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Sample records for oral cavity carcinoma

  1. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  2. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  3. Clinical features of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Dong; Ma, Xin; Han, Yao-Lun; Peng, Li-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of multiple primary carcinomas of the oral cavity. The clinical records of 1,024 patients who were treated during follow-up for oral cancer at the Department of Stomatology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, between March 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics of 961 patients who developed single primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during follow-up and 54 patients who subsequently developed multiple primary carcinomas in the oral cavity were compared. Multiple primary carcinomas exhibited a female predilection, were most prevalent in the gingiva, and tended to show earlier tumor and nodal stages, as compared with single primary carcinomas. The local recurrence rate was higher for multiple primary carcinomas, as compared with single primary carcinomas, and was demonstrated to increase with the number of multiple primary occurrences. The cumulative incidence rates for metachronous second primary carcinomas following the onset of the first carcinoma at 10 years was 8.0%. Recurrence of multiple primary carcinomas did not decrease the survival rates of the patients assessed in the present study. Furthermore, differences were detected in the clinical characteristics between patients with single oral SCC and those with multiple primary oral carcinomas. The results of the present study indicated that early diagnosis and treatment and close long-term follow-up are required for patients with multiple primary oral carcinomas.

  4. An afterloading technique suitable for carcinomas of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Beorchia, A; Fongione, S; Pizzi, G; Guglielmi, R; Mandoliti, G; Cereghini, M; Ceschia, T; Contento, G

    1991-05-01

    The authors describe an afterloading brachytherapy to treat oral cavity carcinomas. Catheters for arterial/venous catheterization are inserted percutaneously in the target volume. The internal needles are then removed and replaced with iridium wires inside tubes to form wire loops. This technique has proven to be simple, quick and safe.

  5. Current Management of Advanced Resectable Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ow, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The oral cavity is the most common site of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, a disease which results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though the primary modality of treatment for patients with oral cavity cancer remains surgical resection, many patients present with advanced disease and are thus treated using a multi-disciplinary approach. Patients with extracapsular spread of lymphatic metastasis and surgical margins that remain positive have been found to be at high risk for local-regional recurrence and death from disease, and are most often recommended to receive both post-operative radiation as well as systemic chemotherapy. The basis for this approach, as well as scientific developments that underly future trials of novels treatments for patients with high-risk oral cavity cancer are reviewed. PMID:21461056

  6. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in the oral cavity: a huge oral cavity mass with neck metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun Jun; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Bae, Seong Hoon; Park, Ah Young; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Hong-Shik

    2013-11-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is a rare, aggressive, poorly understood malignancy. In CEPA, an epithelial malignancy develops in association with a primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is very difficult to identify before surgery because the clinical presentation of many cases is similar to that of pleomorphic adenomas. The risk for malignancy increases with the duration of a mixed tumor. Treatment of CEPA must be individualized on the basis of the tumor location, involvement of adjacent structures, histologic subtype, and grade. The authors recently experienced a case of CEPA arising in the oral cavity with neck metastasis. The patient was a 70-year-old man presenting a huge mass that was present for 20 years and that slowly grew on the left side of the neck. We treated it with a total excision with wide margins and neck dissection. There was no recurrence during the follow-up period of 5 years up until now. We present a case of an unusually huge CEPA in the oral cavity.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma first presenting as a tumor of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Alrumaih, Redha Ali; Arian, Asif Ali; Alhedyani, Alanoud A; Al-Zaher, Nabil; Dababo, M Anas

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide; HCC metastasis is common affecting 50% of cases. However, metastasis to the oral cavity is extremely infrequent. We present a case of hepatocellular cancer first presenting as a mass lesion at the upper alveolus and review metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma to the oral cavity in 73-year-old male patient.

  8. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Steven B.; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26351335

  9. ASC contributes to metastasis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Chun-Nan; Kao, Huang-Kai; Hsueh, Chuen; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Cheng, Hsiao-Yun; Liang, Ying; Liou, Willisa; Liang, Chih-lung; Chang, Yu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    ASC (Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a CARD) acts as a platform protein in the inflammasome cascade of some cancer types. However, its potential involvement in OSCC (oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma) has not yet been determined. Here, we investigated the potential role of ASC in OSCC. RT-qPCR analysis of 20 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples revealed that the mRNA levels of ASC, along with IL-1β, CASP1, and NLRP3 in ASC-associated NLRP3 inflammasome were significantly elevated in OSCC tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of these four proteins in 111 clinical specimens revealed that high-level expression of ASC was significantly associated with tumor stage, node stage (p=0.001), overall stage (p<0.001), extracapsular spread (p<0.001), perineural invasion (p=0.004) and tumor depth (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis further revealed that high-level ASC expression was correlated with poorer overall survival (p=0.001), disease-specific survival (p<0.001) and disease-free survival (p<0.001). Studies using OSCC cell lines indicated that high-level ASC expression enhanced cell migration and invasion, and experiments using an orthotropic nude mouse model confirmed that ASC overexpression induced metastasis of OSCC cells. This is the first report to show that ASC contributes to OSCC metastasis, and that high-level ASC expression is a marker for poor prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:27367024

  10. Do high-risk human papillomaviruses cause oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Moreau, F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are an established etiologic factor for a growing number of oropharyngeal cancers. However, their potential role in other upper aerodigestive tract locations is still a matter of debate, particularly in the oral cavity. This is of paramount importance as in the future diagnosis, treatment and follow up in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma may vary according to HPV status. This article reviews the recent published data and highlights some of the pitfalls that have hampered the accurate assessment of HR-HPV oncological role outside the oropharynx. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the oropharynx, only a small fraction of cancers located in the oral cavity seem to be HPV-related even in young non-smoking non-drinking patients. We emphasize several relevant factors to consider in assumed HPV-induced oral cavity cancers and discuss the current theories that explain why HPV-induced cancers arise preferentially in the oropharynx.

  11. Metachronous metastasis to the oral cavity from carcinoma rectum - a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Usman, Nawaz; Kattepur, Abhay; Gopinath, Kodaganur S

    2014-12-01

    The common patterns of dissemination and recurrence of rectal cancer are known and well documented. However extravisceral involvement is a relatively uncommon entity. Therefore, these metastases are not well studied in sufficiently large numbers to formulate evidence based recommendations regarding their optimal treatment. This report describes a case of carcinoma of the rectum metastatic to the oral cavity causing symptoms severe enough to necessitate operative management.

  12. Pseudoangiomatous squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity of a dog.

    PubMed

    Cushing, Tim; Barnard, Sandra; Fleis, Rebekah; Peters, Rachel

    2010-03-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Labrador Retriever mixed-breed dog was presented to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals with an invasive oral mass involving the upper left fourth premolar and first molar teeth. Initial biopsy results suggested a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, whereas further histologic examination of the surgically removed mass revealed a hemangiosarcoma-like mass composed of numerous vascular clefts and variable numbers of keratinizing epithelial cells. Histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics were compatible with pseudoangiomatous squamous cell carcinoma, a well-recognized human variant of acanthomatous squamous cell carcinoma. Because of histomorphologic similarities with canine gingival hemangiosarcoma, diagnosticians should be aware of the present tumor variant as a differential diagnosis for vascular-like growths in the oral cavity of dogs.

  13. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Heera, R; Ayswarya, T; Padmakumar, SK; Ismayil, P

    2016-01-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an aggressive, high-grade, variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is uncommon in the oral cavity but slightly more common in the oropharynx. We present two cases of BSCC, one arising in the floor of the mouth and the other arising on the lateral border of the tongue. The diagnosis of this subtype of SCC is important owing to its particular behavior, with an aggressive course, a high incidence of local recurrence, regional lymph node metastases and mortality rate. PMID:27721627

  14. Effect of beam arrangement on oral cavity dose in external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Vincent W.C.; Yang Zhining; Zhang Wuzhe; Wu Lili; Lin Zhixiong

    2012-07-01

    This study compared the oral cavity dose between the routine 7-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam arrangement and 2 other 7-beam IMRT with the conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten NPC patients treated by the 7-beam routine IMRT technique (IMRT-7R) between April 2009 and June 2009 were recruited. Using the same computed tomography data, target information, and dose constraints for all the contoured structures, 2 IMRT plans with alternative beam arrangements (IMRT-7M and IMRT-7P) by avoiding the anterior facial beam and 1 conventional radiotherapy plan (CONRT) were computed using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and oral cavity from which the dose parameters and the conformity index of the PTV were recorded for dosimetric comparisons among the plans with different beam arrangements. The dose distributions to the PTVs were similar among the 3 IMRT beam arrangements, whereas the differences were significant between IMRT-7R and CONRT plans. For the oral cavity dose, the 3 IMRT beam arrangements did not show significant difference. Compared with IMRT-7R, CONRT plan showed a significantly lower mean dose, V30 and V-40, whereas the V-60 was significantly higher. The 2 suggested alternative beam arrangements did not significantly reduce the oral cavity dose. The impact of varying the beam angles in IMRT of NPC did not give noticeable effect on the target and oral cavity. Compared with IMRT, the 2-D conventional radiotherapy irradiated a greater high-dose volume in the oral cavity.

  15. Effect of beam arrangement on oral cavity dose in external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vincent W C; Yang, Zhi-Ning; Zhang, Wu-Zhe; Wu, Li-li; Lin, Zhi-xiong

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the oral cavity dose between the routine 7-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam arrangement and 2 other 7-beam IMRT with the conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten NPC patients treated by the 7-beam routine IMRT technique (IMRT-7R) between April 2009 and June 2009 were recruited. Using the same computed tomography data, target information, and dose constraints for all the contoured structures, 2 IMRT plans with alternative beam arrangements (IMRT-7M and IMRT-7P) by avoiding the anterior facial beam and 1 conventional radiotherapy plan (CONRT) were computed using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and oral cavity from which the dose parameters and the conformity index of the PTV were recorded for dosimetric comparisons among the plans with different beam arrangements. The dose distributions to the PTVs were similar among the 3 IMRT beam arrangements, whereas the differences were significant between IMRT-7R and CONRT plans. For the oral cavity dose, the 3 IMRT beam arrangements did not show significant difference. Compared with IMRT-7R, CONRT plan showed a significantly lower mean dose, V30 and V-40, whereas the V-60 was significantly higher. The 2 suggested alternative beam arrangements did not significantly reduce the oral cavity dose. The impact of varying the beam angles in IMRT of NPC did not give noticeable effect on the target and oral cavity. Compared with IMRT, the 2-D conventional radiotherapy irradiated a greater high-dose volume in the oral cavity.

  16. Mast Cells: Key Players in the Shadow in Oral Inflammation and in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gaje, Pusa Nela; Amalia Ceausu, Raluca; Jitariu, Adriana; Popovici, Ramona Amina; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Although mast cells (MCs) have been discovered over 130 years ago, their function was almost exclusively linked to allergic affections. At the time being, it is well known that MCs possess a great variety of roles, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the oral tissues, MCs release different proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), that promote leukocyte infiltration in various inflammatory states of the oral cavity. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and, as a consequence, their number changes in different pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, like gingivitis, periodontitis, and so on. MCs also represent a rich source of proteases, especially of mast cell tryptase and chymase, which directly degrade the extracellular matrix through their proteolytic activity and thus indirectly stimulate angiogenesis and facilitate invasion and metastasis. It may be stated that mast cells could have an impact on primary tumor development, progression, and metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma. By understanding the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and tumor diseases of the oral cavity, these cells may become therapeutic targets that could possibly improve the prognosis and survival of these patients. PMID:27847826

  17. Mast Cells: Key Players in the Shadow in Oral Inflammation and in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Gaje, Pusa Nela; Amalia Ceausu, Raluca; Jitariu, Adriana; Stratul, Stefan Ioan; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Popovici, Ramona Amina; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Although mast cells (MCs) have been discovered over 130 years ago, their function was almost exclusively linked to allergic affections. At the time being, it is well known that MCs possess a great variety of roles, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the oral tissues, MCs release different proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), that promote leukocyte infiltration in various inflammatory states of the oral cavity. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and, as a consequence, their number changes in different pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, like gingivitis, periodontitis, and so on. MCs also represent a rich source of proteases, especially of mast cell tryptase and chymase, which directly degrade the extracellular matrix through their proteolytic activity and thus indirectly stimulate angiogenesis and facilitate invasion and metastasis. It may be stated that mast cells could have an impact on primary tumor development, progression, and metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma. By understanding the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and tumor diseases of the oral cavity, these cells may become therapeutic targets that could possibly improve the prognosis and survival of these patients.

  18. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  19. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell papilloma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Hilal; Agacayak, Serkan; Kavak, Gulten; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC. We presented a report of two cases which are VC and squamous cell papilloma that are showed the same clinical appearance but different pathological appearance, with a review of the literature. PMID:26430380

  1. Saliva proteome profiling reveals potential salivary biomarkers for detection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ching; Chu, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liu, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Discovery of body fluid accessible biomarkers is needed to improve OSCC screening. To this end, we profiled proteomes of saliva from the healthy volunteers, the individuals with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the OSCC patients by means of SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS. In the control, the OPMD, and the OSCC groups, 958, 845, and 1030 salivary proteins were detected, respectively. With spectral counting-based label-free quantification, 22 overexpressed salivary proteins were identified in the OSCC group compared with the healthy controls and the OPMD individuals. Among them, resistin (RETN) was subjected to further validation with an independent cohort using ELISA. The data confirmed that the salivary RETN levels in the OSCC patients were significantly higher than that in the healthy or in the OPMD group. Moreover, the elevated levels of salivary RETN were highly correlated with late-stage primary tumors, advanced overall stage, and lymph-node metastasis. Our results not only reveal that profiling of saliva proteome is feasible for discovery of OSCC biomarkers, but also identify RETN as a potential salivary biomarker for OSCC detection.

  2. Basal stem cells contribute to squamous cell carcinomas in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2013-05-01

    The cells of origin of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) are unknown. We used a cell lineage tracing approach (adult K14-CreER(TAM); ROSA26 mice transiently treated with tamoxifen) to identify and track normal epithelial stem cells (SCs) in mouse tongues by X-gal staining and to determine if these cells become neoplastically transformed by treatment with a carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). Here, we show that in normal tongue epithelia, X-gal(+) cells formed thin columns throughout the entire epithelium 12 weeks after tamoxifen treatment, indicating that the basal layer contains long-lived SCs that produce progeny by asymmetric division to maintain homeostasis. Carcinogen treatment results in a ~10-fold reduction in the total number of X-gal(+) clonal cell populations and horizontal expansion of X-gal(+) clonal cell columns, a pattern consistent with symmetric division of some SCs. Finally, X-gal(+) SCs are present in papillomas and invasive OCSCCs, and these long-lived X-gal(+) SCs are the cells of origin of these tumors. Moreover, the resulting 4-NQO-induced tumors are multiclonal. These findings provide insights into the identity of the initiating cells of oral cancer.

  3. Evaluation and staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: limitations despite technological breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Zafereo, Mark E

    2013-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (SCCOC) and squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) represent two distinct disease entities. SCCOC continues to be related to tobacco risk factors, and the current anatomic staging system provides useful prognostic value. Most patients with SCCOP in Western countries now have HPV-associated tumors, and tumor HPV status is considered the most important prognostic factor. Smoking status is emerging as an important prognostic factor for HPV-driven SCCOP, independent of tumor HPV status. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and FDG-PET/CT imaging are diagnostic staging tools useful in select patients with SCCOC and SCCOP.

  4. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Thotakura, Vijaya; Balboni, Tracy A.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  5. Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 polymorphism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other oral cavity tumors in Russia.

    PubMed

    Senyuta, Natalia; Yakovleva, Larissa; Goncharova, Elena; Scherback, Liana; Diduk, Sergey; Smirnova, Ksenia; Maksimovich, Dmitry; Gurtsevitch, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of EBV LMP1 alleles isolated from tumor, blood, and throat washing samples of 22 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 17 patients with other non-EBV-related tumors of the oral cavity, and 19 blood donors have been studied in representatives of Central Russia and the Republics of Northern Caucasus, regions which are non-endemic for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The analysis of the LMP1 alleles collected revealed that they practically matched previously described LMP1 variants; however, some characteristic features were also detected. In particular, the G212S substitution in LMP1 isolates investigated was not observed at all. Tumor samples obtained from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other tumors of the oral cavity did not differ significantly either in the frequency of "high oncogenic" LMP1 alleles with 10 aa and/or 23 aa deletions (LMP1(China1) and/or LMP1(Med+)), nor in the number of 11 aa repeats and the frequency of 5 aa motif insertions. No differences in the frequency of amino acid substitutions between LMP1 alleles obtained from tumor and throat washing samples of both patient groups were also detected. The data obtained may indicate that in both nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and patients with other tumors of the oral cavity, the EBV strains with similar LMP1 variants are found to persist. This observation allows us to suggest that in non-endemic areas, EBV strains with any LMP1 alleles can initiate the nasopharyngeal carcinoma development but only in those individuals who have a genetic predisposition to the disease and are subjected to specific environmental, and/or dietary factors present in certain geographic areas.

  6. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area. We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS). Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3–4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among patients with a fourth PT, those who underwent radical surgery showed a significantly higher 3-year OS than those who did not (57% vs 13%; P = 0.0442). Fourth PTs are rarely observed in OSCC patients in a betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts. PMID:27015170

  7. Multiple and Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity After Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiuhong; Xing, Yuzhen; Cheng, Bo

    2017-02-22

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common secondary solid tumors in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, according to previous reports, multiple and recurrent OSCC is very rare. The presented case shows the susceptibility to the development of secondary malignancies, particularly oral cancer, of patients who present with chronic graft-versus-host disease after HSCT. OSCC after HSCT appears to be more invasive and has a tendency to recur, with a poor prognosis. Therefore, regular and thorough evaluations of the oral mucosa are recommended for all patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and have chronic graft-versus-host disease.

  8. Obtaining Normal Tissue Constraints Using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in Patients with Oral Cavity, Oropharnygeal, and Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, William K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal tissue dose constraints while maintaining planning target volume (PTV) prescription without reducing PTV margins. Sixteen patients with oral cavity carcinoma (group I), 27 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (group II), and 28 patients with laryngeal carcinoma (group III) were reviewed. Parotid constraints were a mean dose to either parotid < 26 Gy (PP1), 50% of either parotid < 30 Gy (PP2), or 20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy (PP3). Treatment was intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). All patients met constraints for cord and brain stem. The mandibular constraints were met in 66%, 29%, and 57% of patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers, respectively. Mean dose of 26 Gy (PP1) was achieved in 44%, 41%, and 38% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients. PP2 (parotid constraint of 30 Gy to less than 50% of one parotid) was the easiest to achieve (group I, II, and III: 82%, 76%, and 78%, respectively). PP3 (20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy) was difficult, and was achieved in 25%, 17%, and 35% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients, respectively. Mean parotid dose of 26 Gy was met 40% of the time. However, a combination of constraints allowed for sparing of the parotid based on different criteria and was met in high numbers. This was accomplished without reducing PTV-parotid overlap. What dose constraint best correlates with subjective and objective functional outcomes remains a focus for future study.

  9. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Laura; Martín, Margarita; López, Mario; Marín, Alicia; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background In head and neck cancer, bilateral neck irradiation is the standard approach for many tumor locations and stages. Increasing knowledge on the pattern of nodal invasion leads to more precise targeting and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and tumor control for patients with well lateralized squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with ipsilateral radiotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx were treated with a prospective management approach using ipsilateral irradiation between 2000 and 2007. This included 8 radical oropharyngeal and 12 postoperative oral cavity carcinomas, with Stage T1-T2, N0-N2b disease. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence was determined. Late xerostomia was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, five-year overall survival and loco-regional control rates were 82.5% and 100%, respectively. No local or contralateral nodal recurrences were observed. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland was 4.72 Gy and to the contralateral submandibular gland was 15.30 Gy. Mean score for dry mouth was 28.1 on the 0-100 QLQ-H&N35 scale. According to CTCAE v3 scale, 87.5% of patients had grade 0-1 and 12.5% grade 2 subjective xerostomia. The unstimulated salivary flow was > 0.2 ml/min in 81.2% of patients and 0.1-0.2 ml/min in 19%. None of the patients showed grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusion In selected patients with early and moderate stages, well lateralized oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas, ipsilateral irradiation treatment of the primary site and ipsilateral neck spares salivary gland function without compromising loco-regional control. PMID:19723329

  10. Peritumoral interstitial double-nuclide double-compound lymphoscintigraphy (PIDDL) in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Munz, D.L.; Jung, H.

    1985-05-01

    PIDDL is a new two-phase lymphoscintigraphic approach developed by MUNZ et al. for identification of lymph node drainage groups of primary tumors followed by direct visualization of metastases in the nodes. The present study was done to test the diagnostic usefulness of PIDDL in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. 58 patients of either sex, aged 31-86 years, were examined prior to surgery. In the first phase of PIDDL, lymph node groups draining the primary lesions were identified after peritumoral interstitial injection of 1.52.0 mCi Tc-99m antimony trisulfide colloid or Tc-99m human serum albumin microcolloid. In the second phase, metastases located in the draining lymph nodes were visualized following peritumoral interstitial injection of 200-300 ..mu..Ci Ga-67 citrate. Ga-67 accumulated in 71% of lymph node drainage groups identified. No GA-67 uptake was observed in lymph nodes other than those identified by the radiocolloid. Based on the radiocolloid lymphoscintigraphic data, selective lymph node dissection was performed in 41 of the patients examined. The study concludes that PIDDL offers a promising approach for the noninvasive assessment of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

  11. HIF1-Alpha Expression Predicts Survival of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. Patients and Methods In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Results Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23028863

  12. The Failure Patterns of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-University of Iowa Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min . E-mail: min-yao@uiowa.edu; Chang, Kristi; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Tan Huaming; Wacha, Judith C; Dornfeld, Kenneth J.; Buatti, John M.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Determine the failure patterns of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between May 2001 and July 2005, 55 patients with oral cavity SCC were treated with IMRT for curative intent. Forty-nine received postoperative IMRT, 5 definitive IMRT, and 1 neoadjuvant. Three target volumes were defined (clinical target CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3). The failure patterns were determined by coregistration or comparison of the treatment planning computed tomography to the images obtained at the time of recurrence. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 17.1 months (range, 0.27-59.3 months). The median follow-up for living patients was 23.9 months (range, 9.3-59.3 months). Nine patients had locoregional failures: 4 local failures only, 2 regional failures only, and 3 had both local and regional failures. Five patients failed distantly; of these, 3 also had locoregional failures. The 2-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, and distant disease-free survival was 68%, 74%, 85%, 82%, and 89%, respectively. The median time from treatment completion to locoregional recurrence was 4.1 months (range, 3.0-12.1 months). Except for 1 patient who failed in contralateral lower neck outside the radiation field, all failed in areas that had received a high dose of radiation. The locoregional control is strongly correlated with extracapsular extension. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated RT is effective for oral cavity SCC. Most failures are in-field failures. Further clinical studies are necessary to improve the outcomes of patients with high-risk features, particularly for those with extracapsular extension.

  13. Collision Tumour of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Malignant Melanoma in the Oral Cavity of a Dog.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F; Castro, P; Ramírez, G A

    2016-05-01

    A 7-year-old, male cocker spaniel was presented with a gingival proliferative lesion in the rostral maxilla and enlargement of the regional lymph node. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a collision tumour composed of two malignant populations, epithelial and melanocytic, with metastasis of the neoplastic melanocytes to the regional lymph node. The epithelial component consisted of trabeculae and islands of well-differentiated squamous epithelium immunoreactive to cytokeratins. The melanocytic component had a varying degree of pigmentation of polygonal and spindle-shaped cells, growing in nests or densely packed aggregates and immunolabelled with S100, melanoma-associated antigen (melan A), neuron-specific enolase and vimentin antibodies. Protein markers involved in tumorigenesis or cell proliferation (i.e. COX-2, p53, c-kit and Ki67), were overexpressed by the neoplastic cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of an oral collision tumour involving malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the dog.

  14. Short-term variation in labelling index as a predictor of radiotherapy response in human oral cavity carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestrini, R.; Molinari, R.; Costa, A.; Volterrani, F.; Gardani, G.

    1984-07-01

    In vitro determination of (/sup 3/H)thymidine labeling index (LI) was carried out on squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity from 52 patients before and during radiotherapy. Pretreatment LI values ranged from 0.01% to 50%. After administration of the first 10 Gy in five consecutive daily fractions, a decrease in LI was observed in 39 cases and an enhancement in 13 cases, with an overall median 70% decrease in the initial value. The type of variation induced by radiotherapy was not related to pretreatment LI except for tumors with a very low proliferative activity, which all showed a marked increase in LI. Pretreatment LI was not indicative of short- or long-term response to radiotherapy, whereas the variation induced on LI after 10 Gy was related to the clinical outcome.

  15. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  16. Reducing the Risk of Xerostomia and Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis: The Potential Benefits of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Advanced Oral Cavity Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Merina; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2009-10-01

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 {+-} 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 {+-} 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 {+-} 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 {+-} 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 {+-} 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 {+-} 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 {+-} 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 {+-} 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 {+-} 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

  17. Reducing the risk of xerostomia and mandibular osteoradionecrosis: the potential benefits of intensity modulated radiotherapy in advanced oral cavity carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Merina; Hansen, Vibeke N; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity may be curative, but carries a risk of permanent damage to bone, salivary glands, and other soft tissues. We studied the potential of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve target volume coverage, and normal tissue sparing for advanced oral cavity carcinoma (OCC). Six patients with advanced OCC requiring bilateral irradiation to the oral cavity and neck were studied. Standard 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT dose distributions were compared by using dose-volume histograms. Doses to organs at risk, including spinal cord, parotid glands, and mandible, were assessed as surrogates of radiation toxicity. PTV1 mean dose was 60.8 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and 59.8 +/- 0.1 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.04). PTV1 dose range was 24.7 +/- 6 Gy for 3DCRT and 15.3 +/- 4 Gy for IMRT (p = 0.001). PTV2 mean dose was 54.5 +/- 0.8 Gy for 3DCRT and for IMRT was 54.2 +/- 0.2 Gy (p = 0.34). PTV2 dose range was improved by IMRT (7.8 +/- 3.2 Gy vs. 30.7 +/- 12.8 Gy, p = 0.006). Homogeneity index (HI) values for PTV2 were closer to unity using IMRT (p = 0.0003). Mean parotid doses were 25.6 +/- 2.7 Gy for IMRT and 42.0 +/- 8.8 Gy with 3DCRT (p = 0.002). The parotid V30 in all IMRT plans was <45%. The mandible V50, V55, and V60 were significantly lower for the IMRT plans. Maximum spinal cord and brain stem doses were similar for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided superior target volume dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. The magnitude of reductions in dose to the salivary glands and mandible are likely to translate into reduced incidence of xerostomia and osteoradionecrosis for patients with OCC.

  18. Clinical Implications of FADD Gene Amplification and Protein Overexpression in Taiwanese Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Huei-Tzu; Cheng, Sou-De; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Wang, Hung-Ming; Huang, Shiang-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Amplification of 11q13.3 is a frequent event in human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This chromosome region contains several genes that are potentially cancer drivers, including FADD (Fas associated via death domain), an apoptotic effector that was previously identified as a novel oncogene in laryngeal/pharyngeal cancer. This study was designed to explore the role of FADD in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) samples from Taiwanese patients, by assessing copy number variations (CNVs) and protein expression and the clinical implications of these factors in 339 male OSCCs. The intensity of FADD protein expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry, was strongly correlated with gene copy number amplification, as analyzed using a TaqMan CNV assay. Both FADD gene copy number amplification and high protein expression were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Patients with both FADD copy number amplification and high protein expression had the shortest disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.074 and P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.011 and P = 0.027). After adjusting for primary tumor status, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and age at diagnosis, DFS was still significantly lower in patients with either copy number amplification or high protein expression (hazard ratio [H.R.] = 1.483; 95% confidence interval [C.I.], 1.044–2.106). In conclusion, our data reveal that FADD gene copy number and protein expression can be considered potential prognostic markers and are closely associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with OSCC in Taiwan. PMID:27764170

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and circulating tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Wikner, Johannes; Gröbe, Alexander; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Due to a lack of substantial improvement in the outcome of patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) during the past decades, current staging methods need to be revised. This disease is associated with poor survival rates despite considerable advances in diagnosis and treatment. The early detection of metastases is an important indicator of survival, prognosis and relapse. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastasis is crucial. Exploring alternative measures apart from common procedures is needed to identify new prognostic markers. Similar to previous findings predominantly for other solid tumours, recently published studies demonstrate that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) might serve as prognostic markers and could supplement routine staging in OSCC. Thus, the detection of CTCs/DTCs is a promising tool to determine the individual need for therapeutic intervention. Encouraging results and new approaches point to the future use of targeted therapies for OSCC, an exceedingly heterogeneous subgroup of head and neck cancer. This review focuses on summarising technologies currently used to detect CTCs/DTCs. The translational relevance for OSCC is highlighted. The inherent challenges in detecting CTCs/DTCs will be emphasised. PMID:24829858

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Wikner, Johannes; Gröbe, Alexander; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2014-05-10

    Due to a lack of substantial improvement in the outcome of patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) during the past decades, current staging methods need to be revised. This disease is associated with poor survival rates despite considerable advances in diagnosis and treatment. The early detection of metastases is an important indicator of survival, prognosis and relapse. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastasis is crucial. Exploring alternative measures apart from common procedures is needed to identify new prognostic markers. Similar to previous findings predominantly for other solid tumours, recently published studies demonstrate that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) might serve as prognostic markers and could supplement routine staging in OSCC. Thus, the detection of CTCs/DTCs is a promising tool to determine the individual need for therapeutic intervention. Encouraging results and new approaches point to the future use of targeted therapies for OSCC, an exceedingly heterogeneous subgroup of head and neck cancer. This review focuses on summarising technologies currently used to detect CTCs/DTCs. The translational relevance for OSCC is highlighted. The inherent challenges in detecting CTCs/DTCs will be emphasised.

  1. Clinical significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma of pathogenic somatic mitochondrial mutations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, I-How; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsieh, Ling-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations affecting the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been frequently observed in human cancers and proposed as important oncological biomarkers. However, the clinical significance of mtDNA mutations in cancer remains unclear. This study was therefore performed to explore the possible clinical use in assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of pathogenic mtDNA mutations. The entire mitochondrial genome of 300 OSCC with their matched control DNAs was screened by direct sequencing and criteria were set to define a pathogenic somatic mutation. The patients' TP53 R72P genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationships between pathogenic somatic mutations, clinicopathogical features, TP53 R72P genotype and clinical prognosis were analyzed. Overall, 645 somatic mtDNA mutations were identified and 91 of these mutations were defined as pathogenic. About one quarter (74/300) of the OSCC tumor samples contained pathogenic mutations. Individuals with the TP53 R allele had a higher frequency of pathogenic somatic mutation than those with the PP genotype. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that TP53 R allele patients with pathogenic somatic mutations demonstrated a significant association with a poorer disease-free survival than other individuals (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15-2.57; p = 0.009) and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for mtDNA haplogroup, tumor stage with treatment regimens, differentiation and age at diagnosis (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.40; p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that this phenomenon was limited to patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy after surgery. The results strongly indicated that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a potential prognostic marker for OSCCs. Furthermore, functional mitochondria may play an active role in cancer development and the patient's response to radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy.

  2. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome and latent infection gene expression in normal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; de Rivera, Michelle Wendoline Garcia-Niño; Hoshino, Miyako; Sakashita, Hideaki; Yamada, Tsutomu; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; González-López, Blanca Silvia; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    A relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cancer of lymphoid and epithelial tissues such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma, and oral cancer has been reported. EBV is transmitted orally and infects B cells and epithelial cells. However, it has remained uncertain whether EBV plays a role in carcinogenesis of oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, we detected the EBV genome and latent EBV gene expression in normal mucosal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to clarify whether EBV is involved in carcinogenesis of the oral cavity. We examined 333 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples (morphologically normal oral mucosa 30 samples, gingivitis 32, tonsillitis 17, oral epithelial dysplasia 83, OSCC 150, and NPC 21). EBV latent infection genes (EBNA-2, LMP-1) were detected not only in OSCC (50.2 %, 10.7 %) but also in severe epithelial dysplasia (66.7 %, 44.4 %), mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia (43.1 %, 18.5 %), gingivitis (78.1 %, 21.9 %), and normal mucosa (83.3 %, 23.3 %). Furthermore, the intensity of EBV latent infection gene expression (EBER, LMP-1) was significantly higher in severe epithelial dysplasia (94.4 %, 72.2 %) than in OSCC (34.7 %, 38.7 %). These results suggest that EBV latent infection genes and their increased expression in severe epithelial dysplasia might play an important role in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity.

  3. Selected parameters of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis prior to and after surgical treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Jadwiga; Korabiowska, Monika; Hönig, Johannes F; Grohmann, Ulrike; Undas, Anetta; Bartkowski, Stanislaw B; Brinck, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Selected parameters of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis were evaluated in 20 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (stages T2/4 N0/3 M0). The control group consisted of 10 healthy age-matched men. The clotting time, calcium plasma clotting time, prothrombin time index and fibrinogen levels in the patients were similar to those observed in the controls. Increased fibrin degradation products (FDP) to 480 and 80 microg/min were found in patients before and after surgical treatment, respectively. We conclude that, in patients treated surgically because of carcinoma of the oral cavity, there might be increased activity of the fibrinolytic system both prior to and after operation.

  4. Deletion mapping on the short arm of chromosome 3 in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Thakker, N.S.; Wu, C.L.; Read, A.P.

    1994-09-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) indicative of presence of tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 3p is commonly observed in carcinomas of various tissues. We have examined LOH on chromosome 3p in 27 oral squamous cell carcinomas using 15 highly informative microsatellite polymorphisms and constructed a deletion map of chromosome 3p. Overall, LOH at one or more loci was observed in 14 tumours ({approximately}52%). A majority of these tumors ({approximately}93%) show loss in more than one area. Three distinct regions were identified. 3p13 - 3p21.1, 3p21.2 - 3p23 and 3p25. These data suggest a role for at least three tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 3p in oral squamous carcinomas. The regions of deletions overlap with those described for carcinomas of other tissues and parallel those observed in lung carcinomas. This may reflect the common etiology of the two cancers.

  5. Somatic copy number alterations detected by ultra-deep targeted sequencing predict prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ka-Pou; Tai, An-Shun; Peng, Shih-Chi; Yeh, Jen-Pao; Chen, Shu-Jen; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsieh, Wen-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultra-deep targeted sequencing (UDT-Seq) has advanced our knowledge on the incidence and functional significance of somatic mutations. However, the utility of UDT-Seq in detecting copy number alterations (CNAs) remains unclear. With the goal of improving molecular prognostication and identifying new therapeutic targets, we designed this study to assess whether UDT-Seq may be useful for detecting CNA in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods We sequenced a panel of clinically actionable cancer mutations in 310 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OSCC specimens. A linear model was developed to overcome uneven coverage across target regions and multiple samples. The 5-year rates of secondary primary tumors, local recurrence, neck recurrence, distant metastases, and survival served as the outcome measures. We confirmed the prognostic significance of the CNA signatures in an independent sample of 105 primary OSCC specimens. Results The CNA burden across 10 targeted genes was found to predict prognosis in two independent cohorts. FGFR1 and PIK3CAamplifications were associated with prognosis independent of clinical risk factors. Genes exhibiting CNA were clustered in the proteoglycan metabolism, the FOXO signaling, and the PI3K-AKT signaling pathways, for which targeted drugs are already available or currently under development. Conclusions UDT-Seq is clinically useful to identify CNA, which significantly improve the prognostic information provided by traditional clinicopathological risk factors in OSCC patients. PMID:26087196

  6. ACTOplus Met XR in Treating Patients With Stage I-IV Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer Undergoing Definitive Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-10

    Oral Cavity Neoplasm; Oropharyngeal Neoplasm; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Patterns of Failure and Predictors of Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Megan E.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Kozak, Margaret M.; Maxim, Peter G.; Murphy, James D.; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy W.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Few studies have evaluated the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity (OC). We report clinical outcomes and failure patterns for these patients. Methods and Materials: Between October 2002 and June 2009, 37 patients with newly diagnosed SCC of the OC underwent postoperative (30) or definitive (7) IMRT. Twenty-five patients (66%) received systemic therapy. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 10-87 months). The median interval from surgery to RT was 5.9 weeks (range, 2.1-10.7 weeks). Results: Thirteen patients experienced local-regional failure at a median of 8.1 months (range, 2.4-31.9 months), and 2 additional patients experienced local recurrence between surgery and RT. Seven local failures occurred in-field (one with simultaneous nodal and distant disease) and two at the margin. Four regional failures occurred, two in-field and two out-of-field, one with synchronous metastases. Six patients experienced distant failure. The 3-year actuarial estimates of local control, local-regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival were 67%, 53%, 81%, and 60% among postoperative patients, respectively, and 60%, 60%, 71%, and 57% among definitive patients. Four patients developed Grade {>=}2 chronic toxicity. Increased surgery to RT interval predicted for decreased LRC (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Local-regional control for SCC of the OC treated with IMRT with or without surgery remains unsatisfactory. Definitive and postoperative IMRT have favorable toxicity profiles. A surgery-to-RT interval of <6 weeks improves local-regional control. The predominant failure pattern was local, suggesting that both improvements in target delineation and radiosensitization and/or dose escalation are needed.

  8. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Astreidis, Ioannis T.; Kontos, Konstantinos I.; Lazaridou, Maria N.; Bourlidou, Eleni T.; Gerasimidou, Domniki K.; Vladika, Natalia P.; Mangoudi, Doxa L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity from distant organs are uncommon and represent approximately 1 - 3% of all oral malignancies. Such metastases can occur to the bone or to the oral soft tissues. Almost any malignancy from any site is capable of metastasis to the oral cavity and a wide variety of tumours have been reported to spread to the mouth. Methods Careful examination of the oral cavity and a high degree of clinical suspicion as well as a multidisciplinary approach are suggested. Results In this article we present three patients, a female and two males with metastatic tumours to the oral cavity, who were referred to our Department. The primary tumours were invasive lobular breast carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma respectively. Conclusions Metastases to the oral cavity are quite uncommon among population. They usually present with symptoms similar to odontogenic infections and benign tumours, causing a delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26904182

  9. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  10. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes ({>=}4 vs. {<=}3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of {>=}11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth {>=}11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  11. Clinicopathological significance of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin proteins in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Wenyu; Zhang, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Background Zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB-1), a member of the ZFH family, plays a key role in epithelial–mesenchymal transition during tumor progression in various cancers. However, little information is available on ZEB-1 expression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods The expression levels of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 120 patients with OSCC treated by curative operation, and then the correlations between ZEB-1 and E-cadherin expression and clinical factors were evaluated, including patient prognosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays were performed to assess mRNA levels of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin in 20 matched OSCC specimens. Results Patients were followed up for a median period of 66 months (range 8−116 months), and 5-year overall survival was 68.3%. Positive ZEB-1 and E-cadherin immunostaining reactivity was detected in 64 (53.3%) and 53 (44.2%) patients, respectively. There was a negative correlation between ZEB-1 expression and E-cadherin expression. In addition, overexpression of ZEB-1 was significantly associated with recurrence, lymph node metastasis, and pathologic grading of patients, loss of E-cadherin was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and pathologic grading of patients. Univariate analysis showed that increased ZEB-1 expression, loss of E-cadherin expression, lymph node metastasis, recurrence, and pathology grade were prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, increased ZEB-1 expression and recurrence remained independent prognostic factors. In particular, patients with both ZEB-1 positivity and loss of E-cadherin expression had a poorer prognosis. qRT-PCR showed that ZEB-1 mRNA expression was higher in OSCC compared to the adjacent nontumorous tissues, while E-cadherin mRNA expression was lower in tumor tissues. Conclusion This study shows that overexpression of ZEB-1 and loss of E-cadherin expression are significantly

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Ana Lucia Noronha; Correr, Wagner Rafael; Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu; Kern, Vivian Galletta; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem with relevant incidence in the world population. The affected patient usually presents advanced stage disease and the consequence of this delay is a reduction in survival rates. Given this, it is essential to detect oral cancer at early stages. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can improve cancer detection in real time. It is a fast and accurate technique, relatively simple, which evaluates the biochemical composition and structure using the tissue fluorescence spectrum as interrogation data. Several studies have positive data regarding the tools for differentiating between normal mucosa and cancer, but the difference between cancer and potentially malignant disorders is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy in the discrimination of normal oral mucosa, oral cancer, and potentially malignant disorders. The fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated in 115 individuals, of whom 55 patients presented oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 volunteers showing normal oral mucosa, and 30 patients having potentially malignant disorders. The spectra were classified and compared to histopathology to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic discrimination employing fluorescence. In order to classify the spectra, a decision tree algorithm (C4.5) was applied. Despite of the high variance observed in spectral data, the specificity and sensitivity obtained were 93.8% and 88.5%, respectively at 406 nm excitation. These results point to the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy as an important tool for oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders.

  13. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control.

  14. CT-Based Evaluation of Tumor Volume After Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy of Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Comparison with Clinical Remission Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Stefan Turowski, Bernd; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kovacs, Adorjan F.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the volume of locally advanced tumors of the oral cavity and the oropharynx before and after intra-arterial (i.a.) chemotherapy by means of computed tomography and to compare these data with clinically determined treatment response of the same patient population. Methods. Eighty-eight patients with histologically proven, advanced carcinoma of the oral cavity and/or the oropharynx (local tumor stages T3/4) received neoadjuvant i.a. chemotherapy with cisplatin as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen, comprising (1) local chemotherapy, (2) surgery, and (3) combined radio-chemotherapy. Three weeks after the intervention, residual disease was evaluated radiologically by measurement of the tumor volume and clinically by inspection and palpation of the primary tumor according to WHO criteria. Results. Comparison of treatment response according to radiological and clinical criteria respectively revealed complete remission in 5% vs. 8% (p < 0.05), partial remission in 30% vs. 31%, stable disease in 61% vs. 58%, and tumor progression in 5% vs. 2%. Conclusion. Radiological volumetry and clinical evaluation found comparable response rates after local chemotherapy. However, in patients with good response after local treatment, volumetric measurement with CT may help to distinguish between partial and complete remission. Thus, radiological tumor volumetry provides precise and differentiated information about tumor response and should be used as an additional tool in treatment monitoring after local chemotherapy.

  15. Analysis of the parameters relating to failures above the clavicles in patients treated by postoperative irradiation for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity or oropharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.; Fletcher, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred and two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx were treated from January 1955 through August 1976 with surgical excision followed by irradiation. Twelve patients had T/sub 2/ lesions and 90 had T/sub 3/ or T/sub 4/ lesions. Failures above the clavicles were associated with disease present at the margins of resection, location of the recurrence close to the periphery, or outside of the irradiated portals. Failures in the neck essentially were a result of no elective irradiation. In patients with disease present at the margins of resection, there is a risk both of gross residual disease and hypoxic microscopic disease left behind; 4500 to 5000 rad is not adequate for a significant control rate. In situations where there is definite disease at the margin of resection, 6500 rad, or in specific situations, 7000 rad, should be given through reduced fields.

  16. The importance of immunohistochemical expression of EGFr in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smid, Ernst J.; Stoter, T. Rianne; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Lafleur, M. Vincent M.; Leemans, C. Rene; Slotman, Ben J.; Langendijk, Johannes A. . E-mail: j.a.langendijk@rt.umcg.nl

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor (EGFr) expression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) treated with curative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 165 OCSCC patients. The expression of EGFr was assessed on paraffin-embedded tissue of the primary tumor by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody directed against EGFr. Intensity of the EGFr expression was scored by two authors blinded for the clinical outcome. Results: In the univariate analysis, locoregional control at 3 years (LRC) in the EGFr-negative cases was 69% compared with 77% in the EGFr-positive cases (p 0.22). In the multivariate analysis for local control, a significant interaction was found between EGFr and overall treatment time of radiation (OTT). After stratification for EGFr expression, the OTT was of no importance in the EGFr-negative cases, whereas a significant difference in LRC was found in the EGFr-positive cases, in which the LRC after 3 years was 69% and 94% in case of an OTT of 0-42 days and >42 days, respectively (p = 0.009; hazard ratio = 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-8.96). No significant association was found between EGFr expression and overall survival. Conclusions: In the present study, no association was found between EGFr expression and outcome regarding locoregional control and overall survival. However, the results of the present study suggest that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity with high EGFr expression benefit more from a reduction of the overall treatment time of postoperative radiation than those with low EGFr expression.

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in Nonsmoking Women: A New and Unusual Complication of Chemotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Dominic W.; Hirsch, David; Delacure, Mark; Downey, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R.; Bannan, Michael; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Safra, Tamar; Muggia, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe occurrences of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients who had received long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods. In our cohort of patients on maintenance PLD for ovarian and related mullerian epithelial malignancies, we encountered two patients with invasive SCC of the oral cavity (one of them multifocal) and one with high-grade squamous dysplasia. Review of patients at our institution receiving PLD for recurrent ovarian cancer identified three additional patients. The duration of treatment, cumulative PLD dose, human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity, BRCA status, stage at diagnosis, outcome, and other characteristics are reviewed. Results. All five cases were nonsmokers with no known risk factors for HPV and four were negative for p16 expression. Four of the patients had known BRCA mutations whereas one tested negative. Cumulative doses of PLD were >1,600 mg/m2 given over 30–132 months. Three had SCCs staged as T1N0 oral tongue, alveolar ridge (gingival), and multifocal oral mucosa; one had a T2N0 oral tongue; and one had dysplasia. After excision, two were given radiation but recurred shortly thereafter; the others remain well and have had no further exposure to cytotoxic drugs, including PLD. Conclusion. Awareness of this possible long-term complication during PLD treatment should enhance the likelihood of early detection of oral lesions in these patients. Decisions to continue maintenance PLD after complete response of the original cancer should perhaps consider the benefits of delaying ovarian cancer recurrence versus the possible risk for a secondary cancer. PMID:22622148

  18. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  19. DAP1 high expression increases risk of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Santos, M; Maia, L L; Silva, C V M; Peterle, G T; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-09-08

    Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) is a member of the DAP family. Its expression is associated with cell growth and normal death of the neoplastic cells, regulated by the mammalian target of the rapamycin protein. Activated DAP1 negatively regulates autophagy, which has been associated with the development and progression of several diseases, such as cancer, and with prognosis and survival of diverse tumor types. Therefore, in this study we analyzed DAP1 expression in 54 oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor samples and in 20 non-tumoral margins by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that DAP1 is more frequently expressed in tumor tissues compared with marginal non-tumoral cells. Additionally, high DAP1 expression is associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of lymph node metastases. Our results suggest that the DAP1 protein can be used as a potential marker of lymph node metastases predisposition, helping define the best therapy for each patient to minimize risk of developing metastases.

  20. The added value of a portable gamma camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Sieira, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Marti, C; Pons, F

    2014-01-01

    The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is still subject to debate although some studies have reported its feasibility. The main reason for this debate is probably due to the high false-negative rate for floor-of-mouth tumors per se. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a T1N0 floor-of-mouth squamous cell carcinoma who underwent the sentinel lymph node procedure. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed for lymphatic mapping with a conventional gamma camera. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified at right Ib, left IIa and Ia levels. However, these sentinel lymph nodes were difficult to detect intraoperatively with a gamma probe owing to the activity originating from the injection site. The use of a portable gamma camera made it possible to localize and excise all the sentinel lymph nodes. This case demonstrates the usefulness of this tool to improve sentinel lymph node detecting in floor-of-mouth tumors, especially those close to the injection area.

