) has arisen as an effective and successful way to improve the content of classes. In this paper, we will show the implemented pedagogic strategies for the courses of geometrical and optical physics for students of optometry. Thus, the use of the GeoGebra software for the geometrical optics class and the employment of new in-house software for the physical optics class created using the high-level programming language Python is shown with the corresponding activities developed for each of these applets.

  8. Image analysis of ocular fundus for retinopathy characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ushizima, Daniela; Cuadros, Jorge

    2010-02-05

    Automated analysis of ocular fundus images is a common procedure in countries as England, including both nonemergency examination and retinal screening of patients with diabetes mellitus. This involves digital image capture and transmission of the images to a digital reading center for evaluation and treatment referral. In collaboration with the Optometry Department, University of California, Berkeley, we have tested computer vision algorithms to segment vessels and lesions in ground-truth data (DRIVE database) and hundreds of images of non-macular centric and nonuniform illumination views of the eye fundus from EyePACS program. Methods under investigation involve mathematical morphology (Figure 1) for image enhancement and pattern matching. Recently, we have focused in more efficient techniques to model the ocular fundus vasculature (Figure 2), using deformable contours. Preliminary results show accurate segmentation of vessels and high level of true-positive microaneurysms.

  9. Attention, reading and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Skottun, Bernt C; Skoyles, John R

    2006-07-01

    It has been proposed that magnocellular deficits cause dyslexia through reduced attention. According to one model (Vidyasagar, Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2004; 87: 4-10), attention is shifted from letter to letter during fixations and magnocellular deficits are hypothesised to cause reading problems by interfering with the ability to control the attention. The present report points out several problems in this model. 1. It requires dissociation of eye movements and attention, which may be problematic within the framework of reading. 2. There is direct evidence to indicate that reading is not carried out in a letter-to-letter manner during fixations. 3. There are aspects of the visual performance of dyslexic readers, which are difficult to attribute to inattention. 4. There are indications that attentional deficiencies of dyslexic readers are not associated with magnocellular deficits. 5. The evidence for linking magnocellular deficits to dyslexia in general is weak.

  10. [Further enhance the long-term myopia control efficacy and safety of orthokeratology].

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiying

    2014-01-01

    Strategies and methods of myopia prevention and control has been more and more. In recent years optical correction method is focusing on promoting the retinal mid-peripheral myopic defocus, improving the visual quality and promoting the accommodative function. Among the all, orthokeratology is the most notable optometry technology. This article will combine research progress both local and international achievements, the present situation of the domestic popularized the technique, and the existing problems. From the realistic approach, keep improving, the pursuit of stability, the pursuit of harmony and eliminate the false five aspects, to discuss how to promote orthokeratology for the myopia control with long-term stably efficacy and safety. How to promote the harmony and cooperation between doctors, patients and manufactures. And how to correctly guide the orthokeratology Having both specification and continued development. PMID:24709125

  11. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>−0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between −0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. PMID:25000872

  12. Development and Validation of a Diabetic Retinopathy Referral Algorithm Based on Single-Field Fundus Photography

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Shetty, Sharan; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Sharma, Tarun; Raman, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simplified algorithm to identify and refer diabetic retinopathy (DR) from single-field retinal images specifically for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy for appropriate care (ii) to determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm as a pilot study among optometrists versus “gold standard” (retinal specialist grading). Methods The severity of DR was scored based on colour photo using a colour coded algorithm, which included the lesions of DR and number of quadrants involved. A total of 99 participants underwent training followed by evaluation. Data of the 99 participants were analyzed. Fifty posterior pole 45 degree retinal images with all stages of DR were presented. Kappa scores (κ), areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), sensitivity and specificity were determined, with further comparison between working optometrists and optometry students. Results Mean age of the participants was 22 years (range: 19–43 years), 87% being women. Participants correctly identified 91.5% images that required immediate referral (κ) = 0.696), 62.5% of images as requiring review after 6 months (κ = 0.462), and 51.2% of those requiring review after 1 year (κ = 0.532). The sensitivity and specificity of the optometrists were 91% and 78% for immediate referral, 62% and 84% for review after 6 months, and 51% and 95% for review after 1 year, respectively. The AUC was the highest (0.855) for immediate referral, second highest (0.824) for review after 1 year, and 0.727 for review after 6 months criteria. Optometry students performed better than the working optometrists for all grades of referral. Conclusions The diabetic retinopathy algorithm assessed in this work is a simple and a fairly accurate method for appropriate referral based on single-field 45 degree posterior pole retinal images. PMID:27661981

  13. A qualitative study of stakeholder views regarding participation in locally commissioned enhanced optometric services

    PubMed Central

    Konstantakopoulou, E; Harper, R A; Edgar, D F; Lawrenson, J G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views of optometrists, general practitioners (GPs) and ophthalmologists regarding the development and organisation of community-based enhanced optometric services. Design Qualitative study using free-text questionnaires and telephone interviews. Setting A minor eye conditions scheme (MECS) and a glaucoma referral refinement scheme (GRRS) are based on accredited community optometry practices. Participants 41 optometrists, 6 ophthalmologists and 25 GPs. Results The most common reason given by optometrists for participation in enhanced schemes was to further their professional development; however, as providers of ‘for-profit’ healthcare, it was clear that participants had also considered the impact of the schemes on their business. Lack of fit with the ‘retail’ business model of optometry was a frequently given reason for non-participation. The methods used for training and accreditation were generally thought to be appropriate, and participating optometrists welcomed the opportunities for ongoing training. The ophthalmologists involved in the MECS and GRRS expressed very positive views regarding the schemes and widely acknowledged that the new care pathways would reduce unnecessary referrals and shorten patient waiting times. GPs involved in the MECS were also very supportive. They felt that the scheme provided an ‘expert’ local opinion that could potentially reduce the number of secondary care referrals. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated strong stakeholder support for the development of community-based enhanced optometric services. Although optometrists welcomed the opportunity to develop their professional skills and knowledge, enhanced schemes must also provide a sufficient financial incentive so as not to compromise the profitability of their business. PMID:24875489

  14. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  15. Course for undergraduate students: analysis of the retinal image quality of a human eye model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Mar Pérez, Maria; Yebra, Ana; Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Ghinea, Razvan; Ionescu, Ana M.; Cardona, Juan C.

    2014-07-01

    In teaching of Vision Physics or Physiological Optics, the knowledge and analysis of the aberration that the human eye presents are of great interest, since this information allows a proper evaluation of the quality of the retinal image. The objective of the present work is that the students acquire the required competencies which will allow them to evaluate the optical quality of the human visual system for emmetropic and ammetropic eye, both with and without the optical compensation. For this purpose, an optical system corresponding to the Navarro-Escudero eye model, which allows calculating and evaluating the aberration of this eye model in different ammetropic conditions, was developed employing the OSLO LT software. The optical quality of the visual system will be assessed through determinations of the third and fifth order aberration coefficients, the impact diagram, wavefront analysis, calculation of the Point Spread Function and the Modulation Transfer Function for ammetropic individuals, with myopia or hyperopia, both with or without the optical compensation. This course is expected to be of great interest for student of Optics and Optometry Sciences, last courses of Physics or medical sciences related with human vision.

  16. Constellation-X Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Women in Science Conferences are designed to allow young women in grades 7 through 12 to learn first-hand about careers in science, mathematics, and technology from accomplished professional women. Results of an international science and mathematics study conducted in 2000 indicated that "children in the United States were among the leaders in the 4th grade assessment, but by high school graduation, they were almost last." Part of the problem is that many girls and young women in junior and senior high school lose interest in science and technological careers. The goal of the WIS-Conferences held at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and at Central Wyoming College in Riverton, are to directly address this problem. The conferences will be a cooperative effort supported by local agencies, schools, and businesses, in addition to several state agencies. By presenting positive role models in the science, mathematics, and technological fields, we hope to encourage all students (especially young women and minorities) to pursue higher education and careers in mathematics and science. The workshop topics include: 1) Engineering; 2) Robotics; 3) Physics/Astronomy; 4) Geology; 5) Paleontology; 6) Remote Sensing (GPS/GIS); 7) Molecular Biology; 8) Veterinary Medicine; 9) Optometry; 10) Data Encryption; and 11) Wildlife Biology.

  17. Optical inspection methods and their applications in the manufactured industrial sector: knowledge transfer to Panamanian industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Abdiel O.; Pladellorens, Josep

    2014-07-01

    A means of facilitating the transfer of Optical inspection methods knowledge and skills from academic institutions and their research partners into Panama optics and optical research groups is described. The process involves the creation of an Integrated Knowledge Group Research (IKGR), a partnership led by Polytechnic University of Panama with the support of the SENACYT and Optics and Optometry Department, Polytechnic University of Catalonia. This paper describes the development of the Project for knowledge transfer "Implementation of a method of optical inspection of low cost for improving the surface quality of rolled material of metallic and nonmetallic industrial use", this project will develop a method for measuring the surface quality using texture analysis speckle pattern formed on the surface to be characterized. The project is designed to address the shortage of key skills in the field of precision engineering for optical applications. The main issues encountered during the development of the knowledge transfer teaching and learning are discussed, and the outcomes from the first four months of knowledge transfer activities are described. In overall summary, the results demonstrate how the Integrated Knowledge Group Research and new approach to knowledge transfer has been effective in addressing the engineering skills gap in precision optics for manufactured industrial sector.

