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Sample records for oral cavity cancers

  1. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control.

  2. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis.

  3. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  4. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Genden, Eric M.; Silver, Carl E.; Takes, Robert P.; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P.; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Rapidis, Alexander D.; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  5. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  6. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  8. Oral cavity and lip cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kerawala, C; Roques, T; Jeannon, J-P; Bisase, B

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. It provides recommendations on the assessment and management of patients with cancer of the oral cavity and the lip. Recommendations • Surgery remains the mainstay of management for oral cavity tumours. (R) • Tumour resection should be performed with a clinical clearance of 1 cm vital structures permitting. (R) • Elective neck treatment should be offered for all oral cavity tumours. (R) • Adjuvant radiochemotherapy in the presence of advanced neck disease or positive margins improves control rates. (R) • Early stage lip cancer can be treated equally well by surgery or radiation therapy. (R).

  9. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  10. What Are the Key Statistics about Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers? The American ... increase the risk for these second cancers. For statistics related to survival, see the section Survival Rates ...

  11. Cancer Salivary Biomarkers for Tumours Distant to the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rapado-González, Óscar; Majem, Blanca; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; López-López, Rafa; Suarez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of saliva as a diagnostic approach for systemic diseases was proposed just two decades ago, but recently great interest in the field has emerged because of its revolutionary potential as a liquid biopsy and its usefulness as a non-invasive sampling method. Multiple molecules isolated in saliva have been proposed as cancer biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, drug monitoring and pharmacogenetic studies. In this review, we focus on the current status of the salivary diagnostic biomarkers for different cancers distant to the oral cavity, noting their potential use in the clinic and their applicability in personalising cancer therapies. PMID:27626410

  12. [Study on the oral hygiene of patients with oral cavity cancer].

    PubMed

    Bratoĭcheva, M St; Kondeva, V K

    2008-01-01

    Many authors consider oral hygiene an important factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of oral cavity cancer. The aim of the present study was to establish the role of poor oral hygiene in the development of malignant lesions in the oral cavity. One hundred and three patients were interviewed. Questions, regarding oral hygiene were included in the interview. Results showed that 53,80% of urban residents brush their teeth twice daily whereas 65,52% of rural residents brush their teeth irregularly - p<0,001 (chi(2)=23,67). 46,88% of women clean their teeth twice daily. 46,94% of men do not maintain adequate oral hygiene - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 9,21). Regarding the brush, it was found out that 56,00% of females use a hard bristle toothbrush, the same refers to 28,04% of men - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 4,15). Hard bristle toothbrush was used by 48,88% of urban residents and 9,09% of rural residents - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 5,78). People up to 30 years of age use hard bristle toothbrush most often -39,13% - p<0,01 (chi(2)=12,26). The accumulated evidence provides further explanation why oral cavity cancer is more frequent in men, rural residents and in the elderly. Oral hygiene is a factor in the development of oral cavity cancer.

  13. Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pancholi, Mayank; Sharma, Sanjay; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Methods: This was a study of the patients presenting with recurrent oral cavity cancer after exhausted ipsilateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (PMMC) in whom we used contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (Crossed PMMC Flap) for reconstruction between October 2013 to June 2016. Results: Five patients with recurrence underwent reconstruction with contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap. In all the flap was successfully used to reconstruct defects involving the entire buccal mucosa and in one patient the flap could be used to reconstruct full thickness resection defect(crossed bipedal PMMC Flap) with ease. Conclusion: Crossed Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap can be used safely and reliably for reconstruction of the buccal mucosal defect and in selected patients even for full thickness cheek defect as folded bipaddle Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

  14. Posttraumatic growth: a novel concept in oral cavity cancer care?

    PubMed

    Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Jenewein, Josef; McGrath, Colman Patrick Joseph; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2010-11-01

    Recently the importance of posttraumatic growth (PTG), a phenomenon of positive psychological growth beyond baseline values, has been discovered in the field of oncology. An evidence based review of the literature regarding PTG was performed, both to support its understanding and to consider its application within the research field of oral cavity (OC) cancer. A Pubmed, Medline, PsycINFO search from the earliest date until April 2010 was carried out. Full articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed. The search yielded 852 papers, 91 'potentially relevant papers' and 29 'effective papers', the latter of which formed the basis of this review. PTG was assessed in twenty-eight studies with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and in only one study with the Perceived Benefits Scale (PBS). PTG in cancer patients has been reported in five main domains (i) appreciation of life, (ii) relating to others, (iii) increased personal sense, (iv) sense of new possibilities and (v) positive spiritual change. Socio-demographic factors, stressor characteristics and coping strategies influence and predict the development PTG. In the past decade an increasing interest in the concept of PTG in the field of oncology has emerged. This evidence based review presents PTG to the research community in the field of OC cancer, appraises its modification capacity of the treatment outcome in other cancer research fields and hypothesizes its eventual benefit in the field of OC cancer research.

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  16. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  18. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  19. The association of smoking, alcoholic consumption, betel quid chewing and oral cavity cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Tin; Lin, Whe-Dar; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Liu, Shih-An

    2008-11-01

    We aimed to analyze the relationship between smoking, alcoholic consumption and betel quid chewing with oral cavity cancer. All male patients age > or =18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosal inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 8,356 patients were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 382 patients (4.6%). Two hundred and ninety-seven patients received biopsy and 191 patients were proven to have oral cavity cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that those who smoked, consumed alcohol and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to contract oral cancer (odds ratio: 39.66, 95% confidence interval: 26.04-60.38). Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cavity cancer and should receive oral mucosal screening regularly so potential oral cavity cancer can be detected as early as possible, which may result in better and improved survival of oral cancer patients.

  20. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  1. Induction chemotherapy for oral cavity cancer patients: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marta, Gustavo Nader; William, William N; Feher, Olavo; Carvalho, André Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of data from phase III randomized studies to support an ideal approach for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients. In general, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are valid treatment options, and combined approach is usually indicated given poor clinical outcomes with single modality therapy. The aim of this study is to review the current status and future perspectives of induction chemotherapy for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients.

  2. Prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kaoru; Ohara, Masaru; Kojima, Taro; Nishimura, Rumi; Ogawa, Tetsuji; Hino, Takamune; Okada, Mitsugi; Toratani, Shigeaki; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Sugai, Motoyuki; Sugiyama, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Drug-resistant opportunistic infections may cause health problems in immunocompromised hosts. Representative microorganisms in opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in elderly adults receiving follow-up examinations after primary treatment of oral cancer. Oral microorganisms were collected from patients satisfactorily treated for oral cancer (defined as good outcomes to date) and a group of healthy adults (controls). After identification of microorganisms, the prevalence of drug-resistant microorganisms was studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were also performed for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the prevalences of the three microorganisms between the groups. Surprisingly, 69.2% of S aureus isolates showed oxacillin resistance, suggesting that MRSA colonization is increasing among older Japanese. These MRSA isolates possessed SCCmec types II and IV but no representative toxin genes. Our results indicate that a basic infection control strategy, including standard precautions against MRSA, is important for elderly adults, particularly after treatment for oral cancer.

  3. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  4. A review of risk factors for oral cavity cancer: the importance of a standardized case definition.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Luce, Danièle

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to review the literature on risk factors of oral cavity cancer with a special attention to the definition of the cases, in order to highlight special features of these cancers and of their subsites. PubMed database was systematically searched to access relevant articles published between 1980 and 2010. Reference lists of selected papers were examined to identify further articles. One hundred and two studies met the inclusion criteria. Their results were difficult to compare because of the lack of uniformity in defining oral cavity. In addition, few studies examined risk factors other than alcohol and tobacco, and studies differentiating between subsites were rare. Despite these limitations, some characteristics of oral cavity cancers may be emphasized: smoked tobacco seems to be a stronger risk factor for oral cavity cancer than alcohol, and the floor of the mouth seems to be more sensitive to the harmful effects of alcohol and smoked tobacco. Studies limited strictly to oral cavity cancers and distinguishing between subsites are needed to better understand the aetiology of these cancers, and better define risk groups to target prevention efforts and screening.

  5. The oral cavity microbiota: between health, oral disease and cancers of the aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, Pierre; Metamoros, Sebastien; Montassier, Emmanuel; Le Vacon, Françoise; Potel, Gilles; Soueidan, Assem; Jordana, Fabienne; De La Cochétière, Marie-France

    2017-03-03

    Many studies show that the human microbiome plays a critical role in the chronic pathologies of obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. More recently, the interaction between cancer and the microbiome has been highlighted. Most studies have focused on the gut microbiota because it represents the most extensive bacterial community, and the body of evidence correlating it with gut syndromes is increasing. However, in the strict sense, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the oral cavity, and special attention should be paid to the specific flora of this cavity. This study reviewed the current knowledge about the various microbial ecosystems of the upper part of the GI tract and discussed their potential link to carcinogenesis. The overall composition of the microbial communities, as well as the presence or absence of 'key species' in relation to carcinogenesis, is addressed. Alterations in the oral microbiota can potentially be used to predict the risk of cancer. Molecular advances and the further monitoring of the microbiota will increase our understanding of the role of the microbiota in carcinogenesis and open new perspectives for future therapeutic and prophylactic modalities.

  6. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  7. [The clinical aspects of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx].

    PubMed

    Dvoryaninova, O Yu; Chainzonov, E L; Litvyakov, N V

    2016-01-01

    This review was designed to focus on the prevalence and the magnitude of infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) among healthy subjects and patients presenting with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We compare the data on the relative frequency of HPV-positive and HPV-negative cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx in different populations, peculiarities of the clinical course of this pathology, and methods of its treatment. Much emphasis is placed on the specific clinical and morphological features of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The general and relapse-free survival rates are considered with special reference to the outcome and prognosis of this disease. The currently accepted approaches to the treatment of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx are discussed. It is concluded that HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx should be regarded as an autonomous pathological condition requiring specific approaches to its management, such as the application of adequate treatment schemes and algorithms.

  8. [Efficacy of oral cavity care in preventing stomatitis (mucositis) in cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Koshino, Miki; Sakai, Chie; Ogura, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Akiko; Fukuzato, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    Stomatitis is a common side effect during cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that careful oral cavity care using patient guidance and cleanliness index prevents stomatitis in cancer chemotherapy. We introduced oral care patient guidance including teaching good brushing methods, O'Leary's Plaque Control Record(PCR)as a cleanliness index, and Eilers' Oral Assessment Guide(OAG)as an overall index after April 2006. We evaluated the incidence of stomatitis in 20 patients(10 patients between April 2004 to May 2006 and 10 patients after April 2006)with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy including 5-FU and CDDP. Patients receiving brushing training after 2006 were evaluated regarding cleanliness of their oral cavities using PCR index and OAG index. The rates of stomatitis were 60%(6/10)and 40%(4/10)before and after the introduction of oral care patient guidance. The average of PCR index decreased from 82% to 46% after teaching good brushing method to the patients. The average of OAG index after brushing training was 9.14 which was better score compared with previous reports. Introduction of oral care patient guidance decreased the incidence of stomatitis. Both PCR and OAG indexes were useful in evaluating the objective condition of the oral cavity and in sharing patients' information among a medical team. These indexes encouraged the patients to clean their oral cavities.

  9. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  10. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  11. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  12. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  13. Electronic Cigarette: Role in the Primary Prevention of Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Teresa; Trapasso, Serena; Puzzo, Lidia; Allegra, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoke has been identified as the main cause of oral cavity carcinoma. Recently, the electronic cigarette, a battery-operated device, was developed to help smokers stop their tobacco addiction. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of electronic cigarettes and to establish the possible role of such device in the primary prevention of oral cavity cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This study included 65 subjects who were divided into three groups (smokers, e-cigarette smokers, and nonsmokers). All subjects were submitted to cytologic examination by scraping of oral mucosa. The slides were microscopically evaluated through a micronucleus assay test. RESULTS The prevalence of micronuclei was significantly decreased in the e-cigarette smoker group. There were no statistically significant differences in micronuclei distribution according to the type of cigarette, gender, and age. CONCLUSIONS The use of electronic cigarettes seems to be safe for oral cells and should be suggested as an aid to smoking cessation. PMID:27773997

  14. The use of acrylic resin oral prosthesis in radiation therapy of oral cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, V.S.T.; Oral, K.; Aramamy, M.A.

    1982-07-01

    In radiation therapy of cancer of the oral cavity and the paranasal sinuses, the extent to which the tissues of the oral cavity are included in the radiation treatment portals will determine the severity of the oral discomfort during treatment. This will affect the nutritional status of the patients, and may eventually affect the total dose of radiation which the patients can receive for treatment of their cancers. In cooperation with the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Department, an acrylic resin oral prosthesis was developed. This prosthesis is easy to use and can be made for each individual patient within 24 hours. It allows for maximum sparing of the normal tissues in the oral cavity and can be modified for shielding of backscattered electrons from heavy metals in the teeth. We have also found that acrylic resin extensions can be built onto the posterior edge of post-maxillectomy obturators; this extension can be used as a carrier for radioactive sources to deliver radiation to deep seated tumor modules in the paranasal sinuses.

  15. High-risk human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system. Results Out of 70 women with cervical cancer, four (5.71%) were found to be positive for HR-HPV in their oral cavity. No association of HR-HPV was found with sociodemographic profile, marital status, reproductive history, tobacco and alcohol usage, contraceptive pills usage, and presence of oral lesions (p>0.05). Among children, HR-HPV in the oral cavity was detected in only 1 of the 46 subjects examined (2.17%). Clinically healthy oral mucosa, without any oral lesions, was observed in all the HR-HPV positive subjects. Conclusion The result of this study showed that there is low, if any, risk of HR-HPV infection in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer. Further, our study suggests that there is very low risk for children of women with cervical cancer, to acquire and sustain HR-HPV in their oral cavity until childhood or adolescence. PMID:20550718

  16. Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, L Fernandez; Herrero, R; Reyes, R M Ortiz; Vaccarella, S; Anta, J Lence; Ferbeye, L; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2001-01-01

    In terms of worldwide levels, Cuba has an intermediate incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx. We studied 200 cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, of whom 57 women (median age = 64) and 200 hospital controls, frequency matched with cases by age and sex, in relation to smoking and drinking history, intake of 25 foods or food groups, indicators of oral hygiene and sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, and smoking and drinking habits. In the multivariate model, high educational level and white-collar occupation, but not white race, were associated with halving of oral cancer risk. Smoking ≥30 cigarettes per day showed an OR of 20.8 (95% CI: 8.9–48.3), similar to smoking ≥4 cigars daily (OR = 20.5). Drinking ≥ 70 alcoholic drinks per week showed an OR of 5.7 (95% CI: 1.8–18.5). Hard liquors were by far the largest source of alcohol. Increased risk was associated with the highest tertile of intake for maize (OR = 1.9), meat (OR = 2.2) and ham and salami (OR = 2.0), whereas high fruit intake was associated with significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.4). Among indicators of dental care, number of missing teeth and poor general oral condition at oral inspection showed ORs of 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Number of sexual partners, marriages or contacts with prostitutes, practice of oral sex and history of various sexually transmitted diseases, including genital warts, were not associated with oral cancer risk. 82% of oral cancer cases in Cuba were attributable to tobacco smoking, 19% to smoking cigars or pipe only. The fractions attributable to alcohol drinking (7%) and low fruit intake (11%) were more modest. Thus, decreases in cigarette and cigar smoking are at present the key to oral cancer prevention in Cuba. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

  17. [Nutritional status of patients with cancer of oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Pérez Camargo, Dana Aline; De Nicola Delfín, Luigina; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Copca Mendoza, Erika Thalia; Hernández Méndez, Margarita; Herrera Gómez, Ángel; Meneses García, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El cáncer de cavidad oral ocupa el doceavo lugar a nivel mundial. El tratamiento del cáncer de cavidad oral es habitualmente cirugía seguida de radioterapia, la cual puede estar indicada sola o con quimioterapia; este tipo de terapias tienen importantes efectos secundarios funcionales sobre el estado nutricio del paciente. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer el impacto de los diferentes tratamientos sobre el estado nutricional de los pacientes con cáncer de cavidad oral atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología durante el período comprendido del 2009 al 2011. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, y retrospectivo. Se incluyeron 99 pacientes con cáncer de cavidad oral. Se registraron las siguientes variables; género, edad, tipo de tratamiento (cirugía, quimioterapia, radioterapia), complicaciones más importantes secundarias a tratamiento, pérdida de peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y albumina. Resultados y discusión: La prevalencia de cáncer de cavidad oral fue mayor en mujeres (58,6%); la edad promedio fue de 61,22 años. Las complicaciones secundarias al tratamiento fueron xerostomía (20%) seguida de odinofagia y mucositis (19%), la relación de pérdida de peso y sintomatología se observó en el (54%) de los pacientes, debido al tipo de alimentación previo, durante y después del tratamiento en los cuales tuvo mayor predominio el uso de papillas. Conclusión: Se observó una pérdida de peso debido a las complicaciones del tratamiento médico que afectaron el estado nutricio, por ello es importante tener un monitoreo continuo que apoye el éxito del tratamiento multidisciplinario.

  18. Leukoplakia, Oral Cavity Cancer Risk, and Cancer Survival in the U.S. Elderly.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Katki, Hormuzd A; Silverberg, Michael J; Manos, M Michele; Engels, Eric A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    Screening for oral leukoplakia, an oral cavity cancer (OCC) precursor, could lead to earlier detection of OCC. However, the progression rate from leukoplakia to OCC and the benefits of leukoplakia screening for improving OCC outcomes are currently unclear. We conducted a case-cohort study of U.S. adults ages ≥65 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linkage. We identified leukoplakia diagnoses through Medicare claims, and OCC diagnoses through SEER cancer registries. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate leukoplakia associations with OCC incidence, and the absolute OCC risk following leukoplakia diagnosis was calculated. Among OCC cases, we compared OCC stage and OCC survival between cases with a prior leukoplakia diagnosis versus those without prior leukoplakia. Among 470,266 individuals in the SEER-Medicare subcohort, 1,526 (0.3%) had a leukoplakia diagnosis. Among people with leukoplakia, the cumulative OCC incidence was 0.7% at 3 months and 2.5% at 5 years. OCC risk was most increased <3 months after leukoplakia diagnosis (HR, 115), likely representing the diagnosis of prevalent cancers. Nonetheless, risk remained substantially increased in subsequent follow-up [HR ≥ 3 months, 24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-27; HR ≥ 12 months, 22, 95% CI, 20-25]. Among OCC cases (N = 8,927), those with prior leukoplakia were less likely to be diagnosed at regional/distant stage (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.30-0.43), and had lower mortality (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84) when compared with OCC cases without a prior leukoplakia. Individuals with leukoplakia have substantially elevated risk of OCC. Lower stage and better survival after OCC diagnosis suggest that leukoplakia identification can lead to earlier OCC detection and reduced mortality.

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R. Zhung, Joanne E.; Gomez, Jennifer; Chan, Kelvin; Wu, Abraham J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Wong, Richard J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2006, 35 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. The sites included were buccal mucosa in 8, oral tongue in 11, floor of the mouth in 9, gingiva in 4, hard palate in 2, and retromolar trigone in 1. Most patients had Stage III-IV disease (80%). Ten patients (29%) also received concurrent postoperative chemotherapy with IMRT. The median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 28.1 months (range, 11.9-85.1). Treatment failure occurred in 11 cases as follows: local in 4, regional in 2, and distant metastases in 5. Of the 5 patients with distant metastases, 2 presented with dermal metastases. The 2- and 3-year estimates of locoregional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 84% and 77%, 85% and 85%, 70% and 64%, and 74% and 74%, respectively. Acute Grade 2 or greater dermatitis, mucositis, and esophageal reactions were experienced by 54%, 66%, and 40% of the patients, respectively. Documented late complications included trismus (17%) and osteoradionecrosis (5%). Conclusion: IMRT as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection for oral cavity tumors is feasible and effective, with promising results and acceptable toxicity.

  20. Cancer of the oral cavity- a growing concern in the Micronesia: a case report from the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Sangita; Bhandary, Prahlad

    2003-03-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is of growing concern worldwide. In the Micronesia, there has been a recent increase in use of betel nut and tobacco chewing in addition to already existing problem of smoking and alcohol drinking. These deleterious habits have further added the risk for development of oral cancers in the Marshall Islands. The oral cancers have good prognosis, which is directly related to the early diagnosis and treatment. Advanced staged cancers need mutilating surgery in addition to radiotherapy and carry high mortality rate. The epidemiology, etiology and recent approaches in the management of oral cavity cancer has been discussed along with a case report of advanced cancer of the floor of the mouth from the Marshall Islands.

  1. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1-2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time.

  2. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1–2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx from 1988 to 2009: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Binh Y.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Hashibe, Mia; Vecchia, Carlo La; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2010-01-01

    The evidence for the human carcinogenic effects of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx has been considered sufficient in the IARC Monograph 44 on alcohol and cancer in 1988. We evaluated human carcinogenic evidence related to oral and pharyngeal cancer risk based on cohort and case-control studies published from 1988 to 2009. A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies of different designs and conducted in different populations has consistently supported that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with an increase in risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. The relative risks are 3.2–9.2 for more than 60 grams/day (or more than 4 drinks/day) when adjusted for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. A strong dose-response relationship on intensity of alcohol use is reported in most of the studies. However, no apparent association is observed for the duration of alcohol use. Compared with current drinkers, a decreased risk is associated with alcohol cessation for about 10–15 years. Similar associations have been observed among non-smokers in over 20 studies. Generally, the dominant type of alcohol consumption in each population is associated with the greatest increases in risk. A large number of studies on joint exposure of alcohol and tobacco consumption demonstrate a more than multiplicative synergistic effect. PMID:20679896

  4. Genome-wide association analyses identify new susceptibility loci for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lesseur, Corina; Diergaarde, Brenda; Olshan, Andrew F; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Ness, Andrew R; Liu, Geoffrey; Lacko, Martin; Eluf-Neto, José; Franceschi, Silvia; Lagiou, Pagona; Macfarlane, Gary J; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Boccia, Stefania; Polesel, Jerry; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Zaridze, David; Johansson, Mattias; Menezes, Ana M; Curado, Maria Paula; Robinson, Max; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Canova, Cristina; Znaor, Ariana; Castellsagué, Xavier; Conway, David I; Holcátová, Ivana; Mates, Dana; Vilensky, Marta; Healy, Claire M; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Lissowska, Jolanta; Grandis, Jennifer R; Weissler, Mark C; Tajara, Eloiza H; Nunes, Fabio D; de Carvalho, Marcos B; Thomas, Steve; Hung, Rayjean J; Peters, Wilbert H M; Herrero, Rolando; Cadoni, Gabriella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Steffen, Annika; Agudo, Antonio; Shangina, Oxana; Xiao, Xiangjun; Gaborieau, Valérie; Chabrier, Amélie; Anantharaman, Devasena; Boffetta, Paolo; Amos, Christopher I; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer in 6,034 cases and 6,585 controls from Europe, North America and South America. We detected eight significantly associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), seven of which are new for these cancer sites. Oral and pharyngeal cancers combined were associated with loci at 6p21.32 (rs3828805, HLA-DQB1), 10q26.13 (rs201982221, LHPP) and 11p15.4 (rs1453414, OR52N2-TRIM5). Oral cancer was associated with two new regions, 2p23.3 (rs6547741, GPN1) and 9q34.12 (rs928674, LAMC3), and with known cancer-related loci-9p21.3 (rs8181047, CDKN2B-AS1) and 5p15.33 (rs10462706, CLPTM1L). Oropharyngeal cancer associations were limited to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and classical HLA allele imputation showed a protective association with the class II haplotype HLA-DRB1*1301-HLA-DQA1*0103-HLA-DQB1*0603 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, P = 2.7 × 10(-9)). Stratified analyses on a subgroup of oropharyngeal cases with information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) status indicated that this association was considerably stronger in HPV-positive (OR = 0.23, P = 1.6 × 10(-6)) than in HPV-negative (OR = 0.75, P = 0.16) cancers.

  5. The roles of hope and optimism on posttraumatic growth in oral cavity cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel; Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Chan, Natalie; Samman, Nabil; McGrath, Colman; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the association of the positive coping strategies, hope and optimism, on posttraumatic growth (PTG) in oral cavity (OC) cancer patients. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted and performed in the outpatient station of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China. Fifty patients successfully treated for OC cancer were recruited after their informed consents had been obtained during the review clinic. During their regular follow-up controls in the outpatient clinic, the patients compiled the posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI) questionnaire, hope scale (HS) and the life orientation scale-revised (LOT-R). Hope and optimism correlated significantly positive with PTG and accounting together for a 25% variance of posttraumatic growth. Hope positively correlated with posttraumatic growth (r=.49, p<.001) as well as optimism (r=.31, p<.05). When compared to unmarried patients, married patients showed high levels of PTG and hope (married participants: mean=53.15, SD=11.04; unmarried participants: mean=41.00, SD=6.36; t (48)=2.403, p<.05). Hope and optimism represent important indicators for PTG in OC cancer patients. An intact dyad relationship seems to be important for hope and consecutive higher levels of PTG when compared to unmarried patients. Supportive psychological treatment strategies related to these two coping factors might be beneficial for OC cancer patients.

  6. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Correa, Pelayo; Oreggia, Fernando; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Leiva, Juan

    2005-01-01

    From 1995 to 2002, a case-control study on food groups and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Two hundred thirty cases were frequency-matched to 460 controls on age, residence, and urban/rural status. The study was restricted to men. The relationship between foods and risk of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined through: 1) individual food group analysis, 2) factor analysis, and 3) determination of empirical scores. The results were similar. Factor analysis generated 2 patterns, which were labeled as "stew" and "vegetables and fruits." The stew pattern loaded positively on boiled meat, cooked vegetables, potato, and sweet potato. This pattern was directly associated with risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-7.06; P value for trend=0.0002]. The vegetables and fruits factor loaded positively on raw vegetables, citrus fruits, other fruits, liver, fish, and desserts. This pattern was inversely associated with risk of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64; P value for trend=0.0008). Joint effects of high intake of risk foods and low intake of protective foods were associated with a risk of 12.0 (95% CI, 4.1-34.6). Our study confirms the important role of dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer risk and suggests that the analysis of dietary patterns is a powerful tool to investigate the links between nutrition and cancer.

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  8. Genetic variants in let-7/Lin28 modulate the risk of oral cavity cancer in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; zhu, Longbiao; Wang, Ruixia; Miao, Limin; Jiang, Hongbing; Yuan, Hua; Ma, Hongxia; Chen, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Let-7 and Lin28 establish a double-negative feedback loop to affect several biological processes, such as differentiation of stem cell, invasion and metastasis, and tumorigenesis. In this study, we systematically investigated the associations between 6 potentially functional SNPs of let7 and Lin28 genes and the risk of oral cavity cancer with a case-control study including 384 oral cavity cancer cases and 731 controls. We found that the variant allele (T) of rs221636 of Lin28B was significantly associated with a reduced risk of oral cavity cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58–0.92, P = 7.55 × 10−3 in additive model]. Bioinformatics prediction indicated that rs221636 was located at the binding site of hsa-miR-548p in the 3′ UTR of Lin28B. Luciferase activity assay also showed a lower expression level for rs221636 T allele compared with A allele. These findings indicated that rs221236 located at Lin28B may contribute to the risk of oral cavity cancer through the interruption of miRNA binding. PMID:25503985

  9. High-dose-rate and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy for oral cavity cancer and oropharynx cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy represents the treatment of choice for small tumours, regionally localized in the oral cavity and the oropharynx. In the technical setting, continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy represented for many years the gold standard for administering radiation in head and neck brachytherapy. Large series of head and neck cancer patients treated with LDR brachytherapy have been reported, constituting an invaluable source of clinical data and the gold standard to compare results of new techniques. Nowadays, LDR brachytherapy competes with fractionated HDR and hyperfractionated PDR. In the paper an overview of the different time-dose-fraction alternatives to LDR brachytherapy in head and neck cancer is presented, as well as the radiobiological basis of different dose-rate schedules, the linear-quadratic model, interconversion of fractionation schedules and the repair half-times for early- and late-responding tissues. In subsequent sections essentials of switching from LDR to HDR and from LDR to PDR are discussed. Selected clinical results using HDR and PDR brachytherapy in oral cavity and oropharynx cancer are presented. PMID:28050175

  10. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  11. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Guttenplan, Joseph B; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2012-06-15

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity.

  12. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  13. Postoperative radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers: Impact of anatomic subsite on treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, M.J.; Harrison, L.B.; Fass, D.E.; Armstrong, J.; Spiro, R.H.; Shah, J.P.; Strong, E.W. )

    1990-11-01

    We have retrospectively reviewed the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for advanced oral cavity cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of anatomic subsite on the results of treatment. Between 1975 and 1985, 51 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (OT = 29 patients) and floor of mouth (FOM = 22 patients) were treated with combined surgery plus RT. All had an indication(s) for RT including advanced primary disease (T3 or T4) (29 patients), close or positive margins (34 patients), and multiple positive neck nodes and/or extracapsular extension (41 patients). With a median follow-up of 6 years, the 5-year actuarial local control rate was 74% and the rate of distant metastasis (DM) was 34%. Despite the similar T stage, margin status and median RT dose, the 5-year actuarial local failure rate was 38% for OT vs. 11% for FOM (p = 0.03). Furthermore, the median survival after recurrence was 9 months for OT and 40 months for FOM (p = 0.02). At 5 years the determinate survival for both sites was (55%), and the likelihood of developing a second malignancy was 31%. The likelihood of developing DM was 50% for FOM (N0-N1 = 3 of 12, N2-N3 = 8 of 10) and 21% for OT (N0-N1 = 4 of 21, N2-N3 = 1 of 8). This study highlights significant differences between FOM and OT cancers in response to combined surgery and RT. Future strategies should be directed at the enhancement of local control for OT and better systemic therapy for those with advanced N-stage FOM.

  14. Quantification of tumor morphology via 3D histology: application to oral cavity cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Scott; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Tomaszewski, John

    2016-03-01

    Traditional histopathology quantifies disease through the study of glass slides, i.e. two-dimensional samples that are representative of the overall process. We hypothesize that 3D reconstruction can enhance our understanding of histopathologic interpretations. To test this hypothesis, we perform a pilot study of the risk model for oral cavity cancer (OCC), which stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk for locoregional disease-free survival. Classification is based on study of hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained tissues sampled from the resection specimens. In this model, the Worst Pattern of Invasion (WPOI) is assessed, representing specific architectural features at the interface between cancer and non-cancer tissue. Currently, assessment of WPOI is based on 2D sections of tissue, representing complex 3D structures of tumor growth. We believe that by reconstructing a 3D model of tumor growth and quantifying the tumor-host interface, we can obtain important diagnostic information that is difficult to assess in 2D. Therefore, we introduce a pilot study framework for visualizing tissue architecture and morphology in 3D from serial sections of histopathology. This framework can be used to enhance predictive models for diseases where severity is determined by 3D biological structure. In this work we utilize serial H and E-stained OCC resections obtained from 7 patients exhibiting WPOI-3 (low risk of recurrence) through WPOI-5 (high risk of recurrence). A supervised classifier automatically generates a map of tumor regions on each slide, which are then co-registered using an elastic deformation algorithm. A smooth 3D model of the tumor region is generated from the registered maps, which is suitable for quantitative tumor interface morphology feature extraction. We report our preliminary models created with this system and suggest further enhancements to traditional histology scoring mechanisms that take spatial architecture into consideration.

  15. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  16. Validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Speech Handicap Index in patients with oral cavity cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, S S; Choi, S H; Hong, J A; Hong, Y H; Jeong, N G; Lee, S Y; Sung, M-W; Hah, J H

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation of the Speech Handicap Index (SHI) for Korean subjects and to determine its reliability and utility in patients with oral cavity cancer. The Korean version of the SHI was administered to 50 healthy subjects and 56 patients with speech problems resulting from treatment for oral cavity cancers. The content and construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were examined. Healthy subject and patient group scores were compared, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine discriminatory ability. The Korean version of the SHI had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.99) and test-retest reliability for the total and subscales: total (T) 0.98, speech (S) 0.99, and psychosocial (P) 0.97. Mean scores in the healthy group were 0.5 (T), 0.2 (S), and 0.2 (P), whereas those in the patient group were 34.3 (T), 16.6 (S), and 15.5 (P). The scores differed significantly between the groups (P<0.05). The Korean version of the SHI can be a useful tool to evaluate a patient's self-perception of their speech dysfunction in daily life and to better understand postoperative speech disorders in patients with oral cavity cancer.

  17. Cancer of the oral cavity - trends in Karachi South (1995-2002).

    PubMed

    Bhurgri, Yasmin

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to study the time trends in site-specific oral cancer incidence and to determine the age-and socio-economic profile over time in Karachi South. Oral cancer ranks second in this population, in both genders. The incidence is the highest reported worldwide. Incident oral cancer cases received at the Karachi Cancer Registry during 1(st) January 1995 to 30(th) June 2004 were reviewed. To ensure maximally complete data, cases registered between 1(st) January 1995 and 31(st) December 2002 were considered for the present study. Cases of lymphoma, leukemia and melanoma were not included. Trends were studied by grouping cases into two periods, 1995-1997 and 1998-2002. A total of 2253 cases of oral cancer were registered in Karachi South for the 8 year study period accounting for 8.8% of all cancer cases. Overall, the most common site was the mucosa cheek (55.9%), followed by the tongue (28.4%), palate (6.8%), gum (4.4%), lip (3.1%) and floor of the mouth (1.4%). About 30% of cases occurred in patients 40 years and younger and 23% occurred in patients 65 years and older. Sub-categories of oral cancer showed variation in trends, but an earlier onset of disease in period two was evident for all categories. The incidence of lip cancer in men decreased, the rates remained level in females. An increased incidence was observed for tongue, but a more dramatic increase in the cheek was evident in both sexes, despite no improvement during the past decade in detection of early, localized lesions. A strong socio-economic factor with a poorer, low literacy profile of oral cancer was apparent in the entire study period. The evidence that the largest increase in incidence has occurred in this population may unfavorably affect the mortality rates. Oral cancer trends are an interplay of prevalent risk factors, the level of prevalence, preventive education and intervention. Cost effective and efficient cancer control focused around the target populations would be beneficial

  18. Body mass index, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx: modeling odds ratios in pooled case-control data.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Gaudet, Mia M; Olshan, Andrew F; Kelsey, Karl; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf Neto, Jose; Purdue, Mark P; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B

    2010-06-15

    Odds ratios for head and neck cancer increase with greater cigarette and alcohol use and lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height(2) (m(2))). Using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, the authors conducted a formal analysis of BMI as a modifier of smoking- and alcohol-related effects. Analysis of never and current smokers included 6,333 cases, while analysis of never drinkers and consumers of < or =10 drinks/day included 8,452 cases. There were 8,000 or more controls, depending on the analysis. Odds ratios for all sites increased with lower BMI, greater smoking, and greater drinking. In polytomous regression, odds ratios for BMI (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.52), and drinking (P = 0.73) were homogeneous for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Odds ratios for BMI and drinking were greater for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while smoking odds ratios were greater for laryngeal cancer (P < 0.01). Lower BMI enhanced smoking- and drinking-related odds ratios for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while BMI did not modify smoking and drinking odds ratios for laryngeal cancer. The increased odds ratios for all sites with low BMI may suggest related carcinogenic mechanisms; however, BMI modification of smoking and drinking odds ratios for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx but not larynx cancer suggests additional factors specific to oral cavity/pharynx cancer.

  19. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  20. ACTOplus Met XR in Treating Patients With Stage I-IV Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer Undergoing Definitive Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-10

    Oral Cavity Neoplasm; Oropharyngeal Neoplasm; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7

  1. Impact of smoking status on clinical outcome in oral cavity cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Watanabe, Miki; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Tajima, Kazuo; Murakami, Shingo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2012-02-01

    The association between smoking status and survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the association between smoking status before treatment and clinical outcome in OSCC patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 222 OSCC patients who were treated at Aichi Cancer Center in Japan. Of these, 82 patients (36.9%) were non-smokers, 65 (29.3%) were light smokers (pack-years smoking (PY) <30), 54 (24.3%) were moderate smokers (30≤PY<60), and 21 (9.5%) were heavy smokers (60≤PY). The survival impact of pre-treatment smoking status was evaluated using multivariate proportional hazard models. Five-year overall survival for non-, light, moderate, and heavy smokers was 72.9% (95% confidence interval CI): (61.4-81.5), 85.5% (74.0-92.2), 59.9% (44.3-72.4) and 69.0% (42.8-85.0). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for moderate and heavy smokers in comparison with light smokers were 2.44 (1.07-5.57, P=0.034) and 2.66 (0.97-7.33, P=0.058) and the dose-response relationship among smokers was statistically significance (P(trend)=0.024). In addition, adjusted HR for non-smokers relative to light smokers was 2.27 (0.84-6.15, P=0.108). We observed a suggestive heterogeneity in the impact of smoking status by treatment method (P for heterogeneity=0.069). Effect of smoking was evident only among the chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy group. In this study, we found the significant positive dose-response relationship among smokers on clinical outcome in OSCC patients and that non-smokers were worse prognosis than light smokers. In addition, this effect might differ by treatment method.

  2. [Results of surgical treatment of oral cavity cancer T1-2N0M0].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, A V; Sibgatullin, R R; Belova, E N; Boĭko, A A; Zolotykh, V G; Roman, L D

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the results of treatment of 20 patients (aged from 46 to 85 years old) with early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma at the period from April 2009 to January 2011. The surgery included the resection of primary tumor and neck dissection in all the patients. The primary tumor was removed by mouth access in 10 patients and combined method was used in 10 cases. The selective neck dissection was carried out in 22 cases. The oral cavity wounds were closed primarily by local flaps in 10 patients, some small residual defects were left open in 3 cases. The reconstructions with remote skin-muscular infrahyoid flap were performed in 7 patients. The free revascularized radial skin-fascia flap was used in 3 cases. A follow-up period was from 24 to 44 months. The primary local regional control consisted of 85% in given group of patients. The rate of recurrence of the second primary metachronous tumor was 15%. Tumors were located in the oral cavity. Overall 3-year survival was 90% (18 out of 20 patients).

  3. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . See the following PDQ summaries for more information ...

  4. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  5. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  6. Curcumin-Loaded Chitosan-Coated Nanoparticles as a New Approach for the Local Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Leticia; Loch-Neckel, Gecioni; Bubniak, Lorena Dos Santos; Mazzucco, Suelen; Santos-Silva, Maria Cláudia; Borsali, Redouane; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive nanoparticles loaded with curcumin were developed as a new approach to deliver curcumin for the local treatment of oral cancer. PCL nanoparticles coated with chitosan displaying different molar masses were prepared by using the nanoprecipitation technique. The mucoadhesive properties of nanoparticle suspensions were demonstrated by their strong ability to interact with the glycoprotein mucin through electrostatic interactions. Similar permeation profiles of curcumin loaded in uncoated and chitosan-coated nanoparticles across porcine esophageal mucosa were verified. Curcumin concentrations retained in the mucosa suggest the possibility of a local effect of the drug. In vitro studies demonstrated that free curcumin.and curcumin loaded into nanoparticles coated with chitosan caused significant reduction of SCC-9 human oral cancer cell viability in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, no significant cell death was observed after 24 h of treatment with unloaded nanoparticles coated with chitosan. In addition, curcumin-loaded nanoparticles showed reduced cytotoxicity, when compared with the free drug. Therefore, chitosan-coated PCL nanoparticles may be considered a promising strategy to deliver curcumin directly into the oral cavity for the treatment of oral cancer.

  7. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  8. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of oral cavity cancer by subsite: results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Cyr, Diane; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Guida, Florence; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Carton, Matthieu; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Delafosse, Patricia; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-05-01

    The objective was to examine the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the incidence of oral cavity cancer by subsite in France, a high-incidence area. We analysed detailed data on lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking from 772 oral cavity cancer cases and 3555 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Tobacco smoking increased the risk of oral cavity cancer even for the smaller quantities and durations, whereas alcohol drinking increased this risk only in heavy drinkers who were also ever smokers. The combined effect of smoking and drinking was greater than multiplicative. The floor of the mouth was the subsite that was the most affected by the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, whereas the gums were less susceptible. The risk associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption did not differ between intraoral cavity and subsites usually included in the oropharynx (soft palate and base of the tongue). Population-attributable risks for oral cavity cancer were 78.6% for tobacco smoking, 7.3% for alcohol drinking and 80.7% for tobacco and/or alcohol consumption. These results indicate that regular oral check-ups should be targeted at smokers and heavy drinkers, and that prevention efforts should be focused on smoking cessation.

  9. A matched cohort comparison of mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy and trans-oral surgery of early stage oral cavity squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakullukcu, Baris; Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Anne P E; Copper, Marcel P; Wildeman, Maarten A; Tan, I Bing

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early stage oral cavity tumors have been thoroughly reported. However, statistical comparison of PDT to the surgical treatment is not available in published literature. We have identified and matched cohorts of patients with early stage oral cavity cancers undergoing surgery (n = 43) and PDT (n = 55) from a single institute experience. The groups are matched demographically and had the same pre-treatment screening and follow-up schedule. Both groups consisted only of tumors thinner than 5 mm to ensure comparability. The endpoints were local disease free survival, disease free survival, overall survival and response to initial treatment. Local disease free survival at 5 years were 67 and 74 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 1.9 (p = 0.26), multivariable HR = 2.7 (p = 0.13)]. Disease free survival at 5 years are 47 and 53 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 0.8 (p = 0.52), multivariable HR = 0.75 (p = 0.45)]. Overall survival was 83 and 75 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [(univariate HR = 0.5 (p = 0.19), multivariable HR = 0.5 (p = 0.17)]. In the PDT group, six patients (11 %) and in the surgery group 11 patients (26 %) had to receive additional treatments after the initial. All of the tested parameters did not have statistical significant difference. Although there is probably a selection bias due to the non-randomized design, this study shows that PDT of early stage oral cavity cancer is comparable in terms of disease control and survival to trans-oral resection and can be offered as an alternative to surgical treatment.

  10. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.

  11. Role of radium implants in cancer of the oral cavity and oral pharynx. [Control and survival rates and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Fayos, J.V.

    1980-04-01

    Eighty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity tonsillar region or base of the tongue received a radium implant. Implants were done as a supplement to external irradiation except in three patients in whom it was the sole form of treatment. The median dose was 8500 rad given in about 8 weeks, 6000 to 6500 rad given by opposing lateral fields using /sup 60/Co radiation; 25% of the patients received doses higher than 8600 rad. The implant boosted the dose to the primary. Most of the patients who had radium implants had advanced disease. The overall control rate of the primary was 45.9%, the highest control achieved with smaller lesions. Surgery was performed in 26 patients for recurrence at the primary; five developed osteonecrosis of the jaw bone. The survival at 4 and 5 years was approximately equal for Stages I and II (80%); it was 40% for Stages III and IV.

