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Sample records for oral mucosa mouse

  1. Th1/Th2 balance in mouse delayed-type hypersensitivity model with mercuric chloride via skin and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ukichi, Kenichirou; Okamura, Taito; Fukushima, Daihei; Morimoto, Mitsuaki; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Takahashi, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) among different exposure sites, we evaluated the sensitization potency of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) via exposure to the skin, or oral or esophageal mucosa using the mouse ear swelling test. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro splenocyte proliferation reaction and cytokine profile in HgCl(2)-exposed and control mice. Sensitization with HgCl(2) was established via the skin and oral mucosa but not via the esophageal mucosa. The splenocyte proliferation reaction was significantly enhanced to a similar degree in skin and oral mucosa-sensitized mice compared with in the control mice. IL-10 levels from cultured splenocytes were significantly increased in skin and oral mucosa-sensitized mice compared with those in control mice, whilst IFN-γ significantly increased only in splenocytes from skin-sensitized mice. These results suggest that exposure of the skin or oral mucosa to HgCl(2) can induce DTH, but that Th1/Th2 balance differs according to the site of antigen exposure.

  2. The layered resolved microstructure and spectroscopy of mouse oral mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin; Jiang, Xingshan; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Rong; Cao, Ning; Zou, Qilian; Xiong, Shuyuan

    2007-08-01

    The layered-resolved microstructure and spectroscopy of mouse oral mucosa are obtained using a combination of multiphoton imaging and spectral analysis with different excitation wavelengths. In the keratinizing layer, the keratinocytes microstructure can be characterized and the keratinizing thickness can be measured. The keratin fluorescence signal can be further characterized by emission maxima at 510 nm. In the epithelium, the cellular microstructure can be quantitatively visualized with depth and the epithelium thickness can be determined by multiphoton imaging excited at 730 nm. The study also shows that the epithelial spectra excited at 810 nm, showing a combination of NADH and FAD fluorescence, can be used for the estimation of the metabolic state in epithelium. Interestingly, a second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal from DNA was observed for the first time within the epithelial layer in backscattering geometry and provides the possibility of analyzing the chromatin structure. In the stroma, the combination of multiphoton imaging and spectral analysis excited at 850 nm in tandem can obtain quantitative information regarding the biomorphology and biochemistry of stroma. Specifically, the microstructure of collagen, minor salivary glands and elastic fibers, and the optical property of the stroma can be quantitatively displayed. Overall, these results suggest that the combination of multiphoton imaging and spectral analysis with different excitation wavelengths has the potential to provide important and comprehensive information for early diagnosis of oral cancer.

  3. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  4. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  5. [Infections of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Reibel, Jesper; Kragelund, Camilla

    2010-11-01

    The most common infections of the oral mucosa are those caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Candidosis occurs as pseudomembraneous, erythematous and hyperplastic types with varying symptoms from no to a burning sensation. Treatment most importantly includes elimination of any predisposing factors such as smoking, sub-optimal denture hygiene and hyposalivation. A primary HSV infection results in a life-long latent infection recurring in some infected persons either intraorally or on the lip. If treatment is indicated, topical or systemic aciclovir and related drugs can be used.

  6. Mouse papillomavirus MmuPV1 infects oral mucosa and preferentially targets the base of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Cladel, Nancy M.; Budgeon, Lynn R; Balogh, Karla K.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Hu, Jiafen; Christensen, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a new mouse papillomavirus, MmuPV1, was discovered in a colony of NMRI- Foxn1nu /Foxn1nu athymic mice in India. This finding was significant because it was the first papillomavirus to be found in a laboratory mouse. In this paper we report successful infections of both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostral tongues of outbred athymic nude mice. We also report the observation that the base of the tongue, the area of the tongue often targeted by cancer-associated high-risk papillomavirus infections in humans, is especially susceptible to infection. A suitable animal model for the study of oral papillomavirus infections, co-infections, and cancers has long been sought. The work presented here suggests that such a model is now at hand. PMID:26609937

  7. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  8. [Bullous autoimmune diseases of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, L

    1999-10-01

    Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBD) are characterized by autoantibodies targeted against adhesion molecules, impairing their formation. According to localization criteria, pemphigus (intraepidermal blister and desmosomal involvement) and pemphigoid (subepidermal blister and dermoepidermal junction involvement) can be distinguished. In two-thirds of the cases, pemphigus vulgaris begins with oral lesions (mainly the buccal mucosa and palate, rarely the gingiva). Skin lesions are usual. Excepting paraneoplastic pemphigus (a recently individualized entity), oral lesions are uncommon in other types of pemphigus. Cicatricial pemphigoid mainly involves oral mucosa, frequently other mucous membranes, and rarely the skin. Gingival involvement is frequent. In case of desquamative gingivitis, the clip sign gives the diagnosis of cicatricial pemphigoid. Ocular involvement is frequent and causes blindness. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and IgA linear dermatosis are rare. Bullous pemphigoid and bullous lupus rarely involve the oral mucosa. Diagnosis of AIBD requires a biopsy within the mucosal membrane lesion for pathology examination and another biopsy in a lesion-free area for direct immunofluorescence detection of antibody fixation. Immunoelectron microscopy or immunoblast transfer may be needed for positive diagnosis. Corticosteroids are used to treat pemphigus and dapsone is used for cicatricial pemphigoid. Immunosuppressive therapy is rarely needed.

  9. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  10. [Optimizing biopsies of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Raybaud, H; Voha, C; Cardot-Leccia, N; Monteil, R A

    2012-11-01

    We had for aim to describe and illustrate the artefacts observed in biopsies of the oral mucosa, as well as the impact of sending non-representative histological material to a laboratory. This article was based on an international literature review, as well as on our experience. We analysed the problems raised, for the pathologists and the histology lab-technicians, by these artefacts as well as their impact on the pathology report patient management. We suggest simple solutions.

  11. [Oral medicine 8. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-01-01

    Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.

  12. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  13. Optical detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa: autofluorescence characteristics of healthy mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.

    2001-10-01

    Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.

  14. Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Gavaldá, Carmen; Carbonell, Enrique; Margaix, María; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus or lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the genital mucosa and skin. Clinically, it is characterized by white atrophic plaques in the anogenital region. The lesions are generally asymptomatic, but may cause discomfort with itching and pain. Extragenital mucosal involvement is very unusual, and lesions limited to the oral mucosa are even less frequent. Knowledge of such lesions is important in order to establish a differential diagnosis with other white oral lesions, and histological confirmation is required. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with a well delimited, pearly white lesion located in the upper gingival mucosa, lip mucosa and adjacent skin. The lesion had led to loss of periodontal attachment of the affected tooth, causing pain in response to tooth brushing. The biopsy confirmed lichen sclerosus, and treatment was provided in the form of intralesional corticoid injections, followed by improvement of the mucosal lesion, though without recovery of the periodontal loss.

  15. Oral lining mucosa development depends on mesenchymal microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Oommen, S; Kawasaki, M; Kawasaki, K; Imam, N; Jalani-Ghazani, F; Hindges, R; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2013-03-01

    The oral mucosa plays critical roles in protection, sensation, and secretion and can be classified into masticatory, lining, and specialized mucosa that are known to be functionally, histologically, and clinically distinct. Each type of oral mucosa is believed to develop through discrete molecular mechanisms, which remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19 to 25nt non-coding small single-stranded RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by binding target mRNAs. miRNAs are crucial for fine-tuning of molecular mechanisms. To investigate the role of miRNAs in oral mucosa development, we examined mice with mesenchymal (Wnt1Cre;Dicer(fl/fl)) conditional deletion of Dicer. Wnt1Cre;Dicer(fl/fl) mice showed trans-differentiation of lining mucosa into an epithelium with masticatory mucosa/ skin-specific characteristics. Up-regulation of Fgf signaling was found in mutant lining mucosal epithelium that was accompanied by an increase in Fgf7 expression in mutant mesenchyme. Mesenchyme miRNAs thus have an indirect effect on lining mucosal epithelial cell growth/differentiation.

  16. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  17. [Oral mucosa reaction in patients adapting to removable dentures].