  18. Visual resolution in incoherent and coherent light: preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnowska-Habrat, Katarzyna; Dubik, Boguslawa; Zajac, Marek

    2001-05-01

    In ophthalmology and optometry a number of measures are used for describing quality of human vision such as resolution, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity function, etc. In this paper we will concentrate on the vision quality understood as a resolution of periodic object being a set of equidistant parallel lines of given spacing and direction. The measurement procedure is based on presenting the test to the investigated person and determining the highest spatial frequency he/she can still resolve. In this paper we describe a number of experiments in which we use test tables illuminated with light both coherent and incoherent of different spectral characteristics. Our experiments suggest that while considering incoherent polychromatic illumination the resolution in blue light is substantially worse than in white light. In coherent illumination speckling effect causes worsening of resolution. While using laser light it is easy to generate a sinusoidal interference pattern which can serve as test object. In the paper we compare the results of resolution measurements with test tables and interference fringes.

  19. Evaluation of response variables in computer-simulated virtual cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, Per G.; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf; Simawi, Wamidh; Nordqvist, Per; Skarman, Eva; Nordh, Leif

    2006-02-01

    We have developed a virtual reality (VR) simulator for phacoemulsification (phaco) surgery. The current work aimed at evaluating the precision in the estimation of response variables identified for measurement of the performance of VR phaco surgery. We identified 31 response variables measuring; the overall procedure, the foot pedal technique, the phacoemulsification technique, erroneous manipulation, and damage to ocular structures. Totally, 8 medical or optometry students with a good knowledge of ocular anatomy and physiology but naive to cataract surgery performed three sessions each of VR Phaco surgery. For measurement, the surgical procedure was divided into a sculpting phase and an evacuation phase. The 31 response variables were measured for each phase in all three sessions. The variance components for individuals and iterations of sessions within individuals were estimated with an analysis of variance assuming a hierarchal model. The consequences of estimated variabilities for sample size requirements were determined. It was found that generally there was more variability for iterated sessions within individuals for measurements of the sculpting phase than for measurements of the evacuation phase. This resulted in larger required sample sizes for detection of difference between independent groups or change within group, for the sculpting phase as compared to for the evacuation phase. It is concluded that several of the identified response variables can be measured with sufficient precision for evaluation of VR phaco surgery.

  20. Development of Matlab GUI educational software to assist a laboratory of physical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Elena; Fuentes, Rosa; García, Celia; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2014-07-01

    Physical optics is one of the subjects in the Grade of Optics and Optometry in Spanish universities. The students who come to this degree often have difficulties to understand subjects that are related to physics. For this reason, the aim of this work is to develop optics simulation software that provides a virtual laboratory for studying the effects of different aspects of physical optics phenomena. This software can let optical undergraduates simulate many optical systems for a better understanding of the practical competences associated with the theoretical concepts studied in class. This interactive environment unifies the information that brings the manual of the practices, provides the visualization of the physical phenomena and allows users to vary the values of the parameters that come into play to check its effect. So, this virtual tool is the perfect complement to learning more about the practices developed in the laboratory. This software will be developed through the choices which have the Matlab to generate Graphical User Interfaces or GUIs. A set of knobs, buttons and handles will be included in the GUI's in order to control the parameters of the different physics phenomena. Graphics can also be inserted in the GUIs to show the behavior of such phenomena. Specifically, by using this software, the student is able to analyze the behaviour of the transmittance and reflectance of the TE and TM modes, the polarized light through of the Malus'Law or degree of polarization.

  1. Merging Psychophysical and Psychometric Theory to Estimate Global Visual State Measures from Forced-Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massof, Robert W.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Laby, Daniel M.; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David

    2013-09-01

    Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model.

  2. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  3. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory/University of California lighting program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.

    1981-12-01

    The objective of the Lighting Program is to assist and work in concert with the lighting community (composed of manufacturers, designers, and users) to achieve a more efficient lighting economy. To implement its objectives, the Lighting Program has been divided into three major categories: technical engineering, buildings applications, and human impacts (impacts on health and vision). The technical program aims to undertake research and development projects that are both long-range and high-risk and which the lighting industry has little interest in pursuing on its own, but from which significant benefits could accrue to both the public and the industry. The building applications program studies the effects that introducing daylighting in commercial buildings has on lighting and cooling electrical energy requirements as well as on peak demand. This program also examines optimization strategies for integrating energy-efficient design, lighting hardware, daylighting, and overall building energy requirements. The impacts program examines relationships between the user and the physical lighting environment, in particular how new energy-efficient technologies relate to human productivity and health. These efforts are interdisciplinary, involving engineering, optometry, and medicine. The program facilities are described and the personnel in the program is identified.

  4. Efficient numerical modeling of the cornea, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, L.; Navarro, Rafael M.; Hdez-Matamoros, J. L.

    2004-10-01

    Corneal topography has shown to be an essential tool in the ophthalmology clinic both in diagnosis and custom treatments (refractive surgery, keratoplastia), having also a strong potential in optometry. The post processing and analysis of corneal elevation, or local curvature data, is a necessary step to refine the data and also to extract relevant information for the clinician. In this context a parametric cornea model is proposed consisting of a surface described mathematically by two terms: one general ellipsoid corresponding to a regular base surface, expressed by a general quadric term located at an arbitrary position and free orientation in 3D space and a second term, described by a Zernike polynomial expansion, which accounts for irregularities and departures from the basic geometry. The model has been validated obtaining better adjustment of experimental data than other previous models. Among other potential applications, here we present the determination of the optical axis of the cornea by transforming the general quadric to its canonical form. This has permitted us to perform 3D registration of corneal topographical maps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Other basic and clinical applications are also explored.

  5. Design of a versatile clinical aberrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander; Dainty, Chris

    2005-09-01

    We have designed an ocular aberrometer based on the Hartmann-Shack (HS) type wavefront sensor for use in optometry clinics. The optical system has enhanced versatility compared with commercial aberrometers, yet it is compact and user-friendly. The system has the capability to sense both on-axis and off-axis aberrations in the eye within an unobstructed 20 degree field. This capability is essential to collect population data for off-axis aberrations. This data will be useful in designing future adaptive optics (AO) systems to improve image quality of eccentric retinal areas, in particular, for multi-conjugate AO systems. The ability of the examiner to control the accommodation demand is a unique feature of the design that commercial instruments are capable of only after modification. The pupil alignment channel is re-combined with the sensing channel in a parallel path and imaged on a single CCD. This makes the instrument more compact, less expensive, and it helps to synchronize the pupil center with the HS spot coordinate system. Another advantage of the optical design is telecentric re-imaging of the HS spots, increasing the robustness to small longitudinal alignment errors. The optical system has been optimized with a ray-tracing program and its prototype is being constructed. Design considerations together with a description of the optical components are presented. Difficulties and future work are outlined.

  6. Extrinsic curvature, geometric optics, and lamellar order on curved substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamien, Randall D.; Nelson, David R.; Santangelo, Christian D.; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2009-11-01

    When thermal energies are weak, two-dimensional lamellar structures confined on a curved substrate display complex patterns arising from the competition between layer bending and compression in the presence of geometric constraints. We present broad design principles to engineer the geometry of the underlying substrate so that a desired lamellar pattern can be obtained by self-assembly. Two distinct physical effects are identified as key factors that contribute to the interaction between the shape of the underlying surface and the resulting lamellar morphology. The first is a local ordering field for the direction of each individual layer, which tends to minimize its curvature with respect to the three-dimensional embedding. The second is a nonlocal effect controlled by the intrinsic geometry of the surface that forces the normals to the (nearly incompressible) layers to lie on geodesics, leading to caustic formation as in optics. As a result, different surface morphologies with predominantly positive or negative Gaussian curvature can act as converging or diverging lenses, respectively. By combining these ingredients, as one would with different optical elements, complex lamellar morphologies can be obtained. This smectic optometry enables the manipulation of lamellar configurations for the design of materials.