  12. Endothelin receptor type B gene promoter hypermethylation in salivary rinses independently associates with risk of oral cavity cancer and premalignancy

    PubMed Central

    Pattani, Kavita Malhotra; Zhang, Zhe; Demokan, Semra; Glazer, Chad; Loyo, Myriam; Goodman, Steven; Sidransky, David; Bermudez, Francisco; Jean-Charles, Germain; McCaffrey, Thomas; Padhya, Tapan; Phelan, Joan; Spivakovsky, Silvia; Bowne, Helen Yoo; Goldberg, Judith D.; Rolnitzky, Linda; Robbins, Miriam; Kerr, A. Ross; Sirois, David; Califano, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) and kinesin family member 1A(KIF1A) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are inactivated in cancers. In this study we evaluated promoter hypermethylation of EDNRB and KIF1A and their potential use for risk classification in prospectively collected salivary rinses from patients with premalignant/malignant oral cavity lesions. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR(Q-MSP) was performed analyzing methylation status of EDNRB and KIF1A in salivary rinses of 191 patients. We proceeded to determine the association of methylation status with histologic diagnosis and estimate classification accuracy. On univariate analysis, diagnosis of dysplasia/cancer was associated with age and KIF1A or EDNRB methylation. Methylation of EDNRB highly correlated with that of KIF1A(p<0.0001). On multivariable modeling, histologic diagnosis independently associated with EDNRB(p=0.0003) or KIF1A(p=0.027) methylation). A subset of patients analyzed (n=161) without prior biopsy proven malignancy received clinical risk classification based on examination. On univariate analysis, EDNRB and risk classification were associated with diagnosis of dysplasia/cancer, and remained significant on multivariate analysis (EDNRB:p=0.047, risk classification:p=0.008). Clinical risk classification identified dysplasia/cancer with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 58%. The sensitivity of clinical risk classification combined with EDNRB methylation improved to 75%. EDNRB methylation in salivary rinses was independently associated with histologic diagnosis of premalignancy and malignancy and may have potential in classifying patients at risk for oral premalignant and malignant lesions in settings without access to a skilled dental practitioner. This may also potentially identify patients with premalignant and malignant lesions that do not meet criteria for high clinical risk based on skilled dental examination. PMID:20798208

  13. Outcome Analysis of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer and Extracapsular Spread in Neck Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in neck lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in this patient group and tried to identify a subset of patients with a worse prognosis suitable for more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 255 OSCC patients with ECS in neck nodes and without evidence of distant metastasis. All participants were followed-up for at least 2 years or censored at last follow-up. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: Level IV/V lymph node metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm were independent predictors of 5-year survival and identified three prognostic groups. In the low-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth <12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 60%, 66%, and 50%, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 39%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In the high-risk group (evidence of level IV/V metastases), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 14%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusions: Among OSCC patients with ECS, those with level IV/V metastases appear to have the worst prognosis followed by without level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm. An aggressive therapeutic approach may be suitable for intermediate- and high-risk patients.

  14. Impact of microvascular free flap reconstruction in oral cavity cancer: our experience in 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Almadori, G; Rigante, M; Bussu, F; Parrilla, C; Gallus, R; Barone Adesi, L; Galli, J; Paludetti, G; Salgarello, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oncological outcomes in patients affected by oral carcinoma treated with radical compartmental surgery followed by microvascular flap reconstruction. We conducted a retrospective analysis on a cohort of 130 patients. All patients underwent ablative tumour resection (compartmental surgery) followed by immediate reconstruction with free flaps and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, when necessary according to our tumour board and international guidelines. Disease-specific survival (DSS) curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test and generalised Wilcoxon test were used to investigate the most important prognostic factors on 5-year DSS. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to provide hazard ratios or relative risks for individual variables. 88.5% of patients were affected by SCC. There were 46 (35.4%) women and 84 (64.6%) men in the sample with a mean age of 58.5 years. At the end of the follow-up period, 36 (27.7%) patients died, only 3 of which for other causes. The 5-year DSS rate was 67.8% (S.E. 4.9%). In univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and in multivariate Cox regression model, seven variables were found to have a significant relationship with DSS: T (p = 0.026) and N (p = 0.0001) status, clinical stage (according to the UICC TNM Sixth Edition) (p = 0.007), margins of resection (p = 0.001), extracapsular spread (p = 0.005), recurrence of disease (p = 0.00002) and treatment modality (evaluated as surgery alone or surgery + RT/CHT) (p = 0.004). Our results confirmed findings already reported in the literature, and allowed us to conclude that compartmental surgery combined with free flap reconstruction can increase survival in oral cancer patients.

  15. Population-based incidence trends of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancers by sex among the poorest and underprivileged populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is an important health issue, with changing incidence in many countries. Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC, in tonsil and oropharygeal areas) is increasing, while oral cavity cancer (OCC, other sites in the mouth) is decreasing. There is the need to identify high risk groups and communities for further study and intervention. The objective of this study was to determine how the incidence of OPC and OCC varied by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) in British Columbia (BC), including the magnitude of any inequalities and temporal trends. Methods ICDO-3 codes were used to identify OPC and OCC cases in the BC Cancer Registry from 1981–2010. Cases were categorized by postal codes into SES quintiles (q1-q5) using VANDIX, which is a census-based, multivariate weighted index based on neighbourhood average household income, housing tenure, educational attainment, employment and family structure. Age-standardized incidence rates were determined for OPC and OCC by sex and SES quintiles and temporal trends were then examined. Results Incidence rates are increasing in both men and women for OPC, and decreasing in men and increasing in women for OCC. This change is not linear or proportionate between different SES quintiles, for there is a sharp and dramatic increase in incidence according to the deprivation status of the neighbourhood. The highest incidence rates in men for both OPC and OCC were observed in the most deprived SES quintile (q5), at 1.7 times and 2.2 times higher, respectively, than men in the least deprived quintile (q1). For OPC, the age-adjusted incidence rates significantly increased in all SES quintiles with the highest increase observed in the most deprived quintile (q5). Likewise, the highest incidence rates for both OPC and OCC in women were observed in the most deprived SES quintile (q5), at 2.1 times and 1.8 times higher, respectively, than women in the least deprived quintile (q1). Conclusion We report on SES disparities in oral

  16. The usefulness of toluidine staining as a diagnostic tool for precancerous and cancerous oropharyngeal and oral cavity lesions

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, E; Lombardo, N; L. Puzzo; Garozzo, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Toluidine blue stain is used as a marker to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression in order to improve early diagnosis of oropharyngeal carcinomas. This study focused on 45 oral mucosal lesions in 32 patients (13 female, 19 male). In 9 cases, multiple biopsies were collected. Of the 45 lesions examined, 26 (57.0%) were defined clinically benign, while 19 (42.3%) were defined as suspected lesions (premalignant or malignant). According to the clinical examination, the sensitivity was 53% (16/30) and for toluidine blue staining 96.2% (26/27) (p = 0.0007). The specificity was 80% (12/15) for clinical examination and 77.7% (14/15) for toluidine blue staining (p = 0.79). In conclusion toluidine blue stain has been shown to be a reliable aid when clinical examination is unable to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression and then it improves early diagnosis for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:20161875

  17. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of the Oral Cavity in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    van der Vorst, Joost R.; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Keereweer, Stijn; Jansen, Jeroen C.; van der Velden, Lilly-Ann; Langeveld, Antonius; Hutteman, Merlijn; Löwik, Clemens; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Elective neck dissection is frequently performed during surgery in head and neck cancer patients. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure can prevent the morbidity of a neck dissection and improve lymph node staging by fine pathology. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a promising technique to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN) intraoperatively. This feasibility study explored the use of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin (ICG:HSA) for SLN mapping in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods A total of 10 consecutive patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer and a clinical N0 neck were included. After exposure of the neck, 1.6 mL of ICG:HSA (500 μM) was injected at 4 quadrants around the tumor. During the neck dissection, levels I, II, III and IV were measured for fluorescence using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. Results In all 10 patients, NIR fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of one or more SLNs. A total of 17 SLNs were identified. The mean contrast between the fluorescent signal of the lymph nodes and of the surrounding tissue was 8.7 ± 6.4. In 3 patients, of which 1 was false-negative, lymph node metastases were found. After administration of ICG:HSA, the average number of fluorescent lymph nodes significantly increased over time (P < 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated feasibility to detect draining lymph nodes in head and neck cancer patients using NIR fluorescence imaging. However, the fluorescent tracer quickly migrated beyond the SLN to higher tier nodes. PMID:22939692

  18. Locoregional recurrences after post-operative volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in oral cavity cancers in a resource constrained setting: experience and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Patil, V M; Babu, S; Muttath, G; Thiagarajan, S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The conformal nature of dose distribution produced by volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) increases the risk of geographic miss. Data regarding patterns of failure after VMAT in oral cavity cancers in resource-constrained settings are scarce. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the patterns of failure in patients receiving adjuvant VMAT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer in Malabar Cancer Center, Kerala, India. Methods: Data of patients with oral cavity cancer receiving adjuvant VMAT IMRT between April 2012 and March 2014 were collected. Recurrent volumes were delineated on the treatment planning images and classified as defined by Dawson et al (Dawson LA, Anzai Y, Marsh L, Martel MK, Paulino A, Ship JA, et al. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46: 1117–26). Results: 75 patients with a median follow-up of 24 months were analysed. 41 (55%) patients had oral tongue cancers and 52 (69%) of the patients had Stage IVA cancers. The 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival and overall survival were 88.9%, 82.1% and 80.5%, respectively. With a median time to failure of 6.5 months, five infield and three outfield failures were identified. Conclusion: A relatively low rate of outfield failure and lack of marginal failure attests to the efficacy of VMAT in such patients. Modifications to our existing target delineation policy have been proposed. Advances in knowledge: The use of standardized target delineation methods allows safe use of VMAT IMRT even in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25645107

  19. Animal Models to Study the Mutational Landscape for Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pytynia, Matthew; Liu, Gene-Fu F.; Ranck, Mark C.; Widau, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Cancer is likely caused by alterations in gene structure or expression. Recently, next generation sequencing has documented mutations in 106 head and neck squamous cell cancer genomes, suggesting several new candidate genes. However, it remains difficult to determine which mutations directly contributed to cancer. Here, summarize the animal models which have already validated and may test cancer causing mutations identified by next generation sequencing approaches. Material and Methods We reviewed the existing literature on genetically engineered mouse models and next generation sequencing (NGS), as it relates to animal models of squamous cell cancers of the head and neck (HNSCC) in PubMed. Results NSG has identified an average of 19 to 130 distinct mutations per HNSCC specimen. While many mutations likely had biological significance, it remains unclear which mutations were essential to, or "drive," carcinogenesis. In contrast, "passenger" mutations also exist that provide no selection advantage. The genes identified by NGS included p53, RAS, Human Papillomavirus oncogenes, as well as novel genes such as NOTCH1, DICER and SYNE1,2. Animal models of HNSCC have already validated some of these common gene mutations identified by NGS. Conclusions The advent of next generation sequencing will provide new leads to the genetic changes occurring in squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Animal models will enable us to validate these new leads in order to better elucidate the biology of squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. PMID:24422024

  20. [Physical examination of oral cavity and physiological variations].

    PubMed

    Joly, Aline; Huttenberger, Brigitte; Pare, Arnaud

    2017-02-20

    Clinical examination from front to rear of oral cavity, mouth closed then open. Inspection and bimanuel exam. Face examination but also cervical lymph nodes, skin and mucous. Early diagnosis of oral cancer. To reduce diagnostic wavering and patient's stress, physiological varants are important to know. In most cases, clinical examination is enough for diagnosis.

  1. Integrating oral health throughout cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin

    2015-10-01

    Oral health is often not a priority during cancer treatment; however, patients with cancer are at increased risk for oral complications during and after treatment. This article focuses on the importance of oral health care before, during, and after cancer treatment using the head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach. AT A GLANCE: Oral health is linked to overall health, and healthcare providers must be cognizant of the oral-systemic connection with patients undergoing cancer treatment, which may cause acute and chronic oral health problems. 
Oral assessment, prevention, early recognition, and treatment of oral problems must be incorporated into cancer care, particularly with the aid of an interprofessional team to meet patients' oral care needs. 
The head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach integrates oral care into patients' history taking, physical examination, and plan of cancer care.
.

  2. [Examination of the oral cavities of patients with cancer: clinical evaluation and indirect measurement of the nitric oxide level].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; Khouri, Vivian Youssef; Guilherme, Caroline; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Pace, Mariangela Aparecida

    2013-02-01

    This observational study aimed to verify the association between the clinical state of the oral cavity (based on the Index of Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index) and the indirectly determined nitric oxide level in patients with oncologic and hematologic diseases. This study included 20 hospitalized patients who were in the evaluation phase prior to starting chemotherapy and who had been diagnosed with leukemia (35%), lymphoma (50%) or myeloma (15%). Fifty percent of these patients had normal oral health (no injury or trauma), and most had satisfactory (35%) or typical (35%) hygiene, but 30% had poor or very poor hygiene. The indirectly measured levels of nitric oxide ranged from 13.34 to 257. The nitric oxide level was not associated with other parameters, and there was great variability in its level. Further studies are necessary given the potential of using this indicator in the early detection of oral diseases.

  3. Cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx/larynx and lung in North Thailand: case-control study and analysis of cigar smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Simarak, S.; de Jong, U. W.; Breslow, N.; Dahl, C. J.; Ruckphaopunt, K.; Scheelings, P.; Maclennan, R.

    1977-01-01

    The unusually high relative frequency of cancer in the laryngeal region in males (18% of all histologically diagnosed cancers) and a sex ratio of unity for lung cancer in Northern Thailand were further explored in a hospital-based case-control study in Chiang Mai. This compared patients having cancers of the oral cavity (including oropharynx), larynx, hypopharynx and lung, with controls in relation to smoking and chewing habits. Statistical analysis indicated that chewing betel is strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer in both sexes, and with cancer of the laryngeal region in males. No factors were strongly linked to lung cancer in men, but, in women, urban residence and miang chewing were associated with lung cancer. Analysis of smoke from the two main types of cigars smoked in the region showed that both had high tar content, but there were marked differences in pH. Smoking cigars with alkaline smoke and high tar had an increased risk for laryngeal cancer in males, whereas other cigars with acid smoke and high tar together with manufactured cigarettes had increased risks for lung cancer. These increased risks were not, however, statistically significant. PMID:19028

  4. Role of dermatoglyphics as an indicator of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ambika; Karjodkar, Freny R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one name that causes panic and holds an undeserved high ranking as a killer. Another important condition which has become a major public health issue in South East Asia is oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Not all the people using tobacco suffer from these diseases. Genetic predisposition might explain such an individual variability that can be predicted by using various cytogenetic markers. However, these studies are far more costly and complicated. So, dermatoglyphics may be of immense clinical significance to segregate those individuals who are at an increased risk for developing these diseases. Aim: The present study was conducted to analyze the palmar dermatoglyphics in SCC and OSF and find a dermatoglyphic marker, if any. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: 120 individuals were divided into four groups based upon their habits of tobacco/areca nut usage and presence of OSF/SCC. Dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded using standard ink method. Various patterns were analysed statistically in the four groups. Results and Conclusion: In SCC, there was an increase in frequency of arch and ulnar loop patterns on fingertips, decrease in frequency of simple whorl patterns on fingertips, decrease in frequency of palmar accessory triradii on right and left hands. Significant findings in OSF included an increase in frequency of arch and ulnar loop pattern, decrease in frequency of simple whorl patterns on fingertips, decrease in atd angle on right hand, decrease in frequency of palmar accessory triradii on right hand. The results revealed that the field of dermatoglyphics holds promising results for determining the genetic susceptibility of individuals to develop SCC and OSF. PMID:24403787

  5. Global gene expression profiling of oral cavity cancers suggests molecular heterogeneity within anatomic subsites

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Patricia; Alvares, Adriana M; Michaluart, Pedro; Okamoto, Oswaldo K; Nunes, Fabio D; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Tajara, Eloiza H

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequent neoplasm, which is usually aggressive and has unpredictable biological behavior and unfavorable prognosis. The comprehension of the molecular basis of this variability should lead to the development of targeted therapies as well as to improvements in specificity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Results Samples of primary OSCCs and their corresponding surgical margins were obtained from male patients during surgery and their gene expression profiles were screened using whole-genome microarray technology. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Components Analysis were used for data visualization and One-way Analysis of Variance was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Samples clustered mostly according to disease subsite, suggesting molecular heterogeneity within tumor stages. In order to corroborate our results, two publicly available datasets of microarray experiments were assessed. We found significant molecular differences between OSCC anatomic subsites concerning groups of genes presently or potentially important for drug development, including mRNA processing, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, metabolic process, cell cycle and apoptosis. Conclusion Our results corroborate literature data on molecular heterogeneity of OSCCs. Differences between disease subsites and among samples belonging to the same TNM class highlight the importance of gene expression-based classification and challenge the development of targeted therapies. PMID:19014556

  6. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  7. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in Nonsmoking Women: A New and Unusual Complication of Chemotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Dominic W.; Hirsch, David; Delacure, Mark; Downey, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R.; Bannan, Michael; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Safra, Tamar; Muggia, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe occurrences of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients who had received long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods. In our cohort of patients on maintenance PLD for ovarian and related mullerian epithelial malignancies, we encountered two patients with invasive SCC of the oral cavity (one of them multifocal) and one with high-grade squamous dysplasia. Review of patients at our institution receiving PLD for recurrent ovarian cancer identified three additional patients. The duration of treatment, cumulative PLD dose, human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity, BRCA status, stage at diagnosis, outcome, and other characteristics are reviewed. Results. All five cases were nonsmokers with no known risk factors for HPV and four were negative for p16 expression. Four of the patients had known BRCA mutations whereas one tested negative. Cumulative doses of PLD were >1,600 mg/m2 given over 30–132 months. Three had SCCs staged as T1N0 oral tongue, alveolar ridge (gingival), and multifocal oral mucosa; one had a T2N0 oral tongue; and one had dysplasia. After excision, two were given radiation but recurred shortly thereafter; the others remain well and have had no further exposure to cytotoxic drugs, including PLD. Conclusion. Awareness of this possible long-term complication during PLD treatment should enhance the likelihood of early detection of oral lesions in these patients. Decisions to continue maintenance PLD after complete response of the original cancer should perhaps consider the benefits of delaying ovarian cancer recurrence versus the possible risk for a secondary cancer. PMID:22622148

  8. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  9. Current Management of Advanced Resectable Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ow, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The oral cavity is the most common site of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, a disease which results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though the primary modality of treatment for patients with oral cavity cancer remains surgical resection, many patients present with advanced disease and are thus treated using a multi-disciplinary approach. Patients with extracapsular spread of lymphatic metastasis and surgical margins that remain positive have been found to be at high risk for local-regional recurrence and death from disease, and are most often recommended to receive both post-operative radiation as well as systemic chemotherapy. The basis for this approach, as well as scientific developments that underly future trials of novels treatments for patients with high-risk oral cavity cancer are reviewed. PMID:21461056

  10. [Propositions for the selection and the delineation of peritumoral microscopic disease volumes in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (lymph nodes excluded)].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Henrot, P; Alfonsi, M; Bardet, E; Bensadoun, R J; Dolivet, G; Favrel, V; Gallocher, O; Giraud, P; Graff, P; Guerif, S; Lagarde, P; Lartigau, E; Marchesi, V; Pommier, P; Rives, M; Tortochaux, J; Toussaint, B; Verrelle, P; Bourhis, J; Calais, G

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the concept of selectivity in peritumoral microscopic disease to be included in the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) for elective treatment for oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, using the local tumoral spread. The objective of the present article is to present a procedure for the delineation of the target volumes, required for an appropriate application of 3-DCRT and IMRT for head and neck cancers. These propositions are for the delineation of microscopic peritumoral target volumes when external beam irradiation is required. CTVs are illustrated on CT sections.

  11. Autoimmune Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Kelly R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah G

    2017-03-01

    Immune-related disorders of the oral cavity may occur as primary disease process, secondary to systemic disease or neoplasm, or as a reaction to medications and other agents. The entities represented within this group may vary significantly by severity, clinical presentation, microscopic presentation, and special testing results. The selected immune-related conditions of the oral cavity in this article are categorized and presented by their prototypical tissue reaction patterns: vesiculobullous, including acantholytic and subepithelial separation; psoriasiform; spongiotic; and lichenoid reaction patterns.

  12. Inflammatory oral cavity diseases of the cat.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.

  13. Effect of Nutritional Supplementation Enriched with Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Inflammatory Profile of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer in Antineoplastic Pretreatment: A Controlled and Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thayana C; Cruz, Bruna C S; Viana, Monica S; Martucci, Renata B; Saraiva, Danúbia C A; Reis, Patrícia F

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of nutritional supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-enriched formula on the inflammatory profile of patients with oral cavity cancer. The study was conducted with 53 patients with oral cavity cancer in antineoplastic pretreatment who were randomized into two groups: the control group received a powdered supplement without EPA during 4 wk and the intervention group received a liquid supplement enriched with EPA (2 g/day) during the same period. In the baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation, serum concentrations of albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Values of CRP and of CRP/albumin ratio were lower in the intervention group than those in the control group. However, when the two groups were compared to each other after intervention, any significant difference was not observed. There was a significant negative correlation between levels of CRP and albumin, and IL-6 and albumin, both in the control and in the intervention groups. In both groups, a positive correlation between concentrations of IL-6 and CRP was observed. No significant difference was encountered in the assessed parameters between the group that received standard supplement and the group that received EPA-enriched supplement.

  14. [Soft tissue pathologies of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Margotta, V; Capogreco, M

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent form of neoplasia in the oral cavity is the squamous cell carcinoma (about 90% of cases) representing the 3-5% of all malignant tumors with about 56% of mortality rate, at 5 years from the diagnosis. In general, the neoplastic disease is now unanimly considered as a multifactorial and multiphasic pathology. Multiphasic since the carcinogenic process consists in the cellular capacity to acquire oncological potentialities through several stages such as: moltiplication (a), transmission (b) of malignity caracteristics to progenic cells, invasivity (c), capacity to give metastasis (d) and also resistance to chemiotherapy. Multifactorial since in the onset of the disease intrinsic and extrinsic factors are certainly involved. In the carcinogenic process of CCS a high percentage has been noticed of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the short arm (P) of cromosoms 3 and 9, which contains the tumor-suppressor genes p53 and DDC (Deleted in colon rectal cancer). In the onset of VADS carcinoma and in particular of oral CCS, it has also been formulated the hypothesis of an intrinsic genetic factor (Llewellyn et al., 2001) between patients, also young, who present the neoplasia even trough they have never been exposed to extrinsic risk factors such as smoke and alcohol. Since part of patients with oral CCS do not always refer a common risk factors history as possible extrinsic neoplasia causes, it has been formulated the hypothesis that some viral infections, for their oncogenic capacity, could be the main ethiological factors predisposing to this neoplasia. The HPV are responsible, either in the oral cavity or on the epidermis, for benign proliferations such as: Verruca Vulgaris, Condyloma Acuminatum, Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia, Squamous Cell Papillomas, but also lesions that are potentially or certainly malignant such as CCS and Verrucous Carcinoma. The molecular analysis performed show that proteins produced from E6 and E7 portions of viral genoma (HPV 16

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma first presenting as a tumor of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Alrumaih, Redha Ali; Arian, Asif Ali; Alhedyani, Alanoud A; Al-Zaher, Nabil; Dababo, M Anas

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide; HCC metastasis is common affecting 50% of cases. However, metastasis to the oral cavity is extremely infrequent. We present a case of hepatocellular cancer first presenting as a mass lesion at the upper alveolus and review metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the oral cavity in 73-year-old male patient.

  16. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384

  17. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology. PMID:26351482

  18. [Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    A, Burgos; R, Kaplan; N, Rodríguez; Meza, Vetanzo; Morelatto, R; Piccinni, D

    2008-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm and it is only 0.5% of the malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity, and less than 10% of all the malignant melanomas. The mean age for patients with oral melanoma is from 40 to 70 years; with a higher frequency between the 50 and 60 years. Pigmentation areas are frequently noted before diagnosis of this neoplasm. Some predisposing factors are mechanical traumas resulting from not well adapted prostheses, solar radiation, and chem-icals. Although oral cavity melanomas can remain asymptomatic during a time, the clinical presentations include hemorrhage, ulceration and pain. Melanomas grow fast, generally in a vertical growth phase, with early invasion of bones and lymphatic nodes. The prognosis for patients with melanoma is poor with a 5-year survival rate. The election treatment is surgical. The early diagnosis, the recognition of the lesions for doctors and odontologists, and the biopsy of recent or old pigmentation areas in the mouth that they have some changes (ulceration, bleeding, etc.) will contribute to offer patients a more effective treatment and a higher survival rate. We will present the case study of a 78-year-old male patient with a tumor in the dental ridge surrounded by melanotic spots, which was diagnosed as invasive melanoma and confirmed with immunohistochemical techniques.

  19. Clinical features of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Dong; Ma, Xin; Han, Yao-Lun; Peng, Li-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity. The clinical records of 1,024 patients who were treated during follow-up for oral cancer at the Department of Stomatology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, between March 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics of 961 patients who developed single primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during follow-up and 54 patients who subsequently developed multiple primary carcinomas in the oral cavity were compared. Multiple primary carcinomas exhibited a female predilection, were most prevalent in the gingiva, and tended to show earlier tumor and nodal stages, as compared with single primary carcinomas. The local recurrence rate was higher for multiple primary carcinomas, as compared with single primary carcinomas, and was demonstrated to increase with the number of multiple primary occurrences. The cumulative incidence rates for metachronous second primary carcinomas following the onset of the first carcinoma at 10 years was 8.0%. Recurrence of multiple primary carcinomas did not decrease the survival rates of the patients assessed in the present study. Furthermore, differences were detected in the clinical characteristics between patients with single oral SCC and those with multiple primary oral carcinomas. The results of the present study indicated that early diagnosis and treatment and close long-term follow-up are required for patients with multiple primary oral carcinomas.

  20. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-02

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis.

  1. Shielding effect of a customized intraoral mold including lead material in high-dose-rate 192-Ir brachytherapy for oral cavity cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Takaharu; Ikushima, Hitoshi; Honda, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    A high-dose-rate (HDR) 192-Ir brachytherapy using a customized intraoral mold is effective for superficial oral cavity cancer, and the surrounding normal tissue is kept away from the radioactive source with gauze pads and/or mouth piece for reducing the dose on the normal tissues. In the Tokushima university hospital, the mold has a lead shield which utilizes the space prepared with sufficient border-molding by a specific dental technique using modeling compound. In HDR 192-Ir brachytherapy using a lead shielded customized intraoral mold, there are no reports measuring the absorbed dose. The purpose of the present study is to measure the absorbed dose and discuss the optimum thickness of lead in HDR 192-Ir brachytherapy using a customized intraoral mold with lead shield using a 1 cm thickness mimic mold. The thickness of lead in the mold could be changed by varying the arrangement of 0.1 cm thickness sheet of the acrylic resin plate and lead. The measured doses at the lateral surface of the mold with thermo-luminescence dosimeter were reduced to 1.12, 0.79, 0.57, 0.41, 0.31, 0.24 and 0.19 Gy and the ratios to the prescription dose were reduced to 56, 40, 29, 21, 16, 12 and 10 percent as lead thickness increased from 0 to 0.6 cm in 0.1 cm increments, respectively. A 0.3 cm thickness lead was considered to be required for a 1 cm thickness mold, and it was necessary to thicken the lead as much as possible with the constraint of limited space in the oral cavity, especially at the fornix vestibule.

  2. Bioengineering in the oral cavity: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Catalfamo, L; Belli, E; Nava, C; Mici, E; Calvo, A; D’Alessandro, B; De Ponte, FS

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, there are no studies reported in the literature on the possible use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or synthetic hyaluronic acid medications in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper is to report the use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, and synthetic hyaluronic acid medications to improve wound healing in the oral cavity by stimulating granulomatous tissue. Methods From 2007 to 2011, 80 patients (median age 67 years) suffering from oral mucosal lesions participated in this double-blind study. The patients were divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 patients. One group received conventional medications, while the other group of patients were treated with the advanced medications. Results Advanced medications allowed re-epithelialization of the wound margin in 2–20 days, whereas patients receiving conventional medication showed a median healing duration of 45 days. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that treating oral mucosal wounds with advanced medication has an advantage with regard to wound healing time, allowing patients to have a rapid, functional, and esthetic recovery. PMID:24143092

  3. [Oral cavity changes in alcoholic patients].

    PubMed

    Esguep, A; Ceballos, M; Smith, P

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this study was to look for pathological changes in the oral cavity in a group of 40 non cirrhotic male alcoholics, ranging in age from 30 to 40 years old. These subjects were compared with a group of 40 non alcoholic male subjects of similar age. The presence of lip, dental, periodontal, salivary gland and oral mucosa lesions was recorded. In alcoholics, pigmented lesions were observed in the lips in all the subjects (compared to 36% of controls), in the cheek mucosa in 65% and in the palate mucosa in 35.5%. Sixty five percent of alcoholics were partially edentate (compared to 32.5% of controls). It is concluded that the consideration of oral changes as a whole could be useful in the diagnosis of occult alcoholism. Moreover these patients have an important need of odontological attention that has to be considered.

  4. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma.

  5. Tumour-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in normal and neoplastic tissues of patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity - clinical relevance and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Hundsdorfer, Brigitte; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Bock, Klaus Peter; Dettmar, Peer; Schmitt, Manfred; Kolk, Andreas; Pautke, Christoph; Horch, Hans-Henning

    2005-06-01

    The central role of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, the plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in tumour invasion and metastasis becomes more and more evident. In several studies, uPA and PAI-1 proved to be of prognostic relevance as shown for different types of cancer (e.g. breast, stomach, lung). Elevated antigen levels of uPA and/or PAI-1 predict poor outcome (relapse-free survival) for patients afflicted with cancer. For oral squamous cell carcinomas, however, the prognostic relevance of the tumour-associated proteolytic factors uPA and PAI-1 has still to be evaluated. In the present study, using tissue extracts of 79 oral cancer cases, 58 specimens of normal oral cavity mucosa and of 16 tumour positive lymph nodes taken from the same patients, uPA and PAI-1 antigen were determined by highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation was found between uPA and PAI-1 in tumour tissue, when compared with the normal mucosa of the same oral cavity. Median levels showed significant elevations in cancer tissue and in tumour positive lymph nodes versus normal oral mucosa. In patients with high levels of uPA or PAI-1, there were significantly more tumour relapses. There was no significant correlation between pathological TNM categories, grading, residual tumour category, tumour site and patient age. In summary, tumour uPA/PAI-1 content (as determined by ELISA) appears to be a strong independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival in squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity. These observations might help to select patients with poor prognosis for additional adjuvant therapy in conjunction with complete surgical resection.

  6. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  7. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains.

  8. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies.

  9. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Astreidis, Ioannis T.; Kontos, Konstantinos I.; Lazaridou, Maria N.; Bourlidou, Eleni T.; Gerasimidou, Domniki K.; Vladika, Natalia P.; Mangoudi, Doxa L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity from distant organs are uncommon and represent approximately 1 - 3% of all oral malignancies. Such metastases can occur to the bone or to the oral soft tissues. Almost any malignancy from any site is capable of metastasis to the oral cavity and a wide variety of tumours have been reported to spread to the mouth. Methods Careful examination of the oral cavity and a high degree of clinical suspicion as well as a multidisciplinary approach are suggested. Results In this article we present three patients, a female and two males with metastatic tumours to the oral cavity, who were referred to our Department. The primary tumours were invasive lobular breast carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma respectively. Conclusions Metastases to the oral cavity are quite uncommon among population. They usually present with symptoms similar to odontogenic infections and benign tumours, causing a delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26904182

  10. Oral cavity cancer risk in relation to tobacco chewing and bidi smoking among men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India: Karunagappally cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Gangadharan, Paleth; Akiba, Suminori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Nair, Raghu Ram K

    2011-02-01

    The Karunagapally cohort in Kerala, India was established in the 1990s. The present study examined oral cancer risk among 66,277 men aged 30-84 years in the cohort, using Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, stratified on attained age, calendar time, education, and family income. By the end of 2005, 160 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagapally Cancer Registry. Tobacco chewing increased oral cancer risk (P < 0.001). Particularly increased was the risk of cancers of the gum and mouth (relative risk [RR] = 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8-7.9), which increased with higher daily frequencies (P < 0.001) and longer duration (P < 0.001) of tobacco chewing. Alcohol drinking was not significantly related to oral cancer risk regardless of tobacco chewing. Bidi smoking significantly increased oral cancer risk (RR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.4-4.9) only among men without tobacco chewing habits. The risk increased with higher daily consumption (P < 0.001), longer duration (P = 0.001), and younger age at start of bidi smoking (P = 0.007). In location-specific analysis, bidi smoking was significantly associated with cancer of the gum and mouth (RR = 3.6; 95%CI = 1.1-12.1), and its risk significantly increased with larger daily consumption of bidis (P = 0.013) and younger age at the start of smoking (P = 0.044). Tongue cancer risk was significantly increased among men who smoked bidis for 30 years or longer, and men started bidi smoking at 18 years old or younger. The present study is the first cohort study showing that tobacco chewing increases cancers of the gum and mouth among men keeping chewing tobacco in the cheek, and that bidi smoking strongly increased oral cancer risk among men without a tobacco chewing habit.

  11. Do high-risk human papillomaviruses cause oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Moreau, F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are an established etiologic factor for a growing number of oropharyngeal cancers. However, their potential role in other upper aerodigestive tract locations is still a matter of debate, particularly in the oral cavity. This is of paramount importance as in the future diagnosis, treatment and follow up in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma may vary according to HPV status. This article reviews the recent published data and highlights some of the pitfalls that have hampered the accurate assessment of HR-HPV oncological role outside the oropharynx. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the oropharynx, only a small fraction of cancers located in the oral cavity seem to be HPV-related even in young non-smoking non-drinking patients. We emphasize several relevant factors to consider in assumed HPV-induced oral cavity cancers and discuss the current theories that explain why HPV-induced cancers arise preferentially in the oropharynx.

  12. Miswak in oral cavity - An update.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilanand; Patil, Ranjit; Nagar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Miswak, scientifically known as Salvadora persica, is a species of Salvadora belonging to family Salvadoraceae. It is considered as "Nature's little toothbrush" as it is a popular chewing stick throughout Indian subcontinent. In India, it is commonly known as arak tree, meswak, peelu, kharjal or jhank. It also serves as a natural toothpaste with antibacterial, anti-caries, anti-periopathic disinfectant having anti-plaque and anti-fungal properties. Miswak sticks are being used by majority of people who cannot afford to buy the commercial western toothbrush and toothpaste mainly in rural areas of developing countries. The present review is an attempt to define the potential of the miswak in preventing and treating the common diseases of oral cavity and teeth.

  13. [Consequences of piercing within oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Gerreth, Karolina; Gerreth, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Tatooing and invasive forms of body art, such as piercing, have become very popular in Western culture among youth. Literature studies show that the oral cavity is one of the most popular places where rings are installed. However, not everyone is aware of the potential consequences that can develop as a consequence of the piercing. Among early complications are aching, swelling, trouble with swallowing, chewing and speech difficulties. Jewellery can also cause unnatural, increased production of saliva. Infection is also a major risk of the procedure itself. Along with these complications there are also many cases of blood vessel and nerve damage in the patients. Other complications that are possible are: irritation to the gums, teeth injuries, as well as enamel chipping. Piercing should always be taken into consideration during diagnostic procedures. Complete information about piercing complications, as well as information about the necessary post-piercing hygiene, should be given to the patient and to the parents of minors.

  14. Commensal communism and the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Henderson, B; Wilson, M

    1998-09-01

    The world we live in contains unimaginable numbers of bacteria, and these and other single-celled creatures represent the major diversity of life on our planet. During the last decade or so, the complexity and intimacy of the interactions which occur between bacteria and host eukaryotic cells during the process of infection have begun to emerge. The study of such interactions is the subject of the new discipline of cellular microbiology. This intimacy of bacteria/host interactions creates a major paradox. The average human being is 90% bacteria in terms of cell numbers. These bacteria constitute the commensal or normal microflora and populate the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and the surface of the skin. In bacterial infections, much of the pathology is due to the release of a range of bacterial components (e.g., modulins such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, DNA, molecular chaperones), which induce the synthesis of the local hormone-like molecules known as pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, such components must also be constantly released by the vast numbers of bacteria constituting the normal microflora and, as a consequence, our mucosae should constantly be in a state of inflammation. This is patently not the case, and a hypothesis is forwarded to account for this "commensal paradox", namely, that our commensal bacteria and mucosal surfaces exist in a state of bio-communism, forming a unified "tissue" in which interactions between bacteria and epithelia are finely balanced to ensure bacterial survival and prevent the induction of damaging inflammation. Evidence is emerging that bacteria can produce a variety of proteins which can inhibit the synthesis/release of inflammatory cytokines. The authors predict that such proteins are simply one part of an extensive signaling system which occurs between bacteria and epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces such as those found in the oral cavity.

  15. Unusual Dermoid Cyst in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Volpato, Luis Evaristo Ricci; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Botelho, Gilberto de Almeida; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Dermoid cysts in oral cavity are unusual lesions. Their etiology is not yet clear and can be associated with trapped cells as a result of the inclusion error resulting in the development into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm tissues. The aim of this case report is to evidence the presence of a dermoid cyst in the floor of mouth surgically removed. In the present case, the lesion showed soft consistency, floating, regular borders, smooth surface, and the same color as the adjacent mucosa, asymptomatic and measuring 4.5 × 5.5 cm in its greatest diameter. The initial diagnostic was ranula in consequence of the similarity with clinical characteristics and localization. After surgical removal lesion, a fibrotic capsule was identified with a friable material with intensive yellow color. The microscopic exam showed cystic lesion with cavity lined by squamous stratified epithelium hyperorthokeratinized. Cutaneous attachments, such as sebaceous glands and hair follicles, were present in connective adjacent tissue. Surgical intervention is elective in these situations. All dentists must have a thorough knowledge of this unusual lesion. PMID:24818032

  16. Surgical Approaches to the Oral Cavity Primary and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jatin P.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: A variety of surgical approaches used to treat primary oral cavity tumors are described to delineate the technique and rationale behind each treatment choice. Methods and Materials: Size, location, proximity to bone, lymph node status, histology, and prior treatment considerations are employed to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for primary oral cavity tumors. Results: Oncologic outcomes and physical function show the best results from surgical treatment of many primary oral cavity, but necessitates careful selection of surgical approach. Conclusion: Each surgical approach must be selected based upon relevant tumor, patient and physician factors.

  17. Human Papillomavirus-16 Infection in Advanced Oral Cavity Cancer Patients Is Related to an Increased Risk of Distant Metastases and Poor Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yang, Shu-Li; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Chang, Yu-Liang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an oncogenic virus causing oropharyngeal cancers and resulting in a favorable outcome after the treatment. The role of HPV in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains ambiguous. Objective This study aimed to examine the effect of HPV infection on disease control among patients with OSCC following radical surgery with radiation-based adjuvant therapy. Patients and Method We prospectively followed 173 patients with advanced OSCC (96% were stage III/IV) who had undergone radical surgery and adjuvant therapy between 2004 and 2006. They were followed between surgery and death or up to 60 months. Surgical specimens were examined using a PCR-based HPV blot test. The primary endpoints were the risk of relapse and the time to relapse; the secondary endpoints were disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Results The prevalence of HPV-positive OSCC was 22%; HPV-16 (9%) and HPV-18 (7%) were the genotypes most commonly encountered. Solitary HPV-16 infection was a poor predictor of 5-year distant metastases (hazard ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–8.0; P = 0.005), disease-free survival (P = 0.037), disease-specific survival (P = 0.006), and overall survival (P = 0.010), whereas HPV-18 infection had no impact on 5-year outcomes. The rate of 5-year distant metastases was significantly higher in the HPV-16 or level IV/V metastasis group compared with both the extracapsular spread or tumor depth ≥11-mm group and patients without risk factors (P<0.001). Conclusions HPV infections in advanced OSCC patients are not uncommon and clinically relevant. Compared with HPV-16-negative advanced OSCC patients, those with a single HPV-16 infection are at higher risk of distant metastases and poor survival despite undergoing radiation-based adjuvant therapy and require a more aggressive adjuvant treatment and a more thorough follow-up. PMID:22808258

  18. Enhanced contact endoscopy for the assessment of the neoangiogenetic changes in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Carta, Filippo; Sionis, Sara; Cocco, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Ferreli, Caterina; Puxeddu, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract show significant neoangiogenesis appearing as subepithelial and epithelial microvascular irregularities that can be detected by Image-Enhanced Endoscopy such as Narrow Band Imaging and Storz Professional Image Enhancement System. In the present study, the most advanced endoscopic enhancement systems were coupled with Contact Endoscopy (Enhanced Contact Endoscopy). This original method improved the identification and the understanding of the neoangiogenetic changes of the chorion in 42 patients with leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and leuko-erythroplakia of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The physiologic and pathologic mucosa was described in five obvious vascular patterns observed at Enhanced Contact Endoscopy ranging from normal to squamous cell carcinoma, passing through inflammation, hyperplasia, and dysplasia. Each vascular pattern was then compared to histology, showing that the microvascular architectural changes seen with Enhanced Contact Endoscopy are almost constant. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in the differentiation between healthy mucosa and inflammation versus pathologic hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma were, respectively, 96.6, 93.3, 98.2, 87.5, and 95.9 %. Sensitivity and specificity were 100 % in differentiation between non-malignant lesions versus squamous cell carcinoma. Our preliminary experience shows that accuracy of Image-Enhanced Endoscopy in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx can be increased if associated to Contact Endoscopy.

  19. Isolation and identification methods of Rothia species in oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Tsuzukibashi, Osamu; Uchibori, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Taira; Umezawa, Koji; Mashimo, Chiho; Nambu, Takayuki; Saito, Masanori; Hashizume-Takizawa, Tomomi; Ochiai, Tomoko

    2017-03-01

    Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa which are Gram-positive bacteria are part of the normal flora in the human oral cavity and pharynx. Furthermore, Rothia aeria, which was first isolated from air samples in the Russian space station Mir, is predicted to be an oral inhabitant. Immunocompromised patients are often infected by these organisms, leading to various systemic diseases. The involvement of these organisms in oral infections has attracted little attention, and their distribution in the oral cavity has not been fully clarified because of difficulties in accurately identifying these organisms. A suitable selective medium for oral Rothia species, including R. aeria, is necessary to assess the veritable prevalence of these organisms in the oral cavity. To examine the bacterial population in the oral cavity, a novel selective medium (ORSM) was developed for isolating oral Rothia species in this study. ORSM consists of tryptone, sodium gluconate, Lab-Lemco powder, sodium fluoride, neutral acriflavin, lincomycin, colistin, and agar. The average growth recovery of oral Rothia species on ORSM was 96.7% compared with that on BHI-Y agar. Growth of other representative oral bacteria, i.e. genera Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium, was remarkably inhibited on the selective medium. PCR primers were designed based on partial sequences of the 16S rDNA genes of oral Rothia species. These primers reacted to each organism and did not react to other non-oral Rothia species or representative oral bacteria. These results indicated that these primers are useful for identifying oral Rothia species. A simple multiplex PCR procedure using these primers was a reliable method of identifying oral Rothia species. The proportion of oral Rothia species in saliva samples collected from 20 subjects was examined by culture method using ORSM. Rothia dentocariosa, Rothia mucilaginosa, and R. aeria accounted for 1.3%, 5.9%, and 0.8% of the total cultivable

  20. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the...