  1. Overexpression of Rap-1A indicates a poor prognosis for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and promotes tumor cell invasion via Aurora-A modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Han; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Tsai, Hsin-Ting; Su, Li-Jen; Shiu, Li-Yen; Leu, Steve; Chien, Chih-Yen

    2013-02-01

    The functions of Rap-1A in oral carcinogenesis are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the expression of Rap-1A at different malignant stages of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). Semiquantitative RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to evaluate Rap-1A mRNA and protein expressions, respectively, in paired OCSCC patient specimens. To determine the possible correlation between Rap-1A expression and various clinical characteristics, 256 samples from patients with OCSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Strong Rap-1A expression was a significant prognostic marker and predictor of aggressive OCSCC. The overall and disease-specific 5-year survival rates were significantly correlated with strong expression of Rap-1A (P < 0.001). Functionally, overexpressed Rap-1A could promote oral cancer cell migration and invasion by Transwell chambers and wound healing assay. Conversely, the suppression of Rap-1A expression using Rap-1A-mediated siRNA was sufficient to decrease cell motility. Furthermore, our data also illustrated that Aurora-A could not only induce mRNA and protein expressions of Rap-1A for enhancing cancer cell motility but also co-localize and form a complex with Rap-1A in the oral cancer cell line. Finally, immunohistochemical staining, indirect immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analysis of human aggressive OCSCC specimens revealed a significantly positive correlation between Rap-1A and Aurora-A expression. Taken together, our results suggest that the Aurora-A/Rap-1A pathway is associated with survival, tumor progression, and metastasis of OCSCC patients.

  2. Outcome Prediction After Surgery and Chemoradiation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, and Hypopharynx: Use of Baseline Perfusion CT Microcirculatory Parameters vs. Tumor Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Anand, Sharma K.; Glavina, Gordana; Day, Terry; Rumboldt, Zoran

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether pretreatment perfusion computed tomography (PCT) may predict outcome in chemoradiated patients with oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) after surgical excision. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with SCCA were examined before treatment. The primary site was oral cavity in 6, oropharynx in 7, and hypopharynx in 8 patients; there were 11 T2, 6 T3, and 4 T4 tumors. PCT was performed at the level of largest tumor diameter based on standard neck CT. The data were processed to obtain blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability surface area product (PS). Regions of interest were free-hand positioned on the lesions to obtain PCT measurements. Tumor volume was also calculated. Follow-up was performed with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and endoscopy. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for comparison between the subgroups. A regression model was constructed to predict recurrence based on the following predictors: age, gender, tumor (T) and nodal (N) stage, tumor volume, and PCT parameters. Results: BF{sub mean}, BF{sub max}, BV{sub mean}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, PS{sub mean}, and PS{sub max} were significantly different between patients with and without tumor recurrence (0.0001, p < 0.04). T stage, tumor volume, N stage, BF{sub max}, BV{sub max}, MTT{sub mean}, and radiation dose (p < 0.001) were independent predictors for recurrence. Cox proportional hazards model for tumor recurrence revealed significantly increased risk with high tumor volume (p = 0.00001, relative risk [RR] 7.4), low PS{sub mean} (p = 0.0001, RR 14.3), and low BF{sub max} (p = 0.002, RR 5.9). Conclusions: Our data suggest that PCT parameters have a prognostic role in patients with SCCA.

  3. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis.

  4. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  5. Oral Carcinoma Cuniculatum: A New Entity in the Clinicopathological Spectrum of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Alka; Mane, Deepa

    2017-01-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is principally recognized as a variant of carcinoma involving foot. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes Oral Carcinoma Cuniculatum (OCC) as a distinct and rare clinicopathological variant of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). OCC is confused clinically and histologically with Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) and is often misdiagnosed as either VC or OSCC. To best of our knowledge, till date, only 50 cases of this tumour have been reported in oral cavity (including the present case) and only limited number of cases have been reported from Indian subcontinent. Pathognomonic feature of OCC is proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium and its infiltration into underlying stroma forming a complex pattern of keratin cores and keratin filled crypts. These complex crypts give it a likeness of rabbit burrow hence, the name cuniculatum (cuniculatus=‘rabbit warren’). The report aims to present a case of OCC of mandibular gingiva, discuss its diagnostic features and highlight its differences from VC and OSCC. PMID:28274074

  6. Missense mutations in the TP53 DNA-binding domain predict outcomes in patients with advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Yu; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Chen, Shu-Jen; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    TP53 mutations have been linked to reduced survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the impact of different types of TP53 mutations remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the carriage of missense mutations in the TP53 DNA binding domain (DBD missense mutations) is associated with decreased disease-specific survival (DSS) compared with wild-type TP53 (P=0.002) in a cohort of 345 OSCC patients. In contrast, DSS of patients bearing all of the remaining TP53 mutations did not differ from that observed in wild-type TP53 patients (P=0.955). Our classification method for TP53 mutations was superior to previously reported approaches (disruptive, truncating, Evolutionary Action score, mutations in L2/L3/LSH) for distinguishing between low- and high-risk patients. When analyzed in combination with traditional clinicopathological factors, TP53 DBD missense mutations were an independent prognostic factor for shorter DSS (P=0.014) alongside with advanced AJCC T- and N-classifications and the presence of extracapsular spread. A scoring system that included the four independent prognostic factors allowed a reliable patient stratification into distinct risk groups (high-risk patients, 16.2%). Our results demonstrate the usefulness of TP53 DBD missense mutations combined with clinicopathological factors for improving the prognostic stratification of OSCC patients. PMID:27283772

  7. p16 expression independent of human papillomavirus is associated with lower stage and longer disease-free survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Virk, Sohaib A; Lum, Trina; Gao, Kan; Clark, Jonathan R; Gupta, Ruta

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the incidence of p16 expression, its association with human papillomavirus (HPV) and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The role of p16 in OSCC is evaluated in 215 cases using tissue microarrays (TMAs). p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridisation were performed on TMAs following histopathology review of 215 patients with OSCC in the Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute database. Thirty-seven (17.2%) cases showed p16 expression without association with HPV. p16 expression significantly decreased with increasing pT category (p=0.002). p16 expression was associated with longer disease-specific survival on univariable analysis (p=0.044) but not on multivariable analysis adjusting for depth of invasion. Amongst patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, patients with p16 expression had significantly longer disease-free and overall survival. p16 expression was seen in early stage OSCCs and was associated with better survival following surgery and radiotherapy. While not an independent predictor of survival, p16 may mediate its effects by contributing to reduced proliferative capacity, leading to smaller tumour size and lower invasive potential.

  8. Missense mutations in the TP53 DNA-binding domain predict outcomes in patients with advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lapke, Nina; Lu, Yen-Jung; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Chen, Shu-Jen; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-07-12

    TP53 mutations have been linked to reduced survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the impact of different types of TP53 mutations remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the carriage of missense mutations in the TP53 DNA binding domain (DBD missense mutations) is associated with decreased disease-specific survival (DSS) compared with wild-type TP53 (P=0.002) in a cohort of 345 OSCC patients. In contrast, DSS of patients bearing all of the remaining TP53 mutations did not differ from that observed in wild-type TP53 patients (P=0.955). Our classification method for TP53 mutations was superior to previously reported approaches (disruptive, truncating, Evolutionary Action score, mutations in L2/L3/LSH) for distinguishing between low- and high-risk patients. When analyzed in combination with traditional clinicopathological factors, TP53 DBD missense mutations were an independent prognostic factor for shorter DSS (P=0.014) alongside with advanced AJCC T- and N-classifications and the presence of extracapsular spread. A scoring system that included the four independent prognostic factors allowed a reliable patient stratification into distinct risk groups (high-risk patients, 16.2%). Our results demonstrate the usefulness of TP53 DBD missense mutations combined with clinicopathological factors for improving the prognostic stratification of OSCC patients.

  9. miR182 activates the Ras–MEK–ERK pathway in human oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing RASA1 and SPRED1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinhui; Wang, Wei; Li, Jichen; Wu, Liji; Song, Mei; Meng, Qinggang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The constitutive activation of the Ras–MEK–ERK signaling pathway in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been found to be tightly controlled at multiple levels under physiological conditions. RASA1 and SPRED1 are two important negative regulators of this pathway, but the exact regulating mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential regulating mechanisms involved in the Ras–MEK–ERK signaling pathway in OSCC. Materials and methods MicroRNA (miRNA) expression was detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of RASA1, SPRED1, and signaling proteins were detected by Western blot. Cell growth was determined using CCK-8 reagent, colony formation was stained by crystal violet, and cell invasion was tested using transwell chambers. Cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were then analyzed by flow cytometry. The binding of miR182 with RASA1 or SPRED1 was evaluated by luciferase reporter assays on a dual-luciferase reporter system. Results The expression of miR182 was found to be upregulated significantly in malignant oral carcinoma tissues compared with the adjacent nonmalignant tissues, and was inversely correlated with protein levels of RASA1 and SPRED1. Overexpression of miR182 in OSCC cell lines sustained Ras–MEK–ERK signaling-pathway activation, and promoted cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, colony formation, and invasion capacity, whereas miR182 downregulation alleviated these properties significantly in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR182 exerted its oncogenic role in OSCC by directly targeting and suppressing RASA1 and SPRED1. Conclusion Our results bring new insights into the important role of miR182 in the activation of the Ras–MEK–ERK signaling pathway, and suggest that miR182 may be used as a potential target for treatment of OSCC, prompting further investigation into miRNA antisense oligonucleotides for cancer therapy. PMID:28223824

  10. [Soft tissue pathologies of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Margotta, V; Capogreco, M

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent form of neoplasia in the oral cavity is the squamous cell carcinoma (about 90% of cases) representing the 3-5% of all malignant tumors with about 56% of mortality rate, at 5 years from the diagnosis. In general, the neoplastic disease is now unanimly considered as a multifactorial and multiphasic pathology. Multiphasic since the carcinogenic process consists in the cellular capacity to acquire oncological potentialities through several stages such as: moltiplication (a), transmission (b) of malignity caracteristics to progenic cells, invasivity (c), capacity to give metastasis (d) and also resistance to chemiotherapy. Multifactorial since in the onset of the disease intrinsic and extrinsic factors are certainly involved. In the carcinogenic process of CCS a high percentage has been noticed of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the short arm (P) of cromosoms 3 and 9, which contains the tumor-suppressor genes p53 and DDC (Deleted in colon rectal cancer). In the onset of VADS carcinoma and in particular of oral CCS, it has also been formulated the hypothesis of an intrinsic genetic factor (Llewellyn et al., 2001) between patients, also young, who present the neoplasia even trough they have never been exposed to extrinsic risk factors such as smoke and alcohol. Since part of patients with oral CCS do not always refer a common risk factors history as possible extrinsic neoplasia causes, it has been formulated the hypothesis that some viral infections, for their oncogenic capacity, could be the main ethiological factors predisposing to this neoplasia. The HPV are responsible, either in the oral cavity or on the epidermis, for benign proliferations such as: Verruca Vulgaris, Condyloma Acuminatum, Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia, Squamous Cell Papillomas, but also lesions that are potentially or certainly malignant such as CCS and Verrucous Carcinoma. The molecular analysis performed show that proteins produced from E6 and E7 portions of viral genoma (HPV 16

  11. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  12. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths {>=}10mm, and margin distances {<=}4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  13. Human papillomavirus 16 and 18 in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and sexual practices: A pilot study at a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Parshad, Sanjeev; Nandi, Sourabh; Marwah, Nisha; Mehta, Promod; Tripathi, Mayank; Netrapal; Gogna, Shekhar; Karwasra, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy in India and tobacco and betel nut chewing are well established risk factors. Despite successful campaigns to help people shun this habit in developing countries the incidence has rather gone up and HPV and sexual practices are now definitely implicated for this. Aim: An attempt was made to generate Indian data on role of HPV and sexual practices in relation to OSCC. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study was conducted on 50 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Tissue biopsies from fifty patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were subjected to PCR analysis to look for presence of HPV 16 and 18. Fifty patients with benign lesions were taken as control. Statistical Methods Used: The data was statistically analysed using SPSS version 22 and chi square test. Results: 42% of OSCC patients were found to harbour HPV 16 and 18 whereas only 8% of patients with benign lesions had HPV 16 and 18. A significant number of HPV positive patients i.e. 9 out of 21 gave history of multiple sexual partners and oral sex. Conclusions: This high percentage of HPV in OSCC in an Indian population from a tertiary care centre in north India and its association with prevailing sexual practices is quite significant. PMID:27390494

  14. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Three Related Kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei).

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard; Killick, Rowena; Barrows, Michelle; Stidworthy, Mark

    2017-02-11

    We report three kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) with squamous cell carcinoma affecting the gingiva. These cases occurred in rapid succession in a related group of individuals of similar age, suggesting a familial tendency to this condition and a typical age of presentation. Other conditions affecting the oral cavity can mimic the appearance of oral squamous cell carcinoma in this species, and so knowledge of this condition can assist the veterinarian in making rapid decisions regarding prognosis and improving the welfare of these animals.

  15. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  16. An Ultra-Deep Targeted Sequencing Gene Panel Improves the Prognostic Stratification of Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Yang, Lan-Yan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Chang, Kai-Ping; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Chen, Hua-Chien; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-02-01

    An improved prognostic stratification of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and pathologically positive (pN+) nodes is urgently needed. Here, we sought to examine whether an ultra-deep targeted sequencing (UDT-Seq) gene panel may improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group.A mutation-based signature affecting 10 genes (including genetic mutations in 6 oncogenes and 4 tumor suppressor genes) was devised to predict disease-free survival (DFS) in 345 primary tumor specimens obtained from pN+ OSCC patients. Of the 345 patients, 144 were extracapsular spread (ECS)-negative and 201 were ECS-positive. The 5-year locoregional control, distant metastases, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival (OS) rates served as outcome measures.The UDT-Seq panel was an independent risk factor (RF) for 5-year locoregional control (P = 0.0067), distant metastases (P = 0.0001), DFS (P < 0.0001), disease-specific survival (DSS, P < 0.0001), and OS (P = 0.0003) in pN+ OSCC patients. The presence of ECS and pT3-4 disease were also independent RFs for DFS, DSS, and OS. A prognostic scoring system was formulated by summing up the significant covariates (UDT-Seq, ECS, pT3-4) separately for each survival endpoint. The presence of a positive UDT-Seq panel (n = 77) significantly improved risk stratification for all the survival endpoints as compared with traditional AJCC staging (P < 0.0001). Among ECS-negative patients, those with a UDT-Seq-positive panel (n = 31) had significantly worse DFS (P = 0.0005) and DSS (P = 0.0002). Among ECS-positive patients, those with a UDT-Seq-positive panel (n = 46) also had significantly worse DFS (P = 0.0032) and DSS (P = 0.0098).Our UDT-Seq gene panel consisting of clinically actionable genes was significantly associated with patient outcomes and provided better prognostic stratification than traditional AJCC staging. It was also able to predict prognosis in

  17. Identification of a High-Risk Group Among Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and pT1-2N0 Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the American Joint Committee on Cancer 2010 classification system, pT1-2N0 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered an early-stage cancer treatable with surgery alone (National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2010 guidelines). Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of surgery alone for pT1-2N0 OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: Among 1279 previously untreated OSCC patients referred to our hospital between January 1996 and May 2008, we identified 457 consecutive patients with pT1-2N0 disease. All had radical tumor excision with neck dissection. A total of 387 patients showing pathologic margins greater than 4 mm and treated by surgery alone were included in the final analysis. All were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates in the entire group of pT1-2N0 patients were as follows: local control, 91%; neck control, 92%; distant metastases, 1%; disease-free survival, 85%; disease-specific survival, 93%; and overall survival, 84%. Multivariate analysis identified poor differentiation and pathologic tumor depth of 4 mm or greater as independent risk factors for neck control, disease-free survival, and disease-specific survival. A scoring system using poor differentiation and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The presence of both poorly differentiated tumors and a tumor depth of 4 mm or greater resulted in significantly poorer 5-year neck control (p < 0.0001), disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p = 0.0046) rates. Conclusion: The combination of poor differentiation and pathologic tumor depth of 4 mm or greater identified a subset of pT1-2N0 OSCC patients with poor outcome, who may have clinical benefit from postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

  18. High expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen in the tumor-associated neo-vasculature is associated with worse prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Michael C; Laimer, Johannes; Chaux, Alcides; Schäfer, Georg; Obrist, Peter; Brunner, Andrea; Kronberger, Irmgard E; Laimer, Klaus; Gurel, Bora; Koller, Johann-Benedikt; Seifarth, Christof; Zelger, Bettina; Klocker, Helmut; Rasse, Michael; Doppler, Wolfgang; Bander, Neil H

    2012-08-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein expressed in prostate cancer as well as in the neo-vasculature of nonprostatic solid tumors. Here, we determined the expression pattern of PSMA in the vasculature of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using a previously validated antibody, PSMA staining distribution and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression status was evaluated in a cohort of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (n=96) using immunohistochemistry and was correlated with clinicopathological features as well as outcome. Twenty-four (25%) cases showed no detectable PSMA staining, 48 (50%) demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for PSMA in less than 50% of microvessels and 24 (25%) cases showed strong endothelial PSMA expression in more than 50% of tumor-associated microvessels. High endothelial PSMA expression was associated with greatly reduced survival (18.2 vs 77.3 months; P=0.0001) and maintained prognostic significance after adjusting for grade and stage in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio=2.19, P=0.007). Furthermore, we observed a strong association between endothelial PSMA and cancer cell-specific COX2 expression. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence for the prognostic significance of endothelial PSMA expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and, suggest a potential interaction between arachidonic acid metabolites and endothelial PSMA expression in the tumor neo-vasculature.

  19. Autoimmune Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Kelly R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah G

    2017-03-01

    Immune-related disorders of the oral cavity may occur as primary disease process, secondary to systemic disease or neoplasm, or as a reaction to medications and other agents. The entities represented within this group may vary significantly by severity, clinical presentation, microscopic presentation, and special testing results. The selected immune-related conditions of the oral cavity in this article are categorized and presented by their prototypical tissue reaction patterns: vesiculobullous, including acantholytic and subepithelial separation; psoriasiform; spongiotic; and lichenoid reaction patterns.

  20. Inflammatory oral cavity diseases of the cat.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C

    1992-11-01

    There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.

  1. Urinary-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zonggao; Stack, M Sharon

    2007-10-15

    OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma) is the most common oral malignancy and is estimated to affect approx. 350000 new patients worldwide this year. OSCC is characterized by a high degree of morbidity and mortality, as most patients exhibit local, regional and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Recent genome-wide screening efforts have identified the serine proteinase uPA (urinary-type plasminogen activator, also known as urokinase) as a strong biomarker for prediction of poor disease outcome and a key candidate for molecular classification of oral neoplasms using a 'gene signature' approach. The proteinase uPA binds a surface-anchored receptor designated uPAR (uPA receptor), focalizing proteolytic activity to the pericellular milieu. Furthermore, uPA-uPAR can interact with transmembrane proteins to modify multiple signal transduction pathways and influence a wide variety of cellular behaviours. Correlative clinical data show elevated uPA-uPAR in oral tumour tissues, with tumours exhibiting high levels of both uPA and uPAR as the most invasive. Combined in vitro, pre-clinical and clinical data support the need for further analysis of uPA-uPAR as a prognostic indicator as well as a potential therapeutic target in OSCC.

  2. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384

  3. NID2 and HOXA9 promoter hypermethylation as biomarkers for prevention and early detection in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma tissues and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Preston, R; Soudry, E; Acero, J; Orera, M; Moreno-López, L; Macía-Colón, Germán; Jaffe, A; Berdasco, M; Ili-Gangas, C; Brebi-Mieville, P; Fu, Y; Engstrom, C; Irizarry, R; Esteller, M; Westra, W; Koch, W; Califano, J; Sidransky, D

    2011-01-01

    Differentially methylated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarkers, identified in-vitro and validated in well-characterized surgical specimens, have shown poor clinical correlation in cohorts with different risk profiles. To overcome this lack of relevance we used the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, publicly available methylation and expression array data, and Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR to uncover differential methylation in OSCC clinical samples with heterogeneous risk profiles. A two stage-design consisting of Discovery and Prevalence screens was used to identify differential promoter methylation and deregulated pathways in patients diagnosed with OSCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Promoter methylation of KIF1A (κ = 0.64), HOXA9 (κ = 0.60), NID2 (κ = 0.60), and EDNRB (κ = 0.60) had a moderate to substantial agreement with clinical diagnosis in the Discovery screen. HOXA9 had 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity and a 0.81 AUC. NID2 had 71% sensitivity, 100% specificity and a 0.79 AUC. In the Prevalence screen HOXA9 (κ = 0.82) and NID2 (κ = 0.80) had an almost perfect agreement with histologic diagnosis. HOXA9 had 85% sensitivity, 97% specificity and a 0.95 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 95% specificity and a 0.91 AUC. A HOXA9 and NID2 gene panel had 94% sensitivity, 97% specificity and a 0.97 AUC. In saliva from OSCC cases and controls HOXA9 had 75% sensitivity, 53% specificity and a 0.75 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 21% specificity and a 0.73 AUC. This Phase I Biomarker Development Trial identified a panel of differentially methylated genes in normal and OSCC clinical samples from patients with heterogeneous risk profiles. This panel may be useful for early detection and cancer prevention studies. PMID:21558411

  4. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology. PMID:26351482

  5. [Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    A, Burgos; R, Kaplan; N, Rodríguez; Meza, Vetanzo; Morelatto, R; Piccinni, D

    2008-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm and it is only 0.5% of the malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity, and less than 10% of all the malignant melanomas. The mean age for patients with oral melanoma is from 40 to 70 years; with a higher frequency between the 50 and 60 years. Pigmentation areas are frequently noted before diagnosis of this neoplasm. Some predisposing factors are mechanical traumas resulting from not well adapted prostheses, solar radiation, and chem-icals. Although oral cavity melanomas can remain asymptomatic during a time, the clinical presentations include hemorrhage, ulceration and pain. Melanomas grow fast, generally in a vertical growth phase, with early invasion of bones and lymphatic nodes. The prognosis for patients with melanoma is poor with a 5-year survival rate. The election treatment is surgical. The early diagnosis, the recognition of the lesions for doctors and odontologists, and the biopsy of recent or old pigmentation areas in the mouth that they have some changes (ulceration, bleeding, etc.) will contribute to offer patients a more effective treatment and a higher survival rate. We will present the case study of a 78-year-old male patient with a tumor in the dental ridge surrounded by melanotic spots, which was diagnosed as invasive melanoma and confirmed with immunohistochemical techniques.

  6. Performance of 18F-FDG PET/contrast-enhanced CT in the staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, C A; Balink, H; Roodenburg, J L N; Dol, J; de Visscher, J G A M

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of integrated whole body positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced CT (PET/CECT) as a one step examination in the initial staging of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC). Seventy three consecutive OOSCC patients who underwent PET/CECT for initial staging and tumour resection and neck dissection as primary treatment, were included. For each PET/CECT result, the contribution of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-uptake and radiologic criteria was assessed. PET/CECT results were correlated to histological specimens obtained with tumour resection and neck dissection. For detecting the primary tumour PET/CECT showed a sensitivity of 96% and for detecting cervical metastases a sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 81%, respectively. In the clinically N0 subgroup (n=37), PET/CECT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 81%, respectively. In five of six patients PET/CECT detected a second primary tumour. The results show that the use of diagnostic PET/CECT as a one step examination is a reliable alternative for PET/CT in combination with a separate diagnostic CT in patients with OOSC for initial staging. The need for treatment of the neck in the clinically negative neck should not be based on PET/CECT results only, due to the risk of missing a small metastasis.

  7. [The effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Fazzi, M; Vescovi, P; Savi, A; Manfredi, M; Peracchia, M

    1999-10-01

    As shown by the growing numbers of users attending the public drug addiction services, drug abuse is a phenomenon that is constantly spreading. It is important that dentists are aware of the oral problems linked to drug abuse. This study examines the general effects and oral implications of the illegal substances used by the majority of drug addicts. The main dental complications of cannabinoids are the increased incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, the presence of xerostomia and severe gingivitis. Depending on how it is taken, cocaine may cause ischemic necrosis of the palate, inflammation, ulceration and gingival retraction, as well as an increased incidence of bruxism. Hallucinogens have few direct oral effects, but among these it is worth recalling xerostomia, increased bruxism and oral problems linked to malnutrition caused by ecstasy. Turning to the opioids, heroin is the drug primarily used by the majority of drug addicts. Its oral effects mainly take the form of dental decay, showing a particular form and extent linked either directly or indirectly to heroin use. This results in "typical" or "atypical" caries pathologies directly linked to the effects of heroin. Given the extent of this phenomenon, it is important that dentists are aware of the problems linked to drug abuse that they may have to treat.

  8. Bioengineering in the oral cavity: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Catalfamo, L; Belli, E; Nava, C; Mici, E; Calvo, A; D’Alessandro, B; De Ponte, FS

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, there are no studies reported in the literature on the possible use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or synthetic hyaluronic acid medications in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper is to report the use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, and synthetic hyaluronic acid medications to improve wound healing in the oral cavity by stimulating granulomatous tissue. Methods From 2007 to 2011, 80 patients (median age 67 years) suffering from oral mucosal lesions participated in this double-blind study. The patients were divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 patients. One group received conventional medications, while the other group of patients were treated with the advanced medications. Results Advanced medications allowed re-epithelialization of the wound margin in 2–20 days, whereas patients receiving conventional medication showed a median healing duration of 45 days. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that treating oral mucosal wounds with advanced medication has an advantage with regard to wound healing time, allowing patients to have a rapid, functional, and esthetic recovery. PMID:24143092

  9. [Oral cavity changes in alcoholic patients].

    PubMed

    Esguep, A; Ceballos, M; Smith, P

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this study was to look for pathological changes in the oral cavity in a group of 40 non cirrhotic male alcoholics, ranging in age from 30 to 40 years old. These subjects were compared with a group of 40 non alcoholic male subjects of similar age. The presence of lip, dental, periodontal, salivary gland and oral mucosa lesions was recorded. In alcoholics, pigmented lesions were observed in the lips in all the subjects (compared to 36% of controls), in the cheek mucosa in 65% and in the palate mucosa in 35.5%. Sixty five percent of alcoholics were partially edentate (compared to 32.5% of controls). It is concluded that the consideration of oral changes as a whole could be useful in the diagnosis of occult alcoholism. Moreover these patients have an important need of odontological attention that has to be considered.

  10. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kakisi, Ourania K; Kechagia, Argiro S; Kakisis, Ioannis K; Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2010-04-01

    The recent increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, combined with an emerging global resistance to antituberculous drugs, warrants an increased awareness of the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in persistent or atypical lesions in the oral cavity. We sought to review the published reports of mycobacterial infection of the oral cavity found in the literature in otherwise uncompromised patients, from 1950 to the present day, and analyzed the documented manifestations. M. tuberculosis infects all parts of the mouth (soft and hard palate, uvula, buccal mucosa, gingivae, lips, tongue, maxilla, and mandible) more often in men than in women, appearing predominantly in the form of ulcerative lesions. It was found as a secondary infection in 58% (54% pulmonary, 4% extrapulmonary) of patients and as a primary infection in 42% of patients. Carcinomas are found to co-exist in the same lesion site in 3% of patients. In approximately 50% of patients, an oral manifestation of TB has led to the diagnosis of a previously unknown systemic infection, which resulted in a timely and effective treatment. The investigation for tuberculosis should therefore be actively pursued in the dental surgery. Diagnostic work-up for systemic involvement and control of healthcare-associated spread is important, while therapeutic options are still considered adequate.

  11. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Genden, Eric M.; Silver, Carl E.; Takes, Robert P.; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P.; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Rapidis, Alexander D.; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  12. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma induces apoptosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Involvement of DNA-damage-triggering sub-G(1) arrest via the ATM/p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Kang, Sung Un; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Kang Il; Seo, Seong Jin; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Eunpyo; Baek, Seung Jae; Lee, Keunho; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in physics have made possible the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) in cancer research. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP induces death of various cancer cell types, thus offering a promising alternative treatment, the mechanism of its therapeutic effect is little understood. In this study, we report for the first time that NTP led to apoptotic cell death in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Interestingly, NTP induced a sub-G(1) arrest in p53 wild-type OSCCs, but not in p53-mutated OSCCs. In addition, NTP increased the expression levels of ATM, p53 (Ser 15, 20 and 46), p21, and cyclin D1. A comet assay, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry of γH2AX suggested that NTP-induced apoptosis and sub-G(1) arrest were associated with DNA damage and the ATM/p53 signaling pathway in SCC25 cells. Moreover, ATM knockdown using siRNA attenuated the effect of NTP on cell death, sub-G(1) arrest and related signals. Taken together, these results indicate that NTP induced apoptotic cell death in p53 wild-type OSCCs through a novel mechanism involving DNA damage and triggering of sub-G(1) arrest via the ATM/p53 pathway. These findings show the therapeutic potential of NTP in OSCC.

  13. Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy for Imaging of Oral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Matthew; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Sun, Yang; Zhou, Feifei; Dobbie, Allison; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Tinling, Steve P.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Monsky, Wayne L.; Shung, K. Kirk; Marcu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM), or ultrasound biomicroscopy, is a noninvasive, label-free, and ionizing radiation–free technique allowing high-resolution 3-dimensional structural imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate UBM for resolving anatomic features associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Methods The study was conducted in a hamster buccal pouch model. A carcinogen was topically applied to cheeks of 14 golden Syrian hamsters. Six additional hamsters served as healthy controls. A high-frequency (41 MHz, 6-mm focal depth, lateral and axial resolutions of 65 and 37 μm, respectively) UBM system was used for scanning the oral cavity after 14 weeks of carcinogen application. Histologic analyses were conducted on scanned regions. Results The histologic structure of buccal tissue and microvasculature networks could be visualized from the UBM images. Epithelial and mucosal hypertrophy and neoplastic changes were identified in animals subjected to the carcinogen. In animals with invasive squamous cell carcinoma, lesion development and destruction of the structural integrity of tissue layers were noted. Conclusions In this pilot study, UBM generated sufficient contrast for morphologic features associated with oral carcinoma compared to healthy tissue. This modality may present a practical technique for detection of oral neoplasms that is potentially translatable to humans. PMID:24065260

  14. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  15. Exploring bacterial flora in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Metgud, R; Gupta, K; Gupta, J

    2014-02-01

    The oral cavity contains a unique and diverse microflora. While most of these organisms exhibit commensalism, shifts in bacterial community dynamics cause pathological changes within the oral cavity and at distant sites. We assessed the microbial flora using cultured saliva and oral swabs from subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy controls. Microbial samples were collected from the carcinoma site, contralateral healthy mucosa, and saliva of the study group and samples were collected from healthy mucosa and saliva of controls. Samples were stored on ice and transported to the laboratory for culture. The median number of colony forming units (CFU)/ml at carcinoma sites was significantly greater than at the contralateral healthy mucosa. Similarly, in saliva of carcinoma subjects, the median number of CFU/ml was significantly greater than in saliva of control subjects.

  16. Nuclear factor κB and cyclooxygenase-2 immunoexpression in oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz; Pereira, Erika Martins; de Abreu, Michelle Carvalho; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; dos Santos Pinto, Décio

    2013-02-01

    Oral leukoplakia is the main potentially malignant oral lesion, and oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 95% of all malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the immunoexpression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed on 6 inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, 28 oral leukoplakia, and 15 oral squamous cell carcinoma paraffin-embedded samples. Immunoperoxidase reaction for NF-κB and COX-2 was applied on the specimens, and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Using the analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc statistical analyses, a significantly increased immunoexpression for NF-κB was observed when oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were compared with the other groups studied. However, using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post hoc tests, a statistically significant result for COX-2 expression was obtained only when the moderate dysplasia group was compared with the inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia group. Nuclear factor κB may participate in the malignant phenotype acquisition process of the oral squamous cell carcinoma in its late stages, whereas COX-2 may be involved in the early stages of oral carcinogenesis process.

  17. Miswak in oral cavity - An update.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilanand; Patil, Ranjit; Nagar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Miswak, scientifically known as Salvadora persica, is a species of Salvadora belonging to family Salvadoraceae. It is considered as "Nature's little toothbrush" as it is a popular chewing stick throughout Indian subcontinent. In India, it is commonly known as arak tree, meswak, peelu, kharjal or jhank. It also serves as a natural toothpaste with antibacterial, anti-caries, anti-periopathic disinfectant having anti-plaque and anti-fungal properties. Miswak sticks are being used by majority of people who cannot afford to buy the commercial western toothbrush and toothpaste mainly in rural areas of developing countries. The present review is an attempt to define the potential of the miswak in preventing and treating the common diseases of oral cavity and teeth.

  18. [Consequences of piercing within oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Gerreth, Karolina; Gerreth, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Tatooing and invasive forms of body art, such as piercing, have become very popular in Western culture among youth. Literature studies show that the oral cavity is one of the most popular places where rings are installed. However, not everyone is aware of the potential consequences that can develop as a consequence of the piercing. Among early complications are aching, swelling, trouble with swallowing, chewing and speech difficulties. Jewellery can also cause unnatural, increased production of saliva. Infection is also a major risk of the procedure itself. Along with these complications there are also many cases of blood vessel and nerve damage in the patients. Other complications that are possible are: irritation to the gums, teeth injuries, as well as enamel chipping. Piercing should always be taken into consideration during diagnostic procedures. Complete information about piercing complications, as well as information about the necessary post-piercing hygiene, should be given to the patient and to the parents of minors.

  19. Commensal communism and the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Henderson, B; Wilson, M

    1998-09-01

    The world we live in contains unimaginable numbers of bacteria, and these and other single-celled creatures represent the major diversity of life on our planet. During the last decade or so, the complexity and intimacy of the interactions which occur between bacteria and host eukaryotic cells during the process of infection have begun to emerge. The study of such interactions is the subject of the new discipline of cellular microbiology. This intimacy of bacteria/host interactions creates a major paradox. The average human being is 90% bacteria in terms of cell numbers. These bacteria constitute the commensal or normal microflora and populate the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and the surface of the skin. In bacterial infections, much of the pathology is due to the release of a range of bacterial components (e.g., modulins such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, DNA, molecular chaperones), which induce the synthesis of the local hormone-like molecules known as pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, such components must also be constantly released by the vast numbers of bacteria constituting the normal microflora and, as a consequence, our mucosae should constantly be in a state of inflammation. This is patently not the case, and a hypothesis is forwarded to account for this "commensal paradox", namely, that our commensal bacteria and mucosal surfaces exist in a state of bio-communism, forming a unified "tissue" in which interactions between bacteria and epithelia are finely balanced to ensure bacterial survival and prevent the induction of damaging inflammation. Evidence is emerging that bacteria can produce a variety of proteins which can inhibit the synthesis/release of inflammatory cytokines. The authors predict that such proteins are simply one part of an extensive signaling system which occurs between bacteria and epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces such as those found in the oral cavity.

  20. Unusual Dermoid Cyst in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Volpato, Luis Evaristo Ricci; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Botelho, Gilberto de Almeida; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Dermoid cysts in oral cavity are unusual lesions. Their etiology is not yet clear and can be associated with trapped cells as a result of the inclusion error resulting in the development into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm tissues. The aim of this case report is to evidence the presence of a dermoid cyst in the floor of mouth surgically removed. In the present case, the lesion showed soft consistency, floating, regular borders, smooth surface, and the same color as the adjacent mucosa, asymptomatic and measuring 4.5 × 5.5 cm in its greatest diameter. The initial diagnostic was ranula in consequence of the similarity with clinical characteristics and localization. After surgical removal lesion, a fibrotic capsule was identified with a friable material with intensive yellow color. The microscopic exam showed cystic lesion with cavity lined by squamous stratified epithelium hyperorthokeratinized. Cutaneous attachments, such as sebaceous glands and hair follicles, were present in connective adjacent tissue. Surgical intervention is elective in these situations. All dentists must have a thorough knowledge of this unusual lesion. PMID:24818032

  1. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. [Prognostic and predictive value of koilocytosis, expression of e6 hpv types 16/18, p16ink4a, p53 in locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx, associated with human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Riaboshapka, A N

    2014-11-01

    To determine the predictive and prognostic value of koilocytosis, expression of E6 HPV types 16/18, p16INK4a, p53 in patients with locally advanced HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx. In biopsy specimens of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx from 60 patients performed koylocytes count, immunohistochemical detection of HPV 16/18 types E6 protein, proteins p16INK4a and p53. Koilocytosis was detected in 50 patients (83.3%); in all 60 patients (100%) were simultaneous expression of p16INK4a and E6 HPV types 16/18; p53 expression was found in 37 patients (61.7%). After combined treatment (induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy) stable disease (SD) was detected in 11 patients (18.3%), partial response (PR) - in 25 patients (41.7%), complete response (CR) - in 24 patients (40.0%). There were no cases of disease progression. Treatment effect correlated with expression of p16INK4a (ρ = 0.3, p = 0.024) and expression of p53 (ρ = - 0.3, p = 0.019). Patients with a low expression of p16INK4a (2 points) and high expression of p53 (4 "+") had a high level of SD and had no CR. For all patients, the median of overall survival (OS) was 17 months, 1-year cumulative survival rate was 66.7%, 2-year cumulative survival rate - 35.0%. Median of overall survival was correlated with koilocytosis (ρ=0.5, p<0,001) and expression of E6 HPV types 16/18 (ρ=0.9, p<0.001), p16INK4a (ρ=0.9, p=0.037), p53 (ρ=-0.9; p<0.001). Patients with low expression of p53 (0 and 1 "+") had cumulative 1-year survival rates 87% and 90%, respectively (p<0.001), 2-year survival rates - 52% and 80%, respectively (p=0.015). In the Cox proportional hazards model the significant prognostic factors were prevalence of primary tumor (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 3.5, p=0.003) and p53 expression (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1=1.7, p=0.016). High expression of p16INK4a associated with a high effect of combined treatment, high expression of a p53 - with low effect of

  3. Pretreatment Primary Tumor SUVmax Measured by FDG-PET and Pathologic Tumor Depth Predict for Poor Outcomes in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, Joseph T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I.-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The pathologic tumor depth is an independent prognosticator for local control (LC) and survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All patients underwent 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed for {>=}24 months after surgery or until death. The optimal cutoff value for the primary tumor SUVmax was selected according to the 5-year LC rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26 months (39 months for surviving patients). A cutoff SUVmax of 19.3 provided the greatest prognostic information for the 5-year LC rate (55% vs. 88%, p = 0.0135). A tumor depth {>=}12 mm appeared to be the most appropriate cutoff for predicting the 5-year LC rate (76% vs. 95%, p = 0.0075). A scoring system using the primary tumor SUVmax and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. Patients with both a SUVmax of {>=}19.3 and tumor depth of {>=}12 mm (n = 8) had significantly poorer 5-year LC, 5-year disease-free, 5-year disease-specific, and 5-year overall survival rates compared with the other patient groups. Conclusion: The combination of the primary tumor SUVmax ({>=}19.3) and pathologic tumor depth ({>=}12 mm) identified a subgroup of OSCC patients at greatest risk of poor LC and death.

  4. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  5. Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y.; Ng, S.-H.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

  6. 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters as imaging biomarkers in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, is visual analysis of PET and contrast enhanced CT better than the numbers?

    PubMed Central

    Kendi, AT; Corey, A; Magliocca, KR; Nickleach, DC; Galt, J; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; El-Deiry, MW; Wadsworth, JT; Hudgins, PA; Saba, NF; Schuster, DM

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to seek associations between positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) parameters, contrast enhanced neck computed tomography (CECT) and pathological findings, and to determine the potential prognostic value of PET/CT and CECT parameters in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). Materials and method 36 OCSCC patients underwent staging PET/CT and 30/36 of patients had CECT. PET/CT parameters were measured for the primary tumor and the hottest involved node, including maximum, mean, and peak standardized uptake values (SUV max, SUV mean, and SUV peak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), standardized added metabolic activity (SAM), and normalized standardized added metabolic activity (N SAM). Qualitative assessment of PET/CT and CECT were also performed. Pathological outcomes included: perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, nodal extracapsular spread, grade, pathologic T and N stages. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit for each parameter and outcome adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used for progression free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS), overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS). Results In multivariable analysis, patients with high (>=median) tumor SUV max (OR 6.3), SUV mean (OR 6.3), MTV (OR 19.0), TLG (OR 19.0), SAM (OR 11.7) and N SAM (OR 19.0) had high pathological T-stage (T3/T4) (p<0.05). Ring/heterogeneous pattern on CECT qualitative assessment was associated with worse DMFS and OS. Conclusion High PET/CT parameters were associated with pathologically advanced T stage (T3/T4). Qualitative assessment of CECT has prognostic value. PET/CT parameters did not predict clinical outcome. PMID:25816993

  7. In vivo OCT study of neoplastic alterations of the oral cavity mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomina, Julia V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Myakov, Alexey V.

    2004-07-01

    The goal of our study was to conduct a statistical evaluation of the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect neoplasia in vivo in oral cavity. The study enrolled 97 patients (35 volunteers with healthy mucosa of the oral cavity-group I, 41 patients with benign conditions-group II, 21 patients with dysplasia or carcinoma-group III). The diagnosis was established by a histopathology examination of biopsy material. Each biopsy site was imaged by OCT beforehand. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 98% were observed as a result of OCT image recognition of dysplastic/malignant versus benign/reactive conditions in the oral cavity. The interobserver agreement kappa was 0.76. Such sensitivity and specificity makes OCT a promising tool for non-invasive evaluation of tissue sites suspicious for high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  8. Cisplatin, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-30

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Naushad, Q N

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity a type of Oral Cancer in young patients is a very rare occurrence particularly during the first decade of life. Oral cancer is predominantly an aggressive neoplasm of middle-aged people where 96% of the patients are more than 40 years of age and it occurs mainly due to the excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol. In South-East Asia it has a higher rate of occurrence than the rest of the world, partly due to increased consumption of chewing tobacco and various harmful spices, areca nuts and betel quids. These rare varieties of aggressive neoplasm commonly affect tongue and lip. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy who had an exophytic type of granulomatous lesion with some indurated borders which diffusely involved the left side of the hard palate, alveolar mucosa, left maxillary antrum and aggressively emerged within the left orbit by engulfing the left inferior rectus muscle. The purpose of this case report is to provide information that younger group can suffer from oral squamous cell carcinoma though it is very rare and this younger group would appear to have a biologically more aggressive tumor and they require more complex treatment. The role of more aggressive initial therapy must be considered.

  10. Electronic Cigarette: Role in the Primary Prevention of Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Teresa; Trapasso, Serena; Puzzo, Lidia; Allegra, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoke has been identified as the main cause of oral cavity carcinoma. Recently, the electronic cigarette, a battery-operated device, was developed to help smokers stop their tobacco addiction. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of electronic cigarettes and to establish the possible role of such device in the primary prevention of oral cavity cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This study included 65 subjects who were divided into three groups (smokers, e-cigarette smokers, and nonsmokers). All subjects were submitted to cytologic examination by scraping of oral mucosa. The slides were microscopically evaluated through a micronucleus assay test. RESULTS The prevalence of micronuclei was significantly decreased in the e-cigarette smoker group. There were no statistically significant differences in micronuclei distribution according to the type of cigarette, gender, and age. CONCLUSIONS The use of electronic cigarettes seems to be safe for oral cells and should be suggested as an aid to smoking cessation. PMID:27773997

  11. Surgical Approaches to the Oral Cavity Primary and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jatin P.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: A variety of surgical approaches used to treat primary oral cavity tumors are described to delineate the technique and rationale behind each treatment choice. Methods and Materials: Size, location, proximity to bone, lymph node status, histology, and prior treatment considerations are employed to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for primary oral cavity tumors. Results: Oncologic outcomes and physical function show the best results from surgical treatment of many primary oral cavity, but necessitates careful selection of surgical approach. Conclusion: Each surgical approach must be selected based upon relevant tumor, patient and physician factors.

  12. Measurement of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestin, S.; Betz, C.; Kraft, M.

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising method in the early diagnosis of oral cavity cancer. The objective of the present study is to determine normal values of epithelial thickness in the oral cavity, as no such data are to be found in the literature. In healthy test persons, epithelial thickness of the oral mucosa was determined with the help of OCT separately for each side at nine different locations. Special attention was directed to those sites having the highest incidence for the development of dysplasias and carcinomas. Depending on the location within the oral cavity, the epithelium demonstrated a varying thickness. The highest values were found in the region of the tongue and the cheek, whereas the floor of the mouth showed the thinnest epithelium. Our data serve as reference values for detecting oral malignancy and determining the approximate grade of dysplasia. In this circumstance, a differentiated view of the different regions is important due to the variation in thickness of the epithelium within the normal oral cavity.

  13. Isolation and identification methods of Rothia species in oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Tsuzukibashi, Osamu; Uchibori, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Taira; Umezawa, Koji; Mashimo, Chiho; Nambu, Takayuki; Saito, Masanori; Hashizume-Takizawa, Tomomi; Ochiai, Tomoko

    2017-03-01

    Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa which are Gram-positive bacteria are part of the normal flora in the human oral cavity and pharynx. Furthermore, Rothia aeria, which was first isolated from air samples in the Russian space station Mir, is predicted to be an oral inhabitant. Immunocompromised patients are often infected by these organisms, leading to various systemic diseases. The involvement of these organisms in oral infections has attracted little attention, and their distribution in the oral cavity has not been fully clarified because of difficulties in accurately identifying these organisms. A suitable selective medium for oral Rothia species, including R. aeria, is necessary to assess the veritable prevalence of these organisms in the oral cavity. To examine the bacterial population in the oral cavity, a novel selective medium (ORSM) was developed for isolating oral Rothia species in this study. ORSM consists of tryptone, sodium gluconate, Lab-Lemco powder, sodium fluoride, neutral acriflavin, lincomycin, colistin, and agar. The average growth recovery of oral Rothia species on ORSM was 96.7% compared with that on BHI-Y agar. Growth of other representative oral bacteria, i.e. genera Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Neisseria, and Corynebacterium, was remarkably inhibited on the selective medium. PCR primers were designed based on partial sequences of the 16S rDNA genes of oral Rothia species. These primers reacted to each organism and did not react to other non-oral Rothia species or representative oral bacteria. These results indicated that these primers are useful for identifying oral Rothia species. A simple multiplex PCR procedure using these primers was a reliable method of identifying oral Rothia species. The proportion of oral Rothia species in saliva samples collected from 20 subjects was examined by culture method using ORSM. Rothia dentocariosa, Rothia mucilaginosa, and R. aeria accounted for 1.3%, 5.9%, and 0.8% of the total cultivable

  14. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing... that contains an abrasive material, such as silica pumice, intended to remove debris from the...

  15. Diagnostic Biomarkers in Oral Verrucous Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour, Sepanta; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh; Ahsaie, Mitra Ghazizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC), a low-grade variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is most frequently seen in the oral cavity. No clear etiology has been found for this lesion, but human papilloma virus, chewing betel nuts, and ultraviolet radiation are suggested as probable causes. Differential diagnosis of OVC is challenging for oral pathologists. The aim of this study was to review the molecular-based approaches for differential diagnosis of OVC. An electronic search was conducted in Medline and Scopus from January 2004 to July 2015 limited to English language publications. Published papers on verrucous carcinoma (VC) were found according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and analyzed qualitatively. Data extraction were performed according to PRISMA statement. A total of 423 articles were reviewed; out of which, 26 articles completely fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies investigated proliferative and apoptotic biomarkers such as p53 and Ki67. No definite conclusion was drawn for cytoskeletal biomarkers due to variability of factors and lack of significant expression. However, it seems that cytokeratin10 (CK 10) can be useful for differentiation of OVC and benign squamous lesions. Among cell surface and extracellular matrix biomarkers tissue biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, CD31 and CD68 seem to be useful for differentiation of OVC and OSCC and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) can help in differentiation of OVC from oral epithelial dysplasia. Differences among OVC, OSCC and normal epithelium in expression profiles of the investigated biomarkers help in their differential diagnosis; although, clinicohistopathological similarities among verrucous hyperplasia, noninvasive OVC and invasive well-differentiated OSCC make the diagnosis difficult. Further studies are required to better differentiate these oral lesions.