  7. UV Induced Degradation of Polycarbonate-Based Lens Materials and Implications for the Heath Care Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkay, J. R.; Henry, Jerry

    2006-10-01

    Experimental research is being carried out at Keene State at the undergraduate level that utilizes facilities in both physics and chemistry to study the effects of mono- and polychromatic UV radiation from various sources, including a Deuterium lamp, a solarization unit (at Polyonics, a local industry), and the Sun, to study the photodegradation of polycarbonate-based lens materials used to produce eyewear. Literature in the field of optometry and ophthalmology indicates a correlation between exposure to the UVB band of natural sunlight and the onset of cataract formation, as well as other eye disorders. The public is usually advised that plastic eyeglass lenses will provide protection from this damaging radiation. It is well known that polycarbonate plastic ``yellows'' when exposed to intense sunlight and, particularly, UV light^1,2, either via photo-Fries rearrangement or by a photooxidative process, forming polyconjugated systems and is an industrial concern primarily for cosmetic reasons. We have preliminary data, however, that indicates that the yellowing'' is an indication of a more sinister problem in the case of eyeglasses in that it is accompanied by an increase in transmissivity in the UVB band where the wearer expects and needs protection. Our group includes a local optometrist who will share results with peers in his field. [1] A. Andrady, J. Polymer Sci., 42, 1991 [2] E. P. Gorelov, Inst. Khim. Fiz., Russian Federation

  8. Theoretical considerations and measurements for phoropters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Wenli; Sun, Jie

    2008-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in current optometry practice. The quality and verification of the instrument are of the utmost importance. In 1997, International Organization for Standardization published the first ISO standard for requirements of phoropters. However, in China, few standard and test method are suggested for phoropters. Research work on test method for phoropters was carried out early in 2004 by China National Institute of Metrology. In this paper, first, structure of phoropters is described. Then, theoretical considerations for its optical design are analyzed. Next, a newly developed instrument is introduced and measurements are taken. By calibration, the indication error of the instrument is not over 0.05m-1. Finally, measurement results show that the quality situation of phoropters is not as good as expected because of production and assembly error. Optical design shall be improved especially for combinations of both spherical and cylindrical lenses with higher power. Besides, optical requirements specified in ISO standard are found to be a little strict and hard to meet. A proposal for revision of this international standard is drafted and discussed on ISO meeting of 2007 held in Tokyo.

  9. Adaptive Optics Analysis of Visual Benefit with Higher-order Aberrations Correction of Human Eye - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.

  10. A comparison of entrance and graduation requirements for the Au.D. with other first professional degrees.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark G; Windmill, Ian M

    2006-05-01

    Over the past several years there has been increasing reference to the Doctor of Audiology degree (Au.D.) as a "first professional degree." Currently, first professional degrees are awarded in the fields of chiropractic, dentistry, law, medicine, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, podiatry, theology, and veterinary medicine. General entrance requirements, clinical experiences, and graduation requirements for the Au.D. degree were compared to the health-care professions awarding first professional degrees. Comparisons were also made to the professions of pharmacy, psychology and speech-language pathology. For all first professional degree occupations, unique entrance and competency examination processes have been developed. The four-year postbachelor's Au.D. degree model is similar in length to first professional degree programs, although most of the other occupations provide the opportunity to specialize after graduation. For the factors examined in this study, including entrance requirements, entrance examinations, program length, graduation requirements, and certification requirements, the Au.D. continues to be more similar to the nonprofessional degree models of psychology and speech-language pathology. The comparison with first professional degree programs yields information for possible further evolution of the education of audiologists.

  11. The effect of induced visual stress on three dimensional perception.

    PubMed

    Abd-Manan, F

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress on the vergence and accommodation systems, either artificially induced or naturally occurring, results in small misalignment of the visual axes, reduces binocular visual acuity and produces symptoms of ocular discomfort. This study examines the effect of artificially induced visual stress using ophthalmic prisms on three dimensional perception on 30 optometry students ages ranging from 19 to 29 years old. 6D base-in prisms, equally divided between the eyes (3D base-in each) was used to induce stress on the visual system producing misalignment of visual axes known as fixation disparity. The fixation disparity is quantified using near vision Mallett Unit and an enlarged scaled diagram. Stereoscopic perception was measured with the TNO test, with and without the presence of stress and the results was compared. Wilcoxon's matched pair ranked tests show statistically significant difference in the stereo thresholds of both conditions, p = 0.01 for advancing stereopsis and p = 0.01 for receding stereopsis, respectively. The study concludes that visual stress induced by prisms, produce misalignment of the visual axes and thus reduces three dimensional performance. PMID:22977386

  12. Controllable liquid colour-changing lenses with microfluidic channels for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering based on soft lithography fabrication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Li, Songjing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, liquid colour-changing lenses for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering are developed by circulating colour liquids through microfluidic channels on the lenses manually. Soft lithography technology is applied to fabricate the silicone liquid colour-changing layers with microfluidic channels on the lenses instead of mechanical machining. To increase the hardness and abrasion resistance of the silicone colour-changing layers on the lenses, proper fabrication parameters such as 6:1 (mass ration) mixing proportion and 100 °C curing temperature for 2 h are approved for better soft lithography process of the lenses. Meanwhile, a new surface treatment for the irreversible bonding of silicone colour-changing layer with optical resin (CR39) substrate lens by using 5 % (volume ratio) 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane solution is proposed. Vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering functions of the lenses are investigated with different designs of the channels and multi-layer structures. Each application can not only well achieve their functional demands, but also shows the advantages of functional flexibility, rapid prototyping and good controllability compared with traditional ways. Besides optometry, some other designs and applications of the lenses are proposed for potential utility in the future. PMID:27247877

  13. Optometric record keeping in a comprehensive health care environment.

    PubMed

    Rivard, B

    1996-05-01

    Optometric records which have evolved in private practice must be reconsidered when included in a comprehensive care environment. These hospital, health maintenance organization (HMO), preferred provider organization, and similarly linked systems require a higher degree of communication among specialties than do self-standing practices. Furthermore, the administrative requirements of such a system require more standardization, cost sensitivity, medicolegal compliance, and other elements pecular to a comprehensive facility. The expended scope of care provided by optometrists within a hospital requires familiarity with a new range of procedures, languages, and reports. Information from laboratories, radiology, and other areas must be incorporated into the optometric record. Continuity of care is more complex. Opportunities for strong interprofessional synergies within the organization arise directly from proactivity in optometric record keeping. New legal hot spots arise from questions of records ownership, access, and privacy. Billing procedures are becoming extremely important, with significant effects on quality assurance audits, coding, doctor "profiling" against fraud, and abuse; these priorities can interfere with clinical priorities. Driven primarily by the concerns and resources of large third-party payers, technology is making rapid changes in the form of optometric record keeping in comprehensive systems. Electronic data management will change the face of medical records, although administrative data will be digitized much more quickly than clinical notes. Comprehensive care environments will be the "test beds" for these technologies. Optometry is in a good position to show its contribution to the health care team through leadership in the implementation of new record keeping models. PMID:8771579

  14. A tribute to Dr. Robert C. Allen, an inspirational teacher, humanitarian, and friend (Nov. 18, 1950-Mar. 24, 2005).

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Greene, Jill A; Long, William B

    2006-01-01

    of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove, OR (USA)). Dr. Citek is Associate Professor of Optometry at Pacific University College of Optometry (Forest Grove (USA)). In their comprehensive evaluation of sunglasses, they found some disturbing results. Despite being endorsed by The Skin Cancer Foundation, the Walgreens eyewear samples offer only partial protection to the potential hazards of sunlight exposure. Those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with impact resistant polycarbonate lenses that provide 100% ultraviolet filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision (Nike Inc., Portland OR [USA]), available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features, as well as patented optical and tint designs. Numerous Nike styles offer interchangeable lens options to meet the changing environmental conditions encountered outdoors. These technologies are incorporated into performance-driven frame designs inspired by feedback from some of the world's best athletes. Nonprescription Nike eyewear are available on-line at http://www.nike.com/nikevision, as well as at various well-known retail outlets. Nonprescription and prescription Nike eyewear are also available at the offices of many eye care professionals. Even though our latest report did not include soft contact lens, it is important to emphasize that Dr. Reichow and Dr. Citek have played a leadership role in coordinating the development of the Nike MAXSIGHT, an innovative fully tinted soft contact lens. This contact lens provides distortion-free optics, whether or not you wear prescription contacts. They filter out more than 90% of harmful blue light and 95% of UVA and UVB. For the contact

  15. Effects of Isotretinoin on Meibomian Glands.

    PubMed

    Moy, Allison; McNamara, Nancy A; Lin, Meng C

    2015-09-01

    The authors have reviewed the potential etiology and long-standing consequences of isotretinoin use in the development of dry eye symptoms in the absence of significant clinical findings. Despite the normal appearance of meibomian gland structure on meibography and minimal signs of eyelid margin inflammation, the secretory function of these glands is reduced and symptoms of dryness can greatly impact a patient's quality of life. The available literature indicates that isotretinoin's effect on the meibomian glands likely mimics its effects on the sebaceous glands of the skin in the treatment of acne. Several representative cases seen at the University of California Berkeley School of Optometry Dry Eye Clinic provide a clinical paradigm with the goal of raising awareness of the potential prevalence of this disease in patients who experience symptoms of dry eye. These cases highlight the importance of meibomian gland expression in determining whether there is poor quality and/or quantity of meibum secondary to reduced gland function. Currently, there is no definitive method to restore the structure and function of damaged meibomian glands; thus, treatment options for isotretinoin-associated meibomian gland dysfunction are primarily palliative to manage patient symptoms. PMID:26154692

  16. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, R. J.; Edwards, Michael C.; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. Methods The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Results Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users’ subjective experiences with contact lenses. Conclusions The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties. PMID:27383257