  1. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in the oral cavity: a huge oral cavity mass with neck metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun Jun; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Bae, Seong Hoon; Park, Ah Young; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Hong-Shik

    2013-11-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is a rare, aggressive, poorly understood malignancy. In CEPA, an epithelial malignancy develops in association with a primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is very difficult to identify before surgery because the clinical presentation of many cases is similar to that of pleomorphic adenomas. The risk for malignancy increases with the duration of a mixed tumor. Treatment of CEPA must be individualized on the basis of the tumor location, involvement of adjacent structures, histologic subtype, and grade. The authors recently experienced a case of CEPA arising in the oral cavity with neck metastasis. The patient was a 70-year-old man presenting a huge mass that was present for 20 years and that slowly grew on the left side of the neck. We treated it with a total excision with wide margins and neck dissection. There was no recurrence during the follow-up period of 5 years up until now. We present a case of an unusually huge CEPA in the oral cavity.

  2. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  3. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence. PMID:28053902

  4. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence.

  5. [Templates for curietherapy of the oral cavity and their dosimetric use].

    PubMed

    Pizzi, G; Fongione, S; Mandoliti, G; Beorchia, A; Contento, G; Malisan, M R

    1989-12-01

    Flexible 192Ir wire implants are commonly used for the treatment of some types of cancer in the oral cavity. A modified technique of plastic tubes is here presented which aims at correctly positioning the active wires with thin plastic templates. Possible sources of error are examined and their consequences on the dose distribution around the implant are analyzed. In most cases control dosimetry matches the provisions satisfactorily. It may be thus concluded that the use of templates allows good and reproducible results to be obtained in the brachytherapy of the oral cavity.

  6. Optical diagnostics in the oral cavity: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, P; Holtzman, J; Epstein, J; Le, A

    2014-01-01

    As the emphasis shifts from damage mitigation to disease prevention or reversal of early disease in the oral cavity, the need for sensitive and accurate detection and diagnostic tools become more important. Many novel and emergent optical diagnostic modalities for the oral cavity are becoming available to clinicians with a variety of desirable attributes including: (i) non-invasiveness, (ii) absence of ionizing radiation, (iii) patient-friendliness, (iv) real-time information (v) repeatability, and (vi) high-resolution surface and subsurface images. In this article, the principles behind optical diagnostic approaches, their feasibility and applicability for imaging soft and hard tissues, and their potential usefulness as a tool in the diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions, dental pathologies, and other dental applications will be reviewed. The clinical applications of light-based imaging technologies in the oral cavity and of their derivative devices will be discussed to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of emergent diagnostic modalities. PMID:20561224

  7. An explosion in the oral cavity by a firecracker.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Min

    2013-01-01

    Explosive oral cavity injuries make restoring optimal oral function a challenge. An explosion in the oral cavity can cause burns and concomitant smoke inhalation injury to the upper airway.We present the case of a patient in whom the middle and lower thirds of the face were destroyed when a firecracker exploded in his oral cavity. Gunpowder tattooing caused by the explosion was present on the retropharyngeal space. He had an open fracture of the mandibular symphysis and inhalation burns of the upper airway were suspected. Tracheostomy was performed because we could not rule out inhalation burns of the upper airway. After close observation, his cardiopulmonary function and vital signs were stable, and we prepared him for reconstructive surgery.

  8. mTOR and MEK1/2 inhibition differentially modulate tumor growth and the immune microenvironment in syngeneic models of oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Harrison; Shah, Sujay; Moore, Ellen; Caruso, Andria; Uppaluri, Ravindra; Van Waes, Carter; Allen, Clint

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mTOR and MEK1/2 inhibition on tumor growth and the tumor microenvironment in immunogenic and poorly immunogenic models of murine oral cancer. In vitro, rapamycin and PD901 inhibited signaling through expected downstream targets, but only PD901 reduced viability and altered function of MOC cells. Following transplantation of MOC cells into immune-competent mice, effects on both cancer and infiltrating immune cells were characterized following rapamycin and/or PD901 treatment for 21 days. In vivo, both rapamycin and PD901 inhibition reduced primary growth of established MOC tumors on treatment. Following withdrawal of PD901, rapid rebound of tumor growth limited survival, whereas durable tumor control was observed following rapamycin treatment in immunogenic MOC1 tumors despite more robust inhibition of oncogenic signaling by PD901. Characterization of the immune microenvironment revealed diminished infiltration and activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells and other immune cells following PD901 but not rapamycin in immunogenic tumors. Subsequent in vitro T-cell assays validated robust inhibition of T-cell expansion and activation following MEK inhibition compared to mTOR inhibition. CD8 cell depletion abrogated rapamycin-induced primary tumor growth inhibition in MOC1 mice. These data have critical implications in the design of combination targeted and immune therapies in oral cancer. PMID:26506415

  9. In vivo OCT study of neoplastic alterations of the oral cavity mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomina, Julia V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Myakov, Alexey V.

    2004-07-01

    The goal of our study was to conduct a statistical evaluation of the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect neoplasia in vivo in oral cavity. The study enrolled 97 patients (35 volunteers with healthy mucosa of the oral cavity-group I, 41 patients with benign conditions-group II, 21 patients with dysplasia or carcinoma-group III). The diagnosis was established by a histopathology examination of biopsy material. Each biopsy site was imaged by OCT beforehand. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 98% were observed as a result of OCT image recognition of dysplastic/malignant versus benign/reactive conditions in the oral cavity. The interobserver agreement kappa was 0.76. Such sensitivity and specificity makes OCT a promising tool for non-invasive evaluation of tissue sites suspicious for high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  10. Parameters of Stromal Activation and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition as Predictive Biomarkers for Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geweiler, Jana; Inhestern, Johanna; Berndt, Alexander; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Induction chemotherapy (IC) is likely to be effective for biologically distinct subgroups of oral cancer and biomarker development may lead to identification of those patients. Methods We evaluated immune cell infiltration, stroma formation and structure of the invasive front as well as the immunohistochemical expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA), CD163, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and the laminin gamma 2 chain in pretreatment biopsy specimens and surgical resections after IC in 20 patients with locally advanced oral cancer who were treated in a prospective, ongoing, phase II trial on IC using docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF). Results Significant negative prognostic factors for incomplete pathological tumor response to IC were alcohol abuse (P=0.032), cN+ (P=0.042), and <30% tumor reduction after first cycle of IC (P=0.034). Of the investigated histological parameters and biomarkers only a low membrane-bound expression of E-cadherin showed a trend to be associated with incomplete response to IC (P=0.061). Low expression of ASMA in stromal vessels and a strong tumor invasion front were significantly associated to tumor recurrence (P=0.024 and P=0.004, respectively). The median follow-up of all patients was 35 months. Alcohol abuse (P<0.001), <30% tumor reduction after first cycle of IC (P=0.005), and a strong tumor invasion front (P=0.019) were negative prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusion A strong predictive biomarker among the investigated parameters for benefitting from TPF IC could not be found. The extent of the tumor invasion front was a negative prognostic marker for recurrence and survival in oral cancer treated by TPF IC followed by surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy. PMID:27416733

  11. Oral Cavity as an Extragastric Reservoir of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S.; Kamath, Kavitha P.; Patil, Shankargouda; Preethanath, R. S.; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several studies were reported on the prevalence, and relationship between the existence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity and in stomach of patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its link to gastric infection, the existence of coinfection, and the impact of anti-H. pylori therapy on the dental plaque and vice versa. Method. Two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The articles were analyzed critically and all qualified studies were included. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words Helicobacter, Helicobacter pylori, and H. pylori in combination with dental plaque, periodontitis, and oral hygiene. Results. The data was presented in 8 tables and each topic separately discussed. Conclusion. Based on the systematic review of the available literature on H. pylori infection and its presence in the oral cavity, it can be concluded that dental plaque can act as a reservoir, and proper oral hygiene maintenance is essential to prevent reinfection. Due to the diversified methods and population groups involved in the available literature, no concrete evidence can be laid down. Further studies are necessary to establish the role of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its eradication on preventing the gastroduodenal infection. PMID:24701355

  12. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  13. Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestin, S.; Betz, C.; Kraft, M.

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising method in the early diagnosis of oral cavity cancer. The objective of the present study is to determine normal values of epithelial thickness in the oral cavity, as no such data are to be found in the literature. In healthy test persons, epithelial thickness of the oral mucosa was determined with the help of OCT separately for each side at nine different locations. Special attention was directed to those sites having the highest incidence for the development of dysplasias and carcinomas. Depending on the location within the oral cavity, the epithelium demonstrated a varying thickness. The highest values were found in the region of the tongue and the cheek, whereas the floor of the mouth showed the thinnest epithelium. Our data serve as reference values for detecting oral malignancy and determining the approximate grade of dysplasia. In this circumstance, a differentiated view of the different regions is important due to the variation in thickness of the epithelium within the normal oral cavity.

  14. Applications of flexible hollow waveguides in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Israel; Calderon, Shlomo; Dror, Jacob; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1995-05-01

    Flexible plastic waveguides were used in several fields of dentistry for treatments in the oral cavity. Soft tissue lesions were treated applying CO2 laser energy. A new technique for dental implants was suggested using a combination of Er-YAG and CO2 laser energy. Cavity preparation in the teeth was performed using the Er-YAG laser radiation and CO2 energy transmitted by the waveguides was used for root canal treatments.

  15. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  16. Clinical and mycological analysis of dog’s oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; de Oliveira Nobre, Márcia; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2013-01-01

    The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis. PMID:24159296

  17. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Pride, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  18. Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug.

  19. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo.

  20. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anirudh

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers in India, unlike in the West are the most common cancers encountered, be it a primary or a tertiary referral practice. This makes the study and management of these cancers an important issue especially for the otolaryngologist. It is well known that the most common variant of oral cancers is the squamous cell carcinoma. Also the etiology is well established; with tobacco use in both smoking and smokeless forms, alcohol, betel nut and recently the Human Papilloma virus infection being implicated. Certain conditions which definitely increase the probability of getting oral cancers are known and this study aims in revisiting these aspects of pre-malignancy. The progression from a pre-cancerous lesion/condition to frank cancer is well established across many studies and many specialties. Also timely recognizing these pre-cancerous conditions and administration of proper treatment will greatly help in reducing the morbidity and mortality from subsequent much advanced and dangerous oral cancer. Keeping these facts in mind this study was planned to study the established pre-cancerous lesions which are known to progress to oral cancers.

  1. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  2. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery.

    PubMed

    Yee, John K C

    2016-01-14

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization.

  3. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  4. Infectious and dietary risk factors of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the classic risk factors of oral cancer, namely alcohol and tobacco, other factors both infectious and environmental are thought to be associated with the development of oral malignancy. Infections in the oral cavity may be an important preventable cause of cancer. Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, chronic candidiasis, human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpesvirus infections link statistically with cancer but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Infections may trigger cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, interfere with cellular signaling mechanisms and up-regulate tumor promoters. In addition, several oral micro-organisms metabolize alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde thus explaining the association between poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and carcinogenesis. With regards to dietary factors the Mediterranean-type fruit and vegetable rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of oral cancer but the evidence is weak, the effect of individual food components and trace elements on carcinogenesis remains unclear at present.

  5. Melanoma of the oral cavity. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cebrián Carretero, J L; Chamorro Pons, M; Montesdeoca, N

    2001-01-01

    Melanoma is a very aggressive tumour derived from malignant transformation of melanic cells of the basal layer of cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Primary melanoma of the oral cavity is the most malignant tumour among head and neck tumours. Inside the oral cavity, 80% are located in the maxilla, preferentially in the palatal mucosa. Although its etiology is unknown, occasionally it forms over a preexisting melanosis of prolonged evolution. In the vast majority of cases it is asymptomatic during years and it is usually detected as a pigmented mass which is sometimes painful. Doctors who treat problems of the oral cavity must be aware of the necessity for early diagnosis of melanoma, performing biopsies of any pigmented lesion. Once it becomes clinically evident, its tendency is to grow toward adjacent structures and to form metastases in cervical lymphatic nodes, turning the tumour into a systemic disease. Prognosis of melanoma in the oral cavity is very poor. The only curative treatment is ablative surgery. Other therapeutic modalities such as: radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy have supposed little contribution to improve survival.

  6. An afterloading technique suitable for carcinomas of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Beorchia, A; Fongione, S; Pizzi, G; Guglielmi, R; Mandoliti, G; Cereghini, M; Ceschia, T; Contento, G

    1991-05-01

    The authors describe an afterloading brachytherapy to treat oral cavity carcinomas. Catheters for arterial/venous catheterization are inserted percutaneously in the target volume. The internal needles are then removed and replaced with iridium wires inside tubes to form wire loops. This technique has proven to be simple, quick and safe.

  7. Oral contraceptives and cancer.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A

    1991-01-01

    Concerns over the safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) have led to numerous empirical studies of the relationship of OC use to normal pregnancy outcomes, pituitary effects, cardiovascular accidents, and cancer. The article reviews some of the results of studies on the effects of OC use on ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancer and on hepatic cancer and melanomas. Reference is made to direct study results rather than to reviews of studies, although it is noted that the critical reviews of Goldzieher and Realini reflect appropriate critiques of the validity of the methods employed in the analysis of cancers as well as cardiovascular risks. Concern is raised for meta-analysis of pooled data. In spite of the 30 years of research on OCs there is no definitive answer to the question of cause and effect. The epidemiological articles reviewed do not meet the standards of critical editorial review boards of experimental journals; confirmation of findings is also lacking. Studies suggesting increased risks as well as those showing positive benefits are questionable. The conclusion reached is that OCs protect against ovarian and uterine cancers and do not cause mammary, cervical, or liver cancer or melanoma. This conclusion is based on inconclusive data. The conclusion on hepatic cancer is that the 3 retrospective case control studies and anecdotal reports are flawed in design, and little confidence can be placed on such a limited number of cases. Malignant melanoma conclusions are that the data are inconsistent and hover around a risk of one for long-term OC-users. There is no increased risk related to OC-use. Ovarian cancer risk seems to be decreased in about 40% of OC-users. Endometrial cancer risk seems to be decreased, except for the sequential contraceptive Oracon which is associated with increased risk. Decreased risk is related to length of usage and continues after stoppage. Cervical carcinoma results appear to confirm the finding that prolonged OC use slightly

  8. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Steven B.; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26351335

  9. ASC contributes to metastasis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Chun-Nan; Kao, Huang-Kai; Hsueh, Chuen; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Cheng, Hsiao-Yun; Liang, Ying; Liou, Willisa; Liang, Chih-lung; Chang, Yu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    ASC (Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a CARD) acts as a platform protein in the inflammasome cascade of some cancer types. However, its potential involvement in OSCC (oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma) has not yet been determined. Here, we investigated the potential role of ASC in OSCC. RT-qPCR analysis of 20 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples revealed that the mRNA levels of ASC, along with IL-1β, CASP1, and NLRP3 in ASC-associated NLRP3 inflammasome were significantly elevated in OSCC tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of these four proteins in 111 clinical specimens revealed that high-level expression of ASC was significantly associated with tumor stage, node stage (p=0.001), overall stage (p<0.001), extracapsular spread (p<0.001), perineural invasion (p=0.004) and tumor depth (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis further revealed that high-level ASC expression was correlated with poorer overall survival (p=0.001), disease-specific survival (p<0.001) and disease-free survival (p<0.001). Studies using OSCC cell lines indicated that high-level ASC expression enhanced cell migration and invasion, and experiments using an orthotropic nude mouse model confirmed that ASC overexpression induced metastasis of OSCC cells. This is the first report to show that ASC contributes to OSCC metastasis, and that high-level ASC expression is a marker for poor prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:27367024

  10. Does Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improve Outcomes In pT1-3N0 Oral Cavity Cancer With Tumor-Free Margins and Perineural Invasion?

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: The criteria for administration of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain controversial, and it is unclear whether patients with pT1-3N0 disease benefit from adjuvant radiation in the presence of free margins and perineural invasion. The goal of this report was to determine whether this group would benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy in terms of 5-year local control rate and overall survival rate. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed our case records from January 1996 to May 2005. In all, 460 pT1-3N0 OSCC patients had tumor-free margins, of whom 68 had perineural invasion. Postoperative adjuvant RT was performed in patients with pT4 tumors, positive lymph nodes, or close margins ({<=}4 mm). In addition, selected OSCC patients with large pT3 tumors or perineural invasion received postoperative adjuvant RT. Local control and overall survival rates were plotted by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in 5-year local control (p 0.1936) and overall survival (p = 0.5580) rates between patients with perineural invasion compared with those without. Among patients with perineural invasion, the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy did not significantly alter the 5-year local control rate (p = 0.3170) or the overall survival rate (p = 0.0935). Conclusion: Altogether, these data seem to indicate that radical surgical resection alone should be considered a sufficient treatment for OSCC patients with pT1-3N0 disease, even in the presence of perineural invasion.

  11. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.

    PubMed

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival.

  12. Versatility of nasolabial flaps in oral cavity reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Cebrián-Carretero, José L.; Morán-Soto, María J.; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Describe the techniques involved and the results obtained witn nasolabial flaps in small and medium-sized defects of the oral cavity. The procedure is an easy resconstructive option with a high success rate and with very good aesthetic and functional outcomes. Study Design: A retrospective analysis of 16 nasolabial flap reconstructions in 15 oncological patients with oral cavity defects undergoing single-stage surgical interventions. We evaluate the tumor type, its location, size, the resective and reconstructive techniques involved, as well as any complications. Results: Out of 15 patients, 9 were male and 6 female, with ages ranging from 60-85 years. The primary tumor was located in the mandibular or maxillary gingiva in 7 patients, the lateral margin of the tongue in 5, the floor of the mouth in 3 and the mandibular symphysis in a single patient. The tumors were of a small to medium size. All patients underwent intraoral resections. In most cases, a cervical dissection was performed. All flaps were completed as single-stage surgical interventions, with 14 unilateral and 2 bilateral procedures. Five patients had received radiotherapy treatment for previous tumors. During the follow up period, which ranged from 4 months to 8 years, only one patient required their flap to be thinned, there were two incidents of surgical wound dehiscence, two hematomas and one orocutaneous fistula, none of which affected the survival of the flap. Conclusions: The nasolabial flap proves highly versatile in oral cavity reconstructions, coupled with a minimal morbidity of the donor region and good aesthetic and functional results. Its high vascularity allows for cervical dissections to be carried out or even for radiotherapy to be administered prior to it. It is straightforward, safe, and carrying it out as a single-stage intervention makes it the ideal surgical option for small to medium intraoral defects in edentulous patients with other comorbidities. Key words

  13. Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, José; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A review is made of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and survival characteristics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) of the oral cavity. Material and Methods A systematic literature search was carried out, with restrictions referred to time (1960-2014), language (English and Spanish) and type of study (case reports, letters, datasets, reviews). The following MeSH terms and boolean operators were used: Ewing AND Sarcoma AND [tongue, jaw, maxilla, cheek, condyle OR temporomandibular, floor AND mouth, gum OR gingiva, palate OR palatal, lip, uvula, head AND neck]. Results Seventy-one cases of ES of the oral cavity were documented from 53 articles. The main differences versus ES of other locations were a younger age at manifestation, a shorter time from symptoms onset to diagnosis, and swelling as the most frequent clinical manifestation versus swelling and pain in the rest of disease locations. The way in which ES manifests in the oral cavity is varied and comprises dental displacement (19.7%), dental mobility (7%), root reabsorption (5.6%), destruction of the dental follicle (4.2%), premature exfoliation (4.2%) and paresthesia of the chin (2.8%). Metastatic neck adenopathies appear in 11.3% of the cases. Significant differences in survival are observed between patients with a complete diagnosis of ES (hematoxylin-eosin staining, PAS positivity, CD99 positivity) and those with an incomplete diagnosis. Conclusions Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity presents a series of specific features that distinguish it from ES of other locations. Key words:Primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET, Ewing sarcoma, Ewing tumor, sarcoma, oral cavity. PMID:28210452

  14. Improved transoral surgical tool design by CT measurements of the oral cavity and pharynx.

    PubMed

    Cox, Emily; Ghasemloonia, Ahmad; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Zareinia, Kourosh; Hudon, Mark; Lysack, John T; Sutherland, Garnette R; Dort, Joseph C

    2016-09-23

    The majority of head and neck cancers arise from the oral cavity and oropharynx. Many of these lesions will be amenable to surgical resection using transoral approaches including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). To develop and control TORS tools, precise dimensions of the oral cavity and pharynx are desirable. CT angiograms of 76 patients were analyzed. For the oral cavity, only the maximum length and width were measured, while for the pharynx, the width, length, and areas of the airway were all measured and the volume calculated. A prototype TORS tool was developed and tested based on the findings and dimensions. The design modification of the tool is in progress. The mean male oral cavity width and length were 93.3 ± 4.3 and 77.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively, and the mean male pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 26.5 ± 7.2 mm, 16.2 ± 8.8 mm, 325 ± 149 mm(2), and 28,440 ± 14,100 mm(3), respectively, while the mean female oral cavity width and length were 84.5 ± 12.9 and 71.0 ± 6.3 mm, respectively, and the mean female pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 24.8 ± 5.6 mm, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm, 258 ± 98 mm(2), and 17,660 ± 7700 mm(3), respectively. The developed TORS tool was tested inside the oral cavity of an intubation mannequin. These data will also be used to develop an electronic no-go cone-shape tunnel to improve the safety of the surgical field. Reporting the oral cavity and pharyngeal dimensions is important for design of TORS tools and creating control zones for the workspace of the tool inside the oral cavity.

  15. Rare mycoses of the oral cavity: a literature epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Iatta, Roberta; Napoli, Christian; Borghi, Elisa; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2009-11-01

    Stomatologic fungal infections display different etiologies, pathogenesis, and clinical presentations. The incidence of rare mycoses of oral cavity is very low. These infections can involve both immunocompromised and immmunocompetent patients with common predisposing factors, such as diabetes or suffering from diseases causing immune system impairment. Oral mycoses can cause acute, chronic, and mucocutaneous lesions. Candidiasis is the most common mouth mycosis. Although occasionally primary mouth pathogens, Cryptococcus spp. or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes) can cause oral mycoses, with the oral localization more commonly secondary to a more serious systemic infection. The diagnosis of oral mycoses is based on clinical examination; for yeasts, culture is necessary to identify the etiologic agents; for filamentous fungi, in particular for zygomycetes and dimorphic, a definitive diagnosis can be made by histologic examination and pertinent stains with or without isolation of the fungus from the same site.

  16. Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage 0 Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA

  17. Simplified Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient after Oral Cancer Removal

    PubMed Central

    Džakula, Nikola; Vojvodić, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of patients with oral cancer is complex: a multidisciplinary approach needs to be taken and maxillofacial and oral surgeons, an oncologist, a prosthodontist should be included, and a psychologist is often needed. This case report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient after surgical removal of oral cancer with obturator prosthesis. Resection cavity was located in central part of the hard palate and the condition belonged to Aramany class 3 maxillary defects. The two-step impression technique of denture bearing area was used and the resection of cavity was performed. A primary impression-the impression of denture bearing area was made using irreversible hydrocolloid material, while the second impression – the impression of resection cavity was made using condensation silicone material and obturator prosthesis framework. The obturator prosthesis replaced lost teeth, improved oral function and esthetics at minimal costs. PMID:27847400

  18. Metachronous metastasis to the oral cavity from carcinoma rectum - a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Usman, Nawaz; Kattepur, Abhay; Gopinath, Kodaganur S

    2014-12-01

    The common patterns of dissemination and recurrence of rectal cancer are known and well documented. However extravisceral involvement is a relatively uncommon entity. Therefore, these metastases are not well studied in sufficiently large numbers to formulate evidence based recommendations regarding their optimal treatment. This report describes a case of carcinoma of the rectum metastatic to the oral cavity causing symptoms severe enough to necessitate operative management.

  19. Inorganic chemistry of defensive peroxidases in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ashby, M T

    2008-10-01

    The innate host response system is comprised of various mechanisms for orchestrating host response to microbial infection of the oral cavity. The heterogeneity of the oral cavity and the associated microenvironments that are produced give rise to different chemistries that affect the innate defense system. One focus of this review is on how these spatial differences influence the two major defensive peroxidases of the oral cavity, salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). With hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidant, the defensive peroxidases use inorganic ions to produce antimicrobials that are generally more effective than H(2)O(2) itself. The concentrations of the inorganic substrates are different in saliva vs. gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Thus, in the supragingival regime, SPO and MPO work in unison for the exclusive production of hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-), a reactive inorganic species), which constantly bathes nascent plaques. In contrast, MPO is introduced to the GCF during inflammatory response, and in that environment it is capable of producing hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a chemically more powerful oxidant that is implicated in host tissue damage. A second focus of this review is on inter-person variation that may contribute to different peroxidase function. Many of these differences are attributed to dietary or smoking practices that alter the concentrations of relevant inorganic species in the oral cavity (e.g.: fluoride, F(-); cyanide, CN(-); cyanate, OCN(-); thiocyanate, SCN(-); and nitrate, NO(3)(-)). Because of the complexity of the host and microflora biology and the associated chemistry, it is difficult to establish the significance of the human peroxidase systems during the pathogenesis of oral diseases. The problem is particularly complex with respect to the gingival sulcus and periodontal pockets (where the very different defensive stratagems of GCF and saliva co-mingle). Despite this complexity, intriguing in vitro and in vivo

  20. Mouth Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is sometimes called oral cancer or oral cavity cancer. Mouth cancer is one of several types of cancer grouped in a category called head and neck cancers. Mouth cancer and other head and neck cancers are ...

  1. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Velez, Ines

    2016-09-01

    Classic granular cell tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm that commonly occurs on the skin, but is not infrequently found in the oral cavity, primarily on the dorsal tongue. Diagnosis is usually straightforward with hematoxylin and eosin stained slides. Immunohistochemical studies on classic granular cell tumor shows positive immunostaining for S-100 and vimentin, while CD68 is variably positive. We report a case of otherwise unremarkable oral granular cell tumor that was immunohistochemically negative for S-100, and positive for vimentin and CD68, and discuss the differential diagnosis. The results of the immunohistochemical studies in our case are compared with those of classic S-100 positive oral granular cell tumors, as well as cutaneous and oral S-100 negative granular cell tumors. Classic S-100 positive granular cell tumors and S-100 negative granular cell tumors of the oral cavity can only be distinguished by immunohistochemical studies; however, the necessity of this distinction is unclear, as both are benign lesions in which recurrence is unlikely.

  2. Oxidative stress in the oral cavity: sources and pathological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Avezov, Katia; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium, is thought to be involved in the development of many seemingly unrelated diseases. Oral cavity tissues are a unique environment constantly exposed to internal and external compounds and material hazards as almost no other part of the human body. Some of the compounds are capable of generating OS. Here, the main groups of endogenous as well as exogenous OS sources are presented, followed by their oxidative effect on the salivary contents and function. The oxidative mechanisms in oral cells and their pathologic influence are also discussed.

  3. Turned in fasciocutaneous island flap from face and neck based on subdermal microcirculation for reconstruction of the oral cavity following cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gajiwala, Kalpesh Jayantkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The skin and soft tissues of the face and neck have a rich plexus of dermal-subdermal vessels, which creates the possibility of raising a fasciocutaneous flap based on this vascular supply. A turned in fasciocutaneous island flap (TIFCIF) from an adjacent area of the defect can provide a simple substitute to many complex reconstructive procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients underwent wide excision for oral cancer and upper neck dissection, maintaining bone framework, between August 2010 and June 2014. The reconstruction was done with a ’turned in fasciocutaneous island flap’ (TIFCIF) from the upper neck-lower face based on subdermal superficial adipofascial microvascular network instead of a specific known feeder vessel. The upper cervical flap, the donor site, when raised during the initial incision and the upper neck dissection, was cut off from the facial artery, the submental artery, the superior thyroid and the transverse cervical arteries. The microcirculation depended largely on the rich vascular plexus formed of the branches of the superficial temporal and the maxillary arteries. The donor site was primarily closed in Fourteen of the Fifteen patients. Eight patients received post-surgery irradiation. Results: All the flaps survived and healed and withstood radiation well. Two patients had flap dehiscence from suture line, of which one needed reattachment while other a minor one healed by itself and one patient had occasional drooling. There was no difficulty in eating or swallowing. Conclusions: A random patterned TIFCIF based on superficial subdermal adipofascial microcirculation, formed of a rich vascular plexus in the face and neck region can provide a simple alternative for intraoral reconstruction. PMID:28216817

  4. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy.

  5. Site-dependant redox ratio in healthy oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Sivabalan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2011-03-01

    The metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD are autofluorescent and can be monitored non-destructively and without exogenous labels, using optical techniques. These endogenous fluorophores which are present in the cells and tissues gives rise to different fluorescence emission/excitation spectra between the normal and different diseased conditions. In the resent years, finding the optical redox ratio i.e., the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of FAD and NADH, gives the relative change in the oxidation-reduction state of the cells. Unlike other organs oral cavity has lined with variety of mucosal types. We investigated in vivo Optical redox ratio for four different anatomical locations viz., cheek mucosa, vermilion border of the lip, Hard palate, dorsal side of the tongue of healthy oral cavity. We measured this ratio for 20 healthy subjects and the redox ratio was significantly different between the different anatomical locations. The statistical significance was also investigated.

  6. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers? What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ...

  7. Photodynamic action on some pathogenic microorganisms of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99 % are determined.

  8. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015. PMID:27583211

  9. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  10. Carcinogenesis of the Oral Cavity: Environmental Causes and Potential Prevention by Black Raspberry.

    PubMed

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2017-01-17

    Worldwide, cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx comprise the sixth most common malignancies. Histologically, more than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Epidemiologic data strongly support the role of exogenous factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and human papilloma virus infection as major causative agents. Avoidance of risk factors has only been partially successful, and survival rates have not improved despite advances in therapeutic approaches. Therefore, new or improved approaches to prevention and/or early detection are critical. Better understanding of the mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis can assist in the development of novel biomarkers for early detection and strategies for disease prevention. Toward this goal, several animal models for carcinogenesis in the oral cavity have been developed. Among these are xenograft, and transgenic animal models, and others employing the synthetic carcinogens such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in hamster cheek pouch and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide in rats and mice. Additional animal models employing environmental carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and N'-nitrosonornicotine have been reported. Each model has certain advantages and disadvantages. Models that (1) utilize environmental carcinogens, (2) reflect tumor heterogeneity, and (3) accurately represent the cellular and molecular changes involved in the initiation and progression of oral cancer in humans could provide a realistic platform. To achieve this goal, we introduced a novel nonsurgical mouse model to study oral carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), an environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent, and its diol epoxide metabolite (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene [(±)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE]. On the basis of a detailed comparison of oral cancer induced by DB[a,l]P with that induced by the other above-mentioned oral carcinogens with respect to dose, duration, species and

  11. [Antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F; Castorina, A

    1989-09-30

    More than 300 commencial bacterial species may be found in the oral cavity. Other microorganisms, such as mycoplasms, mycetes, protozoa and viruses are present as well. The virulency of the saprofites and additional contamination by outside microorganisms are factors determining the development of infectious process in the oral tissues. Moreover, streptococci and anaerobes are the most frequent aetiology agents. The antibiotic therapy should comply with the general treatment criteria, on the one hand, and should be specific for these microorganism, on the other. The penicillines (ampicillin, bacampicillin and especially amoxycillin) process pharmacokinetic properties which make them a favorable choice for treatment. These drugs are effective in case of streptococcal infections, with cariogenic processes involvement and dissemination (endocarditis, glomerulonephritis). Other, frequently used drugs are spiramycin, erythromycin, josamycin and myocamycin that are selectively taken up by the oral tissues and present in large quantities in the saliva. The macrolides have a large spectrum of action on microorganisms normally found in the oral cavity. Lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) are active on anaerobes and are drugs of choice for treatment of staphylococcal osteomyelitis. Tetracycline therapy is restricted usually to parodontite cases caused by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga. In conclusion, the choice of antibacterial therapy should be based on the bacterial aetiology, as well as on the intrinsic drug characteristics (pharmacokinetic, side effects, toxicity etc.).

  12. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Sunitha, J.; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the “role” that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology. PMID:26538877

  13. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  14. Colonization of the oral cavity by probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravn, I; Dige, I; Meyer, R L; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if three probiotic bacteria present in the milk product Cultura Dofilus® naturell could be detected in saliva and on oral mucosal surfaces, and if they colonized dental surfaces in situ in 8 caries-inactive individuals after 8 daily exposures to the milk product for up to 3 days. Bacteria were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. While probiotic bacteria were present sporadically in the oral cavity on mucosal surfaces and in saliva after 3 days of frequent use of the probiotic milk, they were not detected on dental surfaces. Probiotic bacteria may thus contribute to general oral health, but their potential role in biofilm-induced dental diseases remains unclear.

  15. [The effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Fazzi, M; Vescovi, P; Savi, A; Manfredi, M; Peracchia, M

    1999-10-01

    As shown by the growing numbers of users attending the public drug addiction services, drug abuse is a phenomenon that is constantly spreading. It is important that dentists are aware of the oral problems linked to drug abuse. This study examines the general effects and oral implications of the illegal substances used by the majority of drug addicts. The main dental complications of cannabinoids are the increased incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, the presence of xerostomia and severe gingivitis. Depending on how it is taken, cocaine may cause ischemic necrosis of the palate, inflammation, ulceration and gingival retraction, as well as an increased incidence of bruxism. Hallucinogens have few direct oral effects, but among these it is worth recalling xerostomia, increased bruxism and oral problems linked to malnutrition caused by ecstasy. Turning to the opioids, heroin is the drug primarily used by the majority of drug addicts. Its oral effects mainly take the form of dental decay, showing a particular form and extent linked either directly or indirectly to heroin use. This results in "typical" or "atypical" caries pathologies directly linked to the effects of heroin. Given the extent of this phenomenon, it is important that dentists are aware of the problems linked to drug abuse that they may have to treat.

  16. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  17. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kakisi, Ourania K; Kechagia, Argiro S; Kakisis, Ioannis K; Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2010-04-01

    The recent increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, combined with an emerging global resistance to antituberculous drugs, warrants an increased awareness of the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in persistent or atypical lesions in the oral cavity. We sought to review the published reports of mycobacterial infection of the oral cavity found in the literature in otherwise uncompromised patients, from 1950 to the present day, and analyzed the documented manifestations. M. tuberculosis infects all parts of the mouth (soft and hard palate, uvula, buccal mucosa, gingivae, lips, tongue, maxilla, and mandible) more often in men than in women, appearing predominantly in the form of ulcerative lesions. It was found as a secondary infection in 58% (54% pulmonary, 4% extrapulmonary) of patients and as a primary infection in 42% of patients. Carcinomas are found to co-exist in the same lesion site in 3% of patients. In approximately 50% of patients, an oral manifestation of TB has led to the diagnosis of a previously unknown systemic infection, which resulted in a timely and effective treatment. The investigation for tuberculosis should therefore be actively pursued in the dental surgery. Diagnostic work-up for systemic involvement and control of healthcare-associated spread is important, while therapeutic options are still considered adequate.

  18. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  19. Laser-induced autofluorescence of oral cavity hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E. G.; Uzunov, Tz. T.; Avramov, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    In current study oral cavity hard tissues autofluorescence was investigated to obtain more complete picture of their optical properties. As an excitation source nitrogen laser with parameters - 337,1 nm, 14 μJ, 10 Hz (ILGI-503, Russia) was used. In vitro spectra from enamel, dentine, cartilage, spongiosa and cortical part of the periodontal bones were registered using a fiber-optic microspectrometer (PC2000, "Ocean Optics" Inc., USA). Gingival fluorescence was also obtained for comparison of its spectral properties with that of hard oral tissues. Samples are characterized with significant differences of fluorescence properties one to another. It is clearly observed signal from different collagen types and collagen-cross links with maxima at 385, 430 and 480-490 nm. In dentine are observed only two maxima at 440 and 480 nm, related also to collagen structures. In samples of gingival and spongiosa were observed traces of hemoglobin - by its re-absorption at 545 and 575 nm, which distort the fluorescence spectra detected from these anatomic sites. Results, obtained in this study are foreseen to be used for development of algorithms for diagnosis and differentiation of teeth lesions and other problems of oral cavity hard tissues as periodontitis and gingivitis.

  20. Clearance and metabolism of starch foods in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Birkenfeld, L H

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth sites from 7 volunteers using absorbent paper points. Samples were analyzed for carbohydrates and organic acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data for each food were pooled and compared to the results of the sugar food. The amount of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was highest with the potato chips and lowest with the corn flakes. Potato starch contributed more readily to oral lactic acid production than wheat or corn starch. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of oral glucose produced from starch, which occurred via the metabolites maltotriose and maltose. Oral clearance of foods containing cooked starch proceeded significantly slower than that of the sugar food, thus contributing to a prolonged period of lactic acid production.

  1. HIV shedding in the oral cavity: an assessment of HIV type, immunovirologic, demographic and oral factors

    PubMed Central

    Pavlinac, Patricia B; Hawes, Stephen E; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Gaye, Awa; N'Diaye, Charlotte F; Critchlow, Cathy W; Sow, Papa Salif; Feng, Qinghua; Kiviat, Nancy B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the prevalence and burden of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) and HIV-1 RNA in the oral cavity of antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected Senegalese individuals and to identify correlates of oral HIV viral loads. Design A cross-sectional study of 163 HIV-1 and 27 HIV-2-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive Senegalese adults. Methods Participants received clinical and oral exams and provided blood and oral wash samples for viral load and plasma CD4 count ascertainment. Logistic and interval regression models were used to identify univariate and multivariable associations between presence and level of oral HIV RNA and various immunovirologic, local and demographic factors. Results Presence of detectable oral HIV RNA was less common in HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-1-infected study participants (33% vs 67%, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.59). HIV type was no longer associated with oral shedding of HIV when plasma viral load was considered. Detection of oral HIV RNA was associated with increased plasma viral load in both HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected individuals (HIV-1, OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.61; HIV-2, OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.39). Oral HIV-1 detection was also associated with periodontal disease (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.16 to 7.87). Conclusions Oral shedding of HIV-2 RNA is less common than HIV-1 RNA, a likely consequence of lower overall viral burden. Both systemic and local factors may contribute to shedding of HIV in the oral cavity. PMID:22250179

  2. Symptomatic hemangioma of oral cavity treated with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.

    1995-05-01

    The CO2 laser has been used by our group as a secure and efficient tool for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangiomas which can be responsible for disturbance for swallowing, phonation and in hygienic, besides discomfort and bleeding to patients. During the last four years, twelve patients with symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma were treated at the Laser Unit of our University. The treatment consisted in the application of CO2 laser at medium to low intensity according to characteristics and location of the lesions. For hemangiomas located at sites of easy surgical access such as anterior 1/3 of the tongue, lips, bucal vestibule we use 10 to 37 J/mm2 over the surface of the lesion. When the hemangioma was located at difficult surgical access sites, such as, tonsils, posterior 1/3 of tongue, or at pharyngeal wall we used 3.0 to 4.0 J/mm2 encircling the whole hemangioma. This causes reduction in the size of the lesion throughout sclerosis of nutrition vessels. After this initial procedure we applied 0.8 to 1.0 J/mm2 over the whole extent of the lesion. For both procedures we observed no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. The patients referred minimal post-operative discomfort with good cicatricial evolution. The evident reduction in the vascularization and size could be confirmed by photographic documentation. The good results described above, with disappearance of symptoms lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser is an efficient and secure method of treatment for symptomatic hemangioma of the oral cavity.

  3. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  4. Teratoid cyst of the oral cavity: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Palaskar, Sangeeta J; Garde, Janardan; Bartake, Anirudha; Narang, Bindiya

    2014-01-01

    The teratoid cyst is a rare variant of the dermoid cyst which seldom occurs in the oral cavity. If seen, they generally present as slow growing cysts of the floor of mouth, reported commonly in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life in males. Histopathologically, dermoid cyst is classified as epidermoid cyst, true dermoid cyst and teratoid cyst depending on the presence of adnexal structures and derivatives of all three germ layers. Herewith we report a rare case of teratoid cyst of the floor of the mouth, in a 2-year-old female child, which was present since birth. PMID:25949009

  5. (S)-N'-Nitrosonornicotine, a constituent of smokeless tobacco, is a powerful oral cavity carcinogen in rats.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; James-Yi, Sandra; Johnson, Charles S; O'Sullivan, Michael G; Stepanov, Irina; Wang, Mingyao; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Kassie, Fekadu; Carmella, Steven; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-09-01

    Currently, smokeless tobacco products are being proposed as an alternative mode of tobacco use associated with less harm. All of these products contain the tobacco-specific carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). The major form of NNN in tobacco products is (S)-NNN, shown in this study to induce a total of 89 benign and malignant oral cavity tumors in a group of 20 male F-344 rats treated chronically with 14 p.p.m. in the drinking water. The opposite enantiomer (R)-NNN was weakly active, but synergistically enhanced the carcinogenicity of (S)-NNN. Thus, (S)-NNN is identified for the first time as a strong oral cavity carcinogen in smokeless tobacco products and should be significantly reduced or removed from these products without delay in order to prevent debilitating and deadly oral cavity cancer in people who use them.

  6. Analysis of parabens in dentifrices and the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Duk; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Song, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed levels of parabens in commercial dentifrices and saliva. HPLC was performed using 35% acetonitrile and measuring absorbance at 254 nm. Thirteen toothpastes and five mouthwashes were analyzed. Of these, volunteers used three toothpastes and two mouthwashes, and levels of parabens were analyzed in saliva and water used for mouth rinsing. In toothpastes, the highest concentrations of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP) and n-butylparaben (nBP) were 1.86, 1.42 and 1.87 mg/g, respectively. In mouthwashes, the highest concentrations of MP and PP were 0.97 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. After volunteers used 500 mg toothpaste T-1, which contained 895 µg MP, the first and tenth mouth rinse samples contained means of 64.63 and 1.89 µg MP, respectively. After rinsing the mouth three or five times, 37 µg or 18 µg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity, respectively. After using 20 mL mouthwash S-1, which contained 19 mg MP, 1.53 mg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity. Immediately after using this mouthwash, the mean salivary concentration of MP was 237 µg/mL. The daily intake of parabens from dentifrices was predicted to be insignificant compared with the intake from food; however, parabens can be ingested from dentifrices.

  7. [Early morphogenesis of ciliated cells in human oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Kurtova, A I; Chernikov, V P; Savel'ev, S V

    2013-01-01

    Ciliated cells were found in the epithelium of the oral cavity of human embryos and fetuses starting from the seventh week of prenatal development. At the early stages of prenatal development (until the 13th week), cells with cilia cover most of the dorsal surface of the tongue and the soft palate, whereas they are found only near the gland ducts in the circumvallate and foliate lingual papillae after 17 weeks of development. The ultrastructure of the axoneme of cilia corresponds to the structure of motile cilia and is represented by nine microtubule doublets that surround the central pair of microtubule singlets. An immunohistochemical study performed on weeks 10-12 of development identified nerve endings associated with the ciliated cells. Until the 14th week of development, the cytoplasm of ciliated cells is immunopositive for NSE. The spatial distribution of ciliated cells in the tongue epithelium until the 13th week of development is not related to the morphogenesis of lingual papillae, and their role in the human oral cavity during the first trimester of pregnancy is unclear and requires further study.