    PubMed

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatova, L N; Pikhur, O L; Mikhailova, E S; Peremyshlenko, A S; Soldatov, V S

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosa reaction of prosthetic bed to the removable acrylic dentures was evaluated in 43 patients (12 male and 31 female) aged 56-69 years with partial and full teeth loss in one or both jaws. Patients of the first (control) group (17 patients) were not using additional tools improving fixation of the removable dentures during adaptation period, while patients of the second (main) group (26 patients) used Corega cream for dentures fixation for 30 days follow-up. Oral mucosa assessment was carried out on 3-4 and 28-30 day of dentures use by 3 end points: pain syndrome, moisture level, inflammation of a prosthetic bed. The results proved Corega cream to improve prosthetic bed mucosa condition reducing inflammatory response to polymeric materials of removable dentures basis.

  18. Immunohistochemistry of lymphocytes in benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, S-X; Li, Q; Yang, Y-Q; Jin, L-J; Sun, Z; Yu, S-F

    2015-06-29

    Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM) is a common oral mucosa disease and may be regarded as a precancerous lesion. However, the association between its biological behavior and lymphocyte distribution remains unclear. Therefore, to investigate the characteristics of BLOM, we studied the infiltration of lymphocytes associated with it. The expression levels of CD74, CD20, CD3, and CD45RO were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in 14 sam-ples from BLOM, 9 samples from BLOM with atypia hyperplasia, 11 samples from BLOM with canceration, and 10 samples from normal oral mucosa tissues. The results were analyzed by two-sample t-test using SPSS 10.0 for Windows, and P < 0.05 was considered to be sig-nificant. In normal oral mucosa, positive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO were presented in the extra-lymphoid follicle, and the expres-sion levels of CD74 and CD20 were negative. In all BLOM groups, the expression level of CD20 was positive except for one case of BLOM with canceration; the expression levels of CD74 were all positive. Posi-tive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO could be found not only in extra-lymphoid follicles but also in inner-lymphoid follicles in the BLOM groups. The expression levels of CD74 and CD20 in extra-lym-phoid follicles, and CD3 and CD45RO in inner-lymphoid follicles in BLOM were significantly higher than in BLOM with canceration. The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and BLOM is a proliferative lesion.

  19. Raman microspectroscopic study of oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Mamgain, Hitesh; Deshmukh, Atul; Kukreja, Lekha; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among Indian males, with 5-year- survival-rates of less than 50%. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopic methods in non-invasive and objective diagnosis of oral cancers and confounding factors has already been demonstrated. The present Raman microspectroscopic study was undertaken for in-depth and site-specific analysis of normal and tumor tissues. 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained sections from 20 tissues were accrued. Raman data of 160 x 60 μm and 140 x 140 μm in normal and tumor sections, respectively, were acquired using WITec alpha 300R equipped with 532 nm laser, 50X objective and 600 gr/mm grating. Spectral data were corrected for CCDresponse, background. First-derivitized and vector-normalized data were then subjected to K-mean cluster analysis to generate Raman maps and correlated with their respective histopathology. In normal sections, stratification among epithelial layers i.e. basal, intermediate, superficial was observed. Tumor, stromal and inflammatory regions were identified in case of tumor section. Extracted spectra of the pathologically annotated regions were subjected to Principal component analysis. Findings suggest that all three layers of normal epithelium can be differentiated against tumor cells. In epithelium, basal and superficial layers can be separated while intermediate layer show misclassifications. In tumors, discrimination of inflammatory regions from tumor cells and tumor-stroma regions were observed. Finding of the study indicate Raman mapping can lead to molecular level insights of normal and pathological states.

  20. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  1. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions as a working concept for oral mucosa regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiarong; Mao, Jeremy J; Chen, Lili

    2011-02-01

    Oral mucosa consists of two tissue layers, the superficial epithelium and the underlying lamina propria. Together, oral mucosa functions as a barrier against exogenous substances and pathogens. In development, interactions of stem/progenitor cells of the epithelium and mesenchyme are crucial to the morphogenesis of oral mucosa. Previous work in oral mucosa regeneration has yielded important clues for several meritorious proof-of-concept approaches. Tissue engineering offers a broad array of novel tools for oral mucosa regeneration with reduced donor site trauma and accelerated clinical translation. However, the developmental concept of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) is rarely considered in oral mucosa regeneration. EMIs in postnatal oral mucosa regeneration likely will not be a simple recapitulation of prenatal oral mucosa development. Biomaterial scaffolds play an indispensible role for oral mucosa regeneration and should provide a conducive environment for pivotal EMIs. Autocrine and paracrine factors, either exogenously delivered or innately produced, have rarely been and should be harnessed to promote oral mucosa regeneration. This review focuses on a working concept of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions in oral mucosa regeneration.

  2. [Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Michael M; Klingler, Karl; Saxer, Ulrich P; Walter, Clemens; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of tobacco can result not only in a multitude of different general health problems like carcinoma of the lung, ischaemic cardiac diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, stroke, chronic-obstructive pulmonary diseases or peptic ulcers, but also in pathologic lesions of the oral mucosa. Benign oral lesions from smoking or consumption of smokeless tobacco are the so-called smoker's palate and smoker's melanosis. On the other hand, tobacco-associated lesions like oral leukoplakia or oral squamous cell carcinoma are already potentially life-threatening diseases that in general require active treatment. The following review article will present and discuss the typical lesions of the oral mucosa that result from chronic tobacco consumption. The aim of this article is to demonstrate dental health care providers the needs and benefits of tobacco use cessation in a dental setting, especially regarding stomatologic sequelae and consequences. The present article is the first in a series of articles from the Swiss task force "Smoking - Intervention in the private dental office" on the topic "tobacco use and dental medicine".

  3. Comparative proteomics of paired vocal fold and oral mucosa fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Karbiener, Michael; Darnhofer, Barbara; Frisch, Marie-Therese; Rinner, Beate; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Gugatschka, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Injuries of the vocal folds frequently heal with scar formation, which can have lifelong detrimental impact on voice quality. Current treatments to prevent or resolve scars of the vocal fold mucosa are highly unsatisfactory. In contrast, the adjacent oral mucosa is mostly resistant to scarring. These differences in healing tendency might relate to distinct properties of the fibroblasts populating oral and vocal fold mucosae. We thus established the in vitro cultivation of paired, near-primary vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF) and oral mucosa fibroblasts (OMF) to perform a basic cellular characterization and comparative cellular proteomics. VFF were significantly larger than OMF, proliferated more slowly, and exhibited a sustained TGF-β1-induced elevation of pro-fibrotic interleukin 6. Cluster analysis of the proteomic data revealed distinct protein repertoires specific for VFF and OMF. Further, VFF displayed a broader protein spectrum, particularly a more sophisticated array of factors constituting and modifying the extracellular matrix. Conversely, subsets of OMF-enriched proteins were linked to cellular proliferation, nuclear events, and protection against oxidative stress. Altogether, this study supports the notion that fibroblasts sensitively adapt to the functional peculiarities of their respective anatomical location and presents several molecular targets for further investigation in the context of vocal fold wound healing. Biological significance Mammalian vocal folds are a unique but delicate tissue. A considerable fraction of people is affected by voice problems, yet many of the underlying vocal fold pathologies are sparsely understood at the molecular level. One such pathology is vocal fold scarring - the tendency of vocal fold injuries to heal with scar formation -, which represents a clinical problem with highly suboptimal treatment modalities. This study employed proteomics to obtain comprehensive insight into the protein repertoire of vocal fold

  4. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis.