  17. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    PubMed

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  18. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  19. Long-Term Observation of Coexistence of Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy, Resultant High Myopia and Nonkeratoconic Developing Corneal Astigmatism: A Case Report of 7-Year Tracking in a Chinese Boy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianqin; Chixin, Du; Gu, Yangshun

    2015-06-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is an extremely rare, bilateral, and inherited disorder, which affects the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane. Few PPCD cases in Chinese patients have been published so far. As far as we know, there are few studies which focused on the associations between PPCD and high myopia either. Here we report a rare case of coexistence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, resultant high myopia and with-the-rule developing corneal astigmatism in a young Chinese boy. A 6-year-old boy was first referred to our department 7 years ago, complaining of bilateral poor vision. Examinations of both eyes including ophthalmologic examination, cycloplegic refraction examination, confocal microscopy findings, and corneal topography were performed. Bilateral small aggregates of vesicular lesions and patchy hyperreflectivity were observed at the level of the Descemet's membrane on confocal microscopy, which is consistent with typical PPCD. Optometry and corneal topography examinations showed a resultant high myopia. Ocular examinations were performed annually to follow up with the patient in the past 7 years. The corneal lesions remained stable whereas an axial elongation and a sharp increase in both spherical and cylindrical equivalent power were observed. Close follow-ups including thorough scrutiny of the endothelium and systematic ocular ancillary examinations are essential for patients with PPCD. The pathological coexistence of PPCD and high myopia in our case is possibly due to a shared etiological pathway or genetic background. Advanced genetic analysis on similar cases is expected if more samples can be provided.

  20. Theoretical and experimental investigation of design for multioptical-axis freeform progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, HuaZhong; Chen, JiaBi; Zhu, TianFen; Wei, YeFei; Fu, DongXiang

    2015-11-01

    A freeform progressive addition lens (PAL) provides a good solution to correct presbyopia and prevent juvenile myopia by distributing pupils' optical powers of distance zone, near zone, and intermediate zone and is more widely adopted in the present optometric study. However, there is still a lack of a single-optical-axis system for the design of a PAL. This paper focuses on the research for an approach for designing a freeform PAL. A multioptical-axis system based on real viewing conditions using the eyes is employed for the representation of the freeform surface. We filled small pupils in the intermediate zone as a progressive corridor and the distance- and near-vision portions were defined as the standard spherical surfaces delimited by quadratic curves. Three freeform PALs with a spherical surface as the front side and a freeform surface as the backside were designed. We demonstrate the fabrication and measurement technologies for the PAL surface using computer numerical control machine tools from Schneider Smart and a Visionix VM-2000 Lens Power Mapper. Surface power and astigmatic values were obtained. Preliminary results showed that the approach for the design and fabrication is helpful to advance the design procedure optimization and mass production of PALs in optometry.

  1. Effects of Isotretinoin on Meibomian Glands.

    PubMed

    Moy, Allison; McNamara, Nancy A; Lin, Meng C

    2015-09-01

    The authors have reviewed the potential etiology and long-standing consequences of isotretinoin use in the development of dry eye symptoms in the absence of significant clinical findings. Despite the normal appearance of meibomian gland structure on meibography and minimal signs of eyelid margin inflammation, the secretory function of these glands is reduced and symptoms of dryness can greatly impact a patient's quality of life. The available literature indicates that isotretinoin's effect on the meibomian glands likely mimics its effects on the sebaceous glands of the skin in the treatment of acne. Several representative cases seen at the University of California Berkeley School of Optometry Dry Eye Clinic provide a clinical paradigm with the goal of raising awareness of the potential prevalence of this disease in patients who experience symptoms of dry eye. These cases highlight the importance of meibomian gland expression in determining whether there is poor quality and/or quantity of meibum secondary to reduced gland function. Currently, there is no definitive method to restore the structure and function of damaged meibomian glands; thus, treatment options for isotretinoin-associated meibomian gland dysfunction are primarily palliative to manage patient symptoms.

  2. On call at the mall: a mixed methods study of U.S. medical malls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of the traditional U.S. shopping mall and a focus on more consumer- centered care have created an opportunity for “medical malls”. Medical malls are defined as former retail spaces repurposed for healthcare tenants or mixed-use medical/retail facilities. We aimed to describe the current reach of healthcare services in U.S. malls, characterize the medical mall model and emerging trends, and assess the potential of these facilities to serve low-income populations. Methods We used a mixed methods approach which included a comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a descriptive analysis of the Directory of Major Malls, an online retail database. Results Six percent (n = 89) of large, enclosed shopping malls in the U.S. include at least one non-optometry or dental healthcare tenant. We identified a total of 28 medical malls across the U.S., the majority of which opened in the past five years and serve middle or high income populations. Stakeholders felt the key strengths of medical malls were more convenient access including public transportation, greater familiarity for patients, and “one stop shopping” for primary care and specialty services as well as retail needs. Conclusions While medical malls currently account for a small fraction of malls in the US, they are a new model for healthcare with significant potential for growth. PMID:24209495

  3. The Health and Social Security Act 1984 and the price of spectacles among corporate practices in the United Kingdom (1980-2007): a review.

    PubMed

    Calver, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The Health and Social Security Act 1984 deregulated certain aspects of optometry in the United Kingdom, including advertising and the supply of spectacles, in the hope that greater competition would reduce spectacle prices. The effects of this legislation are tested by plotting the mean prices of private spectacles purchased from corporate optometric practices, from 1980 to 2007. Historical evidence is used to gauge the effect on prices of other factors such as National Health Service (NHS) payments, sight test fees and pressure exerted by consumer organisations. The high prices in 1980 reduced markedly throughout the rest of the 1980s, remained low for most of the 1990s and rose between 1999 and 2003, before falling. Changes in price were associated with changes to the system of NHS payments and variations in private sight test fees, but prices have generally been lower since the deregulation of dispensing than they were before. Although the price of private spectacles remains heavily influenced by other factors, the deregulation of opticians' services has benefited the public by maintaining lower prices, as intended by proponents of the legislation.

  4. Vision readiness in the United States Air Force revisited.

    PubMed

    Erneston, A G; Ricks, M R; Tate, T J; Ana, R S

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of substandard visual acuity in a sample of the diverse communities of the United States Air Force. In addition, mobility readiness (visual), ocular disease, time since last visual examination, and adherence to ocular requirements per AFR 160-43 were assessed. Comprehensive eye examinations were performed in the Optometry Clinic on 207 randomly chosen members scheduled by Squadron Schedulers using random computer lists of personnel generated by Military Personnel Flight. Of the 207 individuals, 112 (54%) had not had a professional eye examination in the last 2 years, 51 (24%) were not mobility ready, 6 (3%) had inadequate visual acuity per AFR 160-43, and 4 (1.9%) had ocular disease. The study reinforces the concept that comprehensive, periodic ocular examinations should be performed by an optometrist or ophthalmologist on all active duty members to ensure that they see properly to perform assigned duties, that members on mobility have required optical materials to be deployment ready, and that members who develop ocular disease are identified in a timely manner.

  5. Experimental myopia in a diurnal mammal (Sciurus carolinensis) with no accommodative ability.

    PubMed Central

    McBrien, N A; Moghaddam, H O; New, R; Williams, L R

    1993-01-01

    1. We examined the functional morphology of the intra-ocular muscles of the grey squirrel using pharmacological and histological methods. Using sympathomimetic (phenylephrine) and parasympathomimetic (carbachol) agents, administered by transcorneal iontophoresis, the response of the iris sphincter and dilator muscles and the ciliary muscle were recorded. Measurement techniques included both streak retinoscopy and coincidence optometry for measurement of ocular refraction and high resolution ultrasonography to monitor changes in the intra-ocular component dimensions. 2. The grey squirrel was found not to possess a functional accommodative system. No change in ocular refraction or intra-ocular dimensions could be induced with 40% carbachol. Marked changes in pupil diameter occurred with topical application of both phenylephrine (dilation) and carbachol (constriction). Histological findings were in agreement with pharmacological findings in showing well developed iris sphincter and dilator muscles but only a poorly developed ciliary muscle. 3. Calculation of the depth of focus of the grey squirrel eye reveals that this could be sufficient to account for the behavioural observations of near viewing habits. 4. We then determined whether we could induce axial elongation of the vitreous chamber and a consequent myopia by monocular deprivation (MD) of pattern vision. 5. Monocular deprivation of pattern vision produced a significant experimental myopia due to axial elongation of the vitreous chamber in the deprived eye. 6. The results demonstrate that a functional accommodative system is not necessary to induce experimental myopia in the grey squirrel eye. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8271206

  6. Holistic Health Care for the Medically Uninsured: The Church Health Center of Memphis.

    PubMed

    Morris, G Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Church Health Center (CHC) in Memphis was founded in 1987 to provide quality, affordable health care for working, uninsured people and their families. With numerous, dedicated financial supporters and health care volunteers, CHC has become the largest faith-based health care organization of its type nationally, serving >61,000 patients. CHC embraces a holistic approach to health by promoting wellness in every dimension of life. It offers on-site services including medical care, dentistry, optometry, counseling, social work, and nutrition and fitness education, to promote wellness in every dimension of life. A 2012 economic analysis estimated that a $1 contribution to the CHC provided roughly $8 in health services. The CHC has trained >1200 Congregational Health Promoters to be health leaders and is conducting research on the effectiveness of faith community nurses partnering with congregations to assist in home care for patients recently discharged from Memphis hospitals. The MEMPHIS Plan, CHC's employer-sponsored health care plan for small business and the self-employed, offers uninsured people in lower-wage jobs access to quality, affordable health care. The CHC also conducts replications workshops several times a year to share their model with leaders in other communities. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) recently completed a case study that concluded: "The CHC is one of a very few organizations successfully embodying all three components of the IHI Triple Aim by improving population health outcomes, enhancing the individual's health care experience, and controlling costs. All three have been part of the Center's DNA since its inception, and as a transforming force in the community, the model is well worth national attention."