  8. Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre M.; Gilhuly, Terence; Whitehead, Peter D.; Zeng, Haishan; Poh, Catherine; Ng, Samson; Williams, Michelle; Zhang, Lewei; Rosin, Miriam; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2006-03-01

    Early identification of high-risk disease could greatly reduce both mortality and morbidity due to oral cancer. We describe a simple handheld device that facilitates the direct visualization of oral-cavity fluorescence for the detection of high-risk precancerous and early cancerous lesions. Blue excitation light (400 to 460 nm) is employed to excite green-red fluorescence from fluorophores in the oral tissues. Tissue fluorescence is viewed directly along an optical axis collinear with the axis of excitation to reduce inter- and intraoperator variability. This robust, field-of-view device enables the direct visualization of fluorescence in the context of surrounding normal tissue. Results from a pilot study of 44 patients are presented. Using histology as the gold standard, the device achieves a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 100% when discriminating normal mucosa from severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS) or invasive carcinoma. We envisage this device as a suitable adjunct for oral cancer screening, biopsy guidance, and margin delineation.

  9. Oral Cancer Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possible signs and symptoms One of the real dangers of this cancer, is that in its early ... particular tumor, viruses that only kill specific cancer cells, and techniques which would allow the replacement ... 723-4400 Subscribe to our mailing list ...

  10. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K H; Millard, P S

    1996-10-01

    The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a meta-analysis of data from 10 cohort and 44 case-control studies of the association between combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer. 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women with no breast cancer from 25 countries worldwide were studied. Current OC users faced a 24% increased risk of developing breast cancer (confidence interval = 1.15-1.33). This risk fell steadily after cessation and reached 0 at 10 years and thereafter. Use of OCs with higher doses were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer than medium or low-dose OCs. The number of excess cancers in women while using OCs and up to 10 years after OC cessation stood at 0.5/10,000 women 16-19 years old, 1.5/10,000 women 20-24 years old, and 4.7/10,000 women 25-29 years old. The elevated risk of developing breast cancer did not differ by country of origin, ethnic background, reproductive history, or family history of breast cancer. OC users had less clinically advanced breast cancer than never-users who had breast cancer. This finding plus the moderate reduced risk of breast cancer more than 10 years after OC cessation suggest that OCs may effect earlier diagnosis of existing breast cancer instead of causing new breast cancers. The findings of this meta-analysis along with a plausible biologic mechanism (estrogen stimulates breast cancer cells) suggest a causal relationship between OC use and breast cancer. They also indicate that the risk is small, decreases with time, and is lower among low-dose OC users. It is reassuring that the breast cancers found among OC users is less clinically advanced than those found in never-users.

  11. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  12. Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2000-01-01

    In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440

  13. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations Current Year Budget Annual Plan & Budget ...

  14. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  15. Malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Akagi, Tetsuya; Park, Chun-Ho

    2014-06-01

    A malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity was diagnosed in an 8-year-old domestic short-hair cat. The mass was located in the gingiva of the upper left premolar to molar region and showed multinodular growth patterns. The mass comprised epithelioid cells arranged in densely packed sheets. Tumor cells had large, round to oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, but all lacked melanoma-associated antigen and muscle and neuroendocrine markers. Stains for type IV collagen showed linear immunoreactivity around single cells and groups of cells. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were separated by a well-defined basement membrane, and interdigitating cell processes were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of feline malignant epithelioid schwannoma.

  16. Polymicrobial Candida biofilms: friends and foe in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lindsay E; Millhouse, Emma; Sherry, Leighann; Kean, Ryan; Malcolm, Jennifer; Nile, Christopher J; Ramage, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    The role of polymicrobial biofilm infections in medicine is becoming more apparent. Increasing number of microbiome studies and deep sequencing has enabled us to develop a greater understanding of how positive and negative microbial interactions influence disease outcomes. An environment where this is particularly pertinent is within the oral cavity, a rich and diverse ecosystem inhabited by both bacteria and yeasts, which collectively occupy and coexist within various niches as biofilm communities. Studies within this environment have however tended to be subject to extensive independent investigation, in the context of either polymicrobial bacterial communities or yeast biofilms, but rarely both together. It is clear however that they are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, this review aims to explore the influence of candidal populations on the composition of these complex aggregates and biofilm communities, to investigate their mechanistic interactions to understand how these impact clinical outcomes, and determine whether we can translate how this knowledge can be used to improve patient management.

  17. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Iria; Varela, Pablo; Romero, Amparo; García, María José; Suárez, María Mercedes; Seoane, Juan

    2007-08-01

    The colour of a lesion is due to its nature and to its histological substratum. In order to ease diagnosis, oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such a classification for yellow lesions. So, a suggestion for a classification of yellowish lesions according to their semiology is made with the following headings: diffuse macular lesions, papular, hypertrophic, or pustular lesions, together with cysts and nodes. This interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. It should be taken into account that, as happens with any other classification, the yellowish group of lesions includes items with different prognosis as well as possible markers of systemic disorders.

  18. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Denise; Flint, Stephen R; Healy, Claire; Stassen, Leo F A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of 'field cancerisation'/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  19. The Oral Cavity and Age: A Site of Chronic Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Bäck, Magnus; Hlawaty, Hanna; Labat, Carlos; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Brink, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Background Aging may be accompanied by a low grade chronic up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. A variety of endogenous locally released mediators as well as inflammatory cells have been reported in the human oral cavity. The aim of this investigation was to determine the presence of different classes of inflammatory mediators in human saliva and correlate the levels with age. Methodology and Principal Findings Unstimulated whole buccal salivary samples were obtained in the morning from 94 healthy volunteers within 30 minutes after waking. None of the participants had taken aspirin in the week prior to the saliva collection. Lysozyme activity, eicosanoid levels (prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4) and MMP-9 activity were measured. The antimicrobial activity (lysozyme activity) was not correlated with age whereas PGE2 levels were markedly correlated with age (r = 0.29; P<0.05; n = 56). Saliva from healthy subjects (≤40 years) compared with data derived from older volunteers (>40 years) demonstrated a significant increase in the mean values for PGE2 and MMP-9 activity with age. In addition, significant correlations were observed between LTB4 and PGE2 (r = 0.28; P<0.05; n = 56) and between LTB4 levels and MMP-9 activity in smokers (r = 0.78; P<0.001; n = 15). Conclusions/Significance The presence of significant levels and activity of inflammatory mediators in saliva suggests that the oral cavity of healthy subjects may be in a constant low state of inflammation associated with age. PMID:18159234

  20. Insights on diagnosis of oral cavity pathologies by infrared spectroscopy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Elisabetta; Balercia, Paolo; Conti, Carla; Ferraris, Paolo; Sabbatini, Simona; Rubini, Corrado; Tosi, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared microspectroscopy, a largely used spectroscopic technique in basic and industrial researches, offers the possibility to analyze the vibrational features of molecular groups within a variety of environments. In the bioclinical field, and, in particular, in the study of cells, tissues and biofluids, it could be considered a supporting objective technique able to characterize the biochemical processes involved in relevant pathologies, such as tumoral diseases, highlighting specific spectral markers associable with the principal biocomponents (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates). In this article, we review the applications of infrared spectroscopy to the study of tumoral diseases of oral cavity compartments with the aim to improve understanding of biological processes involved during the onset of these lesions and to afford to an early diagnosis. Spectral studies on mouth, salivary glands and oral cystic lesions, objectively discriminate normal from dysplastic and cancer states characterizing also the grading.

  1. Repeat Brachytherapy for Patients With Residual or Recurrent Tumors of Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji; Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kaida, Atushi; Miura, Masahiko

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm{sup 2} (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker. Results: The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of {alpha}/{beta} of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively. Conclusion: Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.

  2. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity.

  3. Design of a smartphone-camera-based fluorescence imaging system for the detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthoff, Ross

    Shown is the design of the Smartphone Oral Cancer Detection System (SOCeeDS). The SOCeeDS attaches to a smartphone and utilizes its embedded imaging optics and sensors to capture images of the oral cavity to detect oral cancer. Violet illumination sources excite the oral tissues to induce fluorescence. Images are captured with the smartphone's onboard camera. Areas where the tissues of the oral cavity are darkened signify an absence of fluorescence signal, indicating breakdown in tissue structure brought by precancerous or cancerous conditions. With this data the patient can seek further testing and diagnosis as needed. Proliferation of this device will allow communities with limited access to healthcare professionals a tool to detect cancer in its early stages, increasing the likelihood of cancer reversal.

  4. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  5. Oral health considerations in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mawardi, Hani H; Al-Mohaya, Maha A; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-05-01

    Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have helped in prolonging the survival rate for cancer patients. However, the patients who undergo treatment for cancer are potentially at high-risk for developing a number of oral complications, including oral mucositis, infections, hyposalivation, dental caries, and jaw osteonecrosis. Cancer survivors may remain at life-long risk of developing oral complications, and therefore require long-term dental follow-up, well after completion of cancer therapy. Patients should typically undergo thorough oral examination prior to initiation of therapy, during and after therapy to identify any active infection. In addition, and in order to maintain adequate oral health throughout treatment, patients should continue normal oral hygiene with tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning. The aim of this review is to discuss potential oral complications as a result of cancer therapy, and the certain precautions we should be aware of these patients.

  6. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Miscellaneous Exotic Companion Mammals.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Angela M; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2016-09-01

    Unusual mammalian species such as the hedgehog, sugar glider, and miniature pig are encountered with increasing frequency in exotic companion medicine. Disease of the oral cavity can occur in any species; although occasionally encountered in exotic mammalian species, it is rarely described in the literature. Anatomy and dentition vary significantly; diagnosis and treatment are often extrapolated from that known in other species. The best-documented disease of the oral cavity in this group of species is oral neoplasia in the hedgehog.

  7. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  8. Detection of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of dogs.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Camilla; Gualdi, Valentina; Tosi, Sabrina; Facchini, Roberto Vailati; Pengo, Graziano; Luini, Mario; Simpson, Kenneth W; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2007-01-31

    The mode of acquisition of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs has not been determined. It is suspected that oral-oral and faecal-oral transmission may be involved. The present study sought to determine if Helicobacter spp. DNA is present in the oral cavity of healthy and vomiting dogs. Thirty-eight pet dogs (27 vomiting and 11 clinically healthy) were studied. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was determined by single and nested PCR evaluation of DNA extracted from saliva, dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples. Helicobacter spp. DNA was detected by nested PCR in 36 (94.7%) gastric biopsies, 17 (44.7%) dental plaque and 19 (50%) saliva samples out of the 38 dogs examined. Overall 27 (71.1%) dogs screened by nested PCR were found to harbour Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity (dental plaque and/or saliva). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of vomiting and healthy dogs, and the time from vomiting to oral sampling did not have significant impact. This study confirms the high prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs, and reveals that Helicobacter spp. DNA is detectable in the oral cavity of over 70% of dogs. These findings support the possibility of oral-oral transmission between dogs and that the canine oral cavity may act as source of non-pylori Helicobacter spp. infection for humans.

  9. [Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer].

    PubMed

    Peyraga, G; Lafond, C; Pointreau, Y; Giraud, P; Maingon, P

    2016-09-01

    The nasal cavity and parasinusal cancer are rare (10% of tumors of the head and neck) and are mainly represented by squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity or the maxillary sinus and adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus (occupational disease, wood dust). The most common clinical sign is nasal obstruction, but tumors can also manifest as rhinorrhea and/or epistaxis (usually unilateral signs). A magnetic resonance imaging of the facial structure is systematic for staging before treatment. The treatment consists of a first surgery if the patient is operable with a resectable tumor. If it is not the case, the treatment consists of radiotherapy (RT) associated with chemotherapy (CT) according to the initial data (T3/T4 or N+). After first surgery, RT is indicated (except T1N0 with complete resection) associated with a CT based on postoperative data (capsular effraction or incomplete resection). Lymph node irradiation is considered case by case, but is indicated in any nodal involvement. RT must be an intensity modulated RT (IMRT), static or dynamic, and must be imagery guided (IGRT). According to ICRU 83, doses to organs at risk and target volumes must be carried. Finally, after a post-treatment baseline imaging between 2 and 4 months, monitoring will be alternated with the ENT surgeon every 2 or 3 months for 2 years, then every 4 to 6 months for 5 years.

  10. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can start in the mouth or throat: Eosinophilic granuloma Fibroma Granular cell tumor Keratoacanthoma Leiomyoma Osteochondroma Lipoma Schwannoma Neurofibroma Papilloma Condyloma acuminatum Verruciform xanthoma Pyogenic granuloma Rhabdomyoma Odontogenic tumors (tumors that start in tooth- ...

  11. Oral autopsy: A simple, faster procedure for total visualization of oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Charan Gowda, Boregowda Kadaiah; Mohan, C. V.; Hemavathi

    2016-01-01

    Identification of humans, especially in mass disaster is a challenging aspect for team members of the disaster victim identification (DVI) unit. Identification is necessary for humanitarian and emotional reasons and for many legal issues, particularly for family members. In the modern day, all possible methods have been applied for establishing the identification of deceased individuals. The DVI team comprises specialists from different disciplines. The forensic dentist plays a major role in the identification of victims in disaster. To establish a simple, faster and time saving procedure for Postmortem dental identification in mass disaster. In this article, we present a simpler and faster method, which helps in gaining access into the oral cavity that helps in the recording of postmortem oral findings where required. PMID:27555728

  12. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Extending into the Oral Cavity: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Pardhe, Nilesh; Chhibber, Neha; Agarwal, Deshant; Jain, Manish; Vijay, Pradkhshana

    2015-06-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare vascular tumour which is benign but locally aggressive and occurs invariably in young and adolescent males. It seldom involves the oral cavity but has the tendency to invade the adjacent structures. Its characteristic features include slow progression, aggressive growth & an increased rate of persistence and recurrence due to its location in inaccessible areas. In literature, very few cases of JNA have been reported with extension into the oral cavity. Here, a case of JNA with extension into the oral cavity has been discussed who reported to our institute.

  13. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for treatment of oral cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Calixto, Giovana; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer (oral cavity and oropharynx) is a common and aggressive cancer that invades local tissue, can cause metastasis, and has a high mortality rate. Conventional treatment strategies, such as surgery and chemoradiotherapy, have improved over the past few decades; however, they remain far from optimal. Currently, cancer research is focused on improving cancer diagnosis and treatment methods (oral cavity and oropharynx) nanotechnology, which involves the design, characterization, production, and application of nanoscale drug delivery systems. In medicine, nanotechnologies, such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, gold nanoparticles, hydrogels, cyclodextrin complexes, and liquid crystals, are promising tools for diagnostic probes and therapeutic devices. The objective of this study is to present a systematic review of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for oral cancers. PMID:25143724

  14. Role of hydrogen generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kanazuru, Tomoko; Sato, Eisuke F; Nagata, Kumiko; Matsui, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Kasahara, Emiko; Jikumaru, Mika; Inoue, June; Inoue, Masayasu

    2010-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal bacteria synthesize hydrogen (H(2)) by fermentation. Despite the presence of bactericidal factors in human saliva, a large number of bacteria also live in the oral cavity. It has never been shown that oral bacteria also produce H(2) or what role H(2) might play in the oral cavity. It was found that a significant amount of H(2) is synthesized in the oral cavity of healthy human subjects, and that its generation is enhanced by the presence of glucose but inhibited by either teeth brushing or sterilization with povidone iodine. These observations suggest the presence of H(2)-generating bacteria in the oral cavity. The screening of commensal bacteria in the oral cavity revealed that a variety of anaerobic bacteria generate H(2). Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) generated significantly large amounts of H(2) in the presence of glucose. Biochemical analysis revealed that various proteins in K. pneumoniae are carbonylated under standard culture conditions, and that oxidative stress induced by the presence of Fe(++) and H(2)O(2) increases the number of carbonylated proteins, particularly when their hydrogenase activity is inhibited by KCN. Inhibition of H(2) generation markedly suppresses the growth of K. pneumoniae. These observations suggest that H(2) generation and/or the reduction of oxidative stress is important for the survival and growth of K. pneumoniae in the oral cavity.

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  16. How Are Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal cavity or ethmoid sinuses. T categories for maxillary sinus cancer TX: Primary (main) tumor cannot be ... the nose from the brain), and/or the maxillary sinus. T4a: Tumor has grown into other structures ...

  17. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A; Almers, Lucy M; Cardwell, Chris R; Murray, Liam J; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-03-10

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder.

  18. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A.; Almers, Lucy M.; Cardwell, Chris R.; Murray, Liam J.; Abnet, Christian C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder. PMID:28281559

  19. Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Natsuko; Okamoto, Masaaki

    2010-03-01

    Two anaerobic, pigmented, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped strains isolated from the human oral cavity, OMA31(T) and OMA130, were characterized by determining their phenotypic and biochemical features, cellular fatty acid profiles and phylogenetic positions based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the new isolates belonged to a single species of the genus Prevotella. The two isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and were most closely related to Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611(T) with 96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity; the next most closely related strains to the isolates were Prevotella pallens AHN 10371(T) (96.1 %) and Prevotella falsenii JCM 15124(T) (95.3 %). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolates were the same as those of P. intermedia JCM 12248(T), P. falsenii JCM 15124(T) and Prevotella nigrescens JCM 12250(T). The isolates could be differentiated from P. pallens JCM 11140( T) by mannose fermentation and alpha-fucosidase activity. Conventional biochemical tests were unable to differentiate the new isolates from P. intermedia, P. falsenii and P. nigrescens. However, hsp60 gene sequence analysis suggested that strain OMA31(T) was not a representative of P. intermedia, P. pallens, P. falsenii or P. nigrescens. Based on these data, a novel species of the genus Prevotella, Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., is proposed, with OMA31(T) (=JCM 15754(T)=CCUG 57723(T)) as the type strain.

  20. A multi-wavelength (u.v. to visible) laser system for early detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Leszczyński, M.; Slight, T. J.; Meredith, W.; Schemmann, M.; Moseley, H.; Woods, J. A.; Valentine, R.; Kalra, S.; Mossey, P.; Theaker, E.; Macluskey, M.; Mimnagh, G.; Mimnagh, W.

    2015-03-01

    A multi-wavelength (360nm - 440nm), real-time Photonic Cancer Detector (PCD) optical system based on GaN semiconductor laser technology is outlined. A proof of concept using blue laser technology for early detection of cancer has already been tested and proven for esophageal cancer. This concept is expanded to consider a wider range of wavelengths and the PCD will initially be used for early diagnosis of oral cancers. The PCD creates an image of the oral cavity (broad field white light detection) and maps within the oral cavity any suspicious lesions with high sensitivity using a narrow field tunable detector.

  1. Acrolein—an α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects

    PubMed Central

    Aizenbud, Dror; Aizenbud, Itay; Reznick, Abraham Z.; Avezov, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells. PMID:27487309

  2. Acrolein-an α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects.

    PubMed

    Aizenbud, Dror; Aizenbud, Itay; Reznick, Abraham Z; Avezov, Katia

    2016-07-28

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells.

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-associated Oral Cancers and Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Sathish, N; Wang, X; Yuan, Y

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be associated with several types of human cancer, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and head-and-neck cancers. Among these cancers, HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers, inclusive of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC), have recently risen dramatically in men under 50 years old. Within 20 years, the percentage of HPV-positive OSCC in total OSCC went from less than 20% to more than 70% in the United States and some European countries. This article reviews the incidence trend and pathogenesis of HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers as well as current treatment modalities for the disease.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics in the oral cavity of ram suspension-feeding fishes.

    PubMed

    Cheer, A Y; Ogami, Y; Sanderson, S L

    2001-06-21

    We have modeled steady, three-dimensional flow with a no-slip boundary condition in cylindrical and conical oral cavities possessing vertical or slanted branchial slits. These numerical simulations illustrate the transport of food particles toward the esophagus, as well as the velocity profiles of water exiting the oral cavity via the branchial slits. The maximum and average velocities are highest for flow exiting the most posterior branchial slit. The highest volume flow rates also occur in the most posterior slit for the cylindrical simulations, but occur in the most anterior slit for the conical simulations. Along the midline, there is a pronounced bilaterally symmetrical vortex in the posterodorsal region of the cylindrical and conical oral cavities and a second bilaterally symmetrical vortex in the posteroventral region of the cylinder. Particles entrained in the vortices will recirculate in the posterior oral cavity, increasing the probability of encounter with sticky, mucus-covered surfaces such as the oral roof, gill arches, or gill rakers. The posterodorsal vortex could serve to concentrate particles near the entrances of the epibranchial organs. The ventral vortex could be involved in sequestering dense inorganic particles that sink toward the floor of the oral cavity. All vortices are absent in the conical simulation with vertical branchial slits, indicating that the slanted branchial slits between the gill arches are responsible for the formation of the vortex in the conical oral cavity. Experiments using in vivo flow visualization techniques are needed to determine whether ram suspension feeders, pump suspension feeders, and non-suspension-feeding fishes possess vortices in the posterior oral cavity that contribute to particle transport, food particle encounter with sticky surfaces, and inorganic particle rejection.

  5. Assessment of quality of life in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Infante-Cossío, Pedro; Hernández-Guisado, José María; Hens-Aumente, Elena; Gutierrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2008-11-01

    Quality of life (QL) in oral cancer patients has become one of the most important parameters to consider in the diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up. The purpose of this article has been to review the papers published that study the QL in oral cancer patients, the different QL questionnaires used, the clinical results obtained, and the systematic revisions available in the indexed literature for the last 10 years. The term QL appears as a keyword in an increasing number of articles throughout the past 10 years; however, few studies focus on oral cancer. Most of them assess all head and neck cancers, which conform to a heterogeneous group with several different features depending on location (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx and salivary glands). Most studies evaluate QL in short periods of time, normally within the first year after the diagnosis. Series do not discern between different therapeutic options, and they generally center on Northern European or Northern American populations. There are few instruments translated and validated into Spanish that measure QL, a fundamental characteristic to link QL to own patients' socio-cultural parameters. Data related with QL are mostly related to patient (age, sex, co-morbidity), tumour (location, size), and treatment (surgical treatment, radiotherapy association, reconstruction, cervical dissection, and/or feeding tube). Nowadays QL's assessment is considered an essential component of an oral cancer patient as well as the survival, morbidity and years free of disease. Although many aspects related to QL in oral cancer patients have been published throughout the past 10 years, more systematic research is needed to be able to apply it on a daily basis.

  6. Oral cancer in southern India: the influence of smoking, drinking, paan-chewing and oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Balaram, Prabha; Sridhar, Hema; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Herrero, Rolando; Nandakumar, Ambakumar; Ravichandran, Kandaswamy; Ramdas, Kunnambath; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Muñoz, Nubia; Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-03-20

    Between 1996 and 1999 we carried out a case-control study in 3 areas in Southern India (Bangalore, Madras and Trivandrum) including 591 incident cases of cancer of the oral cavity (282 women) and 582 hospital controls (290 women), frequency-matched with cases by age and gender. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, gender, center, education, chewing habit and (men only) smoking and drinking habits. Low educational attainment, occupation as a farmer or manual worker and various indicators of poor oral hygiene were associated with significantly increased risk. An OR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4-4.4) was found in men for smoking > or = 20 bidi or equivalents versus 0/day. The OR for alcohol drinking was 2.2 (95% CI 1.4-3.3). The OR for paan chewing was more elevated among women (OR 42; 95% CI 24-76) than among men (OR 5.1; 95% CI 3.4-7.8). A similar OR was found among chewers of paan with (OR 6.1 in men and 46 in women) and without tobacco (OR 4.2 in men and 16.4 in women). Among men, 35% of oral cancer is attributable to the combination of smoking and alcohol drinking and 49% to pan-tobacco chewing. Among women, chewing and poor oral hygiene explained 95% of oral cancer.

  7. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Reptiles and Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    A wide variety of disorders may be seen affecting the reptile and amphibian oral cavity. Owners can easily miss problems until they are at an advanced stage because of the difficulty of examining the oral cavity at home. Because many problems are secondary to an inappropriate environment or diet and may be related to systemic disease, a full history and clinical examination is always required. Treatment of oral disorders also requires a holistic approach including correction of any predisposing factors in order for long-term successful resolution of the problem.

  8. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Thotakura, Vijaya; Balboni, Tracy A.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  9. Dissortativity and duplications in oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.

  10. Saliva proteome profiling reveals potential salivary biomarkers for detection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ching; Chu, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liu, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Discovery of body fluid accessible biomarkers is needed to improve OSCC screening. To this end, we profiled proteomes of saliva from the healthy volunteers, the individuals with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the OSCC patients by means of SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS. In the control, the OPMD, and the OSCC groups, 958, 845, and 1030 salivary proteins were detected, respectively. With spectral counting-based label-free quantification, 22 overexpressed salivary proteins were identified in the OSCC group compared with the healthy controls and the OPMD individuals. Among them, resistin (RETN) was subjected to further validation with an independent cohort using ELISA. The data confirmed that the salivary RETN levels in the OSCC patients were significantly higher than that in the healthy or in the OPMD group. Moreover, the elevated levels of salivary RETN were highly correlated with late-stage primary tumors, advanced overall stage, and lymph-node metastasis. Our results not only reveal that profiling of saliva proteome is feasible for discovery of OSCC biomarkers, but also identify RETN as a potential salivary biomarker for OSCC detection.

  11. Basal stem cells contribute to squamous cell carcinomas in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2013-05-01

    The cells of origin of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) are unknown. We used a cell lineage tracing approach (adult K14-CreER(TAM); ROSA26 mice transiently treated with tamoxifen) to identify and track normal epithelial stem cells (SCs) in mouse tongues by X-gal staining and to determine if these cells become neoplastically transformed by treatment with a carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). Here, we show that in normal tongue epithelia, X-gal(+) cells formed thin columns throughout the entire epithelium 12 weeks after tamoxifen treatment, indicating that the basal layer contains long-lived SCs that produce progeny by asymmetric division to maintain homeostasis. Carcinogen treatment results in a ~10-fold reduction in the total number of X-gal(+) clonal cell populations and horizontal expansion of X-gal(+) clonal cell columns, a pattern consistent with symmetric division of some SCs. Finally, X-gal(+) SCs are present in papillomas and invasive OCSCCs, and these long-lived X-gal(+) SCs are the cells of origin of these tumors. Moreover, the resulting 4-NQO-induced tumors are multiclonal. These findings provide insights into the identity of the initiating cells of oral cancer.

  12. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  13. Applications of nanomedicine in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Virupakshappa, Banu

    2012-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes worldwide. The high mortality rate in cancer such as oral squamous cell carcinoma is commonly attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease at an early and treatable stage. New methods of nanoengineered materials that are being developed might be effective in detecting the disease at an early treatable stage and treating illnesses and diseases such as cancer. "Nanotechnology" refers to the handling and/or engineering of nano-objects on the scale of molecules. This review deals with some recent developments concerning cancer detection and treatment enabled by nanotechnologies.

  14. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  15. Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content ASCO Conquer Cancer Foundation Journal of Clinical Oncology Journal of Oncology Practice ASCO University Donate eNEWS SIGNUP f Cancer. ... of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. ...

  16. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Malay; Nanavati, Ronak; Modi, Tapan G; Dobariya, Chintan

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.

  17. Mast Cells: Key Players in the Shadow in Oral Inflammation and in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gaje, Pusa Nela; Amalia Ceausu, Raluca; Jitariu, Adriana; Popovici, Ramona Amina; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Although mast cells (MCs) have been discovered over 130 years ago, their function was almost exclusively linked to allergic affections. At the time being, it is well known that MCs possess a great variety of roles, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the oral tissues, MCs release different proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), that promote leukocyte infiltration in various inflammatory states of the oral cavity. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and, as a consequence, their number changes in different pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, like gingivitis, periodontitis, and so on. MCs also represent a rich source of proteases, especially of mast cell tryptase and chymase, which directly degrade the extracellular matrix through their proteolytic activity and thus indirectly stimulate angiogenesis and facilitate invasion and metastasis. It may be stated that mast cells could have an impact on primary tumor development, progression, and metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma. By understanding the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and tumor diseases of the oral cavity, these cells may become therapeutic targets that could possibly improve the prognosis and survival of these patients. PMID:27847826

  18. Mast Cells: Key Players in the Shadow in Oral Inflammation and in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Gaje, Pusa Nela; Amalia Ceausu, Raluca; Jitariu, Adriana; Stratul, Stefan Ioan; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Popovici, Ramona Amina; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Although mast cells (MCs) have been discovered over 130 years ago, their function was almost exclusively linked to allergic affections. At the time being, it is well known that MCs possess a great variety of roles, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the oral tissues, MCs release different proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), that promote leukocyte infiltration in various inflammatory states of the oral cavity. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and, as a consequence, their number changes in different pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, like gingivitis, periodontitis, and so on. MCs also represent a rich source of proteases, especially of mast cell tryptase and chymase, which directly degrade the extracellular matrix through their proteolytic activity and thus indirectly stimulate angiogenesis and facilitate invasion and metastasis. It may be stated that mast cells could have an impact on primary tumor development, progression, and metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma. By understanding the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and tumor diseases of the oral cavity, these cells may become therapeutic targets that could possibly improve the prognosis and survival of these patients.

  19. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  20. An overview of orthodontic material degradation in oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, T P; Upadhayay, S N

    2010-01-01

    Various types of metallic orthodontic appliances are used in the management of malocclusion. These appliances are placed in oral environment under many stresses and variations such as masticatory forces, appliance loading, temperature fluctuations, varieties of ingested food and saliva. These metals undergo electrochemical reactions with the oral environment resulting in dissolution or formation of chemical compounds. Various microorganisms and many aggressive ions containing oral environment can cause material degradation (corrosion) and its associated problems during long time exposure. Orthodontic alloys must have excellent corrosion resistance to the oral environment, which is highly important for biocompatibility as well as for orthodontic appliance durability. This article reviews various aspects of corrosion (surface degradation) of orthodontic alloys. It explores the emerging research strategies for probing the biocompatibility of materials. During orthodontic treatment, use of nickel free, better corrosion resistance alloys and less use of fluoride containing toothpaste or gel is expected.

  1. Effect of beam arrangement on oral cavity dose in external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Vincent W.C.; Yang Zhining; Zhang Wuzhe; Wu Lili; Lin Zhixiong

    2012-07-01

    This study compared the oral cavity dose between the routine 7-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam arrangement and 2 other 7-beam IMRT with the conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten NPC patients treated by the 7-beam routine IMRT technique (IMRT-7R) between April 2009 and June 2009 were recruited. Using the same computed tomography data, target information, and dose constraints for all the contoured structures, 2 IMRT plans with alternative beam arrangements (IMRT-7M and IMRT-7P) by avoiding the anterior facial beam and 1 conventional radiotherapy plan (CONRT) were computed using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and oral cavity from which the dose parameters and the conformity index of the PTV were recorded for dosimetric comparisons among the plans with different beam arrangements. The dose distributions to the PTVs were similar among the 3 IMRT beam arrangements, whereas the differences were significant between IMRT-7R and CONRT plans. For the oral cavity dose, the 3 IMRT beam arrangements did not show significant difference. Compared with IMRT-7R, CONRT plan showed a significantly lower mean dose, V30 and V-40, whereas the V-60 was significantly higher. The 2 suggested alternative beam arrangements did not significantly reduce the oral cavity dose. The impact of varying the beam angles in IMRT of NPC did not give noticeable effect on the target and oral cavity. Compared with IMRT, the 2-D conventional radiotherapy irradiated a greater high-dose volume in the oral cavity.

  2. Effect of beam arrangement on oral cavity dose in external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vincent W C; Yang, Zhi-Ning; Zhang, Wu-Zhe; Wu, Li-li; Lin, Zhi-xiong

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the oral cavity dose between the routine 7-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam arrangement and 2 other 7-beam IMRT with the conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten NPC patients treated by the 7-beam routine IMRT technique (IMRT-7R) between April 2009 and June 2009 were recruited. Using the same computed tomography data, target information, and dose constraints for all the contoured structures, 2 IMRT plans with alternative beam arrangements (IMRT-7M and IMRT-7P) by avoiding the anterior facial beam and 1 conventional radiotherapy plan (CONRT) were computed using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and oral cavity from which the dose parameters and the conformity index of the PTV were recorded for dosimetric comparisons among the plans with different beam arrangements. The dose distributions to the PTVs were similar among the 3 IMRT beam arrangements, whereas the differences were significant between IMRT-7R and CONRT plans. For the oral cavity dose, the 3 IMRT beam arrangements did not show significant difference. Compared with IMRT-7R, CONRT plan showed a significantly lower mean dose, V30 and V-40, whereas the V-60 was significantly higher. The 2 suggested alternative beam arrangements did not significantly reduce the oral cavity dose. The impact of varying the beam angles in IMRT of NPC did not give noticeable effect on the target and oral cavity. Compared with IMRT, the 2-D conventional radiotherapy irradiated a greater high-dose volume in the oral cavity.

  3. Bacteroides species from the oral cavity and oral-associated diseases of cats.

    PubMed

    Love, D N; Johnson, J L; Moore, L V

    1989-03-01

    One hundred and sixty-seven strains of Bacteroides were isolated from 71 subcutaneous fight-wound abscesses of cats, 21 cases of feline pyothorax, normal gingival margins from 10 cats and 6 cases of feline gingivitis. Bacteroides species constituted (as a proportion of all anaerobic isolates examined) 44.5% from subcutaneous abscesses, 33.7% from pyothoraxes, 37.5% from normal gingiva and 27.7% from diseased gingiva. Bacteroides tectum comprised 43.7% or 73 of 167 strains, followed by the black- or brown-pigmented asaccharolytic feline species of B. gingivalis, B. salivosus and Group B, comprising 32.3% or 54 of 167 strains. B. heparinolyticus (some 10% or 17 of 167 strains) was the next most common species described. The remainder consisted of two strains of B. fragilis and 21 unspeciated strains. Bacteroides tectum was frequently isolated from subcutaneous abscesses (43.7%) and pyothoraxes (46.6%), and it constituted some 33% of anaerobic isolated from normal gingiva. Bacteroides heparinolyticus was more commonly encountered in purulent lesions (abscesses and pyothoraxes) than in the oral cavity.

  4. Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

  5. Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF.

  6. Improving Oral Cancer Survival: The Role of Dental Providers

    PubMed Central

    MESSADI, DIANA V.; WILDER-SMITH, PETRA; WOLINSKY, LAWRENCE

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 2 percent to 4 percent of all cancers diagnosed each year in the United States. In contrast to other cancers, the overall U.S. survival rate from oral cancer has not improved during the past 50 years, mostly due to late-stage diagnosis. Several noninvasive oral cancer detection techniques that emerged in the past decade will be discussed, with a brief overview of most common oral cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:19998655

  7. Corrosion in the oral cavity--potential local and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M

    1986-03-01

    The main current-generating corrosion cells in the oral cavity are the bimetallic cell and the concentration cell, the latter mainly occurring due to differences in access to oxygen in the various parts of the metallic material. Corrosion resistance is not an intrinsic property of a metal or an alloy for it depends on an interaction with the environment. Thus, the contents of the oral cavity, have a decisive influence. This implies that corrosion tests in vitro are of limited value in predicting the clinical corrosion behaviour of a metallic material. Results from a series of clinical studies concerning a possible relationship between galvanic currents and certain oral and other symptoms in a group of patients who had been referred to the Faculty of Odontology, University of Umeå, are briefly presented. The possibility of local and systemic effects of intra-oral galvanic cells is discussed.

  8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: manifestations in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Urízar, José Manuel; Echebarría-Goicouría, María Angeles; Eguía-del-Valle, Asier

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a pandemic disease characterised by impairment of the immune system; the main parameter is a progressive decline in the number of CD4 lymphocytes. This circumstance paves the way for opportunistic infections and the development of neoplastic processes that can lead the patient to a state known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ultimately, results in death. The incorporation of treatment based on a cocktail of different active drugs (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has made it possible to drastically change the panorama of the disease in developed nations; improving quality of life for the patient and delaying the progression of the disease. The oral manifestations of HIV infection have been and continue to be an important component of the disease from the very first descriptions and are indicative of progression. At some point in the course of the disease, nine out of every ten patients will present oral manifestations and, on occasion, these symptoms will be the first sign of the syndrome. It is essential that oral healthcare professionals recognize the hallmarks of the illness. In developed countries, the emergence of new therapies has made it possible to significantly reduce immune deficiency-related oral manifestations, both in terms of frequency, as well as severity. This review analyses the most important oral lesions associated with HIV infection and the current state of affairs in this regard.

  9. Oral cancer: current and future diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Bagan, José V; Hopper, Colin; Epstein, Joel B

    2008-08-01

    Oral cancer is among the 10 most common cancers worldwide, and is especially seen in disadvantaged elderly males. Early detection and prompt treatment offer the best chance for cure. As patient awareness regarding the danger of oral cancer increases, the demand for "screening" is expected to increase. The signs and symptoms of oral cancer often resemble less serious conditions more commonly found and similarly usually presenting as a lump, red or white patch or ulcer. If any such lesion does not heal within 3 weeks, a malignancy or some other serious disorder must be excluded and a biopsy may be indicated. Dental health care workers have a duty to detect benign and potentially malignant oral lesions such as oral cancer and are generally the best trained health care professionals in this field. Prompt referral to an appropriate specialist allows for the best management but, if this is not feasible, the dental practitioner should take the biopsy which should be sent to an oral/head and neck pathologist for histological evaluation.

  10. [Oral cavity changes in the child with celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Petrecca, S; Giammaria, G; Giammaria, A F

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients (of both sexes aged between 8 and 18 years old) were referred to our attention with a probable history of celiac disease; intestinal biopsy was positive for the said pathology. Biopsies were compared to a second group of 29 age- and sex-matched control subjects not suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and/or disorders of the phosphocalcium metabolism. The aim of the study was to highlight the possible presence, frequency and extent of oral alterations in confirmed celiac subjects in order to evaluate their greater or lesser incidence compared to controls. The results obtained confirm that celiac patients are more likely to manifest oral pathologies.

  11. Efficacy of topical antibiotic administration on the inhibition of perioperative oral bacterial growth in oral cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Funahara, M; Hayashida, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yanamoto, S; Kosai, K; Yanagihara, K; Umeda, M

    2015-10-01

    Parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis is the current standard of therapy in clean-contaminated oral cancer surgery. Nevertheless, the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in oral oncological surgery is relatively high, especially in major surgery with reconstruction and tracheotomy. The aims of this study were to investigate the perioperative condition related to microorganisms in the oral cavity and to examine the efficacy of the topical administration of tetracycline in reducing the number of bacteria in the oropharyngeal fluid during intubation. The number of oral bacteria was measured during intubation in patients undergoing major oral cancer surgery. The efficacy of the topical administration of tetracycline or povidone iodine gel in reducing the bacteria was then investigated. Bacteria in the oropharyngeal fluid grew from 10(6)CFU/ml to 10(8)CFU/ml during the 3h after intubation (CFU, colony-forming units). When tetracycline was applied to the dorsum of the tongue, oral bacteria decreased immediately to 10(5)CFU/ml, and the number of bacteria in the oropharyngeal fluid was maintained below 10(7)CFU/ml for 7h. The concentration of tetracycline in the oropharyngeal fluid was extremely high for several hours after topical administration. The topical administration of tetracycline could reduce oral bacteria in patients undergoing clean-contaminated oral cancer surgery. This method is expected to be effective in the prevention of SSI.

  12. Who will win the race in childrens' oral cavities? Streptococcus mutans or beneficial lactic acid bacteria?

    PubMed

    Güngör, Ö E; Kırzıoğlu, Z; Dinçer, E; Kıvanç, M

    2013-09-01

    Adhesion to oral soft and hard tissue is crucial for bacterial colonisation in the mouth. The aim of this work was to select strains of oral lactic acid bacteria that could be used as probiotics for oral health. To this end, the adhesive properties of some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Seventeen lactic acid bacteria including two Streptococcus mutans strains were isolated from the oral cavity of healthy children, while other strains were isolated from fermented meat products. The bacterial strains were applied to teeth surfaces covered with saliva or without saliva. A significant diversity in adhesion capacity to teeth surfaces among the lactic acid bacteria was observed. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from the oral cavity adhered the best to teeth surfaces covered with saliva, whereas lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented meat samples adhered the best to tooth surface without saliva. All strains of lactic acid bacteria were able to reduce the number of S. mutans cells, in particular on saliva-coated tooth surface. Therefore, they might have potential as probiotics for the oral cavity.

  13. Primary tuberculosis of oral cavity: a rare entity revisited.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virad; Singh, Amit P; Meher, Ravi; Raj, Anoop

    2011-03-01

    Oral lesions of tuberculosis though uncommon, are seen both in the primary as well as the secondary stages of the disease. In secondary tuberculosis, the oral manifestations are accompanied by lesions in the lung, lymph nodes, or any other organ system of the body. This can be detected by the usual clinical history and systemic examination. Primary oral tuberculosis may thus present as a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Amongst the oral lesions also, tongue is the usual site for tubercular infection, with the upper lip and soft palate being the least affected. The authors report two rare cases of children with isolated primary tuberculosis of the lip and uvula. Interestingly, the first case presenting just as a diffuse swelling of the upper lip, and the second as pain in throat with congestion and granulations on the uvula. We suggest a distinct Indian social habit which predisposes to primary lip and uvular tuberculosis, sites not common in the rest of the world. The habit of doing "datoon" i.e. brushing of the teeth with neem twigs in rural India, which at times causes trauma on the palate and thus predisposing to seedling of the wound with mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  14. Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bik, Elisabeth M; Long, Clara Davis; Armitage, Gary C; Loomer, Peter; Emerson, Joanne; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Nelson, Karen E; Gill, Steven R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Relman, David A

    2010-08-01

    The composition of the oral microbiota from 10 individuals with healthy oral tissues was determined using culture-independent techniques. From each individual, 26 specimens, each from different oral sites at a single point in time, were collected and pooled. An 11th pool was constructed using portions of the subgingival specimens from all 10 individuals. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using broad-range bacterial primers, and clone libraries from the individual and subgingival pools were constructed. From a total of 11,368 high-quality, nonchimeric, near full-length sequences, 247 species-level phylotypes (using a 99% sequence identity threshold) and 9 bacterial phyla were identified. At least 15 bacterial genera were conserved among all 10 individuals, with significant interindividual differences at the species and strain level. Comparisons of these oral bacterial sequences with near full-length sequences found previously in the large intestines and feces of other healthy individuals suggest that the mouth and intestinal tract harbor distinct sets of bacteria. Co-occurrence analysis showed significant segregation of taxa when community membership was examined at the level of genus, but not at the level of species, suggesting that ecologically significant, competitive interactions are more apparent at a broader taxonomic level than species. This study is one of the more comprehensive, high-resolution analyses of bacterial diversity within the healthy human mouth to date, and highlights the value of tools from macroecology for enhancing our understanding of bacterial ecology in human health.