  16. Application of direct oral microscopy in evaluating mucosal margins around invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Michcik, Adam; Michajłowski, Igor; Starzyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique, which aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The oral mucosa is examined at multiple magnifications and features such as sub-epithelial mucosal vessels, surface patterns, colour tone, transparency and the exact demarcation of mucosal lesions are estimated. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) oscillates between 1.9% and 3.5%, which makes it the eighth most common carcinoma occurring around the world and in Poland. The 5-year survival rates oscillate between 20% and 30%. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate clinically unchanged mucosal margins around OSCC by direct oral microscopy. The authors approached the question whether the borders of mucosal margins around OSCC established via direct oral microscopy differ from those established based on clinical examination. Material and methods Fifteen patients diagnosed with OSCC were enrolled. Patients were first clinically examined to evaluate the extent of the tumour and to plan resection margins. Eventually, direct oral microscopy was performed to establish the width of the subclinically unchanged mucosal margins based on a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae, followed by comparison with those established by clinical evaluation. Results Histopathologic results of biopsies from areas indicated by direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 86.7% of patients, whereas biopsies from areas indicated by clinical examination revealed dysplasia only in 40% of individuals, resulting in the need for widening of mucosal margins. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy enables detection of dysplasia within clinically unaltered mucosal margins around OSCC, which results in more precise establishing of resection boundaries, contributing to improvement of resection totality. PMID:26759543

  17. [Physical examination of oral cavity and physiological variations].

    PubMed

    Joly, Aline; Huttenberger, Brigitte; Pare, Arnaud

    2017-02-20

    Clinical examination from front to rear of oral cavity, mouth closed then open. Inspection and bimanuel exam. Face examination but also cervical lymph nodes, skin and mucous. Early diagnosis of oral cancer. To reduce diagnostic wavering and patient's stress, physiological varants are important to know. In most cases, clinical examination is enough for diagnosis.

  18. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum in a young child.

    PubMed

    Hutton, A; McKaig, S; Bardsley, P; Monaghan, A; Parmar, S

    2010-01-01

    From the Department of Dental Specialties, Birmingham Children's Hospital. This case study describes a rare case of oral carcinoma cuniculatum in a 7-year-old female. She presented with an enlarged mass of the anterior maxilla arising from the gingiva. An anterior maxillectomy with immediate prosthetic replacement and obturation of the residual defect were carried out. The management of this case was challenging given the rare nature of the disease, unclear etiology, the patient's young age and the mutilating effects of surgery. The treatment involved a large multidisciplinary team. The provision of obturators was particularly difficult due to poor patient compliance and the extent of surgery carried out in a growing child. Oral cancer in children under 15 years old is extremely rare and this is the youngest case of oral carcinoma cuniculatum reported in the literature.

  20. Optical diagnostics in the oral cavity: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, P; Holtzman, J; Epstein, J; Le, A

    2014-01-01

    As the emphasis shifts from damage mitigation to disease prevention or reversal of early disease in the oral cavity, the need for sensitive and accurate detection and diagnostic tools become more important. Many novel and emergent optical diagnostic modalities for the oral cavity are becoming available to clinicians with a variety of desirable attributes including: (i) non-invasiveness, (ii) absence of ionizing radiation, (iii) patient-friendliness, (iv) real-time information (v) repeatability, and (vi) high-resolution surface and subsurface images. In this article, the principles behind optical diagnostic approaches, their feasibility and applicability for imaging soft and hard tissues, and their potential usefulness as a tool in the diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions, dental pathologies, and other dental applications will be reviewed. The clinical applications of light-based imaging technologies in the oral cavity and of their derivative devices will be discussed to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of emergent diagnostic modalities. PMID:20561224

  1. An explosion in the oral cavity by a firecracker.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Min

    2013-01-01

    Explosive oral cavity injuries make restoring optimal oral function a challenge. An explosion in the oral cavity can cause burns and concomitant smoke inhalation injury to the upper airway.We present the case of a patient in whom the middle and lower thirds of the face were destroyed when a firecracker exploded in his oral cavity. Gunpowder tattooing caused by the explosion was present on the retropharyngeal space. He had an open fracture of the mandibular symphysis and inhalation burns of the upper airway were suspected. Tracheostomy was performed because we could not rule out inhalation burns of the upper airway. After close observation, his cardiopulmonary function and vital signs were stable, and we prepared him for reconstructive surgery.

  2. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  3. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Oral Cavity as an Extragastric Reservoir of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S.; Kamath, Kavitha P.; Patil, Shankargouda; Preethanath, R. S.; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several studies were reported on the prevalence, and relationship between the existence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity and in stomach of patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its link to gastric infection, the existence of coinfection, and the impact of anti-H. pylori therapy on the dental plaque and vice versa. Method. Two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The articles were analyzed critically and all qualified studies were included. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words Helicobacter, Helicobacter pylori, and H. pylori in combination with dental plaque, periodontitis, and oral hygiene. Results. The data was presented in 8 tables and each topic separately discussed. Conclusion. Based on the systematic review of the available literature on H. pylori infection and its presence in the oral cavity, it can be concluded that dental plaque can act as a reservoir, and proper oral hygiene maintenance is essential to prevent reinfection. Due to the diversified methods and population groups involved in the available literature, no concrete evidence can be laid down. Further studies are necessary to establish the role of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its eradication on preventing the gastroduodenal infection. PMID:24701355

  5. Oral cavity and lip cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kerawala, C; Roques, T; Jeannon, J-P; Bisase, B

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. It provides recommendations on the assessment and management of patients with cancer of the oral cavity and the lip. Recommendations • Surgery remains the mainstay of management for oral cavity tumours. (R) • Tumour resection should be performed with a clinical clearance of 1 cm vital structures permitting. (R) • Elective neck treatment should be offered for all oral cavity tumours. (R) • Adjuvant radiochemotherapy in the presence of advanced neck disease or positive margins improves control rates. (R) • Early stage lip cancer can be treated equally well by surgery or radiation therapy. (R).

  6. Applications of flexible hollow waveguides in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Israel; Calderon, Shlomo; Dror, Jacob; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1995-05-01

    Flexible plastic waveguides were used in several fields of dentistry for treatments in the oral cavity. Soft tissue lesions were treated applying CO2 laser energy. A new technique for dental implants was suggested using a combination of Er-YAG and CO2 laser energy. Cavity preparation in the teeth was performed using the Er-YAG laser radiation and CO2 energy transmitted by the waveguides was used for root canal treatments.

  7. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  8. Clinical and mycological analysis of dog’s oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Santin, Rosema; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; de Oliveira Nobre, Márcia; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; de Mello, João Roberto Braga; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2013-01-01

    The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis. PMID:24159296

  9. Bacteriophage and their potential roles in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Anna; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Pride, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The human oral cavity provides the perfect portal of entry for viruses and bacteria in the environment to access new hosts. Hence, the oral cavity is one of the most densely populated habitats of the human body containing some 6 billion bacteria and potentially 35 times that many viruses. The role of these viral communities remains unclear; however, many are bacteriophage that may have active roles in shaping the ecology of oral bacterial communities. Other implications for the presence of such vast oral phage communities include accelerating the molecular diversity of their bacterial hosts as both host and phage mutate to gain evolutionary advantages. Additional roles include the acquisitions of new gene functions through lysogenic conversions that may provide selective advantages to host bacteria in response to antibiotics or other types of disturbances, and protection of the human host from invading pathogens by binding to and preventing pathogens from crossing oral mucosal barriers. Recent evidence suggests that phage may be more involved in periodontal diseases than were previously thought, as their compositions in the subgingival crevice in moderate to severe periodontitis are known to be significantly altered. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to dysbiosis or the transition of the microbial community into a state promoting oral disease. Bacteriophage communities are distinct in saliva compared to sub- and supragingival areas, suggesting that different oral biogeographic niches have unique phage ecology shaping their bacterial biota. In this review, we summarize what is known about phage communities in the oral cavity, the possible contributions of phage in shaping oral bacterial ecology, and the risks to public health oral phage may pose through their potential to spread antibiotic resistance gene functions to close contacts. PMID:25861745

  10. Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage 0 Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA

  11. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  12. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery.

    PubMed

    Yee, John K C

    2016-01-14

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization.

  13. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  14. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R. Zhung, Joanne E.; Gomez, Jennifer; Chan, Kelvin; Wu, Abraham J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Wong, Richard J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2006, 35 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. The sites included were buccal mucosa in 8, oral tongue in 11, floor of the mouth in 9, gingiva in 4, hard palate in 2, and retromolar trigone in 1. Most patients had Stage III-IV disease (80%). Ten patients (29%) also received concurrent postoperative chemotherapy with IMRT. The median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 28.1 months (range, 11.9-85.1). Treatment failure occurred in 11 cases as follows: local in 4, regional in 2, and distant metastases in 5. Of the 5 patients with distant metastases, 2 presented with dermal metastases. The 2- and 3-year estimates of locoregional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 84% and 77%, 85% and 85%, 70% and 64%, and 74% and 74%, respectively. Acute Grade 2 or greater dermatitis, mucositis, and esophageal reactions were experienced by 54%, 66%, and 40% of the patients, respectively. Documented late complications included trismus (17%) and osteoradionecrosis (5%). Conclusion: IMRT as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection for oral cavity tumors is feasible and effective, with promising results and acceptable toxicity.

  15. Melanoma of the oral cavity. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cebrián Carretero, J L; Chamorro Pons, M; Montesdeoca, N

    2001-01-01

    Melanoma is a very aggressive tumour derived from malignant transformation of melanic cells of the basal layer of cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Primary melanoma of the oral cavity is the most malignant tumour among head and neck tumours. Inside the oral cavity, 80% are located in the maxilla, preferentially in the palatal mucosa. Although its etiology is unknown, occasionally it forms over a preexisting melanosis of prolonged evolution. In the vast majority of cases it is asymptomatic during years and it is usually detected as a pigmented mass which is sometimes painful. Doctors who treat problems of the oral cavity must be aware of the necessity for early diagnosis of melanoma, performing biopsies of any pigmented lesion. Once it becomes clinically evident, its tendency is to grow toward adjacent structures and to form metastases in cervical lymphatic nodes, turning the tumour into a systemic disease. Prognosis of melanoma in the oral cavity is very poor. The only curative treatment is ablative surgery. Other therapeutic modalities such as: radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy have supposed little contribution to improve survival.

  16. [Study on the oral hygiene of patients with oral cavity cancer].

    PubMed

    Bratoĭcheva, M St; Kondeva, V K

    2008-01-01

    Many authors consider oral hygiene an important factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of oral cavity cancer. The aim of the present study was to establish the role of poor oral hygiene in the development of malignant lesions in the oral cavity. One hundred and three patients were interviewed. Questions, regarding oral hygiene were included in the interview. Results showed that 53,80% of urban residents brush their teeth twice daily whereas 65,52% of rural residents brush their teeth irregularly - p<0,001 (chi(2)=23,67). 46,88% of women clean their teeth twice daily. 46,94% of men do not maintain adequate oral hygiene - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 9,21). Regarding the brush, it was found out that 56,00% of females use a hard bristle toothbrush, the same refers to 28,04% of men - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 4,15). Hard bristle toothbrush was used by 48,88% of urban residents and 9,09% of rural residents - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 5,78). People up to 30 years of age use hard bristle toothbrush most often -39,13% - p<0,01 (chi(2)=12,26). The accumulated evidence provides further explanation why oral cavity cancer is more frequent in men, rural residents and in the elderly. Oral hygiene is a factor in the development of oral cavity cancer.

  17. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.

    PubMed

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival.

  18. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  19. Versatility of nasolabial flaps in oral cavity reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Cebrián-Carretero, José L.; Morán-Soto, María J.; Burgueño-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Describe the techniques involved and the results obtained witn nasolabial flaps in small and medium-sized defects of the oral cavity. The procedure is an easy resconstructive option with a high success rate and with very good aesthetic and functional outcomes. Study Design: A retrospective analysis of 16 nasolabial flap reconstructions in 15 oncological patients with oral cavity defects undergoing single-stage surgical interventions. We evaluate the tumor type, its location, size, the resective and reconstructive techniques involved, as well as any complications. Results: Out of 15 patients, 9 were male and 6 female, with ages ranging from 60-85 years. The primary tumor was located in the mandibular or maxillary gingiva in 7 patients, the lateral margin of the tongue in 5, the floor of the mouth in 3 and the mandibular symphysis in a single patient. The tumors were of a small to medium size. All patients underwent intraoral resections. In most cases, a cervical dissection was performed. All flaps were completed as single-stage surgical interventions, with 14 unilateral and 2 bilateral procedures. Five patients had received radiotherapy treatment for previous tumors. During the follow up period, which ranged from 4 months to 8 years, only one patient required their flap to be thinned, there were two incidents of surgical wound dehiscence, two hematomas and one orocutaneous fistula, none of which affected the survival of the flap. Conclusions: The nasolabial flap proves highly versatile in oral cavity reconstructions, coupled with a minimal morbidity of the donor region and good aesthetic and functional results. Its high vascularity allows for cervical dissections to be carried out or even for radiotherapy to be administered prior to it. It is straightforward, safe, and carrying it out as a single-stage intervention makes it the ideal surgical option for small to medium intraoral defects in edentulous patients with other comorbidities. Key words

  20. Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, José; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A review is made of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and survival characteristics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) of the oral cavity. Material and Methods A systematic literature search was carried out, with restrictions referred to time (1960-2014), language (English and Spanish) and type of study (case reports, letters, datasets, reviews). The following MeSH terms and boolean operators were used: Ewing AND Sarcoma AND [tongue, jaw, maxilla, cheek, condyle OR temporomandibular, floor AND mouth, gum OR gingiva, palate OR palatal, lip, uvula, head AND neck]. Results Seventy-one cases of ES of the oral cavity were documented from 53 articles. The main differences versus ES of other locations were a younger age at manifestation, a shorter time from symptoms onset to diagnosis, and swelling as the most frequent clinical manifestation versus swelling and pain in the rest of disease locations. The way in which ES manifests in the oral cavity is varied and comprises dental displacement (19.7%), dental mobility (7%), root reabsorption (5.6%), destruction of the dental follicle (4.2%), premature exfoliation (4.2%) and paresthesia of the chin (2.8%). Metastatic neck adenopathies appear in 11.3% of the cases. Significant differences in survival are observed between patients with a complete diagnosis of ES (hematoxylin-eosin staining, PAS positivity, CD99 positivity) and those with an incomplete diagnosis. Conclusions Ewing sarcoma of the oral cavity presents a series of specific features that distinguish it from ES of other locations. Key words:Primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET, Ewing sarcoma, Ewing tumor, sarcoma, oral cavity. PMID:28210452

  1. Rare mycoses of the oral cavity: a literature epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Iatta, Roberta; Napoli, Christian; Borghi, Elisa; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2009-11-01

    Stomatologic fungal infections display different etiologies, pathogenesis, and clinical presentations. The incidence of rare mycoses of oral cavity is very low. These infections can involve both immunocompromised and immmunocompetent patients with common predisposing factors, such as diabetes or suffering from diseases causing immune system impairment. Oral mycoses can cause acute, chronic, and mucocutaneous lesions. Candidiasis is the most common mouth mycosis. Although occasionally primary mouth pathogens, Cryptococcus spp. or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes) can cause oral mycoses, with the oral localization more commonly secondary to a more serious systemic infection. The diagnosis of oral mycoses is based on clinical examination; for yeasts, culture is necessary to identify the etiologic agents; for filamentous fungi, in particular for zygomycetes and dimorphic, a definitive diagnosis can be made by histologic examination and pertinent stains with or without isolation of the fungus from the same site.

  2. GLUT-1 immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Vidya C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2015-06-01

    Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P < 0.001). The expression in VC was predominantly membranous and intense, resembling well differentiated OSCC. This increase of GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity.

  3. Apoptotic Index and Proliferative Index in Premalignant and Malignant Squamous Cell Lesions of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vidya; Juluri, Ravichandra; Goel, Seema; Madan, Jyotsna; Mitra, Subir K; Gopalakrishnan, Dharmarajan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell lesions are most commonly diagnosed lesions in India. Both premalignant and malignant lesions are frequently encountered. In this study, we evaluated the role and significance of apoptotic indices (AI) and proliferative indices (PI) in premalignant and malignant squamous cell lesions of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 histologically proven cases of premalignant and malignant oral squamous cell lesions were analyzed. The biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and also with monoclonal antibody Ki-67. AI and PI were assessed using a light microscope. Results: AI was found to increase gradually from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest AI was seen in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). PI also was found to increase significantly from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest PI was seen in poorly differentiated SCC. Conclusion: AI in conjunction with the PI offers an accurate idea as to the nature and course of the lesion and may help to plan timely surgical intervention that results in better clinical prognosis and outcome. PMID:25709366

  4. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  5. [Results of surgical treatment of oral cavity cancer T1-2N0M0].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, A V; Sibgatullin, R R; Belova, E N; Boĭko, A A; Zolotykh, V G; Roman, L D

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the results of treatment of 20 patients (aged from 46 to 85 years old) with early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma at the period from April 2009 to January 2011. The surgery included the resection of primary tumor and neck dissection in all the patients. The primary tumor was removed by mouth access in 10 patients and combined method was used in 10 cases. The selective neck dissection was carried out in 22 cases. The oral cavity wounds were closed primarily by local flaps in 10 patients, some small residual defects were left open in 3 cases. The reconstructions with remote skin-muscular infrahyoid flap were performed in 7 patients. The free revascularized radial skin-fascia flap was used in 3 cases. A follow-up period was from 24 to 44 months. The primary local regional control consisted of 85% in given group of patients. The rate of recurrence of the second primary metachronous tumor was 15%. Tumors were located in the oral cavity. Overall 3-year survival was 90% (18 out of 20 patients).

  6. Inorganic chemistry of defensive peroxidases in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ashby, M T

    2008-10-01

    The innate host response system is comprised of various mechanisms for orchestrating host response to microbial infection of the oral cavity. The heterogeneity of the oral cavity and the associated microenvironments that are produced give rise to different chemistries that affect the innate defense system. One focus of this review is on how these spatial differences influence the two major defensive peroxidases of the oral cavity, salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). With hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidant, the defensive peroxidases use inorganic ions to produce antimicrobials that are generally more effective than H(2)O(2) itself. The concentrations of the inorganic substrates are different in saliva vs. gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Thus, in the supragingival regime, SPO and MPO work in unison for the exclusive production of hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-), a reactive inorganic species), which constantly bathes nascent plaques. In contrast, MPO is introduced to the GCF during inflammatory response, and in that environment it is capable of producing hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a chemically more powerful oxidant that is implicated in host tissue damage. A second focus of this review is on inter-person variation that may contribute to different peroxidase function. Many of these differences are attributed to dietary or smoking practices that alter the concentrations of relevant inorganic species in the oral cavity (e.g.: fluoride, F(-); cyanide, CN(-); cyanate, OCN(-); thiocyanate, SCN(-); and nitrate, NO(3)(-)). Because of the complexity of the host and microflora biology and the associated chemistry, it is difficult to establish the significance of the human peroxidase systems during the pathogenesis of oral diseases. The problem is particularly complex with respect to the gingival sulcus and periodontal pockets (where the very different defensive stratagems of GCF and saliva co-mingle). Despite this complexity, intriguing in vitro and in vivo

  7. Pedunculated carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Po-Wu; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chen, Jeng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: A carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an epithelial malignancy arising in or from a benign pleomorphic salivary adenoma. The parotid gland is the most common location of CXPAs. Minor salivary gland CXPAs of the nasal cavity are exceedingly rare, with only 6 documented in the literature. Methods and Result: We present a 7th case: an unusual pedunculated intranasal CXPA, which had a favorable outcome after a wide endoscopic excision and the longest follow-up period reported to date. The clinical features, immunohistochemical characteristics, treatment choices, and disease outcomes of the intranasal CXPAs reported in previous studies are also reviewed. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of CXPA in the differential diagnosis of minor salivary gland malignancies in the nasal cavity. PMID:27684860

  8. Agrin and perlecan mediate tumorigenic processes in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Rebeca; Granato, Daniela C; Carnielli, Carolina M; Cervigne, Nilva K; Oliveria, Carine E; Rivera, César; Martinez, César A R; Yokoo, Sami; Fonseca, Felipe P; Lopes, Marcio; Santos-Silva, Alan R; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer in the oral cavity, representing more than 90% of all oral cancers. The characterization of altered molecules in oral cancer is essential to understand molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression as well as to contribute to cancer biomarker and therapeutic target discovery. Proteoglycans are key molecular effectors of cell surface and pericellular microenvironments, performing multiple functions in cancer. Two of the major basement membrane proteoglycans, agrin and perlecan, were investigated in this study regarding their role in oral cancer. Using real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), we showed that agrin and perlecan are highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, cell lines originated from distinct sites showed different expression of agrin and perlecan. Enzymatically targeting chondroitin sulfate modification by chondroitinase, oral squamous carcinoma cell line had a reduced ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and increased sensibility to cisplatin. Additionally, knockdown of agrin and perlecan promoted a decrease on cell migration and adhesion, and on resistance of cells to cisplatin. Our study showed, for the first time, a negative regulation on oral cancer-associated events by either targeting chondroitin sulfate content or agrin and perlecan levels.

  9. Agrin and Perlecan Mediate Tumorigenic Processes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Rebeca; Granato, Daniela C.; Carnielli, Carolina M.; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Oliveria, Carine E.; Martinez, César A. R.; Yokoo, Sami; Fonseca, Felipe P.; Lopes, Marcio; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer in the oral cavity, representing more than 90% of all oral cancers. The characterization of altered molecules in oral cancer is essential to understand molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression as well as to contribute to cancer biomarker and therapeutic target discovery. Proteoglycans are key molecular effectors of cell surface and pericellular microenvironments, performing multiple functions in cancer. Two of the major basement membrane proteoglycans, agrin and perlecan, were investigated in this study regarding their role in oral cancer. Using real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), we showed that agrin and perlecan are highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, cell lines originated from distinct sites showed different expression of agrin and perlecan. Enzymatically targeting chondroitin sulfate modification by chondroitinase, oral squamous carcinoma cell line had a reduced ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and increased sensibility to cisplatin. Additionally, knockdown of agrin and perlecan promoted a decrease on cell migration and adhesion, and on resistance of cells to cisplatin. Our study showed, for the first time, a negative regulation on oral cancer-associated events by either targeting chondroitin sulfate content or agrin and perlecan levels. PMID:25506919

  10. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  11. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Velez, Ines

    2016-09-01

    Classic granular cell tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm that commonly occurs on the skin, but is not infrequently found in the oral cavity, primarily on the dorsal tongue. Diagnosis is usually straightforward with hematoxylin and eosin stained slides. Immunohistochemical studies on classic granular cell tumor shows positive immunostaining for S-100 and vimentin, while CD68 is variably positive. We report a case of otherwise unremarkable oral granular cell tumor that was immunohistochemically negative for S-100, and positive for vimentin and CD68, and discuss the differential diagnosis. The results of the immunohistochemical studies in our case are compared with those of classic S-100 positive oral granular cell tumors, as well as cutaneous and oral S-100 negative granular cell tumors. Classic S-100 positive granular cell tumors and S-100 negative granular cell tumors of the oral cavity can only be distinguished by immunohistochemical studies; however, the necessity of this distinction is unclear, as both are benign lesions in which recurrence is unlikely.

  12. Oxidative stress in the oral cavity: sources and pathological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Avezov, Katia; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium, is thought to be involved in the development of many seemingly unrelated diseases. Oral cavity tissues are a unique environment constantly exposed to internal and external compounds and material hazards as almost no other part of the human body. Some of the compounds are capable of generating OS. Here, the main groups of endogenous as well as exogenous OS sources are presented, followed by their oxidative effect on the salivary contents and function. The oxidative mechanisms in oral cells and their pathologic influence are also discussed.

  13. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-02

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis.

  14. Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Pierre M.; Gilhuly, Terence; Whitehead, Peter D.; Zeng, Haishan; Poh, Catherine; Ng, Samson; Williams, Michelle; Zhang, Lewei; Rosin, Miriam; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2006-03-01

    Early identification of high-risk disease could greatly reduce both mortality and morbidity due to oral cancer. We describe a simple handheld device that facilitates the direct visualization of oral-cavity fluorescence for the detection of high-risk precancerous and early cancerous lesions. Blue excitation light (400 to 460 nm) is employed to excite green-red fluorescence from fluorophores in the oral tissues. Tissue fluorescence is viewed directly along an optical axis collinear with the axis of excitation to reduce inter- and intraoperator variability. This robust, field-of-view device enables the direct visualization of fluorescence in the context of surrounding normal tissue. Results from a pilot study of 44 patients are presented. Using histology as the gold standard, the device achieves a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 100% when discriminating normal mucosa from severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS) or invasive carcinoma. We envisage this device as a suitable adjunct for oral cancer screening, biopsy guidance, and margin delineation.

  15. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy.

  16. Site-dependant redox ratio in healthy oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Sivabalan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2011-03-01

    The metabolic coenzymes NADH and FAD are autofluorescent and can be monitored non-destructively and without exogenous labels, using optical techniques. These endogenous fluorophores which are present in the cells and tissues gives rise to different fluorescence emission/excitation spectra between the normal and different diseased conditions. In the resent years, finding the optical redox ratio i.e., the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of FAD and NADH, gives the relative change in the oxidation-reduction state of the cells. Unlike other organs oral cavity has lined with variety of mucosal types. We investigated in vivo Optical redox ratio for four different anatomical locations viz., cheek mucosa, vermilion border of the lip, Hard palate, dorsal side of the tongue of healthy oral cavity. We measured this ratio for 20 healthy subjects and the redox ratio was significantly different between the different anatomical locations. The statistical significance was also investigated.

  17. Differential cell-specific cytotoxic responses of oral cavity cells to tobacco preparations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, Gaddamanugu L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of standardized (reference) tobacco preparations on human oral cavity cells, two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (101A, 101B) and normal human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) were treated with cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), smokeless tobacco extracted with complete artificial saliva (ST/CAS), or whole-smoke conditioned media (WS-CM). EC-50 values, as determined by sulforhodamine B assays, varied among the cell types and agents. When normalized to nicotine content, cytotoxicity for WS-CM and TPM was higher compared to that observed with ST/CAS. Nicotine alone had no or only minimal cytotoxicity for all cell types in the applied range. Activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was examined in all cell types at their respective EC-50 doses for the three agents. TPM, but not ST/CAS or WS-CM significantly activated caspase-3 in all three cell types. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for expression of the early apoptosis marker Annexin V and for nuclear staining by 7-aminoactinomycin (7-AAD) revealed different extents of apoptosis versus non-apoptotic cell death for the three agents. These data characterize differential responses of normal and malignant oral cells after exposure to TPM, ST/CAS, or WS-CM. They assist in understanding differential effects of combustible versus non-combustible tobacco products, and in identifying novel biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and effect in the oral cavity.

  18. Photodynamic action on some pathogenic microorganisms of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99 % are determined.

  19. Bortezomib Followed by the Addition of Doxorubicin at Disease Progression in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  20. [Antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F; Castorina, A

    1989-09-30

    More than 300 commencial bacterial species may be found in the oral cavity. Other microorganisms, such as mycoplasms, mycetes, protozoa and viruses are present as well. The virulency of the saprofites and additional contamination by outside microorganisms are factors determining the development of infectious process in the oral tissues. Moreover, streptococci and anaerobes are the most frequent aetiology agents. The antibiotic therapy should comply with the general treatment criteria, on the one hand, and should be specific for these microorganism, on the other. The penicillines (ampicillin, bacampicillin and especially amoxycillin) process pharmacokinetic properties which make them a favorable choice for treatment. These drugs are effective in case of streptococcal infections, with cariogenic processes involvement and dissemination (endocarditis, glomerulonephritis). Other, frequently used drugs are spiramycin, erythromycin, josamycin and myocamycin that are selectively taken up by the oral tissues and present in large quantities in the saliva. The macrolides have a large spectrum of action on microorganisms normally found in the oral cavity. Lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) are active on anaerobes and are drugs of choice for treatment of staphylococcal osteomyelitis. Tetracycline therapy is restricted usually to parodontite cases caused by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Capnocytophaga. In conclusion, the choice of antibacterial therapy should be based on the bacterial aetiology, as well as on the intrinsic drug characteristics (pharmacokinetic, side effects, toxicity etc.).

  1. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  2. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  3. Colonization of the oral cavity by probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravn, I; Dige, I; Meyer, R L; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if three probiotic bacteria present in the milk product Cultura Dofilus® naturell could be detected in saliva and on oral mucosal surfaces, and if they colonized dental surfaces in situ in 8 caries-inactive individuals after 8 daily exposures to the milk product for up to 3 days. Bacteria were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. While probiotic bacteria were present sporadically in the oral cavity on mucosal surfaces and in saliva after 3 days of frequent use of the probiotic milk, they were not detected on dental surfaces. Probiotic bacteria may thus contribute to general oral health, but their potential role in biofilm-induced dental diseases remains unclear.

  4. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  5. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Guttenplan, Joseph B; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2012-06-15

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity.

  6. Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

  7. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  8. Combusted but not smokeless tobacco products cause DNA damage in oral cavity cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, G L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate genomic DNA damage in human oral cavity cells after exposure to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs). The oral carcinoma cell line 101A, gingival epithelial cells HGEC, and gingival fibroblasts HGF were exposed to TPM (total particulate matter from 3R4F cigarettes), ST/CAS (2S3 smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva), and NIC (nicotine). Treatments were for 24 h using TPM at its EC-50 doses, ST/CAS and NIC at doses with equi-nicotine units, and high doses for ST/CAS and NIC. Comet assays showed that TPM, but not ST/CAS or NIC, caused substantial DNA breaks in cells; only the high ST/CAS dose caused weak DNA damage. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence for γ-H2AX protein. These data revealed that the combusted TPP caused substantial DNA damage in all cell types, whereas the two non-combusted TPPs exerted no or only minimal DNA damage. They support epidemiologic evidence on the relative risk associated with consumption of non-combusted versus combusted tobacco products, and help to understand potential genotoxic effects of such products on oral cavity cells.

  9. Cytology of the oral cavity: a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Navone, R

    2009-02-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology, while an economical and practical tool for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, is not extensively used. The results of conventional (n = 89) and liquid-based (n = 411) oral diagnostic cytology cases are reported and compared to histological diagnosis. Cells were collected using either a Cytobrush device for conventional smears or a dermatological curette (AcuDispo) for liquid-based (Thin Prep) cytology. The "curette technique" allowed for the collection of "accidental" tissue fragments, utilized as microbiopsies. The sensitivity was 86.5% in conventional and 94.7% in liquid-based cytology; specificity was 94.3% and 98.9%, respectively; inadequate samples were present in 12.4% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. Although conventional cytology may be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhances both the sensitivity and specificity, and also provides material for further investigations, e.g. DNA ploidy studies, microhistology, etc.

  10. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  11. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  12. Laser-induced autofluorescence of oral cavity hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E. G.; Uzunov, Tz. T.; Avramov, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    In current study oral cavity hard tissues autofluorescence was investigated to obtain more complete picture of their optical properties. As an excitation source nitrogen laser with parameters - 337,1 nm, 14 μJ, 10 Hz (ILGI-503, Russia) was used. In vitro spectra from enamel, dentine, cartilage, spongiosa and cortical part of the periodontal bones were registered using a fiber-optic microspectrometer (PC2000, "Ocean Optics" Inc., USA). Gingival fluorescence was also obtained for comparison of its spectral properties with that of hard oral tissues. Samples are characterized with significant differences of fluorescence properties one to another. It is clearly observed signal from different collagen types and collagen-cross links with maxima at 385, 430 and 480-490 nm. In dentine are observed only two maxima at 440 and 480 nm, related also to collagen structures. In samples of gingival and spongiosa were observed traces of hemoglobin - by its re-absorption at 545 and 575 nm, which distort the fluorescence spectra detected from these anatomic sites. Results, obtained in this study are foreseen to be used for development of algorithms for diagnosis and differentiation of teeth lesions and other problems of oral cavity hard tissues as periodontitis and gingivitis.

  13. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anirudh

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers in India, unlike in the West are the most common cancers encountered, be it a primary or a tertiary referral practice. This makes the study and management of these cancers an important issue especially for the otolaryngologist. It is well known that the most common variant of oral cancers is the squamous cell carcinoma. Also the etiology is well established; with tobacco use in both smoking and smokeless forms, alcohol, betel nut and recently the Human Papilloma virus infection being implicated. Certain conditions which definitely increase the probability of getting oral cancers are known and this study aims in revisiting these aspects of pre-malignancy. The progression from a pre-cancerous lesion/condition to frank cancer is well established across many studies and many specialties. Also timely recognizing these pre-cancerous conditions and administration of proper treatment will greatly help in reducing the morbidity and mortality from subsequent much advanced and dangerous oral cancer. Keeping these facts in mind this study was planned to study the established pre-cancerous lesions which are known to progress to oral cancers.

  14. Clearance and metabolism of starch foods in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Birkenfeld, L H

    1999-01-01

    The presence of carbohydrates and organic acids was monitored in the oral cavity over a 3-hour period following the ingestion of six foods containing cooked starch (popcorn, potato chips, corn flakes, bread stick, hard pretzel and wheat cracker) and compared to a food containing sugar (chocolate-covered candy bar). Oral fluid samples were collected at 30-min intervals from five different tooth sites from 7 volunteers using absorbent paper points. Samples were analyzed for carbohydrates and organic acids using high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical data for each food were pooled and compared to the results of the sugar food. The amount of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was highest with the potato chips and lowest with the corn flakes. Potato starch contributed more readily to oral lactic acid production than wheat or corn starch. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of oral glucose produced from starch, which occurred via the metabolites maltotriose and maltose. Oral clearance of foods containing cooked starch proceeded significantly slower than that of the sugar food, thus contributing to a prolonged period of lactic acid production.

  15. Role of radium implants in cancer of the oral cavity and oral pharynx. [Control and survival rates and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Fayos, J.V.

    1980-04-01

    Eighty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity tonsillar region or base of the tongue received a radium implant. Implants were done as a supplement to external irradiation except in three patients in whom it was the sole form of treatment. The median dose was 8500 rad given in about 8 weeks, 6000 to 6500 rad given by opposing lateral fields using /sup 60/Co radiation; 25% of the patients received doses higher than 8600 rad. The implant boosted the dose to the primary. Most of the patients who had radium implants had advanced disease. The overall control rate of the primary was 45.9%, the highest control achieved with smaller lesions. Surgery was performed in 26 patients for recurrence at the primary; five developed osteonecrosis of the jaw bone. The survival at 4 and 5 years was approximately equal for Stages I and II (80%); it was 40% for Stages III and IV.

  16. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  17. HIV shedding in the oral cavity: an assessment of HIV type, immunovirologic, demographic and oral factors

    PubMed Central

    Pavlinac, Patricia B; Hawes, Stephen E; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Gaye, Awa; N'Diaye, Charlotte F; Critchlow, Cathy W; Sow, Papa Salif; Feng, Qinghua; Kiviat, Nancy B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the prevalence and burden of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) and HIV-1 RNA in the oral cavity of antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected Senegalese individuals and to identify correlates of oral HIV viral loads. Design A cross-sectional study of 163 HIV-1 and 27 HIV-2-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive Senegalese adults. Methods Participants received clinical and oral exams and provided blood and oral wash samples for viral load and plasma CD4 count ascertainment. Logistic and interval regression models were used to identify univariate and multivariable associations between presence and level of oral HIV RNA and various immunovirologic, local and demographic factors. Results Presence of detectable oral HIV RNA was less common in HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-1-infected study participants (33% vs 67%, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.59). HIV type was no longer associated with oral shedding of HIV when plasma viral load was considered. Detection of oral HIV RNA was associated with increased plasma viral load in both HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected individuals (HIV-1, OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.61; HIV-2, OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.39). Oral HIV-1 detection was also associated with periodontal disease (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.16 to 7.87). Conclusions Oral shedding of HIV-2 RNA is less common than HIV-1 RNA, a likely consequence of lower overall viral burden. Both systemic and local factors may contribute to shedding of HIV in the oral cavity. PMID:22250179

  18. Symptomatic hemangioma of oral cavity treated with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.

    1995-05-01

    The CO2 laser has been used by our group as a secure and efficient tool for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangiomas which can be responsible for disturbance for swallowing, phonation and in hygienic, besides discomfort and bleeding to patients. During the last four years, twelve patients with symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma were treated at the Laser Unit of our University. The treatment consisted in the application of CO2 laser at medium to low intensity according to characteristics and location of the lesions. For hemangiomas located at sites of easy surgical access such as anterior 1/3 of the tongue, lips, bucal vestibule we use 10 to 37 J/mm2 over the surface of the lesion. When the hemangioma was located at difficult surgical access sites, such as, tonsils, posterior 1/3 of tongue, or at pharyngeal wall we used 3.0 to 4.0 J/mm2 encircling the whole hemangioma. This causes reduction in the size of the lesion throughout sclerosis of nutrition vessels. After this initial procedure we applied 0.8 to 1.0 J/mm2 over the whole extent of the lesion. For both procedures we observed no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. The patients referred minimal post-operative discomfort with good cicatricial evolution. The evident reduction in the vascularization and size could be confirmed by photographic documentation. The good results described above, with disappearance of symptoms lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser is an efficient and secure method of treatment for symptomatic hemangioma of the oral cavity.

  19. Carcinogenesis of the Oral Cavity: Environmental Causes and Potential Prevention by Black Raspberry.

    PubMed

    El-Bayoumy, Karam; Chen, Kun-Ming; Zhang, Shang-Min; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Amin, Shantu; Stoner, Gary; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2017-01-17

    Worldwide, cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx comprise the sixth most common malignancies. Histologically, more than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Epidemiologic data strongly support the role of exogenous factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and human papilloma virus infection as major causative agents. Avoidance of risk factors has only been partially successful, and survival rates have not improved despite advances in therapeutic approaches. Therefore, new or improved approaches to prevention and/or early detection are critical. Better understanding of the mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis can assist in the development of novel biomarkers for early detection and strategies for disease prevention. Toward this goal, several animal models for carcinogenesis in the oral cavity have been developed. Among these are xenograft, and transgenic animal models, and others employing the synthetic carcinogens such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in hamster cheek pouch and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide in rats and mice. Additional animal models employing environmental carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene and N'-nitrosonornicotine have been reported. Each model has certain advantages and disadvantages. Models that (1) utilize environmental carcinogens, (2) reflect tumor heterogeneity, and (3) accurately represent the cellular and molecular changes involved in the initiation and progression of oral cancer in humans could provide a realistic platform. To achieve this goal, we introduced a novel nonsurgical mouse model to study oral carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), an environmental pollutant and tobacco smoke constituent, and its diol epoxide metabolite (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene [(±)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE]. On the basis of a detailed comparison of oral cancer induced by DB[a,l]P with that induced by the other above-mentioned oral carcinogens with respect to dose, duration, species and

  20. Cancer Salivary Biomarkers for Tumours Distant to the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rapado-González, Óscar; Majem, Blanca; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; López-López, Rafa; Suarez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of saliva as a diagnostic approach for systemic diseases was proposed just two decades ago, but recently great interest in the field has emerged because of its revolutionary potential as a liquid biopsy and its usefulness as a non-invasive sampling method. Multiple molecules isolated in saliva have been proposed as cancer biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, drug monitoring and pharmacogenetic studies. In this review, we focus on the current status of the salivary diagnostic biomarkers for different cancers distant to the oral cavity, noting their potential use in the clinic and their applicability in personalising cancer therapies. PMID:27626410

  1. Teratoid cyst of the oral cavity: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Palaskar, Sangeeta J; Garde, Janardan; Bartake, Anirudha; Narang, Bindiya

    2014-01-01

    The teratoid cyst is a rare variant of the dermoid cyst which seldom occurs in the oral cavity. If seen, they generally present as slow growing cysts of the floor of mouth, reported commonly in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life in males. Histopathologically, dermoid cyst is classified as epidermoid cyst, true dermoid cyst and teratoid cyst depending on the presence of adnexal structures and derivatives of all three germ layers. Herewith we report a rare case of teratoid cyst of the floor of the mouth, in a 2-year-old female child, which was present since birth. PMID:25949009

  2. Histopathologic risk factors in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma variants: An update with special reference to HPV-related carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    : basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), undifferentiated carcinoma (UCa), papillary squamous carcinoma (PSCC) and small cell carcinoma. Some studies have suggested favorable prognosis in some variants, analogous to that of the (NKSCC), while others showed poorer outcome. So far the number of studies on this subject is limited and the number of cases evaluated in each investigation is few. Because of that, it is prudent at this stage, not to alter management protocols as a result of identification of HPV in these variants and to await additional information Key words:Histopathologic risk-factors, oral cavity, oropharynx, squamous cell carcinoma variants, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, HPV, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, papillary squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma. PMID:24880454

  3. What Are the Key Statistics about Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers? The American ... increase the risk for these second cancers. For statistics related to survival, see the section Survival Rates ...

  4. Nuclear fractal dimension as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goutzanis, L; Papadogeorgakis, N; Pavlopoulos, P M; Katti, K; Petsinis, V; Plochoras, I; Pantelidaki, C; Kavantzas, N; Patsouris, E; Alexandridis, C

    2008-04-01

    Strong theoretical reasons exist for using fractal geometry in measurements of natural objects, including most objects studied in pathology. Indeed, fractal dimension provides a more precise and theoretically more appropriate approximation of their structure properties and especially their shape complexity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nuclear fractal dimension (FD) in tissue specimens from patients with oral cavity carcinomas in order to assess its potential value as prognostic factor. Relationships between FD and other factors including clinicopathologic characteristics were also investigated. Histological sections from 48 oral squamous cell carcinomas as well as from 17 non-malignant mucosa specimens were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for pathological examination and with Feulgen for nuclear complexity evaluation. The sections were evaluated by image analysis using fractal analysis software to quantify nuclear FD by the box-counting method. Carcinomas presented higher mean values of FD compared to normal mucosa. Well differentiated neoplasms had lower FD values than poorly differentiated ones. FD was significantly correlated with the nuclear size. Patients with FD lower than the median value of the sample had statistically significant higher survival rates. Within the sample of patients studied, FD was proved to be an independent prognostic factor of survival in oral cancer patients. In addition this study provides evidence that there are several statistically significant correlations between FD and other morphometric characteristics or clinicopathologic factors in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

  5. Multiple ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas arising in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Aisu, Naoya; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  6. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  7. Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pancholi, Mayank; Sharma, Sanjay; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Methods: This was a study of the patients presenting with recurrent oral cavity cancer after exhausted ipsilateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (PMMC) in whom we used contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (Crossed PMMC Flap) for reconstruction between October 2013 to June 2016. Results: Five patients with recurrence underwent reconstruction with contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap. In all the flap was successfully used to reconstruct defects involving the entire buccal mucosa and in one patient the flap could be used to reconstruct full thickness resection defect(crossed bipedal PMMC Flap) with ease. Conclusion: Crossed Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap can be used safely and reliably for reconstruction of the buccal mucosal defect and in selected patients even for full thickness cheek defect as folded bipaddle Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

  8. Analysis of parabens in dentifrices and the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Duk; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Song, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed levels of parabens in commercial dentifrices and saliva. HPLC was performed using 35% acetonitrile and measuring absorbance at 254 nm. Thirteen toothpastes and five mouthwashes were analyzed. Of these, volunteers used three toothpastes and two mouthwashes, and levels of parabens were analyzed in saliva and water used for mouth rinsing. In toothpastes, the highest concentrations of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP) and n-butylparaben (nBP) were 1.86, 1.42 and 1.87 mg/g, respectively. In mouthwashes, the highest concentrations of MP and PP were 0.97 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. After volunteers used 500 mg toothpaste T-1, which contained 895 µg MP, the first and tenth mouth rinse samples contained means of 64.63 and 1.89 µg MP, respectively. After rinsing the mouth three or five times, 37 µg or 18 µg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity, respectively. After using 20 mL mouthwash S-1, which contained 19 mg MP, 1.53 mg MP was calculated to remain in the oral cavity. Immediately after using this mouthwash, the mean salivary concentration of MP was 237 µg/mL. The daily intake of parabens from dentifrices was predicted to be insignificant compared with the intake from food; however, parabens can be ingested from dentifrices.

  9. [Early morphogenesis of ciliated cells in human oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Kurtova, A I; Chernikov, V P; Savel'ev, S V

    2013-01-01

    Ciliated cells were found in the epithelium of the oral cavity of human embryos and fetuses starting from the seventh week of prenatal development. At the early stages of prenatal development (until the 13th week), cells with cilia cover most of the dorsal surface of the tongue and the soft palate, whereas they are found only near the gland ducts in the circumvallate and foliate lingual papillae after 17 weeks of development. The ultrastructure of the axoneme of cilia corresponds to the structure of motile cilia and is represented by nine microtubule doublets that surround the central pair of microtubule singlets. An immunohistochemical study performed on weeks 10-12 of development identified nerve endings associated with the ciliated cells. Until the 14th week of development, the cytoplasm of ciliated cells is immunopositive for NSE. The spatial distribution of ciliated cells in the tongue epithelium until the 13th week of development is not related to the morphogenesis of lingual papillae, and their role in the human oral cavity during the first trimester of pregnancy is unclear and requires further study.

  10. Telomerase activity in the occurrence and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yuji; Yoshida, Noriaki; Nozaki, Tadashige; Inoue, Harumi; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the risk factors for carcinogenesis. It was recently reported that telomerase plays an important role in inducing such chronic inflammation. Although high telomerase activity is detected in cancer tissues, the activator of telomerase is still unknown. In this study, we used an immunohistochemical method to examine the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the effects of inflammatory cytokines on the telomerase activity and migration of oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, HSC-3, and HSC-4) were examined. Immunoreactivity for hTERT was observed in squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and squamous cell carcinoma. Telomerase activity in Ca9-22 cells was increased by treatment with TNF-α and INF-γ, while its activity in HSC-4 cells was decreased by IL-1β. Although inflammatory cytokines did not affect the proliferative activity of any of the oral cancer cell lines, cytokines and hTERT siRNA promoted the migration of HSC-3 cells. These results suggest that the presence of long-term chronic inflammation may increase telomerase activity and therefore contribute to malignant transformation of the oral mucosal epithelium. Furthermore, inhibition of telomerase activity by inflammatory stimuli increases the invasion of certain types of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

  11. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Correa, Pelayo; Oreggia, Fernando; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Mendilaharsu, Maria; Leiva, Juan

    2005-01-01

    From 1995 to 2002, a case-control study on food groups and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Two hundred thirty cases were frequency-matched to 460 controls on age, residence, and urban/rural status. The study was restricted to men. The relationship between foods and risk of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined through: 1) individual food group analysis, 2) factor analysis, and 3) determination of empirical scores. The results were similar. Factor analysis generated 2 patterns, which were labeled as "stew" and "vegetables and fruits." The stew pattern loaded positively on boiled meat, cooked vegetables, potato, and sweet potato. This pattern was directly associated with risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.99-7.06; P value for trend=0.0002]. The vegetables and fruits factor loaded positively on raw vegetables, citrus fruits, other fruits, liver, fish, and desserts. This pattern was inversely associated with risk of oropharyngeal carcinoma (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64; P value for trend=0.0008). Joint effects of high intake of risk foods and low intake of protective foods were associated with a risk of 12.0 (95% CI, 4.1-34.6). Our study confirms the important role of dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer risk and suggests that the analysis of dietary patterns is a powerful tool to investigate the links between nutrition and cancer.