  5. Phenotype and Tissue Residency of Lymphocytes in the Murine Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-Young; Chung, Hyunsoo; Choi, Youngnim; Park, Jung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a critical barrier tissue that harbors a series of distinct immune cell subsets. Immune surveillance in the oral mucosa is important for both local and systemic immunity because the oral cavity is a heavily utilized route of pathogen entry and also serves as site of pathogen propagation. Nonetheless, composition and phenotype of the lymphocyte pool in the oral mucosa have remained poorly characterized. Utilizing a newly established protocol for mucosal immune cell isolation, here, we report that the oral mucosa features a unique cellular composition of immune cells, which differed not only from secondary lymphoid organs but also from mucosal tissues in the gut and lung. We observed profound accumulation of CD11b+Ly6Clo monocytes in the oral mucosa that were maintained independently of T- and B-lymphocytes. Unlike the gut mucosa, the oral mucosa neither contained CD8αα T cells nor was it enriched for CD103+CD69+ tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells. In fact, a major fraction of T cells circulated and trafficked through the mucosa as revealed by treatment with the S1P1 receptor antagonist, FTY720, a potent inhibitor of lymphocyte migration. Collectively, these results provide a comprehensive picture of immune cells in the oral mucosa as an active site of lymphocyte recruitment and surveillance. PMID:28337201

  6. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  7. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  8. [Pathology of the oral mucosa in patients with type I diabetes mellitus: study of 44 cases].

    PubMed

    Bagan Sebastian, J V; Gisbert Selles, C; Milian Masanet, A

    1988-01-01

    We study the pathology of the oral mucosa in a group of type I diabetics. The most common disease was oral candidiasis (9.09%), whereas the other pathologies encountered showed no significant differences with the controls.

  9. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  10. Oral bacteria as potential probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Taverniti, Valentina; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Stuknyte, Milda; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego

    2010-06-01

    The research described here was aimed at the selection of oral bacteria that displayed properties compatible with their potential use as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. We included in the study 56 bacteria newly isolated from the pharynges of healthy donors, which were identified at the intraspecies level and characterized in vitro for their probiotic potential. The experiments led us to select two potential probiotic bacterial strains (Streptococcus salivarius RS1 and ST3) and to compare them with the prototype oral probiotic S. salivarius strain K12. All three strains efficiently bound to FaDu human epithelial pharyngeal cells and thereby antagonized Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and growth. All were sensitive to a variety of antibiotics routinely used for the control of upper respiratory tract infections. Immunological in vitro testing on a FaDu layer revealed different responses to RS1, ST3, and K12. RS1 and ST3 modulated NF-kappaB activation and biased proinflammatory cytokines at baseline and after interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induction. In conclusion, we suggest that the selected commensal streptococci represent potential pharyngeal probiotic candidates. They could display a good degree of adaptation to the host and possess potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  12. The Oral Mucosa Immune Environment and Oral Transmission of HIV/SIV

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613

  13. Expression of E-cadherin in normal oral mucosa, in oral precancerous lesions and in oral carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study. Results: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable. PMID:26430364

  14. Regional quantitative histological variations in human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ciano, Joseph; Beatty, Brian Lee

    2015-03-01

    Oral mucosa demonstrates regional variations that reflect contact with food during mastication. Though known qualitatively, our aim was to quantitatively assess regions to establish a measurable baseline from which one could compare in pathological and comparative studies, in which the abrasiveness of diets may differ. We assessed variations in the epithelial-connective tissue junction (rete ridges counts), collagen organization within the lamina propria, and elastin composition of the lamina propria of 15 regions of the labial (buccal) gingiva, lingual gingiva, vestibule, and palate. All characteristics varied more between regions within the same individual than between individuals. Lingual gingiva had high rete ridges counts, high level of collagen organization, and moderate elastin composition compared to other regions. The labial gingiva had few rete ridges, high collagen organization, and low elastin. The vestibule had the fewest average of rete ridges, least organized collagen, and high elastin. The hard palate had the highest average of rete ridges, high collagen organization, and the lowest elastin content. The soft palate conversely had the smallest average of rete ridges, moderate collagen organization, and the highest elastin composition. Our results indicate that comparison of these quantitative histological differences is warranted only for collagen organization and elastin composition. Differences in rete ridges counts were not statistically significant. Most histological characteristics observed were not significantly different between dentulous and edentulous cadavers, and the group containing all individuals. An exception was the level of collagen fiber organization within the lamina propria, which was higher in most regions when teeth were present.

  15. Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    differences in the primary efficacy measure of increased keratinized mucosa; secondary measures of graft contracture and Wound Healing Index; and...per treatment group, will be randomized to receive either the experimental treatment , EVPOME (Group 1), or standard of care, the palatal oral mucosa...Keratinized mucosa, graft contracture 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  16. The effect of cola consumption on oral mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapicloğlu, S; Baki, A H; Tekelioğlu, Y; Araz, K

    2000-01-01

    Drinks that contain phosphoric acid have been shown to have erosive effects and cola drinks are strongly acidic (pH 2.5). Gingivitis may be caused by dietary acids. Therefore, this study analyses the interaction of Coca Cola consumption and oral mucosal damage. Thirty rats were divided into three groups of 10. The animals received saline (pH 7.0) or HCl acid buffered to pH 2.6 or Coca Cola (pH 2.6) per os with 24-h free access to these solutions. A biopsy was taken from the front of the gingiva and the tongue. Histopathological analysis showed no specific lesion and there were no differences among saline, Coca Cola and HCl groups. Flow cytometric analysis was used to assess proliferative activity. In the HCl acid and Coca Cola groups, cell cycle analysis showed that the effects of Coca Cola and HCl acid in inducing oral mucosal damage are similar. In both Coca Cola [G0/G1, 70.38+/-7.9; S, 28.06+/-10.13; G2/M, 1.62+/-2.80; proliferative index (PI), 28.68+/-7.981 and HCI (G0/G1, 67.7+/-18.9; S, 27.8+/-17.5; G2/M, 4.4+/-3.8; PI, 30.9+/-20.98), the rat cell population G0/G1 and G2/M phases were found to be low (p < 0.05) and the cell population S and PI phases were found to be significantly elevated compared with the control group (p < 0.05) (G0/G1, 86.92+/-8.69; S, 9.8+/-1.21; G2/M, 3.25+/-2.87; P1, 13.2+/-8.7). This result was reflected in the proliferative index, which is used as a measure of the regeneration index. The data show that Coca Cola and HCl acid have similar proliferative and regenerative effects on oral mucosa, and it is possible that their regenerative effects are caused as a result of an irritant effect.

  17. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. A unique manifestation of human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    van der Voort, E A M; Arani, S Fallah; Hegt, V Noordhoek; van Praag, M C G

    2009-03-01

    A 34-year old Creole woman appeared at the dermatology department with white-pink spots on the oral mucosa, which had been there for some time. Histology showed lesions characteristic of focal epithelial hyperplasia. The patient was treated with a CO2 laser. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare benign lesion and is caused by human papillomavirus subtypes 13 or 32; it only appears on the oral mucosa.

  18. Human Papillomavirus in the Lesions of the Oral Mucosa According to Topography

    PubMed Central

    Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Sabol, Ivan; Kranjčić, Josip; Knežević, Marjana; Grce, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) types and oral lesions has been shown in many studies. Considering the significance that HPV has in the development of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa, the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in different oral lesions. In addition, we wanted to elucidate whether the HPV infection is associated predominantly with either the lesion or a particular anatomic site of the oral cavity. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 246 subjects with different oral lesions, and 73 subjects with apparently healthy oral mucosa (controls). The oral lesions were classified according to their surface morphology and clinical diagnosis. The epithelial cells were collected with a cytobrush from different topographic sites in the oral cavity of the oral lesions and controls. The presence of HPV DNA was evaluated by consensus and type-specific primer-directed polymerase chain reaction. The HPV positivity was detected in 17.7% of oral lesions, significantly more than in apparently healthy mucosa (6.8%), with a higher presence in benign proliferative mucosal lesions (18.6%). High-risk HPV types were predominantly found in potentially malignant oral disorders (HPV16 in 4.3% and HPV31 in 3.4%), while benign proliferative lesions as well as healthy oral mucosa contained mainly undetermined HPV type (13.6 and 6.8%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance The distribution of positive HPV findings on the oral mucosa seems to be more associated with a particular anatomical site than the diagnosis itself. Samples taken from the vermilion border, labial commissures, and hard palate were most often HPV positive. Thus, topography plays a role in HPV prevalence findings in oral lesions. Because of the higher prevalence of the high-risk HPV types in potentially malignant oral disorders, these lesions need to be continuously controlled and treated. PMID:23922786

  19. Lichen sclerosus in the oral mucosa: a rare form of presentation.

    PubMed

    Louvain, Dailana; Moura Jacques, Claudio; Fernandes Ferreira, Adriana; Hoehl Carneiro, Leonardo; Quintela, Leonardo; Cuzzi, Tullia; Soares de Azevedo, Lucia; Moritz Trope, Beatriz; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, which affects mostly women in the fifth and sixth decades of life, but can also occur in men and children. The involvement of the oral mucosa alone or together with other forms of presentation is extremely rare, requiring a differential diagnosis with other diseases of the oral cavity, particularly lichen planus. There are less than 30 cases of lichen sclerosus in the oral mucosa described in the literature and there are no reports on malignant transformation so far. We describe a patient with skin, oral and genital lesions of lichen sclerosus.