  15. Occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson Júnior; Ciesielski, Francisco Isaak Nicolas; de Sousa, Fátima Regina Nunes; Nwaokorie, Francisca; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Avila-Campos, Mario Júlio

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck cancer. Fifty patients receiving RT were examined before, during and 30 days after RT. Saliva, mucosa, and biofilm samples were collected and microorganisms were detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The most prevalent yeasts in patients submitted to RT were Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas were the most frequently cultivated bacteria. Before RT, targeted bacteria were cultivated from 22.2% of edentulous patients and 16.6% of dentate patients; 30 days after RT, these microorganisms were recovered from 77.8% edentulous and 46.8% dentate patients. By PCR, these microorganisms were detected from all edentulous patients, 78.1% of dentate patients. The presence of Gram-negative enteric roads and fungi was particularly frequent in patients presenting mucositis level III or IV. Modifications in the oral environment due to RT treatment seem to facilitate the colonization of oral cavity by members of family Enterobacteriaceae, genera Enterococcus and Candida.

  16. Occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Ciesielski, Francisco Isaak Nicolas; de Sousa, Fátima Regina Nunes; Nwaokorie, Francisca; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Avila-Campos, Mario Júlio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck cancer. Fifty patients receiving RT were examined before, during and 30 days after RT. Saliva, mucosa, and biofilm samples were collected and microorganisms were detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The most prevalent yeasts in patients submitted to RT were Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas were the most frequently cultivated bacteria. Before RT, targeted bacteria were cultivated from 22.2% of edentulous patients and 16.6% of dentate patients; 30 days after RT, these microorganisms were recovered from 77.8% edentulous and 46.8% dentate patients. By PCR, these microorganisms were detected from all edentulous patients, 78.1% of dentate patients. The presence of Gram-negative enteric roads and fungi was particularly frequent in patients presenting mucositis level III or IV. Modifications in the oral environment due to RT treatment seem to facilitate the colonization of oral cavity by members of family Enterobacteriaceae, genera Enterococcus and Candida. PMID:24031721

  17. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  18. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization.

  19. Multiple fluorophore-analysis (MFA) for qualitative tissue diagnosis in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Romana; Betz, Christian; Havel, Miriam; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Leunig, Andreas; Assmann, Walter

    2007-07-01

    Early diagnosis of head and neck tumors is usually achieved via surgical tissue biopsy. By measuring the specific autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores with tumor-specific distributions, it might be possible to non-invasively judge tissue dignities ("optical biopsy"). A total of 22 patients with suspicious lesions of the oral cavity and 7 healthy volunteers were included into the study. Using a mercury vapour lamp as a light source, excitation and detection of endogenous fluorophores (tryptophan, NADH, FAD) was achieved using corresponding filter sets in an automated system. By including simultaneously recorded remission spectra into the analysis, it was possible to calculate "intrinsic" fluorescence spectra. Subsequently, the histopathological results of the lesions were compared to the spectroscopic findings. In a quantitative analysis, the intrinsic fluorescence spectra from (pre)malignant mucosal lesions regularly differed in fluorescence intensities when compared to healthy tissue. Whereas NADH and FAD yielded tumor specific intensity profiles with statistically significant differences in Student's t-test (p<=0.05), no definite spectral differences were found for tryptophan (p=0.22). The mucosa of the healthy volunteers showed a similar spectral pattern as the non-cancerous control areas in tumor patients. With regards to the results in this pilot study, MFA might serve as a helpful tool in early diagnosis of malignant lesions of head and neck.

  20. Cytology of the oral cavity: a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Navone, R

    2009-02-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology, while an economical and practical tool for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, is not extensively used. The results of conventional (n = 89) and liquid-based (n = 411) oral diagnostic cytology cases are reported and compared to histological diagnosis. Cells were collected using either a Cytobrush device for conventional smears or a dermatological curette (AcuDispo) for liquid-based (Thin Prep) cytology. The "curette technique" allowed for the collection of "accidental" tissue fragments, utilized as microbiopsies. The sensitivity was 86.5% in conventional and 94.7% in liquid-based cytology; specificity was 94.3% and 98.9%, respectively; inadequate samples were present in 12.4% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. Although conventional cytology may be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhances both the sensitivity and specificity, and also provides material for further investigations, e.g. DNA ploidy studies, microhistology, etc.

  1. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  2. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma presenting in the oral cavity of two HIV-negative Quechua patients.

    PubMed

    Mohanna, Salim; Bravo, Francisco; Ferrufino, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Juvenal; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    Traditionally, classic KS lesions have a general distribution, often involving the skin of the feet and legs, and to a lesser extent, that of the hands, arms, and trunk. Oral involvement is a rare manifestation. Initial oral involvement is an even rarer occurrence. We report two unusual cases of classic KS presenting in the oral cavity of two patients from indigenous origin; the first patient with primary oral KS lesion on the hard palate, with no other signs of the condition in any other region of the body; the second patient with generalized dermal KS lesions with lymph node and lower lip involvement. In conclusion, clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the typical clinical, gross, and histologic features of KS. Moreover, we would like to emphasize that oral KS may affect patients without AIDS or exposure to immunosuppression. The awareness of oral classic KS as a diagnostic possibility is important in the work-up of vascular lesions in the oral cavity of non-immunosuppressed individuals.

  3. Relationship between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Tomás, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda

    2014-05-01

    The components of the human body are closely interdependent; as a result, disease conditions in some organs or components can influence the development of disease in other body locations. The effect of oral health upon health in general has been investigated for decades by many epidemiological studies. In this context, there appears to be a clear relationship between deficient oral hygiene and different systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The precise relationship between them is the subject of ongoing research, and a variety of theories have been proposed, though most of them postulate the mediation of an inflammatory response. This association between the oral cavity and disease in general requires further study, and health professionals should be made aware of the importance of adopting measures destined to promote correct oral health. The present study conducts a Medline search with the purpose of offering an update on the relationship between oral diseases and cardiovascular diseases, together with an evaluation of the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease. Most authors effectively describe a moderate association between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases, though they also report a lack of scientific evidence that oral alterations constitute an independent cause of cardiovascular diseases, or that their adequate treatment can contribute to prevent such diseases. In the case of metabolic syndrome, obesity and particularly diabetes mellitus may be associated to an increased susceptibility to periodontitis. However, it is not clear whether periodontal treatment is able to improve the systemic conditions of these patients.

  4. Potential implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy for the oral health of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Havens, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Current adjuvant treatment modalities for breast cancer that express the estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor include adjuvant anti-estrogen therapies, and tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Bone, including the jaw, is an endocrine-sensitive organ, as are other oral structures. This review examines the potential links between adjuvant anti-estrogen treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer and oral health. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Knowledge was conducted using combinations of key terms “breast,” “cancer,” “neoplasm,” “Tamoxifen,” “Aromatase Inhibitor,” “chemotherapy,” “hormone therapy,” “alveolar bone loss,” “postmenopausal bone loss,” “estrogen,” “SERM,” “hormone replacement therapy,” and “quality of life.” We selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English. The authors found no studies reporting on periodontal diseases, alveolar bone loss, oral health, or oral health-related quality of life in association with anti-estrogen breast cancer treatments in postmenopausal women. Periodontal diseases, alveolar bone density, tooth loss, and conditions of the soft tissues of the mouth have all been associated with menopausal status supporting the hypothesis that the soft tissues and bone of the oral cavity could be negatively affected by anti-estrogen therapy. As a conclusion, the impact of adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy on the oral health of postmenopausal women is undefined. The structures of the oral cavity are influenced by estrogen; therefore, anti-estrogen therapies may carry the risk of oral toxicities. Oral health care for breast cancer patients is an important but understudied aspect of cancer survivorship. PMID:22986813

  5. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory ... History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers ...

  6. Chronic lingual ulceration caused by lipoma of the oral cavity. Case report.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; Cebrián Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez García, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Although lipomas are among the most frequent tumors in the human body, their presentation in the oral cavity is not common. Oral cavity lipomas usually show a slow painless and assymptomatic growing. When these tumors reach big sizes, they can cause compressive symptons and deformities. In this paper we present the case of a patient in whom oral lipoma was the final finding in the differential diagnosis of a chronic mucosal ulcer. CT scan and MRI images and microscopical examination after fine-needle aspiration were the clue for the final diagnosis. The surgical excision of the tumor was the basis for the healing of the ulcer. We also review the most relevant and recent literature about clinic, diagnosis and treatment for these tumors.

  7. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    PubMed Central

    BenNasir, E.; El Mistiri, M.; McGowan, R.; Katz, R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  8. Silent blast in oral cavity: is the car battery innocuous?

    PubMed

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar; Tripathi, Mukesh; Ramraj, P N; Singh, Ishwar

    2005-04-01

    Low voltage energy source is not free from danger. An exceptionally rare and peculiar mode of facial blast injury is reported. The blast took place silently in the mouth of a 15-year-old boy, due to short-circuiting of wires connected to a12-volt car battery while peeling off insulation with the intent of running a musical instrument. Airway compromise due to soft tissue injury produced further problem during tracheostomy. Emergent airway management is discussed. Post-healing sequel resulted in loss of voice and prevented normal oral feeding. The case report emphasizes need for education to public in handling low voltage energy source.

  9. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Laura; Martín, Margarita; López, Mario; Marín, Alicia; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background In head and neck cancer, bilateral neck irradiation is the standard approach for many tumor locations and stages. Increasing knowledge on the pattern of nodal invasion leads to more precise targeting and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and tumor control for patients with well lateralized squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with ipsilateral radiotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx were treated with a prospective management approach using ipsilateral irradiation between 2000 and 2007. This included 8 radical oropharyngeal and 12 postoperative oral cavity carcinomas, with Stage T1-T2, N0-N2b disease. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence was determined. Late xerostomia was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, five-year overall survival and loco-regional control rates were 82.5% and 100%, respectively. No local or contralateral nodal recurrences were observed. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland was 4.72 Gy and to the contralateral submandibular gland was 15.30 Gy. Mean score for dry mouth was 28.1 on the 0-100 QLQ-H&N35 scale. According to CTCAE v3 scale, 87.5% of patients had grade 0-1 and 12.5% grade 2 subjective xerostomia. The unstimulated salivary flow was > 0.2 ml/min in 81.2% of patients and 0.1-0.2 ml/min in 19%. None of the patients showed grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusion In selected patients with early and moderate stages, well lateralized oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas, ipsilateral irradiation treatment of the primary site and ipsilateral neck spares salivary gland function without compromising loco-regional control. PMID:19723329

  10. L-lysine in Treating Oral Mucositis in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy For Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-15

    Mucositis; Oral Complications of Chemotherapy; Oral Complications of Radiation Therapy; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage

  11. Chemoprevention of premalignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity: Recent trends

    PubMed Central

    Bodhade, Ashish S.; Dive, Alka M.

    2013-01-01

    The word chemoprevention includes prevention of initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis to cancer. This article is an attempt to review the dietary chemopreventive agents and their mode of action in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions and oral cancer using a systematic approach. Selected chemoprevention trials are discussed with a focus on strategies of trial design and clinical outcome. Future in the field of chemoprevention will be more promising than the recently available therapeutic alternatives. PMID:24883036

  12. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  13. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  14. Assesment of Correlation of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 with Oral Cancer and Precancer- A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most common malignant neoplasm in the oral cavity is squamous cell carcinoma. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) may enhance the development of oral carcinoma in individuals who are already at increased risk of the disease because of tobacco consumption and cigarette smoking and so must be considered as a possible etiologic agent in oral cancer and precancer. Aim To assess and compare the correlation of HSV-1 in oral cancer and precancerous lesions/conditions with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods The study comprised of 150 subjects who were divided into three groups as oral cancer, precancer and control group. Their blood samples were collected and were tested for HSV-1 IgG antibody level, using ‘Herpe Select-1’ ELISA kit. Results There was statistically insignificant difference between the HSV-1 IgG level in cancer and precancer but statistically significant difference was found between the HSV-1 IgG level among control group and cancer/precancer. Conclusion The present study clearly indicates that quantitative estimation of IgG antibody against HSV-1 in cancer/precancer patients will give the clue in the etiology of cancer or precancer. However, further studies with a large sample size should be carried out to determine the role of HSV-1 in etiology of oral cancer and precancer. PMID:27656555

  15. Evaluation of mast cell counts and microvessel density in reactive lesions of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Tahamtan, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable immunohistochemical assays to assess the definitive role of mast cells (MCs) and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of oral reactive lesions are generally not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mast cell counts (MCC) and microvessel density (MVD) in oral reactive lesions and determine the correlation between MCC and MVD. Methods. Seventy-five cases of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma (15 for each category) were immunohisto-chemically stained with MC tryptase and CD31. Fifteen cases of normal gingival tissue were considered as the control group. The mean MCC and MVD in superficial and deep connective tissues were assessed and total MCC and MVD was computed for each lesion. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in MCC and MVD between the study groups (P < 0.001). MC tryptase and CD31 expression increased in the superficial connective tissue of each lesion in comparison to the deep con-nective tissue. A significant negative correlation was not found between MCC and MVD in oral reactive lesions (P < 0.001, r = -0.458). Conclusion. Although MCs were present in the reactive lesions of the oral cavity, a direct correlation between MCC and MVD was not found in these lesions. Therefore, a significant interaction between MCs and endothelial cells and an active role for MCs in the growth of oral reactive lesions was not found in this study. PMID:28096950

  16. Determining the Genetic Diversity of Lactobacilli from the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, R.; Argimon, S.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Caufield, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Several methods for determining the diversity of Lactobacillus spp were evaluated with the purpose of developing a realistic approach for further studies. The patient population was comprised of young children with an oral disease called severe early childhood caries. The ultimate goal of these studies was to ascertain the role of lactobacilli in the caries process. To accomplish that goal, we evaluated several methods and approaches for determining diversity including AP-PCR, chromosomal DNA fingerprinting, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Central to these methods was the gathering and screening of isolates from cultivation medium. Using various estimates of diversity, we addressed the question as to how many isolates represent the overall diversity and how cultivation compares to non-cultivation techniques. Finally, we proposed a working approach for achieving the goals outlined framed by both practical constraints in terms of time, effort and efficacy while yielding a reliable outcome. PMID:20573585

  17. Obtaining Normal Tissue Constraints Using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in Patients with Oral Cavity, Oropharnygeal, and Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, William K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal tissue dose constraints while maintaining planning target volume (PTV) prescription without reducing PTV margins. Sixteen patients with oral cavity carcinoma (group I), 27 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (group II), and 28 patients with laryngeal carcinoma (group III) were reviewed. Parotid constraints were a mean dose to either parotid < 26 Gy (PP1), 50% of either parotid < 30 Gy (PP2), or 20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy (PP3). Treatment was intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). All patients met constraints for cord and brain stem. The mandibular constraints were met in 66%, 29%, and 57% of patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers, respectively. Mean dose of 26 Gy (PP1) was achieved in 44%, 41%, and 38% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients. PP2 (parotid constraint of 30 Gy to less than 50% of one parotid) was the easiest to achieve (group I, II, and III: 82%, 76%, and 78%, respectively). PP3 (20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy) was difficult, and was achieved in 25%, 17%, and 35% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients, respectively. Mean parotid dose of 26 Gy was met 40% of the time. However, a combination of constraints allowed for sparing of the parotid based on different criteria and was met in high numbers. This was accomplished without reducing PTV-parotid overlap. What dose constraint best correlates with subjective and objective functional outcomes remains a focus for future study.

  18. Decreased expression of Ku70/Ku80 proteins in malignant melanomas of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Korabiowska, Monika; Tscherny, Michael; Grohmann, Ulrike; Hönig, Johannes F; Bartkowski, Stanislaw B; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Brinck, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Ku70/80 are genes responsible for the repairing of DNA double-strand breaks and they function as a regulatory subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase. Their expression has not yet been investigated in malignant melanomas of the oral cavity. These tumours are characterized by very poor prognosis and etiology independent of UV-radiation. We investigated 29 malignant melanomas of the oral cavity for the expression of Ku70/80 proteins. Ku70 expression was preserved in 21 out of 29 tumours and the percentage of Ku70-positive cells did not exceed 76%. Ku80 was found in 19 out of 29 tumours and the percentage of Ku80-positive cells peaked at 62%. Correlations between Ku70 and Ku80 expression were lost (p>0.05). We conclude that decreased Ku70/80 expression in malignant melanomas of the oral cavity and loss of correlation between these markers may influence progression of oral melanomas.

  19. Novel bacterial phylotypes associated with the healthy feline oral cavity and feline chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Dolieslager, Sanne M J; Bennett, David; Johnston, Norman; Riggio, Marcello P

    2013-06-01

    Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a painful inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. Treatment options for FCGS are very limited and little is known regarding its aetiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of putative novel species in the oral cavity of cats with and without FCGS. Bacterial DNA was extracted from oral swabs and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The 16S rRNA genes of 54 clones representing distinct potentially novel species were sequenced (1202-1325 base pairs). Obtained sequences were compared to the BLAST database, aligned using the ClustalW2 alignment tool and a phylogenetic tree created. Twenty-two clones (18 from control and four from FCGS samples) had a similarity of less than 97% and were considered novel. The proportion of novel phylotypes in each group was 19.6% (control) and 2.3% (FCGS). In the derived phylogenetic tree, 15 novel phylotypes clustered together and branched away from known species and phyla. This suggests the presence of a group of novel, previously unidentified bacteria that are associated with the feline oral cavity in both health and disease.

  20. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  1. Lightpipe device for delivery of uniform illumination for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cassarly, William J.; Foster, Thomas H.; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2011-01-01

    A compact and efficient lightpipe device to deliver light to the human oral cavity for photodynamic therapy was designed and fabricated, having dimensions 6.8 mm × 6.8 mm × 46 mm. An average irradiance of 76 mW/cm2 with an average deviation of 5% was measured on a square 25 mm2 treatment field for an input power of 100 mW. The device limits irradiation of healthy tissue and offers potential for improvement over the current treatment procedure, which requires shielding of the whole cavity to avoid damage to healthy tissue. PMID:21629308

  2. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers.

  3. Experimental candidosis and recovery of Candida albicans from the oral cavity of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Koga Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the development of candidosis and the recovery of C. albicans from the oral cavity of ovariectomized and sham-ovariectomized rats. One hundred and twenty-four rats originally negative for Candida spp. in the oral cavity were divided into two groups: ovariectomized and sham-ovariectomized. Fifty-eight ovariectomized and the same quantity of sham-ovariectomized rats were inoculated with C. albicans for the study of candidosis development and recovery of yeast. Four animals from each group were not inoculated with yeast suspension and were submitted to tongue dorsum morphologic analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The development of candidosis in the tongue dorsum was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy in the periods of 6 hr, 24 hr, 7 days and 15 days after the last inoculation. Recovery of C. albicans was performed by oral samples plating on Sabouraud agar after 1, 2, 5 and 7 days and progressively at each 15-day interval until negative cultures for yeasts were obtained. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests. The tongue dorsum of sham-ovariectomized and ovariectomized rats, not infected by Candida, presented normal aspect. Among the infected rats, the ovariectomized group showed less occurrence of candidosis lesions and lower recovery of C. albicans from the oral cavity in relation to the sham-ovariectomized group. It could be concluded that candidosis was less frequent from the oral cavities of ovariectomized rats in relation to sham-ovariectomized.

  4. Role of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: a nested case-control design using incident cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Muwonge, Richard; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Sankila, Risto; Thara, Somanathan; Thomas, Gigi; Vinoda, Jissa; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2008-05-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with two-thirds of the cases occurring in developing countries. While cohort and nested case-control study designs offer various methodological strengths, the role of tobacco and alcohol consumption in the etiology of oral cancer has been assessed mainly in case-control studies. The role of tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking patterns on the risk of cancer of the oral cavity was evaluated using a nested case-control design on data from a randomized control trial conducted between 1996 and 2004 in Trivandrum, India. Data from 282 incident oral cancer cases and 1410 matched controls were analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression models. Tobacco chewing was the strongest risk factor associated with oral cancer. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for chewers were 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.1-4.6) for men and 11.0 (95%CI=5.8-20.7) for women. Effects of chewing pan with or without tobacco on oral cancer risk were elevated for both sexes. Bidi smoking increased the risk of oral cancer in men (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.1-3.2). Dose-response relations were observed for the frequency and duration of chewing and alcohol drinking, as well as in duration of bidi smoking. Given the relatively poor survival rates of oral cancer patients, cessation of tobacco and moderation of alcohol use remain the key elements in oral cancer prevention and control.

  5. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...

  6. Localization of fluconazole in oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for treatment of oral thrush

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Kamla; Sharma, Vijay; Akhtar, Nida; Rastogi, Pragya

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present research work was aimed at localization of fluconazole in the oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for the treatment of oral thrush. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the aim, buccoadhesive tablets were optimized using 32 full factorial design to study the influence of varying content of chitosan and carbopol 934P (input variables) on the responses. Results: Perturbation plots revealed high sensitivity of the input variables to ex vivo mucoadhesion force and percent cumulative drug release (CDR) whereas the ex vivo mucoadhesion time was less sensitive to the input variables. Based on the highest desirability factor of 0.693 the formulation F9 was identified as the optimized formulation and was preferentially coated with ethyl cellulose (3% w/v) on one tablet face to get F9C. In reference to F9, F9C showed superior mucoadhesive features (P < 0.05) but the % CDR was comparable (f2 = 50.80). The preferential coating (F9C, Jss = 0.812 μg/cm2/h) limited the permeation of fluconazole across goat buccal mucosa by almost half the value of F9 (Jss = 1.34 μg/cm2/h) that could serve as an advantage in establishing high local concentration of drug in the oral cavity, thereby facilitating faster attainment of minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis established nonirritant potential. The developed formulation was stable and demonstrated antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that preferentially coated buccoadhesive tablets of fluconazole might be considered as a precise approach to localize the drug delivery in oral cavity. PMID:27051630

  7. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Русский) Oral Cancer English Рак полости рта - Русский (Russian) ... not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  8. Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yakin, Muhammed; Gavidi, Ratu Osea; Cox, Brian; Rich, Alison

    2017-03-03

    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco. Given the high prevalence of these two risk factors and their synergistic effect, it is important for doctors and dentists to encourage smoking cessation in smokers and to recommend judicious alcohol intake. Research is needed to determine the prevalence of use of oral preparations of tobacco and water-pipe smoking in New Zealand, especially due to changing demography and increases in migrant populations. UV radiation is also an important risk factor. Further investigations are also needed to determine the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to oncogenic HPV infection.

  9. Propolis in Dentistry and Oral Cancer Management

    PubMed Central

    S., Vagish Kumar L.

    2014-01-01

    Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer. PMID:25006559

  10. Higher prevalence and gene amplification of HPV16 in oropharynx as compared to oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, Hideo; SUGIYAMA, Masaru; OHTA, Kouji; RAHMAN, Mohammad Zeshaan; TAKECHI, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to clarify differences regarding HPV16 infection and gene amplification between the oral cavity and oropharynx in healthy individuals. Material and Methods The subjects were 94 healthy asymptomatic individuals (41 males, 53 females; mean age 58.6 years, range 16-97 years) who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery of the Hiroshima University Hospital from 2014 to 2015. Oral epithelial cells were collected from oral rinse and pharynx gargle samples and placed in saline. The human endogenous retrovirus gene ERV3-1 was used as a reference to estimate the number of human cells in each sample. DNA samples were extracted from approximately 10,000 human cells and tested for HPV16 DNA by PCR using a type-specific primer. Similarly, we analyzed the HPV16 viral copy number in HPV16-positive cases using real-time PCR to examine genomic amplification. Results The percentage of HPV16-positive cases was higher in the gargle (28.7%) as compared to the rinse (16.0%) samples. In the oral rinse samples, males (26.8%) showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 than females (7.5%) (P=0.021). Importantly, in older subjects (aged 60-89 years), gargle samples showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 (33.3%) than oral rinse samples (13.7%) (P=0.034). The average number of viral copies was approximately 8 times higher in the gargle than in the oral rinse samples (0.16±0.27 vs. 1.35±1.26 copy numbers per cell), a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the oropharynx is more susceptible to HPV16 infection as compared to the oral cavity, while HPV16 gene amplification is also more commonly found in the oropharynx. PMID:27556212

  11. Versitality of the Use of Collagen Membrane in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nagamalleswara; Bhushan, N.V.V. Satya; Krishnan, Gokkula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bovine derived collagen membrane is usually and regularly used as a temporary cover or dressing for the extra oral wounds and for the burns on the body. It has wide applications because of its usefulness and biocompatibility. This has provoked us to do a study with the use of collagen membrane even for the intraoral minor surgical defects. Aim The study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of collagen membrane as a biological dressing material for intraoral wounds, to check for haemostasis, pain control, granulation tissue formation, rapid re-epithelialization and minimal contracture. Materials and Methods A total of 30 patients 19 male, 11 female were taken for excision of various intraoral lesions like leukoplakia patches, mucocele, epulis growths, irritational fibroma, frenectomy and the surgical defects were closed with collagen membrane. Postoperatively healing was assessed by taking five clinical parameters of Haemostasis, Pain, Granulation tissue, Epithelialization, Contracture. Results Among 30 patients, haemostasis score was found to be good in 28 cases, fair in two cases. Pain relief score was good in seven cases, fair in 19 cases, poor in four cases. Granulation tissue formation score was good in eight cases, fair in 13 cases, poor in nine cases. Epithelialization score was good in 19 cases, fair in seven cases, poor in four cases. Contracture score was good in six cases, fair in 16 cases, poor in eight cases. Total score of all the five parameters, which was rated as effectiveness score, was calculated by using a standard scale. Final scoring was very effective in six cases, effective in 20 cases, ineffective in four cases. Conclusion Reconstituted bovine derived collagen membrane used in our study was found to be an effective intraoral wound dressing material for faster uneventful healing of intraorally also. PMID:27042581

  12. Minor salivary glands as a major source of secretory immunoglobin A in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J M; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

    1975-12-19

    Secretory immunoglobulin A is the predominant immunoglobulin in labial minor salivary gland secretions. Its mean concentration is four times higher in these secretions than in parotid gland secretion. The minor salivary glands can produce 30 to 35 percent of the immunoglobulin A that enters the oral cavity. This, together with the potential accessibility of these glands to antigenic stimulation, suggest that they may be an important source of the immune factors that are involved in the regulation of the microorganisms in the oral environment.

  13. Congenital Epidermoid Cyst of the Oral Cavity: Prenatal Diagnosis by Sonography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Wan; Chae, Soo Ahn; Yoo, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Gwang Jun; Lee, Sei Young

    2013-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign developmental anomalies that are rarely observed in the oral cavity of neonate. If large in size, especially in the developing fetus or newborn infant, they can cause swallowing difficulty and occasionally respiratory difficulty. We report a case of epidermoid cyst in the oral cavity detected prenatal sonography. The sonographic finding was large cystic mass, measuring 30×25 mm. In this case, supplies and equipment for an emergency tracheostomy were made available prior to the delivery. However, the infant did not require intervention to secure the airway. The lesion was surgically excised, and histologic diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. After 6 months of follow up, the cyst had not recurred. This case illustrates the value of accurate prenatal diagnosis and planned perinatal management using a team approach. PMID:24069525

  14. CTCFL (BORIS) mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Galván, Graciela; Reyes-Romero, Miguel; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Almeda-Ojeda, Oscar Eduardo; Lemus-Rojero, Obed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites) and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity. PMID:25114808

  15. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  16. Speech aerodynamics and nasalance in oral cancer patients treated with microvascular transfers.

    PubMed

    Markkanen-Leppänen, Mari; Isotalo, Elina; Mäkitie, Antti A; Suominen, Erkki; Asko-Seljavaara, Sirpa; Haapanen, Marja-Leena

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess speech aerodynamics and nasal acoustic energy during a follow-up period of 12 months in patients having undergone microvascular free flap reconstruction after tumor ablation from the oral cavity or oropharynx, usually followed by radiotherapy. Velopharyngeal function was assessed in terms of velopharyngeal orifice size by a pressure-flow measurement technique as well as by determining the instrumental correlate of perceived nasality (i.e., nasalance) during speech production. Velopharyngeal closure and nasalance were estimated to be adequate before operation both in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer patients. After the operation, at the group level, the oral cavity patients showed adequate velopharyngeal closure and nasalance. In contrast, the postoperative velopharynx orifice size was significantly bigger in the oropharyngeal cancer patients as compared with the oral cavity patients 6 months after operation. However, based on average aerodynamic as well as the nasalance data, the impairment of velopharyngeal function was not regarded clinically significant at the group level in either group of patients. The present treatment protocol served to maintain the prerequisites for normal or close to normal speech physiology.

  17. [Dysbiosis and its consequences on oral cavity in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Suladze, T; Shishniashvili, T; Margvelashvili, V; Makhviladze, M

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases in children are often accompanied by changes in oral cavity, which is caused by common function of GIT and oral cavity organs. During last years, the number of dysbiosis of various severities has dramatically increased, which directly affects the oral cavity - dental hard tissue mineralization, especially in children and adolescents. The aim of our study was to identify the frequency of dysbiosis in children and adolescents and its influence on dental and general health. 279 patients aged 1 - 17 years were examined. Examinations have shown, that in patients with I-II degree dysbiosis spread and intensity (DMF index) of dental caries is significantly lower - 58,2% and 2,7 intensity, compared to III-IV degree dysbiosis, where 71,8% have caries with 4,2 intensity. According to this, dental and general health status in children and adolescents is highly dependent on severity of GI tract pathologies, particularly on qualitative and/or quantitative content of microbyotes of GI tract.

  18. [Oral cavity microflora in patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Kondrakova, O A; Muliar, E A; Voropaeva, E A; Babin, V N; Dubinin, A V; Briko, N I

    2009-01-01

    Results of study of microecological disorders in oral cavity of patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis (NSUC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and control subjects (patients with hypertension). Condition of mucosa was assessed on the basis of morphological data and electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei, whereas structure of microbiocenosis and metabolic activity of microflora--on the basis of saliva bacterial culture and contents and profile of volatile fat acids in it. Detection rate of negative charge of the cell nuclei (decrease of functional activity of epithelium) was significantly higher in patients with NSUC and CD (66.6%) compared with controls (10%). This fact was directly related with hypercolonization of oral cavity by Gram-negative microflora. Lesions of mucosa which are characteristic of NSUC and CD and determined by pathologic immune mechanisms correlated with quantity of pathogenic microflora (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida). Marked differences of chromatograms' patterns were observed in patients with NSUC and CD indicating the suppression of anaerobic microflora in patients with CD and hypercolonization of oral cavity by anaerobic microflora in majority of patients with NSUC.

  19. Role of MRI in Evaluation of Malignant Lesions of Tongue and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amandeep; Thukral, Chuni Lal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Sood, Arvinder Singh; Singla, Hanish; Singh, Kunwarpal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of MRI in staging of malignant lesions of the oral cavity and to correlate MRI findings with clinical/surgical and anatomical-pathological findings, wherever possible. Material/Methods The study included 50 patients who presented with malignant lesions of the oral cavity and were referred to radiology departments for MRI. All patients included were subjected to a detailed physical examination following which MRI was carried out on Philips Gyroscan Achieva 1.5 Tesla unit. Results In the study, the highest number of patients were found to have tongue malignancy (82%) followed by buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus malignancy (18%). The highest number of patients was in the age group of 51–60 years (32%). The incidence was higher in males (96%). There was moderate agreement (k=0.537) for T stage between the clinical and MRI staging assessments. The agreement for N stage between clinical and MRI staging assessments was fair (k=0.328). The final diagnosis was made by histopathology in 22 patients. The agreement for T stage was good/substantial (k=0.790) and for N stage was moderate (k=0.458) between MRI and histopathology staging assessments. Conclusions MRI provides satisfactory accuracy for preoperative estimation of tumor thickness and predicting occult cervical nodal metastasis. MRI is the preferred modality in evaluation and staging of oral cavity malignancy which helps a clinician for planning of treatment. PMID:28289481

  20. Clinical and biochemical studies support smokeless tobacco’s carcinogenic potential in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mallery, Susan R.; Tong, Meng; Michaels, Gregory C.; Kiyani, Amber R.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, International Agency for Cancer Research presented compelling evidence that linked smokeless tobacco use to the development of human oral cancer. While these findings imply vigorous local carcinogen metabolism, little is known regarding levels and distribution of Phase I, II and drug egress enzymes in human oral mucosa. In the study presented here, we integrated clinical data, imaging and histopathologic analyses of an oral squamous cell carcinoma that arose at the site of smokeless tobacco quid placement in a patient. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were employed to identify tumor and normal human oral mucosal smokeless tobacco-associated metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Human oral epithelium contains every known Phase I enzyme associated with nitrosamine oxidative bioactivation with ~2 fold inter-donor differences in protein levels. Previous studies have confirmed ~3.5 fold inter-donor variations in intraepithelial Phase II enzymes. Unlike the superficially located enzymes in non-replicating esophageal surface epithelium, IHC studies confirmed oral mucosal nitrosamine metabolizing enzymes reside in the basilar and suprabasilar region which notably is the site of ongoing keratinocyte DNA replication. Clearly, variations in product composition, nitrosamine metabolism and exposure duration will modulate clinical outcomes. The data presented here form a coherent picture consistent with the abundant experimental data that links tobacco-specific nitrosamines to human oral cancer. PMID:24265177

  1. What Are the Key Statistics about Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses occur in the maxillary sinuses or in the nasal cavity. They are ... Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make ...

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory.

  3. Relationship between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The components of the human body are closely interdependent; as a result, disease conditions in some organs or components can influence the development of disease in other body locations. The effect of oral health upon health in general has been investigated for decades by many epidemiological studies. In this context, there appears to be a clear relationship between deficient oral hygiene and different systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The precise relationship between them is the subject of ongoing research, and a variety of theories have been proposed, though most of them postulate the mediation of an inflammatory response. This association between the oral cavity and disease in general requires further study, and health professionals should be made aware of the importance of adopting measures destined to promote correct oral health. The present study conducts a Medline search with the purpose of offering an update on the relationship between oral diseases and cardiovascular diseases, together with an evaluation of the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease. Most authors effectively describe a moderate association between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases, though they also report a lack of scientific evidence that oral alterations constitute an independent cause of cardiovascular diseases, or that their adequate treatment can contribute to prevent such diseases. In the case of metabolic syndrome, obesity and particularly diabetes mellitus may be associated to an increased susceptibility to periodontitis. However, it is not clear whether periodontal treatment is able to improve the systemic conditions of these patients. Key words:Cardiovascular diseases, periodontitis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus. PMID:24121926

  4. The hidden ‘mycobacteriome’ of the human healthy oral cavity and upper respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Macovei, Lilia; McCafferty, Jon; Chen, Tsute; Teles, Flavia; Hasturk, Hatice; Paster, Bruce J.; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of opportunistic non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections has increased considerably in the past decades causing an array of infections, including respiratory and soft-tissue infections. NTM are ubiquitous and can be found in numerous environments, including households and water plants. However, NTM have not been reported to be associated with the healthy human oral microbiome. Since the oral cavity and upper respiratory track are the main ports of entry of microorganisms into the human body, elucidating NTM diversity and prevalence will assist in the assessment of the potential risks of infection elicited by these opportunistic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of a ‘non-tuberculous mycobacteriome’ in healthy individuals. We employed a modified DNA extraction procedure in conjunction with mycobacterial-specific primers to screen niches in the oral cavity (buccal mucosa and dental plaque) and upper respiratory tract (nostrils and oropharynx) of 10 healthy subjects. A total of 50 prevalent operational taxonomic units sequenced on MiSeq (Illumina) using 16S rRNA V3–V4 region were detected across all screened niches, showing the presence of diverse NTM communities. NTM DNA was detected in the nostrils of all 10 subjects, in buccal mucosa of 8 subjects, in the oropharynx of 7 subjects, and in the dental plaques of 5 subjects. Results from quantitative PCR showed each individual harbored 103–104 predicted NTM per each screened niche. The modification of standard DNA isolation methods to increase sensitivity toward mycobacterial species represents an important step to advance the knowledge of the oral as well as the overall human microbiome. These findings clearly reveal for the first time that healthy individuals harbor a ‘non-tuberculous mycobacteriome’ in their oral cavity and upper respiratory tract and may have important implications in our understanding of infections caused by NTM. PMID:25683180

  5. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome and latent infection gene expression in normal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; de Rivera, Michelle Wendoline Garcia-Niño; Hoshino, Miyako; Sakashita, Hideaki; Yamada, Tsutomu; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; González-López, Blanca Silvia; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    A relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cancer of lymphoid and epithelial tissues such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma, and oral cancer has been reported. EBV is transmitted orally and infects B cells and epithelial cells. However, it has remained uncertain whether EBV plays a role in carcinogenesis of oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, we detected the EBV genome and latent EBV gene expression in normal mucosal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to clarify whether EBV is involved in carcinogenesis of the oral cavity. We examined 333 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples (morphologically normal oral mucosa 30 samples, gingivitis 32, tonsillitis 17, oral epithelial dysplasia 83, OSCC 150, and NPC 21). EBV latent infection genes (EBNA-2, LMP-1) were detected not only in OSCC (50.2 %, 10.7 %) but also in severe epithelial dysplasia (66.7 %, 44.4 %), mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia (43.1 %, 18.5 %), gingivitis (78.1 %, 21.9 %), and normal mucosa (83.3 %, 23.3 %). Furthermore, the intensity of EBV latent infection gene expression (EBER, LMP-1) was significantly higher in severe epithelial dysplasia (94.4 %, 72.2 %) than in OSCC (34.7 %, 38.7 %). These results suggest that EBV latent infection genes and their increased expression in severe epithelial dysplasia might play an important role in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity.

  6. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the floor of mouth: first reported case in the oral cavity of an adult.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stephanie L; Kerpel, Stanley; Reich, Renee F; Freedman, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are exceedingly rare lesions. To our knowledge, only 2 cases have been reported in the oral cavity, with both examples occurring in infants. The current case is the third reported case of MRT of the oral cavity and the first reported case to occur in an adult at this location. The following report describes the clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor.

  7. Metabolite Profiling of Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Lesions of Oral Cavity Tissue Samples Revealed a Biomarker Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Shahid, Najia; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Ali; Saleem, Mahwish; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Ali, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major health challenge in the Indian subcontinent and a dreadful form of cancers worldwide. The current study is focused on the identification of distinguished metabolites of oral cancer tissue samples in comparison with precancerous and control tissue samples using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and chemometric analyses. Metabolites obtained were identified through National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral (Wiley registry) library. Mass Profiler Professional (MPP) software was used for the alignment and for all the statistical analysis. 31 compounds out of 735 found distinguishing among oral cancer, precancerous and control group samples using p-value ≤ 0.05. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) model was generated using statistically significant metabolites gave an overall accuracy of 90.2%. Down-regulated amino acid levels appear to be the result of enhanced energy metabolism or up-regulation of the appropriate biosynthetic pathways, and required cell proliferation in cancer tissues. These results suggest that tissue metabolic profiles have great potential in detecting oral cancer and may aid in understanding its underlying mechanisms. PMID:27958349

  8. Differential cell-specific cytotoxic responses of oral cavity cells to tobacco preparations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, Gaddamanugu L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of standardized (reference) tobacco preparations on human oral cavity cells, two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (101A, 101B) and normal human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) were treated with cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), smokeless tobacco extracted with complete artificial saliva (ST/CAS), or whole-smoke conditioned media (WS-CM). EC-50 values, as determined by sulforhodamine B assays, varied among the cell types and agents. When normalized to nicotine content, cytotoxicity for WS-CM and TPM was higher compared to that observed with ST/CAS. Nicotine alone had no or only minimal cytotoxicity for all cell types in the applied range. Activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was examined in all cell types at their respective EC-50 doses for the three agents. TPM, but not ST/CAS or WS-CM significantly activated caspase-3 in all three cell types. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for expression of the early apoptosis marker Annexin V and for nuclear staining by 7-aminoactinomycin (7-AAD) revealed different extents of apoptosis versus non-apoptotic cell death for the three agents. These data characterize differential responses of normal and malignant oral cells after exposure to TPM, ST/CAS, or WS-CM. They assist in understanding differential effects of combustible versus non-combustible tobacco products, and in identifying novel biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and effect in the oral cavity.

  9. RELATED FACTORS FOR COLONIZATION BY Candida SPECIES IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    MENEZES, Ralciane de Paula; BORGES, Aércio Sebastião; de ARAUJO, Lúcio Borges; PEDROSO, Reginaldo dos Santos; RÖDER, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2015-01-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity is a prerequisite to the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Aims: The aims of this study were: to evaluate colonization and quantify Candida spp. in the oral cavity; to determine the predisposing factors for colonization; and to correlate the levels of CD4+ cells and viral load with the yeast count of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) in HIV-positive individuals treated at a University Hospital. Saliva samples were collected from 147 HIV patients and were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and chromogenic agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 h. Colonies with similar morphology in both media were counted and the result expressed in CFU/mL. Results: Of the 147 HIV patients, 89 had positive cultures for Candida spp., with a total of 111 isolates, of which C. albicans was the most frequent species (67.6%), and the mean of colonies counted was 8.8 × 10³ CFU/mL. The main predisposing factors for oral colonization by Candida spp. were the use of antibiotics and oral prostheses. The use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears to have a greater protective effect for colonization. A low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is associated with a higher density of yeast in the saliva of HIV patients. PMID:26603229

  10. Detection of hydrogen cyanide from oral anaerobes by cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Roslund, Kajsa; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Halonen, Lauri; Groop, Per-Henrik; Metsälä, Markus; Lehto, Markku

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been recognized as a potential biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung. However, the oral cavity is a dominant production site for exhaled HCN and this contribution can mask the HCN generated in the lung. It is thus important to understand the sources of HCN production in the oral cavity. By screening of oral anaerobes for HCN production, we observed that the genus of Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Fusobacterium generated low levels of HCN in vitro. This is the first study to show that oral anaerobes are capable of producing HCN in vitro. Further investigations were conducted on the species of P. gingivalis and we successfully detected HCN production (0.9–10.9 ppb) in the headspace of three P. gingivalis reference strains (ATCC 33277, W50 and OMG 434) and one clinical isolate. From P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and W50, a strong correlation between HCN and CO2 concentrations (rs = 0.89, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that the HCN production of P. gingivalis might be connected with the bacterial metabolic activity. These results indicate that our setup could be widely applied to the screening of in vitro HCN production by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  11. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-07

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection.