  12. The study of blue LED to induce fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging for oral carcinoma detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Longjiang; Hu, Yuanting

    2009-07-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging diagnosis of malignant lesions provides us with a new method to diagnose diseases in precancerous stage. Early diagnosis of disease has significant importance in cancer treatment, because most cancers can be cured well in precancerous, especially when the diffusion of cancer is limited in a restricted region. In this study, Golden hamster models were applied to 5% 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) to induce hamster buccal cheek pouch carcinoma three times a week. Rose Bengal, which has been used in clinican for years and avoids visible side-effect to human was chosen as photosensitizer. 405 nm blue LED was used to induce the fluorescence of photosensitizer. After topical application of photosensitizer, characteristic red emission fluorescence peak was observed around 600nm. Similar, normal oral cavity has special luminescence around 480nm. Fluorescence spectroscopy technology is based on analysing emission peaks of photosensitizer in the areas of oral carcinoma, moreover, red-to-green (IR/IG) intensity ratio is also applied as a diagnostic algorithm. A CCD which is connected with a computer is used to take pictures at carcinoma areas through different filters. Fluorescence images from normal hamster buccal cheek pouch are compared with those from carcinogen-induced models of carcinoma, and morphological differences between normal and lesion tissue can be distinguished. The pictures are analyzed by Matlab and shown on the screen of computer. This paper demonstrates that Rose Bengal could be used as photosensitizer to detect oral carcinoma, and blue LED as excitation source could not only have a good effect to diagnose oral carcinoma, but also decrease cost greatly.

  13. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  14. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  15. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  16. Malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Akagi, Tetsuya; Park, Chun-Ho

    2014-06-01

    A malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the oral cavity was diagnosed in an 8-year-old domestic short-hair cat. The mass was located in the gingiva of the upper left premolar to molar region and showed multinodular growth patterns. The mass comprised epithelioid cells arranged in densely packed sheets. Tumor cells had large, round to oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, most of the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, but all lacked melanoma-associated antigen and muscle and neuroendocrine markers. Stains for type IV collagen showed linear immunoreactivity around single cells and groups of cells. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells were separated by a well-defined basement membrane, and interdigitating cell processes were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of feline malignant epithelioid schwannoma.

  17. Polymicrobial Candida biofilms: friends and foe in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lindsay E; Millhouse, Emma; Sherry, Leighann; Kean, Ryan; Malcolm, Jennifer; Nile, Christopher J; Ramage, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    The role of polymicrobial biofilm infections in medicine is becoming more apparent. Increasing number of microbiome studies and deep sequencing has enabled us to develop a greater understanding of how positive and negative microbial interactions influence disease outcomes. An environment where this is particularly pertinent is within the oral cavity, a rich and diverse ecosystem inhabited by both bacteria and yeasts, which collectively occupy and coexist within various niches as biofilm communities. Studies within this environment have however tended to be subject to extensive independent investigation, in the context of either polymicrobial bacterial communities or yeast biofilms, but rarely both together. It is clear however that they are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, this review aims to explore the influence of candidal populations on the composition of these complex aggregates and biofilm communities, to investigate their mechanistic interactions to understand how these impact clinical outcomes, and determine whether we can translate how this knowledge can be used to improve patient management.

  18. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Iria; Varela, Pablo; Romero, Amparo; García, María José; Suárez, María Mercedes; Seoane, Juan

    2007-08-01

    The colour of a lesion is due to its nature and to its histological substratum. In order to ease diagnosis, oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such a classification for yellow lesions. So, a suggestion for a classification of yellowish lesions according to their semiology is made with the following headings: diffuse macular lesions, papular, hypertrophic, or pustular lesions, together with cysts and nodes. This interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. It should be taken into account that, as happens with any other classification, the yellowish group of lesions includes items with different prognosis as well as possible markers of systemic disorders.

  19. Oral carcinoma associated with betel nut chewing in the Pacific: an impending crisis?

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Janette M; Syms, Mark J; Sniezek, Joseph C

    2005-03-01

    In Western populations, tobacco and alcohol use are the major etiologic factors associated with oral cavity cancers. In developing countries of Asia and the South Pacific, however, oral cancer is increasingly associated with the chewing of betel nut. As the population of Asia and the South Pacific immigrates, Head and Neck surgeons in North America are likely to see more patients with oral carcinoma induced by betel nut chewing. Tumor Registry records from 1977-2003 from a tertiary care, referral medical center were reviewed. All patient charts (27) demonstrating betel quid use of greater than 20 years and carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract were entered into the study. Five-year disease-free rates by stage were as follows: Stage 1: 100% (2/2); Stage 11: 50% (2/4); Stage III: 36% (4/9): Stage IV: 25% (3/12). Despite the prevalent misperception in the Pacific region that betel nut chewing is a harmless habit, betel nut-induced oral carcinomas are aggressive malignancies requiring aggressive treatment and long-term follow-up.

  20. The Oral Cavity and Age: A Site of Chronic Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Bäck, Magnus; Hlawaty, Hanna; Labat, Carlos; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Brink, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Background Aging may be accompanied by a low grade chronic up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. A variety of endogenous locally released mediators as well as inflammatory cells have been reported in the human oral cavity. The aim of this investigation was to determine the presence of different classes of inflammatory mediators in human saliva and correlate the levels with age. Methodology and Principal Findings Unstimulated whole buccal salivary samples were obtained in the morning from 94 healthy volunteers within 30 minutes after waking. None of the participants had taken aspirin in the week prior to the saliva collection. Lysozyme activity, eicosanoid levels (prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4) and MMP-9 activity were measured. The antimicrobial activity (lysozyme activity) was not correlated with age whereas PGE2 levels were markedly correlated with age (r = 0.29; P<0.05; n = 56). Saliva from healthy subjects (≤40 years) compared with data derived from older volunteers (>40 years) demonstrated a significant increase in the mean values for PGE2 and MMP-9 activity with age. In addition, significant correlations were observed between LTB4 and PGE2 (r = 0.28; P<0.05; n = 56) and between LTB4 levels and MMP-9 activity in smokers (r = 0.78; P<0.001; n = 15). Conclusions/Significance The presence of significant levels and activity of inflammatory mediators in saliva suggests that the oral cavity of healthy subjects may be in a constant low state of inflammation associated with age. PMID:18159234

  1. Detection of papillomaviral DNA sequences in a feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Munday, J S; Howe, L; French, A; Squires, R A; Sugiarto, H

    2009-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are common and often fatal feline neoplasms. Factors that predispose to neoplasm development in cats are poorly defined. Around 25% of human OSCCs are caused by papillomaviruses (PVs). To determine if PVs are associated with OSCCs in cats, three sets of consensus primers were used to evaluate 20 feline OSCCs and 20 non-neoplastic feline oral lesions for the presence of PV DNA. Papillomaviral sequences were detected within one OSCC, but no non-neoplastic lesion. Sequencing of the amplified DNA revealed a previously unreported PV that was most similar to human PV type 76. This is the first time PV DNA has been amplified from the oral cavity of a cat. However, while these results suggest that feline gingival epithelial cells can be infected by PVs, they do not support a causal association between viral infection and the development of feline OSCCs.

  2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Homeida, L; Wiley, R T; Fatahzadeh, M

    2015-04-01

    Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia with significant visual and auditory impairment. Pathogenesis involves a mutation in the GJB2 gene, which encodes connexin-26, a protein in the epithelial gap junctions thought to be involved in the differentiation of ectodermally derived tissues. Affected patients are also at increased risk for the epithelial malignancies. To our knowledge, nearly 100 cases of KID syndrome, including 19 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) complications, have been reported worldwide. We report here a patient with KID syndrome who developed an ulcerative oral lesion causing him significant discomfort; he was subsequently diagnosed with oral SCC. We review the clinical presentation and symptomatology, including those affecting the oral cavity for this syndrome and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and life-long screening aimed at prevention of the evolving complications.

  3. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1993-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Thirty patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to twenty nine months. Four patients with T3 and T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eleven patients with T1 and T2 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Seven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and have remained disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity were treated. One obtained a complete response. Three patients with recurrent juvenile laryngotracheal papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but one recurred four months post-PDT. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however, limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations, and complications will be discussed.

  4. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1994-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Fifty-three patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to 40 months. Eight patients with T2-T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eighteen patients with CIS and T1 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Eleven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and remain disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma or the oral cavity were treated, one obtained a complete response. Five patients with juvenile laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but all recurred within six months of treatment. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations and complications are discussed.

  5. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  6. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Miscellaneous Exotic Companion Mammals.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Angela M; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2016-09-01

    Unusual mammalian species such as the hedgehog, sugar glider, and miniature pig are encountered with increasing frequency in exotic companion medicine. Disease of the oral cavity can occur in any species; although occasionally encountered in exotic mammalian species, it is rarely described in the literature. Anatomy and dentition vary significantly; diagnosis and treatment are often extrapolated from that known in other species. The best-documented disease of the oral cavity in this group of species is oral neoplasia in the hedgehog.

  7. Detection of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of dogs.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Camilla; Gualdi, Valentina; Tosi, Sabrina; Facchini, Roberto Vailati; Pengo, Graziano; Luini, Mario; Simpson, Kenneth W; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2007-01-31

    The mode of acquisition of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs has not been determined. It is suspected that oral-oral and faecal-oral transmission may be involved. The present study sought to determine if Helicobacter spp. DNA is present in the oral cavity of healthy and vomiting dogs. Thirty-eight pet dogs (27 vomiting and 11 clinically healthy) were studied. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was determined by single and nested PCR evaluation of DNA extracted from saliva, dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples. Helicobacter spp. DNA was detected by nested PCR in 36 (94.7%) gastric biopsies, 17 (44.7%) dental plaque and 19 (50%) saliva samples out of the 38 dogs examined. Overall 27 (71.1%) dogs screened by nested PCR were found to harbour Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity (dental plaque and/or saliva). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the oral cavity of vomiting and healthy dogs, and the time from vomiting to oral sampling did not have significant impact. This study confirms the high prevalence of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs, and reveals that Helicobacter spp. DNA is detectable in the oral cavity of over 70% of dogs. These findings support the possibility of oral-oral transmission between dogs and that the canine oral cavity may act as source of non-pylori Helicobacter spp. infection for humans.

  8. Treatment experience with 15 MeV fast neutrons in the oral cavity and oropharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Herskovic, A.; Cox, E.B.; Fender, F.; Schell, M.; Henshaw, W.; Rogers, C.; Ornitz, R.

    1984-05-15

    All 86 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with fast neutrons at the Mid-Atlantic Neutron Therapy facility at the Naval Research Laboratory (MANTA) from its inception in 1976 until closing in 1979, are reported. Patients generally had advanced disease or have failed or were failing conventional treatment prior to being treated at MANTA. The fixed horizontal beam parameters were suboptimal. Patients were treated by either neutrons alone or various combinations of neutrons and photons. In patients with T3 or T4 primary carcinomas treated with less than 2100 neutron rad, only 37% (3/11) had a complete response at the primary compared to 57% (24/42) treated to a higher dose. However, there was a significant evidence of radiation related complication. The latter was expected in a phase I/II trial of a new modality such as fast neutrons. Isocentric hospital based cyclotrons should offer some hope of improvement in the future.

  9. L-lysine in Treating Oral Mucositis in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy For Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-15

    Mucositis; Oral Complications of Chemotherapy; Oral Complications of Radiation Therapy; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage

  10. Mycoplasma salivarium as a Dominant Coloniser of Fanconi Anaemia Associated Oral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Birgit; Rumming, Madis; Sczyrba, Alexander; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Michael; Rahn, Sebastian; Stoye, Jens; Borkhardt, Arndt; Fischer, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma salivarium belongs to the class of the smallest self-replicating Tenericutes and is predominantly found in the oral cavity of humans. In general it is considered as a non-pathogenic commensal. However, some reports point to an association with human diseases. M. salivarium was found e.g. as causative agent of a submasseteric abscess, in necrotic dental pulp, in brain abscess and clogged biliary stent. Here we describe the detection of M. salivarium on the surface of a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue of a patient with Fanconi anaemia (FA). FA is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome based on defective DNA-repair that increases the risk of carcinomas especially oral squamous cell carcinoma. Employing high coverage, massive parallel Roche/454-next-generation-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons we analysed the oral microbiome of this FA patient in comparison to that of an FA patient with a benign leukoplakia and five healthy individuals. The microbiota of the FA patient with leukoplakia correlated well with that of the healthy controls. A dominance of Streptococcus, Veillonella and Neisseria species was typically observed. In contrast, the microbiome of the cancer bearing FA patient was dominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the healthy sites, which changed to a predominance of 98% M. salivarium on the tumour surface. Quantification of the mycoplasma load in five healthy, two tumour- and two leukoplakia-FA patients by TaqMan-PCR confirmed the prevalence of M. salivarium at the tumour sites. These new findings suggest that this mycoplasma species with its reduced coding capacity found ideal breeding grounds at the tumour sites. Interestingly, the oral cavity of all FA patients and especially samples at the tumour sites were in addition positive for Candida albicans. It remains to be elucidated in further studies whether M. salivarium can be used as a predictive biomarker for tumour development in these patients. PMID:24642836

  11. Prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kaoru; Ohara, Masaru; Kojima, Taro; Nishimura, Rumi; Ogawa, Tetsuji; Hino, Takamune; Okada, Mitsugi; Toratani, Shigeaki; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Sugai, Motoyuki; Sugiyama, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Drug-resistant opportunistic infections may cause health problems in immunocompromised hosts. Representative microorganisms in opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in elderly adults receiving follow-up examinations after primary treatment of oral cancer. Oral microorganisms were collected from patients satisfactorily treated for oral cancer (defined as good outcomes to date) and a group of healthy adults (controls). After identification of microorganisms, the prevalence of drug-resistant microorganisms was studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were also performed for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the prevalences of the three microorganisms between the groups. Surprisingly, 69.2% of S aureus isolates showed oxacillin resistance, suggesting that MRSA colonization is increasing among older Japanese. These MRSA isolates possessed SCCmec types II and IV but no representative toxin genes. Our results indicate that a basic infection control strategy, including standard precautions against MRSA, is important for elderly adults, particularly after treatment for oral cancer.

  12. Oral autopsy: A simple, faster procedure for total visualization of oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Charan Gowda, Boregowda Kadaiah; Mohan, C. V.; Hemavathi

    2016-01-01

    Identification of humans, especially in mass disaster is a challenging aspect for team members of the disaster victim identification (DVI) unit. Identification is necessary for humanitarian and emotional reasons and for many legal issues, particularly for family members. In the modern day, all possible methods have been applied for establishing the identification of deceased individuals. The DVI team comprises specialists from different disciplines. The forensic dentist plays a major role in the identification of victims in disaster. To establish a simple, faster and time saving procedure for Postmortem dental identification in mass disaster. In this article, we present a simpler and faster method, which helps in gaining access into the oral cavity that helps in the recording of postmortem oral findings where required. PMID:27555728

  13. Elective neck dissection in oral carcinoma: a critical review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, L P; Sanabria, A

    2007-06-01

    More than 50% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity have lymph node metastases and histological confirmation of metastatic disease is the most important prognostic factor. Among patients with a clinically negative neck, the incidence of occult metastases varies with the site, size and thickness of the primary tumour. The high incidence rate of occult cervical metastases (> 20%) in tumours of the lower part of the oral cavity is the main argument in favour of elective treatment of the neck. The usual treatment of patients with clinically palpable metastatic lymph nodes has been radical neck dissection. This classical surgical procedure involves not only resection of level I to V lymph nodes of the neck but also the tail of the parotid, submandibular gland, sternocleidomastoid muscle, internal jugular vein and spinal accessory nerve. It is a safe oncological surgical procedure that significantly reduces the risk of regional recurrences, however it produces significant post-operative morbidity, mainly shoulder dysfunction. Aiming to reduce morbidity, Ward and Roben described a modification of the procedure sparing the spinal accessory nerve to prevent post-operative shoulder morbidity. Several clinical and pathological studies have demonstrated that the pattern of metastatic lymph node metastases occurs in a predictable fashion in patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. The use of selective supraomohyoid neck dissection as the elective treatment of the neck, in oral cancer patients, is now well established. However, its role in the treatment of clinically positive neck patients is controversial. Some Authors advocate this type of selective neck dissection in patients with limited neck disease at the upper levels of the neck, without jeopardizing neck control. The main factors supporting this approach are the usually good prognosis in patients with single levels I or II metastasis independent of the extent of neck dissection, and the low

  14. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Extending into the Oral Cavity: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Pardhe, Nilesh; Chhibber, Neha; Agarwal, Deshant; Jain, Manish; Vijay, Pradkhshana

    2015-06-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare vascular tumour which is benign but locally aggressive and occurs invariably in young and adolescent males. It seldom involves the oral cavity but has the tendency to invade the adjacent structures. Its characteristic features include slow progression, aggressive growth & an increased rate of persistence and recurrence due to its location in inaccessible areas. In literature, very few cases of JNA have been reported with extension into the oral cavity. Here, a case of JNA with extension into the oral cavity has been discussed who reported to our institute.

  15. Posttraumatic growth: a novel concept in oral cavity cancer care?

    PubMed

    Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Jenewein, Josef; McGrath, Colman Patrick Joseph; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2010-11-01

    Recently the importance of posttraumatic growth (PTG), a phenomenon of positive psychological growth beyond baseline values, has been discovered in the field of oncology. An evidence based review of the literature regarding PTG was performed, both to support its understanding and to consider its application within the research field of oral cavity (OC) cancer. A Pubmed, Medline, PsycINFO search from the earliest date until April 2010 was carried out. Full articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed. The search yielded 852 papers, 91 'potentially relevant papers' and 29 'effective papers', the latter of which formed the basis of this review. PTG was assessed in twenty-eight studies with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and in only one study with the Perceived Benefits Scale (PBS). PTG in cancer patients has been reported in five main domains (i) appreciation of life, (ii) relating to others, (iii) increased personal sense, (iv) sense of new possibilities and (v) positive spiritual change. Socio-demographic factors, stressor characteristics and coping strategies influence and predict the development PTG. In the past decade an increasing interest in the concept of PTG in the field of oncology has emerged. This evidence based review presents PTG to the research community in the field of OC cancer, appraises its modification capacity of the treatment outcome in other cancer research fields and hypothesizes its eventual benefit in the field of OC cancer research.

  16. The association of smoking, alcoholic consumption, betel quid chewing and oral cavity cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Tin; Lin, Whe-Dar; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Liu, Shih-An

    2008-11-01

    We aimed to analyze the relationship between smoking, alcoholic consumption and betel quid chewing with oral cavity cancer. All male patients age > or =18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosal inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 8,356 patients were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 382 patients (4.6%). Two hundred and ninety-seven patients received biopsy and 191 patients were proven to have oral cavity cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that those who smoked, consumed alcohol and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to contract oral cancer (odds ratio: 39.66, 95% confidence interval: 26.04-60.38). Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cavity cancer and should receive oral mucosal screening regularly so potential oral cavity cancer can be detected as early as possible, which may result in better and improved survival of oral cancer patients.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  18. The oral cavity microbiota: between health, oral disease and cancers of the aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, Pierre; Metamoros, Sebastien; Montassier, Emmanuel; Le Vacon, Françoise; Potel, Gilles; Soueidan, Assem; Jordana, Fabienne; De La Cochétière, Marie-France

    2017-03-03

    Many studies show that the human microbiome plays a critical role in the chronic pathologies of obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. More recently, the interaction between cancer and the microbiome has been highlighted. Most studies have focused on the gut microbiota because it represents the most extensive bacterial community, and the body of evidence correlating it with gut syndromes is increasing. However, in the strict sense, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the oral cavity, and special attention should be paid to the specific flora of this cavity. This study reviewed the current knowledge about the various microbial ecosystems of the upper part of the GI tract and discussed their potential link to carcinogenesis. The overall composition of the microbial communities, as well as the presence or absence of 'key species' in relation to carcinogenesis, is addressed. Alterations in the oral microbiota can potentially be used to predict the risk of cancer. Molecular advances and the further monitoring of the microbiota will increase our understanding of the role of the microbiota in carcinogenesis and open new perspectives for future therapeutic and prophylactic modalities.

  19. Role of hydrogen generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kanazuru, Tomoko; Sato, Eisuke F; Nagata, Kumiko; Matsui, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Kasahara, Emiko; Jikumaru, Mika; Inoue, June; Inoue, Masayasu

    2010-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal bacteria synthesize hydrogen (H(2)) by fermentation. Despite the presence of bactericidal factors in human saliva, a large number of bacteria also live in the oral cavity. It has never been shown that oral bacteria also produce H(2) or what role H(2) might play in the oral cavity. It was found that a significant amount of H(2) is synthesized in the oral cavity of healthy human subjects, and that its generation is enhanced by the presence of glucose but inhibited by either teeth brushing or sterilization with povidone iodine. These observations suggest the presence of H(2)-generating bacteria in the oral cavity. The screening of commensal bacteria in the oral cavity revealed that a variety of anaerobic bacteria generate H(2). Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) generated significantly large amounts of H(2) in the presence of glucose. Biochemical analysis revealed that various proteins in K. pneumoniae are carbonylated under standard culture conditions, and that oxidative stress induced by the presence of Fe(++) and H(2)O(2) increases the number of carbonylated proteins, particularly when their hydrogenase activity is inhibited by KCN. Inhibition of H(2) generation markedly suppresses the growth of K. pneumoniae. These observations suggest that H(2) generation and/or the reduction of oxidative stress is important for the survival and growth of K. pneumoniae in the oral cavity.

  20. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  1. The expression of calretinin and cytokeratins in canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fulton, A; Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma (CAA) represent two epithelium-derived neoplasms that affect the oral cavity of dogs. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) and calretinin has been previously established in the canine tooth bud and odontogenic tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the CK and calretinin expression profile of OSCC in comparison to CAA and canine tooth bud tissues. Samples from 15 OSCC and 15 CAA cases, as well as 6 tooth buds and 2 normal gingival tissues were examined. OSCC CK expression was consistent with the CK expression profile of CAA and canine tooth bud tissue. Calretinin was positively expressed in 10 of 15 OSCC cases, with 5 cases demonstrating high staining intensity. Only 2 of 15 CAA cases demonstrated mild-moderate staining intensity. The statistically significant difference in staining pattern and intensity of calretinin in OSCC and CAA can help distinguish between these two tumour types.

  2. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Yuan; Liu, Geng-Hung; Chao, Wen-Ying; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Lim, Yun-Ping; Lu, Chieh-Hsiang; Lai, Peng-Yeh; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Ying-Ray

    2016-04-23

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL), a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells.

  3. Induction chemotherapy for oral cavity cancer patients: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marta, Gustavo Nader; William, William N; Feher, Olavo; Carvalho, André Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of data from phase III randomized studies to support an ideal approach for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients. In general, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are valid treatment options, and combined approach is usually indicated given poor clinical outcomes with single modality therapy. The aim of this study is to review the current status and future perspectives of induction chemotherapy for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients.

  4. Pembrolizumab Combined With Cetuximab for Treatment of Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    HNSCC; Lip SCC; Oral Cavity Cancer; Oropharynx Cancer; Larynx Cancer; Hypopharynx Cancer; Nasopharynx Cancer; Sinonasal Carcinoma; Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Head and Neck Cancer; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Natsuko; Okamoto, Masaaki

    2010-03-01

    Two anaerobic, pigmented, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped strains isolated from the human oral cavity, OMA31(T) and OMA130, were characterized by determining their phenotypic and biochemical features, cellular fatty acid profiles and phylogenetic positions based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the new isolates belonged to a single species of the genus Prevotella. The two isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and were most closely related to Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611(T) with 96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity; the next most closely related strains to the isolates were Prevotella pallens AHN 10371(T) (96.1 %) and Prevotella falsenii JCM 15124(T) (95.3 %). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolates were the same as those of P. intermedia JCM 12248(T), P. falsenii JCM 15124(T) and Prevotella nigrescens JCM 12250(T). The isolates could be differentiated from P. pallens JCM 11140( T) by mannose fermentation and alpha-fucosidase activity. Conventional biochemical tests were unable to differentiate the new isolates from P. intermedia, P. falsenii and P. nigrescens. However, hsp60 gene sequence analysis suggested that strain OMA31(T) was not a representative of P. intermedia, P. pallens, P. falsenii or P. nigrescens. Based on these data, a novel species of the genus Prevotella, Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., is proposed, with OMA31(T) (=JCM 15754(T)=CCUG 57723(T)) as the type strain.

  6. Histological subtypes of oral non-tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2012-01-01

    Several histological subtypes and grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are described in human literature and these subtypes have distinct morphological features and biological behaviour. This retrospective study (1990-2010) included 84 dogs diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx, excluding the tonsils. Sixty-nine of the SCCs (82.1%) were further diagnosed as conventional SCC (CSCC) (33 [47.8%] well-differentiated, 31 [44.9%] moderately-differentiated and five [7.3%] poorly-differentiated), five (5.95%) each as papillary SCC and basaloid SCC, three (3.6%) as adenosquamous carcinoma and two (2.4%) as spindle cell carcinoma. Compared with the general hospital population, neutered female dogs, dogs aged 10 to <15 years, English springer spaniels and Shetland sheepdogs were overrepresented. The majority (78.1%) of SCCs were proliferative with or without associated ulceration, although no significant association was observed between the gross appearance and different SCC subtypes. 71.4% of SCCs were located in dentate jaws; however, well-differentiated CSCC more often affected the tongue and other non-dentate mucosal surfaces (P=0.0022). No significant association was found between any of the SCC subtypes and tumour-associated inflammation (TAI), perineural and lymphovascular invasion (PNI, LVI), or between gross appearance of the tumour and tumour location, PNI, LVI or TAI or PNI, LVI, TAI and tumour location.

  7. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC.

  8. Enhanced contact endoscopy for the assessment of the neoangiogenetic changes in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Carta, Filippo; Sionis, Sara; Cocco, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Ferreli, Caterina; Puxeddu, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract show significant neoangiogenesis appearing as subepithelial and epithelial microvascular irregularities that can be detected by Image-Enhanced Endoscopy such as Narrow Band Imaging and Storz Professional Image Enhancement System. In the present study, the most advanced endoscopic enhancement systems were coupled with Contact Endoscopy (Enhanced Contact Endoscopy). This original method improved the identification and the understanding of the neoangiogenetic changes of the chorion in 42 patients with leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and leuko-erythroplakia of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The physiologic and pathologic mucosa was described in five obvious vascular patterns observed at Enhanced Contact Endoscopy ranging from normal to squamous cell carcinoma, passing through inflammation, hyperplasia, and dysplasia. Each vascular pattern was then compared to histology, showing that the microvascular architectural changes seen with Enhanced Contact Endoscopy are almost constant. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in the differentiation between healthy mucosa and inflammation versus pathologic hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma were, respectively, 96.6, 93.3, 98.2, 87.5, and 95.9 %. Sensitivity and specificity were 100 % in differentiation between non-malignant lesions versus squamous cell carcinoma. Our preliminary experience shows that accuracy of Image-Enhanced Endoscopy in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx can be increased if associated to Contact Endoscopy.

  9. Acrolein—an α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects

    PubMed Central

    Aizenbud, Dror; Aizenbud, Itay; Reznick, Abraham Z.; Avezov, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells. PMID:27487309

  10. Acrolein-an α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects.

    PubMed

    Aizenbud, Dror; Aizenbud, Itay; Reznick, Abraham Z; Avezov, Katia

    2016-07-28

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells.

  11. Sonic hedgehog in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Sahana; Iyengar, Asha R; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have revealed the involvement of hedgehog (Hh) signaling component in proliferation and invasive behavior of many carcinomas. Aim: This study aims to identify the expression of sonic Hh (SHH) protein of SHH pathway in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using SHH (H-160) (Santa Cruz, sc-9042) which could have therapeutic implication in future. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 cases comprising 50 normal oral mucosa, 50 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, 50 well, 50 moderate and 50 poorly differentiated OSCCs were included in the study. Immunohistochemical evaluation of SHH protein expression was conducted using monoclonal antibody. Interpretation of the expression was done by immunoreactive score of Remmele and Stegner (IRS) scoring method. Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test was used to analyze the results. Results: The study showed that SHH signaling molecules are highly expressed in OSCC, and their expression was mainly in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Conclusion: The SHH signaling component is associated with the pathological parameter in OSCC and oral epithelial dysplasia. PMID:27721600

  12. Hyperthermia treatment of spontaneously occurring oral cavity tumors using a computer-controlled Nd:YAG laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Frazier, Donita L.; Klebanow, Edward R.

    1991-05-01

    Conventional hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumors in the oral cavity is difficult due to inability in accessing the lesion. A new hyperthermia technique employing near infrared Nd:YAG irradiation delivered through an optical fiber is introduced for heating oral and nasal tumors in animals. This system consisted of an Nd:YAG laser, a He-Ne laser, a computer controlled optical shutter, an interstitial thermometer, computer and a printer. The tumors were heated via surface illumination of the lesion. A thermocouple implanted in the base of the tumor provided temperature feedback for laser energy regulation. Three spontaneously occurring canine (two squamous cell carcinoma on the gum, one pigmented melanoma on the hard palate) and one feline tumor (squamous cell carcinoma on the nose) have been treated with the Nd:YAG laser-induced hyperthermia delivered following radiation therapy. The tumor temperature was maintained between 43.2-43.5 degree(s)C for one hour. Nd:YAG hyperthermia allowed efficient delivery of heat to veterinary oral and nasal lesions otherwise impossible to treat with conventional heating techniques.

  13. Characterization of p53 gene mutations in a Brazilian population with oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Anna C M; Cherubini, Karen; Herter, Nilton; Furian, Roque; Santos, Diogenes S; Squier, Christopher; Domann, Frederick E

    2004-02-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are present in approximately 50% of all human cancers. We sought to determine the frequency and type of p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the oral cavity in a Brazilian population. To identify p53 mutations we used PCR-SSCP in tumor tissue microdissected from paraffin- embedded and from fresh-frozen sections followed by direct sequencing of SSCP bands with altered electrophoretic mobility. We identified p53 mutations in 40% of the human SCC analyzed. The mutations were of a broad spectrum, with a preponderance of G --> A and A --> G transitions with an apparent hotspot at the CpG dinucleotide at codon 290. Patient samples were stratified according to tobacco and alcohol consumption as well as by anatomic location of the tumor, and although trends did emerge, no statistically significant associations were obtained between the occurance of TP53 mutations and these lifestyle habits. We conclude that p53 mutations are common among oral cavity cancers in this population, and stress the significance of this study since it is the first analysis of p53 mutation in oral cancer in a southern Brazilian population.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics in the oral cavity of ram suspension-feeding fishes.

    PubMed

    Cheer, A Y; Ogami, Y; Sanderson, S L

    2001-06-21

    We have modeled steady, three-dimensional flow with a no-slip boundary condition in cylindrical and conical oral cavities possessing vertical or slanted branchial slits. These numerical simulations illustrate the transport of food particles toward the esophagus, as well as the velocity profiles of water exiting the oral cavity via the branchial slits. The maximum and average velocities are highest for flow exiting the most posterior branchial slit. The highest volume flow rates also occur in the most posterior slit for the cylindrical simulations, but occur in the most anterior slit for the conical simulations. Along the midline, there is a pronounced bilaterally symmetrical vortex in the posterodorsal region of the cylindrical and conical oral cavities and a second bilaterally symmetrical vortex in the posteroventral region of the cylinder. Particles entrained in the vortices will recirculate in the posterior oral cavity, increasing the probability of encounter with sticky, mucus-covered surfaces such as the oral roof, gill arches, or gill rakers. The posterodorsal vortex could serve to concentrate particles near the entrances of the epibranchial organs. The ventral vortex could be involved in sequestering dense inorganic particles that sink toward the floor of the oral cavity. All vortices are absent in the conical simulation with vertical branchial slits, indicating that the slanted branchial slits between the gill arches are responsible for the formation of the vortex in the conical oral cavity. Experiments using in vivo flow visualization techniques are needed to determine whether ram suspension feeders, pump suspension feeders, and non-suspension-feeding fishes possess vortices in the posterior oral cavity that contribute to particle transport, food particle encounter with sticky surfaces, and inorganic particle rejection.

  15. [Efficacy of oral cavity care in preventing stomatitis (mucositis) in cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Koshino, Miki; Sakai, Chie; Ogura, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Akiko; Fukuzato, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    Stomatitis is a common side effect during cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that careful oral cavity care using patient guidance and cleanliness index prevents stomatitis in cancer chemotherapy. We introduced oral care patient guidance including teaching good brushing methods, O'Leary's Plaque Control Record(PCR)as a cleanliness index, and Eilers' Oral Assessment Guide(OAG)as an overall index after April 2006. We evaluated the incidence of stomatitis in 20 patients(10 patients between April 2004 to May 2006 and 10 patients after April 2006)with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy including 5-FU and CDDP. Patients receiving brushing training after 2006 were evaluated regarding cleanliness of their oral cavities using PCR index and OAG index. The rates of stomatitis were 60%(6/10)and 40%(4/10)before and after the introduction of oral care patient guidance. The average of PCR index decreased from 82% to 46% after teaching good brushing method to the patients. The average of OAG index after brushing training was 9.14 which was better score compared with previous reports. Introduction of oral care patient guidance decreased the incidence of stomatitis. Both PCR and OAG indexes were useful in evaluating the objective condition of the oral cavity and in sharing patients' information among a medical team. These indexes encouraged the patients to clean their oral cavities.

  16. Spontaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the oral region in domestic animals: a review and consideration of their relevance to human research.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G

    1996-06-01

    Spontaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the oral region in domestic animals have the potential of providing additional information about the pathology of oral cancer and may be useful in therapeutic research. Moreover, they exhibit definite advantages over chemically induced tumors in rodents. This article provides background information on spontaneous oral squamous cell carcinomas in dogs, cats, cattle, horses and sheep and then discusses the use in research of such tumors in dogs and cats. These two species are potentially the most useful because they are numerous, suffer quite commonly from squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx, and are usually allowed to live approximately normal life spans. Moreover, they are being treated routinely in veterinary hospitals.

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from the Pleural Cavity After Pneumonectomy for Chronic Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yeong Jeong; Shin, Sumin; Shim, Young Mog

    2017-01-01

    Malignant tumors associated with chronic empyema have been reported in the literature, and a majority of these tumors are lymphomas. Epithelial tumors originating from the post-pneumonectomy space in patients with chronic empyema are extremely rare. Here, we present the cases of 2 patients with squamous cell carcinoma arising from the pleural cavity after pneumonectomy for chronic empyema. PMID:28382273

  18. Assessing the patient at risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Scully, C

    1997-01-01

    Patients and health care workers require continuing education to promote knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and risk factors for oral cancer. This paper reviews the literature assessing diagnostic tools that are currently available or being developed, in order to assist in the biopsy site selection and subsequent diagnosis of patients at risk for oral cancer. There is a general consensus that oral examination of patients at risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) should be conducted on a routine basis. However, there can be false-positive and false-negative findings. Toluidine blue has been shown to be useful as an adjunct to the clinical examination when used by experienced clinicians. Exfoliative cytology is not currently used as a routine measure for the evaluation of lesions of the oral mucosa, but further development and the application of biologic markers to cytologic specimens may increase its value. Fluorescent imaging of malignant lesions of the oral mucosa has been shown to be sensitive and specific in animal models but thus far has been reported in only one human trial. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques when used by general practitioners need to be assessed. Further, none of the above procedures has yet been shown to be a cost-effective public health measure in screening for oral cancer.

  19. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Reptiles and Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    A wide variety of disorders may be seen affecting the reptile and amphibian oral cavity. Owners can easily miss problems until they are at an advanced stage because of the difficulty of examining the oral cavity at home. Because many problems are secondary to an inappropriate environment or diet and may be related to systemic disease, a full history and clinical examination is always required. Treatment of oral disorders also requires a holistic approach including correction of any predisposing factors in order for long-term successful resolution of the problem.

  20. Postoperative radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers: Impact of anatomic subsite on treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, M.J.; Harrison, L.B.; Fass, D.E.; Armstrong, J.; Spiro, R.H.; Shah, J.P.; Strong, E.W. )

    1990-11-01

    We have retrospectively reviewed the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for advanced oral cavity cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of anatomic subsite on the results of treatment. Between 1975 and 1985, 51 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (OT = 29 patients) and floor of mouth (FOM = 22 patients) were treated with combined surgery plus RT. All had an indication(s) for RT including advanced primary disease (T3 or T4) (29 patients), close or positive margins (34 patients), and multiple positive neck nodes and/or extracapsular extension (41 patients). With a median follow-up of 6 years, the 5-year actuarial local control rate was 74% and the rate of distant metastasis (DM) was 34%. Despite the similar T stage, margin status and median RT dose, the 5-year actuarial local failure rate was 38% for OT vs. 11% for FOM (p = 0.03). Furthermore, the median survival after recurrence was 9 months for OT and 40 months for FOM (p = 0.02). At 5 years the determinate survival for both sites was (55%), and the likelihood of developing a second malignancy was 31%. The likelihood of developing DM was 50% for FOM (N0-N1 = 3 of 12, N2-N3 = 8 of 10) and 21% for OT (N0-N1 = 4 of 21, N2-N3 = 1 of 8). This study highlights significant differences between FOM and OT cancers in response to combined surgery and RT. Future strategies should be directed at the enhancement of local control for OT and better systemic therapy for those with advanced N-stage FOM.

  1. AgNORs in hyperplasia, papilloma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L M; do Carmo, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ten inflammatory fibrous hyperplasias, ten papillomas, and nineteen oral squamous cell carcinomas were analyzed by the AgNOR technique to determine if different disturbances of oral epithelia presented different AgNOR counts. The papilloma group showed higher mean AgNOR counts (3.15 +/- 0.58) than the hyperplasia group (1.98 +/- 0.24) and smaller than the well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group (6.56 +/- 1.25) and poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group (7.07 +/- 1.60). The differences among the groups of lesions were statistically significant (P < 0.05) except between the well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group and the poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group. Our findings suggest that the cellular proliferation ratio in papillomas is greater than hyperplasias and smaller than carcinomas.

  2. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability.

  3. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%–100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%–25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  4. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%-100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%-25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  5. Cellular systems for studying human oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vyomesh; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Siegele, Bradford; Marsh, Christina A; Leelahavanichkul, Kantima; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2011-01-01

    The human oral squamous epithelium plays an important role in maintaining a barrier function against mechanical, physical, and pathological injury. However, the self-renewing cells residing on the basement membrane of the epithelium can give rise to oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), now the sixth most common cancer in the developed world, which is still associated with poor prognosis. This is due, in part, to the limited availability of well-defined culture systems for studying oral epithelial cell biology, which could advance our understanding of the molecular basis of OSCC. Here, we describe methods to successfully isolate large cultures of human oral epithelial cells and fibroblasts from small pieces of donor tissues for use in techniques such as three-dimensional cultures and animal grafts to validate genes suspected of playing a role in OSCC development and progression. Finally, the use of isolated oral epithelial cells in generating iPS cells is discussed which holds promise in the field of oral regenerative medicine.

  6. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . See the following PDQ summaries for more information ...

  7. A review of risk factors for oral cavity cancer: the importance of a standardized case definition.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Luce, Danièle

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to review the literature on risk factors of oral cavity cancer with a special attention to the definition of the cases, in order to highlight special features of these cancers and of their subsites. PubMed database was systematically searched to access relevant articles published between 1980 and 2010. Reference lists of selected papers were examined to identify further articles. One hundred and two studies met the inclusion criteria. Their results were difficult to compare because of the lack of uniformity in defining oral cavity. In addition, few studies examined risk factors other than alcohol and tobacco, and studies differentiating between subsites were rare. Despite these limitations, some characteristics of oral cavity cancers may be emphasized: smoked tobacco seems to be a stronger risk factor for oral cavity cancer than alcohol, and the floor of the mouth seems to be more sensitive to the harmful effects of alcohol and smoked tobacco. Studies limited strictly to oral cavity cancers and distinguishing between subsites are needed to better understand the aetiology of these cancers, and better define risk groups to target prevention efforts and screening.

  8. [The clinical aspects of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx].

    PubMed

    Dvoryaninova, O Yu; Chainzonov, E L; Litvyakov, N V

    2016-01-01

    This review was designed to focus on the prevalence and the magnitude of infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) among healthy subjects and patients presenting with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We compare the data on the relative frequency of HPV-positive and HPV-negative cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx in different populations, peculiarities of the clinical course of this pathology, and methods of its treatment. Much emphasis is placed on the specific clinical and morphological features of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The general and relapse-free survival rates are considered with special reference to the outcome and prognosis of this disease. The currently accepted approaches to the treatment of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx are discussed. It is concluded that HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx should be regarded as an autonomous pathological condition requiring specific approaches to its management, such as the application of adequate treatment schemes and algorithms.

  9. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy.

  10. Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Vishakha; Pradeep, G. L.; Prakash, Nilima; Mahajan, Aarti M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15). Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population. PMID:27994410

  11. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Glucose Transporter Type 1 in Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Feitosa, Sthefane Gomes; Lima, Ana Thayssa Tomaz; Luna, Ealber Carvalho Macedo; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity and some of these have been documented in association or preceded by oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Aggressive cancers with fast growth have demonstrated overexpression of some glucose transporters (GLUTs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporter, GLUT-1, in OEDs and OSCCs, seeking to better elucidate the biological behavior of neoplasias. Fifteen cases were selected this research of both lesions. Five areas were analyzed from each case by counting the percentage of positive cells at 400x magnification. Immunoreactivity of GLUT-1 was observed in 100% of the samples ranging from 54.2% to 86.2% for the OSCC and 73.9% to 97.4% for the OED. Statistical test revealed that there was greater overexpression of GLUT-1 in OED than the OSCC (p=0.01). It is believed the high expression of GLUT-1 may reflect the involvement of GLUT-1 in early stages of oral carcinogenesis.

  12. Efficacy of cobalt-60 radiation therapy for the treatment of nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in the dog.

    PubMed

    Correa, Stephanie Shank; Mauldin, G Neal; Mauldin, Glenna E; Patnaik, Amiya K

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of cobalt-60 radiotherapy in the treatment of nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity in dogs and to compare this treatment group to historical controls. Six dogs with histopathologically confirmed nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma were treated with cobalt-60 radiotherapy to a total dose of either 63 Gy or 54 Gy. Overall survival times ranged from 30 days to 330 days, with a median survival time of 165 days. Nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in the dog is an aggressive tumor that responds poorly to radiotherapy.

  13. RENAL CELL CARCINOMA METASTASIS TO THE SINONASAL CAVITY: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marijan; Krvavica, Ana; Rudić, Milan

    2015-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all adult malignant tumors. Common sites of metastases are lungs, bone, liver, brain and adrenal glands. Metastatic disease to the head and neck ranges from 15% to 30%. The 5-year survival rate after nephrectomy is 60%-75%, but with multiorgan metastases the 5-year survival rate is significantly lower, 0-7%. A case is presented of a female patient diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma metastases to the paranasal sinuses, diagnosed and treated at the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, Zadar General Hospital, Zadar, Croatia. The tumor was surgically removed. Unfortunately, the patient died one year after the procedure due to multiorgan failure. Although metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the head and neck are very rare, it should be first suspected when investigating a metastatic tumor in this region. Surgical excision offers the best hope for long term survival. In case of unresectable tumor, other treatment options should be considered such as radiotherapy, immunotherapy and chemotherapy.

  14. Expression of E-cadherin in normal oral mucosa, in oral precancerous lesions and in oral carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study. Results: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable. PMID:26430364

  15. Clinical relevance of copy number profiling in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Pauline M W; Noorlag, Rob; Braunius, Weibel W; Moelans, Cathy B; Rifi, Widad; Savola, Suvi; Koole, Ronald; Grolman, Wilko; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Current conventional treatment modalities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are nonselective and have shown to cause serious side effects. Unraveling the molecular profiles of head and neck cancer may enable promising clinical applications that pave the road for personalized cancer treatment. We examined copy number status in 36 common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cohort of 191 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and 164 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) using multiplex ligation probe amplification. Copy number status was correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status in OPSCC, with occult lymph node status in OSCC and with patient survival. The 11q13 region showed gain or amplifications in 59% of HPV-negative OPSCC, whereas this amplification was almost absent in HPV-positive OPSCC. Additionally, in clinically lymph node-negative OSCC (Stage I-II), gain of the 11q13 region was significantly correlated with occult lymph node metastases with a negative predictive value of 81%. Multivariate survival analysis revealed a significantly decreased disease-free survival in both HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCC with a gain of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1. Gain of CCND1 showed to be an independent predictor for worse survival in OSCC. These results show that copy number aberrations, mainly of the 11q13 region, may be important predictors and prognosticators which allow for stratifying patients for personalized treatment of HNSCC.

  16. Prognostic impact of metallothionein on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sérgio V; Barbosa, Hugo M; Candellori, Ignez M; Loyola, Adriano M; Aguiar, Maria Cássia F

    2002-08-01

    Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight protein with high cysteine content, seems to be related to neoplastic resistance to oncologic treatment and therefore has been studied as a prognostic factor for a variety of human malignant tumors. MT overexpression in neoplasms of ectodermal origin is usually associated with a poor prognosis. MT expression was evaluated in 60 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry to study its prognostic influence on oral cancer. Possible associations of MT immunoexpression were also investigated with respect to clinical stage (TNM), histological grading, and proliferation index (Ki-67) of the lesions. No significant statistical correlation was observed among these variables. The impact on overall survival was assessed by uni and multivariate statistical tests. Mean MT labeling index was 60%. High MT labeling indexes (over 76%) predicted shorter survival in univariate statistical analysis. In multivariate analysis, MT labeling index and clinical stage were independent prognostic factors. MT overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma seems to be related to a worse prognosis for patients.

  17. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  18. Oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma in twelve dogs.

    PubMed

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B G; Jordan, R C; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinct histological subtype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), described in both dogs and man. In dogs, PSCC has long been considered a malignant oral tumour of very young animals, but it has recently been reported to occur in adult dogs as well. The aim of this study was to describe the major clinicopathological characteristics of canine oral PSCC (COPSCC). Twelve dogs diagnosed with COPSCC were included in this retrospective study (1990-2012). The majority (75%) of the dogs were >6 years of age (median age 9 years). All tumours were derived from the gingiva of dentate jaws, with 66.7% affecting the rostral aspects of the jaws. The gross appearance of the lesions varied, with one having an intraosseous component only. The majority (91.7%) of the tumours were advanced lesions (T2 and T3), but no local or distant metastases were noted. Microscopically, two patterns were seen: (1) invasion of bone forming a cup-shaped indentation in the bone or a deeply cavitating cyst within the bone (cavitating pattern), (2) histologically malignant growth, but lack of apparent bone invasion (non-cavitating pattern). The microscopical appearance corresponded to imaging findings in a majority of cases, with cavitating forms presenting with a cyst-like pattern of bone loss or an expansile mass on imaging and non-cavitating forms showing an infiltrative pattern of bone destruction on imaging. These features suggest two distinct biological behaviours of COPSCC.