  20. [Generation of a substitute for human oral mucosa and verification of its viability by tissue-engineering].

    PubMed

    Marañés Gálvez, C; Liceras Liceras, E; Alaminos, M; Fernández Valadés, R; Ruiz Montes, A M; Garzón, I; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Campos, A

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of large oral mucosa defects is often challenging, since the shortage of healthy oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues. This way, tissue ingineering techniques may provide a source of autologous tissues available for transplant in these patients. In this work, we have developed a new model for artificial oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering using a fibrin-agarosa scaffold. For that purpose, we have generated primary cultures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts and keratinocytes from small biopsies of normal mucosa oral using enzymatic treatments. Then, we have determined the viability of cultured cells by electron probe quantitative X-ray microanalysis, and we have demonstrated that most of the cells in the primary cultures were alive and hd high K/Na ratios. Once cell viability was determined, we used cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes to develop an artificial oral mucosa construct by using a fibrin-agarosa extracellular matrix and a sequential culture technique using porous culture inserts. Histological analysis of the artificial tissues showed high similarities with normal oral mucosa controls. The epithelium of the oral substitutes had several layers, with desmosomes and apical microvilli and microplicae. Both the controls and de oral mucosa substitutes showed high suprabasal expression of cytokeratin 13 and low expression of cytokeratin 10. All these results suggest that our model of oral mucosa using fibrin-agarose scaffolds show several similarities with native human oral mucosa.

  1. Collagen fibril arrangement and size distribution in monkey oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    OTTANI, V.; FRANCHI, M.; DE PASQUALE, V.; LEONARDI, L.; MOROCUTTI, M.; RUGGERI, A.

    1998-01-01

    Collagen fibre organisation and fibril size were studied in the buccal gingival and hard palate mucosa of Macacus rhesus monkey. Light and electron microscopy analysis showed connective papillae exhibiting a similar inner structure in the different areas examined, but varying in distribution, shape and size. Moving from the deep to surface layers of the buccal gingival mucosa (free and attached portions), large collagen fibril bundles became smaller and progressively more wavy with decreasing collagen fibril diameter. This gradual diameter decrease did not occur in the hard palate mucosa (free portion, rugae and interrugal regions) where the fibril diameter remained constant. A link between collagen fibril diameter and mechanical function is discussed. PMID:9688498

  2. Micronuclei in nasal mucosa, oral mucosa and lymphocytes in students exposed to formaldehyde vapor in anatomy class.

    PubMed

    Ying, C J; Yan, W S; Zhao, M Y; Ye, X L; Xie, H; Yin, S Y; Zhu, X S

    1997-12-01

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in cells of the nasal mucosa, oral mucosa and in lymphocytes was evaluated for 25 students in anatomy classes exposed to formaldehyde (FA) over an 8-week period. Each student served as his or her own control. The time-weighted average concentration (TWA) of formaldehyde in anatomical laboratories and in students' dormitories was 0.508 +/- 0.299 mg/m3 and 0.012 +/- 0.0025 mg/m3, respectively. A higher frequency of micronuclei was observed in nasal and oral exfoliative cells after formaldehyde exposure (3.85 +/- 1.48 vs 1.20 +/- 0.676 and 0.857 +/- 0.558 vs 0.568 +/- 0.317, paired-t test: P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). No significant increase in the frequency of lymphocyte micronuclei was found after formaldehyde exposure (P > 0.05). The present study shows that nasal mucosa cells exposed through respiration are the chief target of FA-induced genotoxic effects.

  3. Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent by Using the Direct Explant Cell Culture Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Gürkan Raşit; Aydıntuğ, Yavuz Sinan; Günhan, Ömer; Öztürk, Kamile; Gülses, Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is the histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents using keratinocytes cultured by direct explant technique. Material and Methods: Oral mucosa tissue samples were obtained from the keratinized gingival tissues of 14 healthy human subjects. Human oral mucosa keratinocytes from an oral mucosa biopsy specimen were dissociated by the explant technique. Once a sufficient population of keratinocytes was reached, they were seeded onto the type IV collagen coated “AlloDerm” and taken for histological and immunohistochemical examinations at 11 days postseeding of the keratinocytes on the cadaveric human dermal matrix. Results: Histopathologically and immunohistochemically, 12 out of 14 successful ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOME) that consisted of a stratified epidermis on a dermal matrix have been developed with keratinocytes cultured by the explant technique. Conclusion: The technical handling involved in the direct explant method at the beginning of the process has fewer steps than the enzymatic method and use of the direct explant technique protocol for culturing of human oral mucosa keratinocyte may be more adequate for EVPOME production. PMID:25207018

  4. [Role of keratinocytes in preservation of oral mucosa epithelium integrity. Part I].

    PubMed

    Zapała, Jan; Zarzecka, Joanna; Drukała, Justyna

    2005-01-01

    Functions of oral mucosa epithelium in preservation of homeostasis have been presented. Characteristic features that distinguish epithelial cells from the other somatic cells influencing mechanical resistance of oral epithelium and creating selective chemical barrier have been described. The participation of keratinocytes in selected phases of wound healing process has been analyzed.

  5. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira da; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction of P. brasiliensis with these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM.

  6. Measuring the impact of oral mucosa disease on quality of life.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Lucero Berdugo, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to study the quality of life in patients with oral mucosa disease. Two hundred sixteen consecutive patients with oral pathology were studied at the Department of Oral Medicine, University of Murcia (Spain). Sixty patients had burning mouth syndrome, 100 oral lichen planus, 41 recurrent aphthous stomatitis and 15 had and other oral mucosa disorders. The instruments applied were the Spanish version of the SF-36, used to evaluate general quality of life, and the OHIP-49, Spanish version, to measure oral health-related quality of life. With respect to oral quality of life (OHIP-49 all items), the worst scores were found for burning mouth syndrome. The group formed by other mucosal lesions presented the lowest scores for the domains role physical and general health in the SF-36. Oral mucosa diseases have a negative impact on health and quality of life. Administration of specific and generic questionnaires provides a detailed picture of the impact of oral diseases on patients, which adds information that may be useful in clinical practice.

  7. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells.

  8. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  9. Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2

    PubMed Central

    González-Losa, Maria del Refugio; Manzano-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda-Gordillo, Florencio; Hernández-Solís, Sandra E.; Puerto-Solís, Luis

    2008-01-01

    High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) are recognized as a necessary factor to development cervical cancer. During the last decade many studies have found HR-HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral mucosa, however the association between HR-HPV and OSCC is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to determine DNA HR-HPV in normal oral cavity of healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 77 patients with normal oral cavity were collected at the Dentistry school, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV was detected by hybrid capture 2. One sample out of 77(1.2%) was positive for HR-PVH. It was from a man of 50 years old. HRHPV is present in low rate among healthy oral mucosa. Hybrid capture 2 could be a good methodology for large epidemiology studies. PMID:24031173

  10. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  11. IL-17-mediated antifungal defense in the oral mucosa is independent of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Trautwein-Weidner, K; Gladiator, A; Nur, S; Diethelm, P; LeibundGut-Landmann, S

    2015-03-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-mediated immunity has emerged as a crucial host defense mechanism against Candida albicans infections in mucosal tissues and the skin. The precise mechanism by which the IL-17 pathway prevents fungal outgrowth has not been clarified. Neutrophils are critical for limiting fungal dissemination and IL-17 is generally thought to act by regulating neutrophil mobilization and trafficking to the site of infection. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we found that strikingly the IL-17 pathway is not required for the neutrophil response to C. albicans. Mice deficient for the IL-17 receptor subunits IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) or IL-17RC or mice depleted of IL-17A and IL-17F exhibited a normal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CXC-chemokine response and displayed no defect in neutrophil recruitment or function. Instead, the inability of these mice to clear the fungus was associated with a selective defect in the induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the epithelium that resulted in persistent fungal colonization. Importantly, this antifungal mechanism of IL-17A and IL-17F did not extend to the closely related family member IL-17C. Together, these data uncouple IL-17-dependent effector mechanisms from the neutrophil response and reveal a compartmentalization of the antifungal defense in the oral mucosa providing a new understanding of IL-17-mediated mucosal immunity against C. albicans.