  12. Surgical Margins and Its Evaluation in Oral Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Annavajjula, Saileela

    2014-01-01

    The main surgical goal while treating cancer is to remove all local malignant disease with no residual malignant cells left. Overall benefits of achieving negative resection margins in terms of disease free local recurrence and overall survival has been discussed in many studies. The quantity of normal tissue to be removed during surgical procedure has not been standardised. Local recurrence can also occur among tumours with extensive histological demonstration of adequate resection margins. Oral cavity, submandibular region, tonsil and pharynx are the sites which have high chances of recurrence, even after showing negative margins. Therefore, the current approaches for histological risk assessment and various methods of evaluation of the surgical margins with their limitations are briefed in the present article. PMID:25386547

  13. Multiple and Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity After Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiuhong; Xing, Yuzhen; Cheng, Bo

    2017-02-22

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common secondary solid tumors in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, according to previous reports, multiple and recurrent OSCC is very rare. The presented case shows the susceptibility to the development of secondary malignancies, particularly oral cancer, of patients who present with chronic graft-versus-host disease after HSCT. OSCC after HSCT appears to be more invasive and has a tendency to recur, with a poor prognosis. Therefore, regular and thorough evaluations of the oral mucosa are recommended for all patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and have chronic graft-versus-host disease.

  14. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  15. Assessing oral cancer knowledge in Romanian undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Ibric, S; Ibric-Cioranu, V

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the level of Romanian dental students' knowledge regarding the oral cancer risk and non-risk factors as well as oral cancer signs, symptoms, and diagnostic signs. A total of 192 first- to sixth-year undergraduate dental students (mean age 22.20 ± 2.94 years) who consented to participate in the study filled in a questionnaire enquiring about their knowledge of oral cancer. A score of the oral cancer knowledge was calculated for each participant based on their correct answers. Regarding the knowledge of oral cancer risk factors, the vast majority of the students correctly recognized tobacco (96.8 %), having a prior oral cancer lesion (85.1 %), the consumption of alcohol (77.7 %), and older age (64.2 %). Respectively, 87.7 and 54.3 % knew the tongue and the floor of mouth to be the most common oral cancer sites. Of the students, 71.3 % agreed that oral cancer examinations for those 20 years of age and older should be provided during regular periodic health examinations, 92.9 % considered that patients with suspicious oral lesions should be referred to specialists, and 84.6 % agreed that oral cancer examinations should be a routine part of a comprehensive oral examination. A significant association was found between the year of study in the dental school, age, and knowledge of the oral cancer knowledge scores. Although students' knowledge increased with academic year, there is a clear need to enhance the dental curricula in oral cancer clinical training in oral cancer prevention and examination for dental students.

  16. Oral sex, cancer and death: sexually transmitted cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We briefly highlight the growing body of recent evidence linking unprotected oral sex with the development of some types of head and neck cancer in younger patients. These tumours appear to be increasing in incidence although the development of more sensitive methods of HPV detection may be a confounding factor. PMID:22673108

  17. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  18. Combusted but not smokeless tobacco products cause DNA damage in oral cavity cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, G L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate genomic DNA damage in human oral cavity cells after exposure to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs). The oral carcinoma cell line 101A, gingival epithelial cells HGEC, and gingival fibroblasts HGF were exposed to TPM (total particulate matter from 3R4F cigarettes), ST/CAS (2S3 smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva), and NIC (nicotine). Treatments were for 24 h using TPM at its EC-50 doses, ST/CAS and NIC at doses with equi-nicotine units, and high doses for ST/CAS and NIC. Comet assays showed that TPM, but not ST/CAS or NIC, caused substantial DNA breaks in cells; only the high ST/CAS dose caused weak DNA damage. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence for γ-H2AX protein. These data revealed that the combusted TPP caused substantial DNA damage in all cell types, whereas the two non-combusted TPPs exerted no or only minimal DNA damage. They support epidemiologic evidence on the relative risk associated with consumption of non-combusted versus combusted tobacco products, and help to understand potential genotoxic effects of such products on oral cavity cells.

  19. Human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of patients with and without renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Barbara; Wilkins, Douglas; Li, Wei; Tran, Nham; Thompson, Carol; Cossart, Yvonne; McGeechan, Kevin; O'Brien, Christopher; Eris, Josette

    2006-08-27

    This study investigates human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the oral cavities of 88 Australian renal transplant recipients and 88 immunocompetent controls. Oral cavities were examined for lesions and brushings collected for HPV analysis by consensus PCR. No warts were identified; HPV DNA was detected in 18% of transplant versus 1% control samples (P<0.001). Cutaneous HPVs predominated. One patient had HPV16 in samples taken four years apart without evidence of associated lesions or malignancy. Transplant recipients were more likely than controls to have current cutaneous warts (P<0.001), fewer sexual partners (P=0.001), and to have never consumed alcohol (P=0.01). Among the transplant group, the risk of an HPV-positive sample was higher among older patients (P=0.05), and those with past cutaneous warts (P=0.04). This study extends previous surveys by encompassing overt and asymptomatic infection, a broad spectrum of cutaneous and genital HPVs, and by providing new data on risk factors for oral HPV infection.

  20. Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean ± SD, 26.9 ± 12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n = 46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface.

  1. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    PubMed

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-10-13

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  2. Antimicrobial peptide control of pathogenic microorganisms of the oral cavity: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Rocha; de Freitas, Victor Aragão Abreu; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, molecules produced in many different organisms, have high biocidal activity against several microorganisms. However, several questions about these molecules remain unclear. Therefore, this report details a systematic survey of the literature on the use of antimicrobial peptides against oral pathogens and indicates which peptides and microorganisms are most extensively studied. Articles were located using the PubMed and Science Direct databases with the following inclusion criteria: publication date between 2002 and 2011; keywords "biofilm OR biological film OR biological layer OR bacterial growth" AND "peptide" AND "oral cavity OR mouth OR buccal mucosa OR oral mucosa OR mouth mucosa"; and abstract in English. A total of 73 articles were selected after refinement of the data. An increase in publications focusing on the use of antimicrobial peptides against oral microorganisms was observed. In addition, the peptides produced by cells of the oral mucosa (defensins, LL-37 and histatins) as well as Streptococcus mutans (among cariogenic bacteria) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (among periodontal bacteria) were the most studied subjects. It was concluded that the use of antimicrobial peptides as a tool for microbial control is of increasing importance, likely due to its widespread use, mechanism of action, and low rates of bacterial resistance.

  3. Role of Dental Profession in Oral Cancer Prevention and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Q A; Awan, K H

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of oral cancer is increasing worldwide. Malignant neoplasms of the mouth and pharynx have been rated as the 10th most common cancer in men and 7th in women, though geographical variations exist.(1)Generally, in a society, oral cancer is not properly understood. The sign and symptoms are frequently overlooked in the initial stages when it is responsive to treat.

  4. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, M. P. V.; Raja Lakshmi, Chintamaneni; Sai Madhavi, N.; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sarat, Gummadapu; Ramamohan, Kodali

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18. PMID:24455323

  5. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Heera, R; Ayswarya, T; Padmakumar, SK; Ismayil, P

    2016-01-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an aggressive, high-grade, variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is uncommon in the oral cavity but slightly more common in the oropharynx. We present two cases of BSCC, one arising in the floor of the mouth and the other arising on the lateral border of the tongue. The diagnosis of this subtype of SCC is important owing to its particular behavior, with an aggressive course, a high incidence of local recurrence, regional lymph node metastases and mortality rate. PMID:27721627

  6. Characterisation of Pasteurella dagmatis-like isolates recovered from the feline oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Wehmann, Eniko; Makrai, László; Magyar, Tibor

    2010-10-26

    Three Pasteurella dagmatis-like strains recovered from the feline oral cavity were analysed by traditional biochemical tests, the Biolog Microstation™ ID System, and 16S rRNA and sodA gene sequence analysis. The molecular biological methods revealed that these strains differ from P. dagmatis, forming a new genomospecies in the genus Pasteurella sensu stricto. Furthermore, sequence analysis and multiple alignments of 16S rRNA and the sodA gene established that the P. pneumotropica NCTC10827 and the P. dagmatis-like strains described here possess high genetic similarity.

  7. Anatomy and Disorders of the Beak and Oral Cavity of Birds.

    PubMed

    Speer, Brian; Powers, Lauren Virginia

    2016-09-01

    Cranial kinesis of the avian beak is complex; particularly in birds with prokinetic beak movement, such as psittacine birds. A number of diseases can result in damage to the bony and soft tissue structures of the beak and can lead to secondary pathology, such as beak deviation, abnormal rhamphothecal growth and wear, and opportunistic infections. A solid understanding of species-specific anatomic variations is essential before attempting rhamphothecal restoration or surgical repair. Many diseases of the oral cavity can appear similar on initial clinical evaluation and therefore warrant appropriate diagnostic testing.

  8. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Prabhat, M P V; Raja Lakshmi, Chintamaneni; Sai Madhavi, N; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sarat, Gummadapu; Ramamohan, Kodali

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18.

  9. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate, by means of internal light delivery, photoacoustic imaging of the deep brain of rats in vivo. With fiber illumination via the oral cavity, we delivered light directly into the bottom of the brain, much more than can be delivered by external illumination. The study was performed using a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system equipped with a 512-element full-ring transducer array, providing a full two-dimensional view aperture. Using internal illumination, the PACT system provided clear cross sectional photoacoustic images from the palate to the middle brain of live rats, revealing deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  10. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Using internal illumination with an optical fiber in the oral cavity, we demonstrate, for the first time, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) of the deep brain of rats in vivo. The experiment was performed on a full-ring-array PACT system, with the capability of providing high-speed cross-sectional imaging of the brain. Compared with external illumination through the cranial skull, internal illumination delivers more light to the base of the brain. Consequently, in vivo photoacoustic images clearly reveal deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  11. Cost analysis in oral cavity and oropharyngeal reconstructions with microvascular and pedicled flaps.

    PubMed

    Deganello, A; Gitti, G; Parrinello, G; Muratori, E; Larotonda, G; Gallo, O

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructive surgery of the head and neck region has undergone tremendous advancement over the past three decades, and the success rate of free tissue transfers has risen to greater than 95%. It must always be considered that not all patients are ideal candidates for free flap reconstruction, and also that not every defect strictly requires a free flap transfer to achieve good functional results. At our institution, free flap reconstruction is first choice, although we use pedicled alternative flaps for most weak patients suffering from severe comorbidities, and for pretreated patients presenting a second primary or a recurrent cancer. From July 2006 to May 2010, 54 consecutive patients underwent soft tissue reconstruction of oral cavity and oropharyngeal defects. We divided the cohort in three groups: Group 1 (G1): 16 patients in good general conditions that received free radial forearm flap reconstruction; Group 2 (G2): 18 high-risk patients that received a reconstruction with infrahyoid flap; Group 3 (G3): 20 patients that received temporal flap (10 cases) or pectoral flap (10 cases) reconstruction. We must highlight that pedicled alternative flaps were used in elderly, unfavourable and weak patients, where usually the medical costs tend to rise rather than decrease. We compared the healthcare costs of the three groups, calculating real costs in each group from review of medical records and operating room registers, and calculating the corresponding DRG system reimbursement. For real costs, we found a statistically significant difference among groups: in G1 the average total cost per patient was € 22,924, in G2 it was € 18,037 and in G3 was € 19,872 (p = 0.043). The amount of the refund, based on the DRG system, was € 7,650 per patient, independently of the type of surgery. Our analysis shows that the use of alternative non-microvascular techniques, in high-risk patients, is functionally and oncologically sound, and can even produce a cost savings. In

  12. Respiratory distress associated with heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts of the oral cavity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Méndez Sáenz, Marco Antonio; de Jesús Villegas González, Mario; Ponce Camacho, Marco A; Cavazos Cavazos, Lucia M; Ibarra, Bárbara Sáenz; Esquivel García, Blanca I; Treviño González, José Luis

    2016-12-01

    Heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts of the oral cavity are benign lesions usually discovered during infancy. Their pathogenesis is not very clear. They are rare congenital anomalies that result from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium in the head, neck, thorax or abdomen during embryonic development. The majority of these lesions occur in the anterior ventral surface of the tongue and extend to the floor of the mouth. They are confused clinically by surgeons in cases of head and neck masses in children as ranulas, dermoid and thyroglossal cysts, and lymphangioma. We report the case of a 28-day newborn with a 3.6 cm oval mass on the floor of the mouth causing difficulty eating and cyanosis during crying. Complete surgical excision was performed by an oral approach under general anesthesia. Microscopic examination revealed gastric epithelium with tall columnar mucous cells on the surface and numerous short closed crypts, resembling fundal glands and mature gastric epithelium.

  13. Giant cell angiofibroma of the oral cavity: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Cleverton Roberto; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; León, Jorge Esquiche; Mistro, Florence; Kignel, Sergio

    2008-09-01

    Giant cell angiofibroma is a well-circumscribed, normally encapsulated, distinctive orbital soft tissue tumor. However, it is now recognized that this lesion can also present in other locations, including the oral cavity. The morphological hallmark is a richly vascularized, patternless spindle cell proliferation containing pseudovascular spaces and floret-type multinucleate giant cells. CD34 immunoreactivity, although not specific, represents the only immunohistochemical finding of potential diagnostic value. We present a case of a 44-year-old male Caucasian patient complaining of painless solitary nodule arising on the right buccal mucosa, which was diagnosed as giant cell angiofibroma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of oral giant cell angiofibroma reported in the English-language literature.

  14. Pseudoangiomatous squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity of a dog.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Tim; Barnard, Sandra; Fleis, Rebekah; Peters, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Labrador Retriever mixed-breed dog was presented to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals with an invasive oral mass involving the upper left fourth premolar and first molar teeth. Initial biopsy results suggested a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, whereas further histologic examination of the surgically removed mass revealed a hemangiosarcoma-like mass composed of numerous vascular clefts and variable numbers of keratinizing epithelial cells. Histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics were compatible with pseudoangiomatous squamous cell carcinoma, a well-recognized human variant of acanthomatous squamous cell carcinoma. Because of histomorphologic similarities with canine gingival hemangiosarcoma, diagnosticians should be aware of the present tumor variant as a differential diagnosis for vascular-like growths in the oral cavity of dogs.

  15. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  16. Oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy: from cancer treatment to survivorship.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Joel B; Thariat, Juliette; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Barasch, Andrei; Murphy, Barbara A; Kolnick, Leanne; Popplewell, Leslie; Maghami, Ellie

    2012-01-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Oral complications resulting from cancer and cancer therapies cause acute and late toxicities that may be underreported, underrecognized, and undertreated. Recent advances in cancer treatment have led to changes in the incidence, nature, and severity of oral complications. As the number of survivors increases, it is becoming increasingly recognized that the aggressive management of oral toxicities is needed to ensure optimal long-term oral health and general well-being. Advances in care have had an impact on previously recognized oral complications and are leading to newly recognized adverse effects. Here, the authors briefly review advances in cancer therapy, including recent advances in surgery, oral care, radiation therapy, hematopoietic cell transplantation, and medical oncology; describe how these advances affect oral health; and discuss the frequent and/or severe oral health complications associated with cancer and cancer treatment and their effect upon long-term health. Although some of the acute oral toxicities of cancer therapies may be reduced, they remain essentially unavoidable. The significant impact of long-term complications requires increased awareness and recognition to promote prevention and appropriate intervention. It is therefore important for the primary oncologist to be aware of these complications so that appropriate measures can be implemented in a timely manner. Prevention and management is best provided via multidisciplinary health care teams, which must be integrated and communicate effectively in order to provide the best patient care in a coordinated manner at the appropriate time.

  17. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  18. The Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1 Genome Sequence Reflects Its Genetic Adaptation to the Human Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Foroni, Elena; Giubellini, Vanessa; Bottacini, Francesca; Canchaya, Carlos; Claesson, Marcus J.; He, Fei; Mantzourani, Maria; Mulas, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Gao, Beile; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Oggioni, Marco; Gupta, Radhey S.; Zhang, Ziding; Beighton, David; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2009-01-01

    Bifidobacteria, one of the relatively dominant components of the human intestinal microbiota, are considered one of the key groups of beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotic bacteria). However, in addition to health-promoting taxa, the genus Bifidobacterium also includes Bifidobacterium dentium, an opportunistic cariogenic pathogen. The genetic basis for the ability of B. dentium to survive in the oral cavity and contribute to caries development is not understood. The genome of B. dentium Bd1, a strain isolated from dental caries, was sequenced to completion to uncover a single circular 2,636,368 base pair chromosome with 2,143 predicted open reading frames. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed multiple ways in which B. dentium has adapted to the oral environment through specialized nutrient acquisition, defences against antimicrobials, and gene products that increase fitness and competitiveness within the oral niche. B. dentium Bd1 was shown to metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates, consistent with genome-based predictions, while colonization and persistence factors implicated in tissue adhesion, acid tolerance, and the metabolism of human saliva-derived compounds were also identified. Global transcriptome analysis demonstrated that many of the genes encoding these predicted traits are highly expressed under relevant physiological conditions. This is the first report to identify, through various genomic approaches, specific genetic adaptations of a Bifidobacterium taxon, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1, to a lifestyle as a cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. In silico analysis and comparative genomic hybridization experiments clearly reveal a high level of genome conservation among various B. dentium strains. The data indicate that the genome of this opportunistic cariogen has evolved through a very limited number of horizontal gene acquisition events, highlighting the narrow boundaries that separate commensals from opportunistic pathogens. PMID

  19. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on a Gaussian process classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chijun; Chen, He; Luo, Yusheng; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jia, Jun; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2013-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The incidence rate accounts for 80% of total oral cancer and shows an upward trend in recent years. It has a high degree of malignancy and is difficult to detect in terms of differential diagnosis, as a consequence of which the timing of treatment is always delayed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was adopted to differentially diagnose oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral gland carcinoma. In total, 852 entries of raw spectral data which consisted of 631 items from 36 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 87 items from four oral gland carcinoma patients and 134 items from five normal people were collected by utilizing an optical method on oral tissues. The probability distribution of the datasets corresponding to the spectral peaks of the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue was analyzed and the experimental result showed that the data obeyed a normal distribution. Moreover, the distribution characteristic of the noise was also in compliance with a Gaussian distribution. A Gaussian process (GP) classification method was utilized to distinguish the normal people and the oral gland carcinoma patients from the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The experimental results showed that all the normal people could be recognized. 83.33% of the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients could be correctly diagnosed and the remaining ones would be diagnosed as having oral gland carcinoma. For the classification process of oral gland carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, the correct ratio was 66.67% and the erroneously diagnosed percentage was 33.33%. The total sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 100% with the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) set to 0.447 213 595. Considering the numerical results above, the application prospects and clinical value of this technique are significantly impressive.

  20. Human papillomavirus infection and oral cancer: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pintos, Javier; Black, Martin J; Sadeghi, Nader; Ghadirian, Parviz; Zeitouni, Anthony G; Viscidi, Raphael P; Herrero, Rolando; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk of developing oral cancer. The investigation followed a hospital-based case-control design. Cases consisted of newly diagnosed patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Controls were frequency matched to cases on gender, age, and hospital. Subjects were interviewed to elicit information on putative risk factors. Oral exfoliated cells were tested for detection of HPV DNA by the PGMY09/11 polymerase chain reaction protocol. Serum antibodies against HPV 16, 18, and 31 viral capsids were detected using an immunoassay technique. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of oral cancer according to HPV exposure variables. HPV DNA was detected in 19% of cases (14 out of 72), and 5% of controls (six out of 129). Among tonsil-related cancers (palatine tonsil and base of tongue) viral DNA was detected in 43% of cases (nine out of 21). The OR for tonsil-related cancers for high-risk HPV types was 19.32 (95%CI: 2.3-159.5), after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. The equivalent OR for HPV 16 seropositivity was 31.51 (95%CI: 4.5-219.7). The ORs of non-tonsillar oral cancers for high risk HPV DNA in oral cells and for seropositivity were 2.14 (95%CI: 0.4-13.0) and 3.16 (95%CI: 0.8-13.0), respectively. These results provide evidence supporting a strong causal association between HPV infection and tonsil-related cancers. The evidence for an etiologic link is less clear for non-tonsillar oral cancers.

  1. Role of Monocyte Count and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Survival of Oral Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Ganesh, Balasubramaniam; Mishra, Prabhashankar; Jain, Aanchal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Inflammation seems to play a critical role in the development and progression of numerous cancers. Peripheral blood leukocyte count is an easily assessable parameter of systemic inflammatory response. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment leukocyte counts can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cavity cancer. Methods Medical records of 471 oral cavity cancer patients diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and Cox proportional hazards analyses were applied to evaluate the associations of leukocyte counts with overall survival. Results The overall five year's survival of the cohort was found to be 49.4%. On univariate analysis, elevated monocyte count (≥500/mm3) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (>2.38) were associated with poor overall survival (OS) (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher monocyte and NLR levels were significant independent predictors of worse OS (HR = 1.385, 95% CI = 1.049 - 1.829; p < 0.05 and HR = 1.392, 95% CI = 1.045 - 1.855; p < 0.05, respectively). The advanced overall stage and lymph nodal involvement were also independent indicators for poor OS. Conclusions Higher pretreatment monocyte and NLR levels are independent predictors of poor prognosis for patients with oral cavity cancer. Thus, these easily accessed variables can serve as a potent marker to predict the outcomes of oral cancer patients. PMID:28050203

  2. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Asia in the past decade--an update (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    Krishna Rao, Sree Vidya; Mejia, Gloria; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Logan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of oral cancers (OC) is high in Asian countries, especially in South and Southeast Asia. Asian distinct cultural practices such as betel-quid chewing, and varying patterns of tobacco and alcohol use are important risk factors that predispose to cancer of the oral cavity. The aim of this review is to provide an update on epidemiology of OC between 2000 and 2012. A literature search for this review was conducted on Medline for articles on OC from Asian countries. Some of the articles were also hand searched using Google. High incidence rates were reported from developing nations like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Taiwan and Sri Lanka. While an increasing trend has been observed in Pakistan, Taiwan and Thailand, a decreasing trend is seen in Philippines and Sri Lanka. The mean age of occurrence of cancer in different parts of oral cavity is usually between 51-55 years in most countries. The tongue is the leading site among oral cancers in India. The next most common sites in Asian countries include the buccal mucosa and gingiva. The 5 year survival rate has been low for OC, despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol are the main reasons for the increasing incidence rates. Low socioeconomic status and diet low in nutritional value lacking vegetables and fruits contribute towards the risk. In addition, viral infections, such as HPV and poor oral hygiene, are other important risk factors. Hence, it is important to control OC by screening for early diagnosis and controlling tobacco and alcohol use. It is also necessary to have cancer surveillance at the national-level to collect and utilise data for cancer prevention and control programs.

  3. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  4. Preparation and characterization of novel fast disintegrating capsules (Fastcaps) for administration in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2005-10-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare novel capsule-based fast disintegrating dosage forms for the oral cavity (Fastcaps). First, cast films were prepared from various additive-containing gelatin solutions and evaluated with respect to disintegration time and mechanical properties in order to identify suitable formulations for the capsule preparation. The disintegration time of films decreased with decreasing bloom strength and could be further decreased by the addition of sugars or PEGs. Fast disintegrating capsules were successfully prepared by a dipping process, whereby parameters such as the viscosity and temperature of the dipping solution and the dipping velocity of the steel pins were optimized. The required viscosity range of the dipping solution for Fastcap manufacturing was 500-600 cP. The addition of the hydrophilic additives (xylitol, sorbitol or PEG 1500) did not significantly affect the viscosity and gelation temperature of the dipping solution. The in vitro disintegration of Fastcaps (30-45 s) was twice as rapid as the one of regular hard gelatin capsules. In vivo, Fastcaps disintegrated rapidly (9-13 s) and their content was spread throughout the oral cavity within seconds. Lactose and/or microcrystalline cellulose were suitable fillers for Fastcaps. The mechanical properties of Fastcaps were similar to commercially available gelatin capsules, which assures good processability and handling.

  5. Modified conventional hard gelatin capsules as fast disintegrating dosage form in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2006-02-01

    Fast disintegrating capsules for administration in the oral cavity were prepared either by perforation or by vacuum-drying of conventional hard capsules. When compared to other fast disintegrating dosage forms (e.g. lyophilized sponges or tablets), these capsules have various advantages, in particular, a high drug loading capacity and no compression steps. The disintegration time of conventional hard gelatin capsules (HGC) was reduced from 91 to 39 s by introducing 6-10 small holes (diameter =25-50 microm) into the capsule shell. Vacuum-drying of conventional hard gelatin capsules resulted in brittle capsules, which broke rapidly in the oral cavity. The brittleness of the hard gelatin capsules correlated well with their moisture content. The critical moisture value for sufficient brittleness of hard gelatin capsules was <4% w/w. In contrast, HPMC capsules remained flexible, even at low moisture content. The moisture uptake of various capsule fillers was in the order of Avicel PH101 > lactose > Avicel PH112 > or = mannitol. Hard gelatin capsules filled with mannitol and packaged in bottles with silica gel kept their desired brittleness during 6 months storage at various relative humidities.

  6. Enterobacteriaceae ISOLATES FROM THE ORAL CAVITY OF WORKERS IN A BRAZILIAN ONCOLOGY HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    LEÃO-VASCONCELOS, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; LIMA, Ana Beatriz Mori; COSTA, Dayane de Melo; ROCHA-VILEFORT, Larissa Oliveira; de OLIVEIRA, Ana Claúdia Alves; GONÇALVES, Nádia Ferreira; VIEIRA, José Daniel Gonçalves; PRADO-PALOS, Marinésia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of workers as potential reservoirs and disseminators of pathogenic bacteria has been described as a strategy for the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of workers at an oncology hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, as well as to characterize the phenotypic profile of the isolates. Saliva samples of 294 workers from the hospital’s healthcare and support teams were collected. Microbiological procedures were performed according to standard techniques. Among the participants, 55 (18.7%) were colonized by Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity. A total of 64 bacteria were isolated, including potentially pathogenic species. The most prevalent species was Enterobacter gergoviae (17.2%). The highest rates of resistance were observed for β-lactams, and 48.4% of the isolates were considered multiresistant. Regarding the enterobacteria isolated, the production of ESBL and KPC was negative. Nevertheless, among the 43 isolates of the CESP group, 51.2% were considered AmpC β-lactamase producers by induction, and 48.8% were hyper-producing mutants. The significant prevalence of carriers of Enterobacteriaceae and the phenotypic profile of the isolates represents a concern, especially due to the multiresistance and production of AmpC β-lactamases. PMID:25923890

  7. A novel multimodal optical imaging system for early detection of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Wright, John M.; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several imaging techniques have been advocated as clinical adjuncts to improve identification of suspicious oral lesions. However, these have not yet shown superior sensitivity or specificity over conventional oral examination techniques. We developed a multimodal, multi-scale optical imaging system that combines macroscopic biochemical imaging of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with subcellular morphologic imaging of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for early detection of oral cancer. We tested our system on excised human oral tissues. Study Design A total of four tissue specimen were imaged. These specimens were diagnosed as one each: clinically normal, oral lichen planus, gingival hyperplasia, and superficially-invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The optical and fluorescence lifetime properties of each specimen were recorded. Results Both quantitative and qualitative differences between normal, benign and SCC lesions can be resolved with FLIM-RCM imaging. The results demonstrate that an integrated approach based on these two methods can potentially enable rapid screening and evaluation of large areas of oral epithelial tissue. Conclusions Early results from ongoing studies of imaging human oral cavity illustrate the synergistic combination of the two modalities. An adjunct device based on such optical characterization of oral mucosa can potentially be used to detect oral carcinogenesis in early stages. PMID:26725720

  8. Chromosomal instability, aneuploidy and routine high-resolution DNA content analysis in oral cancer risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giaretti, Walter; Pentenero, Monica; Gandolfo, Sergio; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2012-10-01

    Carcinogen exposure of the oral cavity is thought to create an extensive 'field cancerization'. According to this model, a very early precursor of oral cancer is a patch of normal-appearing mucosa in which stem cells share genetic/genomic aberrations. These precancerous fields then become clinically visible as white and red lesions (leuko- and erythro-plakias), which represent the vast majority of the oral potentially malignant disorders. This review focuses on aneuploidy (where it is from) and on biomarkers associated with DNA aneuploidy in oral mucosa and oral potentially malignant disorders, as detected by DNA image and flow cytometry. Data from the literature strongly support the association of DNA ploidy with dysplasia. However, work is still needed to prove the clinical value of DNA ploidy in large-scale prospective studies. Using high-resolution DNA flow cytometry with fresh/frozen material and the degree of DNA aneuploidy (DNA Index) might improve the prediction of risk of oral cancer development.

  9. Prolonged and repetitive exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis increases aggressiveness of oral cancer cells by promoting acquisition of cancer stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Ha, Na Hee; Woo, Bok Hee; Kim, Da Jeong; Ha, Eun Sin; Choi, Jeom Il; Kim, Sung Jo; Park, Bong Soo; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Hae Ryoun

    2015-12-01

    Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition occurring in the human oral cavity, but our knowledge on its contribution to oral cancer is rather limited. To define crosstalk between chronic periodontitis and oral cancer, we investigated whether Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of chronic periodontitis, plays a role in oral cancer progression. To mimic chronic irritation by P. gingivalis in the oral cavity, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells were infected with P. gingivalis twice a week for 5 weeks. Repeated infection of oral cancer cells by P. gingivalis resulted in morphological changes of host cancer cells into an elongated shape, along with the decreased expression of epithelial cell markers, suggesting acquisition of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. The prolonged exposure to P. gingivalis also promoted migratory and invasive properties of OSCC cells and provided resistance against a chemotherapeutic agent, all of which are described as cellular characteristics undergoing EMT. Importantly, long-term infection by P. gingivalis induced an increase in the expression level of CD44 and CD133, well-known cancer stem cell markers, and promoted the tumorigenic properties of infected cancer cells compared to non-infected controls. Furthermore, increased invasiveness of P. gingivalis-infected OSCC cells was correlated with enhanced production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-10 that was stimulated by interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. This is the first report demonstrating that P. gingivalis can increase the aggressiveness of oral cancer cells via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes and the acquisition of stemness, implicating P. gingivalis as a potential bacterial risk modifier.

  10. Assessing oral cancer knowledge among Saudi medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Azzegahiby, Saleh; Alenzi, Faris Q; Idrees, Majdy

    2013-12-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p = 0.23) or gender (p = 0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted.

  11. Apoptotic Index and Proliferative Index in Premalignant and Malignant Squamous Cell Lesions of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vidya; Juluri, Ravichandra; Goel, Seema; Madan, Jyotsna; Mitra, Subir K; Gopalakrishnan, Dharmarajan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell lesions are most commonly diagnosed lesions in India. Both premalignant and malignant lesions are frequently encountered. In this study, we evaluated the role and significance of apoptotic indices (AI) and proliferative indices (PI) in premalignant and malignant squamous cell lesions of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 histologically proven cases of premalignant and malignant oral squamous cell lesions were analyzed. The biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and also with monoclonal antibody Ki-67. AI and PI were assessed using a light microscope. Results: AI was found to increase gradually from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest AI was seen in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). PI also was found to increase significantly from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest PI was seen in poorly differentiated SCC. Conclusion: AI in conjunction with the PI offers an accurate idea as to the nature and course of the lesion and may help to plan timely surgical intervention that results in better clinical prognosis and outcome. PMID:25709366

  12. [Changes in the biological and immunologic parameters in the oral cavity of the aged. Review].

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, A; Tripi, T R

    1998-01-01

    Senescence is the effect of the immune system incapacity to see "self" and "non-self"; timo-involution induced down-regulation of immunoregulatory -T and B-lymphocytes. Immunosenescence mutations in oral cavity are examined. Even the oral ecosystem presents disorders in quality and quantity of the bacterial plaque and a different immune response. Age senescence is particularly evident in the masticatory apparatus, in fact the dental tissues have remarkable morpho-structural physiological changes; the epithelial, connective and osseous tissues of the periodontium have structural age changes related to the collagen synthesis and physical properties, with an increase of the stroma and a decrease of cell population. The osseous tissue presents cellular atrophy, sclerosis, osteoporosis and is undergoing a continuous structural remodelling; the oral mucous membranes show a thinning of epithelium and an increase of the stroma related to the parenchyma. Specific individual changes could be appraised in the involution of stomatognathic apparatus, more than an indefinite reduction of the performances.

  13. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

    PubMed Central

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Bobela, Elżbieta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Małgorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50 mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  14. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B.; Balducci, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4–11 yrs, adolescents 12–17 yrs, young adults 18–29 yrs, adults 30–59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection

  15. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  16. Role of lipid oxidation, chelating agents, and antioxidants in metallic flavor development in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Omür-Özbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E; Lee, YongWoo

    2012-03-07

    This study investigated the production of metallic flavor, which is a combination of taste and retronasal odor. Chemical reactions in the oral cavity and saliva of healthy subjects were investigated after ingesting iron and copper solutions above and near threshold levels. Significant increase in lipid oxidation (p < 0.001) occurred after metal ingestion, detected as TBARS values. Ferrous ion caused the greatest flavor sensation and lipid oxidation, followed by cupric and cuprous ions. Ferric ion did not cause metallic sensation. Occurrence of oxidation was supported by damage to salivary proteins, detected as protein-carbonyls, and by a significant increase of odorous lipid oxidation related aldehydes. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that antioxidants (vitamins E and C) minimally reduced metallic flavor but that chelating agents (EDTA and lactoferrin) removed the metallic flavor. The role of lipid oxidation is essential for the production of a metallic flavor from ingestion of ferrous, cupric, and cuprous ions.

  17. [Trichomonad infections of the oral cavity in cats in south Germany].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Beelitz, P; Schöl, H; Beer, B

    1992-04-01

    In this investigation trichomonads were isolated from the oral cavity in 21 of 110 examined cats, and only from those which were simultaneously FeLV, FIV or FIP positive. By means of scanning electron microscopy the trichomonads were shown to be round or piriform parasites which were on average 7.9 microns long and 6.2 microns wide at maximum width. They had 4 anterior flagella, which were on average 9.4 microns long, an undulating membrane measuring 6.7 microns with no trailing flagellum as well as an axostyle extending on average 5.0 microns beyond the body, and therefore should be attributed to the genus Trichomonas.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Porphyromonas species isolated from the oral cavity of Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Milinovich, Gabriel J; Burrell, Paul C; Huynh, Sharnan C; Pettett, Lyndall M; Blackall, Linda L; Trott, Darren J; Bird, Philip S

    2008-09-01

    Porphyromonas species are frequently isolated from the oral cavity and are associated with periodontal disease in both animals and humans. Black, pigmented Porphyromonas spp. isolated from the gingival margins of selected wild and captive Australian marsupials with varying degrees of periodontal disease (brushtail possums, koalas and macropods) were compared phylogenetically to Porphyromonas strains from non-marsupials (bear, wolf, coyote, cats and dogs) and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains from humans using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results of the phylogenetic analysis identified three distinct groups of strains. A monophyletic P. gingivalis group (Group 1) contained only strains isolated from humans and a Porphyromonas gulae group (Group 2) was divided into three distinct subclades, each containing both marsupial and non-marsupial strains. Group 3, which contained only marsupial strains, including all six strains isolated from captive koalas, was genetically distinct from P. gulae and may constitute a new Porphyromonas species.

  19. Vitamin D and Its Relevance in the Etiopathogenesis of Oral Cavity Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ślebioda, Zuzannna; Szponar, Elżbieta; Dorocka-Bobkowska, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D belongs to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids which assume many roles in the human organism. In humans the most important forms are vitamin D3 and vitamin D2. Their primary function is the regulation of the calcium and phosphorus balance, which promote the growth of healthy bony tissue. Studies over the past few years have revealed a much wider role of vitamin D involving the aging processes, carcinogenesis, the carbohydrate balance as well as the effects on the course of various infections. In this paper we discuss the basic functions of vitamin D in the human body and the mechanisms of its activity and we summarize recent reports on the impact of vitamin D on the oral cavity with a special emphasis on autoimmunologic diseases, including: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Behçet syndrome and Sjögren syndrome.

  20. Microimaging FT-IR of oral cavity tumours. Part III: Cells, inoculated tissues and human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Possati, L.; Rocchetti, R.; Rubini, C.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.; Mariggiò, M. A.; Lo Muzio, L.

    2007-05-01

    The biochemistry of healthy and tumour cell cultures, inoculated tissues and oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR Microscopy with the aim to relate spectral patterns with microbiological and histopathological findings. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and the other two techniques. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wave number or band ratio images, allowed an evaluation of the pathological changes. The spectroscopic patterns of inoculated tissues resulted quite similar to human tissues; differences of both types of sections with cellular lines could be explained by the influence of the environment.

  1. Minimal invasive method to treat hemangiomas of the oral cavity with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.

    1997-05-01

    During the last six years we have developed a new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma. Our new technique, named 'laser encircling technique', has especially succeeded during hemangioma buccal maxillary surgeries. The treatment consisted in the application of a line of points of CO2 laser circling the lesion. Depending on the position and size of the lesion, we used from 0.4 to 4.0 Joules/mm2 laser energy density per pulse, causing reduction in the size of the lesion throughout the sclerosis of nutritional vessels which led to reduction in size, volume and color of the hemangiomas with no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. In this work forty male and female patients, twelve to fifty years old, presenting medium to small size hemangiomas situated in different sites of the oral cavity such as the tongue, mouth vestibule, pharynx, tonsil area and lips were treated by the procedure described above. The number of laser applications was defined by the peculiarities of each case, varying form 3 to 6 sessions at 4 week intervals, always under local or topic anesthesia. The patients complained about minimal posit operative discomfort and had good cicatrix evolution. The good results achieved by this technique lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser for these types of hemangioma is an efficient and very secure method of treatment. An important aspect of our technique is the fact that using relatively low laser power we do not perform real surgery but a less aggressive alternative of treatment.

  2. Differential spheroid formation by oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carlin; Lee, Casey; Atakilit, Amha; Siu, Amanda; Ramos, Daniel M

    2014-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) make up 96% of all oral cancers. Most laboratory SCC studies grow cells as a monolayer, which does not accurately represent the disease in vivo. We used a more relevant multicellular spheroid (MCS) model to study this disease. The SCC9β6KDFyn cell line, which expresses full-length β6 and a kinase dead Fyn formed the largest MCS. Cell adhesive properties are dynamic and N-cadherin was increased in the largest MCS. c-Raf mediates the survival of tumor cells and was consistently expressed both in monolayers and in the MCS by SCC9β6D1 cells which lack the β6 cytoplasmic tail and, do not activate Fyn. SCC9β6KDFyn cells also express high levels of c-Raf when grown as spheroids in which Fyn suppression stimulates MCS formation. Tumor microenvironment and growth patterns modulate cell behavior and suppression of Fyn kinase may promote MCS growth.

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Ana Lucia Noronha; Correr, Wagner Rafael; Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu; Kern, Vivian Galletta; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem with relevant incidence in the world population. The affected patient usually presents advanced stage disease and the consequence of this delay is a reduction in survival rates. Given this, it is essential to detect oral cancer at early stages. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can improve cancer detection in real time. It is a fast and accurate technique, relatively simple, which evaluates the biochemical composition and structure using the tissue fluorescence spectrum as interrogation data. Several studies have positive data regarding the tools for differentiating between normal mucosa and cancer, but the difference between cancer and potentially malignant disorders is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy in the discrimination of normal oral mucosa, oral cancer, and potentially malignant disorders. The fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated in 115 individuals, of whom 55 patients presented oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 volunteers showing normal oral mucosa, and 30 patients having potentially malignant disorders. The spectra were classified and compared to histopathology to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic discrimination employing fluorescence. In order to classify the spectra, a decision tree algorithm (C4.5) was applied. Despite of the high variance observed in spectral data, the specificity and sensitivity obtained were 93.8% and 88.5%, respectively at 406 nm excitation. These results point to the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy as an important tool for oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders.

  4. Oral Cell DNA Adducts as Potential Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-01-17

    This perspective considers the use of oral cell DNA adducts, together with exposure and genetic information, to potentially identify those cigarette smokers at highest risk for lung cancer, so that appropriate preventive measures could be initiated at a relatively young age before too much damage has been done. There are now well established and validated analytical methods for the quantitation of urinary and serum metabolites of tobacco smoke toxicants and carcinogens. These metabolites provide a profile of exposure and in some cases lung cancer risk, but they do not yield information on the critical DNA damage parameter that leads to mutations in cancer growth control genes such as KRAS and TP53. Studies demonstrate a correlation between changes in the oral cavity and lung in cigarette smokers, due to the field effect of tobacco smoke. Oral cell DNA is readily obtained in contrast to DNA samples from the lung. Studies in which oral cell DNA and salivary DNA have been analyzed for specific DNA adducts are reviewed; some of the adducts identified have also been previously reported in lung DNA from smokers. The multiple challenges of developing a panel of oral cell DNA adducts that could be routinely quantified by mass spectrometry are discussed.

  5. Oral Cell DNA Adducts as Potential Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Susceptibility in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    This perspective considers the use of oral cell DNA adducts, together with exposure and genetic information, to potentially identify those cigarette smokers at highest risk for lung cancer, so that appropriate preventive measures could be initiated at a relatively young age before too much damage has been done. There are now well established and validated analytical methods for the quantitation of urinary and serum metabolites of tobacco smoke toxicants and carcinogens. These metabolites provide a profile of exposure and in some cases lung cancer risk. But they do not yield information on the critical DNA damage parameter that leads to mutations in cancer growth control genes such as KRAS and TP53. Studies demonstrate a correlation between changes in the oral cavity and lung in cigarette smokers, due to the field effect of tobacco smoke. Oral cell DNA is readily obtained in contrast to DNA samples from the lung. Studies in which oral cell DNA and salivary DNA have been analyzed for specific DNA adducts are reviewed; some of the adducts identified have also been previously reported in lung DNA from smokers. The multiple challenges of developing a panel of oral cell DNA adducts that could be routinely quantified by mass spectrometry are discussed. PMID:28092948

  6. High throughput image cytometry for detection of suspicious lesions in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum; Poh, Catherine F.; Guillaud, Martial; Michele Williams, Pamela; Laronde, Denise M.; Zhang, Lewei; Rosin, Miriam P.

    2012-08-01

    The successful management of oral cancer depends upon early detection, which relies heavily on the clinician's ability to discriminate sometimes subtle alterations of the infrequent premalignant lesions from the more common reactive and inflammatory conditions in the oral mucosa. Even among experienced oral specialists this can be challenging, particularly when using new wide field-of-view direct fluorescence visualization devices clinically introduced for the recognition of at-risk tissue. The objective of this study is to examine if quantitative cytometric analysis of oral brushing samples could facilitate the assessment of the risk of visually ambiguous lesions. About 369 cytological samples were collected and analyzed: (1) 148 samples from pathology-proven sites of SCC, carcinoma in situ or severe dysplasia; (2) 77 samples from sites with inflammation, infection, or trauma, and (3) 144 samples from normal sites. These were randomly separated into training and test sets. The best algorithm correctly recognized 92.5% of the normal samples, 89.4% of the abnormal samples, 86.2% of the confounders in the training set as well as 100% of the normal samples, and 94.4% of the abnormal samples in the test set. These data suggest that quantitative cytology could reduce by more than 85% the number of visually suspect lesions requiring further assessment by biopsy.