  19. The use of acrylic resin oral prosthesis in radiation therapy of oral cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, V.S.T.; Oral, K.; Aramamy, M.A.

    1982-07-01

    In radiation therapy of cancer of the oral cavity and the paranasal sinuses, the extent to which the tissues of the oral cavity are included in the radiation treatment portals will determine the severity of the oral discomfort during treatment. This will affect the nutritional status of the patients, and may eventually affect the total dose of radiation which the patients can receive for treatment of their cancers. In cooperation with the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Department, an acrylic resin oral prosthesis was developed. This prosthesis is easy to use and can be made for each individual patient within 24 hours. It allows for maximum sparing of the normal tissues in the oral cavity and can be modified for shielding of backscattered electrons from heavy metals in the teeth. We have also found that acrylic resin extensions can be built onto the posterior edge of post-maxillectomy obturators; this extension can be used as a carrier for radioactive sources to deliver radiation to deep seated tumor modules in the paranasal sinuses.

  20. An overview of orthodontic material degradation in oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, T P; Upadhayay, S N

    2010-01-01

    Various types of metallic orthodontic appliances are used in the management of malocclusion. These appliances are placed in oral environment under many stresses and variations such as masticatory forces, appliance loading, temperature fluctuations, varieties of ingested food and saliva. These metals undergo electrochemical reactions with the oral environment resulting in dissolution or formation of chemical compounds. Various microorganisms and many aggressive ions containing oral environment can cause material degradation (corrosion) and its associated problems during long time exposure. Orthodontic alloys must have excellent corrosion resistance to the oral environment, which is highly important for biocompatibility as well as for orthodontic appliance durability. This article reviews various aspects of corrosion (surface degradation) of orthodontic alloys. It explores the emerging research strategies for probing the biocompatibility of materials. During orthodontic treatment, use of nickel free, better corrosion resistance alloys and less use of fluoride containing toothpaste or gel is expected.

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  2. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  4. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  5. [Quantitative evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida species and salivary factors in the oral cavity of patient undergoing radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Spolidorio, D M; Spolidorio, L C; Barbeiro, R H; Höfling, J F; Bernardo, W L; Pavan, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp in the oral cavity of patients with oropharynx carcinoma, before, during and after radiotherapy, and to correlate the results with salivary factors such as pH, buffer capacity (CT) and flow rate (FS). Saliva samples were collected, diluted and inoculated in SB-20 agar and in Sabouraud agar, for Streptococcus mutans and Candida sp, respectively. Previously to dilution, the concentrated saliva was analyzed, and the salivary factors were determined. After the growth of colonies, the number of microorganisms was determined in CFU/ml. The analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the salivary factors are related to the presence of microorganisms, and that the number of CFU/ml increased as salivary flow rate decreased. The effects of radiation compromised salivary homeostasis and favored the increase of infection by yeasts and bacteria.

  6. Bacteroides species from the oral cavity and oral-associated diseases of cats.

    PubMed

    Love, D N; Johnson, J L; Moore, L V

    1989-03-01

    One hundred and sixty-seven strains of Bacteroides were isolated from 71 subcutaneous fight-wound abscesses of cats, 21 cases of feline pyothorax, normal gingival margins from 10 cats and 6 cases of feline gingivitis. Bacteroides species constituted (as a proportion of all anaerobic isolates examined) 44.5% from subcutaneous abscesses, 33.7% from pyothoraxes, 37.5% from normal gingiva and 27.7% from diseased gingiva. Bacteroides tectum comprised 43.7% or 73 of 167 strains, followed by the black- or brown-pigmented asaccharolytic feline species of B. gingivalis, B. salivosus and Group B, comprising 32.3% or 54 of 167 strains. B. heparinolyticus (some 10% or 17 of 167 strains) was the next most common species described. The remainder consisted of two strains of B. fragilis and 21 unspeciated strains. Bacteroides tectum was frequently isolated from subcutaneous abscesses (43.7%) and pyothoraxes (46.6%), and it constituted some 33% of anaerobic isolated from normal gingiva. Bacteroides heparinolyticus was more commonly encountered in purulent lesions (abscesses and pyothoraxes) than in the oral cavity.

  7. Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF.

  8. [Templates for curietherapy of the oral cavity and their dosimetric use].

    PubMed

    Pizzi, G; Fongione, S; Mandoliti, G; Beorchia, A; Contento, G; Malisan, M R

    1989-12-01

    Flexible 192Ir wire implants are commonly used for the treatment of some types of cancer in the oral cavity. A modified technique of plastic tubes is here presented which aims at correctly positioning the active wires with thin plastic templates. Possible sources of error are examined and their consequences on the dose distribution around the implant are analyzed. In most cases control dosimetry matches the provisions satisfactorily. It may be thus concluded that the use of templates allows good and reproducible results to be obtained in the brachytherapy of the oral cavity.

  9. Improved transoral surgical tool design by CT measurements of the oral cavity and pharynx.

    PubMed

    Cox, Emily; Ghasemloonia, Ahmad; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Zareinia, Kourosh; Hudon, Mark; Lysack, John T; Sutherland, Garnette R; Dort, Joseph C

    2016-09-23

    The majority of head and neck cancers arise from the oral cavity and oropharynx. Many of these lesions will be amenable to surgical resection using transoral approaches including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). To develop and control TORS tools, precise dimensions of the oral cavity and pharynx are desirable. CT angiograms of 76 patients were analyzed. For the oral cavity, only the maximum length and width were measured, while for the pharynx, the width, length, and areas of the airway were all measured and the volume calculated. A prototype TORS tool was developed and tested based on the findings and dimensions. The design modification of the tool is in progress. The mean male oral cavity width and length were 93.3 ± 4.3 and 77.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively, and the mean male pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 26.5 ± 7.2 mm, 16.2 ± 8.8 mm, 325 ± 149 mm(2), and 28,440 ± 14,100 mm(3), respectively, while the mean female oral cavity width and length were 84.5 ± 12.9 and 71.0 ± 6.3 mm, respectively, and the mean female pharyngeal width, length, area, and volume were 24.8 ± 5.6 mm, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm, 258 ± 98 mm(2), and 17,660 ± 7700 mm(3), respectively. The developed TORS tool was tested inside the oral cavity of an intubation mannequin. These data will also be used to develop an electronic no-go cone-shape tunnel to improve the safety of the surgical field. Reporting the oral cavity and pharyngeal dimensions is important for design of TORS tools and creating control zones for the workspace of the tool inside the oral cavity.

  10. Verrucoid Variant of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Clinicopathological Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Priya; Krithika, C.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jagdish, Praveena; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an exophytic, low-grade, well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as a lesion appearing in the sixth or seventh decade of life that has minimal aggressive potential and, in long-standing cases, has been shown to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder, and about one-third of the affected population develop oral squamous cell carcinoma. The histopathological diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma is challenging, and the interpretation of early squamous cell carcinoma requires immense experience. Here we present a rare case of a 24-year-old male with OSMF transforming to verrucous carcinoma with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Even though the case had a straightforward clinical diagnosis, the serial sectioning done for pathological diagnosis disclosed the squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Corrosion in the oral cavity--potential local and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M

    1986-03-01

    The main current-generating corrosion cells in the oral cavity are the bimetallic cell and the concentration cell, the latter mainly occurring due to differences in access to oxygen in the various parts of the metallic material. Corrosion resistance is not an intrinsic property of a metal or an alloy for it depends on an interaction with the environment. Thus, the contents of the oral cavity, have a decisive influence. This implies that corrosion tests in vitro are of limited value in predicting the clinical corrosion behaviour of a metallic material. Results from a series of clinical studies concerning a possible relationship between galvanic currents and certain oral and other symptoms in a group of patients who had been referred to the Faculty of Odontology, University of Umeå, are briefly presented. The possibility of local and systemic effects of intra-oral galvanic cells is discussed.

  12. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: manifestations in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Urízar, José Manuel; Echebarría-Goicouría, María Angeles; Eguía-del-Valle, Asier

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a pandemic disease characterised by impairment of the immune system; the main parameter is a progressive decline in the number of CD4 lymphocytes. This circumstance paves the way for opportunistic infections and the development of neoplastic processes that can lead the patient to a state known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ultimately, results in death. The incorporation of treatment based on a cocktail of different active drugs (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has made it possible to drastically change the panorama of the disease in developed nations; improving quality of life for the patient and delaying the progression of the disease. The oral manifestations of HIV infection have been and continue to be an important component of the disease from the very first descriptions and are indicative of progression. At some point in the course of the disease, nine out of every ten patients will present oral manifestations and, on occasion, these symptoms will be the first sign of the syndrome. It is essential that oral healthcare professionals recognize the hallmarks of the illness. In developed countries, the emergence of new therapies has made it possible to significantly reduce immune deficiency-related oral manifestations, both in terms of frequency, as well as severity. This review analyses the most important oral lesions associated with HIV infection and the current state of affairs in this regard.

  13. Prevalence of salivary epstein-barr virus in potentially malignant oral disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ocete-Monchon, María-Dolores; Leopoldo-Rodado, Manuel; Murillo-Cortes, Judith; Díaz-Fernández, Jose-M.; Medina-Gonzalez, Rafael; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción; Bagan, Jose-V.

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the presence of salivary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant oral disorders. Material and Methods Three groups were studied: Group 1 (12 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC)), Group 2 (12 potentially malignant oral disorders (PMD)) and Group 3 (47 healthy controls). EBV DNA salivary analysis was performed by PCR. Results The highest percentage of positive salivary EBV DNA corresponded to the OSCC group (58.3%), followed by the PMD group (41.7%) and the controls (40.4%). The differences between groups were not statistically significant, however (p>0.05). Conclusions Salivary EBV DNA was more prevalent in OSCC than in PMD or the controls. Key words:EBV DNA, saliva, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia. PMID:26827058

  14. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  15. Minor Salivary Gland Changes in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Ragunathan, Yoithapprabhunath Thukanayakanpalayam; Lakshmi, Suman Jhansi; Nallusamy, Jaisanghar; Joseph, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common etiology for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is tobacco and tobacco related products which cause nuclear damage to the keratinocytes. The chemical carcinogens not only affect the lining of oral epithelium but also affect the lining epithelium of the excretory ducts of the salivary glands. Thus, there is a possibility of epithelial dysplasia of the salivary duct epithelium which may lead to potential malignant transformation. Aim The study was performed to see the changes in the minor salivary glands and excretory ducts in cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC. Materials and Methods A total of 278 archival cases of mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, OSCC including verrucous carcinoma were histopathologically evaluated to observe changes in the excretory ducts and the minor salivary glands. Results In the study there were 56.5% males and 43.5% females. The age group that was most commonly affected in both the sexes was 50-60 yr old. Buccal mucosa was the most common site of involvement. Ductal changes observed in the excretory duct include simple hyperplasia, metaplastic changes such as mucous, oncocytic & squamous, and infiltration of inflammatory cells and malignant cells. Acinar changes observed were degeneration, squamous metaplasia, myoepithelial cell proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Both the excretory ducts and ducts within the gland showed dysplasia. Conclusion According to observations in our study it is suggested that histopathological interpretation for oral mucosal lesions especially oral epithelial dysplasias and OSCC should also include changes related to salivary gland tissue to provide a better treatment plan and prevent recurrence of the malignant tumours. PMID:27630945

  16. [Oral cavity changes in the child with celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Petrecca, S; Giammaria, G; Giammaria, A F

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients (of both sexes aged between 8 and 18 years old) were referred to our attention with a probable history of celiac disease; intestinal biopsy was positive for the said pathology. Biopsies were compared to a second group of 29 age- and sex-matched control subjects not suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and/or disorders of the phosphocalcium metabolism. The aim of the study was to highlight the possible presence, frequency and extent of oral alterations in confirmed celiac subjects in order to evaluate their greater or lesser incidence compared to controls. The results obtained confirm that celiac patients are more likely to manifest oral pathologies.

  17. Impact of smoking status on clinical outcome in oral cavity cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Watanabe, Miki; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Tajima, Kazuo; Murakami, Shingo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2012-02-01

    The association between smoking status and survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the association between smoking status before treatment and clinical outcome in OSCC patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 222 OSCC patients who were treated at Aichi Cancer Center in Japan. Of these, 82 patients (36.9%) were non-smokers, 65 (29.3%) were light smokers (pack-years smoking (PY) <30), 54 (24.3%) were moderate smokers (30≤PY<60), and 21 (9.5%) were heavy smokers (60≤PY). The survival impact of pre-treatment smoking status was evaluated using multivariate proportional hazard models. Five-year overall survival for non-, light, moderate, and heavy smokers was 72.9% (95% confidence interval CI): (61.4-81.5), 85.5% (74.0-92.2), 59.9% (44.3-72.4) and 69.0% (42.8-85.0). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for moderate and heavy smokers in comparison with light smokers were 2.44 (1.07-5.57, P=0.034) and 2.66 (0.97-7.33, P=0.058) and the dose-response relationship among smokers was statistically significance (P(trend)=0.024). In addition, adjusted HR for non-smokers relative to light smokers was 2.27 (0.84-6.15, P=0.108). We observed a suggestive heterogeneity in the impact of smoking status by treatment method (P for heterogeneity=0.069). Effect of smoking was evident only among the chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy group. In this study, we found the significant positive dose-response relationship among smokers on clinical outcome in OSCC patients and that non-smokers were worse prognosis than light smokers. In addition, this effect might differ by treatment method.

  18. Outcome Analysis of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer and Extracapsular Spread in Neck Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in neck lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in this patient group and tried to identify a subset of patients with a worse prognosis suitable for more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 255 OSCC patients with ECS in neck nodes and without evidence of distant metastasis. All participants were followed-up for at least 2 years or censored at last follow-up. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: Level IV/V lymph node metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm were independent predictors of 5-year survival and identified three prognostic groups. In the low-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth <12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 60%, 66%, and 50%, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 39%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In the high-risk group (evidence of level IV/V metastases), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 14%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusions: Among OSCC patients with ECS, those with level IV/V metastases appear to have the worst prognosis followed by without level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm. An aggressive therapeutic approach may be suitable for intermediate- and high-risk patients.

  19. Who will win the race in childrens' oral cavities? Streptococcus mutans or beneficial lactic acid bacteria?

    PubMed

    Güngör, Ö E; Kırzıoğlu, Z; Dinçer, E; Kıvanç, M

    2013-09-01

    Adhesion to oral soft and hard tissue is crucial for bacterial colonisation in the mouth. The aim of this work was to select strains of oral lactic acid bacteria that could be used as probiotics for oral health. To this end, the adhesive properties of some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Seventeen lactic acid bacteria including two Streptococcus mutans strains were isolated from the oral cavity of healthy children, while other strains were isolated from fermented meat products. The bacterial strains were applied to teeth surfaces covered with saliva or without saliva. A significant diversity in adhesion capacity to teeth surfaces among the lactic acid bacteria was observed. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from the oral cavity adhered the best to teeth surfaces covered with saliva, whereas lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented meat samples adhered the best to tooth surface without saliva. All strains of lactic acid bacteria were able to reduce the number of S. mutans cells, in particular on saliva-coated tooth surface. Therefore, they might have potential as probiotics for the oral cavity.

  20. Primary tuberculosis of oral cavity: a rare entity revisited.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virad; Singh, Amit P; Meher, Ravi; Raj, Anoop

    2011-03-01

    Oral lesions of tuberculosis though uncommon, are seen both in the primary as well as the secondary stages of the disease. In secondary tuberculosis, the oral manifestations are accompanied by lesions in the lung, lymph nodes, or any other organ system of the body. This can be detected by the usual clinical history and systemic examination. Primary oral tuberculosis may thus present as a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Amongst the oral lesions also, tongue is the usual site for tubercular infection, with the upper lip and soft palate being the least affected. The authors report two rare cases of children with isolated primary tuberculosis of the lip and uvula. Interestingly, the first case presenting just as a diffuse swelling of the upper lip, and the second as pain in throat with congestion and granulations on the uvula. We suggest a distinct Indian social habit which predisposes to primary lip and uvular tuberculosis, sites not common in the rest of the world. The habit of doing "datoon" i.e. brushing of the teeth with neem twigs in rural India, which at times causes trauma on the palate and thus predisposing to seedling of the wound with mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  1. Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bik, Elisabeth M; Long, Clara Davis; Armitage, Gary C; Loomer, Peter; Emerson, Joanne; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Nelson, Karen E; Gill, Steven R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Relman, David A

    2010-08-01

    The composition of the oral microbiota from 10 individuals with healthy oral tissues was determined using culture-independent techniques. From each individual, 26 specimens, each from different oral sites at a single point in time, were collected and pooled. An 11th pool was constructed using portions of the subgingival specimens from all 10 individuals. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using broad-range bacterial primers, and clone libraries from the individual and subgingival pools were constructed. From a total of 11,368 high-quality, nonchimeric, near full-length sequences, 247 species-level phylotypes (using a 99% sequence identity threshold) and 9 bacterial phyla were identified. At least 15 bacterial genera were conserved among all 10 individuals, with significant interindividual differences at the species and strain level. Comparisons of these oral bacterial sequences with near full-length sequences found previously in the large intestines and feces of other healthy individuals suggest that the mouth and intestinal tract harbor distinct sets of bacteria. Co-occurrence analysis showed significant segregation of taxa when community membership was examined at the level of genus, but not at the level of species, suggesting that ecologically significant, competitive interactions are more apparent at a broader taxonomic level than species. This study is one of the more comprehensive, high-resolution analyses of bacterial diversity within the healthy human mouth to date, and highlights the value of tools from macroecology for enhancing our understanding of bacterial ecology in human health.

  2. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization of Head and Neck Tumours: Tumours of the Oral Cavity and Mobile Tongue.

    PubMed

    Müller, Susan

    2017-03-01

    There have been several additions and deletions in Chapter 4 on Tumours of the oral cavity and mobile tongue in the 2017 fourth edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Head and Neck. This chapter excludes the oropharynx, which now is a stand-alone chapter acknowledging the uniqueness of the oropharynx from the oral cavity. New entries in Chapter 4 include rhabdomyoma, haemangioma, schwannoma, neurofibroma and myofibroblastic sarcoma in the section titled Soft tissue and neural tumours. Discussion of salivary gland entities have been reduced and includes mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma as the other salivary gland types are discussed elsewhere. In the Haematolymphoid tumours section, like the salivary gland section, only tumors that commonly present in the oral cavity are discussed in Chapter 4. Excluded entities in the updated classification include papillary hyperplasia, median rhomboid glossitis, keratoacanthoma, focal oral mucinosis, and secondary tumors. This article will summarize the changes in the new classification since the 2005 edition focusing on selected entities that have had significant changes along with new entries.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatous stroma in the nasal cavity of a dog.

    PubMed

    Bosward, K L; Kessell, A E; Lucy, R J

    2004-09-01

    This is a report of an unusual squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity of a dog. A 13-year-old Golden Retriever was presented with a unilateral nasal and ocular discharge. Although a nasal tumour was suspected, initial diagnostic investigations were unrewarding, and, with worsening clinical signs, the dog was euthanatized. Necropsy examination confirmed the presence of a nasal tumour that was composed histologically of both a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma component blending with a predominant spindle cell component. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human keratin/cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2 and broad spectrum cytokeratin), Vimentin, Desmin, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein supported a diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma with (pseudo) sarcomatous stroma.

  4. TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression in normal oral epithelium oral dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fernanda-Paula; Corrêa Pontes, Flávia-Sirotheau; Cury, Sérgio-Elias; Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Rebelo-Pontes, Hélder; Pinto-Júnior, Décio-dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of TWIST and p-Akt proteins in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), correlating their expressions with the histological features of the lesions. Study design: Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 10 normal oral epithelium, 30 OL and 20 OSCC formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Immunoperoxidase reactions for TWIST and p-Akt proteins were applied on the specimens and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Results: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post tests revealed a significant difference in TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression among normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TWIST and p-Akt expressions according to the Pearson’s correlation test. Conclusions: The results obtained in the current study suggest that TWIST and p-Akt may participate of the multi-step process of oral carcinogenesis since its early stages. Key words: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry. PMID:21743395

  5. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  6. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  7. [Nutritional status of patients with cancer of oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Pérez Camargo, Dana Aline; De Nicola Delfín, Luigina; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Copca Mendoza, Erika Thalia; Hernández Méndez, Margarita; Herrera Gómez, Ángel; Meneses García, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El cáncer de cavidad oral ocupa el doceavo lugar a nivel mundial. El tratamiento del cáncer de cavidad oral es habitualmente cirugía seguida de radioterapia, la cual puede estar indicada sola o con quimioterapia; este tipo de terapias tienen importantes efectos secundarios funcionales sobre el estado nutricio del paciente. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer el impacto de los diferentes tratamientos sobre el estado nutricional de los pacientes con cáncer de cavidad oral atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología durante el período comprendido del 2009 al 2011. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, y retrospectivo. Se incluyeron 99 pacientes con cáncer de cavidad oral. Se registraron las siguientes variables; género, edad, tipo de tratamiento (cirugía, quimioterapia, radioterapia), complicaciones más importantes secundarias a tratamiento, pérdida de peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y albumina. Resultados y discusión: La prevalencia de cáncer de cavidad oral fue mayor en mujeres (58,6%); la edad promedio fue de 61,22 años. Las complicaciones secundarias al tratamiento fueron xerostomía (20%) seguida de odinofagia y mucositis (19%), la relación de pérdida de peso y sintomatología se observó en el (54%) de los pacientes, debido al tipo de alimentación previo, durante y después del tratamiento en los cuales tuvo mayor predominio el uso de papillas. Conclusión: Se observó una pérdida de peso debido a las complicaciones del tratamiento médico que afectaron el estado nutricio, por ello es importante tener un monitoreo continuo que apoye el éxito del tratamiento multidisciplinario.

  8. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma presenting in the oral cavity of two HIV-negative Quechua patients.

    PubMed

    Mohanna, Salim; Bravo, Francisco; Ferrufino, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Juvenal; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    Traditionally, classic KS lesions have a general distribution, often involving the skin of the feet and legs, and to a lesser extent, that of the hands, arms, and trunk. Oral involvement is a rare manifestation. Initial oral involvement is an even rarer occurrence. We report two unusual cases of classic KS presenting in the oral cavity of two patients from indigenous origin; the first patient with primary oral KS lesion on the hard palate, with no other signs of the condition in any other region of the body; the second patient with generalized dermal KS lesions with lymph node and lower lip involvement. In conclusion, clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the typical clinical, gross, and histologic features of KS. Moreover, we would like to emphasize that oral KS may affect patients without AIDS or exposure to immunosuppression. The awareness of oral classic KS as a diagnostic possibility is important in the work-up of vascular lesions in the oral cavity of non-immunosuppressed individuals.

  9. Relationship between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Tomás, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda

    2014-05-01

    The components of the human body are closely interdependent; as a result, disease conditions in some organs or components can influence the development of disease in other body locations. The effect of oral health upon health in general has been investigated for decades by many epidemiological studies. In this context, there appears to be a clear relationship between deficient oral hygiene and different systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The precise relationship between them is the subject of ongoing research, and a variety of theories have been proposed, though most of them postulate the mediation of an inflammatory response. This association between the oral cavity and disease in general requires further study, and health professionals should be made aware of the importance of adopting measures destined to promote correct oral health. The present study conducts a Medline search with the purpose of offering an update on the relationship between oral diseases and cardiovascular diseases, together with an evaluation of the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease. Most authors effectively describe a moderate association between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases, though they also report a lack of scientific evidence that oral alterations constitute an independent cause of cardiovascular diseases, or that their adequate treatment can contribute to prevent such diseases. In the case of metabolic syndrome, obesity and particularly diabetes mellitus may be associated to an increased susceptibility to periodontitis. However, it is not clear whether periodontal treatment is able to improve the systemic conditions of these patients.

  10. Chronic lingual ulceration caused by lipoma of the oral cavity. Case report.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; Cebrián Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez García, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Although lipomas are among the most frequent tumors in the human body, their presentation in the oral cavity is not common. Oral cavity lipomas usually show a slow painless and assymptomatic growing. When these tumors reach big sizes, they can cause compressive symptons and deformities. In this paper we present the case of a patient in whom oral lipoma was the final finding in the differential diagnosis of a chronic mucosal ulcer. CT scan and MRI images and microscopical examination after fine-needle aspiration were the clue for the final diagnosis. The surgical excision of the tumor was the basis for the healing of the ulcer. We also review the most relevant and recent literature about clinic, diagnosis and treatment for these tumors.

  11. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  12. Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review).

    PubMed

    Rivera, César; Venegas, Bernardo

    2014-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 95% of all forms of head and neck cancer, and over the last decade its incidence has increased by 50%. Oral carcinogenesis is a multistage process, which simultaneously involves precancerous lesions, invasion and metastasis. Degradation of the cell cycle and the proliferation of malignant cells results in the loss of control mechanisms that ensure the normal function of tissues. The aim of the current review is to present the histopathological features of OSCC, including potentially malignant changes, the international classification of tumors, the tumor invasion front and tumor biomarkers (Ki-67, p53, homeobox genes and collagen type IV), as well as the tumor microenvironment and function of cancer-associated fibroblasts in the most common type of oral cancer that is encountered by dental surgeons. In OSCC, associations have been identified between the proliferation, basal lamina degradation and connective tissue modulation. Therefore, the comparison of these factors with the survival time of OSCC patients from the histopathological diagnosis is of interest.

  13. Glutaminolysis and carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar; Grimm, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Glutaminolysis is a crucial factor for tumor metabolism in the carcinogenesis of several tumors but has not been clarified for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet. Expression of glutaminolysis-related solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5)/neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT2), glutaminase (GLS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS were significantly overexpressed in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue, while GLDH was weakly detected. Compared with SIN I-III SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS expression were significantly increased in OSCC. GLDH expression did not significantly differ from SIN I-III compared with OSCC. This study shows the first evidence of glutaminolysis-related SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS, and GLDH expression in OSCC. The very weak GLDH expression indicates that glutamine metabolism is rather related to nucleotide or protein/hexosamine biosynthesis or to the function as an antioxidant (glutathione) than to energy production or generation of lactate through entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overcoming glutaminolysis by targeting c-Myc oncogene (e.g. by natural compounds) and thereby cross-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS inhibitors may be a useful strategy to sensitize cancer cells to common OSCC cancer therapies.

  14. Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Clinical Manifestations and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Ozgur; Duda, Lili; Sánchez, Melissa D; Lewis, John R

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most commonly encountered malignant oral tumor in cats. The etiology of this locally invasive tumor is likely multifactorial. Several risk factors have been identified, including the use of flea collars, and a history of feeding canned food and canned tuna. Clinical signs vary depending on tumor location. The tumor commonly arises from the gingiva and mucosa of the maxilla, mandible, tongue, sublingual area, or tonsillar region. Maxillary SCC commonly presents clinically as an ulcerative lesion, whereas mandibular SCC is commonly proliferative, expansile, and firm. Lingual/sublingual SCC may be ulcerative, necrotic, infiltrative, or proliferative. In general, feline oral SCC is an invasive and malignant neoplasm regardless of its location. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and combinations thereof have been attempted with rarely a satisfactory response. Currently, cures are obtained only in a small subset of cats whose tumors are amenable to complete resection, or where resection with microscopic residual disease is followed by definitive radiation therapy. A multimodal treatment approach likely offers the best chance of success. For cats with advanced disease, palliative care may improve patients' quality of life, albeit transiently. Sequelae associated with tumor progression and local tissue destruction often result in euthanasia of feline patients with oral SCC.

  15. [Propositions for the selection and the delineation of peritumoral microscopic disease volumes in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (lymph nodes excluded)].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Henrot, P; Alfonsi, M; Bardet, E; Bensadoun, R J; Dolivet, G; Favrel, V; Gallocher, O; Giraud, P; Graff, P; Guerif, S; Lagarde, P; Lartigau, E; Marchesi, V; Pommier, P; Rives, M; Tortochaux, J; Toussaint, B; Verrelle, P; Bourhis, J; Calais, G

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the concept of selectivity in peritumoral microscopic disease to be included in the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) for elective treatment for oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, using the local tumoral spread. The objective of the present article is to present a procedure for the delineation of the target volumes, required for an appropriate application of 3-DCRT and IMRT for head and neck cancers. These propositions are for the delineation of microscopic peritumoral target volumes when external beam irradiation is required. CTVs are illustrated on CT sections.

  16. Silent blast in oral cavity: is the car battery innocuous?

    PubMed

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar; Tripathi, Mukesh; Ramraj, P N; Singh, Ishwar

    2005-04-01

    Low voltage energy source is not free from danger. An exceptionally rare and peculiar mode of facial blast injury is reported. The blast took place silently in the mouth of a 15-year-old boy, due to short-circuiting of wires connected to a12-volt car battery while peeling off insulation with the intent of running a musical instrument. Airway compromise due to soft tissue injury produced further problem during tracheostomy. Emergent airway management is discussed. Post-healing sequel resulted in loss of voice and prevented normal oral feeding. The case report emphasizes need for education to public in handling low voltage energy source.

  17. Evaluation of mast cell counts and microvessel density in reactive lesions of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Tahamtan, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable immunohistochemical assays to assess the definitive role of mast cells (MCs) and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of oral reactive lesions are generally not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mast cell counts (MCC) and microvessel density (MVD) in oral reactive lesions and determine the correlation between MCC and MVD. Methods. Seventy-five cases of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma (15 for each category) were immunohisto-chemically stained with MC tryptase and CD31. Fifteen cases of normal gingival tissue were considered as the control group. The mean MCC and MVD in superficial and deep connective tissues were assessed and total MCC and MVD was computed for each lesion. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in MCC and MVD between the study groups (P < 0.001). MC tryptase and CD31 expression increased in the superficial connective tissue of each lesion in comparison to the deep con-nective tissue. A significant negative correlation was not found between MCC and MVD in oral reactive lesions (P < 0.001, r = -0.458). Conclusion. Although MCs were present in the reactive lesions of the oral cavity, a direct correlation between MCC and MVD was not found in these lesions. Therefore, a significant interaction between MCs and endothelial cells and an active role for MCs in the growth of oral reactive lesions was not found in this study. PMID:28096950

  18. Determining the Genetic Diversity of Lactobacilli from the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, R.; Argimon, S.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Caufield, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Several methods for determining the diversity of Lactobacillus spp were evaluated with the purpose of developing a realistic approach for further studies. The patient population was comprised of young children with an oral disease called severe early childhood caries. The ultimate goal of these studies was to ascertain the role of lactobacilli in the caries process. To accomplish that goal, we evaluated several methods and approaches for determining diversity including AP-PCR, chromosomal DNA fingerprinting, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Central to these methods was the gathering and screening of isolates from cultivation medium. Using various estimates of diversity, we addressed the question as to how many isolates represent the overall diversity and how cultivation compares to non-cultivation techniques. Finally, we proposed a working approach for achieving the goals outlined framed by both practical constraints in terms of time, effort and efficacy while yielding a reliable outcome. PMID:20573585

  19. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

  20. Decreased expression of Ku70/Ku80 proteins in malignant melanomas of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Korabiowska, Monika; Tscherny, Michael; Grohmann, Ulrike; Hönig, Johannes F; Bartkowski, Stanislaw B; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Brinck, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Ku70/80 are genes responsible for the repairing of DNA double-strand breaks and they function as a regulatory subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase. Their expression has not yet been investigated in malignant melanomas of the oral cavity. These tumours are characterized by very poor prognosis and etiology independent of UV-radiation. We investigated 29 malignant melanomas of the oral cavity for the expression of Ku70/80 proteins. Ku70 expression was preserved in 21 out of 29 tumours and the percentage of Ku70-positive cells did not exceed 76%. Ku80 was found in 19 out of 29 tumours and the percentage of Ku80-positive cells peaked at 62%. Correlations between Ku70 and Ku80 expression were lost (p>0.05). We conclude that decreased Ku70/80 expression in malignant melanomas of the oral cavity and loss of correlation between these markers may influence progression of oral melanomas.

  1. Novel bacterial phylotypes associated with the healthy feline oral cavity and feline chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Dolieslager, Sanne M J; Bennett, David; Johnston, Norman; Riggio, Marcello P

    2013-06-01

    Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a painful inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. Treatment options for FCGS are very limited and little is known regarding its aetiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of putative novel species in the oral cavity of cats with and without FCGS. Bacterial DNA was extracted from oral swabs and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The 16S rRNA genes of 54 clones representing distinct potentially novel species were sequenced (1202-1325 base pairs). Obtained sequences were compared to the BLAST database, aligned using the ClustalW2 alignment tool and a phylogenetic tree created. Twenty-two clones (18 from control and four from FCGS samples) had a similarity of less than 97% and were considered novel. The proportion of novel phylotypes in each group was 19.6% (control) and 2.3% (FCGS). In the derived phylogenetic tree, 15 novel phylotypes clustered together and branched away from known species and phyla. This suggests the presence of a group of novel, previously unidentified bacteria that are associated with the feline oral cavity in both health and disease.

  2. Lightpipe device for delivery of uniform illumination for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cassarly, William J.; Foster, Thomas H.; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2011-01-01

    A compact and efficient lightpipe device to deliver light to the human oral cavity for photodynamic therapy was designed and fabricated, having dimensions 6.8 mm × 6.8 mm × 46 mm. An average irradiance of 76 mW/cm2 with an average deviation of 5% was measured on a square 25 mm2 treatment field for an input power of 100 mW. The device limits irradiation of healthy tissue and offers potential for improvement over the current treatment procedure, which requires shielding of the whole cavity to avoid damage to healthy tissue. PMID:21629308

  3. Experimental candidosis and recovery of Candida albicans from the oral cavity of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Koga Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the development of candidosis and the recovery of C. albicans from the oral cavity of ovariectomized and sham-ovariectomized rats. One hundred and twenty-four rats originally negative for Candida spp. in the oral cavity were divided into two groups: ovariectomized and sham-ovariectomized. Fifty-eight ovariectomized and the same quantity of sham-ovariectomized rats were inoculated with C. albicans for the study of candidosis development and recovery of yeast. Four animals from each group were not inoculated with yeast suspension and were submitted to tongue dorsum morphologic analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The development of candidosis in the tongue dorsum was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy in the periods of 6 hr, 24 hr, 7 days and 15 days after the last inoculation. Recovery of C. albicans was performed by oral samples plating on Sabouraud agar after 1, 2, 5 and 7 days and progressively at each 15-day interval until negative cultures for yeasts were obtained. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests. The tongue dorsum of sham-ovariectomized and ovariectomized rats, not infected by Candida, presented normal aspect. Among the infected rats, the ovariectomized group showed less occurrence of candidosis lesions and lower recovery of C. albicans from the oral cavity in relation to the sham-ovariectomized group. It could be concluded that candidosis was less frequent from the oral cavities of ovariectomized rats in relation to sham-ovariectomized.

  4. High-risk human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system. Results Out of 70 women with cervical cancer, four (5.71%) were found to be positive for HR-HPV in their oral cavity. No association of HR-HPV was found with sociodemographic profile, marital status, reproductive history, tobacco and alcohol usage, contraceptive pills usage, and presence of oral lesions (p>0.05). Among children, HR-HPV in the oral cavity was detected in only 1 of the 46 subjects examined (2.17%). Clinically healthy oral mucosa, without any oral lesions, was observed in all the HR-HPV positive subjects. Conclusion The result of this study showed that there is low, if any, risk of HR-HPV infection in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer. Further, our study suggests that there is very low risk for children of women with cervical cancer, to acquire and sustain HR-HPV in their oral cavity until childhood or adolescence. PMID:20550718

  5. The usefulness of toluidine staining as a diagnostic tool for precancerous and cancerous oropharyngeal and oral cavity lesions

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, E; Lombardo, N; L. Puzzo; Garozzo, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Toluidine blue stain is used as a marker to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression in order to improve early diagnosis of oropharyngeal carcinomas. This study focused on 45 oral mucosal lesions in 32 patients (13 female, 19 male). In 9 cases, multiple biopsies were collected. Of the 45 lesions examined, 26 (57.0%) were defined clinically benign, while 19 (42.3%) were defined as suspected lesions (premalignant or malignant). According to the clinical examination, the sensitivity was 53% (16/30) and for toluidine blue staining 96.2% (26/27) (p = 0.0007). The specificity was 80% (12/15) for clinical examination and 77.7% (14/15) for toluidine blue staining (p = 0.79). In conclusion toluidine blue stain has been shown to be a reliable aid when clinical examination is unable to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression and then it improves early diagnosis for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:20161875

  6. Localization of fluconazole in oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for treatment of oral thrush

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Kamla; Sharma, Vijay; Akhtar, Nida; Rastogi, Pragya

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present research work was aimed at localization of fluconazole in the oral cavity by preferential coating of buccoadhesive tablet for the treatment of oral thrush. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the aim, buccoadhesive tablets were optimized using 32 full factorial design to study the influence of varying content of chitosan and carbopol 934P (input variables) on the responses. Results: Perturbation plots revealed high sensitivity of the input variables to ex vivo mucoadhesion force and percent cumulative drug release (CDR) whereas the ex vivo mucoadhesion time was less sensitive to the input variables. Based on the highest desirability factor of 0.693 the formulation F9 was identified as the optimized formulation and was preferentially coated with ethyl cellulose (3% w/v) on one tablet face to get F9C. In reference to F9, F9C showed superior mucoadhesive features (P < 0.05) but the % CDR was comparable (f2 = 50.80). The preferential coating (F9C, Jss = 0.812 μg/cm2/h) limited the permeation of fluconazole across goat buccal mucosa by almost half the value of F9 (Jss = 1.34 μg/cm2/h) that could serve as an advantage in establishing high local concentration of drug in the oral cavity, thereby facilitating faster attainment of minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis established nonirritant potential. The developed formulation was stable and demonstrated antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that preferentially coated buccoadhesive tablets of fluconazole might be considered as a precise approach to localize the drug delivery in oral cavity. PMID:27051630

  7. Oral candidiasis mimicking an oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Paiva, Helena Borges; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; da Silva, Fernanda Bragança Monteiro; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Dos Santos Pinto, Décio

    2012-03-01

    Oral candidiasis is a significant problem in immune-compromised patients. The most common forms of mucosal candidiasis are oropharyngeal, oesophageal and vaginal, and more than 90% of HIV positive persons will manifest at least one episode of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Local and systemic factors such as uninterrupted daily use of a prosthesis by patients, smoking habit, as well as high glucose intake may contribute to the development of the lesion. The aim of this article is to report an uncommon case of oral candidiasis presenting an aggressive clinical behaviour in a 64-year-old male patient, with a significant smoking habit and a medical history of non-controlled diabetes. The lesion affected the hard and soft palate of the right side, revealing erythematous and ulcerated areas, elevated borders and central portions resembling necrosis, mimicking the clinical features of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the correct diagnosis of oral candidiasis was obtained after histopathological and cytological examinations and the patient was easily treated with traditional antifungal drugs and correction of his glucose levels.

  8. GSTM1 polymorphism and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Sérgio Neves; De Marco, Luiz; Noronha, Júlio Carlos Motta; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of the GSTM1 genotypes in 70 Brazilian patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 82 age-sex matched controls. The GSTM1 genotypes were studied by PCR-based methods. The frequency of male patients with OSCC and null for the GSTM1 (70.5%) was statistically different from the male patients from the control group (48.5%) (Odds Ratio, OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.22-5.24, P<0.05). The frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype (0/0) in the group with OSCC (65.7%) was statistically different from the controls (48.7%) (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.04-3.88, P<0.05). The prevalence of GSTM1 deficiency (null) was significantly higher for patients with oral cancer of the floor of the mouth (OR=3.67, 95% CI=1.11-12.11, P<0.05). In conclusion, the GSTM1 null genotype may increase the risk for OSCC development.

  9. Higher prevalence and gene amplification of HPV16 in oropharynx as compared to oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, Hideo; SUGIYAMA, Masaru; OHTA, Kouji; RAHMAN, Mohammad Zeshaan; TAKECHI, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to clarify differences regarding HPV16 infection and gene amplification between the oral cavity and oropharynx in healthy individuals. Material and Methods The subjects were 94 healthy asymptomatic individuals (41 males, 53 females; mean age 58.6 years, range 16-97 years) who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery of the Hiroshima University Hospital from 2014 to 2015. Oral epithelial cells were collected from oral rinse and pharynx gargle samples and placed in saline. The human endogenous retrovirus gene ERV3-1 was used as a reference to estimate the number of human cells in each sample. DNA samples were extracted from approximately 10,000 human cells and tested for HPV16 DNA by PCR using a type-specific primer. Similarly, we analyzed the HPV16 viral copy number in HPV16-positive cases using real-time PCR to examine genomic amplification. Results The percentage of HPV16-positive cases was higher in the gargle (28.7%) as compared to the rinse (16.0%) samples. In the oral rinse samples, males (26.8%) showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 than females (7.5%) (P=0.021). Importantly, in older subjects (aged 60-89 years), gargle samples showed a significantly higher rate of HPV16 (33.3%) than oral rinse samples (13.7%) (P=0.034). The average number of viral copies was approximately 8 times higher in the gargle than in the oral rinse samples (0.16±0.27 vs. 1.35±1.26 copy numbers per cell), a significant difference (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the oropharynx is more susceptible to HPV16 infection as compared to the oral cavity, while HPV16 gene amplification is also more commonly found in the oropharynx. PMID:27556212

  10. Versitality of the Use of Collagen Membrane in Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Nagamalleswara; Bhushan, N.V.V. Satya; Krishnan, Gokkula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bovine derived collagen membrane is usually and regularly used as a temporary cover or dressing for the extra oral wounds and for the burns on the body. It has wide applications because of its usefulness and biocompatibility. This has provoked us to do a study with the use of collagen membrane even for the intraoral minor surgical defects. Aim The study was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of collagen membrane as a biological dressing material for intraoral wounds, to check for haemostasis, pain control, granulation tissue formation, rapid re-epithelialization and minimal contracture. Materials and Methods A total of 30 patients 19 male, 11 female were taken for excision of various intraoral lesions like leukoplakia patches, mucocele, epulis growths, irritational fibroma, frenectomy and the surgical defects were closed with collagen membrane. Postoperatively healing was assessed by taking five clinical parameters of Haemostasis, Pain, Granulation tissue, Epithelialization, Contracture. Results Among 30 patients, haemostasis score was found to be good in 28 cases, fair in two cases. Pain relief score was good in seven cases, fair in 19 cases, poor in four cases. Granulation tissue formation score was good in eight cases, fair in 13 cases, poor in nine cases. Epithelialization score was good in 19 cases, fair in seven cases, poor in four cases. Contracture score was good in six cases, fair in 16 cases, poor in eight cases. Total score of all the five parameters, which was rated as effectiveness score, was calculated by using a standard scale. Final scoring was very effective in six cases, effective in 20 cases, ineffective in four cases. Conclusion Reconstituted bovine derived collagen membrane used in our study was found to be an effective intraoral wound dressing material for faster uneventful healing of intraorally also. PMID:27042581

  11. Cytomorphologic Attributes of Epithelial Myoepithelial Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity - A Rare Tumor with Unusual Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vijayshankar, Shivshankar; Abhishek, MG; Kumari, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma (EMC) is a rare low grade epithelial malignancy of major Salivary Glands (SG). Though the histomorphology of this tumor is distinct, unusual location and clinical presentation may pose diagnostic difficulties especially when this lesion is first encountered at cytology. We report a case of 60-year-old female presenting with nasal obstruction of three months duration. At FNAC the diagnosis of EMC was suggested and it was confirmed on histopathology. We present this case highlighting the cytomorphologic attributes of this rare tumor occurring at an extremely uncommon location – Nasal cavity. PMID:27790447

  12. Minor salivary glands as a major source of secretory immunoglobin A in the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J M; Taubman, M A; Smith, D J

    1975-12-19

    Secretory immunoglobulin A is the predominant immunoglobulin in labial minor salivary gland secretions. Its mean concentration is four times higher in these secretions than in parotid gland secretion. The minor salivary glands can produce 30 to 35 percent of the immunoglobulin A that enters the oral cavity. This, together with the potential accessibility of these glands to antigenic stimulation, suggest that they may be an important source of the immune factors that are involved in the regulation of the microorganisms in the oral environment.

  13. Congenital Epidermoid Cyst of the Oral Cavity: Prenatal Diagnosis by Sonography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Wan; Chae, Soo Ahn; Yoo, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Gwang Jun; Lee, Sei Young

    2013-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign developmental anomalies that are rarely observed in the oral cavity of neonate. If large in size, especially in the developing fetus or newborn infant, they can cause swallowing difficulty and occasionally respiratory difficulty. We report a case of epidermoid cyst in the oral cavity detected prenatal sonography. The sonographic finding was large cystic mass, measuring 30×25 mm. In this case, supplies and equipment for an emergency tracheostomy were made available prior to the delivery. However, the infant did not require intervention to secure the airway. The lesion was surgically excised, and histologic diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. After 6 months of follow up, the cyst had not recurred. This case illustrates the value of accurate prenatal diagnosis and planned perinatal management using a team approach. PMID:24069525

  14. CTCFL (BORIS) mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Galván, Graciela; Reyes-Romero, Miguel; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Almeda-Ojeda, Oscar Eduardo; Lemus-Rojero, Obed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites) and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity. PMID:25114808

  15. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo.

  16. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  17. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1-2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time.

  18. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1–2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  19. Clinical and biochemical studies support smokeless tobacco’s carcinogenic potential in the human oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mallery, Susan R.; Tong, Meng; Michaels, Gregory C.; Kiyani, Amber R.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, International Agency for Cancer Research presented compelling evidence that linked smokeless tobacco use to the development of human oral cancer. While these findings imply vigorous local carcinogen metabolism, little is known regarding levels and distribution of Phase I, II and drug egress enzymes in human oral mucosa. In the study presented here, we integrated clinical data, imaging and histopathologic analyses of an oral squamous cell carcinoma that arose at the site of smokeless tobacco quid placement in a patient. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were employed to identify tumor and normal human oral mucosal smokeless tobacco-associated metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Human oral epithelium contains every known Phase I enzyme associated with nitrosamine oxidative bioactivation with ~2 fold inter-donor differences in protein levels. Previous studies have confirmed ~3.5 fold inter-donor variations in intraepithelial Phase II enzymes. Unlike the superficially located enzymes in non-replicating esophageal surface epithelium, IHC studies confirmed oral mucosal nitrosamine metabolizing enzymes reside in the basilar and suprabasilar region which notably is the site of ongoing keratinocyte DNA replication. Clearly, variations in product composition, nitrosamine metabolism and exposure duration will modulate clinical outcomes. The data presented here form a coherent picture consistent with the abundant experimental data that links tobacco-specific nitrosamines to human oral cancer. PMID:24265177

  20. [Dysbiosis and its consequences on oral cavity in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Suladze, T; Shishniashvili, T; Margvelashvili, V; Makhviladze, M

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases in children are often accompanied by changes in oral cavity, which is caused by common function of GIT and oral cavity organs. During last years, the number of dysbiosis of various severities has dramatically increased, which directly affects the oral cavity - dental hard tissue mineralization, especially in children and adolescents. The aim of our study was to identify the frequency of dysbiosis in children and adolescents and its influence on dental and general health. 279 patients aged 1 - 17 years were examined. Examinations have shown, that in patients with I-II degree dysbiosis spread and intensity (DMF index) of dental caries is significantly lower - 58,2% and 2,7 intensity, compared to III-IV degree dysbiosis, where 71,8% have caries with 4,2 intensity. According to this, dental and general health status in children and adolescents is highly dependent on severity of GI tract pathologies, particularly on qualitative and/or quantitative content of microbyotes of GI tract.