  12. IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Altmeier, Simon; Toska, Albulena; Sparber, Florian; Teijeira, Alvaro; Halin, Cornelia; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. We demonstrate that both the recruitment of circulating neutrophils to the site of infection and the mobilization of newly generated neutrophils from the bone marrow depended on IL-1R. Consistently, IL-1R-deficient mice displayed impaired chemokine production at the site of infection and defective secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the circulation in response to C. albicans. Strikingly, endothelial cells were identified as the primary cellular source of G-CSF during OPC, which responded to IL-1α that was released from keratinocytes in the infected tissue. The IL-1-dependent crosstalk between two different cellular subsets of the nonhematopoietic compartment was confirmed in vitro using a novel murine tongue-derived keratinocyte cell line and an established endothelial cell line. These data establish a new link between IL-1 and granulopoiesis in the context of fungal infection. Together, we identified two complementary mechanisms coordinating the neutrophil response in the oral mucosa, which is critical for preventing fungal growth and dissemination, and thus protects the host from disease. PMID:27632536

  13. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K; Sherwin, LeeAnne B; Joseph, Paule V; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-07-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r(2) > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS.

  14. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  15. Elastofibromatous Changes and Hyperelastosis of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tosios, Konstantinos I.; Economou, Ioanna; Vasilopoulos, Nektarios-Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Three cases of abnormalities of elastic fibers, two of them on the floor of the mouth and one on the lingual alveolar mucosa, close to the floor of the mouth, in a patient with history of homolateral squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth, are presented. Comparison with elastofibromatous changes and elastofibromas are made and their possible pathogenesis is discussed. It is suggested that increased awareness may facilitate recognition of such lesions as they can be easily overlooked, especially when they do not present as discrete tumors or they are associated with other “more significant” pathologic processes. PMID:20237986

  16. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells from car painters.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Victor Hugo; Gomes de Moura, Carolina Foot; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Célia; Araki Ribeiro, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage and cellular death in exfoliated oral mucosa cells and peripheral blood from car painters. A total of 24 car painters and 19 healthy controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mucosa (left and right side) mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the specific nuclear phenotypes. A total of 5 μL from peripheral blood was collected for the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results pointed out statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from car painters. In addition, DNA damage was detected in peripheral blood cells by single cell gel (comet) assay. Nevertheless, exposure to car paints did not cause increases other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karrhyorexis, pyknosis and karyolysis in buccal mucosa cells. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that car painters comprise a high risk group since paints can induce genotoxic and mutagenic effects in peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells, respectively.

  17. The lupus band test in oral mucosa, conjunctiva and skin.

    PubMed

    Burge, S M; Frith, P A; Millard, P R; Wojnarowska, F

    1989-12-01

    The prevalence and clinical significance of subepithelial immunoglobulin and complement deposition (the lupus band) were examined in the uninvolved sun-protected skin of the forearm, the uninvolved sun-protected lip mucosa and sun-protected bulbar conjunctival mucosa in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE). In SLE, linear deposition of an immunoreactant at the BMZ was detected in 32% (6/19) of skin biopsies; 21% (4/19) of lip mucosal biopsies and 42% (5/12) of conjunctival biopsies. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of the test at different sites in SLE and no correlation between a positive test in skin, lip or conjunctiva and clinical mucosal involvement. In CCLE, linear deposition of an immunoreactant at the BMZ was found in 3% (1/32) of skin biopsies; 3% (1/29) of lip mucosal biopsies and 50% (10/20) of conjunctiva and clinical mucosal involvement. In the conjunctiva, IgG was present in all but one of the biopsies and was the only immunoreactant in 90% (9/10) of positive CCLE biopsies and 60% (3/5) of positive SLE biopsies. In lupus erythematosus immunoreactants may be deposited in the basement membrane zone beneath non-keratinizing mucosal surfaces of the lip and the eye as well as the skin. In CCLE, the test may be positive in conjunctiva when skin and lip are negative.

  18. Cellular death but not genetic damage in oral mucosa cells after exposure to digital lateral radiography.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Sannomiya, Eduardo K; Pozzi, Renan; Miranda, Sandra R; Angelieri, Fernanda

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from individuals following digital lateral radiography. A total of 30 healthy patients (15 men and 15 women) indicated to the orthodontic therapy were submitted to digital lateral X-ray. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells were collected immediately before the X-ray exposure and after 10 days. The results pointed out no significant statistically differences (p > 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells. On the other hand, X-ray was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and karyolysis. In summary, these data indicate that exposure to digital lateral radiography may not be a factor that induced chromosomal damage, but it is able to promote cytotoxicity.

  19. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  20. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission.

  1. Quantitative comparison of the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the oral mucosa and extraoral skin.

    PubMed

    Kesting, Marco R; Mueller, Christian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Steiner, Timm; Bauer, Florian; Teichmann, Jan; Baumann, Claudia M; Barthel, Leopold C; Satanovskij, Robin M; Mücke, Thomas; Schulte, Matthias; Schütz, Katrin; Wolff, Klaus-D; Rohleder, Nils H

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) defend epithelial surfaces against pathological micro-organisms. We know of no comparison of their expression between the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium, but knowledge of differences in their quantities is of interest, possibly as a starting point for new treatments. Expression of AMP human beta-defensin (hBD)-1/-2/-3 and psoriasin in the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium of the head and neck were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n=14), immunohistochemistry (n=6), and western blot (n=8). RT-PCR showed that all the genes investigated were expressed significantly more in the oral mucosa than in the skin (hBD-1: p=0.002; hBD-2: p=0.006; hBD-3: p=0.035; psoriasin: p=0.02). Immunohistochemistry and western blot showed differential concentrations of proteins: hBD-2 (p=0.021) and hBD-3 (p=0.043) were pronounced in the oral mucosa, whereas psoriasin was raised in the extraoral skin (p=0.021). There was no difference in protein concentrations for hBD-1 (p=0.08). The observed differences in the expression of AMP may be important for new treatments such as topical application of AMP derivatives.

  2. Lichen planus pigmentosus of the oral mucosa: a rare clinical variety.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, G C; Papavasiliou, S S; Bovopoulou, O D; Nicolis, G D

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of lichen planus of the mouth with intense melanosis, in a middle-aged white male. Due to its unusual clinical characteristics, we believe that this case represents a rare variant of lichen planus of the oral mucosa. The histopathologic findings, differential diagnosis and its possible connection with lichen planus pigmentosus of the skin are discussed.

  3. [Lesions of the oral mucosa. Epidemiological study of 7,297 patients].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Guzmán, L; Castellanos, J L

    1991-01-01

    To our Knowledge, this is the first work in a number population (higher than 500 sample WHO) that is carried out in our country about lesions in the Oral Mucosa. The advantages in this Kind of studies are recognized particularly in the fields of academic, research and services. This work presents the first view of a permanent research project of Oral Mucosa Lesions at the admission clinic, School of Dentistry, Universidad del Bajío. The findings are from the evaluation of 7,297 patients, 15 years or older, that seek dental services between January 1982 and June 1989 (7.5 years). The lack of national data and the oldest population samples in other countries studies stopped wider evaluations, even though the study purpose was not affected, it was possible to offer qualitative data in the respect of prevalecence, variety and etiopathogenesis of those type of pathosis in the Oral Mucosa. The general prevalecence in the group was approximately 13%, identifying lesions more frequently in males, but higher variety in females. Report on 40 different entities, presented in general according to a descent order of prevalencece and reagrouped by sex and pathology. In half the lesions was possible to identify as the cause, acute and cronic traumatic agents; The infectious associations were also very frequent. Those last observations are of high relevance concerning the prevention of Oral Mucosa lesions.