  7. Image remapping strategies applied as protheses for the visually impaired

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Curtis D.

    1993-01-01

    Maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa (rp) are two vision defects which render the afflicted person with impaired ability to read and recognize visual patterns. For some time there has been interest and work on the use of image remapping techniques to provide a visual aid for individuals with these impairments. The basic concept is to remap an image according to some mathematical transformation such that the image is warped around a maculopathic defect (scotoma) or within the rp foveal region of retinal sensitivity. NASA/JSC has been pursuing this research using angle invariant transformations with testing of the resulting remapping using subjects and facilities of the University of Houston, College of Optometry. Testing is facilitated by use of a hardware device, the Programmable Remapper, to provide the remapping of video images. This report presents the results of studies of alternative remapping transformations with the objective of improving subject reading rates and pattern recognition. In particular a form of conformal transformation was developed which provides for a smooth warping of an image around a scotoma. In such a case it is shown that distortion of characters and lines of characters is minimized which should lead to enhanced character recognition. In addition studies were made of alternative transformations which, although not conformal, provide for similar low character distortion remapping. A second, non-conformal transformation was studied for remapping of images to aid rp impairments. In this case a transformation was investigated which allows remapping of a vision field into a circular area representing the foveal retina region. The size and spatial representation of the image are selectable. It is shown that parametric adjustments allow for a wide variation of how a visual field is presented to the sensitive retina. This study also presents some preliminary considerations of how a prosthetic device could be implemented in a practical sense, vis

  8. Barriers to Use of Refractive Services in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephen; Naidoo, Kovin; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Carmen; Harris, Geoff; Chinanayi, Farai; Loughman, James

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Uncorrected refractive error remains a leading cause of visual impairment (VI) across the globe with Mozambique being no exception. The establishment of an optometry profession in Mozambique that is integrated into the public health system denotes significant progress with refractive services becoming available to the population. As the foundations of a comprehensive refractive service have now been established, this article seeks to understand what barriers may limit their uptake by the general population and inform decision making on improved service delivery. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study using two-stage cluster sampling was conducted. Participants with VI were asked to identify barriers that were reflective of their experiences and perceptions of accessing refractive services. A total of 4601 participants were enumerated from 76 clusters in Nampula, Mozambique. Results A total of 1087 visually impaired participants were identified (884 with near and 203 with distance impairment). Cost was the most frequently cited barrier, identified by more than one in every two participants (53%). Other barriers identified included lack of felt need (20%), distance to travel (15%), and lack of awareness (13%). In general, no significant influence of sex or type of VI on barrier selection was found. Location had a significant impact on the selection of several barriers. Pearson χ2 analysis indicated that participants from rural areas were found to feel disadvantaged regarding the distance to services (p ≤ 0.001) and adequacy of hospital services (p = 0.001). Conclusions For a comprehensive public sector refractive service to be successful in Mozambique, those planning its implementation must consider cost and affordability. A clear strategy for overcoming lack of felt need will also be needed, possibly in the form of improved advocacy and health promotion. The delivery of refractive services in more remote rural areas merits careful and

  9. Teaching methodologies to promote creativity in the professional skills related to optics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peña-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.

    2014-07-01

    We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.

  10. A Low Vision Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Mild Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Heather E.; Whitaker, Diane; Potter, Guy; McConnell, Eleanor; Tripp, Fay; Sanders, Linda L.; Muir, Kelly W.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Cousins, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design and pilot test a low vision rehabilitation program for patients with macular disease and cognitive deficits. Methods The Memory or Reasoning Enhanced Low Vision Rehabilitation (MORE-LVR) program was created by a team representing optometry, occupational therapy, ophthalmology, neuropsychology, and geriatrics. Key components of MORE-LVR are: 1) repetitive training with a therapist twice weekly over a 6-week period, 2) simplified training experience addressing no more than three individualized goals in a minimally distracting environment, 3) involvement of an informal companion (friend or family member). Eligible patients were recruited from an LVR clinic; measures were compared before and after the 6 week program. Results Twelve non-demented patients (mean age 84.5 years, 75% female) who screened positive for cognitive deficits completed the MORE-LVR intervention. Participants demonstrated improved scores on the National Eye Institute’s Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) composite score (47.2±16.3 to 54.8±13.8, p=0.01) and near activities score (21.5±14.0 to 41.0±23.1, p=0.02), timed performance measures (writing a grocery list [p=0.03], filling in a crossword puzzle answer [p=0.003]), a score indicating satisfaction with independence (p=0.05), and logical memory (p=0.02). All patients and companions reported progress toward at least one individualized goal; >70% reported progress toward all three goals. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates feasibility of an LVR program for macular disease patients with mild cognitive deficits. Participants demonstrated improvements in vision-related function and cognitive measures and expressed high satisfaction. Future work is needed to determine if MORE-LVR is superior to usual outpatient LVR for persons with co-existing visual and cognitive impairments. PMID:23619914

  11. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    PubMed

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. PMID:26301828

  12. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  13. Act No. 18 of 7 August 1989 amending Articles 1 and 4 of and adding a new article to Act No. 6 of 1987.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Act provides the following benefits to all Panamanians and foreigners resident in Panama who have reached the age of 55, if women, and 60, if men, as well as to those who are pensioned and those retired because of disability: 1) a 50% discount on recreation and entertainment activities; 2) a public transportation discount ranging from 25 to 30%; 3) a lodging discount of 50% during the week and 30% on weekends; 4) a 25% discount on restaurants of the 1st and 2nd class; 5) a 15% discount in fast food establishments that are part of a national or international franchise; 6) a 10% discount in private hospitals and clinics when the person does not have hospital insurance; 7) a 10% discount on prescription medicines; 8) a 20% discount on general medical consultations and a 10% discount on dental, optometry, ophthalmology, cardiology, psychiatric and psychological, geriatric, and surgical services; 9) a 10% discount on technical and professional services, including legal, architectural, physiotherapy, and nursing services; 10) a 10% discount on prostheses; 11) a 50% discount on expenses and commissions related to financial, banking, and credit transactions; 12) a 15% discount on the maximum interest on personal and commercial loans; 13) a reduction of 1 percentage point in the interest on personal housing loans; 14) the freezing of the property tax on a personal home, as long as that home is the person's only property; 15) exemption from payment of the appraisal fee due on the transfer of property under the same circumstances as in 14 above; 16) a 50% discount on passports; 17) a 25% discount on electric bills under certain circumstances; and 18) a 50% discount on airport taxes or fees.

  14. A proposal on teaching methodology: cooperative learning by peer tutoring based on the case method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Durbán, Juan J.; Salas, Carlos; del Mar Lázaro, M.

    2014-07-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) proposes substantial changes in the teaching-learning model, moving from a model based mainly on the activity of teachers to a model in which the true protagonist is the student. This new framework requires that students develop new abilities and acquire specific skills. This also implies that the teacher should incorporate new methodologies in class. In this work, we present a proposal on teaching methodology based on cooperative learning and peer tutoring by case study. A noteworthy aspect of the case-study method is that it presents situations that can occur in real life. Therefore, students can acquire certain skills that will be useful in their future professional practice. An innovative aspect in the teaching methodology that we propose is to form work groups consisting of students from different levels in the same major. In our case, the teaching of four subjects would be involved: one subject of the 4th year, one subject of the 3rd year, and two subjects of the 2nd year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry of the University of Granada, Spain. Each work group would consist of a professor and a student of the 4th year, a professor and a student of the 3rd year, and two professors and two students of the 2nd year. Each work group would have a tutoring process from each professor for the corresponding student, and a 4th-year student providing peer tutoring for the students of the 2nd and 3rd year.