  7. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  8. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizen, S. )

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  9. Oral tongue cancer in public hospitals in Madrid, Spain (1990-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Sánchez, Alicia; Esparza-Gómez, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Background The cancer which appears in the mobile portion of the tongue is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to analyse oral tongue cancer epidemiology in a population of 610 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2008 and detailed in the Tumour Registry of the Madrid region. Material and Methods A retrospective analysis based on the following variables provided in the Tumour Registry was achieved: age, gender, histology, stage, location, treatment. Descriptive and analytic statistics with these variables, using Pearson’s Chi-square test to study the relationship between the qualitative variables. Results Patients’ mean age was 61.53±13.95 years, with a gender ratio of 2.09:1 (413 males vs 197 females). The lesion was mainly localized in the lateral border of tongue, with other sites (dorsal face, ventral face, lingual tonsil, contiguous sites, tongue NOS) represented at lower rates. Squamous cell carcinomas (94.9%) far outweighted other histologies (salivary gland tumours, soft tissue tumours, haematolymphoid tumours). 59% of the cases appeared in localized stages, versus 35.2% in regional and 4.8% in distant stages. Surgery was the most frequently used treatment, followed by surgery in combination with radiotherapy. Conclusions Oral tongue cancer is a disease of the elderly, with a male predominance. It mainly appears in its lateral border, localized squamous cell carcinomas representing the great majority of lingual neoplasms. Key words:Oral tongue cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, epidemiology, treatment. PMID:27694779

  10. Significance of DNMT3b in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen; Lin, Paul-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore specific molecular markers that could lead to new insights into the identification of innovative treatments. The role of DNMT3b and its predictive power in the prognosis of oral cancer were identified. Human oral cancer cell lines including SCC4 and SCC25 were selected for cellular experiments. Changes in tumor growth, aggressiveness and the responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, 125 oral cancer tissue specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarray slides, and correlations calculated between the level of DNMT3b and the clinical outcome of patients. Our data revealed that inhibition of DNMT3b resulted in slower tumor growth, attenuated tumor invasion ability and epithelial mesenchymal transition, as determined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Activated IL-6 signaling might be responsible to the induction of DNMT3b overexpression on oral cancer. Regarding clinical data, the incidence of DNMT3b immunoreactivity in oral cancer specimens was significantly higher than in non-malignant epithelium, and positively linked to expression of IL-6. Furthermore, expression of DNMT3b was significantly linked with the risk of lymph node involvement, disease recurrence and shorter survival in patients with pathological stage III-IV oral cancer. In conclusion, IL-6 -DNMT3b axis could be used to predict the prognosis of oral cancer in clinics, and targeting DNMT3b could represent a promising treatment strategy.

  11. Predicting Scheduling and Attending for an Oral Cancer Examination

    PubMed Central

    Shepperd, James A.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and pharyngeal cancer is highly treatable if diagnosed early, yet late diagnosis is commonplace apparently because of delays in undergoing an oral cancer examination. Purpose We explored predictors of scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination among a sample of Black and White men who were at high risk for oral cancer because they smoked. Methods During an in-person interview, participants (N = 315) from rural Florida learned about oral and pharyngeal cancer, completed survey measures, and were offered a free examination in the next week. Later, participants received a follow-up phone call to explore why they did or did not attend their examination. Results Consistent with the notion that scheduling and attending an oral cancer exam represent distinct decisions, we found that the two outcomes had different predictors. Defensive avoidance and exam efficacy predicted scheduling an examination; exam efficacy and having coping resources, time, and transportation predicted attending the examination. Open-ended responses revealed that the dominant reasons participants offered for missing a scheduled examination was conflicting obligations, forgetting, and confusion or misunderstanding about the examination. Conclusions The results suggest interventions to increase scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination. PMID:26152644

  12. Somatic copy number alterations detected by ultra-deep targeted sequencing predict prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ka-Pou; Tai, An-Shun; Peng, Shih-Chi; Yeh, Jen-Pao; Chen, Shu-Jen; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Wen-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultra-deep targeted sequencing (UDT-Seq) has advanced our knowledge on the incidence and functional significance of somatic mutations. However, the utility of UDT-Seq in detecting copy number alterations (CNAs) remains unclear. With the goal of improving molecular prognostication and identifying new therapeutic targets, we designed this study to assess whether UDT-Seq may be useful for detecting CNA in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods We sequenced a panel of clinically actionable cancer mutations in 310 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OSCC specimens. A linear model was developed to overcome uneven coverage across target regions and multiple samples. The 5-year rates of secondary primary tumors, local recurrence, neck recurrence, distant metastases, and survival served as the outcome measures. We confirmed the prognostic significance of the CNA signatures in an independent sample of 105 primary OSCC specimens. Results The CNA burden across 10 targeted genes was found to predict prognosis in two independent cohorts. FGFR1 and PIK3CAamplifications were associated with prognosis independent of clinical risk factors. Genes exhibiting CNA were clustered in the proteoglycan metabolism, the FOXO signaling, and the PI3K-AKT signaling pathways, for which targeted drugs are already available or currently under development. Conclusions UDT-Seq is clinically useful to identify CNA, which significantly improve the prognostic information provided by traditional clinicopathological risk factors in OSCC patients. PMID:26087196

  13. Optical screening of oral cancer: technology for emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Naik, Sarif Kumar; Gupta, Lalit; Mittal, Chetan; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Rath, Satish Prasad; Santhosh, C; Pai, Keerthilatha M

    2007-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. It is one of the most prevalent cancers in the developing countries of South Asia accounting for one third of the world burden. Sixty percent of the cancers are advanced by the time they are detected. Two methods of optical spectroscopy for detection of oral cancer have been discussed here. These methods are simple, easy to handle and non-invasive. The evaluation of the data is done automatically using pattern recognition techniques, making the screening subjective.

  14. Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Paula S; Chambers, Philip A; Heritage, John; Michael Forbes, J

    2003-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to investigate the fate of a transgene in the rumen of sheep fed silage and maize grains from an insect-resistant maize line. A 1914-bp DNA fragment containing the entire coding region of the synthetic cryIA(b) gene was still amplifiable from rumen fluid sampled 5 h after feeding maize grains. The same target sequence, however, could not be amplified from rumen fluid sampled from sheep fed silage prepared from the genetically modified maize line. PCR amplification of a shorter (211-bp), yet still highly specific, target sequence was possible with rumen fluid sampled up to 3 and 24 h after feeding silage and maize grains, respectively. These findings indicate that intact transgenes from silage are unlikely to survive significantly in the rumen since a DNA sequence 211-bp long is very unlikely to transmit genetic information. By contrast, DNA in maize grains persists for a significant time and may, therefore, provide a source of transforming DNA in the rumen. In addition, we have examined the biological activity of plasmid DNA that had previously been exposed to the ovine oral cavity. Plasmid extracted from saliva sampled after incubation for 8 min was still capable of transforming competent Escherichia coli to kanamycin resistance, implying that DNA released from the diet within the mouth may retain sufficient biological activity for the transformation of competent oral bacteria.

  15. Ecology of Lactobacilli in the Oral Cavity: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Badet, C; Thebaud, N.B

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli appear in the oral cavity during the first years of a child’s life. Their presence depends on numerous factors such as the presence of ecological niches e.g. natural anfractuosities of the teeth. A strong correlation has been established between the saliva Lactobacillus count and dental caries, the higher the DMF index, the higher the number of children harbouring a high Lactobacillus count. Among children, the presence of lactobacilli in coronal caries is incontestable. Among adults, lactobacilli are found in root caries. Since 1999, taxonomical revisions make it difficult to interpret the results obtained in the numerous previous studies carried out on the identification of oral lactobacilli, but whatever the sampling method or the identification technique, the carious site or the age of sampled subjects, most species belong to the Lactobacillus casei group. This is important because if a specific correlation can be found between few species of lactobacilli and caries a better understanding of their properties could allow the development of new tools for prevention. PMID:19088910

  16. Occurrence of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of selected marine mammal species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads F; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive marine mammals was investigated using culture and subsequent geno- and phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 89 bacterial isolates from pinnipeds tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequences, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. Four strains from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) made up group I, which was classified with Pasteurella canis. Group II comprised four strains from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) classified with Pasteurella stomatis. Group III consisted of 28 strains, isolated from harbor and gray seals and represented Bisgaardia genomospecies 1. Two strains from a harbor and a grey seal, group IV, were classified with Bisgaardia hudsonensis. Fifty-two strains from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), and California and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) formed group V and represented Otariodibacter oris. No Pasteurellaceae isolates were obtained from cetaceans, but Pasteurellaceae were isolated from all sampled pinnipeds. On the basis of these results, it is very likely that Pasteurellaceae bacteria represent a part of the normal oral flora in pinnipeds.

  17. OCCURRENCE OF PASTEURELLACEAE BACTERIA IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF THE TASMANIAN DEVIL (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    PubMed

    Brix, Lena; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Kelly, Androo; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) was investigated using phenotypic and subsequent genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from Tasmanian devils, tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequence similarity, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. A total of 15 strains formed a novel genus-like group within Pasteurellaceae. Thirty-six strains grouped with the type strain of Frederiksenia canicola. Five strains clustered with the type strain of Pasteurella multocida . Interestingly, four of the P. multocida-like strains were β-hemolytic when incubated on blood agar, which is atypical for this genus. Five strains grouped with a 100% rpoB similarity with Pasteurella dagmatis. Finally, a single strain showed 97.1% resemblance to Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus. The results demonstrate that Tasmanian devils are hosting a variety of bacterial taxa affiliated with the family of Pasteurellaceae as part of their oral microflora.

  18. Practical Application of Anatomy of the Oral Cavity in Forensic Facial Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Paulo Eduardo Miamoto; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity’s importance in defining the facial region makes it a primary feature for forensic facial reconstruction (FFR). The aim of this study is to construct a pattern of reference for dimensions and proportions of the lips and establish parameters that may help estimate the vermilion borders’ height dimensions and the mouth’s width. By means of cone beam computed tomography, divided into two samples: sample 1 (n = 322; 137 male, 185 female) verified the linear distances delimited by anatomical landmarks in soft tissue. The sample 2 (n = 108; 40 male, 68 female), verified the proportions among the height of the vermilion borders, width of the mouth, and linear distances between craniometric landmarks in hard tissues, both from a Brazilian database. The measurements were completed using OsiriX, and the results were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics at a level of significance of 5%. The height of the vermilion borders corresponded to approximately 26% of the width of the mouth. The width of the mouth increased over the course of time in men and remained stable in women. In men, a mean intercanine distance of 75% of the total mouth’s width was found; for women, it was 80%. The parameters of the relations between soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity region presented that the distance between landmarks ID-SM (Infradentale-Supramentale) corresponded to 55% of the height of the vermilion borders of the mouth for both sexes, while the distance between landmarks PM-SD (Philtrum medium-Supradentale) corresponded to 85% in men and 88% in women. Mean values of 97% of the width of the mouth in women and 93% in men were attributed to the distance between the mentonian foramina. It was not possible to estimate the height of the labial vermilion borders by the bone measurements, FIs-Fli (Foramen incisivus superius-inferius) and NS-GN (Nasospinale-Gnathion). Profound knowledge of the anatomy and morphology of the oral cavity may contribute to

  19. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  20. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  1. Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity secondary to lower lip trauma. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; España-Tost, Antoni; Vidal-Bel, August

    2013-01-01

    Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity is an infrequent benign neoplasm of papillary appearance that originates in the secretory duct of a salivary gland. The etiology is unknown, though some authors have related it to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a tumor of the lower lip mucosa. Histopathological study of the lesion diagnosed inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus DNA detection and typing based on tumor lesion DNA amplification and posterior hybridization, revealed no presence of viral DNA. The antecedents of trauma reported by the patient could have played an important role in the development of this tumor. Key words:Inverted ductal papilloma, intraductal papilloma, oral papilloma, papillary epidermoid adenoma. PMID:24455058

  2. Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity secondary to lower lip trauma. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; España-Tost, Antoni; Vidal-Bel, August; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-04-01

    Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity is an infrequent benign neoplasm of papillary appearance that originates in the secretory duct of a salivary gland. The etiology is unknown, though some authors have related it to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a tumor of the lower lip mucosa. Histopathological study of the lesion diagnosed inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus DNA detection and typing based on tumor lesion DNA amplification and posterior hybridization, revealed no presence of viral DNA. The antecedents of trauma reported by the patient could have played an important role in the development of this tumor. Key words:Inverted ductal papilloma, intraductal papilloma, oral papilloma, papillary epidermoid adenoma.

  3. Bortezomib Followed by the Addition of Doxorubicin at Disease Progression in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  4. A robust method for assessing chemically induced mutagenic effects in the oral cavity of transgenic Big Blue® rats.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R; Thompson, Chad M; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Suh, Mina; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    The Big Blue® (BB) in vivo mutation assay uses transgenic rodents to measure treatment-induced mutations in virtually any tissue. The BB assay can be conducted in rats or mice and is ideal for investigating tissue-specific mutagenic mode of action of tumor induction. Some tissues such as oral mucosa have not been thoroughly studied. Due to the small quantity and cartilaginous nature of oral cavity tissues, development of special prosection and DNA isolation methods was required to permit robust analysis of mutations in these tissues. Improved surgical methods permitted collection of adequate and reproducible quantities of tissue (∼45 mg gingiva/buccal and ∼30 mg gingiva/palate). Optimized DNA isolation methods included use of liquid nitrogen pulverization, homogenization, nuclei pelleting, digestion, and phenol/chloroform extraction, to yield sufficient quantities of DNA from these tissues. In preliminary optimization work, mutant frequency (MF) in tongue and gingiva was increased in rats exposed to the promutagen, benzo[a]pyrene, and the direct mutagen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. The oral cavity carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO; 10 ppm in drinking water; 28 days), was qualified as a positive control for mutagenesis in oral tissues since it caused significant increases in cII MFs in gingiva/palate (50.2-fold) and gingiva/buccal tissues (21.3-fold), but not in liver or bone marrow (0.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively). These results are consistent with the observation that 4-NQO primarily induces tumors in oral cavity. Results also demonstrate the utility of the BB rat mutation assay and optimized methods for investigation of oral cavity mutagenicity, and by extension, analysis of other small and cartilaginous tissues.

  5. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinants.

    PubMed

    Rodu, Brad; Jansson, Christer

    2004-09-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been associated with oral cancer for many decades. The purpose of this article is to review research relevant to this association, including epidemiologic studies, studies of putative carcinogens such as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and other contaminants, and possible cancer inhibitors. Epidemiologic studies addressing this issue primarily consist of case-control studies. They show that the use of chewing tobacco and moist snuff is associated with very low risks for cancers of the oral cavity and related structures (relative risks [RR] from 0.6 to 1.7). The use of dry snuff is associated with higher RRs, ranging from 4 to 13, while the RRs from smokeless tobacco, unspecified as to type, are intermediate (RR = 1.5 to 2.8). With regard to TSNAs, historical levels in American moist snuff products were higher than those in their Swedish counterparts, but levels in contemporary products are uniformly low. TSNA levels in chewing tobacco have always been low, but levels in dry snuff have been higher, including some very high levels in current products. In general, smokeless tobacco users are not exposed to significant levels of cadmium, lead, benzo(a)pyrene, polonium-210, and formaldehyde, when compared with concentrations of these compounds in foods. Finally, low oral cancer risk from smokeless tobacco use may be influenced by the presence of cancer inhibitors, mainly anti-oxidants, in smokeless tobacco products.

  6. Preoperative oral health care reduces postoperative inflammation and complications in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111

  7. Human papillomavirus infection in the oral cavity of HIV patients is not reduced by initiating antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Lee, Anthony; Chen, Huichao; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer; Seaman, Todd; Landovitz, Raphael J.; John, Malcolm; Reilly, Nancy; Naini, Linda; Palefsky, Joel; Jacobson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral malignancies is increasing among HIV-infected populations, and the prevalence of oral warts has reportedly increased among HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We explored whether ART initiation among treatment-naive HIV-positive adults is followed by a change in oral HPV infection or the occurrence of oral warts. Design: Prospective, observational study. Methods: HIV-1 infected, ART-naive adults initiating ART in a clinical trial were enrolled. End points included detection of HPV DNA in throat-washes, changes in CD4+ T-cell count and HIV RNA, and oral wart diagnosis. Results: Among 388 participants, 18% had at least one HPV genotype present before initiating ART, and 24% had at least one genotype present after 12–24 weeks of ART. Among those with undetectable oral HPV DNA before ART, median change in CD4+ count from study entry to 4 weeks after ART initiation was larger for those with detectable HPV DNA during follow-up than those without (P =  0.003). Both prevalence and incidence of oral warts were low (3% of participants having oral warts at study entry; 2.5% acquiring oral warts during 48 weeks of follow-up). Conclusion: These results suggest: effective immune control of HPV in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients is not reconstituted by 24 weeks of ART; whereas ART initiation was not followed by an increase in oral warts, we observed an increase in oral HPV DNA detection after 12–24 weeks. The prevalence of HPV-associated oral malignancies may continue to increase in the modern ART era. PMID:26919735

  8. Oral cancer, HPV infection and evidence of sexual transmission

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hernández, Juan G.; Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; del Romero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and oral cancer is growing worldwide, both in young non-smokers and in young non-drinkers (smoking and drinking are considered the main risk factors). Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong association between the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 and 18 (high oncological risk) which have already demonstrated their etiological role in anal tumours as well as in cervix cancer. There is clear epidemiologic evidence that both types of tumours relate to changes in sexual behaviour and that both are linked to sexual transmission of HPV. The number of oral and oropharyngeal cancer cases is rising nowadays, especially among young individuals with no typical toxic habits, such as tobacco and/or alcohol. In this review we set out to update the aspects related to the onset of oral cancer, its relationship with HPV infection and whether this association may be due to the sexual transmission of the virus. Key words:Human papillomavirus, oral sex, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:23524417

  9. Species distribution and virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; de Souza, Luanda Bárbara Ferreira Canário; Gondim, Libia Augusta Maciel; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2013-04-01

    Although yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are frequently seen as commensals in the oral cavity, they possess virulence attributes that contribute for pathogenicity. The aims of the present study were to study the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of renal transplant recipients and to analyze strains virulence factors. We isolated a total of 70 Candida strains from 111 transplant recipients, and Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (82.86 %). Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 14.4 % kidney transplant patients, while 11 isolates (15.7 %) corresponded to non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species. C. albicans adhered to a higher extension than NCAC strains. Some isolates of Candida tropicalis were markedly adherent to human buccal epithelial cells and highly biofilm-forming strains. Regarding proteinase activity, Candida orthopsilosis was more proteolytic than Candida metapsilosis. Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis showed very low ability to form biofilm on polystyrene microtiter plates. We have demonstrated here diverse peculiarities of different Candida species regarding the ability to express virulence factors. This study will contribute for the understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of yeasts belonging to the genus Candida in the oral cavity of patients who were submitted to kidney transplant and are under immunosuppressive therapies.

  10. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Bernardo, Wagner Luis de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Höfling, José Francisco

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the protein polymorphism degree among seventy-five C. albicans strains from healthy children oral cavities of five socioeconomic categories from eight schools (private and public) in Piracicaba city, São Paulo State, in order to identify C. albicans subspecies and their similarities in infantile population groups and to establish their possible dissemination route. Cell cultures were grown in YEPD medium, collected by centrifugation, and washed with cold saline solution. The whole-cell proteins were extracted by cell disruption, using glass beads and submitted to SDS-PAGE technique. After electrophoresis, the protein bands were stained with Coomassie-blue and analyzed by statistics package NTSYS-pc version 1.70 software. Similarity matrix and dendrogram were generated by using the Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, respectively, which made it possible to evaluate the similarity or intra-specific polymorphism degrees, based on whole-cell protein fingerprinting of C. albicans oral isolates. A total of 13 major phenons (clusters) were analyzed, according to their homogeneous (socioeconomic category and/or same school) and heterogeneous (distinct socioeconomic categories and/or schools) characteristics. Regarding to the social epidemiological aspect, the cluster composition showed higher similarities (0.788 < SD < or = 1.0) among C. albicans strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic bases (high, medium, or low). Isolates of high similarity were not found in oral cavities from healthy children of social stratum A and D, B and D, or C and E. This may be explained by an absence of a dissemination route among these children. Geographically, some healthy children among identical and different schools (private and public) also are carriers of similar strains but such similarity was not found among other isolates from children from certain schools. These data may reflect a restricted

  11. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726–0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  12. Kinetics of DNA adduct formation in the oral cavity after drinking alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Balbo, Silvia; Meng, Lei; Bliss, Robin L.; Jensen, Joni A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is one of the top-10 risks for the worldwide burden of disease and an established cause of head and neck cancer as well as cancer at other sites. Acetaldehyde, the major metabolite of ethanol, reacts with DNA to produce adducts, which are critical in the carcinogenic process and can serve as biomarkers of exposure and possibly of disease risk. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is considered “carcinogenic to humans”. We have previously developed the technology to quantify acetaldehyde-DNA adducts in human tissues, but there are no studies in the literature defining the formation and removal of acetaldehyde-DNA adducts in people who consumed alcohol. Methods We investigated levels of N2-ethylidene-dGuo, the major DNA adduct of acetaldehyde, in DNA from human oral cells at several time points after consumption of increasing alcohol doses. Ten healthy non-smokers were dosed once a week for three weeks. Mouthwash samples were collected before and at several time points after the dose. N2-Ethylidene-dGuo was measured as its NaBH3CN reduction product N2-ethyl-dGuo by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results N2-ethylidene-dGuo levels increased as much as 100-fold from baseline within 4h after each dose for all subjects and in a dose responsive manner (p = 0.001). Conclusion These results demonstrate an effect of alcohol on oral cell DNA adduct formation, strongly supporting the key role of acetaldehyde in head and neck cancer caused by alcohol drinking. Impact Our results provide some of the first conclusive evidence linking exposure to a lifestyle carcinogen and kinetics of DNA adduct formation in humans. PMID:22301829

  13. Maté: a risk factor for oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, David

    2002-10-01

    Maté is a tea-like beverage consumed mainly in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Brazil and to a lesser degree in other areas of the world such as Germany, Syria, Lebanon and Northern Israel. It is brewed from the dried leaves and stemlets of the perennial tree Ilex paraguarensis ("yerba mate") a species that belongs to the Aquifoliaceae family. Maté consumption has been associated with an increased rate of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and discuss the role of Maté consumption in the development of oral and oropharyngeal cancer and the potential carcinogenic mechanisms. A review of the relevant literature linking Maté consumption with oral and oropharyngeal cancer and the carcinogenicity of Maté was performed. The search was performed using Medline, library catalogues, OCLC first search and ISI web of science databases. Case control studies on Maté drinking populations and, in vivo and in vitro studies on the carcinogenicity of Maté were reviewed. The populations reviewed in many of these studies also used alcohol and tobacco products confounding the influence of Maté as an independent risk factor. There is evidence in the literature that Maté consumption is in itself carcinogenic and plays a role in the development of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Although the exact mechanism of carcinogenesis is still unknown, available information suggests that Maté drinking should be considered one of the risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

  14. Overexpression of Rap-1A indicates a poor prognosis for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and promotes tumor cell invasion via Aurora-A modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Han; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Tsai, Hsin-Ting; Su, Li-Jen; Shiu, Li-Yen; Leu, Steve; Chien, Chih-Yen

    2013-02-01

    The functions of Rap-1A in oral carcinogenesis are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the expression of Rap-1A at different malignant stages of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). Semiquantitative RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to evaluate Rap-1A mRNA and protein expressions, respectively, in paired OCSCC patient specimens. To determine the possible correlation between Rap-1A expression and various clinical characteristics, 256 samples from patients with OCSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Strong Rap-1A expression was a significant prognostic marker and predictor of aggressive OCSCC. The overall and disease-specific 5-year survival rates were significantly correlated with strong expression of Rap-1A (P < 0.001). Functionally, overexpressed Rap-1A could promote oral cancer cell migration and invasion by Transwell chambers and wound healing assay. Conversely, the suppression of Rap-1A expression using Rap-1A-mediated siRNA was sufficient to decrease cell motility. Furthermore, our data also illustrated that Aurora-A could not only induce mRNA and protein expressions of Rap-1A for enhancing cancer cell motility but also co-localize and form a complex with Rap-1A in the oral cancer cell line. Finally, immunohistochemical staining, indirect immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analysis of human aggressive OCSCC specimens revealed a significantly positive correlation between Rap-1A and Aurora-A expression. Taken together, our results suggest that the Aurora-A/Rap-1A pathway is associated with survival, tumor progression, and metastasis of OCSCC patients.

  15. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    PubMed

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  16. Levels of scientific evidence of the quality of life in patients treated for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Rocío; Montero, Javier; González-Moles, Miguel A.; Baca, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Treatments used in cancer of the oral cavity have great impact on the physical, psychological and functional state of patients. There has been increasingly interest in evaluating the health-related quality of life using questionnaires among patients treated FOR oral cancer. Up to our knowledge no review on this theme has incorporated the level of evidence of the single identified studies. The objective of the present study is to determinate results and conclusions about the health-related quality of life of these patients, in view of scientific evidence. In general, the diversity of designs, level of evidence and questionnaires used for their assessment does not affect results, which indicate a decline in the health-related quality of life after treatment. This decline is greater when the tumor is large in size, and when radiotherapy is used, though the situation is seen to improve over the span of a year. Questionnaires on health-related quality of life provide concrete information regarding the impact of cancer treatment on patients. Key words:Quality of life, oral cancer, questionnaire. PMID:23722141

  17. The influence of monoamine oxidase variants on the risk of betel quid-associated oral and pharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  18. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving films for delivery of triclosan to the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Dinge, Aditya; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of formulating TC containing fast dissolving films for local delivery to oral cavity. Various film forming agents, film modifiers and polyhydric alcohols were evaluated for optimizing the composition of fast dissolving films. The potential of poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl-beta- cyclodextrin (HPBCD) to improve solubility of TC was investigated. Fast dissolving films containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum, and xylitol were formulated. Use of poloxamer 407 and HPBCD resulted in significant improvement in the solubility of TC. Fast dissolving films containing TC-HPBCD complex and TC-Poloxamer 407 were formulated and were evaluated for the in vitro dissolution profile and in vitro microbiological assay. Films containing TC-Poloxamer 407 exhibited better in vitro dissolution profile and in vitro antimicrobial activity as compared to the films containing TC-HPBCD complex. Effect of incorporation of eugenol on the in vivo performance of TC-Poloxamer 407 containing films was evaluated in human volunteers. Eugenol containing films improved the acceptability of TC-Poloxamer 407 films with respect to taste masking and mouth freshening without compromising the in vivo dissolution time.

  20. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Deborah Gondim Lambert; Oliveira, Viviane Alves De; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Germano, Adriano Rocha; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin that usually affects the pleura. This rarity becomes more relevant in the oral cavity since the clinical features are nonspecific. A 66-year-old female patient presented with a 3-month history of a swelling in the floor of the mouth, measuring 2 cm in greatest diameter, and pain symptomatology. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs showed no bone involvement. Ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid salivary glands revealed normal morphology, dimensions, and echogenicity. During this exam, a nodular image of low echogenicity measuring about 2.7 × 1.8 cm was detected. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological analysis revealed a well-defined tumor-like lesion with alternation between hypercellular areas without a defined pattern and hypocellular areas. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD34 and CD99 and negative for α-SMA, S-100, and bcl-2. Combining the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor. The patient is under periodical clinical follow-up and shows no signs of recurrence 7 months after surgical excision of the tumor. The combination of clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical features is necessary for the diagnosis. PMID:28326216

  1. Porphyromonas loveana sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Bird, Philip S; Trott, Darren J; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Milinovich, Gabriel J; Hillman, Kristine M; Burrell, Paul C; Blackall, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    An obligatory anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccobacillus with black-pigmented colonies was isolated from the oral cavity of selected Australian marsupial species. Phenotypic and molecular criteria showed that this bacterium was a distinct species within the genus Porphyromonas, and was closely related to Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas gulae. This putative novel species and P. gulae could be differentiated from P. gingivalis by catalase activity. Further characterization by multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis of glutamate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme mobility and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS showed that this putative novel species could be differentiated phenotypically from P. gingivalis and P. gulae. Definitive identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that this bacterium belonged to a unique monophyletic lineage, phylogenetically distinct from P. gingivalis (94.9 % similarity) and P. gulae (95.5 %). This also was supported by 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and glutamate dehydrogenase gene sequencing. A new species epithet, Porphyromonas loveana sp. nov., is proposed for this bacterium, with DSM 28520T (=NCTC 13658T=UQD444T=MRK101T), isolated from a musky rat kangaroo, as the type strain.

  2. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed.

  3. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  4. Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-11-01

    Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) ( =JCM 19285(T) =DSM 27377(T)).

  5. Treatment experience with 15 MeV fast neutrons in the oral cavity and oropharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Herskovic, A.; Cox, E.B.; Fender, F.; Schell, M.; Henshaw, W.; Rogers, C.; Ornitz, R.

    1984-05-15

    All 86 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with fast neutrons at the Mid-Atlantic Neutron Therapy facility at the Naval Research Laboratory (MANTA) from its inception in 1976 until closing in 1979, are reported. Patients generally had advanced disease or have failed or were failing conventional treatment prior to being treated at MANTA. The fixed horizontal beam parameters were suboptimal. Patients were treated by either neutrons alone or various combinations of neutrons and photons. In patients with T3 or T4 primary carcinomas treated with less than 2100 neutron rad, only 37% (3/11) had a complete response at the primary compared to 57% (24/42) treated to a higher dose. However, there was a significant evidence of radiation related complication. The latter was expected in a phase I/II trial of a new modality such as fast neutrons. Isocentric hospital based cyclotrons should offer some hope of improvement in the future.

  6. Virulence factors of Candida albicans isolates from the oral cavities of HIV-1-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Tatiany O A; Gillet, Luciana C S; Menezes, Sílvio A F; Feitosa, Rosimar N M; Ishak, Marluísa O G; Ishak, Ricardo; Marques-da-Silva, Sílvia H; Vallinoto, Antonio C R

    2013-06-01

    The present study assessed the phenotypic aspects of oral-cavity Candida albicans isolates from 300 HIV-1- positive patients, relating the most commonly investigated virulence factors (enzyme typing and germ-tube formation) to the most common morphotypes. The samples were seeded into specific media for isolation and subsequent identification using the automated Vitek 2 system. The following assays were performed for phenotypic characterization: morphotyping, germ-tube formation and enzyme typing. Out of 300 collected samples, 144 tested positive for yeasts of the Candida genus, 98 (32.7 %) of which were identified as C. albicans. The latter samples were attributed to seven different morphotypes; the three most common morphotypes were 7208 (49 %), 7308 (14.3 %) and 3208 (13.3 %). All of the C. albicans isolate samples formed germ tubes and produced the enzymes proteinase and phospholipase, with an activity classified as intermediate to high. Due to the identification of virulence factors among the analyzed samples, monitoring of HIV-1-positive patients colonized by different morphotypes must be established because these morphotypes are extremely pathogenic and can trigger severe fungal infections.

  7. An examination of the sensory structures in the oral cavity of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Duffy, Michael; Zacherl, Janelle R; Anand, Kusuma; Elsey, Ruth M; Smith, Timothy S

    2014-11-01

    The location and distribution of mucosal sensory structures of the crocodilian oral cavity are poorly understood. Although there are several descriptions of these structures in adults, nothing is known about their development. The purpose of this study was to document location, morphology, and relative abundance of these mucosal sensory structures in both hatchling and subadult alligators. Numerous mucosal sensory structures and pale staining dome-shaped papillae were observed only in the upper palate and tongue. In hatchlings, these papillae, which house either mechanoreceptive or chemosensory (taste buds) structures, were larger and more prevalent on the tongue than the upper palate. In the subadult, however, these papillae housed primarily mechanoreceptive structures and possibly degenerate taste buds. Although the presence of the mechanoreceptive structures in the palates of the suabadult alligator are to be expected, the loss of most taste buds is hitherto undocumented. Thus, there is morphological support for an ontogenetic shift in the role of the sensory palate, from a prey detection gustatory sensory system in hatchlings to a prey-manipulative mechanoreceptive system in subadults.

  8. Clinical measurements of tissue optical properties in the esophagus and in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bays, Roland; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Robert, D.; Mizeret, Jerome C.; Braichotte, Daniel; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1995-03-01

    A non-invasive probe has been devised and clinically used to perform in vivo measurements of the optical properties of the esophageal wall and oral cavity. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are determined from the observation of the spatial distribution of the diffuse reflectance at the tissue surface under a narrow beam illumination of the tissue. The determination of these two coefficients enables us to evaluate the value of the effective attenuation coefficient which is of major interest in the field of light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy (PDT). An invasive isotropic micro-probe has also been designed and clinically used to directly measure in vivo the value of the fluence rate in tissues. The principle of this probe is based on the fluorescence generated in a ruby sphere by the light which propagates in the tissue. This fluorescence which can be excited between 350 and 680 nm is isotropically emitted and in part collected by an optical fiber glued against the ruby sphere. Results, obtained with both probes at 514 and 630 nm, i.e., wavelengths of interest in photodynamic therapy, with actual clinically used photosensitizers are summarized and compared. The agreement obtained between these two techniques validates the principle of these measurements.

  9. Tumours of the oropharynx and oral cavity: perineural spread and bone invasion.

    PubMed

    Maroldi, R; Battaglia, G; Farina, D; Maculotti, P; Chiesa, A

    1999-12-01

    Clinical examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx provides essential information in the assessment of neoplastic lesions. A precise evaluation of their deep spread along the most common growth pathways can be achieved by imaging, ranging from the basic, but nowadays incomplete, information of conventional X-ray, to the sophisticated details obtained by MR. Three oncological questions must be faced: the three dimensional evaluation of primary tumour spread; the assessment of nodal involvement; the post-treatment survey with the early detection of local recurrences, during the follow up. Either CT or MR accurately assesses the deep extension of neoplasms, nevertheless, the most cost-effective protocol is provided by a combination of CT and ultrasound (staging respectively T and N). MR is the technique of first choice when an infiltration of the base of the tongue or perineural spread is suspected, because of its superior ability to detect muscular invasion and segmental abnormalities of cranial nerves. Bone involvement can be adequately showed by MR not only because focal erosions of the cortical rim are well demonstrated, but also by means of the early demonstration of bone marrow abnormalities. Moreover, MR plays an essential role during the follow up, as it is the only morphological imaging technique permitting to differentiate recurrent tumour and necrosis from scar tissue.

  10. Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children’s Oncology Group report

    PubMed Central

    Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M. T.; Shah, Ami J.; Castellino, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children’s Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children’s Oncology Group. Methods An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network “Categories of Consensus” system. Results The Children’s Oncology Group oral-dental pan el selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Addition ally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent ma lignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Conclusions Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life. PMID:24781353

  11. Oral cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Zheng, Rongshou; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To descript the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer among Chinese population in 2011, and provide valuable data for oral cancer prevention and research. Methods Data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributed in 28 provinces were accepted for this study after evaluation based on quality control criteria, covering a total of 175,310,169 populations and accounting for 13.01% of the overall national population in 2011. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area, gender and age groups. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. The Chinese population in 2000 and World Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates. Results The estimate of new cases diagnosed with oral cancer was 39,450 including 26,160 males and 13,290 females. The overall crude incidence rate for oral cancer was 2.93/100,000. The age-standardized rates by China (ASRCN) population and by World population (ASRwld) were 2.22/100,000 and 2.17/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative incidence rate was 0.25%. The estimated number of oral cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 16,933, including 11,794 males and 5,139 females. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.26/100,000, accounting for 0.80% of all cancer deaths. The ASRCN and ASRwld for mortality were 0.90/100,000 and 0.89/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 0.10%. The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer were much higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. In addition, the incidence and mortality rates were increased by the raising of ages. Conclusions Results in the study may have important roles for oral cancer prevention and research. Although oral cancer burden of China is not high, we must pay attention to this malignancy as well. In addition, further researches need to be done for

  12. Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products.

    PubMed

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9), of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0) and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4), and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7) and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8) indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer.

  13. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Stefano

    2009-01-30

    The World Health Organization has clearly identified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increase our ability to differentiate between benign abnormalities and dysplastic/malignant changes as well as to identify areas of dysplasia/early OSCC that are not visible to naked eye. These include the use of toluidine blue, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. The present paper reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of the aforementioned techniques in improving the identification of dysplastic/malignant changes of the oral mucosa. We conclude that available studies have shown promising results, but strong evidence to support the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids is still lacking. Further research with clear objectives, well-defined population cohorts, and sound methodology is strongly required.

  14. Cytochrome p450 metabolism of betel quid-derived compounds: implications for the development of prevention strategies for oral and pharyngeal cancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Yi; Pan, Tien-Szu; Ting, Chun-Chan; Liang, Shih-Shin; Huang, Shu-Hung; Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Ko, Edward Cheng-Chuan; Wu, Chung-Wei; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chen, Ping-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) products, with or without tobacco, have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group I human carcinogens that are associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. There are estimated 600 million BQ users worldwide. In Taiwan alone there are 2 million habitual users (approximately 10% of the population). Oral and pharyngeal cancers result from interactions between genes and environmental factors (BQ exposure). Cytochrome p450 (CYP) families are implicated in the metabolic activation of BQ- and areca nut-specific nitrosamines. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge base regarding CYP genetic variants and related oral disorders. In clinical applications, we focus on cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and OPMDs associated with CYP gene polymorphisms, including CYP1A1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP26B1. Our discussion of CYP polymorphisms provides insight into the importance of screening tests in OPMDs patients for the prevention of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Future studies will establish a strong foundation for the development of chemoprevention strategies, polymorphism-based clinical diagnostic tools (e.g., specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) "barcodes"), and effective treatments for BQ-related oral disorders.

  15. What Happens After Treatment For Nasal Cavity or Paranasal Sinus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back: Cancer Recurrence . Help for trouble swallowing and nutrition problems Cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and their treatments can sometimes cause problems such as trouble swallowing, dry ... due to poor nutrition. Some people may need to adjust what they ...

  16. A comparison of the effectiveness of swabbing and flossing as a means of recovering spermatozoa from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Katherine A; Johnson, Donald J; Cruz, Sherillelynn; Simpson, Heather; Safer, Alan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether flossing the teeth is a more effective collection method in recovering spermatozoa than conventional swabbing techniques. It was hypothesized that inclusion of flossing as a collection method would extend the recovery of spermatozoa to longer postcoital intervals (PCIs). Eighteen individuals provided 174 oral cavity samples. Successful recovery of spermatozoa was assessed with respect to the collection method and reported activity in the oral cavity during the PCI. Samples were subjected to a differential extraction procedure prior to microscopic evaluation of the extracted pellet. The results indicate that swabbing is more effective than flossing when the PCI falls within 1.5-12 h. However, spermatozoa were recovered from seven floss samples where the corresponding swabs gave negative results. When combining the results from the two collection methods, the percentage of subjects from whom spermatozoa are recovered increases for each PCI beyond the 0-h interval.

  17. Verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell papilloma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Hilal; Agacayak, Serkan; Kavak, Gulten; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC. We presented a report of two cases which are VC and squamous cell papilloma that are showed the same clinical appearance but different pathological appearance, with a review of the literature. PMID:26430380

  18. Preclinical and clinical studies of photodynamic action on some pathogenic micro-organisms of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ivanov, Krill I.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99% are determined.

  19. Oral cancer in Myanmar: a preliminary survey based on hospital-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Oo, Htun Naing; Myint, Yi Yi; Maung, Chan Nyein; Oo, Phyu Sin; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Yagi, Minoru; Sawair, Faleh A; Saku, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of oral cancer is not clearly known in Myanmar, where betel quid chewing habits are widely spread. Since betel quid chewing has been considered to be one of the important causative factors for oral cancer, the circumstantial situation for oral cancer should be investigated in this country. We surveyed oral cancer cases as well as whole body cancers from two cancer registries from Yangon and Mandalay cities, both of which have representative referral hospitals in Myanmar, and we showed that oral cancer stood at the 6th position in males and 10th in females, contributing to 3.5% of whole body cancers. There was a male predominance with a ratio of 2.1:1. Their most frequent site was the tongue, followed by the palate, which was different from that in other countries with betel quid chewing habits. About 90% of male and 44% of female patients had habitual backgrounds of chewing and smoking for more than 15 years. The results revealed for the first time reliable oral cancer frequencies in Myanmar, suggesting that longstanding chewing and smoking habits are etiological backgrounds for oral cancer patients.

  20. Development of low-cost devices for image-guided photodynamic therapy treatment of oral cancer in global health settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Rudd, Grant; Daly, Liam; Hempstead, Joshua; Liu, Yiran; Khan, Amjad P.; Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Thomas, Richard; Rizvi, Imran; Arnason, Stephen; Cuckov, Filip; Hasan, Tayyaba; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light-based modality that shows promise for adaptation and implementation as a cancer treatment technology in resource-limited settings. In this context PDT is particularly well suited for treatment of pre-cancer and early stage malignancy of the oral cavity, that present a major global health challenge, but for which light delivery can be achieved without major infrastructure requirements. In recent reports we demonstrated that a prototype low-cost batterypowered 635nm LED light source for ALA-PpIX PDT achieves tumoricidal efficacy in vitro and vivo, comparable to a commercial turn-key laser source. Here, building on these reports, we describe the further development of a prototype PDT device to enable intraoral light delivery, designed for ALA- PDT treatment of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity. We evaluate light delivery via fiber bundles and customized 3D printed light applicators for flexible delivery to lesions of varying size and position within the oral cavity. We also briefly address performance requirements (output power, stability, and light delivery) and present validation of the device for ALA-PDT treatment in monolayer squamous carcinoma cell cultures.

  1. [Local homeostasis and acid-based balance in the oral cavity in patients with diabetes mellitus II].

    PubMed

    Esaian, L K; Rumiantsev, V A; Bitiukova, E V; Leonova, S O

    2009-01-01

    60 patients were researched for the purpose of comparable estimation of local homeostasis' indexes and acid-based balance in the oral cavity. They were divided into three groups: patients with parodontitis and diabetes (second type), patients with parodontitis only and practically healthy patients. Their blood was analyzed for glucose and glycerinated hemoglobin, mixed saliva--for the presence of glucose with use of the new method, salivation speed, bacterial composition of lingual plaque and parodontal pockets, pH of mixed of saliva, pH of lingual plaque and gingival liquor, carbamyde pH-test index. Patients with diabetes showed an increase of glucose concentration in the saliva which correlates with similar index of blood, as well as abrupt reduction of salivation and disorder of micrbiocenosis. An increase of acidosis in oral cavity and parodontal tissues, an increase of the activity of ureazpositive micro flora in lingual plaque were discovered. For express diagnosis of disbacteriosis in oral cavity the authors recommend to use indexes of local carbamyde pH-test on the tip of tongue and the new non-invasive hyperglycemia diagnosis method.

  2. Vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Presentation of five cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gaitan Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quezada Rivera, Daniel; Tenorio Rocha, Fernando; Leyva Huerta, Elba Rosa; Mendez Sánchez, Edgar Ramiro

    2008-08-01

    Leiomyoma, a benign neoplasia arising from smooth muscle is an uncommon neoplasia of the oral cavity. The most common histological subtype in the oral cavity is the vascular one. To supplement information on vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity (VLOC), we present cases of VLOC describing their clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Case reports. Five cases of VLOC (3 females; 2 males) from the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of México, are included. The most frequent clinical characteristic of VLOC was a single, asymptomatic, slow growing nodule. The age average of the cases was 40.6, however 3 out of our 5 cases were < or = 40 years old at the moment of their diagnosis. The lesions were composed of fusiform cells arranged in bundles or fascicles. The neoplastic cells were characterized by eosinophilic cytoplasm and tapered nuclei. The presence of vascular spaces was prominent in all cases. The immunocharacteristics of VLOC neoplastic cells were: alpha smooth muscle (+); vimentin (+), desmin (+), CD34 (-) and S-100 protein (-). The endothelial cells of vascular spaces were CD34 (+). Differential diagnosis of VLOC with fusocellular neoplasm is discussed.