  4. Squamous epitheliotropism of Enterovirus A71 in human epidermis and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Kong, Chee Kwan; Alizan, Abdul Khalil; Ramanujam, Tindivanam Muthurangam; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-03-21

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. In Enterovirus A71-infected human skin and oral mucosa organotypic cultures derived from the prepuce and lip biopsies, focal viral antigens and viral RNA were localized to cytoplasm of epidermal and mucosal squamous cells as early as 2 days post-infection. Viral antigens/RNA were associated with cytoplasmic vacuolation and cellular necrosis. Infected primary prepuce epidermal keratinocyte cultures showed cytopathic effects with concomitant detection of viral antigens from 2 days post-infection. Supernatant and/or tissue homogenates from prepuce skin organotypic cultures and primary prepuce keratinocyte cultures showed viral titres consistent with active viral replication. Our data strongly support Enterovirus A71 squamous epitheliotropism in the human epidermis and oral mucosa, and suggest that these organs are important primary and/or secondary viral replication sites that contribute significantly to oral and cutaneous viral shedding resulting in person-to-person transmission, and viraemia, which could lead to neuroinvasion.

  5. Squamous epitheliotropism of Enterovirus A71 in human epidermis and oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Kong, Chee Kwan; Alizan, Abdul Khalil; Ramanujam, Tindivanam Muthurangam; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. In Enterovirus A71-infected human skin and oral mucosa organotypic cultures derived from the prepuce and lip biopsies, focal viral antigens and viral RNA were localized to cytoplasm of epidermal and mucosal squamous cells as early as 2 days post-infection. Viral antigens/RNA were associated with cytoplasmic vacuolation and cellular necrosis. Infected primary prepuce epidermal keratinocyte cultures showed cytopathic effects with concomitant detection of viral antigens from 2 days post-infection. Supernatant and/or tissue homogenates from prepuce skin organotypic cultures and primary prepuce keratinocyte cultures showed viral titres consistent with active viral replication. Our data strongly support Enterovirus A71 squamous epitheliotropism in the human epidermis and oral mucosa, and suggest that these organs are important primary and/or secondary viral replication sites that contribute significantly to oral and cutaneous viral shedding resulting in person-to-person transmission, and viraemia, which could lead to neuroinvasion. PMID:28322333

  6. Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. T.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jin, H. L.; Chang, F. Y.; Hu, K. Y.; Wu, C. P.; Chiang, C. P.; Yang, C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for noninvasive, real-time oral cancer diagnosis. However, in previous reports, OCT has still been found to be difficult to use in the diagnosis of oral precancerous stages, including mild dysplasia and moderate dysplasia. In clinical applications, early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer can greatly improve the survival rate. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new approach to differentiate the oral precancerous stages based on the evaluation of the optical scattering properties of the epithelial layer, which is where the dysplastic cells start to develop in the precancerous stages. Instead of using exponential decay fitting to evaluate the scattering properties of mucosal tissues based on the Beer-Lambert law, linear fitting of the OCT depth intensity is used to evaluate the scattering properties of normal and dysplastic cells. From the statistical results of the linear fitting, the slope, a, can be an effective indicator to discriminate healthy mucosa and moderate dysplasia when an a value equal to zero is the threshold value, and the intercept, b, can be used to differentiate healthy and dysplastic mucosae, as well as mild and moderate dysplasia, when b values of 0.15 and 0.18 are used as the threshold values, respectively. Furthermore, this approach is also applied to the determination of the safe margin between normal and abnormal mucosae, making it possible to provide real-time, in vivo inspection during oral maxillofacial surgery.

  7. Analysis of immune cells within the healthy oral mucosa of specific pathogen-free cats.

    PubMed

    Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Baumgarth, N; Vapniarsky, N; Nemec, A; Naydan, D K; Cox, D P; Verstraete, F J M

    2011-02-01

    The oral mucosa is an important interface for host-environment interactions. Based on previous studies, it is generally accepted that the cellular compartments of the oral immune system comprise organized mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues as well as diffusely and focally distributed T- and to lesser extent B-lymphocytes, oral mucosal Langerhans cells (OMLC), macrophages and mast cells. However, a comprehensive quantification of the cellular elements in the oral mucous membranes of the cat has not been reported. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the immune cell compartments in the oral mucous membranes and anatomically related tissues of healthy cats. Multiple biopsies of the oral mucous membranes and related tissues were obtained from four specific pathogen-free cats for histological and immunohistochemical assessment of lymphocyte subsets, OMLC, macrophages and mast cells. T-lymphocyte subsets, OMLC, mast cells and macrophages were present in varying frequencies among the tissue compartments of the feline oral cavity. B-lymphocytes were not identified in any of the examined tissues except the tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes. Lymphocytic aggregates (follicles) were found in the palatoglossal folds and the gingiva. We describe the topographical distribution of various leucocyte subsets in the normal healthy feline oral mucosa, and demonstrate regional differences in the distribution of these cells.

  8. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques

    PubMed Central

    kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin–like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). Conclusion: It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy. PMID:26120409

  9. Papillomavirus infections in the oral and genital mucosa of asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ledy Horto Santos; Santos, Larissa Silva; Silva, Carolina Oliveira; Augusto, Everton Faccini; Neves, Felipe Piedade Gonçalves

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found in several regions of the body, including the oral cavity. Recently, this virus has been associated with oropharyngeal cancer, but little is known about HPV transmission to the oral cavity. We carried out a study to investigate concurrent oral and cervical infections in 76 asymptomatic women attending a healthcare program. Demographic and behavior data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Oral and cervical mucosa scrapings were collected and stored for DNA extraction. HPV DNA amplification was performed by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) using both primers My09/My11 and FAP59/64, followed by HPV typing with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and sequencing. The data collected revealed no risk factors for HPV infection in these 76 women. HPV prevalence of 9.2 and 5.3% was found in cervical and oral mucosa, respectively. Concurrent infections by discordant types were detected in one case only. Sequencing procedures allowed us to detect a new putative HPV 17 subtype from the Betapapillomavirus genus. Our results support the view that cervical and oral HPV infections are independent events. The observed low prevalence of both oral and cervical HPV infections could be associated with attendance in a healthcare program.

  10. Two-photon autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Shilagard, Tuya; Qiu, Suimin; Vargas, Gracie

    2011-03-01

    The survival rate for individuals diagnosed with oral cancer is correlated with the stage of detection. Thus the development of novel techniques for the earliest possible detection of malignancies is of critical importance. Single photon (1P) autofluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful diagnostic tool in this regard, but 2P (two photon) spectroscopy remains essentially unexplored. In this investigation, a spectroscopic system was incorporated into a custom-built 2P laser scanning microscope. Oral cancer was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian Golden hamsters by tri-weekly topical application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA).Three separated sites where investigated in each hamster at four excitation wavelengths from 780 nm to 890 nm. A Total of 8 hamsters were investigated (4 normal and 4 DMBA treated). All investigated sites were imaged via 2p imaging, marked for biopsy, processed for histology and H&E staining, and graded by a pathologist. The in vivo emission spectrum for normal, mild/high grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma is presented. It is shown that the hamsters with various stages of dysplasia are characterized by spectral differences as a function of depth and excitation wavelength, compared to normal hamsters.