  1. [Oral cavity microflora in patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Kondrakova, O A; Muliar, E A; Voropaeva, E A; Babin, V N; Dubinin, A V; Briko, N I

    2009-01-01

    Results of study of microecological disorders in oral cavity of patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis (NSUC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and control subjects (patients with hypertension). Condition of mucosa was assessed on the basis of morphological data and electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei, whereas structure of microbiocenosis and metabolic activity of microflora--on the basis of saliva bacterial culture and contents and profile of volatile fat acids in it. Detection rate of negative charge of the cell nuclei (decrease of functional activity of epithelium) was significantly higher in patients with NSUC and CD (66.6%) compared with controls (10%). This fact was directly related with hypercolonization of oral cavity by Gram-negative microflora. Lesions of mucosa which are characteristic of NSUC and CD and determined by pathologic immune mechanisms correlated with quantity of pathogenic microflora (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida). Marked differences of chromatograms' patterns were observed in patients with NSUC and CD indicating the suppression of anaerobic microflora in patients with CD and hypercolonization of oral cavity by anaerobic microflora in majority of patients with NSUC.

  2. Role of MRI in Evaluation of Malignant Lesions of Tongue and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amandeep; Thukral, Chuni Lal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Sood, Arvinder Singh; Singla, Hanish; Singh, Kunwarpal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of MRI in staging of malignant lesions of the oral cavity and to correlate MRI findings with clinical/surgical and anatomical-pathological findings, wherever possible. Material/Methods The study included 50 patients who presented with malignant lesions of the oral cavity and were referred to radiology departments for MRI. All patients included were subjected to a detailed physical examination following which MRI was carried out on Philips Gyroscan Achieva 1.5 Tesla unit. Results In the study, the highest number of patients were found to have tongue malignancy (82%) followed by buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus malignancy (18%). The highest number of patients was in the age group of 51–60 years (32%). The incidence was higher in males (96%). There was moderate agreement (k=0.537) for T stage between the clinical and MRI staging assessments. The agreement for N stage between clinical and MRI staging assessments was fair (k=0.328). The final diagnosis was made by histopathology in 22 patients. The agreement for T stage was good/substantial (k=0.790) and for N stage was moderate (k=0.458) between MRI and histopathology staging assessments. Conclusions MRI provides satisfactory accuracy for preoperative estimation of tumor thickness and predicting occult cervical nodal metastasis. MRI is the preferred modality in evaluation and staging of oral cavity malignancy which helps a clinician for planning of treatment. PMID:28289481

  3. Relationship between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The components of the human body are closely interdependent; as a result, disease conditions in some organs or components can influence the development of disease in other body locations. The effect of oral health upon health in general has been investigated for decades by many epidemiological studies. In this context, there appears to be a clear relationship between deficient oral hygiene and different systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The precise relationship between them is the subject of ongoing research, and a variety of theories have been proposed, though most of them postulate the mediation of an inflammatory response. This association between the oral cavity and disease in general requires further study, and health professionals should be made aware of the importance of adopting measures destined to promote correct oral health. The present study conducts a Medline search with the purpose of offering an update on the relationship between oral diseases and cardiovascular diseases, together with an evaluation of the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease. Most authors effectively describe a moderate association between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases, though they also report a lack of scientific evidence that oral alterations constitute an independent cause of cardiovascular diseases, or that their adequate treatment can contribute to prevent such diseases. In the case of metabolic syndrome, obesity and particularly diabetes mellitus may be associated to an increased susceptibility to periodontitis. However, it is not clear whether periodontal treatment is able to improve the systemic conditions of these patients. Key words:Cardiovascular diseases, periodontitis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus. PMID:24121926

  4. The hidden ‘mycobacteriome’ of the human healthy oral cavity and upper respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Macovei, Lilia; McCafferty, Jon; Chen, Tsute; Teles, Flavia; Hasturk, Hatice; Paster, Bruce J.; Campos-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of opportunistic non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections has increased considerably in the past decades causing an array of infections, including respiratory and soft-tissue infections. NTM are ubiquitous and can be found in numerous environments, including households and water plants. However, NTM have not been reported to be associated with the healthy human oral microbiome. Since the oral cavity and upper respiratory track are the main ports of entry of microorganisms into the human body, elucidating NTM diversity and prevalence will assist in the assessment of the potential risks of infection elicited by these opportunistic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of a ‘non-tuberculous mycobacteriome’ in healthy individuals. We employed a modified DNA extraction procedure in conjunction with mycobacterial-specific primers to screen niches in the oral cavity (buccal mucosa and dental plaque) and upper respiratory tract (nostrils and oropharynx) of 10 healthy subjects. A total of 50 prevalent operational taxonomic units sequenced on MiSeq (Illumina) using 16S rRNA V3–V4 region were detected across all screened niches, showing the presence of diverse NTM communities. NTM DNA was detected in the nostrils of all 10 subjects, in buccal mucosa of 8 subjects, in the oropharynx of 7 subjects, and in the dental plaques of 5 subjects. Results from quantitative PCR showed each individual harbored 103–104 predicted NTM per each screened niche. The modification of standard DNA isolation methods to increase sensitivity toward mycobacterial species represents an important step to advance the knowledge of the oral as well as the overall human microbiome. These findings clearly reveal for the first time that healthy individuals harbor a ‘non-tuberculous mycobacteriome’ in their oral cavity and upper respiratory tract and may have important implications in our understanding of infections caused by NTM. PMID:25683180

  5. Cyclin B1 overexpression in conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma-A correlation with clinicopathological features

    PubMed Central

    Hallikeri, Kaveri S.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Hongal, Sudheer G.; Sanjaya, P R.; Sagari, Sheetalkumar G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nuclear localization of cyclin B1 is an indicator for cells undergoing mitotic division, and the overexpression has shown promising results as a good prognostic predictor for patients of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Cyclin B1 overexpression among histological grades of conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma (COSCC), as well as comparison with verrucous carcinoma (VC) has been less investigated. Study Design: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclin B1 was compared with various clinicopathological features in 30 primary COSCC and 31 primary VC cases. Result: Cyclin B1 showed significant overexpression for some clinical features for both the variants of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In histopathological variants, statistical significance was observed among grades of COSCC, as well as COSCC and its grades with VC. The concomitant increase in cyclin B1 overexpression from VC to grades COSCC was observed. Conclusion: Our study findings draw attention to cyclin B1 overexpression is involved in early carcinogenesis, cell differentiation and tumor proliferation. Key words:Cyclin B1, oral squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, head and neck cancer. PMID:23722120

  6. Impact of HPV infection on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Carolin; Drecoll, Enken; Straub, Melanie; Bissinger, Oliver; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are often divided by their aetiology. Noxae associated collectives are compared with the human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated group, whereas different localisations of oral (OSCC) and oropharyngeal (OPSCC) squamous cell carcinomas are mostly discussed as one single group. Our aim was to show that classification by aetiology is not appropriate for OSCC. Results HPV DNA was detected by PCR in 7 (3.47%) patients, and we identified 12 (5.94%) positive (+) cases by p16INK4a immunostaining. Only 4 (1.98%) of the p16INK4a+ cases were + for HPV using PCR. Our homogenous collective of OSCC allowed us to compare HPV+ and HPV negative (−) patients without creating bias for tumour localisation, age, gender or tumour stage. Materials and methods After testing OSCC samples for HPV positivity, we compared the results of two commonly used HPV detection methods, p16INK4a immunostaining and HPV DNA-related PCR, on 202 OSCC patients. HPV subtypes were determined with an HPV LCD Array Kit. Clinicopathological features of the patients were analysed, and the disease specific survival rates (DSS) for HPV+ and HPV− patients were obtained. Conclusions p16INK4a immunostaining is a not a reliable HPV detection method for OSCC. Positive p16INK4a immunostaining did not agree with + results from PCR of HPV DNA. Furthermore, the influence of HPV-related oncogenic transformation in OSCC is overestimated. The significance of HPV infection remains clinically unclear, and its influence on survival rates is not relevant to OSCC cases. PMID:27732948

  7. Genomic characterisation of canine papillomavirus type 17, a possible rare cause of canine oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Dunowska, Magda; Laurie, Rebecca E; Hills, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the second most common cancer of the canine oral cavity resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently a dog with multiple oral SCCs that contained a novel papillomavirus (PV) was reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the genome of this novel PV. To do this a short section of PV DNA was amplified from an oral SCC and 'back-to-back' primers were designed. Due to the circular nature of PV DNA, these primers were then used to amplify the remainder of the genome by inverse PCR. The PCR product was sequenced using next generation sequencing and the full genome of the PV, consisting of 8007 bp, was assembled and analysed. As this is the seventeenth PV identified from the domestic dog, the novel PV was designated Canis familiaris papillomavirus (CPV) type 17. Similar to other CPV types, the putative coding regions of CPV-17 were predicted to produce 5 early and 2 late proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF L1 revealed greater than 70% similarity to CPV-2 and CPV-7 and we propose that CPV-17 also be classified as a Taupapillomavirus 1. While it appears CPV-17 is only rarely present in canine oral SCCs, evidence suggests that this PV could influence the development of oral SCCs in this species.

  8. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the floor of mouth: first reported case in the oral cavity of an adult.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stephanie L; Kerpel, Stanley; Reich, Renee F; Freedman, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are exceedingly rare lesions. To our knowledge, only 2 cases have been reported in the oral cavity, with both examples occurring in infants. The current case is the third reported case of MRT of the oral cavity and the first reported case to occur in an adult at this location. The following report describes the clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor.

  9. NEDD 4 binding protein 2-like 1 promotes cancer cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kurihara, Miyako; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kirita, Tadaaki; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated with that of N4BP2L1 (P = 0.0019). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified N4BP2L1 expression as an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.0349). Our results suggest that N4BP2L1 plays an important role in tumor cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies on expression of N4BP2L1 may provide new insight into its function and clarify its potential as biomarker in human oral cancer.

  10. RELATED FACTORS FOR COLONIZATION BY Candida SPECIES IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    MENEZES, Ralciane de Paula; BORGES, Aércio Sebastião; de ARAUJO, Lúcio Borges; PEDROSO, Reginaldo dos Santos; RÖDER, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2015-01-01

    The colonization of the oral cavity is a prerequisite to the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Aims: The aims of this study were: to evaluate colonization and quantify Candida spp. in the oral cavity; to determine the predisposing factors for colonization; and to correlate the levels of CD4+ cells and viral load with the yeast count of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) in HIV-positive individuals treated at a University Hospital. Saliva samples were collected from 147 HIV patients and were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and chromogenic agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 h. Colonies with similar morphology in both media were counted and the result expressed in CFU/mL. Results: Of the 147 HIV patients, 89 had positive cultures for Candida spp., with a total of 111 isolates, of which C. albicans was the most frequent species (67.6%), and the mean of colonies counted was 8.8 × 10³ CFU/mL. The main predisposing factors for oral colonization by Candida spp. were the use of antibiotics and oral prostheses. The use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears to have a greater protective effect for colonization. A low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is associated with a higher density of yeast in the saliva of HIV patients. PMID:26603229

  11. Detection of hydrogen cyanide from oral anaerobes by cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Roslund, Kajsa; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Halonen, Lauri; Groop, Per-Henrik; Metsälä, Markus; Lehto, Markku

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been recognized as a potential biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung. However, the oral cavity is a dominant production site for exhaled HCN and this contribution can mask the HCN generated in the lung. It is thus important to understand the sources of HCN production in the oral cavity. By screening of oral anaerobes for HCN production, we observed that the genus of Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Fusobacterium generated low levels of HCN in vitro. This is the first study to show that oral anaerobes are capable of producing HCN in vitro. Further investigations were conducted on the species of P. gingivalis and we successfully detected HCN production (0.9–10.9 ppb) in the headspace of three P. gingivalis reference strains (ATCC 33277, W50 and OMG 434) and one clinical isolate. From P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and W50, a strong correlation between HCN and CO2 concentrations (rs = 0.89, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that the HCN production of P. gingivalis might be connected with the bacterial metabolic activity. These results indicate that our setup could be widely applied to the screening of in vitro HCN production by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  12. Cobalt 60 radiotherapy for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in three horses.

    PubMed

    Walker, M A; Schumacher, J; Schmitz, D G; McMullen, W C; Ruoff, W W; Crabill, M R; Hawkins, J F; Hogan, P M; McClure, S R; Vacek, J R; Edwards, J F; Helman, R G; Frelier, P F

    1998-03-15

    Three adult horses underwent aggressive treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, using course-fractionated cobalt 60 radiotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is not commonly diagnosed in horses. Historically, horses with this type of neoplasm have not been treated or have undergone some form of surgery. The prognosis for long-term survival or cure has been poor. Long-term results of cobalt 60 radiotherapy were good to excellent and exceeded those usually reported for horses treated surgically. On the basis of these results, use of radiotherapy for these neoplasms is recommended.

  13. Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, L Fernandez; Herrero, R; Reyes, R M Ortiz; Vaccarella, S; Anta, J Lence; Ferbeye, L; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2001-01-01

    In terms of worldwide levels, Cuba has an intermediate incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx. We studied 200 cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, of whom 57 women (median age = 64) and 200 hospital controls, frequency matched with cases by age and sex, in relation to smoking and drinking history, intake of 25 foods or food groups, indicators of oral hygiene and sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, and smoking and drinking habits. In the multivariate model, high educational level and white-collar occupation, but not white race, were associated with halving of oral cancer risk. Smoking ≥30 cigarettes per day showed an OR of 20.8 (95% CI: 8.9–48.3), similar to smoking ≥4 cigars daily (OR = 20.5). Drinking ≥ 70 alcoholic drinks per week showed an OR of 5.7 (95% CI: 1.8–18.5). Hard liquors were by far the largest source of alcohol. Increased risk was associated with the highest tertile of intake for maize (OR = 1.9), meat (OR = 2.2) and ham and salami (OR = 2.0), whereas high fruit intake was associated with significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.4). Among indicators of dental care, number of missing teeth and poor general oral condition at oral inspection showed ORs of 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Number of sexual partners, marriages or contacts with prostitutes, practice of oral sex and history of various sexually transmitted diseases, including genital warts, were not associated with oral cancer risk. 82% of oral cancer cases in Cuba were attributable to tobacco smoking, 19% to smoking cigars or pipe only. The fractions attributable to alcohol drinking (7%) and low fruit intake (11%) were more modest. Thus, decreases in cigarette and cigar smoking are at present the key to oral cancer prevention in Cuba. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

  14. Prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Min-Shan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Tu, Hung-Pin; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2007-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, a distinct ethnic group variation in incidence and mortality rates has been suggested for most carcinomas. Our aim is to identify the role of prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Methods Taiwan Cancer Registry records of 9039 subjects diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed. The population was divided into three ethnic groups by residence, which were Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien communities. Five-year survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Ethnic curves differed significantly by log-rank test; therefore separate models for Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien were carried out. The Cox multivariate proportional hazards model was used to examine the role of prognostic factors on ethnic survival. Results The five-year survival rates of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were significantly poorer for Hokkien community (53.9%) and Taiwanese aborigines community (58.1%) compared with Hakka community (60.5%). The adjusted hazard ratio of Taiwanese aborigines versus Hakka was 1.07 (95%CI, 0.86–1.33) for oral and pharyngeal carcinoma mortality, and 1.16 (95%CI, 1.01–1.33) for Hokkien versus Hakka. Males had significantly poor prognosis than females. Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis. Subjects with verrucous carcinoma had better survival than squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis was the worst in elderly subjects, and subjects who underwent surgery had the highest survival rate. Conclusion Our study presented that predictive variables in oral and pharyngeal carcinoma survival have been: ethnic groups, period of diagnosis, gender, diagnostic age, anatomic site, morphologic type, and therapy. PMID:17573960

  15. Podoplanin expression in tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas: an immunohistochemical and fractal analysis study.

    PubMed

    Margaritescu, C; Raica, M; Pirici, D; Simionescu, C; Mogoanta, L; Stinga, A C; Stinga, A S; Ribatti, D

    2010-06-01

    Podoplanin is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in head and neck malignancies and its expression is not restricted to lymphatic vessel endothelium. The aim of this study was to establish podoplanin expression in the tumor-free resection margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the geometric complexity of the lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa by utilizing fractal analysis. As concerns the podoplanin expression in noncancerous tissue, forty tumor-free resection margins from OSCCs were investigated utilizing immunohistochemistry for D2-40 antibody and image densitometry analysis. Podoplanin expression was extremely low in basal cells, especially in resection margins of OSCCs developed in the lower lip regions. However, a highly variable D2-40 expression in tumor-free resection margins associated with hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions was identified. Moreover, podoplanin expression also extended to the basal layer of the lower lip skin appendages, the myoepithelial cells of acini and ducts of minor salivary glands, and other structures from the oral cavity. As concerns the study of the density and complexity of oral lymphatic vessels architecture by means of immunohistochemistry (D2-40, CD31 and Ki-67 antibodies) and fractal analysis, we demonstrated that in normal oral mucosa the geometry of the lymphatic vessels was less complex at the level of the lower lip compared to the anterior part of the oral floor mucosa or the tongue. A comparative analysis between the normal and pathological aspects revealed statistically significant differences between the fractal dimension (FD) of the vessels' outline, especially in the tongue. Fractal analysis proved an increasing lymphatic network complexity from normal to premalignant oral mucosal lesions, providing additional prognostic information in oral malignant tumors.

  16. Role of Cks1 Overexpression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Shojiro; Kudo, Yasusei; Ogawa, Ikuko; Bashir, Tarig; Kitagawa, Masae; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Pagano, Michele; Takata, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Down-regulation of p27 is frequently observed in various cancers due to an enhancement of its degradation. Skp2 is required for the ubiquitination and consequent degradation of p27 protein. Another protein called Cks1 is also required for p27 ubiquitination in the SCFSkp2 ubiquitinating machinery. In the present study, we examined Cks1 expression and its correlation with p27 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived from tongue and gingiva. By immunohistochemical analysis, high expression of Cks1 was present in 62% of OSCCs in comparison with 0% of normal mucosae. In addition, 65% of samples with low p27 expression displayed high Cks1 levels. Finally, Cks1 expression was well correlated with Skp2 expression and poor prognosis. To study the role of Cks1 overexpression in p27 down-regulation, we transfected Cks1 with or without Skp2 into OSCC cells. Cks1 transfection could not induce a p27 down-regulation by itself, but both Cks1 and Skp2 transfection strongly induced. Moreover, we inhibited Cks1 expression by small interference RNA (siRNA) in OSCC. Cks1 siRNA transfection induced p27 accumulation and inhibited the growth of OSCC cells. These findings suggest that Cks1 overexpression may play an important role for OSCC development through Skp2-mediated p27 degradation, and that Cks1 siRNA can be a novel modality of gene therapy. PMID:15579456

  17. Prognostic factors of recurrence and neck metastasis in oral carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Behcet; Bulgurcu, Suphi; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Cukurova, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of tumor size, proximity to midline and invasion depth of oral cancer of the tongue (TC) on neck metastasis and recurrence. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, was conducted through a chart review of the 11 male and 9 female patients who underwent surgeries with the diagnosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma and at least one side neck dissection. We wanted to assess effects of tumor size, proximity to midline, and invasion depth of TC, according to the surgical specimens and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging, on neck metastasis and recurrence between 2007 and 2014. The study was conducted in a training hospital-based otorhinolaryngology clinic. Statistical analyses were performed to determine possible relationship between such tumor features and tumor recurrence and neck metastasis. Results: Statistically significant relationship were detected between recurrence and the proximity of tumor to midline (p=0.031) and between invasion depth and neck metastasis (p=0.017). No relationship was found between tumor size and recurrence and neck metastasis (p=0.721 and p=0.827, respectively). Conclusions: Parameters like invasion depth and tumor proximity to midline might provide useful information about prognosis and may help to determine a treatment schedule in patients suffering fdrom cancer of the tongue. The present TNM classification might not be sufficient to provide enough information to determine prognosis and staging adequately in these patients. PMID:28083063

  18. Natural flavonoid derivatives as oral human epidermoid carcinoma cell inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Shravan Kumar; Kongaleti, Sofia Florence; Shaik, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Natural flavonoid derivatives against cancer for selective KB cell lines (oral human epidermoid carcinoma) are analysed to determine the relationship between biological activities and structural properties of these molecules. Molecular alignment was performed for 88 natural flavonoid derivatives; out of these 88 molecules, 69 molecules were taken into training set and rest of the 19 molecules were used in test set prediction. We describe our elucidation of their structure activity relation (SAR) using three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models. A predictive comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model of q² = 0.888 and r² = 0.940 was obtained and a comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) model q² = 0.778 and r² = 0.971 was used to describe the non-linearly combined affinity of each functional group in the inhibitors. The contour maps obtained from 3D-QSAR studies were evaluated for the activity trends of the molecules analysed.

  19. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  20. Role of EZH2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingbo; Yu, Yang; Wu, Jie; Bai, Jing; Zhao, Yuzhen; Li, Chunming; Sun, Wenjing; Wang, Xiumei

    2014-03-10

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common human malignancy with high incidence rate and poor prognosis. Although the polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation during the occurrence and development progress of several kinds of malignant tumors, the impact of EZH2 on the development and progression of OSCC is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that EZH2 is overexpressed in OSCC cells and clinical tissue. With in vitro RNAi analysis, we generated stable EZH2 knocking down cell lines from two OSCC cell lines, with two sh-RNAs targeting to EZH2, respectively. We found that knocking down of EZH2 could decrease the proliferation ability and induce apoptosis of OSCC cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that of EZH2 inhibition decreased the migration and metastasis of OSCC cells. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated an association between EZH2 expression and OSCC cell development. We recommend that EZH2 acts as an oncogene and plays an important role in OSCC carcinogenesis.

  1. Gene expression profiling signatures for the diagnosis and prevention of oral cavity carcinogenesis-genome-wide analysis using RNA-seq technology.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Urvalek, Alison M; Osei-Sarfo, Kwame; Zhang, Tuo; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2015-09-15

    We compared the changes in global gene expression between an early stage (the termination of the carcinogen treatment and prior to the appearance of frank tumors) and a late stage (frank squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) of tongue carcinogenesis induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in a mouse model of human oral cavity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gene ontology and pathway analyses show that increases in "cell cycle progression" and "degradation of basement membrane and ECM pathways" are early events during SCC carcinogenesis and that changes in these pathways are even greater in the actual tumors. Myc, NFκB complex (NFKB1/RELA), and FOS transcription networks are the major transcriptional networks induced in early stage tongue carcinogenesis. Decreases in metabolism pathways, such as in "tricarboxylic acid cycle" and "oxidative phosphorylation", occurred only in the squamous cell carcinomas and not in the early stages of carcinogenesis. We detected increases in ALDH1A3, PTGS2, and KRT1 transcripts in both the early and late stages of carcinogenesis. The identification of the transcripts and pathways that change at an early stage of carcinogenesis provides potentially useful information for early diagnosis and for prevention strategies for human tongue squamous cell carcinomas.

  2. Use of Lugol's iodine in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Jeremy; Devine, John C; McCaul, James A; McLellan, Douglas R; Farrow, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the use of Lugol's iodine in achieving surgical margins free from dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma by an observational study of two series of 50 consecutive patients having resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) between November 2004 and March 2007. The standard group had resection of the primary tumour with a macroscopic 1cm margin and removal of adjacent visibly abnormal mucosa. The Lugol's iodine group had identical treatment with resection of any adjacent mucosa that did not stain after the application of Lugol's iodine (where this was feasible). In the standard group 16 patients (32%) had dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive SCC at a surgical margin. In the Lugol's iodine group two patients (4%) had dysplasia or carcinoma in situ; none had invasive SCC. Lugol's iodine is a simple, inexpensive, and apparently effective means of reducing the likelihood of unsatisfactory surgical margins in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal SCC.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa after release of submucous fibrosis and bilateral small radial forearm flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Celik, Naci; Wei, Fu-chan; Chang, Yang-ming; Yang, Wen-guei; Chen, Da-jeng; Tsai, Chi-ying

    2002-07-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a collagen disorder that affects the submucosal layer of the upper digestive tract. The major cause is the habit of betel quid chewing, which is common in central, southern, and southeast Asia. The progressive and irreversible course of disease results with trismus, dysphagia, xerostomia, and rhinolalia. The most serious complication of this disorder is the development of oral carcinoma, and the incidence in different series varies from 1.9 to 10 percent. A sufficient mouth opening can be achieved by complete release of fibrotic tissue, and coronoidectomy and temporal muscle myotomy when needed, and reconstruction of the resultant defect can be best achieved by microsurgical free-tissue transfer because of the discouraging results with skin grafting or local flaps. From April of 1997 to May of 2001, a total of 26 patients received reconstructive surgery with small radial forearm flaps after release of submucous fibrosis with or without temporalis muscle myotomy and coronoidectomy. All patients were men, with a mean age of 40.1 years (range, 18 to 62 years) and all had a history of betel nut chewing ranging from 8 to 40 years. The interincisal distance ranged from 5 to 29 mm, with a mean of 15 mm, before operation. After the release procedure, the interincisal distance increased to 40 mm (range, 35 to 50 mm). At a follow-up period of 3 to 48 months, the interincisal distance was a mean of 35 mm (range, 18 to 57 mm), with an average increase of 20 mm compared with the preoperative distance. During follow-up, three patients developed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity 24 to 36 months after submucous fibrosis release. Two of them occurred in the release site and the other one occurred at the soft palate. Oral cancer occurred in three of 13 patients who had received release of submucous fibrosis and who were followed for longer than 2 years (range, 24 to 48 months), which means that 23 percent of these patients developed squamous cell

  4. An animal model to investigate the interaction between the immune system and oral carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, S.E.

    1983-09-01

    In an attempt to investigate the role of the immune system in oral squamous cell carcinoma, an animal model was developed with an inbred strain of mice. Well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinomas were induced with a polycyclic hydrocarbon in immunogenetically identical mice. The oral tumors that developed were maintained in vivo. Once established, the tumors were adapted to tissue culture and the resulting cell lines were cloned. An immunization protocol was formulated to detect the generation of cytolytic effector cells by using a microcytotoxic chromium-51 release assay to assess the immune response of the host.

  5. Human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of patients with and without renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Barbara; Wilkins, Douglas; Li, Wei; Tran, Nham; Thompson, Carol; Cossart, Yvonne; McGeechan, Kevin; O'Brien, Christopher; Eris, Josette

    2006-08-27

    This study investigates human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the oral cavities of 88 Australian renal transplant recipients and 88 immunocompetent controls. Oral cavities were examined for lesions and brushings collected for HPV analysis by consensus PCR. No warts were identified; HPV DNA was detected in 18% of transplant versus 1% control samples (P<0.001). Cutaneous HPVs predominated. One patient had HPV16 in samples taken four years apart without evidence of associated lesions or malignancy. Transplant recipients were more likely than controls to have current cutaneous warts (P<0.001), fewer sexual partners (P=0.001), and to have never consumed alcohol (P=0.01). Among the transplant group, the risk of an HPV-positive sample was higher among older patients (P=0.05), and those with past cutaneous warts (P=0.04). This study extends previous surveys by encompassing overt and asymptomatic infection, a broad spectrum of cutaneous and genital HPVs, and by providing new data on risk factors for oral HPV infection.

  6. Repeat Brachytherapy for Patients With Residual or Recurrent Tumors of Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji; Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kaida, Atushi; Miura, Masahiko

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm{sup 2} (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker. Results: The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of {alpha}/{beta} of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively. Conclusion: Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.

  7. Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean ± SD, 26.9 ± 12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n = 46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface.

  8. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    PubMed

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-10-13

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  9. Antimicrobial peptide control of pathogenic microorganisms of the oral cavity: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Rocha; de Freitas, Victor Aragão Abreu; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, molecules produced in many different organisms, have high biocidal activity against several microorganisms. However, several questions about these molecules remain unclear. Therefore, this report details a systematic survey of the literature on the use of antimicrobial peptides against oral pathogens and indicates which peptides and microorganisms are most extensively studied. Articles were located using the PubMed and Science Direct databases with the following inclusion criteria: publication date between 2002 and 2011; keywords "biofilm OR biological film OR biological layer OR bacterial growth" AND "peptide" AND "oral cavity OR mouth OR buccal mucosa OR oral mucosa OR mouth mucosa"; and abstract in English. A total of 73 articles were selected after refinement of the data. An increase in publications focusing on the use of antimicrobial peptides against oral microorganisms was observed. In addition, the peptides produced by cells of the oral mucosa (defensins, LL-37 and histatins) as well as Streptococcus mutans (among cariogenic bacteria) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (among periodontal bacteria) were the most studied subjects. It was concluded that the use of antimicrobial peptides as a tool for microbial control is of increasing importance, likely due to its widespread use, mechanism of action, and low rates of bacterial resistance.

  10. Protease-activated receptor 2 modulates proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Eryani, Kamal; Cheng, Jun; Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Babkair, Hamzah; Essa, Ahmed; Saku, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Based on our previous finding that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) regulates hemophagocytosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, which induces their heme oxygenase 1-dependent keratinization, we have formulated a hypothesis that PAR-2 functions in wider activities of SCC cells. To confirm this hypothesis, we investigated immunohistochemical profiles of PAR-2 in oral SCC tissues and its functional roles in cell proliferation and invasion in SCC cells in culture. The PAR-2 expression modes were determined in 48 surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC. Using oral SCC-derived cell systems, we determined both gene and protein expression levels of PAR-2. SCC cell proliferation and invasive properties were also examined in conditions in which PAR-2 was activated by the synthetic peptide SLIGRL. PAR-2 was immunolocalized in oral SCC and carcinoma in situ cells, especially in those on the periphery of carcinoma cell foci (100% of cases), but not in normal oral epithelia. Its expression at both gene and protein levels was confirmed in 3 oral SCC cell lines including ZK-1. Activation of PAR-2 induced ZK-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. PAR-2-activated ZK-1 cells invaded faster than nonactivated ones. The expression of PAR-2 is specific to oral malignancies, and PAR-2 regulates the growth and invasion of oral SCC cells.

  11. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques

    PubMed Central

    kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin–like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). Conclusion: It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy. PMID:26120409

  12. Smoking affects quality of life in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Krüskemper, Gertrud; Handschel, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Smoking is a causative factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Unfortunately, only poor data exist regarding the quality of life of smokers vs non-smokers with SCC. The purpose of this study is to show a correlation between variables for comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation and better patient quality of life (LQ). A total collective of 1,761 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DÖSAK-REHAB-STUDIE) yielding 1,652 patients' questionnaires containing 147 items were evaluated. They refer to the periods before (t1) and immediately after surgery (t2), as well as at least 6 months later (t3). LQ was determined by the patient and ranges from 0% to 100%. Significant differences were found between smokers (80%) and non-smokers (20%) with respect to diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. Disabilities and impairments in speech, appearance, chewing/swallowing, pain and LQ were examined. Smokers were more often and more severely affected. Differences were found in the size of the tumour, scar tissue, ingestion, functionality of the facial muscles and a numb feeling in the head and shoulder area. Smoking has a severe effect on the oral cavity. Non-smokers suffer far less from the effects of SCC and the ensuing therapy. During therapy and rehabilitation, the LQ is much higher in non-smokers. This supports the importance of enhanced efforts to inform people about the consequences of smoking so as to prevent them from smoking. Moreover, psychological support might be helpful to give up smoking.

  13. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, M. P. V.; Raja Lakshmi, Chintamaneni; Sai Madhavi, N.; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sarat, Gummadapu; Ramamohan, Kodali

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18. PMID:24455323

  14. Characterisation of Pasteurella dagmatis-like isolates recovered from the feline oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Wehmann, Eniko; Makrai, László; Magyar, Tibor

    2010-10-26

    Three Pasteurella dagmatis-like strains recovered from the feline oral cavity were analysed by traditional biochemical tests, the Biolog Microstation™ ID System, and 16S rRNA and sodA gene sequence analysis. The molecular biological methods revealed that these strains differ from P. dagmatis, forming a new genomospecies in the genus Pasteurella sensu stricto. Furthermore, sequence analysis and multiple alignments of 16S rRNA and the sodA gene established that the P. pneumotropica NCTC10827 and the P. dagmatis-like strains described here possess high genetic similarity.

  15. Anatomy and Disorders of the Beak and Oral Cavity of Birds.

    PubMed

    Speer, Brian; Powers, Lauren Virginia

    2016-09-01

    Cranial kinesis of the avian beak is complex; particularly in birds with prokinetic beak movement, such as psittacine birds. A number of diseases can result in damage to the bony and soft tissue structures of the beak and can lead to secondary pathology, such as beak deviation, abnormal rhamphothecal growth and wear, and opportunistic infections. A solid understanding of species-specific anatomic variations is essential before attempting rhamphothecal restoration or surgical repair. Many diseases of the oral cavity can appear similar on initial clinical evaluation and therefore warrant appropriate diagnostic testing.

  16. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Prabhat, M P V; Raja Lakshmi, Chintamaneni; Sai Madhavi, N; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sarat, Gummadapu; Ramamohan, Kodali

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18.

  17. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate, by means of internal light delivery, photoacoustic imaging of the deep brain of rats in vivo. With fiber illumination via the oral cavity, we delivered light directly into the bottom of the brain, much more than can be delivered by external illumination. The study was performed using a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system equipped with a 512-element full-ring transducer array, providing a full two-dimensional view aperture. Using internal illumination, the PACT system provided clear cross sectional photoacoustic images from the palate to the middle brain of live rats, revealing deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  18. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Using internal illumination with an optical fiber in the oral cavity, we demonstrate, for the first time, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) of the deep brain of rats in vivo. The experiment was performed on a full-ring-array PACT system, with the capability of providing high-speed cross-sectional imaging of the brain. Compared with external illumination through the cranial skull, internal illumination delivers more light to the base of the brain. Consequently, in vivo photoacoustic images clearly reveal deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  19. ARNT2 Regulates Tumoral Growth in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yasushi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kazuyuki; Fushimi, Kazuaki; Higo, Morihiro; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) 2 is a transcriptional factor related to adaptive responses against cellular stress from a xenobiotic substance. Recent evidence indicates ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; however, little is known about the relevance of ARNT2 in the behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the current study, we evaluated the ARNT2 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC in vitro and in vivo and the clinical relationship between ARNT2 expression levels in primary OSCCs and their clinicopathologic status by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Using ARNT2 overexpression models, we performed functional analyses to investigate the critical roles of ARNT2 in OSCC. ARNT2 mRNA and protein were down-regulated significantly (P < 0.05 for both comparisons) in nine OSCC-derived cells and primary OSCC (n=100 patients) compared with normal counterparts. In addition to the data from exogenous experiments that ARNT2-overexpressed cells showed decreased cellular proliferation, ARNT2-positive OSCC cases were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Since von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1)-α, is a downstream molecule of ARNT2, we speculated that HIF1-α and its downstream molecules would have key functions in cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, overexpressed ARNT2 cells showed down-regulation of HIF1-α, which causes hypofunctioning of glucose transporter 1, leading to decreased cellular growth. Our results proposed for the first time that the ARNT2 level is an indicator of cellular proliferation in OSCCs. Therefore, ARNT2 may be a potential therapeutic target against progression of OSCCs. PMID:27076852

  20. Respiratory distress associated with heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts of the oral cavity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Méndez Sáenz, Marco Antonio; de Jesús Villegas González, Mario; Ponce Camacho, Marco A; Cavazos Cavazos, Lucia M; Ibarra, Bárbara Sáenz; Esquivel García, Blanca I; Treviño González, José Luis

    2016-12-01

    Heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts of the oral cavity are benign lesions usually discovered during infancy. Their pathogenesis is not very clear. They are rare congenital anomalies that result from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium in the head, neck, thorax or abdomen during embryonic development. The majority of these lesions occur in the anterior ventral surface of the tongue and extend to the floor of the mouth. They are confused clinically by surgeons in cases of head and neck masses in children as ranulas, dermoid and thyroglossal cysts, and lymphangioma. We report the case of a 28-day newborn with a 3.6 cm oval mass on the floor of the mouth causing difficulty eating and cyanosis during crying. Complete surgical excision was performed by an oral approach under general anesthesia. Microscopic examination revealed gastric epithelium with tall columnar mucous cells on the surface and numerous short closed crypts, resembling fundal glands and mature gastric epithelium.

  1. Giant cell angiofibroma of the oral cavity: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Cleverton Roberto; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; León, Jorge Esquiche; Mistro, Florence; Kignel, Sergio

    2008-09-01

    Giant cell angiofibroma is a well-circumscribed, normally encapsulated, distinctive orbital soft tissue tumor. However, it is now recognized that this lesion can also present in other locations, including the oral cavity. The morphological hallmark is a richly vascularized, patternless spindle cell proliferation containing pseudovascular spaces and floret-type multinucleate giant cells. CD34 immunoreactivity, although not specific, represents the only immunohistochemical finding of potential diagnostic value. We present a case of a 44-year-old male Caucasian patient complaining of painless solitary nodule arising on the right buccal mucosa, which was diagnosed as giant cell angiofibroma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of oral giant cell angiofibroma reported in the English-language literature.

  2. Insights on diagnosis of oral cavity pathologies by infrared spectroscopy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Elisabetta; Balercia, Paolo; Conti, Carla; Ferraris, Paolo; Sabbatini, Simona; Rubini, Corrado; Tosi, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared microspectroscopy, a largely used spectroscopic technique in basic and industrial researches, offers the possibility to analyze the vibrational features of molecular groups within a variety of environments. In the bioclinical field, and, in particular, in the study of cells, tissues and biofluids, it could be considered a supporting objective technique able to characterize the biochemical processes involved in relevant pathologies, such as tumoral diseases, highlighting specific spectral markers associable with the principal biocomponents (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates). In this article, we review the applications of infrared spectroscopy to the study of tumoral diseases of oral cavity compartments with the aim to improve understanding of biological processes involved during the onset of these lesions and to afford to an early diagnosis. Spectral studies on mouth, salivary glands and oral cystic lesions, objectively discriminate normal from dysplastic and cancer states characterizing also the grading.

  3. MALT1 Inhibition of Oral Carcinoma Cell Invasion and ERK/MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, T; Soeno, Y; Shirako, Y; Sudo, H; Yagishita, H; Taya, Y; Kawashiri, S; Okada, Y; Imai, K

    2016-04-01

    The expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) that activates nuclear factor (NF)-κB in lymphocyte lineages is rapidly inactivated in oral carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the patients with worst prognosis. However, its mechanism to accelerate carcinoma progression remains unknown, and this study was carried out to examine the role in invasion. HSC2 oral carcinoma cells stably expressing wild-type MALT1 (wtMALT1) reduced the invasion of basement membrane matrices and collagen gels, and the dominant-negative form (∆MALT1)-expressing cells aggressively invaded into collagen gels. MALT1 decelerated proliferation and migration of cells and downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, which were confirmed by short interfering RNA transfections. Reporter assays and immunoblot analysis showed that MALT1 does not affect the NF-κB pathway but inhibits ERK/MAPK activation. This was confirmed by endogenous MALT1 expression in oral carcinoma cell lines. Orthotopic implantation of ∆MALT1-expressing HSC2 cells in mice grew rapid expansive and invasive tongue tumors in contrast to an absence of tumor formation by wtMALT1-expressing cells. These results demonstrate that MALT1 suppresses oral carcinoma invasion by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix degradation and that the ERK/MAPK pathway is a target of MALT1 and further suggests a role as a suppressor of carcinoma progression.

  4. Architectural Analysis of Picrosirius Red Stained Collagen in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma using Polarization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rashi; Rehani, Shweta; Mehendiratta, Monica; Kumra, Madhumani; Mathias, Yulia; Yadav, Jyoti; Sahay, Khushboo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Collagen degradation is important both for carcinogenesis and in its progression. Research regarding the co-relation of collagen with Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is less explored. Aim To elucidate the nature of collagen in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) using Picrosirius Red Stain (PSR) under polarizing microscopy. Materials and Methods The study consisted of a total 40 samples which were divided into three groups. Group I included buccal mucosa as negative and irritation fibroma as positive control, group II consisted of OED and group III consisted of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). A histochemical analysis was conducted using PSR-polarization method by two independent observers. Results The control group shows predominantly reddish–orange birefringence. In OED with the advancement of grades, the colour changed from yellowish-orange colour to yellow-greenish with progressive increase in greenish hue. As OSCC regresses from well to poorly differentiated, the colour changed from reddish-orange to yellowish orange to greenish-yellow suggesting a transition from mature to immature collagen. Conclusion An observable gradual change in collagen of both OED and OSCC was noted as they were proceeding from benign to critical step. Thus, PSR is a useful tool for studying stromal changes as supporting collagen shows the transition in the form besides the alterations in epithelial cells. PMID:26816897

  5. The Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1 Genome Sequence Reflects Its Genetic Adaptation to the Human Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Foroni, Elena; Giubellini, Vanessa; Bottacini, Francesca; Canchaya, Carlos; Claesson, Marcus J.; He, Fei; Mantzourani, Maria; Mulas, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Gao, Beile; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Oggioni, Marco; Gupta, Radhey S.; Zhang, Ziding; Beighton, David; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2009-01-01

    Bifidobacteria, one of the relatively dominant components of the human intestinal microbiota, are considered one of the key groups of beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotic bacteria). However, in addition to health-promoting taxa, the genus Bifidobacterium also includes Bifidobacterium dentium, an opportunistic cariogenic pathogen. The genetic basis for the ability of B. dentium to survive in the oral cavity and contribute to caries development is not understood. The genome of B. dentium Bd1, a strain isolated from dental caries, was sequenced to completion to uncover a single circular 2,636,368 base pair chromosome with 2,143 predicted open reading frames. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed multiple ways in which B. dentium has adapted to the oral environment through specialized nutrient acquisition, defences against antimicrobials, and gene products that increase fitness and competitiveness within the oral niche. B. dentium Bd1 was shown to metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates, consistent with genome-based predictions, while colonization and persistence factors implicated in tissue adhesion, acid tolerance, and the metabolism of human saliva-derived compounds were also identified. Global transcriptome analysis demonstrated that many of the genes encoding these predicted traits are highly expressed under relevant physiological conditions. This is the first report to identify, through various genomic approaches, specific genetic adaptations of a Bifidobacterium taxon, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1, to a lifestyle as a cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. In silico analysis and comparative genomic hybridization experiments clearly reveal a high level of genome conservation among various B. dentium strains. The data indicate that the genome of this opportunistic cariogen has evolved through a very limited number of horizontal gene acquisition events, highlighting the narrow boundaries that separate commensals from opportunistic pathogens. PMID

  6. Novel Midkine Inhibitor iMDK Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masui, Masanori; Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Kurio, Naito; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various human malignant tumors. However, its role in the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effect of a novel midkine inhibitor (iMDK) against oral squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of iMDK induced a robust antitumor response and suppressed cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells and SAS cells xenograft models. iMDK inhibited the proliferation of these cells dose-dependently, as well as the expression of midkine and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase in HSC-2 and SAS cells. Moreover, iMDK significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor and induced tube growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that midkine is critically involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma and iMDK can be effectively used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. High throughput image cytometry for detection of suspicious lesions in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum; Poh, Catherine F.; Guillaud, Martial; Michele Williams, Pamela; Laronde, Denise M.; Zhang, Lewei; Rosin, Miriam P.

    2012-08-01

    The successful management of oral cancer depends upon early detection, which relies heavily on the clinician's ability to discriminate sometimes subtle alterations of the infrequent premalignant lesions from the more common reactive and inflammatory conditions in the oral mucosa. Even among experienced oral specialists this can be challenging, particularly when using new wide field-of-view direct fluorescence visualization devices clinically introduced for the recognition of at-risk tissue. The objective of this study is to examine if quantitative cytometric analysis of oral brushing samples could facilitate the assessment of the risk of visually ambiguous lesions. About 369 cytological samples were collected and analyzed: (1) 148 samples from pathology-proven sites of SCC, carcinoma in situ or severe dysplasia; (2) 77 samples from sites with inflammation, infection, or trauma, and (3) 144 samples from normal sites. These were randomly separated into training and test sets. The best algorithm correctly recognized 92.5% of the normal samples, 89.4% of the abnormal samples, 86.2% of the confounders in the training set as well as 100% of the normal samples, and 94.4% of the abnormal samples in the test set. These data suggest that quantitative cytology could reduce by more than 85% the number of visually suspect lesions requiring further assessment by biopsy.

  8. Lugol's iodine identifies synchronous invasive carcinoma--time for a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kanatas, A N; Jenkins, G W; Sutton, D; McCaul, J A

    2011-07-01

    Lugol's iodine is currently under investigation as a technique to detect dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma at resection margins, plus further afield. Lugol's iodine is inexpensive and easy to use. We present two cases where the technique revealed abnormal mucosa (one carcinoma, one squamous cell carcinoma in situ) at distant sites from the tumour being treated within oral cavity and oropharynx.

  9. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  10. Preparation and characterization of novel fast disintegrating capsules (Fastcaps) for administration in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2005-10-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare novel capsule-based fast disintegrating dosage forms for the oral cavity (Fastcaps). First, cast films were prepared from various additive-containing gelatin solutions and evaluated with respect to disintegration time and mechanical properties in order to identify suitable formulations for the capsule preparation. The disintegration time of films decreased with decreasing bloom strength and could be further decreased by the addition of sugars or PEGs. Fast disintegrating capsules were successfully prepared by a dipping process, whereby parameters such as the viscosity and temperature of the dipping solution and the dipping velocity of the steel pins were optimized. The required viscosity range of the dipping solution for Fastcap manufacturing was 500-600 cP. The addition of the hydrophilic additives (xylitol, sorbitol or PEG 1500) did not significantly affect the viscosity and gelation temperature of the dipping solution. The in vitro disintegration of Fastcaps (30-45 s) was twice as rapid as the one of regular hard gelatin capsules. In vivo, Fastcaps disintegrated rapidly (9-13 s) and their content was spread throughout the oral cavity within seconds. Lactose and/or microcrystalline cellulose were suitable fillers for Fastcaps. The mechanical properties of Fastcaps were similar to commercially available gelatin capsules, which assures good processability and handling.

  11. Modified conventional hard gelatin capsules as fast disintegrating dosage form in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2006-02-01

    Fast disintegrating capsules for administration in the oral cavity were prepared either by perforation or by vacuum-drying of conventional hard capsules. When compared to other fast disintegrating dosage forms (e.g. lyophilized sponges or tablets), these capsules have various advantages, in particular, a high drug loading capacity and no compression steps. The disintegration time of conventional hard gelatin capsules (HGC) was reduced from 91 to 39 s by introducing 6-10 small holes (diameter =25-50 microm) into the capsule shell. Vacuum-drying of conventional hard gelatin capsules resulted in brittle capsules, which broke rapidly in the oral cavity. The brittleness of the hard gelatin capsules correlated well with their moisture content. The critical moisture value for sufficient brittleness of hard gelatin capsules was <4% w/w. In contrast, HPMC capsules remained flexible, even at low moisture content. The moisture uptake of various capsule fillers was in the order of Avicel PH101 > lactose > Avicel PH112 > or = mannitol. Hard gelatin capsules filled with mannitol and packaged in bottles with silica gel kept their desired brittleness during 6 months storage at various relative humidities.