  3. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Philiponis, Genevieve; Malloy, Kelly M.; Kagan, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis — in keeping with the methodology of the main study — we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process “living in limbo.” This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself — “self-detected lesion,” “lack of concern,” “seeking help,” “not a straightforward diagnosis,” and “hearing the diagnosis.” Entry into treatment concludes “Living in Limbo” and is described by the theme “worry and trust.” Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, “living in limbo” suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed. PMID:27981120

  4. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kellerová, Pavlína; Tachezy, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax. Thus, in this study we investigated the occurrence of oral trichomonads in 111 domestic dogs and 122 cats using cell cultivation methods, nested PCR analyses, and the sequencing of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions. We found that both dogs and cats harbour T. tenax, with prevalences of 8.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Considerably more dogs were infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas (30.6%), which we also identified in cats (6.6%). An analysis of the potential risk factors suggested that dogs of more than 3years old or with dental disease signs are more frequently infected with Trichomonas sp. than younger dogs or dogs without the disease signs, and that crossbreed dogs revealed increased rates of infection in comparison with purebred dogs. An analysis of the cat population suggested that Trichomonas sp. infection is lower in younger and crossbreed cats. Although the morphology of Trichomonas sp. is very similar to that of T. tenax, based on a phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions and the ssrRNA genes, we consider Trichomonas sp. to represent a new trichomonad species, for which we propose the name Trichomonas brixi.

  5. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. Method GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. Result The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Discussion Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis. PMID:27688975

  6. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do PSS; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital – Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  7. [Prevention and treatment of mucositis in children with oral cancers: Practical recommendations].

    PubMed

    El Bousaadani, A; Eljahd, L; Abada, R; Rouadi, S; Roubal, M; Mahtar, M

    2016-05-01

    Oral mucositis is an inflammation of the mucosa of the oral cavity of various etiologies. This is a common and debilitating complication in children treated with chemoradiotherapy for cancer. Its management remains a major concern both for the doctor than the patient. It affects the quality of life of patients and families. It may initiate the functional and vital prognosis because of the judgment of cancer treatment. Several treatment options are available, but there is no clear consensus therapeutic especially for the pediatric population. We have identified, through a comprehensive literature search indexed publications on this subject in order to review the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches that have been used to prevent and treat oral mucositis. Thus, current recommendations for the management of oral mucositis are very limited, and therefore the standard of care for this complication was palliative. In recent years several studies have revealed that the use of low-energy laser was particularly interesting in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced or chemically induced mucositis. It significantly reduces the pain, the severity and duration of the ulcer by promoting wound healing. Randomized controlled trials with a large number of patients are expected to establish preventive and therapeutic protocols. Treatment with low power laser, known devoid of side effects, is a very promising oncology care to support radio-induced mucositis and chemotherapy.

  8. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (−28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  9. The effect of selective photosuppression of sensitized pathogenic microflora: Part I. Influence on pathogenic organisms causing pyoinflammatory processes in oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Viktor I.; Risovannaya, Olga N.

    2005-03-01

    The effectiveness of Bacteriotoxic light therapy (BTL) in many respects depends on the right choice of the photo sensitizer and used parameters of laser radiation. Experimental studies in vitro have revealed the presence of correlation dependence between the photo sensitizer Radachlorine, energy density, irradiation duration executed with low energy diode laser and the number of viable bacterial cells causing the development of inflammatory affection of oral cavity. BTL in parameters defined in the experiments develops bactericidal action on pathogenic microflora of oral cavity.

  10. Effect of Ethiopian multiflora honey on fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Mulu, A; Diro, E; Tekleselassie, H; Belyhun, Y; Anagaw, B; Alemayehu, M; Gelaw, A; Biadglegne, F; Desalegn, K; Yifiru, S; Tiruneh, M; Kassu, A; Nishikawa, T; Isogai, E

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the antifungal effect of Ethiopian multiflora honey against Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients. Oral rinses were obtained from 13 AIDS patients and cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours. Candida species were identified by microbiological and molecular techniques. The antifungal effect of the honey sample on Candida was investigated by an agar dilution technique. Susceptibility of the Candida species to fluconazole was tested following a semi-modified microdilution method. Growth of both fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida species was inhibited with a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 35-40% (v/v) honey. The MFC of different Candida species was not significantly different (P > 0.05). From the total of 25 Candida isolates tested for susceptibility, 11 (44%), eight (32%) and six (24%) of the isolates were sensitive (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs] < 8 µg/mL), susceptible (dose-dependent: MICs 16-32 µg/mL) and resistant (MICs > 64 µg/mL) to fluconazole, respectively. Ethiopian multiflora honey has antifungal activity against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients. This supports the existing folkloric practice of using honey to treat oral lesions. Nevertheless, identification of the bioactive agents in honey, their clinical evaluation and pharmacological standardization are crucial.

  11. Bacteriocin production by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from the oral cavity of humans with periodontal disease, periodontally healthy subjects and marmosets.

    PubMed

    Lúcia, Lima Francisca; Farias, Flávio F; Eustáquio, Costa José; Auxiliadora, Maria; Carvalho, R; Alviano, Celuta S; Farias, Luiz M

    2002-01-01

    The ability of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to produce bacteriocin has rarely been reported. Antagonistic substance production may confer an important ecological advantage for the producer microorganisms, especially in a competitive ecosystem such as the oral cavity. In the present study, 75 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains isolated from the oral cavity of human patients with periodontal disease, periodontally healthy subjects and marmosets, as well as two reference strains (A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 and FDC Y4) were evaluated for auto-, iso-, and heteroantagonistic activity. Fifty-one (68.00%) strains exhibited antagonistic activity; heteroantagonism was observed more often than isoantagonism. Isolated strains antagonized 17 different species of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from the oral and nonoral microbiota. Sensitivity to heat and to proteolytic enzymes constituted strong evidence that the antagonistic substance has a proteic nature. Taken together, our data enabled us to confirm that the antagonistic substance detected was a bacteriocin. The wide spectrum of activity indicates the possibility that more than one antagonistic substance is produced and that these substances play an important role in the ecological balance of the oral ecosystem.

  12. Risk factors for oral cancer in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Loyha, Kulchaya; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Promthet, Supannee; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is a common site of head and neck cancer, and is relatively frequent in Northeast Thailand. The objective of this hospital-based, case-control study was to determine associations with risk factors. A total of 104 oral cancer cases diagnosed between July 2010 and April 2011 in 3 hospitals were matched with control subjects by age, sex and hospital. Data were collected by personal interview. There were significant associations between oral cancer and tobacco smoking (OR=4.47; 95%CI=2.00 to 9.99), alcohol use among women (OR=4.16; 95%CI=1.70 to 10.69), and betel chewing (OR=9.01; 95%CI=3.83 to 21.22), and all three showed dose-response effects. Smoking is rare among Thai women (none of the control women were smokers), but betel chewing, especially among older women, is relatively common. We did not find any association between practicing oral sex and oral cancer.

  13. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D W; Hutchison, G B; Welch, W R; Scully, R E; Knapp, R C

    1982-10-21

    We investigated the relation between epithelial ovarian cancer and the use of oral contraceptives in a case-control study of 144 white women under the age of 60 who had ovarian cancer and 139 white women under 60 who were selected from the general population. We observed a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives in subjects 40 through 59 years of age at the time of the study. The relative risk, adjusted for parity, was 0.11, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.04 to 0.33. In contrast to the findings in older women, a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use was not found in women under 40. In this group, the adjusted relative risk associated with any use of oral contraceptives was 1.98, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.74 to 5.27. The lowest risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives was observed in older parous subjects and in women who had discontinued use more than 10 years previously.

  14. Clinical Implications of FADD Gene Amplification and Protein Overexpression in Taiwanese Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Huei-Tzu; Cheng, Sou-De; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Wang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Shiang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Amplification of 11q13.3 is a frequent event in human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This chromosome region contains several genes that are potentially cancer drivers, including FADD (Fas associated via death domain), an apoptotic effector that was previously identified as a novel oncogene in laryngeal/pharyngeal cancer. This study was designed to explore the role of FADD in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) samples from Taiwanese patients, by assessing copy number variations (CNVs) and protein expression and the clinical implications of these factors in 339 male OSCCs. The intensity of FADD protein expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry, was strongly correlated with gene copy number amplification, as analyzed using a TaqMan CNV assay. Both FADD gene copy number amplification and high protein expression were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Patients with both FADD copy number amplification and high protein expression had the shortest disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.074 and P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.011 and P = 0.027). After adjusting for primary tumor status, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and age at diagnosis, DFS was still significantly lower in patients with either copy number amplification or high protein expression (hazard ratio [H.R.] = 1.483; 95% confidence interval [C.I.], 1.044–2.106). In conclusion, our data reveal that FADD gene copy number and protein expression can be considered potential prognostic markers and are closely associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with OSCC in Taiwan. PMID:27764170

  15. Clinical significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma of pathogenic somatic mitochondrial mutations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, I-How; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsieh, Ling-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations affecting the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been frequently observed in human cancers and proposed as important oncological biomarkers. However, the clinical significance of mtDNA mutations in cancer remains unclear. This study was therefore performed to explore the possible clinical use in assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of pathogenic mtDNA mutations. The entire mitochondrial genome of 300 OSCC with their matched control DNAs was screened by direct sequencing and criteria were set to define a pathogenic somatic mutation. The patients' TP53 R72P genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationships between pathogenic somatic mutations, clinicopathogical features, TP53 R72P genotype and clinical prognosis were analyzed. Overall, 645 somatic mtDNA mutations were identified and 91 of these mutations were defined as pathogenic. About one quarter (74/300) of the OSCC tumor samples contained pathogenic mutations. Individuals with the TP53 R allele had a higher frequency of pathogenic somatic mutation than those with the PP genotype. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that TP53 R allele patients with pathogenic somatic mutations demonstrated a significant association with a poorer disease-free survival than other individuals (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15-2.57; p = 0.009) and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for mtDNA haplogroup, tumor stage with treatment regimens, differentiation and age at diagnosis (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.40; p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that this phenomenon was limited to patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy after surgery. The results strongly indicated that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a potential prognostic marker for OSCCs. Furthermore, functional mitochondria may play an active role in cancer development and the patient's response to radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy.

  16. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area. We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS). Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3–4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among patients with a fourth PT, those who underwent radical surgery showed a significantly higher 3-year OS than those who did not (57% vs 13%; P = 0.0442). Fourth PTs are rarely observed in OSCC patients in a betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts. PMID:27015170

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells from the oral cavity and their potential value in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Antonio R; Carrión, Flavio S; Chaparro, Alejandra P

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common conditions affecting humans, and current treatment strategies, which focus on the removal and long-term control of dental plaque, are generally successful in eliminating active disease and promoting tissue repair. However, regeneration of the supporting structures of the tooth remains an elusive goal and a challenge. The formation of new bone and cementum with supportive periodontal ligament is the ultimate objective, but current regeneration therapies are incapable of achieving this in a predictable way. The regeneration of periodontal tissue requires a combination of fundamental events, such as appropriate level and sequencing of regulatory signals, the presence of progenitor cells, an extracellular matrix or carrier and an adequate blood supply. Based on tissue-engineering concepts, the regeneration process may be modulated by manipulating the signaling pathways of regulatory molecules, the extracellular matrix or scaffold, or the cellular components. The identification of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow started a new era in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells became a therapeutic option with several advantages, including high-quality regeneration of damaged tissues without the formation of fibrous tissue, minimal donor-site morbidity compared with autografts and a low risk of autoimmune rejection and disease transmission. The aim of this review was to describe the main sources of mesenchymal stem cells from tissues in the oral cavity and the potential of these cells in regenerative therapy. Special attention is paid to gingival tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells because they represent the most accessible source of stem cells in the human mouth.

  18. Oral micro-organisms in the etiology of cancer.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H; Uittamo, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel concept on carcinogenesis mediated by oral microbiota. Oral micro-organisms are capable of metabolizing alcohol to acetaldehyde. This finding casts light on the observed association between poor oral hygiene and oral cancer. Ethanol, as such, is not carcinogenic, but its first metabolite acetaldehyde is indisputably carcinogenic. Several gastro-intestinal microbial species possess the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is also the enzyme responsible for alcohol metabolism in the liver. In oral microbiota, we observed that species such as the ubiquitous viridans streptococci and Candida also possess ADH. Ethanol can be detected in the mouth hours after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Patients with poor oral health status have shown higher salivary acetaldehyde concentrations than those with better oral health. It is thus understandable that ADH-containing micro-organisms in the mouth present a risk for carcinogenic acetaldehyde production, with subsequent potential for the development of oral cancer, particularly among heavy drinkers. In this article, we briefly review this area of investigation and conclude by highlighting some future possibilities for the control of carcinogenesis.

  19. In-vivo kinetics of ALA-induced fluorescence in the canine oral cavity: influence of drug dose and tissue type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Vijay; Rastegar, Sohi; Fossum, Theresa W.; Flores, P.; van der Breggen, E. W. J.; Egger, N. G.; Jacques, Steven L.; Motamedi, Massoud

    1997-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopic detection and photodynamic therapy may provide an effective approach for early detection and treatment of oral cancer. Thus the development of a safe photosensitizer that could enhance the spectroscopic contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue, while allowing for selective photosensitization and treatment of pre-malignant and malignant lesions in the oral cavity, is highly desired. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and a safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) that could induce an endogenous precursor of protoporphyrin IX and heme in the biosynthetic pathway was investigated. Two doses of ALA:25 and 75 mg/kg were administered intravenously to 4 and 3 dogs, respectively. A 'wash-out' period of 1 week between administration of each does was allowed to ensure against PpIX build-up. Using an optical multichannel analyzer, the fluorescence from the oral cavity was recorded at 3 sites: buccal mucosa, gums, and the tongue, and also from a remote site, the skin. A fiber optic probe was used to deliver excitation and collect the emitted fluorescence. Results showed that the ALA-induced fluorescence reached a peak at 2-4 hours, and returned to baseline in 24-31 hours. The dogs were stable during the course of the study, minimal vomiting was noted. In conclusion, the study showed that higher doses result in a higher peak at a later time.It was observed that different tissues have different pharmacokinetic response, the tongue and the gums have the highest peak fluorescence values, followed by the buccal mucosa and skin.

  20. Morphology and distribution of taste papillae and oral denticles in the developing oropharyngeal cavity of the bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Carla J. L.; Martin, Kyle J.; Fraser, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gustation in sharks is not well understood, especially within species that ingest food items using suction. This study examines the morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of taste papillae and oral denticles in the oropharynx of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum and compares their distribution during development. Taste papillae of C. punctatum are located throughout the oropharyngeal region and are most concentrated on the oral valves (2125-3483 per cm2 in embryos; 89-111 per cm2 in mature adults) close to the tooth territories. Papillae appearance is comparable at all stages of development, with the exception of the embryos (unhatched specimens), where no microvilli are present. Oral valve papillae are comparable in structure to Type I taste buds of teleost fishes, whereas those of the rest of the oropharyngeal region are comparable to Type II. Both types of papillae show immunofluorescence for a number of markers of taste buds, including β-Catenin and Sox2. Taste papillae densities are highest in embryos with 420-941 per cm2 compared to 8-29 per cm2 in mature adults. The total number of papillae remains around 1900 for all stages of development. However, the papillae increase in diameter from 72±1 μm (mean±s.e.m.) in embryos to 310±7 μm in mature individuals. Microvilli protrude in multiple patches at the apical tip of the papilla covering ∼0.5% of the papillar surface area. We further document the relationship between taste papillae and the closely associated oral denticles within the shark orophayngeal cavity. Oral denticles first break through the epithelium in the antero-central region of the dorsal oral cavity, shortly after the emergence of teeth, around time of hatching. Denticles are located throughout the oropharyngeal epithelium of both immature and mature stages, with the highest concentrations in the antero-dorsal oral cavity and the central regions of the pharynx. These denticle-rich areas of

  1. Degloving Injuries of the Oral Cavity Change the Operative Approach to Fractures of the Anterior Segment of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Richard A.; Huber, Katherine M.; Sickels, Joseph E. Van

    2011-01-01

    No report to date describes the added risk traumatic, degloving injuries of the oral cavity may pose when treating fractures of the mandible. The authors describe the oral degloving injury, characterized by separation of periosteum and soft tissue of the anterior floor of the mouth from the inner cortex of the anterior segment. Vascular anatomy of the floor of the mouth is reviewed as a prelude to a description of pathomechanics of the injury and a case report. The higher incidence of oral degloving in youth and in young adulthood and parallels in elective, orthognathic surgery are identified. When this unusual clinical presentation occurs, and when open reduction of fractures of the anterior segment is chosen, a vestibular incision is best avoided. Instead, a submental or upper neck incision is chosen for sufficient exposure to allow reduction and the application of appliances. Meticulous closure of the intraoral void is achieved using one of two techniques, depending on the level of degloving. PMID:22942942

  2. Hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation of oral cancer through activation of the COX2/AKT/ERK1/2 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Bian, Huan; Li, Xiaoxu; Wu, Huanhuan; Bi, Qingwei; Yan, Yingbin; Wang, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, the third gaseous transmitter, is one of the main causes of halitosis in the oral cavity. It is generally considered as playing a deleterious role in many oral diseases including oral cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oral cancer growth remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms through CCK-8 assay, EdU incorporation, real-time PCR, western blot and pathway blockade assays. Our results showed that hydrogen sulfide promoted oral cancer cell proliferation through activation of the COX2, AKT and ERK1/2 pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking any of the three above pathways inhibited hydrogen sulfide-induced oral cancer cell proliferation. Meanwhile, blockade of COX2 by niflumic acid downregulated NaHS-induced p-ERK and p-AKT expression. Inactivation of the AKT pathway by GSK690693 significantly decreased NaHS‑induced p-ERK1/2 expression, and inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway by U0126 markedly increased NaHS-induced p-AKT expression. Either the AKT or ERK1/2 inhibitor did not significantly alter the COX2 expression level. Our data revealed, for the first time, that hydrogen sulfide promotes oral cancer cell proliferation through activation of the COX2/AKT/ERK1/2 axis, suggesting new potential targets to eliminate the effect of hydrogen sulfide on the development of oral cancer.

  3. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Treatment Options by Stage)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  4. Stages of Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  6. General Information about Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor sizes. The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In ... are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus . These abnormal cells may become cancer and ...

  7. Oral cancer: exploring the stories in United Kingdom newspaper articles.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C M; Johnson, I G; Morgan, M Z

    2016-09-09

    Objective Reports suggest that patients with oral cancer delay seeking help because they are unaware of the symptoms. The majority of adults (95%) engage with news reports and 40% read newspapers. Newspaper oral cancer stories may influence awareness and health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore how oral cancer is portrayed in UK newspaper print media.Design Qualitative content analysis of articles from ten newspapers with the widest UK print circulation. All articles using the terms 'mouth cancer' and 'oral cancer' over a three year period were retrieved. Duplicates, non-cancer and non-human articles were excluded.Results 239 articles were analysed. Common topics included 'recent research', 'survivor stories', 'health information' and 'celebrity linkage'. Articles were often emotive, featuring smoking, alcohol, sex and celebrity. Articles lacked a proper evidence base and often failed to provide accurate information about signs and symptoms, information about prevention and signposting to treatment.Conclusions Opportunities to save lives are being missed. Further work to improve social responsibility in the media and develop guidance to enhance the quality of information, health reporting and signposting to help are indicated.

  8. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  9. Oral health resources for cancer patients in Texas.

    PubMed

    Bitouni, Anneta; Urankar, Yashashri

    2012-05-01

    Over 1.4 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year, and many of these patients will, by necessity, be treated in private practice, including dental practice. Dental professionals play a key role in helping patients understand that good oral care can prevent or reduce oral complications. Treatment of oral cancers and other malignancies cause oral sequelae that can compromise patients' quality of life and dictate reduction or discontinuation of optimal therapeutic regimens, which in turn reduces the odds of long-term survival. This can be prevented or better managed if dental and medical health care providers work together. The purpose of this article is to identify the cancer centers associated with dental clinics and the dental practitioners in the state of Texas, including maxillofacial prosthodontists, with training and/or a special interest in providing oral care to cancer patients. To be included on the list, which will be available on the Dental Oncology Education Program (DOEP) Web site (doep.org), please contact Grady Basler at the DOEP office (grady@doep.org), or the Department of Public Health Sciences (214-828-8350).

  10. Estimation of Nickel in Different Smokeless Tobacco Products and Their Impact on Human Health of Oral Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam S; Sahito, Oan M

    2015-01-01

    It has been extensively investigated that the chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products may enhance the inflammation of the oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between nickel (Ni) exposure via different SLT products with oral cancer (different sites) incidence in the population of Sindh, Pakistan. The different brands of SLT products (mainpuri, gutkha, and moist snuff) commonly consumed by the studied population were analyzed for Ni contents. The biological samples of oral cancer patients and noncancerous control subjects of both genders, who have or have not consumed SLT products, were collected. The concentration of Ni in biological samples and SLT products were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the Ni level was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). The study suggested that exposure of Ni as a result of chewing different SLT products may be synergistic with risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  11. [Current Status and Effectiveness of Perioperative Oral Health Care Management for Lung Cancer and Esophageal Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Nishino, Takeshi; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Takahiro; Inui, Tomohiro; Takasugi, Haruka; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Kawakita, Naoya; Inoue, Seiya; Sakiyama, Shoji; Tangoku, Akira; Azuma, Masayuki; Yamamura, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of perioperative oral health care management to decrease the risk of postoperative pneumonia have been reported lately. Since 2014, we introduced perioperative oral health care management for lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients. We report current status and effectiveness of perioperative oral health care management for lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients. Every 100 cases of lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients treated by surgery were classified 2 group with or without perioperative oral health care management and compared about postoperative complications retrospectively. In the lung cancer patients, the group with oral health care management could prevent postoperative pneumonia significantly and had shorter length of hospital stay than the group without oral health care management. In the esophageal cancer patients, there was little occurrence of postoperative pneumonia without significant difference between both group with or without oral health care management. A large number of esophageal cancer patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and some patients developed oral mucositis and received oral care treatment before surgery. Treatment for oral mucositis probably improved oral environment and affected prevention of postoperative pneumonia. Perioperative oral health care management can prevent postoperative pneumonia of lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients by improvement of oral hygiene.

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and circulating tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Wikner, Johannes; Gröbe, Alexander; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Due to a lack of substantial improvement in the outcome of patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) during the past decades, current staging methods need to be revised. This disease is associated with poor survival rates despite considerable advances in diagnosis and treatment. The early detection of metastases is an important indicator of survival, prognosis and relapse. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastasis is crucial. Exploring alternative measures apart from common procedures is needed to identify new prognostic markers. Similar to previous findings predominantly for other solid tumours, recently published studies demonstrate that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) might serve as prognostic markers and could supplement routine staging in OSCC. Thus, the detection of CTCs/DTCs is a promising tool to determine the individual need for therapeutic intervention. Encouraging results and new approaches point to the future use of targeted therapies for OSCC, an exceedingly heterogeneous subgroup of head and neck cancer. This review focuses on summarising technologies currently used to detect CTCs/DTCs. The translational relevance for OSCC is highlighted. The inherent challenges in detecting CTCs/DTCs will be emphasised. PMID:24829858

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Wikner, Johannes; Gröbe, Alexander; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2014-05-10

    Due to a lack of substantial improvement in the outcome of patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) during the past decades, current staging methods need to be revised. This disease is associated with poor survival rates despite considerable advances in diagnosis and treatment. The early detection of metastases is an important indicator of survival, prognosis and relapse. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastasis is crucial. Exploring alternative measures apart from common procedures is needed to identify new prognostic markers. Similar to previous findings predominantly for other solid tumours, recently published studies demonstrate that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) might serve as prognostic markers and could supplement routine staging in OSCC. Thus, the detection of CTCs/DTCs is a promising tool to determine the individual need for therapeutic intervention. Encouraging results and new approaches point to the future use of targeted therapies for OSCC, an exceedingly heterogeneous subgroup of head and neck cancer. This review focuses on summarising technologies currently used to detect CTCs/DTCs. The translational relevance for OSCC is highlighted. The inherent challenges in detecting CTCs/DTCs will be emphasised.

  14. HIF1-Alpha Expression Predicts Survival of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. Patients and Methods In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Results Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23028863

  15. Multiple Single-Cell Genomes Provide Insight into Functions of Uncultured Deltaproteobacteria in the Human Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alisha G.; Campbell, James H.; Schwientek, Patrick; Woyke, Tanja; Sczyrba, Alexander; Allman, Steve; Beall, Clifford J.; Griffen, Ann; Leys, Eugene; Podar, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long history of investigation, many bacteria associated with the human oral cavity have yet to be cultured. Studies that correlate the presence or abundance of uncultured species with oral health or disease highlight the importance of these community members. Thus, we sequenced several single-cell genomic amplicons from Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio (class Deltaproteobacteria) to better understand their function within the human oral community and their association with periodontitis, as well as other systemic diseases. Genomic data from oral Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were compared to other available deltaproteobacterial genomes, including from a subset of host-associated species. While both groups share a large number of genes with other environmental Deltaproteobacteria genomes, they encode a wide array of unique genes that appear to function in survival in a host environment. Many of these genes are similar to virulence and host adaptation factors of known human pathogens, suggesting that the oral Deltaproteobacteria have the potential to play a role in the etiology of periodontal disease. PMID:23555659

  16. Differential susceptibility to hydrogen sulfide-induced apoptosis between PHLDA1-overexpressing oral cancer cell lines and oral keratinocytes: role of PHLDA1 as an apoptosis suppressor.

    PubMed

    Murata, Takatoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Kamoda, Takeshi; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Kumazawa, Yasuo; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel gasotransmitter that plays multiple biological roles in various body systems. In addition to its endogenous production, H2S is produced by bacteria colonizing digestive organs, including the oral cavity. H2S was previously shown to enhance pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cell lines, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. To properly assess the anti-cancer effects of H2S, however, investigations of apoptotic effects in normal cells are also necessary. The aims of this study were (1) to compare the susceptibility to H2S-induced apoptosis between the oral cancer cell line Ca9-22 and oral keratinocytes that were derived from healthy gingiva, and (2) to identify candidate genes involved in the induction of apoptosis by H2S. The susceptibility to H2S-induced apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells was significantly higher than that in keratinocytes. H2S exposure in Ca9-22 cells, but not keratinocytes, enhanced the expression of pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1), which was identified through a differential display method. In addition, PHLDA1 expression increased during actinomycin D-induced apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells. Knockdown of PHLDA1 expression by small interfering RNA in Ca9-22 cells led to expression of active caspase 3, thus indicating apoptosis induction. The tongue cancer cell line SCC-25, which expresses PHLDA1 at a high level, showed similar effects. Our data indicate that H2S is an anti-cancer compound that may contribute to the low incidence of oral cancer. Furthermore, we demonstrated the role of PHLDA1 as an apoptosis suppressor.

  17. Mobile fiber-optic sensor for detection of oral and cervical cancer in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Nagarajan, Vivek Krishna; Ferris, Daron G

    2015-01-01

    Oral and cervical cancers are a growing global health problem that disproportionately impacts women and men living in the developing world. The high death rate in developing countries is largely due to the fact that these countries do not have the appropriate medical infrastructure and resources to support the organized screening and diagnostic programs that are available in the developed world. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with a fiber-optic probe can noninvasively quantify the optical properties of epithelial tissues and has shown the potential as a cost-effective, easy-to-use, and sensitive tool for diagnosis of early precancerous changes in the cervix and oral cavity. However, current fiber-optic DRS systems have not been designed to be robust and reliable for use in developing countries. They are subject to various sources of systematic or random errors, arising from the uncontrolled probe-tissue interface and lack of real-time calibration, use bulky and expensive optical components, and require extensive training. This chapter describes a portable DRS device that is specifically designed for detection of oral and cervical cancers in resource-poor settings. The device uses an innovative smart fiber-optic probe to eliminate operator bias, state-of-the-art photonics components to reduce size and power consumption, and automated software to reduce the need of operator training. The size and cost of the smart fiber-optic DRS system may be further reduced by incorporating a smartphone based spectrometer.

  18. Swallowing appliance: intraoral reshaping prosthesis for dysphagia secondary to oral floor cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yuji; Ota, Yoshihide; Sakaizumi, Kazuo; Simoda, Naoshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Toyokura, Minoru; Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2014-11-01

    Patients with oral floor cancer often have difficulty swallowing solid foods. The aim of this study was to improve the propulsion of solid foods using a swallowing appliance (SW-A). Subjects comprised three patients with oral floor cancer who had undergone curative surgery. Each participant was asked to swallow gelatin under three conditions: without an SW-A, with a maxillary SW-A, and with both maxillary and mandibular SW-As. This procedure was repeated thrice with three volumes of gelatin (2.5, 5, and 7.5 ml), with videofluorographic swallowing study. Swallowing was assessed on the basis of whether the participant could propel the gelatin from the oral cavity to the pharynx. No subject could propel 2.5 ml of gelatin to the pharynx without an SW-A or with only a maxillary SW-A in place. When both SW-As were used, all subjects could propel all three volumes of gelatin. The mandibular SW-A complemented the compensatory effects of the maxillary SW-A.

  19. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  20. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  1. Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 polymorphism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other oral cavity tumors in Russia.

    PubMed

    Senyuta, Natalia; Yakovleva, Larissa; Goncharova, Elena; Scherback, Liana; Diduk, Sergey; Smirnova, Ksenia; Maksimovich, Dmitry; Gurtsevitch, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of EBV LMP1 alleles isolated from tumor, blood, and throat washing samples of 22 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 17 patients with other non-EBV-related tumors of the oral cavity, and 19 blood donors have been studied in representatives of Central Russia and the Republics of Northern Caucasus, regions which are non-endemic for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The analysis of the LMP1 alleles collected revealed that they practically matched previously described LMP1 variants; however, some characteristic features were also detected. In particular, the G212S substitution in LMP1 isolates investigated was not observed at all. Tumor samples obtained from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other tumors of the oral cavity did not differ significantly either in the frequency of "high oncogenic" LMP1 alleles with 10 aa and/or 23 aa deletions (LMP1(China1) and/or LMP1(Med+)), nor in the number of 11 aa repeats and the frequency of 5 aa motif insertions. No differences in the frequency of amino acid substitutions between LMP1 alleles obtained from tumor and throat washing samples of both patient groups were also detected. The data obtained may indicate that in both nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and patients with other tumors of the oral cavity, the EBV strains with similar LMP1 variants are found to persist. This observation allows us to suggest that in non-endemic areas, EBV strains with any LMP1 alleles can initiate the nasopharyngeal carcinoma development but only in those individuals who have a genetic predisposition to the disease and are subjected to specific environmental, and/or dietary factors present in certain geographic areas.

  2. The Failure Patterns of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-University of Iowa Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min . E-mail: min-yao@uiowa.edu; Chang, Kristi; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Tan Huaming; Wacha, Judith C; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.; Buatti, John M.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Determine the failure patterns of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between May 2001 and July 2005, 55 patients with oral cavity SCC were treated with IMRT for curative intent. Forty-nine received postoperative IMRT, 5 definitive IMRT, and 1 neoadjuvant. Three target volumes were defined (clinical target CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3). The failure patterns were determined by coregistration or comparison of the treatment planning computed tomography to the images obtained at the time of recurrence. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 17.1 months (range, 0.27-59.3 months). The median follow-up for living patients was 23.9 months (range, 9.3-59.3 months). Nine patients had locoregional failures: 4 local failures only, 2 regional failures only, and 3 had both local and regional failures. Five patients failed distantly; of these, 3 also had locoregional failures. The 2-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, and distant disease-free survival was 68%, 74%, 85%, 82%, and 89%, respectively. The median time from treatment completion to locoregional recurrence was 4.1 months (range, 3.0-12.1 months). Except for 1 patient who failed in contralateral lower neck outside the radiation field, all failed in areas that had received a high dose of radiation. The locoregional control is strongly correlated with extracapsular extension. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated RT is effective for oral cavity SCC. Most failures are in-field failures. Further clinical studies are necessary to improve the outcomes of patients with high-risk features, particularly for those with extracapsular extension.

  3. Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults' oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections.

  4. Evaluation and staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: limitations despite technological breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Zafereo, Mark E

    2013-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (SCCOC) and squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) represent two distinct disease entities. SCCOC continues to be related to tobacco risk factors, and the current anatomic staging system provides useful prognostic value. Most patients with SCCOP in Western countries now have HPV-associated tumors, and tumor HPV status is considered the most important prognostic factor. Smoking status is emerging as an important prognostic factor for HPV-driven SCCOP, independent of tumor HPV status. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and FDG-PET/CT imaging are diagnostic staging tools useful in select patients with SCCOC and SCCOP.

  5. Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Treatment for Cervical Ripening Before Tandem Application in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cepni, Kimia; Gul, Sule; Cepni, Ismail; Gueralp, Onur; Sal, Veysel; Mayadagli, Alpaslan

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of oral misoprostol administered to facilitate tandem application to the cervix as a part of brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cervical cancer who had been planned to undergo brachytherapy at Dr. Luetfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized trial. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 40 patients. The first and second groups received 400 {mu}g of misoprostol orally and placebo, respectively, 3 h before tandem application. The two groups were compared in terms of age, diameter of tumor, parity, age at first intercourse, amount of bleeding and pain at first tandem application, length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer, and size of Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation. Results: Of all cases, 63.6%, 16.3%, 10%, 6.3%, 2.5%, and 1.3% were Stage IIB, IIIB, IIIA, IVA, IIA and IIC, respectively. Mean ({+-}SD) age (range) was 49.3 {+-} 13.1 (25-83) years and 56.6 {+-} 13.2 (30-78) years in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Age at first intercourse, diameter of tumor, parity, amount of bleeding at first tandem application, and length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer were not significantly different between the two groups. Pain score was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Application was significantly easier in the study group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Average size of initial Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation was significantly higher in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol 400 {mu}g orally for cervical ripening before tandem application facilitates the procedure, increases patient tolerability and comfort, and may decrease complication rates.

  6. Oral cancer, fever of unknown origin, and listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Morritt, A N; Mclean, N R; Snow, M H

    2002-10-01

    Listeriosis is a rare cause of fever of unknown origin in patients with oral cancer. We report two patients who, because of pain and discomfort, ate large quantities of soft cheeses; this caused listeriosis and fever. Both cases responded to high doses of amoxycillin.

  7. [Foci of infection and oral supportive care in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Stokman, M A; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2008-04-01

    Radiation therapy in the head and neck area and treatment with high dose chemotherapy entail damage to healthy tissue in the mouth. In order to reduce to a minimum the chances of these side effects of cancer treatment developing, it is necessary to carry out oral foci tests prior to oncological therapy. In addition supplementary oral and dental care measures seem to be important in order to limit the side effects of oncological therapy on the teeth, salivary glands and jaw as much as possible. This supportive oral care is not only necessary during, but also for years after the oncology treatment. Therefore not only dental professionals affiliated to oncology teams will have to take care of cancer patients, but also family dentists and dental hygienists.

  8. Clinicopathological significance of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin proteins in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Wenyu; Zhang, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Background Zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB-1), a member of the ZFH family, plays a key role in epithelial–mesenchymal transition during tumor progression in various cancers. However, little information is available on ZEB-1 expression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods The expression levels of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 120 patients with OSCC treated by curative operation, and then the correlations between ZEB-1 and E-cadherin expression and clinical factors were evaluated, including patient prognosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays were performed to assess mRNA levels of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin in 20 matched OSCC specimens. Results Patients were followed up for a median period of 66 months (range 8−116 months), and 5-year overall survival was 68.3%. Positive ZEB-1 and E-cadherin immunostaining reactivity was detected in 64 (53.3%) and 53 (44.2%) patients, respectively. There was a negative correlation between ZEB-1 expression and E-cadherin expression. In addition, overexpression of ZEB-1 was significantly associated with recurrence, lymph node metastasis, and pathologic grading of patients, loss of E-cadherin was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and pathologic grading of patients. Univariate analysis showed that increased ZEB-1 expression, loss of E-cadherin expression, lymph node metastasis, recurrence, and pathology grade were prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, increased ZEB-1 expression and recurrence remained independent prognostic factors. In particular, patients with both ZEB-1 positivity and loss of E-cadherin expression had a poorer prognosis. qRT-PCR showed that ZEB-1 mRNA expression was higher in OSCC compared to the adjacent nontumorous tissues, while E-cadherin mRNA expression was lower in tumor tissues. Conclusion This study shows that overexpression of ZEB-1 and loss of E-cadherin expression are significantly

  9. Discrimination of premalignant conditions of oral cancer using Raman spectroscopy of urinary metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, Brindha; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-03-01

    Oral cancers are considered to be one of the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide. Over 70% of the cases report to the doctor only in advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival rates. Hence it is necessary to detect the disease at the earliest which may increase the five year survival rate up to 90%. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, Raman spectroscopy has been emerged as a tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Around 30 - 80% of the malignancies of the oral cavity arise from premalignant lesions. Hence, understanding the molecular/spectral differences at the premalignant stage may help in identifying the cancer at the earliest and increase patient's survival rate. Among various bio-fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, urine is considered as one of the diagnostically potential bio-fluids, as it has many metabolites. The distribution and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary due to the changes associated with the pathologic conditions. The present study is aimed to characterize the urine of 70 healthy subjects and 51 pre-malignant patients using Raman spectroscopy under 785nm excitation, to know the molecular/spectral differences between healthy subjects and premalignant conditions of oral malignancy. Principal component analysis based Linear discriminant analysis were also made to find the statistical significance and the present technique yields the sensitivity and specificity of 86.3% and 92.9% with an overall accuracy of 90.9% in the discrimination of premalignant conditions from healthy subjects urine.

  10. [First-time endoscopic detection of larvae of Gasterophilus spp. in the oral cavity in 14 warmblood horses].

    PubMed

    Griss, Robert; Simhofer, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    Intraoral endoscopy is used as a standard diagnostic technique at the reporting clinics in horses presented with stomatological problems. Endoscopy of the oral cavity was performed using a chip camera, camera control unit, xenon cold light source and a rigid endoscope. In a three year period (2002 to 2004), second instars of Gasterophilus spp. were diagnosed in 14 warmblood horses 2 to 17 years of age. All horses were presented with masticatory problems or problems accepting the bit. In one horse oesophageal obstruction occurred in the course of larval migration. Oral endoscopy can not only be used for the diagnosis of dental disease but also for detection of instars of Gasterophilus spp. in the interdental spaces of maxillary cheek teeth.

  11. The Salivary Microbiome and Oral Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Furquim, C P; Soares, G M S; Ribeiro, L L; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Butz, N; Roach, J; Moss, K; Bonfim, C; Torres-Pereira, C C; Teles, F R F

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosomal instability and impaired DNA damage repair. FA patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) earlier and more frequently than the general population, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although evidence of an etiological role of the local microbiome and carcinogenesis has been mounting, no information exists regarding the oral microbiome of FA patients. The aim of this study was to explore the salivary microbiome of 61 FA patients regarding their oral health status and OSCC risk factors. After answering a questionnaire and receiving clinical examination, saliva samples were collected and analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region. The microbial profiles associated with medical and clinical parameters were analyzed using general linear models. Patients were young (mean age, 22 y) and most had received HSCT ( n = 53). The most abundant phyla were Firmicutes [mean relative abundance (SD), 42.1% (10.1%)] and Bacteroidetes [(25.4% (11.4%)]. A history of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ( n = 27) was associated with higher proportions of Firmicutes (43.8% × 38.5%, P = 0.05). High levels of gingival bleeding were associated with the genera Prevotella (22.25% × 20%), Streptococcus (19.83% × 17.61%), Porphyromonas (3.63% × 1.42%, P = 0.03), Treponema (1.02% × 0.28%, P = 0.009), Parvimonas (0.28% × 0.07%, P = 0.02) and Dialister (0.27% × 0.10%, P = 0.04). Finally, participants transplanted over 11 y ago showed the highest levels of Streptococcus (18.4%), Haemophilus (12.7%) and Neisseria (6.8%). In conclusion, FA patients that showed poor oral hygiene harbored higher proportions of the genera of bacteria compatible with gingival disease. Specific microbial differences were associated with a history of oral GVHD and a history of oral mucositis.

  12. Microbiota, oral microbiome, and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Izard, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Only 30% of patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer survive 1 year after the diagnosis. Progress in understanding the causes of pancreatic cancer has been made, including solidifying the associations with obesity and diabetes, and a proportion of cases should be preventable through lifestyle modifications. Unfortunately, identifying reliable biomarkers of early pancreatic cancer has been extremely challenging, and no effective screening modality is currently available for this devastating form of cancer. Recent data suggest that the microbiota may play a role in the disease process, but many questions remain. Future studies focusing on the human microbiome, both etiologically and as a marker of disease susceptibility, should shed light on how to better tackle prevention, early detection, and treatment of this highly fatal disease.

  13. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Head and Neck Cancer or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-11

    Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IVA Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus

  14. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  15. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Management of mucositis during therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaskowski, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the purposes of an oral care protocol, the major components of an oral care regimen, and oral care protocols and studies done to date. Many questions remain in the area of optimal oral care for the patient experiencing mucositis as a sequela of cancer treatment. Research is needed on types and use of mouth rinses, effective, harmless, and pleasant lip lubricants, appropriate analgesic and anti-inflammatory combinations, and the effectiveness of a variety of devices for oral cleansing, to name a few areas. As outpatient oncology services grow, oral care protocols must be developed to meet the needs of ambulatory patient populations. Oral care regimens must be safe, easy to use, and economical as well as effective to ensure patient and staff compliance. Research on the management of mucositis must be conducted in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Finally, in order to obtain sufficient sample sizes and optimize data collection, these studies will need to be conducted by multidisciplinary teams (including dentists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and nurses) across multiple sites. Not until large-scale clinical trials are done on the treatment of mucositis will we be able to optimize the therapeutic regimen for the patient. 43 references.

  16. Candida species and other yeasts in the oral cavities of type 2 diabetic patients in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, María Inés; de Bernal, Matilde; Collazos, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida species and to study factors associated to oral cavity colonization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 107 diabetics were classified into controlled and uncontrolled according to glycosylated hemoglobin values. Each patient was assessed for stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and an oral rinse to search for yeast. The study also determined the state of oral health via Klein and Palmer CPO indexes for permanent dentition, dental plaque by O'Leary, and a periodontal chart. Results: We found yeasts in 74.8% of the patients. A total of 36 of the 52 subjects with controlled diabetes presented yeasts and 44 in the uncontrolled; no significant d