  15. Health professionals’ and service users’ perspectives of shared care for monitoring wet age-related macular degeneration: a qualitative study alongside the ECHoES trial

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, D; Reeves, B C; Taylor, J; Chakravarthy, U; O'Reilly, D; Hogg, R E; Mills, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views of eye health professionals and service users on shared community and hospital care for wet or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Method Using maximum variation sampling, 5 focus groups and 10 interviews were conducted with 23 service users and 24 eye health professionals from across the UK (consisting of 8 optometrists, 6 ophthalmologists, 6 commissioners, 2 public health representatives and 2 clinical eye care advisors to local Clinical Commissioning Groups). Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using constant comparative techniques derived from grounded theory methodology. Results The needs and preferences of those with nAMD appear to be at odds with the current service being provided. There was enthusiasm among health professionals and service users about the possibility of shared care for nAMD as it was felt to have the potential to relieve hospital eye service burden and represent a more patient-centred option, but there were a number of perceived barriers to implementation. Some service users and ophthalmologists voiced concerns about optometrist competency and the potential for delays with referrals to secondary care if stable nAMD became active again. The health professionals were divided as to whether shared care was financially more efficient than the current model of care. Specialist training for optometrists, under the supervision of ophthalmologists, was deemed to be the most effective method of training and was perceived to have the potential to improve the communication and trust that shared care would require. Conclusions While shared care is perceived to represent a promising model of nAMD care, voiced concerns suggest that there would need to be greater collaboration between ophthalmology and optometry, in terms of interprofessional trust and communication. Trial registration number ISRCTN07479761. PMID:25900465

  16. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves. PMID:26431525

  17. Act No. 18 of 7 August 1989 amending Articles 1 and 4 of and adding a new article to Act No. 6 of 1987.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This Act provides the following benefits to all Panamanians and foreigners resident in Panama who have reached the age of 55, if women, and 60, if men, as well as to those who are pensioned and those retired because of disability: 1) a 50% discount on recreation and entertainment activities; 2) a public transportation discount ranging from 25 to 30%; 3) a lodging discount of 50% during the week and 30% on weekends; 4) a 25% discount on restaurants of the 1st and 2nd class; 5) a 15% discount in fast food establishments that are part of a national or international franchise; 6) a 10% discount in private hospitals and clinics when the person does not have hospital insurance; 7) a 10% discount on prescription medicines; 8) a 20% discount on general medical consultations and a 10% discount on dental, optometry, ophthalmology, cardiology, psychiatric and psychological, geriatric, and surgical services; 9) a 10% discount on technical and professional services, including legal, architectural, physiotherapy, and nursing services; 10) a 10% discount on prostheses; 11) a 50% discount on expenses and commissions related to financial, banking, and credit transactions; 12) a 15% discount on the maximum interest on personal and commercial loans; 13) a reduction of 1 percentage point in the interest on personal housing loans; 14) the freezing of the property tax on a personal home, as long as that home is the person's only property; 15) exemption from payment of the appraisal fee due on the transfer of property under the same circumstances as in 14 above; 16) a 50% discount on passports; 17) a 25% discount on electric bills under certain circumstances; and 18) a 50% discount on airport taxes or fees. PMID:12344171

  18. Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Miriam L.; Evans, Bruce J. W.; Evans, Josephine C.; Suttle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Visual Stress (VS) is a condition in which words appear blurred, in motion, or otherwise distorted when reading. Some people diagnosed with VS find that viewing black text on white paper through coloured overlays or precision tinted lenses (PTLs) reduces symptoms attributed to VS. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the choice of colour of overlays or PTLs is influenced by a patient’s gender. Methods Records of all patients attending a VS assessment in two optometry practices between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who reported a significant and consistent reduction in symptoms with either overlay and or PTL were included in the analysis. Overlays and PTLs were categorized as stereotypical male, female or neutral colours based on gender preferences as described in the literature. Chi-square analysis was carried out to determine whether gender (across all ages or within age groups) was associated with overlay or PTL colour choice. Results 279 patients (133 males and 146 females, mean age 17 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with an overlay and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant association between the colour of overlay chosen and male or female gender (Chi-square 0.788, p = 0.674). 244 patients (120 males and 124 females, mean age 24.5 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with PTLs and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant association between stereotypical male/female/neutral colours of PTLs chosen and male/female gender (Chi-square 6.46, p = 0.040). More males preferred stereotypical male colour PTLs including blue and green while more females preferred stereotypical female colour PTLs including pink and purple. Conclusions For some VS patients, the choice of PTL colour is influenced not only by the alleviation of symptoms but also by other non-visual factors such as gender. PMID:27648842

  19. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  20. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a ‘grey literature’ search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can

  1. Standard versus accelerated riboflavin–ultraviolet corneal collagen crosslinking: Resistance against enzymatic digestion

    PubMed Central

    Aldahlawi, Nada H.; Hayes, Sally; O'Brart, David P.S.; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of standard and accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) on corneal enzymatic resistance. Setting School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Design Experimental study. Methods Sixty-six enucleated porcine eyes (with corneal epithelium removed) were assigned to 6 groups. Group 1 remained untreated, group 2 received dextran eyedrops, and groups 3 to 6 received riboflavin/dextran eyedrops. Group 4 had standard CXL (3 mW/cm2 ultraviolet-A for 30 minutes), whereas groups 5 and 6 received accelerated CXL (9 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes and 18 mW/cm2 for 5 minutes, respectively). Trephined central 8.0 mm buttons from each cornea underwent pepsin digestion. Corneal diameter was measured daily, and the dry weight of 5 samples from each group was recorded after 12 days of digestion. Results All CXL groups (4 to 6) took longer to digest and had a greater dry weight at 12 days (P < .0001) than the nonirradiated groups (1 to 3) (P < .0001). The time taken for complete digestion to occur did not differ between the standard and accelerated CXL groups, but the dry weights at 12 days showed significant differences between treatments: standard CXL 3 mW > accelerated CXL 9 mW > accelerated CXL 18 mW (P < .0001). Conclusions Standard and accelerated CXL both increased corneal enzymatic resistance; however, the amount of CXL might be less when accelerated CXL is used. The precise amount of CXL needed to prevent disease progression is not yet known. Financial Disclosure No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. PMID:26603408

  2. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  3. Is there an association between functional vision and learning to read?

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patricia M; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2001-11-01

    Background: Controversy exists about the role of visual parameters and vision in learning to read. This study aims to determine whether ocular parameters or performance on a dynamic test of visual function differs for children of differing reading ability. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-four children (mean age 9.9 +/- 1.8 years) received a vision screening emphasising binocular anomalies associated with discomfort at near (distance and near visual acuity, distance vision challenged with binocular +1 D lenses, near heterophoria, near point of convergence, stereopsis and accommodative facility). Non-verbal mentation age and reading accuracy were assessed. One hundred and six children performed a computerised task of motion coherence detection. Children were classified as normal readers (n = 195), children with dyslexia (n = 49) or learning disabled children (n = 40) based on their mentation age and their reading age. Results: There were no statistically significant differences or correlations between visual parameters and reading performance. Over thirty per cent of the children had accommodative facilities below or equal to six cycles per minute. Children with learning disabilities performed worst on the motion coherence task but this was statistically significant only when compared to the performance of dyslexics. Discussion: The lack of association between ophthalmic parameters and poor reading ability supports the view of the Committee on Children with Disabilities. However, 39 per cent of the children might be expected to experience difficulty 'reading to learn', as suggested by the American Academy of Optometry, as they showed anomalies associated with visual discomfort with prolonged reading. The motion coherence test did not differentiate dyslexics from normal readers and was worst in children with learning disability. Accommodative facility testing remained the most useful predictor of potential visual discomfort.

  4. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    PubMed

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation.

  5. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mohhamadi, Ali Reza; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza; Fazeli, Abolhasan Shahzade; Kashi, Khashayar Mehdizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART). Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods. Materials and methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD), Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded. Results It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants’ right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05). Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001). Conclusion These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART. PMID:24971123

  6. Deletion of the presynaptic scaffold CAST reduces active zone size in rod photoreceptors and impairs visual processing.

    PubMed

    tom Dieck, Susanne; Specht, Dana; Strenzke, Nicola; Hida, Yamato; Krishnamoorthy, Vidhyasankar; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Inoue, Eiji; Ishizaki, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka-Okamoto, Miki; Miyoshi, Jun; Hagiwara, Akari; Brandstätter, Johann H; Löwel, Siegrid; Gollisch, Tim; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Moser, Tobias

    2012-08-29

    How size and shape of presynaptic active zones are regulated at the molecular level has remained elusive. Here we provide insight from studying rod photoreceptor ribbon-type active zones after disruption of CAST/ERC2, one of the cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ) proteins. Rod photoreceptors were present in normal numbers, and the a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG)--reflecting their physiological population response--was unchanged in CAST knock-out (CAST(-/-)) mice. Using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we found that the size of the rod presynaptic active zones, their Ca(2+) channel complement, and the extension of the outer plexiform layer were diminished. Moreover, we observed sprouting of horizontal and bipolar cells toward the outer nuclear layer indicating impaired rod transmitter release. However, rod synapses of CAST(-/-) mice, unlike in mouse mutants for the CAZ protein Bassoon, displayed anchored ribbons, normal vesicle densities, clustered Ca(2+) channels, and essentially normal molecular organization. The reduction of the rod active zone size went along with diminished amplitudes of the b-wave in scotopic ERGs. Assuming, based on the otherwise intact synaptic structure, an unaltered function of the remaining release apparatus, we take our finding to suggest a scaling of release rate with the size of the active zone. Multielectrode-array recordings of retinal ganglion cells showed decreased contrast sensitivity. This was also observed by optometry, which, moreover, revealed reduced visual acuity. We conclude that CAST supports large active zone size and high rates of transmission at rod ribbon synapses, which are required for normal vision.