  11. Oral mucosa alterations in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis due to HBV or HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Sulka, Agnieszka; Simon, Krzysztof; Piszko, Paweł; Kalecińska, Ewa; Dominiak, Marzena

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the character of lesions within oral mucosa in patients suffering from chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver due to either HBV or HCV infection. A total of 74 patients treated at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Wrocław for chronic hepatitis B (20 patients, group I) and for chronic hepatitis C (23 patients group III) and cirrhosis of the liver due to HBV (15 patients , group II) and HCV (16 patients, group IV) infection. The control group comprised 29 healthy subjects. Lesions within the oral mucosa found on clinical examinations were confirmed with a histopathological evaluation. Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B revealed leukoplakia (1/20), melanoplakia (1/20), petechiae (1/20), 17 patients from this group did not show any changes. Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C revealed leukoplakia (6/23), Delbanco's disease (2/23), melanoplakia (1/23), lichen planus (1/23), petechiae (1/23), 12 patients from this group did not show any changes. Patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver due of HBV infection revealed leukoplakia (3/15) petechiae (2/15), Delbanco's disease (1/15), angular cheilitis (1/15), aphthae (1/15), 7 patients from this group did not reveal any changes. Patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver due of HCV infection revealed petechiae (2/16), melanoplakia (1/16), candidosis (1/16), labial herpes (1/16), 11 patients from this group did not reveal any changes. In control group we observed leukoplakia (3/29), Delbanco's disease (1/29), labial herpes (1/29), petechiae (1/29), and 23 subjects did not present pathological lesions within the oral mucosa. Results indicate the lack of connection between chronic HBV and HCV infection as well as the stage of the disease with the incidence and character of oral lesions in oral mucosa.

  12. Melanoma of the oral mucosa. Clinical cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Naval-Gías, Luis; Martos, Pedro L; Nam-Cha, Syong Hyun; Rodríguez-Campo, Francisco J; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of primary melanomas of the oral mucosa is uncommon. The aggressiveness of this entity and the absence of any standardized treatment protocol make the prognostic unfortunate. The difficulty to obtain free surgical margins, the elevated tendency to invade in depth and the early haematogenous metastasis have been referred as features which may explain its bad prognosis, even in comparison with cutaneous melanoma. However, no large clinical series exist and actually, clinical cases are the main source of information. Due to the absence of any treatment modality which may substantially increase long-term survival, we suggest the use of resective surgery with wide margins and early diagnosis by means of biopsy for suspicious melanotic-pigmented lesions. In this work we present 2 new cases of primary melanoma of the oral mucosa, with a follow-up period of 72 and 12 months respectively, and we make a review of the literature in relation with this rare entity.

  13. Lesions of the oral mucosa in cocaine users who apply the drug topically.

    PubMed

    Gandara-Rey, J M; Diniz-Freitas, M; Gandara-Vila, P; Blanco-Carrion, A; Garcia-Garcia, A

    2002-01-01

    The use and abuse of cocaine is increasingly frequent in many countries, and the associated problems are increasingly evident. The effects of cocaine in the oral cavity vary depending on the form used and the route of self-administration. In the present study we describe the lesions observed in four patients with a history of topical self-application of cocaine to the oral and/or nasal mucosa, with the aim of relieving pain produced by cocaine-induced cluster headache. In three of the four patients this practice has led to erythematous lesions, while the remaining patient showed gingival recession and bone sequestration. These lesions can probably be attributed to the vasoconstrictor activity of cocaine, and to its caustic effects on the mucosa.

  14. Bacterial-killing effect of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet and oral mucosa response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexi; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Zhou, Xincai; Cao, Yingguang; Lu, Xinpei

    2011-12-01

    Recently, plasma sterilization has attracted increasing attention in dental community for the atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet (APNPs), which is driven by a kilohertz pulsed DC power, may be applied to the dental and oral diseases. However, it is still in doubt whether APNPs can effectively kill pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and produce no harmful effects on normal oral tissues, especially on normal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial-killing effect of APNPs in the biofilms containing a single breed of bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g.), and the pathological changes of the oral mucosa after treatment by APNPs. P.g. was incubated to form the biofilms in vitro, and the samples were divided into three groups randomly: group A (blank control); group B in which the biofilms were treated by APNPs (the setting of the equipment: 10 kHz, 1600 ns and 8 kV); group C in which the biofilms were exposed only to a gas jet without ignition of the plasma. Each group had three samples and each sample was processed for up to 5 min. The biofilms were then fluorescently stained, observed and photographed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. In the animal experiment, six male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly (n=3 in each group) in terms of the different post-treatment time (1-day group and 5-day group). The buccal mucosa of the left side and the mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue were treated by APNPs for 10 min in the same way as the bacterial biofilm experiment in each rabbit, and the corresponding mucosa of the other sides served as normal control. The clinical manifestations of the oral mucosa were observed and recorded every day. The rabbits were sacrificed one or five day(s) after APNPs treatment. The oral mucosa were harvested and prepared to haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Clinical observation and histopathological scores were used to assess mucosal changes. The results

  15. Rheological characterization of human fibrin and fibrin-agarose oral mucosa substitutes generated by tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, I A; López-López, M T; Oliveira, A C X; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Campos, A; Alaminos, M; Durán, J D G

    2012-08-01

    In regenerative medicine, the generation of biocompatible substitutes of tissues by in vitro tissue engineering must fulfil certain requirements. In the case of human oral mucosa, the rheological properties of tissues deserve special attention because of their influence in the acoustics and biomechanics of voice production. This work is devoted to the rheological characterization of substitutes of the connective tissue of the human oral mucosa. Two substitutes, composed of fibrin and fibrin-agarose, were prepared in cell culture for periods in the range 1-21 days. The time evolution of the rheological properties of both substitutes was studied by two different experimental procedures: steady-state and oscillatory measurements. The former allows the plastic behaviour of the substitutes to be characterized by estimating their yield stress; the latter is employed to quantify their viscoelastic responses by obtaining the elastic (G') and viscous (G'') moduli. The results demonstrate that both substitutes are characterized by a predominant elastic response, in which G' (order 100 Pa) is roughly one order of magnitude larger than G'' (order 10 Pa). But the most relevant insight is the stability, throughout the 21 days of culture time, of the rheological quantities in the case of fibrin-agarose, whereas the fibrin substitute shows a significant hardening. This result provides evidence that the addition to fibrin of a small amount of agarose allows the rheological stability of the oral mucosa substitute to be maintained. This feature, together with its viscoelastic similitude with native tissues, makes this biomaterial appropriate for potential use as a scaffold in regenerative therapies of human oral mucosa.

  16. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Joey M.; Bentley, Julie L.; Malik, Bilal H.; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue. PMID:25426310

  17. Reflectance confocal endomicroscope with optical axial scanning for in vivo imaging of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Joey M; Bentley, Julie L; Malik, Bilal H; Nemechek, John; Warda, John; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Shuna; Jo, Javier A; Maitland, Kristen C

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of a reflectance confocal laser endomicroscope using a miniature objective lens within a rigid probe in conjunction with an electrically tunable lens for axial scanning. The miniature lens was characterized alone as well as in the endoscope across a 200 µm axial scan range using the tunable lens. The ability of the confocal endoscope to probe the human oral cavity is demonstrated by imaging of the oral mucosa in vivo. The results indicate that reflectance confocal endomicroscopy has the potential to be used in a clinical setting and guide diagnostic evaluation of biological tissue.

  18. Potential applications of oral brush cytology with liquid-based technology: results from a cohort of normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Desai, Mina; Sargent, Alexandra; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Sloan, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Fifty healthy volunteers were studied to assess the potential applications of oral brush sampling using liquid-based cytology. Three specimens from the buccal mucosa and lateral border of tongue were collected from each subject by using cervical brushes and brooms. The brush was immersed in a preservative fluid. The sample in the preservative fluid was processed according to the manufacturer's directions (SurePath, UK). Slides were stained by the Papanicolaou method and assessed for squamous cell adequacy by the same criteria used for cervical cytology screening. Immunocytochemical staining for FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad) was applied in liquid-based preparations following the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene) and the PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR HPV Test. LBC preparation slides showed good sample preservation, specimen adequacy and visualization of cell morphology. Interestingly, nine cases showed borderline cytological abnormalities from apparently normal oral mucosa. All cases showed good quality positive FHIT immunoreactivity staining. All studied cases were high-risk HPV negative using HC2 assay method. However, the AMPLICOR Roche Test detected four samples with positive results for high-risk HPVs. Liquid-based cytology has potential as a screening tool for oral cancer and precancer. The method may also have applications for research and practice in the field of oral cancer and precancer. However a special custom-designed oral cytobrush is required.