  12. Enterobacteriaceae ISOLATES FROM THE ORAL CAVITY OF WORKERS IN A BRAZILIAN ONCOLOGY HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    LEÃO-VASCONCELOS, Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira; LIMA, Ana Beatriz Mori; COSTA, Dayane de Melo; ROCHA-VILEFORT, Larissa Oliveira; de OLIVEIRA, Ana Claúdia Alves; GONÇALVES, Nádia Ferreira; VIEIRA, José Daniel Gonçalves; PRADO-PALOS, Marinésia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of workers as potential reservoirs and disseminators of pathogenic bacteria has been described as a strategy for the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of workers at an oncology hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, as well as to characterize the phenotypic profile of the isolates. Saliva samples of 294 workers from the hospital’s healthcare and support teams were collected. Microbiological procedures were performed according to standard techniques. Among the participants, 55 (18.7%) were colonized by Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity. A total of 64 bacteria were isolated, including potentially pathogenic species. The most prevalent species was Enterobacter gergoviae (17.2%). The highest rates of resistance were observed for β-lactams, and 48.4% of the isolates were considered multiresistant. Regarding the enterobacteria isolated, the production of ESBL and KPC was negative. Nevertheless, among the 43 isolates of the CESP group, 51.2% were considered AmpC β-lactamase producers by induction, and 48.8% were hyper-producing mutants. The significant prevalence of carriers of Enterobacteriaceae and the phenotypic profile of the isolates represents a concern, especially due to the multiresistance and production of AmpC β-lactamases. PMID:25923890

  13. [Role of beta-carotene in the prevention of genotoxic damage in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Monitoring by the micronucleus test in exfoliative cells of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Oldini, C; Malusardi, G; Grossi, L; Chiarelli, G

    1992-01-01

    Radiotherapic treatment of patients with carcinoma usually causes genotoxis damage. This has been studied recently using the test of micronuclei in esfoliated cells. This test presents methodologic advantages in compared with the classic citogenetic analysis and as it is carried out on esfolieted cells from the oral cavity it faithfully reflects the genotoxic damage undergone by the cells of the basal layer of the epitelium. The preliminary result obtained so far have confirmed the anticlastogenic activity of beta-carotene in fact, the frequence of micronuclei in esfolieted cells from the oral cavity in patients undergoing radiotherapy or undergoing treatment with beta-carotene is inferior to that of patients undergoing treatment with beta-carotene is inferior to that of patients undergoing radiotherapy without the subministration of carotenoids. Treatment with carotenoids does not influence the therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy treatment. Therefore, the results seem to confirm that indirect ossidaction processes are involved in the mechanism of the clastogenic action of radiotherapia. The carotenoids seem to be able to contrast validly this undesirable effect without interfering with the desirable therapeutic effect.

  14. (S)-N'-Nitrosonornicotine, a constituent of smokeless tobacco, is a powerful oral cavity carcinogen in rats.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; James-Yi, Sandra; Johnson, Charles S; O'Sullivan, Michael G; Stepanov, Irina; Wang, Mingyao; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Kassie, Fekadu; Carmella, Steven; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-09-01

    Currently, smokeless tobacco products are being proposed as an alternative mode of tobacco use associated with less harm. All of these products contain the tobacco-specific carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). The major form of NNN in tobacco products is (S)-NNN, shown in this study to induce a total of 89 benign and malignant oral cavity tumors in a group of 20 male F-344 rats treated chronically with 14 p.p.m. in the drinking water. The opposite enantiomer (R)-NNN was weakly active, but synergistically enhanced the carcinogenicity of (S)-NNN. Thus, (S)-NNN is identified for the first time as a strong oral cavity carcinogen in smokeless tobacco products and should be significantly reduced or removed from these products without delay in order to prevent debilitating and deadly oral cavity cancer in people who use them.

  15. Cortactin is a prognostic marker for oral squamous cell carcinoma and its overexpression is involved in oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong; Yeh, Chung-Min; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-03-01

    EMS1 (chromosome eleven, band q13, mammary tumor and squamous cell carcinoma-associated gene 1) gene amplification and the concomitant cortactin overexpression have been reported to associate with poor prognosis and tumor metastasis. In this study, we examined cortactin expression by immunohistochemistry in human oral tumors and murine tongue tumors which were induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). The immunostaining results show over- to moderate expression of cortactin in 85% (104/122) of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and in all 15 leukoplakia tissues examined. Further, statistical analysis indicates that cortactin overexpression appears to be a predictor for shorter survival and poorer prognosis in OSCC patients. In an animal model, cortactin is shown to upregulate in infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, and epithelia with squamous hyperplasia, indicating that cortactin induction is an early event during oral carcinogenesis. It is suggested that cortactin expression is mediated in the progression of pre-malignancy to papilloma, based on earlier cortactin induction in pre-malignancy preceding cyclin D1 in papilloma. In conclusion, cortactin overexpression is frequently observed in human OSCC and mouse tongue tumors. Thus, cortactin may have an important role in the development of oral tumors in human and mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 799-812, 2017.

  16. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 induces apoptosis of oral squamous carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingqiong; Hu, Shuiqing; Yan, Ming; Sun, Zujun; Chen, Wantao; Chen, Fuxiang

    2012-08-01

    Toll-like receptors are well known as molecular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. They control activation of the innate immune response and subsequently shape the adaptive immune response. Recent publications have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors also play important roles in multiple human cancers, yet their function in oral squamous cell carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we showed that both oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and tissues from oral squamous carcinoma patients express relatively high levels of Toll-like receptor 3. We also found that synthetic dsRNA-polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid, a Toll-like receptor 3 ligand, induced apoptosis of oral squamous carcinoma cells mainly via Toll-like receptor 3, through interferon-β production and activation of caspases 3 and 9. Moreover, in an oral squamous cell carcinoma xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated for the first time that activation of Toll-like receptor 3 inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, the direct proapoptotic activity of Toll-like receptor 3 in human oral squamous carcinoma cells may make this protein a viable therapeutic target in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. CD44 expression in intraoral salivary ductal papillomas and oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah G; Montague, Lindsay J; Cohen, Donald M; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2013-06-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule which has been previously shown to be useful in the differentiation of benign papillary lesions from invasive carcinoma in several different areas including sinonasal mucosa and breast tissue. CD44 expression has previously been shown to be lost in invasive carcinoma and retained in benign papillary lesions in both of the above locations. In addition, studies have evaluated oral mucosal lesions for CD44 expression and found a loss with invasive squamous cell carcinoma when compared to normal epithelium, hyperplasia, and squamous papillomas, which stained particularly strongly. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated CD44 expression when comparing salivary ductal papillomas in comparison to oral papillary SCCA. In this study 18 cases of intraductal papilloma were compared to 19 cases of oral papillary SCCA. Within the ductal papilloma group, all cases stained either absent (6%), weakly (33%), or moderately (61%) with 76% expressing the stain diffusely and 24% focally. In comparison, the papillary squamous cell carcinoma cases expressed the CD44 moderately (26%) or strongly (74%) with 100 % showing diffuse staining. Thus, the CD44 expression was contrary to expectation based on previous studies, which we hypothesize is due to the extremely well differentiated nature of papillary SCCA which expressed CD44 staining compatible with levels previously reported with oral squamous papillomas than invasive carcinoma.

  18. Multiple oral carcinomas associated with a novel papillomavirus in a dog.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Tucker, Russell S; Kiupel, Matti; Harvey, Catherine J

    2015-03-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are well recognized to cause human oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, there is currently little evidence that PVs similarly cause oral cancer in dogs. In the present case, a dog developed an invasive SCC and multiple in situ carcinomas within the mouth. Cell changes consistent with PV infection were prominent within the neoplasms and the surrounding gingiva. Immunohistochemical staining revealed PV antigens and intense p16(CDKN2A) protein (p16) immunostaining within the invasive SCC. Papillomaviral DNA sequences were amplified from the invasive and in situ carcinomas. Sequencing revealed that the DNA was from a novel PV that appears most closely related to canine PV-2 and -7. To the authors' knowledge, multiple carcinomas have not been previously reported in the mouth of a dog. Additionally, the current study describes PV cytopathology in a canine oral SCC. Whether the PV infection influenced neoplasm development cannot be definitively determined in this case. However, the presence of p16 immunostaining and the development of multiple oral carcinomas support a role of the PV in tumorigenesis in this dog.

  19. The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in oral squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis of 88 patients and literature overview.

    PubMed

    Krüger, M; Pabst, A M; Walter, C; Sagheb, K; Günther, C; Blatt, S; Weise, K; Al-Nawas, B; Ziebart, T

    2014-10-01

    In addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the two main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), recent studies have revealed infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) as an additional risk factor for OSCC development. In the field of head and neck malignancies, the prevalence of HPV infections in oropharyngeal cancer (OC) ranges in different studies up to 84%. While HPV infection is discussed as an independent risk factor in this region, its distinguished role in carcinogenesis of tumours localized to the oral cavity remains still uncertain. In this study, we analysed the HPV status in 88 consecutive patients with OSCCs localized anterior of the palatoglossal arch who were treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University Medical Center Mainz. The HPV status analysis was performed using DNA-PCR and immunostaining of p16 protein. The prevalence of HPV-positive OSCCs was about 6% (5 patients). In 3 patients the HPV subtypes 16/18 were found. No significant differences between the HPV positive and negative patients regarding age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, localization and TNM level could be detected. Contrary to other studies focussing on cancers of the lingual and palatine tonsil, the prevalence of HPV infections was much lower in the oral cavity. Therefore HPV infection might play a less important role in oral carcinogenesis.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx from 1988 to 2009: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Binh Y.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Hashibe, Mia; Vecchia, Carlo La; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2010-01-01

    The evidence for the human carcinogenic effects of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx has been considered sufficient in the IARC Monograph 44 on alcohol and cancer in 1988. We evaluated human carcinogenic evidence related to oral and pharyngeal cancer risk based on cohort and case-control studies published from 1988 to 2009. A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies of different designs and conducted in different populations has consistently supported that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with an increase in risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. The relative risks are 3.2–9.2 for more than 60 grams/day (or more than 4 drinks/day) when adjusted for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. A strong dose-response relationship on intensity of alcohol use is reported in most of the studies. However, no apparent association is observed for the duration of alcohol use. Compared with current drinkers, a decreased risk is associated with alcohol cessation for about 10–15 years. Similar associations have been observed among non-smokers in over 20 studies. Generally, the dominant type of alcohol consumption in each population is associated with the greatest increases in risk. A large number of studies on joint exposure of alcohol and tobacco consumption demonstrate a more than multiplicative synergistic effect. PMID:20679896

  1. [Changes in the biological and immunologic parameters in the oral cavity of the aged. Review].

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, A; Tripi, T R

    1998-01-01

    Senescence is the effect of the immune system incapacity to see "self" and "non-self"; timo-involution induced down-regulation of immunoregulatory -T and B-lymphocytes. Immunosenescence mutations in oral cavity are examined. Even the oral ecosystem presents disorders in quality and quantity of the bacterial plaque and a different immune response. Age senescence is particularly evident in the masticatory apparatus, in fact the dental tissues have remarkable morpho-structural physiological changes; the epithelial, connective and osseous tissues of the periodontium have structural age changes related to the collagen synthesis and physical properties, with an increase of the stroma and a decrease of cell population. The osseous tissue presents cellular atrophy, sclerosis, osteoporosis and is undergoing a continuous structural remodelling; the oral mucous membranes show a thinning of epithelium and an increase of the stroma related to the parenchyma. Specific individual changes could be appraised in the involution of stomatognathic apparatus, more than an indefinite reduction of the performances.

  2. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

    PubMed Central

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Bobela, Elżbieta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Małgorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50 mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  3. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B.; Balducci, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4–11 yrs, adolescents 12–17 yrs, young adults 18–29 yrs, adults 30–59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection

  4. Cancer of the oral cavity- a growing concern in the Micronesia: a case report from the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Sangita; Bhandary, Prahlad

    2003-03-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is of growing concern worldwide. In the Micronesia, there has been a recent increase in use of betel nut and tobacco chewing in addition to already existing problem of smoking and alcohol drinking. These deleterious habits have further added the risk for development of oral cancers in the Marshall Islands. The oral cancers have good prognosis, which is directly related to the early diagnosis and treatment. Advanced staged cancers need mutilating surgery in addition to radiotherapy and carry high mortality rate. The epidemiology, etiology and recent approaches in the management of oral cavity cancer has been discussed along with a case report of advanced cancer of the floor of the mouth from the Marshall Islands.

  5. Expression of SRSF3 is Correlated with Carcinogenesis and Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peiqi, Liu; Zhaozhong, Guo; Yaotian, Yin; Jun, Jia; Jihua, Guo; Rong, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck with high mortality rates. The mechanisms of initiation and development of OSCC remain largely unknown. Dysregulated alternative splicing of pre-mRNA has been associated with OSCC. Splicing factor SRSF3 is a proto-oncogene and overexpressed in multiple cancers. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between SRSF3 and carcinogenesis and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Design and Methods: The expression of SRSF3 in oral normal, dysplasia, or carcinoma tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of EMT-related genes were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of SRSF3 in DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells were analyzed by western blot. Result: SRSF3 is overexpressed in oral cancer and moderate or severe dysplasia tissues. Patients with high grade cancer or lymphatic metastasis showed up-regulated expression of SRSF3. Knockdown of SRSF3 repressed the expression of Snail and N-cadherin in vitro. Carcinogen DMBA treated primary cultured oral epithelial cells showed significantly increased SRSF3 level than in control cells. Conclusion: Our results suggested that SRSF3 is associated with the initiation and development of OSCC and may be a biomarker and therapeutic target of OSCC. PMID:27429590

  6. Comparative analysis of the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53, bax, and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer

    2009-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown the malignant transformation potential of oral lichen planus; however, this potential is subject of much controversy. To evaluate the expression of proteins related to the cell proliferation and apoptosis processes in oral lichen planus, we compared oral lichen planus with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twenty-four cases of each lesion were submitted according to streptavidin-biotin technique to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53, bax, and bcl-2 proteins. chi(2) test showed no statistically significant differences between the expression of p53, bax, and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma (P > .05). However, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was significantly lower in oral lichen planus than in oral squamous cell carcinoma (P < .05). No statistically significant differences between the expression of p53, bax, and bcl-2 in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma were observed, which may be an evidence of the potential of malignant transformation of oral lichen planus.

  7. Peptides in oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.

  8. Clinicopathologic features of oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 197 patients from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhexuan; Yang, Xihu; Shi, Linjun; Feng, Jinqiu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Zengtong

    2012-12-01

    Oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma are 2 clinicopathologically distinctive papillary epithelial tumors. The current study aims to compare the clinical and pathologic features of these oral papillary lesions in a patient population from eastern China. A retrospective review in a series of patients with clinical and pathologic diagnosis of oral squamous papilloma (n = 141) and papillary squamous cell carcinoma (n = 56) was conducted. The average age of oral squamous papilloma was 51.0 years (male-to-female ratio, 1.82), with the palate being the predominant site. The average age of oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma was 63.3 years (male-to-female ratio, 1.67), with the gingiva being the predominant site. Multivariate analysis revealed that the elderly patient with papillary lesion (≥60 years) was associated with 3.09-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.59-6.03) increased carcinoma risk compared with the nonelderly patient. The lesion located on the gingiva was associated with 4.98-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.96-12.63) increased carcinoma risk compared with other oral sites. Collectively, clinicopathologic features of oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma in eastern China were elucidated. Elderly patients with oral papillary lesions located on the gingiva correlate with higher carcinoma risk. It highlights the importance of using a histologic examination to confirm the clinical diagnosis for any suspicious papillary lesions.

  9. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  10. Role of lipid oxidation, chelating agents, and antioxidants in metallic flavor development in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Omür-Özbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E; Lee, YongWoo

    2012-03-07

    This study investigated the production of metallic flavor, which is a combination of taste and retronasal odor. Chemical reactions in the oral cavity and saliva of healthy subjects were investigated after ingesting iron and copper solutions above and near threshold levels. Significant increase in lipid oxidation (p < 0.001) occurred after metal ingestion, detected as TBARS values. Ferrous ion caused the greatest flavor sensation and lipid oxidation, followed by cupric and cuprous ions. Ferric ion did not cause metallic sensation. Occurrence of oxidation was supported by damage to salivary proteins, detected as protein-carbonyls, and by a significant increase of odorous lipid oxidation related aldehydes. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that antioxidants (vitamins E and C) minimally reduced metallic flavor but that chelating agents (EDTA and lactoferrin) removed the metallic flavor. The role of lipid oxidation is essential for the production of a metallic flavor from ingestion of ferrous, cupric, and cuprous ions.

  11. [Trichomonad infections of the oral cavity in cats in south Germany].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Beelitz, P; Schöl, H; Beer, B

    1992-04-01

    In this investigation trichomonads were isolated from the oral cavity in 21 of 110 examined cats, and only from those which were simultaneously FeLV, FIV or FIP positive. By means of scanning electron microscopy the trichomonads were shown to be round or piriform parasites which were on average 7.9 microns long and 6.2 microns wide at maximum width. They had 4 anterior flagella, which were on average 9.4 microns long, an undulating membrane measuring 6.7 microns with no trailing flagellum as well as an axostyle extending on average 5.0 microns beyond the body, and therefore should be attributed to the genus Trichomonas.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Porphyromonas species isolated from the oral cavity of Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Milinovich, Gabriel J; Burrell, Paul C; Huynh, Sharnan C; Pettett, Lyndall M; Blackall, Linda L; Trott, Darren J; Bird, Philip S

    2008-09-01

    Porphyromonas species are frequently isolated from the oral cavity and are associated with periodontal disease in both animals and humans. Black, pigmented Porphyromonas spp. isolated from the gingival margins of selected wild and captive Australian marsupials with varying degrees of periodontal disease (brushtail possums, koalas and macropods) were compared phylogenetically to Porphyromonas strains from non-marsupials (bear, wolf, coyote, cats and dogs) and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains from humans using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results of the phylogenetic analysis identified three distinct groups of strains. A monophyletic P. gingivalis group (Group 1) contained only strains isolated from humans and a Porphyromonas gulae group (Group 2) was divided into three distinct subclades, each containing both marsupial and non-marsupial strains. Group 3, which contained only marsupial strains, including all six strains isolated from captive koalas, was genetically distinct from P. gulae and may constitute a new Porphyromonas species.

  13. Vitamin D and Its Relevance in the Etiopathogenesis of Oral Cavity Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ślebioda, Zuzannna; Szponar, Elżbieta; Dorocka-Bobkowska, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D belongs to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids which assume many roles in the human organism. In humans the most important forms are vitamin D3 and vitamin D2. Their primary function is the regulation of the calcium and phosphorus balance, which promote the growth of healthy bony tissue. Studies over the past few years have revealed a much wider role of vitamin D involving the aging processes, carcinogenesis, the carbohydrate balance as well as the effects on the course of various infections. In this paper we discuss the basic functions of vitamin D in the human body and the mechanisms of its activity and we summarize recent reports on the impact of vitamin D on the oral cavity with a special emphasis on autoimmunologic diseases, including: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, Behçet syndrome and Sjögren syndrome.

  14. Microimaging FT-IR of oral cavity tumours. Part III: Cells, inoculated tissues and human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Possati, L.; Rocchetti, R.; Rubini, C.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.; Mariggiò, M. A.; Lo Muzio, L.

    2007-05-01

    The biochemistry of healthy and tumour cell cultures, inoculated tissues and oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR Microscopy with the aim to relate spectral patterns with microbiological and histopathological findings. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and the other two techniques. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wave number or band ratio images, allowed an evaluation of the pathological changes. The spectroscopic patterns of inoculated tissues resulted quite similar to human tissues; differences of both types of sections with cellular lines could be explained by the influence of the environment.

  15. A study on the differences between oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosas measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Y; Yoshida, S; Yanagisawa, S; Shimizu, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the differences of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal gingival epithelium (NGE) or normal subgingival tissue (NST). We used 15 specimens of OSCC which had not been treated before measurement and 10 of NGE or NST. We also used cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma (COSCC) and the tissue (MSCC) which massed for 3 months after the cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma was transplanted into the lower back of a rat. Those tissue spectra were compared with the purified human collagens and human keratin. One half of every tissue specimen was measured with FTIR and the other half was investigated histologically. The differences of FTIR spectra between OSCC and NGE were observed in the bands between 1431 and 1482 cm(-1) and between 1183 and 1274 cm(-1). The shoulder at 1368 cm(-1) tended to disappear in OSCC, and the peaks at 1246 and 1083 cm(-1) found in NGE tended to shift to those at 1242 and 1086 cm(-1) in OSCC, respectively. The infrared spectrum of NST was noticed to be strongly influenced by the presence of collagen. Significant differences were also observed in the second derivative FTIR spectra between OSCC and NGE. Our data suggested that this infrared technique is applicable to clinical diagnostics.

  16. Oral squamous cell carcinoma among Yemenis: Onset in young age and presentation at advanced stage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaya, Maha; Abdulhuq, Mahmoud; Al-Mandili, Ahmad; Al-Anazi, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide. Up to 90% of oral cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The data on oral SCC in Yemen are lacking. The objective of this study therefore was to describe and analyze the demographic, clinical and histological characteristics of Yemeni patients with oral SCC. Study Design: In this cross-sectional study, two sets of retrospective data for Yemeni cancer patients were obtained officially by two different registries. Patients with oral SCC were included. Their ages were dichotomized using 40 and 45 years alternately as individual cut-points for young and old patients. The patients` demographic, clinical and histological characteristics were statistically analyzed. Results: There were 457 Yemenis with oral SCC; 253 patients (55.4%) were men. The overall mean age was 58.15±14.11 years. The tongue was the most affected oral sub-site accounting for 53% of the reported cases. The well and moderately differentiated oral SCC accounted for 55.5% and 25.6% of the total cases respectively. Noteworthy, 62 patients (14%) were affected by the age of ?40; this increased to 105 patients (23%) aged ?45 years. Additionally, a high proportion of oral SCC patients (62%, 283) were diagnosed at advanced tumor stages (regional extension or metastasized). The distributions of histological grades and tumor stages in young and old patients were significantly different (P=0.006 and 0.026 respectively). Conclusion: The relative frequency of oral SCC among Yemeni young people is high. Unfortunately, most of oral SCC patients in Yemen were diagnosed at advanced stage. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Yemen, young patients, advanced stage. PMID:24558559

  17. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  18. Epigenetic inactivation of E-cadherin by promoter hypermethylation in oral carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Genta; Chiba, Tadashige; Aoba, Takaaki; Imai, Kazushi

    2007-07-01

    The loss of E-cadherin expression by epigenetic aberrations, including promoter hypermethylation and transcription repressor binding, plays a key role in the initiation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which leads to the progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas. However, mutual actions and roles of the epigenetic pathways remain to be elucidated. In this study, we determined the methylation status of cytosine within CpG islands of the E-cadherin promoter region in relation to the expression level of SIP1, a major E-cadherin repressor in oral carcinoma cells. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses showed that the expression of E-cadherin was downregulated in parallel with promoter hypermethylation. The use of a bisulfite-modified sequence further validated that methylation was observed in 22.6 +/- 38.7% (mean +/- 1 SD) of cytosines in carcinoma cells negligibly expressing E-cadherin, in contrast to 7.5 +/- 1.8% in E-cadherin-expressing cells. Treatment with a demethylating reagent, 5-azacytidine, induced upregulation of E-cadherin in some E-cadherin-expressing carcinoma cell lines but not in others. The finding that the unresponsive cell lines retained high expression of SIP1 supports the repressive effect of SIP1 on E-cadherin expression regardless of promoter hypermethylation. Collectively, the overall results suggest the dynamic but differential regulation of E-cadherin by epigenetic aberrations in the pathology of oral carcinomas.

  19. Minimal invasive method to treat hemangiomas of the oral cavity with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.

    1997-05-01

    During the last six years we have developed a new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma. Our new technique, named 'laser encircling technique', has especially succeeded during hemangioma buccal maxillary surgeries. The treatment consisted in the application of a line of points of CO2 laser circling the lesion. Depending on the position and size of the lesion, we used from 0.4 to 4.0 Joules/mm2 laser energy density per pulse, causing reduction in the size of the lesion throughout the sclerosis of nutritional vessels which led to reduction in size, volume and color of the hemangiomas with no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. In this work forty male and female patients, twelve to fifty years old, presenting medium to small size hemangiomas situated in different sites of the oral cavity such as the tongue, mouth vestibule, pharynx, tonsil area and lips were treated by the procedure described above. The number of laser applications was defined by the peculiarities of each case, varying form 3 to 6 sessions at 4 week intervals, always under local or topic anesthesia. The patients complained about minimal posit operative discomfort and had good cicatrix evolution. The good results achieved by this technique lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser for these types of hemangioma is an efficient and very secure method of treatment. An important aspect of our technique is the fact that using relatively low laser power we do not perform real surgery but a less aggressive alternative of treatment.

  20. Efficacy of oral zinc therapy in epidermodysplasia verruciformis with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudhanshu; Barman, Krishna Deb; Sarkar, Rashmi; Manjhi, Mukesh; Garg, Vijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, inherited disorder that predisposes patients to widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. There is still no definitive therapeutic modality for EV. A 24 year old male patient with EV was treated with oral zinc sulphate, one of the cheapest and safe immuno-modulator available as therapeutic agent with satisfactory result.

  1. Successful treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with intralesional fluorouracil in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Miller, C L; Templeton, R S; Karpinski, L

    2000-06-01

    An oral mass was observed in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. A series of intralesional injections using fluorouracil resulted in complete regression of the neoplasm with no recognized adverse effects.

  2. Genetic variants in let-7/Lin28 modulate the risk of oral cavity cancer in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; zhu, Longbiao; Wang, Ruixia; Miao, Limin; Jiang, Hongbing; Yuan, Hua; Ma, Hongxia; Chen, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Let-7 and Lin28 establish a double-negative feedback loop to affect several biological processes, such as differentiation of stem cell, invasion and metastasis, and tumorigenesis. In this study, we systematically investigated the associations between 6 potentially functional SNPs of let7 and Lin28 genes and the risk of oral cavity cancer with a case-control study including 384 oral cavity cancer cases and 731 controls. We found that the variant allele (T) of rs221636 of Lin28B was significantly associated with a reduced risk of oral cavity cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58–0.92, P = 7.55 × 10−3 in additive model]. Bioinformatics prediction indicated that rs221636 was located at the binding site of hsa-miR-548p in the 3′ UTR of Lin28B. Luciferase activity assay also showed a lower expression level for rs221636 T allele compared with A allele. These findings indicated that rs221236 located at Lin28B may contribute to the risk of oral cavity cancer through the interruption of miRNA binding. PMID:25503985

  3. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  4. P53 and bcl-2 immunoexpression in patients with oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Huerta, Elba R.; Rojo-Botello, Rebeca E.; Vega-Memije, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine by immunohistochemistry the presence and significance of p53 and bcl-2 proteins in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Study Design: We used 21 cases diagnosed as OLP 16 diagnosed as OSCC and four normal gingival biopsies taken from healthy patients were used as controls. Slides were processed for immunohistochemistry using anti-p53 and anti-bcl-2 monoclonal antibodies. Results: We found p53 immunoexpression in 71.4% OLP cases and 68.7% OSCC cases, with no immunoexpression in control cases. Bcl-2 was negative for all OLP and OSCC cases, and mild positivity was observed in normal tissue. We found significant correlation among p53 expression and OSCC malignancy. Conclusions: Our results suggest that TP53 system mainly promotes a hyperproliferative state by cell cycle arrest of the OLP epithelial cells for repairing damaged DNA nor apoptosis and that anti-apoptotic action of bcl-2 is not important in this disease. Key words:Oral lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, p53, Bcl-2, carcinogenesis, malignant transformation. PMID:22549684

  5. Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Paula S; Chambers, Philip A; Heritage, John; Michael Forbes, J

    2003-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to investigate the fate of a transgene in the rumen of sheep fed silage and maize grains from an insect-resistant maize line. A 1914-bp DNA fragment containing the entire coding region of the synthetic cryIA(b) gene was still amplifiable from rumen fluid sampled 5 h after feeding maize grains. The same target sequence, however, could not be amplified from rumen fluid sampled from sheep fed silage prepared from the genetically modified maize line. PCR amplification of a shorter (211-bp), yet still highly specific, target sequence was possible with rumen fluid sampled up to 3 and 24 h after feeding silage and maize grains, respectively. These findings indicate that intact transgenes from silage are unlikely to survive significantly in the rumen since a DNA sequence 211-bp long is very unlikely to transmit genetic information. By contrast, DNA in maize grains persists for a significant time and may, therefore, provide a source of transforming DNA in the rumen. In addition, we have examined the biological activity of plasmid DNA that had previously been exposed to the ovine oral cavity. Plasmid extracted from saliva sampled after incubation for 8 min was still capable of transforming competent Escherichia coli to kanamycin resistance, implying that DNA released from the diet within the mouth may retain sufficient biological activity for the transformation of competent oral bacteria.

  6. The roles of hope and optimism on posttraumatic growth in oral cavity cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel; Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Chan, Natalie; Samman, Nabil; McGrath, Colman; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the association of the positive coping strategies, hope and optimism, on posttraumatic growth (PTG) in oral cavity (OC) cancer patients. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted and performed in the outpatient station of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China. Fifty patients successfully treated for OC cancer were recruited after their informed consents had been obtained during the review clinic. During their regular follow-up controls in the outpatient clinic, the patients compiled the posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI) questionnaire, hope scale (HS) and the life orientation scale-revised (LOT-R). Hope and optimism correlated significantly positive with PTG and accounting together for a 25% variance of posttraumatic growth. Hope positively correlated with posttraumatic growth (r=.49, p<.001) as well as optimism (r=.31, p<.05). When compared to unmarried patients, married patients showed high levels of PTG and hope (married participants: mean=53.15, SD=11.04; unmarried participants: mean=41.00, SD=6.36; t (48)=2.403, p<.05). Hope and optimism represent important indicators for PTG in OC cancer patients. An intact dyad relationship seems to be important for hope and consecutive higher levels of PTG when compared to unmarried patients. Supportive psychological treatment strategies related to these two coping factors might be beneficial for OC cancer patients.

  7. Ecology of Lactobacilli in the Oral Cavity: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Badet, C; Thebaud, N.B

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli appear in the oral cavity during the first years of a child’s life. Their presence depends on numerous factors such as the presence of ecological niches e.g. natural anfractuosities of the teeth. A strong correlation has been established between the saliva Lactobacillus count and dental caries, the higher the DMF index, the higher the number of children harbouring a high Lactobacillus count. Among children, the presence of lactobacilli in coronal caries is incontestable. Among adults, lactobacilli are found in root caries. Since 1999, taxonomical revisions make it difficult to interpret the results obtained in the numerous previous studies carried out on the identification of oral lactobacilli, but whatever the sampling method or the identification technique, the carious site or the age of sampled subjects, most species belong to the Lactobacillus casei group. This is important because if a specific correlation can be found between few species of lactobacilli and caries a better understanding of their properties could allow the development of new tools for prevention. PMID:19088910

  8. Occurrence of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of selected marine mammal species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads F; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive marine mammals was investigated using culture and subsequent geno- and phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 89 bacterial isolates from pinnipeds tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequences, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. Four strains from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) made up group I, which was classified with Pasteurella canis. Group II comprised four strains from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) classified with Pasteurella stomatis. Group III consisted of 28 strains, isolated from harbor and gray seals and represented Bisgaardia genomospecies 1. Two strains from a harbor and a grey seal, group IV, were classified with Bisgaardia hudsonensis. Fifty-two strains from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), and California and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) formed group V and represented Otariodibacter oris. No Pasteurellaceae isolates were obtained from cetaceans, but Pasteurellaceae were isolated from all sampled pinnipeds. On the basis of these results, it is very likely that Pasteurellaceae bacteria represent a part of the normal oral flora in pinnipeds.

  9. OCCURRENCE OF PASTEURELLACEAE BACTERIA IN THE ORAL CAVITY OF THE TASMANIAN DEVIL (SARCOPHILUS HARRISII).

    PubMed

    Brix, Lena; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Kelly, Androo; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) was investigated using phenotypic and subsequent genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from Tasmanian devils, tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequence similarity, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. A total of 15 strains formed a novel genus-like group within Pasteurellaceae. Thirty-six strains grouped with the type strain of Frederiksenia canicola. Five strains clustered with the type strain of Pasteurella multocida . Interestingly, four of the P. multocida-like strains were β-hemolytic when incubated on blood agar, which is atypical for this genus. Five strains grouped with a 100% rpoB similarity with Pasteurella dagmatis. Finally, a single strain showed 97.1% resemblance to Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus. The results demonstrate that Tasmanian devils are hosting a variety of bacterial taxa affiliated with the family of Pasteurellaceae as part of their oral microflora.

  10. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Mast Cells in Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas with oral leukoplakia being the most common potentially malignant disorder. Among the cell types in the stroma, mast cells play an important role in tumourigenesis through various mechanisms. Aim The present study was aimed at comparing the mast cell count among normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia and Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC) and to evaluate the possible role of mast cells in carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods Mast cell count was assessed immunohistochemically using anti-mast cell tryptase amongst 20 cases of leukoplakia and OSSC each and 10 normal gingival samples. Overall comparison was done using Kruskal Wallis test and intergroup comparison was done using Mann-Whitney U test. Results The results of the present study showed an increase in mast cell count from normal oral mucosa (Mean: 7.73) to leukoplakia (Mean: 15.11) to squamous cell carcinoma (Mean: 22.73). Comparison of mean number of mast cells amongst three groups (p-value: 0.001) and intergroup comparisons showed statistical significance. Conclusion Mast cells favour malignant transformation and can be used as indicators of disease progression. PMID:27656549

  11. Practical Application of Anatomy of the Oral Cavity in Forensic Facial Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Paulo Eduardo Miamoto; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity’s importance in defining the facial region makes it a primary feature for forensic facial reconstruction (FFR). The aim of this study is to construct a pattern of reference for dimensions and proportions of the lips and establish parameters that may help estimate the vermilion borders’ height dimensions and the mouth’s width. By means of cone beam computed tomography, divided into two samples: sample 1 (n = 322; 137 male, 185 female) verified the linear distances delimited by anatomical landmarks in soft tissue. The sample 2 (n = 108; 40 male, 68 female), verified the proportions among the height of the vermilion borders, width of the mouth, and linear distances between craniometric landmarks in hard tissues, both from a Brazilian database. The measurements were completed using OsiriX, and the results were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics at a level of significance of 5%. The height of the vermilion borders corresponded to approximately 26% of the width of the mouth. The width of the mouth increased over the course of time in men and remained stable in women. In men, a mean intercanine distance of 75% of the total mouth’s width was found; for women, it was 80%. The parameters of the relations between soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity region presented that the distance between landmarks ID-SM (Infradentale-Supramentale) corresponded to 55% of the height of the vermilion borders of the mouth for both sexes, while the distance between landmarks PM-SD (Philtrum medium-Supradentale) corresponded to 85% in men and 88% in women. Mean values of 97% of the width of the mouth in women and 93% in men were attributed to the distance between the mentonian foramina. It was not possible to estimate the height of the labial vermilion borders by the bone measurements, FIs-Fli (Foramen incisivus superius-inferius) and NS-GN (Nasospinale-Gnathion). Profound knowledge of the anatomy and morphology of the oral cavity may contribute to

  12. Genome-wide association analyses identify new susceptibility loci for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lesseur, Corina; Diergaarde, Brenda; Olshan, Andrew F; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Ness, Andrew R; Liu, Geoffrey; Lacko, Martin; Eluf-Neto, José; Franceschi, Silvia; Lagiou, Pagona; Macfarlane, Gary J; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Boccia, Stefania; Polesel, Jerry; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Zaridze, David; Johansson, Mattias; Menezes, Ana M; Curado, Maria Paula; Robinson, Max; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Canova, Cristina; Znaor, Ariana; Castellsagué, Xavier; Conway, David I; Holcátová, Ivana; Mates, Dana; Vilensky, Marta; Healy, Claire M; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Lissowska, Jolanta; Grandis, Jennifer R; Weissler, Mark C; Tajara, Eloiza H; Nunes, Fabio D; de Carvalho, Marcos B; Thomas, Steve; Hung, Rayjean J; Peters, Wilbert H M; Herrero, Rolando; Cadoni, Gabriella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Steffen, Annika; Agudo, Antonio; Shangina, Oxana; Xiao, Xiangjun; Gaborieau, Valérie; Chabrier, Amélie; Anantharaman, Devasena; Boffetta, Paolo; Amos, Christopher I; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer in 6,034 cases and 6,585 controls from Europe, North America and South America. We detected eight significantly associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), seven of which are new for these cancer sites. Oral and pharyngeal cancers combined were associated with loci at 6p21.32 (rs3828805, HLA-DQB1), 10q26.13 (rs201982221, LHPP) and 11p15.4 (rs1453414, OR52N2-TRIM5). Oral cancer was associated with two new regions, 2p23.3 (rs6547741, GPN1) and 9q34.12 (rs928674, LAMC3), and with known cancer-related loci-9p21.3 (rs8181047, CDKN2B-AS1) and 5p15.33 (rs10462706, CLPTM1L). Oropharyngeal cancer associations were limited to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and classical HLA allele imputation showed a protective association with the class II haplotype HLA-DRB1*1301-HLA-DQA1*0103-HLA-DQB1*0603 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, P = 2.7 × 10(-9)). Stratified analyses on a subgroup of oropharyngeal cases with information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) status indicated that this association was considerably stronger in HPV-positive (OR = 0.23, P = 1.6 × 10(-6)) than in HPV-negative (OR = 0.75, P = 0.16) cancers.

  13. Outcomes of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising from oral epithelial dysplasia: rationale for monitoring premalignant oral lesions in a multidisciplinary clinic.

    PubMed

    Ho, M W; Field, E A; Field, J K; Risk, J M; Rajlawat, B P; Rogers, S N; Steele, J C; Triantafyllou, A; Woolgar, J A; Lowe, D; Shaw, R J

    2013-10-01

    Surveillance of oral epithelial dysplasia results in a number of newly diagnosed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The clinical stage of oral SCC at diagnosis influences the magnitude of treatment required and the prognosis. We aimed to document the stage, treatment, and outcome of oral SCC that arose in patients who were being monitored for oral epithelial dysplasia in a dedicated multidisciplinary clinic. Those with histologically diagnosed lesions were enrolled on an ethically approved protocol and molecular biomarker study. Details of clinical and pathological TNM, operation, radiotherapy, recurrence, second primary tumour, and prognosis, were recorded in patients whose lesions underwent malignant transformation. Of the 91 patients reviewed (median follow-up 48 months, IQR 18-96), 23 (25%) had malignant transformation. All were presented to the multidisciplinary team with stage 1 disease (cT1N0M0). Of these, 21 were initially treated by wide local excision, 2 required resection of tumour and reconstruction, and 2 required adjuvant radiotherapy. At follow-up 3 had local recurrence, one had regional recurrence, one had metachronous lung cancer, and 5 had second primary oral SCC. There were further diagnoses of oral dysplasia in 5 during follow-up, and it is estimated that 76% of patients will have one or other event in 5 years. Disease-specific survival was 100% and overall survival was 96% (22/23). Median follow-up after diagnosis of oral SCC was 24 months (IQR 11-58). Specialist monitoring of oral epithelial dysplasia by a multidisciplinary team allows oral SCC to be detected at an early stage, and enables largely curative treatment with simple and usually minor surgical intervention. The high incidence of second primary oral SCC in high-risk patients with oral epithelial dysplasia further supports intensive targeted surveillance in this group.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Boesen, P V; Laszewski, M J; Robinson, R A; Dawson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Inverted papillomas of the oral cavity are rare lesions. Although in the seven oral cases previously reported the lesions were benign, approximately 10% to 15% of inverted papillomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses develop or are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa. Histologically, this lesion demonstrated the morphologic features of inverted papilloma in the superficial portion, and squamous carcinoma in deeper sections. This case suggests that although rare, inverted papillomas of the oral cavity should be considered potentially malignant or capable of harboring a malignancy.

  15. Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity secondary to lower lip trauma. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; España-Tost, Antoni; Vidal-Bel, August

    2013-01-01

    Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity is an infrequent benign neoplasm of papillary appearance that originates in the secretory duct of a salivary gland. The etiology is unknown, though some authors have related it to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a tumor of the lower lip mucosa. Histopathological study of the lesion diagnosed inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus DNA detection and typing based on tumor lesion DNA amplification and posterior hybridization, revealed no presence of viral DNA. The antecedents of trauma reported by the patient could have played an important role in the development of this tumor. Key words:Inverted ductal papilloma, intraductal papilloma, oral papilloma, papillary epidermoid adenoma. PMID:24455058

  16. Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity secondary to lower lip trauma. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; España-Tost, Antoni; Vidal-Bel, August; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-04-01

    Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity is an infrequent benign neoplasm of papillary appearance that originates in the secretory duct of a salivary gland. The etiology is unknown, though some authors have related it to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a tumor of the lower lip mucosa. Histopathological study of the lesion diagnosed inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus DNA detection and typing based on tumor lesion DNA amplification and posterior hybridization, revealed no presence of viral DNA. The antecedents of trauma reported by the patient could have played an important role in the development of this tumor. Key words:Inverted ductal papilloma, intraductal papilloma, oral papilloma, papillary epidermoid adenoma.

  17. [The prognostic role of expression of p16 tumor suppressor gene in Hungarian patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Vánkos, Judit Borbála; Piurkó, Violetta; Suba, Zsuzsanna; Németh, Zsolt; Tímár, József; Kenessey, István

    2015-12-01

    Beside smoking and alcohol consumption, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common risk factor of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region (HNSCC). The latter group of patients associates with better prognosis. During HPV infection, the level of p16 tumor suppressor elevates, which could give an additional opportunity for diagnosis: instead of molecular diagnostic tools, the application of immunohistochemistry is acceptable. However, the majority of the published studies focused on the whole head and neck region and did not separately handled cancers of the oral cavity. Our recent work analyzed the expression of p16 in 67 oral squamous cancers, and compared to routine clinicopathologic parameters. From surgical samples tissue microarray blocks were prepared and expression of p16 as well as other molecular markers (p53, Ki67, EGFR) were studied. In contrast to previous studies on HNSCC, with the exception of recurrence, the expression of p16 was not found associated to clinicopathologic parameters. Nuclear stabilization of p53 appeared mainly in younger patients. The expression of p53 and EGFR significantly correlated to each other. We concluded that traditional molecular categorization of HNSCC could not be completely adaptable to Hungarian samples. Potential coexposition of common etiological factors (e.g. HPV, smoking, alcohol) could blur borders between distinct categories.

  18. A robust method for assessing chemically induced mutagenic effects in the oral cavity of transgenic Big Blue® rats.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R; Thompson, Chad M; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Suh, Mina; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    The Big Blue® (BB) in vivo mutation assay uses transgenic rodents to measure treatment-induced mutations in virtually any tissue. The BB assay can be conducted in rats or mice and is ideal for investigating tissue-specific mutagenic mode of action of tumor induction. Some tissues such as oral mucosa have not been thoroughly studied. Due to the small quantity and cartilaginous nature of oral cavity tissues, development of special prosection and DNA isolation methods was required to permit robust analysis of mutations in these tissues. Improved surgical methods permitted collection of adequate and reproducible quantities of tissue (∼45 mg gingiva/buccal and ∼30 mg gingiva/palate). Optimized DNA isolation methods included use of liquid nitrogen pulverization, homogenization, nuclei pelleting, digestion, and phenol/chloroform extraction, to yield sufficient quantities of DNA from these tissues. In preliminary optimization work, mutant frequency (MF) in tongue and gingiva was increased in rats exposed to the promutagen, benzo[a]pyrene, and the direct mutagen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. The oral cavity carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO; 10 ppm in drinking water; 28 days), was qualified as a positive control for mutagenesis in oral tissues since it caused significant increases in cII MFs in gingiva/palate (50.2-fold) and gingiva/buccal tissues (21.3-fold), but not in liver or bone marrow (0.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively). These results are consistent with the observation that 4-NQO primarily induces tumors in oral cavity. Results also demonstrate the utility of the BB rat mutation assay and optimized methods for investigation of oral cavity mutagenicity, and by extension, analysis of other small and cartilaginous tissues.

  19. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  20. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  1. Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in histologically normal margins of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Itoiz, María E.; Guiñazú, Natalia; Piccini, Daniel; Gea, Susana; López-de Blanc, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2) was found in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) but not in normal mucosa. Molecular changes associated to early carcinogenesis have been found in mucosa near carcinomas, which is considered a model to study field cancerization. The aim of the present study is to analyze NOS2 expression at the histologically normal margins of OSCC. Study Design: Eleven biopsy specimens of OSCC containing histologically normal margins (HNM) were analyzed. Ten biopsies of normal oral mucosa were used as controls. The activity of NOS2 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were also analyzed. The Chi-squared test was applied. Results: Six out of the eleven HNM from carcinoma samples showed positive NOS2 activity whereas all the control group samples yielded negative (p=0.005). No statistically significant association between enzyme expression and tobacco and/or alcohol consumption and salivary nitrate and nitrite was found. Conclusions: NOS2 expression would be an additional evidence of alterations that may occur in a state of field cancerization before the appearance of potentially malignant morphological changes. Key words:Field cancerization, oral squamous cell carcinoma, Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2), malignity markers. PMID:24316703

  2. Human papillomavirus infection in the oral cavity of HIV patients is not reduced by initiating antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Lee, Anthony; Chen, Huichao; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer; Seaman, Todd; Landovitz, Raphael J.; John, Malcolm; Reilly, Nancy; Naini, Linda; Palefsky, Joel; Jacobson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral malignancies is increasing among HIV-infected populations, and the prevalence of oral warts has reportedly increased among HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We explored whether ART initiation among treatment-naive HIV-positive adults is followed by a change in oral HPV infection or the occurrence of oral warts. Design: Prospective, observational study. Methods: HIV-1 infected, ART-naive adults initiating ART in a clinical trial were enrolled. End points included detection of HPV DNA in throat-washes, changes in CD4+ T-cell count and HIV RNA, and oral wart diagnosis. Results: Among 388 participants, 18% had at least one HPV genotype present before initiating ART, and 24% had at least one genotype present after 12–24 weeks of ART. Among those with undetectable oral HPV DNA before ART, median change in CD4+ count from study entry to 4 weeks after ART initiation was larger for those with detectable HPV DNA during follow-up than those without (P =  0.003). Both prevalence and incidence of oral warts were low (3% of participants having oral warts at study entry; 2.5% acquiring oral warts during 48 weeks of follow-up). Conclusion: These results suggest: effective immune control of HPV in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients is not reconstituted by 24 weeks of ART; whereas ART initiation was not followed by an increase in oral warts, we observed an increase in oral HPV DNA detection after 12–24 weeks. The prevalence of HPV-associated oral malignancies may continue to increase in the modern ART era. PMID:26919735

  3. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R.; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Bielenberg, Diane R.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells. PMID:26877262

  4. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Heyu; Nan, Xu; Li, Xuefen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun; Sun, Lisha; Han, Wenlin; Li, Tiejun

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2016-04-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells.

  6. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 7-year-old Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, C M B; Gueiros, L A M; Leon, J E; do Carmo Abreu e Lima, M; de Almeida, O P; Leão, J C

    2011-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are amongst the commonest malignancies in adults but in paediatric patients are exceptionally rare, particularly those involving the oral mucosa. The aim of the present report is to describe the features of a gingival well-differentiated SCC in a 7-year-old Brazilian boy. Immunostaining for p53, Ki-67 and Mcm2 showed increased cellular proliferation compared with normal epithelium. In situ hybridization failed to identify human papilloma virus infection. Correct diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous carcinoma can be difficult in children and differentiation from pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is essential to establish proper treatment.