  7. Publication analysis of the contact lens field: What are the current topics of interest?

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Genís; Sanz, Joan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the main current research interests of scientists working in the contact lens field. Methods All articles published in the 2011 issues of all journals included in the Journal Citation Reports subject category Ophthalmology were inspected to expose those papers related to the contact lens field. Information regarding source journal was obtained and authorship details were recorded to determine the top most prolific authors, institutions and countries. A comprehensive list of key words was compiled to generate a two-dimensional term map in which the frequency of occurrence of a particular term is defined by label size and the distance between two terms is an indication of the relatedness of these terms, based on their co-occurrences within groups of key words. Clusters of related terms were also identified. Results Visual examination of all articles uncovered a total of 156 papers, published in 28 different journals. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, Eye & Contact Lens and Optometry and Vision Science had 27 articles each. The most prolific authors and institutions revealed the predominance of countries with long research tradition in the contact lens field. Ten different word clusters or areas of interest were identified, including both traditional, yet unresolved issues (e.g., comfort or dry eye), and the latest research efforts (e.g., myopia control). Conclusions These findings, which revealed contact lenses to be a fertile area of research, may be of relevance to new researchers as well as to those interested in exploring the latest research trends in this scientific discipline. PMID:25649639

  8. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  9. Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chen D; Kraus, Martin F; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J; Choi, Woojhon; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Hornegger, Joachim; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-12-20

    We developed an ultrahigh speed, handheld swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) ophthalmic instrument using a 2D MEMS mirror. A vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 1060 nm center wavelength yielded a 350 kHz axial scan rate and 10 µm axial resolution in tissue. The long coherence length of the VCSEL enabled a 3.08 mm imaging range with minimal sensitivity roll-off in tissue. Two different designs with identical optical components were tested to evaluate handheld OCT ergonomics. An iris camera aided in alignment of the OCT beam through the pupil and a manual fixation light selected the imaging region on the retina. Volumetric and high definition scans were obtained from 5 undilated normal subjects. Volumetric OCT data was acquired by scanning the 2.4 mm diameter 2D MEMS mirror sinusoidally in the fast direction and linearly in the orthogonal slow direction. A second volumetric sinusoidal scan was obtained in the orthogonal direction and the two volumes were processed with a software algorithm to generate a merged motion-corrected volume. Motion-corrected standard 6 x 6 mm(2) and wide field 10 x 10 mm(2) volumetric OCT data were generated using two volumetric scans, each obtained in 1.4 seconds. High definition 10 mm and 6 mm B-scans were obtained by averaging and registering 25 B-scans obtained over the same position in 0.57 seconds. One of the advantages of volumetric OCT data is the generation of en face OCT images with arbitrary cross sectional B-scans registered to fundus features. This technology should enable screening applications to identify early retinal disease, before irreversible vision impairment or loss occurs. Handheld OCT technology also promises to enable applications in a wide range of settings outside of the traditional ophthalmology or optometry clinics including pediatrics, intraoperative, primary care, developing countries, and military medicine. PMID:24466495

  10. Prevalence of Eye Diseases and Causes of Visual Impairment in School-Aged Children in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the prevalence of refractive error, visual impairment, and eye diseases in school-aged children in western China. Methods The survey was done in a representative county (Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality) of western China. Cluster random sampling was used to select children aged 6 to 15 years. We conducted door-to-door surveys and eye examinations including optometry, stereoscopic vision test, eye position and eye movement, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, retinoscopy, and fundus examination after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate. Results Among 3469 children, data were available for 3079 (88.76%). The prevalences of eye diseases were, in descending order, refractive error (20.69%; 637/3079), conjunctivitis (11.76%; 362/3079), amblyopia (1.88%; 58/3079), color vision defect (0.52%; 16/3079), keratitis (0.36%; 11/3079), strabismus (0.29%; 9/3079), cataract (0.23%; 7/3079), pathologic myopia (0.19%; 6/3079), and ocular trauma (0.13%; 4/3079). The prevalence of corneal leucoma, corneal staphyloma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, and myelinated nerve fibers was 0.03% (1/3079) for each. The prevalence of visual impairment was 7.70% (237/3079), and the major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error (86.08%; 204/237), amblyopia (9.70%; 23/237), pathologic myopia (1.27%; 3/237), congenital cataract (0.42%; 1/237), and others (2.11%; 5/237). Conclusions Among school-aged children in a less developed area of western China, refractive error was the most prevalent eye disorder, and uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment. PMID:22123227

  11. A web-based archive for topographic maps of retinal cell distribution in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and Experimental Optometry, in conjunction with Optometrists Association Australia and Professor Shaun P Collin of the University of Queensland, announce the launch of a web-based archive of previously published topographic maps of retinal cell distribution in vertebrates. At present, the archive boasts more than 770 different maps of the distribution of retinal neurons (for example, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, horizontal cells and ganglion cells) in nearly 200 species within all vertebrate classes (Cephalospidomorpha, Actinopterygii, Sarcopterygii, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia). The distribution of retinal neurons has been studied for more than 100 years and has become a powerful means of predicting the spatial resolving power of the eye and the retinal regions containing specialisations, such as areae centrales, horizontal streaks and foveae, where increased densities of neurons define the way in which a species visually samples its environment. The location of these retinal specialisations thereby identifies the part(s) of the visual field of critical importance for localising food and mates and for predator surveillance. The distribution of sampling elements even reflects the symmetry of a species' ecological habitat. The archive is a unique collection of most of the currently available retinal maps, which also presents relevant information, where known, about eye size, retinal cell density, retinal orientation, cell number, spatial resolving power and the type of specialisation, in addition to basic physical parameters of each species (body size, weight, sex and developmental stage). The archive is accessible at http://www.optometrists.asn.au/ceo/retinalsearch and will be updated regularly. The powerful database is interactive and freely available, providing the opportunity to upload both published and unpublished topographic maps. Following a review process, previously unpublished maps will be 'published' and available

  12. GDx-MM: An imaging Mueller matrix retinal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twietmeyer, Karen Marie

    2007-12-01

    Retinal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although widely studied, disease mechanisms are not completely understood, and diagnostic tests may not detect disease early enough for timely intervention. The goal of this research is to contribute to research for more sensitive diagnostic tests that might use the interaction of polarized light with retinal tissue to detect subtle changes in the microstructure. This dissertation describes the GDx-MM, a scanning laser polarimeter which measures a complete 16-element Mueller matrix image of the retina. This full polarization signature may provide new comparative information on the structure of healthy and diseased retinal tissue by highlighting depolarizing structures as well as structures with varying magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation. The three major components of this dissertation are: (1) Development of methods for polarimeter optimization and error analysis; (2) Design, optimization, assembly, calibration, and validation of the GDx-MM polarimeter; and (3) Analysis of data for several human subjects. Development involved modifications to a Laser Diagnostics GDx, a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope with incomplete polarization capability. Modifications included installation of polarization components, development of a data acquisition system, and implementation of algorithms to convert raw data into polarization parameter images. Optimization involved visualization of polarimeter state trajectories on the Poincare sphere and a condition number analysis of the instrument matrix. Retinal images are collected non-invasively at 20 mum resolution over a 15° visual field in four seconds. Validation of the polarimeter demonstrates a polarimetric measurement accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. Retinal polarization data was collected on normal human subjects at the University of Arizona and at Indiana University School of Optometry. Calculated polarization parameter

  13. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  14. Lidar-based fracture characterization: An outcrop-scale study of the Woodford Shale, McAlister Shale Pit, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzel, Jason

    The use of lidar (light detection and ranging), a remote sensing tool based on principles of laser optometry, in mapping complex, multi-scale fracture networks had not been rigorously tested prior to this study despite its foreseeable utility in interpreting rock fabric with imprints of complex tectonic evolution. This thesis demonstrates lidar-based characterization of the Woodford Shale where intense fracturing could be due to both tectonism and mineralogy. The study area is the McAlister Shale Pit in south-central Oklahoma where both the upper and middle sections of the Woodford Shale are exposed and can be lidar-mapped. Lidar results are validated using hand-measured strike and dips of fracture planes, thin sections and mineral chemistry of selected samples using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Complexity of the fracture patterns as well as inaccessibility of multiple locations within the shale pit makes hand-measurement prone to errors and biases; lidar provides an opportunity for less biased and more efficient field mapping. Fracture mapping with lidar is a multi-step process. The lidar data are converted from point clouds into a mesh through triangulation. User-defined parameters such as size and orientation of the individual triangular elements are then used to group similar elements into surfaces. The strike and dip attribute of the simulated surfaces are visualized in an equal area lower hemisphere projection stereonet. Three fracture sets were identified in the upper and middle sections with common orientation but substantially different spatial density. Measured surface attributes and spatial density relations from lidar were validated using their hand-measured counterparts. Thin section analysis suggests that high fracture density in the upper Woodford measured by both the lidar and the hand-measured data could be due to high quartz. A significant finding of this study is the reciprocal relation between lidar intensity and gamma-ray (GR), which is generally

  15. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  16. Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Ho, Allen C.; Tasman, William S.

    2014-01-01

    depression will increase. Promoting interactions between ophthalmology, optometry, rehabilitation, psychiatry, and behavioral psychology may prevent depression in this population. PMID:25016366

  17. Challenges in Evaluating Relationships Between Quantitative Data (Carbon Dioxide) and Qualitative Data (Self-Reported Visual Changes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, C. M.; Foy, M.; Mason, S.; Wear, M. L.; Meyers, V.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nuances in clinical data is critical in developing a successful data analysis plan. Carbon dioxide (CO2) data are collected on board the International Space Station (ISS) in a continuous stream. Clinical data on ISS are primarily collected via conversations between individual crewmembers and NASA Flight Surgeons during weekly Private Medical Conferences (PMC). Law, et.al, 20141 demonstrated a statistically significant association between weekly average CO2 levels on ISS and self-reported headaches over the reporting period from March 14, 2001 to May 31, 2012. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the evaluation of a possible association between visual changes and CO2 levels on ISS and to discuss challenges in developing an appropriate analysis plan. METHODS & PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A first analysis was conducted following the same study design as the published work on CO2 and self-reported headaches1; substituting self-reported changes in visual acuity in place of self-reported headaches. The analysis demonstrated no statistically significant association between visual impairment characterized by vision symptoms self-reported during PMCs and ISS average CO2 levels over ISS missions. Closer review of the PMC records showed that vision outcomes are not well-documented in terms of clinical severity, timing of onset, or timing of resolution, perhaps due to the incipient nature of vision changes. Vision has been monitored in ISS crewmembers, pre- and post-flight, using standard optometry evaluations. In-flight visual assessments were limited early in the ISS program, primarily consisting of self-perceived changes reported by crewmembers. Recently, on-orbit capabilities have greatly improved. Vision data ranges from self-reported post-flight changes in visual acuity, pre- to postflight changes identified during fundoscopic examination, and in-flight progression measured by advanced on-orbit clinical imaging capabilities at predetermined testing

  18. Measuring aniseikonia using scattering filters to simulate cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms

  19. The Optics Option: Preparing For A Career In Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Rudolf

    1989-04-01

    We live in a visual world. Without vision, our perception of the environment would be severely limited. Visual stimuli are seen, recorded, and processed in many different ways. Astronomy, the process of imaging distant objects, and microscopy, the process of magnifying minute detail, are extensions of vision. Other extensions of vision include seeing things in different spectra, processing images for enhancement, making decisions automatically, and guiding and controlling sophisticated, complex industrial and military equipment. Optics is the study of this vision and its applications. Optics is a fascinating field that is growing rapidly. Students and practitioners of optics are attracted to the field for a variety of reasons. Hobbies such as photography, astronomy, and video recording, as well as academic pursuits, such as a high school physics or science project, may spawn an interest in optics; however, college training is the cornerstone of an optics career. Optics is part of physics, and as such, requires coursework in the areas of geometrical optics, physical optics, spectroscopy, electricity, magnetism, and solid state physics. In addition, mathematics is extremely important for optics design, analysis, and modeling. Optics is the successful synergism of these many disciplines. Many colleges and universities offer undergraduate and graduate optics curricula. Rochester University's Institute of Optics and the Optical Sciences Center of the University of Arizona are the most prestigious of these institutions. Further, such societies as the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) offer a wide variety of valuable short courses, tutorials, seminars, and papers at conferences that are held several times a year. Traditional optics fields, such as optometry, the examination of the eye and correction of its defects, or ophthalmology, the study of disease and treatment of the eye, are optics-oriented careers

  20. Differences between naïve and expert observers’ vergence and accommodative responses to a range of targets

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vergence and accommodation studies often use adult participants with experience of vision science. Reports of infant and clinical responses are generally more variable and of lower gain, with the implication that differences lie in immaturity or sub-optimal clinical characteristics but expert /naïve differences are rarely considered or quantified. Methods Sixteen undergraduates, naïve to vision science were individually matched by age, visual acuity, refractive error, heterophoria, stereoacuity and near point of accommodation to 2nd & 3rd year orthoptics and optometry undergraduates (“experts”). Accommodation and vergence responses were assessed to targets moving between 33cm, 50 cm, 1m and 2m using a haploscopic device incorporating a PlusoptiX SO4 autorefractor. Disparity, blur and looming cues were separately available or minimised in all combinations. Instruction set was minimal. Results In all cases, vergence and accommodation response slopes (gain) were steeper and closer to 1.0 in the expert group (p=0.001), with the largest expert /naïve differences for both vergence and accommodation being for near targets (p=0.012). For vergence, the differences between expert and naïve response slopes increased with increasingly open-loop targets (linear trend p=0.025). Although we predicted that proximal cues would drive additional response in the experts, the proximity-only cue was the only condition that showed no statistical effect of experience. Conclusions Expert observers provide more accurate responses to near target demand than closely matched naïve observers. We suggest that attention, practice, voluntary and proprioceptive effects may enhance responses in experienced participants when compared to a more typical general population. Differences between adult reports and the developmental and clinical literature may partially reflect expert / naïve effects, as well as developmental change. If developmental and clinical studies are to be compared

  1. Principles of modern low vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Samuel N

    2006-06-01

    Low vision rehabilitation is a new emerging subspecialty drawing from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on our customary concepts of research, education, and services for the visually impaired patient. A multidisciplinary approach and coordinated effort are necessary to take advantage of new scientific advances and achieve optimal results for the patient. Accordingly, the intent of this paper is to outline the principles and details of a modern low vision rehabilitation service. All rehabilitation attempts must start with a first hand interview (the intake) for assessing functionality and priority tasks for rehabilitation, as well as assessing the patient's all-important cognitive skills. The assessment of residual visual functions follows the intake and offers a unique opportunity to measure, evaluate, and document accurately the extent of functional loss sustained by the patient from disease. An accurate assessment of residual visual functions includes assessment of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, binocularity, refractive errors, perimetry, oculomotor functions, cortical visual integration, and light characteristics affecting visual functions. Functional vision assessment in low vision rehabilitation measures how well one uses residual visual functions to perform routine tasks, using different items under various conditions, throughout the day. Of the many functional vision skills known, reading skills is an obligatory item for all low vision rehabilitation assessments. Results of assessment guide rehabilitation professionals in developing rehabilitation plans for the individual and recommending appropriate low vision devices. The outcome from assessing residual visual functions is detection of visual functions that can be improved with the use of optical devices. Methods for prescribing devices such as image relocation with prisms to a preferred retinal locus, field

  2. Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis-Causing Adenoviruses Induce MUC16 Ectodomain Release To Infect Ocular Surface Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2016-01-01

    conjunctivitis cases in the United States (R. P. Sambursky, N. Fram, and E. J. Cohen, Optometry 78:236–239, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.optm.2006.11.012, and A. M. Pihos, J Optom 6:69–74, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.optom.2012.08.003). The infection begins with HAdV entry within ocular surface epithelial cells; however, the mechanisms used by HAdVs to transit the otherwise protective mucosal barrier of ocular surface epithelial cells prior to entry remain unknown. Here, we report that the highly virulent keratoconjunctivitis-causing HAdV-D37 induces release of the extracellular domain (ectodomain) of MUC16, a major component of the mucosal barrier of ocular surface epithelial cells, prior to infecting underlying cells. Currently, there is no specific treatment for controlling this infection. Understanding the early steps involved in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis and using this information to intercept adenoviral entry within cells may guide the development of novel strategies for controlling the infection. PMID:27303700

  3. Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis-Causing Adenoviruses Induce MUC16 Ectodomain Release To Infect Ocular Surface Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Menon, Balaraj B; Zhou, Xiaohong; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Rajaiya, Jaya; Chodosh, James; Gipson, Ilene K

    2016-01-01

    in the United States (R. P. Sambursky, N. Fram, and E. J. Cohen, Optometry 78:236-239, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.optm.2006.11.012, and A. M. Pihos, J Optom 6:69-74, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.optom.2012.08.003). The infection begins with HAdV entry within ocular surface epithelial cells; however, the mechanisms used by HAdVs to transit the otherwise protective mucosal barrier of ocular surface epithelial cells prior to entry remain unknown. Here, we report that the highly virulent keratoconjunctivitis-causing HAdV-D37 induces release of the extracellular domain (ectodomain) of MUC16, a major component of the mucosal barrier of ocular surface epithelial cells, prior to infecting underlying cells. Currently, there is no specific treatment for controlling this infection. Understanding the early steps involved in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis and using this information to intercept adenoviral entry within cells may guide the development of novel strategies for controlling the infection. PMID:27303700