  7. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Rashmi; Bajaj, Saumya

    2014-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the pathogenesis of malignancy. Overall, lipid peroxidation levels are indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the most frequently used biomarker to detect oxidative changes. Antioxidant defense systems such as glutathione (GSH) limit cell injury induced by ROS. Therefore, MDA and GSH can be used to monitor oxidative stress (OS). Hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare both salivary and serum levels of MDA and GSH in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 100 subjects comprising 30 apparently healthy controls, 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 40 clinically and histologically diagnosed patients with OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for MDA and GSH. The study revealed enhanced MDA levels in saliva and serum in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. On the other hand, significant decreases were seen in serum and salivary GSH levels in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. Augmentation of OS in blood and saliva is reflected by increase in MDA and decrease in GSH levels, indicating that tumor processes cause an imbalance of oxidant-antioxidant status in cell structures.

  8. Species distribution and virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; de Souza, Luanda Bárbara Ferreira Canário; Gondim, Libia Augusta Maciel; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2013-04-01

    Although yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are frequently seen as commensals in the oral cavity, they possess virulence attributes that contribute for pathogenicity. The aims of the present study were to study the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of renal transplant recipients and to analyze strains virulence factors. We isolated a total of 70 Candida strains from 111 transplant recipients, and Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (82.86 %). Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 14.4 % kidney transplant patients, while 11 isolates (15.7 %) corresponded to non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species. C. albicans adhered to a higher extension than NCAC strains. Some isolates of Candida tropicalis were markedly adherent to human buccal epithelial cells and highly biofilm-forming strains. Regarding proteinase activity, Candida orthopsilosis was more proteolytic than Candida metapsilosis. Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis showed very low ability to form biofilm on polystyrene microtiter plates. We have demonstrated here diverse peculiarities of different Candida species regarding the ability to express virulence factors. This study will contribute for the understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of yeasts belonging to the genus Candida in the oral cavity of patients who were submitted to kidney transplant and are under immunosuppressive therapies.

  9. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Bernardo, Wagner Luis de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Höfling, José Francisco

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the protein polymorphism degree among seventy-five C. albicans strains from healthy children oral cavities of five socioeconomic categories from eight schools (private and public) in Piracicaba city, São Paulo State, in order to identify C. albicans subspecies and their similarities in infantile population groups and to establish their possible dissemination route. Cell cultures were grown in YEPD medium, collected by centrifugation, and washed with cold saline solution. The whole-cell proteins were extracted by cell disruption, using glass beads and submitted to SDS-PAGE technique. After electrophoresis, the protein bands were stained with Coomassie-blue and analyzed by statistics package NTSYS-pc version 1.70 software. Similarity matrix and dendrogram were generated by using the Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, respectively, which made it possible to evaluate the similarity or intra-specific polymorphism degrees, based on whole-cell protein fingerprinting of C. albicans oral isolates. A total of 13 major phenons (clusters) were analyzed, according to their homogeneous (socioeconomic category and/or same school) and heterogeneous (distinct socioeconomic categories and/or schools) characteristics. Regarding to the social epidemiological aspect, the cluster composition showed higher similarities (0.788 < SD < or = 1.0) among C. albicans strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic bases (high, medium, or low). Isolates of high similarity were not found in oral cavities from healthy children of social stratum A and D, B and D, or C and E. This may be explained by an absence of a dissemination route among these children. Geographically, some healthy children among identical and different schools (private and public) also are carriers of similar strains but such similarity was not found among other isolates from children from certain schools. These data may reflect a restricted

  10. Tumour-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in normal and neoplastic tissues of patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity - clinical relevance and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Hundsdorfer, Brigitte; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Bock, Klaus Peter; Dettmar, Peer; Schmitt, Manfred; Kolk, Andreas; Pautke, Christoph; Horch, Hans-Henning

    2005-06-01

    The central role of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, the plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in tumour invasion and metastasis becomes more and more evident. In several studies, uPA and PAI-1 proved to be of prognostic relevance as shown for different types of cancer (e.g. breast, stomach, lung). Elevated antigen levels of uPA and/or PAI-1 predict poor outcome (relapse-free survival) for patients afflicted with cancer. For oral squamous cell carcinomas, however, the prognostic relevance of the tumour-associated proteolytic factors uPA and PAI-1 has still to be evaluated. In the present study, using tissue extracts of 79 oral cancer cases, 58 specimens of normal oral cavity mucosa and of 16 tumour positive lymph nodes taken from the same patients, uPA and PAI-1 antigen were determined by highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation was found between uPA and PAI-1 in tumour tissue, when compared with the normal mucosa of the same oral cavity. Median levels showed significant elevations in cancer tissue and in tumour positive lymph nodes versus normal oral mucosa. In patients with high levels of uPA or PAI-1, there were significantly more tumour relapses. There was no significant correlation between pathological TNM categories, grading, residual tumour category, tumour site and patient age. In summary, tumour uPA/PAI-1 content (as determined by ELISA) appears to be a strong independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival in squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity. These observations might help to select patients with poor prognosis for additional adjuvant therapy in conjunction with complete surgical resection.

  11. Role of dermatoglyphics as an indicator of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ambika; Karjodkar, Freny R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one name that causes panic and holds an undeserved high ranking as a killer. Another important condition which has become a major public health issue in South East Asia is oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Not all the people using tobacco suffer from these diseases. Genetic predisposition might explain such an individual variability that can be predicted by using various cytogenetic markers. However, these studies are far more costly and complicated. So, dermatoglyphics may be of immense clinical significance to segregate those individuals who are at an increased risk for developing these diseases. Aim: The present study was conducted to analyze the palmar dermatoglyphics in SCC and OSF and find a dermatoglyphic marker, if any. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: 120 individuals were divided into four groups based upon their habits of tobacco/areca nut usage and presence of OSF/SCC. Dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded using standard ink method. Various patterns were analysed statistically in the four groups. Results and Conclusion: In SCC, there was an increase in frequency of arch and ulnar loop patterns on fingertips, decrease in frequency of simple whorl patterns on fingertips, decrease in frequency of palmar accessory triradii on right and left hands. Significant findings in OSF included an increase in frequency of arch and ulnar loop pattern, decrease in frequency of simple whorl patterns on fingertips, decrease in atd angle on right hand, decrease in frequency of palmar accessory triradii on right hand. The results revealed that the field of dermatoglyphics holds promising results for determining the genetic susceptibility of individuals to develop SCC and OSF. PMID:24403787

  12. Impact of microvascular free flap reconstruction in oral cavity cancer: our experience in 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Almadori, G; Rigante, M; Bussu, F; Parrilla, C; Gallus, R; Barone Adesi, L; Galli, J; Paludetti, G; Salgarello, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oncological outcomes in patients affected by oral carcinoma treated with radical compartmental surgery followed by microvascular flap reconstruction. We conducted a retrospective analysis on a cohort of 130 patients. All patients underwent ablative tumour resection (compartmental surgery) followed by immediate reconstruction with free flaps and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, when necessary according to our tumour board and international guidelines. Disease-specific survival (DSS) curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test and generalised Wilcoxon test were used to investigate the most important prognostic factors on 5-year DSS. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to provide hazard ratios or relative risks for individual variables. 88.5% of patients were affected by SCC. There were 46 (35.4%) women and 84 (64.6%) men in the sample with a mean age of 58.5 years. At the end of the follow-up period, 36 (27.7%) patients died, only 3 of which for other causes. The 5-year DSS rate was 67.8% (S.E. 4.9%). In univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and in multivariate Cox regression model, seven variables were found to have a significant relationship with DSS: T (p = 0.026) and N (p = 0.0001) status, clinical stage (according to the UICC TNM Sixth Edition) (p = 0.007), margins of resection (p = 0.001), extracapsular spread (p = 0.005), recurrence of disease (p = 0.00002) and treatment modality (evaluated as surgery alone or surgery + RT/CHT) (p = 0.004). Our results confirmed findings already reported in the literature, and allowed us to conclude that compartmental surgery combined with free flap reconstruction can increase survival in oral cancer patients.

  13. Leukoplakia, Oral Cavity Cancer Risk, and Cancer Survival in the U.S. Elderly.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Katki, Hormuzd A; Silverberg, Michael J; Manos, M Michele; Engels, Eric A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    Screening for oral leukoplakia, an oral cavity cancer (OCC) precursor, could lead to earlier detection of OCC. However, the progression rate from leukoplakia to OCC and the benefits of leukoplakia screening for improving OCC outcomes are currently unclear. We conducted a case-cohort study of U.S. adults ages ≥65 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linkage. We identified leukoplakia diagnoses through Medicare claims, and OCC diagnoses through SEER cancer registries. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate leukoplakia associations with OCC incidence, and the absolute OCC risk following leukoplakia diagnosis was calculated. Among OCC cases, we compared OCC stage and OCC survival between cases with a prior leukoplakia diagnosis versus those without prior leukoplakia. Among 470,266 individuals in the SEER-Medicare subcohort, 1,526 (0.3%) had a leukoplakia diagnosis. Among people with leukoplakia, the cumulative OCC incidence was 0.7% at 3 months and 2.5% at 5 years. OCC risk was most increased <3 months after leukoplakia diagnosis (HR, 115), likely representing the diagnosis of prevalent cancers. Nonetheless, risk remained substantially increased in subsequent follow-up [HR ≥ 3 months, 24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-27; HR ≥ 12 months, 22, 95% CI, 20-25]. Among OCC cases (N = 8,927), those with prior leukoplakia were less likely to be diagnosed at regional/distant stage (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.30-0.43), and had lower mortality (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84) when compared with OCC cases without a prior leukoplakia. Individuals with leukoplakia have substantially elevated risk of OCC. Lower stage and better survival after OCC diagnosis suggest that leukoplakia identification can lead to earlier OCC detection and reduced mortality.

  14. Combination of bexarotene and the retinoid CD1530 reduces murine oral-cavity carcinogenesis induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Osei-Sarfo, Kwame; Urvalek, Alison M; Zhang, Tuo; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2014-06-17

    We investigated the effects of bexarotene (a retinoid X receptor agonist), CD1530 (a retinoic acid receptor γ selective agonist), and the combination of these two drugs for the prevention of oral carcinogenesis induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in a mouse model of human oral-cavity and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma previously generated in our laboratory. We observed decreased numbers of neoplastic tongue lesions and reduced lesion severity in the 4-NQO plus CD1530 (4N+C) and 4-NQO plus bexarotene plus CD1530 (4N+B+C) groups compared with the 4-NQO group. RNA-Seq analyses showed increases in transcripts in cell proliferation/cell cycle progression pathways in the 4-NQO vs. the untreated group. In addition, β-catenin and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) protein levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as assessed by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) staining, were elevated in tongue tissues 17 wk after the termination of the 4-NQO treatment. The 4N+B, 4N+C, and 4N+B+C groups showed dramatically lower levels of β-catenin, MMP9, and 4-HNE staining compared with the 4-NQO group. The major reduction in 4-HNE staining in the retinoid treatment groups suggests a novel mechanism of action, reduction of ROS, by which bexarotene and CD1530 inhibit carcinogenesis.

  15. [Minimally invasive brush-biopsy: innovative method for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Remmerbach, Torsten W; Hemprich, Alexander; Böcking, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective and blinded study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of conventional cytopathology of oral brush biopsies taken from suspicious oral lesions. In addition we checked slide based DNA image cytometry as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. Our hypothesis is that DNA aneuploidy is a sensitive and specific marker for earliest detection of oral cancer using brush biopsies. Therefore the nuclear DNA contents were measured after Feulgen re-staining using a TV image analysis system. DNA aneuploidy was assumed if abnormal DNA stemlines or cells with DNA content greater 9c were observed. Sensitivity of our cytological diagnosis in oral smears for the detection of cancer cells thus was 91.3%, specificity for the detection of non-neoplastic cells was 95.1%, positive predictive value 94.4% and negative predictive value 92.3%. The adjuvant DNA image cytometry reached a sensitivity of 97.8%, the specificity and the positive predictive value were 100% and negative predictive value was 98.1%, respectively. Smears from oral brush biopsies of all visible oral lesions are an easily practicable, cheap, minimal invasive, painless and safe screening method for detection of oral precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinomas in all stages. We conclude that DNA image cytometry is a very sensitive and highly specific, objective and reproducible adjuvant tool for identification of neoplastic cells in oral smears.

  16. [Examination of the oral cavities of patients with cancer: clinical evaluation and indirect measurement of the nitric oxide level].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; Khouri, Vivian Youssef; Guilherme, Caroline; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Pace, Mariangela Aparecida

    2013-02-01

    This observational study aimed to verify the association between the clinical state of the oral cavity (based on the Index of Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index) and the indirectly determined nitric oxide level in patients with oncologic and hematologic diseases. This study included 20 hospitalized patients who were in the evaluation phase prior to starting chemotherapy and who had been diagnosed with leukemia (35%), lymphoma (50%) or myeloma (15%). Fifty percent of these patients had normal oral health (no injury or trauma), and most had satisfactory (35%) or typical (35%) hygiene, but 30% had poor or very poor hygiene. The indirectly measured levels of nitric oxide ranged from 13.34 to 257. The nitric oxide level was not associated with other parameters, and there was great variability in its level. Further studies are necessary given the potential of using this indicator in the early detection of oral diseases.

  17. Global gene expression profiling of oral cavity cancers suggests molecular heterogeneity within anatomic subsites

    PubMed Central

    Severino, Patricia; Alvares, Adriana M; Michaluart, Pedro; Okamoto, Oswaldo K; Nunes, Fabio D; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Tajara, Eloiza H

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequent neoplasm, which is usually aggressive and has unpredictable biological behavior and unfavorable prognosis. The comprehension of the molecular basis of this variability should lead to the development of targeted therapies as well as to improvements in specificity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Results Samples of primary OSCCs and their corresponding surgical margins were obtained from male patients during surgery and their gene expression profiles were screened using whole-genome microarray technology. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Components Analysis were used for data visualization and One-way Analysis of Variance was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Samples clustered mostly according to disease subsite, suggesting molecular heterogeneity within tumor stages. In order to corroborate our results, two publicly available datasets of microarray experiments were assessed. We found significant molecular differences between OSCC anatomic subsites concerning groups of genes presently or potentially important for drug development, including mRNA processing, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, metabolic process, cell cycle and apoptosis. Conclusion Our results corroborate literature data on molecular heterogeneity of OSCCs. Differences between disease subsites and among samples belonging to the same TNM class highlight the importance of gene expression-based classification and challenge the development of targeted therapies. PMID:19014556

  18. Risk factors in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based case-control study in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    reported a higher consumption of alcohol than the controls. More than 350 g of alcohol per week (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.4) and 11-20 cigarettes per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.1) were dose-dependent risk factors. The results showed a tendency for women to have a greater risk (OR 1.8) than men at any given level of tobacco consumption. There was no increased risk of OOSCC among users of Swedish moist snuff. There was a significant relationship between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and OOSCC (OR 63; 95% CI 14-280). Forty-seven of the cases (36%) were high-risk HPV infected and 7 (5.3%) were low-risk HPV infected in the specimens collected from the oral cavity. The corresponding figures for the controls were 3 (0.94%) and 13 (4.1%), respectively. The high-risk HPV types found in the oral cavity were the same types as observed in cervical cancer. Tumour stage was associated with both higher relative rate (RR) of recurrence or second primary tumour (SPT) of squamous cell carcinoma, and death in intercurrent diseases (DICD), defined as death before the occurrence of recurrence or SPT. High-risk HPV infected patients had an almost threefold increased RR of recurrence/SPT, but seemingly a lower RR of DICD compared to high-risk negative cases. Patients with tonsillar carcinoma had a significantly higher cause-specific RR of recurrence/SPT (RR 2.06; CI 0.99 - 4.28) compared to patients with OSCC of other sites. High alcohol consumption was associated with a high RR of recurrence/SPT, but not with DICD. There was no increased RR of recurrence/SPT related to smoking, but an association between smoking and DICD. In conclusion, the results in this study confirm that both smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption are risk factors for OOSCC. The use of Swedish moist snuff had no effect on the risk. Independent risk factors identified are poor oral hygiene, inadequate dental status and malfunctioning complete dentures. Regular dental check-ups are a preventive factor. Among

  19. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving films for delivery of triclosan to the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Dinge, Aditya; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of formulating TC containing fast dissolving films for local delivery to oral cavity. Various film forming agents, film modifiers and polyhydric alcohols were evaluated for optimizing the composition of fast dissolving films. The potential of poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl-beta- cyclodextrin (HPBCD) to improve solubility of TC was investigated. Fast dissolving films containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum, and xylitol were formulated. Use of poloxamer 407 and HPBCD resulted in significant improvement in the solubility of TC. Fast dissolving films containing TC-HPBCD complex and TC-Poloxamer 407 were formulated and were evaluated for the in vitro dissolution profile and in vitro microbiological assay. Films containing TC-Poloxamer 407 exhibited better in vitro dissolution profile and in vitro antimicrobial activity as compared to the films containing TC-HPBCD complex. Effect of incorporation of eugenol on the in vivo performance of TC-Poloxamer 407 containing films was evaluated in human volunteers. Eugenol containing films improved the acceptability of TC-Poloxamer 407 films with respect to taste masking and mouth freshening without compromising the in vivo dissolution time.

  1. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Deborah Gondim Lambert; Oliveira, Viviane Alves De; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Germano, Adriano Rocha; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin that usually affects the pleura. This rarity becomes more relevant in the oral cavity since the clinical features are nonspecific. A 66-year-old female patient presented with a 3-month history of a swelling in the floor of the mouth, measuring 2 cm in greatest diameter, and pain symptomatology. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs showed no bone involvement. Ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid salivary glands revealed normal morphology, dimensions, and echogenicity. During this exam, a nodular image of low echogenicity measuring about 2.7 × 1.8 cm was detected. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological analysis revealed a well-defined tumor-like lesion with alternation between hypercellular areas without a defined pattern and hypocellular areas. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD34 and CD99 and negative for α-SMA, S-100, and bcl-2. Combining the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor. The patient is under periodical clinical follow-up and shows no signs of recurrence 7 months after surgical excision of the tumor. The combination of clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical features is necessary for the diagnosis. PMID:28326216

  2. Porphyromonas loveana sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Bird, Philip S; Trott, Darren J; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Milinovich, Gabriel J; Hillman, Kristine M; Burrell, Paul C; Blackall, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    An obligatory anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccobacillus with black-pigmented colonies was isolated from the oral cavity of selected Australian marsupial species. Phenotypic and molecular criteria showed that this bacterium was a distinct species within the genus Porphyromonas, and was closely related to Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas gulae. This putative novel species and P. gulae could be differentiated from P. gingivalis by catalase activity. Further characterization by multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis of glutamate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme mobility and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS showed that this putative novel species could be differentiated phenotypically from P. gingivalis and P. gulae. Definitive identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that this bacterium belonged to a unique monophyletic lineage, phylogenetically distinct from P. gingivalis (94.9 % similarity) and P. gulae (95.5 %). This also was supported by 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and glutamate dehydrogenase gene sequencing. A new species epithet, Porphyromonas loveana sp. nov., is proposed for this bacterium, with DSM 28520T (=NCTC 13658T=UQD444T=MRK101T), isolated from a musky rat kangaroo, as the type strain.

  3. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed.

  4. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  5. Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-11-01

    Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) ( =JCM 19285(T) =DSM 27377(T)).

  6. Virulence factors of Candida albicans isolates from the oral cavities of HIV-1-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Tatiany O A; Gillet, Luciana C S; Menezes, Sílvio A F; Feitosa, Rosimar N M; Ishak, Marluísa O G; Ishak, Ricardo; Marques-da-Silva, Sílvia H; Vallinoto, Antonio C R

    2013-06-01

    The present study assessed the phenotypic aspects of oral-cavity Candida albicans isolates from 300 HIV-1- positive patients, relating the most commonly investigated virulence factors (enzyme typing and germ-tube formation) to the most common morphotypes. The samples were seeded into specific media for isolation and subsequent identification using the automated Vitek 2 system. The following assays were performed for phenotypic characterization: morphotyping, germ-tube formation and enzyme typing. Out of 300 collected samples, 144 tested positive for yeasts of the Candida genus, 98 (32.7 %) of which were identified as C. albicans. The latter samples were attributed to seven different morphotypes; the three most common morphotypes were 7208 (49 %), 7308 (14.3 %) and 3208 (13.3 %). All of the C. albicans isolate samples formed germ tubes and produced the enzymes proteinase and phospholipase, with an activity classified as intermediate to high. Due to the identification of virulence factors among the analyzed samples, monitoring of HIV-1-positive patients colonized by different morphotypes must be established because these morphotypes are extremely pathogenic and can trigger severe fungal infections.

  7. An examination of the sensory structures in the oral cavity of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Duffy, Michael; Zacherl, Janelle R; Anand, Kusuma; Elsey, Ruth M; Smith, Timothy S

    2014-11-01

    The location and distribution of mucosal sensory structures of the crocodilian oral cavity are poorly understood. Although there are several descriptions of these structures in adults, nothing is known about their development. The purpose of this study was to document location, morphology, and relative abundance of these mucosal sensory structures in both hatchling and subadult alligators. Numerous mucosal sensory structures and pale staining dome-shaped papillae were observed only in the upper palate and tongue. In hatchlings, these papillae, which house either mechanoreceptive or chemosensory (taste buds) structures, were larger and more prevalent on the tongue than the upper palate. In the subadult, however, these papillae housed primarily mechanoreceptive structures and possibly degenerate taste buds. Although the presence of the mechanoreceptive structures in the palates of the suabadult alligator are to be expected, the loss of most taste buds is hitherto undocumented. Thus, there is morphological support for an ontogenetic shift in the role of the sensory palate, from a prey detection gustatory sensory system in hatchlings to a prey-manipulative mechanoreceptive system in subadults.

  8. Multiple fluorophore-analysis (MFA) for qualitative tissue diagnosis in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Romana; Betz, Christian; Havel, Miriam; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Leunig, Andreas; Assmann, Walter

    2007-07-01

    Early diagnosis of head and neck tumors is usually achieved via surgical tissue biopsy. By measuring the specific autofluorescence of endogenous fluorophores with tumor-specific distributions, it might be possible to non-invasively judge tissue dignities ("optical biopsy"). A total of 22 patients with suspicious lesions of the oral cavity and 7 healthy volunteers were included into the study. Using a mercury vapour lamp as a light source, excitation and detection of endogenous fluorophores (tryptophan, NADH, FAD) was achieved using corresponding filter sets in an automated system. By including simultaneously recorded remission spectra into the analysis, it was possible to calculate "intrinsic" fluorescence spectra. Subsequently, the histopathological results of the lesions were compared to the spectroscopic findings. In a quantitative analysis, the intrinsic fluorescence spectra from (pre)malignant mucosal lesions regularly differed in fluorescence intensities when compared to healthy tissue. Whereas NADH and FAD yielded tumor specific intensity profiles with statistically significant differences in Student's t-test (p<=0.05), no definite spectral differences were found for tryptophan (p=0.22). The mucosa of the healthy volunteers showed a similar spectral pattern as the non-cancerous control areas in tumor patients. With regards to the results in this pilot study, MFA might serve as a helpful tool in early diagnosis of malignant lesions of head and neck.

  9. Clinical measurements of tissue optical properties in the esophagus and in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bays, Roland; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Robert, D.; Mizeret, Jerome C.; Braichotte, Daniel; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1995-03-01

    A non-invasive probe has been devised and clinically used to perform in vivo measurements of the optical properties of the esophageal wall and oral cavity. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are determined from the observation of the spatial distribution of the diffuse reflectance at the tissue surface under a narrow beam illumination of the tissue. The determination of these two coefficients enables us to evaluate the value of the effective attenuation coefficient which is of major interest in the field of light dosimetry for photodynamic therapy (PDT). An invasive isotropic micro-probe has also been designed and clinically used to directly measure in vivo the value of the fluence rate in tissues. The principle of this probe is based on the fluorescence generated in a ruby sphere by the light which propagates in the tissue. This fluorescence which can be excited between 350 and 680 nm is isotropically emitted and in part collected by an optical fiber glued against the ruby sphere. Results, obtained with both probes at 514 and 630 nm, i.e., wavelengths of interest in photodynamic therapy, with actual clinically used photosensitizers are summarized and compared. The agreement obtained between these two techniques validates the principle of these measurements.

  10. Tumours of the oropharynx and oral cavity: perineural spread and bone invasion.

    PubMed

    Maroldi, R; Battaglia, G; Farina, D; Maculotti, P; Chiesa, A

    1999-12-01

    Clinical examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx provides essential information in the assessment of neoplastic lesions. A precise evaluation of their deep spread along the most common growth pathways can be achieved by imaging, ranging from the basic, but nowadays incomplete, information of conventional X-ray, to the sophisticated details obtained by MR. Three oncological questions must be faced: the three dimensional evaluation of primary tumour spread; the assessment of nodal involvement; the post-treatment survey with the early detection of local recurrences, during the follow up. Either CT or MR accurately assesses the deep extension of neoplasms, nevertheless, the most cost-effective protocol is provided by a combination of CT and ultrasound (staging respectively T and N). MR is the technique of first choice when an infiltration of the base of the tongue or perineural spread is suspected, because of its superior ability to detect muscular invasion and segmental abnormalities of cranial nerves. Bone involvement can be adequately showed by MR not only because focal erosions of the cortical rim are well demonstrated, but also by means of the early demonstration of bone marrow abnormalities. Moreover, MR plays an essential role during the follow up, as it is the only morphological imaging technique permitting to differentiate recurrent tumour and necrosis from scar tissue.

  11. Prospective study of the influence of psychological and medical factors on quality of life and severity of symptoms among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rana, M; Kanatas, A; Herzberg, P Y; Khoschdell, M; Kokemueller, H; Gellrich, N-C; Rana, M

    2015-04-01

    About 400,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) annually, and the incidence is increasing. Many advanced carcinomas of the oral cavity require radical surgical treatment that can impair patient's quality of life (QoL) and severity of symptoms. We therefore aimed to identify coping strategies and disease-specific medical factors that affect QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC were asked to complete the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FQCI), the University of Washington Quality of life Questionnaire (UW-QOL version 4), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychological stress. We also assessed the impact of various factors on QoL and severity of symptoms, including stage and site of tumour, method of reconstruction, time of diagnosis, and social structure (age, sex, marital status, living arrangements, level of education, and employment). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 104 patients over a period of one year. Stepwise linear regression analyses indicated that both depressive coping and size of tumour had an adverse effect on QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with high educational attainment and those who lived alone reported impaired QoL, and women experienced increased severity of symptoms. Impaired QoL and increased severity of symptoms were associated with a depressive style of coping, size of tumour, educational attainment, and living arrangements. It is important to identify these patients during treatment as they could benefit from psycho-oncological counselling.

  12. Eosinophils in human oral squamous carcinoma; role of prostaglandin D2.

    PubMed

    Davoine, Francis; Sim, Adrian; Tang, Charlie; Fisher, Sibina; Ethier, Caroline; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Wu, Yingqi; McGaw, W Tim; Yu, Donald; Cameron, Lisa; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan

    2013-01-31

    Eosinophils are often predominant inflammatory leukocytes infiltrating oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) sites. Prostaglandins are secreted by oral carcinomas and may be involved in eosinophil infiltration. The objective of this study was to determine the factors contributing to eosinophil migration and potential anti-neoplastic effects on OSC. Eosinophil degranulation was evaluated by measuring release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil chemotaxis towards OSC cells was assessed using artificial basement membrane. Eosinophil infiltration was prominent within the tissue surrounding the OSC tumor mass. We observed growth inhibition of the OSC cell line, SCC-9, during co-culture with human eosinophils, in vitro, which correlated with EPO activity that possesses growth inhibitory activity. The PGD2 synthase inhibitor, HQL-79, abrogated migration towards SCC-9. Our data suggest that OSC-derived PGD2 may play an important role via CRTH2 (the PGD2 receptor on eosinophils) in eosinophil recruitment and subsequent anti-tumor activity through the action of eosinophil cationic proteins.

  13. Metastasis of renal clear-cell carcinoma to the oral mucosa, an atypical location.

    PubMed

    Maestre-Rodríguez, Oscar; González-García, Raúl; Mateo-Arias, Jesús; Moreno-García, Carlos; Serrano-Gil, Herminia; Villanueva-Alcojol, Laura; Campos-de-Orellana, Ana Ma; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2009-11-01

    The majority of cases of metastatic tumors involve the mandible and some the maxilla but they are considerably less common in intraoral soft tissues. In addition, the primary tumor is known in the majority of cases; although in one-third of such cases, metastasis is the first clinical manifestation. The most common primary tumors metastasizing to the mouth are lung carcinoma in men and breast carcinoma in women. An oral metastasis implies a serious prognosis, as in the majority of patients there is multiple organ involvement at the time of diagnosis. We present the case of a 52-year old patient with renal pathology who came to the emergency room due to a rapidly increasing gingival tumor. With the provisional clinical diagnosis of a pyogenic granuloma,the tumor was excised. Subsequent anatomopathological analysis revealed a tumor metastasis compatible with clear-cell carcinoma, and its renal origin was confirmed by means of immunohistochemical techniques.

  14. Oral phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with squamocellular carcinoma of the lip: second case report.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Suanni Lemos de; Leal, André Ferraz Goiana; Filho, Armando Marsden Lacerda; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Abreu E Lima, Maria do Carmo Carvalho de; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    This communication reports the second known case of oral phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with squamocellular carcinoma of the lip. The patient, an 82-year-old black woman, a former smoker (for more than 30 years), suffering from an ulcerous vegetative lesion in the middle third of the lower lip for approximately 12 months. The result of the histopathological analysis indicated carcinoma, with well-differentiated keratinized squamous cells and the presence of septate mycelial filaments. In the direct mycological examination, thick and dematiaceous septate mycelial filaments were observed. After the resection surgery, the patient did not need to use an antifungal drug to treat the phaeohyphomycosis, and no follow-up radiotherapy was needed to treat the squamocellular carcinoma. We stress that the presence of the squamocellular lesion of the lip was a possible contributing factor to the infection.

  15. [Study of testicular cancer gene expression in samples of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth].

    PubMed

    Skorodumova, L O; Muraev, A A; Zakharova, E S; Shepelev, M V; Korobko, I V; Zaderenko, I A; Ivanov, S Iu; Gnuchev, N V; Georgiev, G P; Larin, S S

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are normally expressed mostly in human germ cells, there is also an aberrant expression in some tumor cells. This expression profile makes them potential tumor growth biomarkers and a promising target for tumor immunotherapy. Specificity of CT genes expression in oral malignant and potentially malignant diseases, e.g. oral leukoplakia, is not yet studied. Data on CT genes expression profile in leukoplakia would allow developing new diagnostic methods with potential value for immunotherapy and prophylaxis of leukoplakia malignization. In our study we compared CT genes expression in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We are the first to describe CT genes expression in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia. This findings make impossible differential diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of CT genes expression. The prognostic value of CT genes expression is still unclear, therefore the longitudinal studies are necessary.

  16. A comparison of the effectiveness of swabbing and flossing as a means of recovering spermatozoa from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Katherine A; Johnson, Donald J; Cruz, Sherillelynn; Simpson, Heather; Safer, Alan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether flossing the teeth is a more effective collection method in recovering spermatozoa than conventional swabbing techniques. It was hypothesized that inclusion of flossing as a collection method would extend the recovery of spermatozoa to longer postcoital intervals (PCIs). Eighteen individuals provided 174 oral cavity samples. Successful recovery of spermatozoa was assessed with respect to the collection method and reported activity in the oral cavity during the PCI. Samples were subjected to a differential extraction procedure prior to microscopic evaluation of the extracted pellet. The results indicate that swabbing is more effective than flossing when the PCI falls within 1.5-12 h. However, spermatozoa were recovered from seven floss samples where the corresponding swabs gave negative results. When combining the results from the two collection methods, the percentage of subjects from whom spermatozoa are recovered increases for each PCI beyond the 0-h interval.

  17. Serum and saliva collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in patients with oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) has been classified as a pre-malignant condition. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) or collagenase-3 may play a key role in cancer development. The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva MMP-13 between patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on 30 patients with OLP (8 reticular and 22 erosive forms) and 20 patients with OSCC (6 in low stage and 14 in advanced stage) who were selected randomly. The study was conducted at the Cancer Department, Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The serum and saliva MMP-13 were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of the Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient was performed. Results: There were no significant differences in mean saliva and serum levels of MMP-13 between patients with OSCC and OLP and their subgroups. Serum MMP-13 correlated significantly with unstimulated (r = 0.307, p= 0.048), but not with stimulated, saliva MMP-13. Conclusion: Serum and saliva MMP-13 levels appear to be statistically similar in OLP and OSCC. PMID:26478876

  18. Preclinical and clinical studies of photodynamic action on some pathogenic micro-organisms of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ivanov, Krill I.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99% are determined.

  19. Prognostic significance of NDRG1 expression in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Cunha Mercante, Ana Maria; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Gazito, Diana; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Chiappini, Paula Blandina Olga; de Carvalho Neto, Paulo Bentes; Fukuyama, Erica Erina; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Louro, Iúri Drumond; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-12-01

    Human N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a metastasis suppressor gene with several potential functions, including cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation and response to hormones, nickel and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunoexpression of NDRG1 in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas searching for its role in the clinical course of these tumors. We investigated immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 protein in 412 tissue microarray cores of tumor samples from 103 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and in 110 paraffin-embedded surgical margin sections. The results showed NDRG1 up-regulation in 101/103 (98.1 %) tumor samples, but no expression in any normal tissue sample. Western blot assays confirmed the immunohistochemical findings, suggesting that lower levels of NDRG1 are associated with a high mortality rate. NDRG1 overexpression was related to long-term specific survival (HR = 0.38; p = 0.009), whereas the presence of lymph-node metastasis showed the opposite association with survival (HR = 2.45; p = 0.013). Our findings reinforce the idea that NDRG1 plays a metastasis suppressor role in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and may be a useful marker for these tumors.

  20. Slug inhibition increases radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by upregulating PUMA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangfang; Zhou, Lijie; Wei, Changbo; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    As a new strategy, radio-gene therapy was widely used for the treatment of cancer patients in recent few years. Slug was involved in the radioresistance of various cancers and has been found to have an anti-apoptotic effect. This study aims to investigate whether the modulation of Slug expression by siRNA affects oral squamous cell carcinoma sensitivity to X-ray irradiation through upregulating PUMA. Two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC3 and HSC6) were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Slug and subjected to radiotherapy in vitro. After transfection with Slug siRNA, both HSC3 and HSC6 cells showed relatively lower expression of Slug and higher expression of PUMA. The Slug siRNA transfected cells showed decreased survival and proliferation rates, an increased apoptosis rate and enhanced radiosensitivity to X-ray irradiation. Our results revealed that Slug siRNA transfection in combination with radiation increased the expression of PUMA, which contributed to radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Thus, controlling the expression of Slug might contribute to enhance sensitivity of HSC3 and HSC6 cells toward X-ray irradiation in vitro by upregulating PUMA.

  1. Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aghbali, Amirala; Hosseini, Sepideh Vosough; Delazar, Abbas; Gharavi, Nader Kalbasi; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Orangi, Mona; Bandehagh, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-08-01

    Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells). MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan's test at a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Speech Handicap Index in patients with oral cavity cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, S S; Choi, S H; Hong, J A; Hong, Y H; Jeong, N G; Lee, S Y; Sung, M-W; Hah, J H

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation of the Speech Handicap Index (SHI) for Korean subjects and to determine its reliability and utility in patients with oral cavity cancer. The Korean version of the SHI was administered to 50 healthy subjects and 56 patients with speech problems resulting from treatment for oral cavity cancers. The content and construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were examined. Healthy subject and patient group scores were compared, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine discriminatory ability. The Korean version of the SHI had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.99) and test-retest reliability for the total and subscales: total (T) 0.98, speech (S) 0.99, and psychosocial (P) 0.97. Mean scores in the healthy group were 0.5 (T), 0.2 (S), and 0.2 (P), whereas those in the patient group were 34.3 (T), 16.6 (S), and 15.5 (P). The scores differed significantly between the groups (P<0.05). The Korean version of the SHI can be a useful tool to evaluate a patient's self-perception of their speech dysfunction in daily life and to better understand postoperative speech disorders in patients with oral cavity cancer.

  3. [Local homeostasis and acid-based balance in the oral cavity in patients with diabetes mellitus II].

    PubMed

    Esaian, L K; Rumiantsev, V A; Bitiukova, E V; Leonova, S O

    2009-01-01

    60 patients were researched for the purpose of comparable estimation of local homeostasis' indexes and acid-based balance in the oral cavity. They were divided into three groups: patients with parodontitis and diabetes (second type), patients with parodontitis only and practically healthy patients. Their blood was analyzed for glucose and glycerinated hemoglobin, mixed saliva--for the presence of glucose with use of the new method, salivation speed, bacterial composition of lingual plaque and parodontal pockets, pH of mixed of saliva, pH of lingual plaque and gingival liquor, carbamyde pH-test index. Patients with diabetes showed an increase of glucose concentration in the saliva which correlates with similar index of blood, as well as abrupt reduction of salivation and disorder of micrbiocenosis. An increase of acidosis in oral cavity and parodontal tissues, an increase of the activity of ureazpositive micro flora in lingual plaque were discovered. For express diagnosis of disbacteriosis in oral cavity the authors recommend to use indexes of local carbamyde pH-test on the tip of tongue and the new non-invasive hyperglycemia diagnosis method.

  4. Vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Presentation of five cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gaitan Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quezada Rivera, Daniel; Tenorio Rocha, Fernando; Leyva Huerta, Elba Rosa; Mendez Sánchez, Edgar Ramiro

    2008-08-01

    Leiomyoma, a benign neoplasia arising from smooth muscle is an uncommon neoplasia of the oral cavity. The most common histological subtype in the oral cavity is the vascular one. To supplement information on vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity (VLOC), we present cases of VLOC describing their clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Case reports. Five cases of VLOC (3 females; 2 males) from the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of México, are included. The most frequent clinical characteristic of VLOC was a single, asymptomatic, slow growing nodule. The age average of the cases was 40.6, however 3 out of our 5 cases were < or = 40 years old at the moment of their diagnosis. The lesions were composed of fusiform cells arranged in bundles or fascicles. The neoplastic cells were characterized by eosinophilic cytoplasm and tapered nuclei. The presence of vascular spaces was prominent in all cases. The immunocharacteristics of VLOC neoplastic cells were: alpha smooth muscle (+); vimentin (+), desmin (+), CD34 (-) and S-100 protein (-). The endothelial cells of vascular spaces were CD34 (+). Differential diagnosis of VLOC with fusocellular neoplasm is discussed.

  5. [Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of oral carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Daura Sáez, A; Rodríguez San Pedro, F; Asenjo García, B; Aparicio Cambreros, J; Valiente Alvarez, A

    1999-05-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 5% of all tumors in men and 2% in women. We analyzed frequency, sex distribution and cervical lymph node involvement in relation to tumor site. Local extension was diagnosed in 66 patients by MR imaging and the results were compared to CT scan. The results of these studies were correlated with the histopathological study of the specimen in relation to the diagnosis of bone infiltration, tumor size and cervical node infiltration. Bone infiltration was similar in MR images and CT scans. Tumor size was better diagnosed by MR imaging. Detection of cervical lymph node involvement was similar in MR imaging and CT scan.

  6. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  7. Zoonotic Trichomonas tenax and a new trichomonad species, Trichomonas brixi n. sp., from the oral cavities of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kellerová, Pavlína; Tachezy, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax. Thus, in this study we investigated the occurrence of oral trichomonads in 111 domestic dogs and 122 cats using cell cultivation methods, nested PCR analyses, and the sequencing of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions. We found that both dogs and cats harbour T. tenax, with prevalences of 8.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Considerably more dogs were infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas (30.6%), which we also identified in cats (6.6%). An analysis of the potential risk factors suggested that dogs of more than 3years old or with dental disease signs are more frequently infected with Trichomonas sp. than younger dogs or dogs without the disease signs, and that crossbreed dogs revealed increased rates of infection in comparison with purebred dogs. An analysis of the cat population suggested that Trichomonas sp. infection is lower in younger and crossbreed cats. Although the morphology of Trichomonas sp. is very similar to that of T. tenax, based on a phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 regions and the ssrRNA genes, we consider Trichomonas sp. to represent a new trichomonad species, for which we propose the name Trichomonas brixi.

  8. The effect of selective photosuppression of sensitized pathogenic microflora: Part I. Influence on pathogenic organisms causing pyoinflammatory processes in oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Viktor I.; Risovannaya, Olga N.

    2005-03-01

    The effectiveness of Bacteriotoxic light therapy (BTL) in many respects depends on the right choice of the photo sensitizer and used parameters of laser radiation. Experimental studies in vitro have revealed the presence of correlation dependence between the photo sensitizer Radachlorine, energy density, irradiation duration executed with low energy diode laser and the number of viable bacterial cells causing the development of inflammatory affection of oral cavity. BTL in parameters defined in the experiments develops bactericidal action on pathogenic microflora of oral cavity.

  9. A matched cohort comparison of mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy and trans-oral surgery of early stage oral cavity squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakullukcu, Baris; Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Anne P E; Copper, Marcel P; Wildeman, Maarten A; Tan, I Bing

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early stage oral cavity tumors have been thoroughly reported. However, statistical comparison of PDT to the surgical treatment is not available in published literature. We have identified and matched cohorts of patients with early stage oral cavity cancers undergoing surgery (n = 43) and PDT (n = 55) from a single institute experience. The groups are matched demographically and had the same pre-treatment screening and follow-up schedule. Both groups consisted only of tumors thinner than 5 mm to ensure comparability. The endpoints were local disease free survival, disease free survival, overall survival and response to initial treatment. Local disease free survival at 5 years were 67 and 74 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 1.9 (p = 0.26), multivariable HR = 2.7 (p = 0.13)]. Disease free survival at 5 years are 47 and 53 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 0.8 (p = 0.52), multivariable HR = 0.75 (p = 0.45)]. Overall survival was 83 and 75 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [(univariate HR = 0.5 (p = 0.19), multivariable HR = 0.5 (p = 0.17)]. In the PDT group, six patients (11 %) and in the surgery group 11 patients (26 %) had to receive additional treatments after the initial. All of the tested parameters did not have statistical significant difference. Although there is probably a selection bias due to the non-randomized design, this study shows that PDT of early stage oral cavity cancer is comparable in terms of disease control and survival to trans-oral resection and can be offered as an alternative to surgical treatment.

  10. Effect of Ethiopian multiflora honey on fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Mulu, A; Diro, E; Tekleselassie, H; Belyhun, Y; Anagaw, B; Alemayehu, M; Gelaw, A; Biadglegne, F; Desalegn, K; Yifiru, S; Tiruneh, M; Kassu, A; Nishikawa, T; Isogai, E

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the antifungal effect of Ethiopian multiflora honey against Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients. Oral rinses were obtained from 13 AIDS patients and cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours. Candida species were identified by microbiological and molecular techniques. The antifungal effect of the honey sample on Candida was investigated by an agar dilution technique. Susceptibility of the Candida species to fluconazole was tested following a semi-modified microdilution method. Growth of both fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida species was inhibited with a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 35-40% (v/v) honey. The MFC of different Candida species was not significantly different (P > 0.05). From the total of 25 Candida isolates tested for susceptibility, 11 (44%), eight (32%) and six (24%) of the isolates were sensitive (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs] < 8 µg/mL), susceptible (dose-dependent: MICs 16-32 µg/mL) and resistant (MICs > 64 µg/mL) to fluconazole, respectively. Ethiopian multiflora honey has antifungal activity against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients. This supports the existing folkloric practice of using honey to treat oral lesions. Nevertheless, identification of the bioactive agents in honey, their clinical evaluation and pharmacological standardization are crucial.

  11. Bacteriocin production by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from the oral cavity of humans with periodontal disease, periodontally healthy subjects and marmosets.

    PubMed

    Lúcia, Lima Francisca; Farias, Flávio F; Eustáquio, Costa José; Auxiliadora, Maria; Carvalho, R; Alviano, Celuta S; Farias, Luiz M

    2002-01-01

    The ability of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to produce bacteriocin has rarely been reported. Antagonistic substance production may confer an important ecological advantage for the producer microorganisms, especially in a competitive ecosystem such as the oral cavity. In the present study, 75 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains isolated from the oral cavity of human patients with periodontal disease, periodontally healthy subjects and marmosets, as well as two reference strains (A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 and FDC Y4) were evaluated for auto-, iso-, and heteroantagonistic activity. Fifty-one (68.00%) strains exhibited antagonistic activity; heteroantagonism was observed more often than isoantagonism. Isolated strains antagonized 17 different species of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from the oral and nonoral microbiota. Sensitivity to heat and to proteolytic enzymes constituted strong evidence that the antagonistic substance has a proteic nature. Taken together, our data enabled us to confirm that the antagonistic substance detected was a bacteriocin. The wide spectrum of activity indicates the possibility that more than one antagonistic substance is produced and that these substances play an important role in the ecological balance of the oral ecosystem.

  12. Focal adhesion kinase knockdown in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis via downregulating MCP-1/CCL2 expression.

    PubMed

    Min, Anjie; Zhu, Chao; Wang, Jingyi; Peng, Shuping; Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhangui; Su, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in the occurrence and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of CAFs on OSCC cells and to explore the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in this process. The results showed that oral CAFs expressed a higher level of FAK than normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and the conditioned medium (CM) of CAFs could induce the invasion and migration of SCC-25, one oral squamous carcinoma cell line. However, knockdown of FAK by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in inhibition of CAF-CM induced cell invasion and migration in SCC-25, probably by reducing the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), one of downstream target chemokines. Therefore, our findings indicated that targeting FAK in CAFs might be a promising strategy for the treatment of OSCC in the future.

  13. Quantification of tumor morphology via 3D histology: application to oral cavity cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Scott; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Tomaszewski, John

    2016-03-01

    Traditional histopathology quantifies disease through the study of glass slides, i.e. two-dimensional samples that are representative of the overall process. We hypothesize that 3D reconstruction can enhance our understanding of histopathologic interpretations. To test this hypothesis, we perform a pilot study of the risk model for oral cavity cancer (OCC), which stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk for locoregional disease-free survival. Classification is based on study of hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained tissues sampled from the resection specimens. In this model, the Worst Pattern of Invasion (WPOI) is assessed, representing specific architectural features at the interface between cancer and non-cancer tissue. Currently, assessment of WPOI is based on 2D sections of tissue, representing complex 3D structures of tumor growth. We believe that by reconstructing a 3D model of tumor growth and quantifying the tumor-host interface, we can obtain important diagnostic information that is difficult to assess in 2D. Therefore, we introduce a pilot study framework for visualizing tissue architecture and morphology in 3D from serial sections of histopathology. This framework can be used to enhance predictive models for diseases where severity is determined by 3D biological structure. In this work we utilize serial H and E-stained OCC resections obtained from 7 patients exhibiting WPOI-3 (low risk of recurrence) through WPOI-5 (high risk of recurrence). A supervised classifier automatically generates a map of tumor regions on each slide, which are then co-registered using an elastic deformation algorithm. A smooth 3D model of the tumor region is generated from the registered maps, which is suitable for quantitative tumor interface morphology feature extraction. We report our preliminary models created with this system and suggest further enhancements to traditional histology scoring mechanisms that take spatial architecture into consideration.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells from the oral cavity and their potential value in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Antonio R; Carrión, Flavio S; Chaparro, Alejandra P

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common conditions affecting humans, and current treatment strategies, which focus on the removal and long-term control of dental plaque, are generally successful in eliminating active disease and promoting tissue repair. However, regeneration of the supporting structures of the tooth remains an elusive goal and a challenge. The formation of new bone and cementum with supportive periodontal ligament is the ultimate objective, but current regeneration therapies are incapable of achieving this in a predictable