  19. A novel mechanism for NETosis provides antimicrobial defense at the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Tirthankar; Sjögren, Jonathan; Kahn, Fredrik; Abu-Humaidan, Anas H A; Fisker, Niels; Assing, Kristian; Mörgelin, Matthias; Bengtsson, Anders A; Borregaard, Niels; Sørensen, Ole E

    2015-10-29

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense at the oral mucosa and neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects lead to disordered oral homeostasis. We found that neutrophils from the oral mucosa harvested from morning saliva had released neutrophil extracellular traps (undergone NETosis) in vivo. The NETosis was mediated through intracellular signals elicited by binding of sialyl Lewis(X) present on salival mucins to l-selectin on neutrophils. This led to rapid loss of nuclear membrane and intracellular release of granule proteins with subsequent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release independent of elastase and reduced NAD phosphate-oxidase activation. The saliva-induced NETs were more DNase-resistant and had higher capacity to bind and kill bacteria than NETs induced by bacteria or by phorbol-myristate acetate. Furthermore, saliva/sialyl Lewis(X) mediated signaling enhanced intracellular killing of bacteria by neutrophils. Saliva from patients with aphthous ulcers and Behçet disease prone to oral ulcers failed to induce NETosis, but for different reasons it demonstrated that disordered homeostasis in the oral cavity may result in deficient saliva-mediated NETosis.

  20. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  1. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

    1999-01-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.
  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).
  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.


Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

  2. Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression. PMID:22241875

  3. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  4. Delayed contact sensitivity on the lips and oral mucosa due to propolis-case report.

    PubMed

    Brailo, V; Boras, Vanja Vucicevic; Alajbeg, I; Juras, Vidovic

    2006-07-01

    We report a rare case of a patient who was referred to the Department of Oral medicine in Zagreb, Croatia. The patient was 20 years old, otherwise healthy and not taking any medication. She presented with irregular erosions partially covered with pseudomembranes that involved both lips and retrocomissural mucosa. Discrete erosion was also noticed on her lower lingual gingiva in the area 42. She reported a propolis solution self-medication for treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers. After ten days of propolis application, lip and oral lesions developed. Patch test to propolis was proven. We highlight the fact that some folk medicine medications, such as propolis, although being known for many decades to be helpful in various conditions, in some individuals might lead to unwanted side-effects due to its antigenic potential. Additionally, every colleague, during the differential diagnosis of the oral lesions must bear in mind unwanted reactions to folk medicine products.

  5. In vivo OCT study of neoplastic alterations of the oral cavity mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomina, Julia V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Myakov, Alexey V.

    2004-07-01

    The goal of our study was to conduct a statistical evaluation of the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect neoplasia in vivo in oral cavity. The study enrolled 97 patients (35 volunteers with healthy mucosa of the oral cavity-group I, 41 patients with benign conditions-group II, 21 patients with dysplasia or carcinoma-group III). The diagnosis was established by a histopathology examination of biopsy material. Each biopsy site was imaged by OCT beforehand. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 98% were observed as a result of OCT image recognition of dysplastic/malignant versus benign/reactive conditions in the oral cavity. The interobserver agreement kappa was 0.76. Such sensitivity and specificity makes OCT a promising tool for non-invasive evaluation of tissue sites suspicious for high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  6. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n = 10) and rectal lavage fluid (n = 10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense

  7. Nuclear changes in oral mucosa of alcoholics and crack cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Webber, L P; Pellicioli, A C A; Magnusson, A S; Danilevicz, C K; Bueno, C C; Sant'Ana Filho, M; Rados, P V; Carrard, V C

    2016-02-01

    The effects of drugs of abuse on oral mucosa are only partly understood. The aims of the present study were to: (1) evaluate the frequency of nuclear changes in normal-appearing oral mucosa of alcoholics and crack cocaine users and (2) assess their association with cell proliferation rate. Oral smears were obtained from the border of the tongue and floor of the mouth of 26 crack cocaine users (24 males and 2 females), 29 alcoholics (17 males and 12 females), and 35 controls (17 males and 18 females). Histological slides were submitted to Feulgen staining to assess the frequency of micronuclei (MN), binucleated cells (BN), broken eggs (BE), and karyorrhexis (KR). A significant increase in the frequency of MN was observed in cells exfoliated from the tongue of crack cocaine users (p = 0.01), and alcoholics showed a higher frequency of KR in cells obtained from the floor of the mouth (p = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the use of crack cocaine induces clastogenic effects, whereas alcoholism is associated with higher degrees of keratinization in the floor of the mouth.

  8. Non-specific labelling of mast cells in feline oral mucosa--a potential problem in immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific labelling of mast cells was found to occur in formalin-fixed sections of feline oral mucosa during immunohistochemical procedures. The phenomenon occurred when normal goat, rabbit or mouse serum was applied as a negative control in place of primary antibodies. In addition, with murine isotype-specific negative control reagents, non-specific labelling of mast cells was intense when IgG2b was applied as the primary reagent, but absent or mild when IgGl or IgG2a isotypes were utilized. The non-specific labelling could be eliminated or diminished by reducing the pH of the washing and dilution buffers from 7.4 to 6.0, or by preincubating sections with heparin. The non-specific binding could also be abolished by preincubating sections with heparinase-I. The results suggest that the non-specific binding was mediated by heparin present within feline oral mucosal mast cells. These findings illustrate the importance of the inclusion of adequate control sections in immunohistochemical studies.

  9. Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine, the oral mucosa and the Vienna group.

    PubMed

    López-Valverde, A; de Vicente, J; Martínez-Domínguez, L; de Diego, R Gómez

    2014-07-11

    Local anaesthesia through the action of cocaine was introduced in Europe by the Vienna group, which includeed Freud, Koller and Königstein. Before using the alkaloid in animal or human experimentation all these scientists tested it on their oral mucosa - so-called self-experimentation. Some of them with different pathologies (that is, in the case of Freud), eventually became addicted to the alkaloid. Here we attempt to describe the people forming the so-called 'Vienna group', their social milieu, their experiences and internal disputes within the setting of a revolutionary discovery of the times.

  10. Identification of Helicobacter spp. in oral secretions vs. gastric mucosa of stray cats.

    PubMed

    Shojaee Tabrizi, A; Jamshidi, Sh; Oghalaei, A; Zahraei Salehi, T; Bayati Eshkaftaki, A; Mohammadi, M

    2010-01-06

    The definite mode of transmission of Helicobacter infection is largely unknown. This study was carried out primarily, to determine the existence of Helicobacter spp. in the oral secretions of stray cats as one of the possible routes of transmission and secondly, to evaluate the accordance between oral and gastric colonization of Helicobacter spp. in these cats. Forty-three adult stray cats were thus studied for the presence of Helicobacter species by quantitative rapid urease test (RUT), cytology and PCR. Helicobacter spp. were found in the oral secretions and gastric biopsies of 93% and 67.5% of the stray cats, respectively. There was not, however, any agreement observed between Helicobacter colonization at these two locations, at neither genus nor species level. These findings suggest that the oral cavity is routinely exposed to transient forms of bacteria and may temporarily harbor Helicobacter spp. Thus, oral cavity as a source of Helicobacter spp. may act as a reservoir for transmission and may not necessarily reflect the colonization status of the gastric mucosa.

  11. Localized Leishmaniasis of the oral mucosa. A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    García de Marcos, José Antonio; Dean Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos Granados, Francisco; Ruiz Masera, Juan José; Cortés Rodríguez, Begoña; Vidal Jiménez, Alfredo; García Lainez, Ana; Lozano Rodríguez-Mancheno, Aquiles

    2007-08-01

    The term leishmaniasis comprises a group of diseases caused by different species of a protozoon called Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is found worldwide, and is considered to be endemic in 88 countries. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. We present a series of three cases of mucosal leishmaniasis located in the oral cavity. The fact that all three cases were recorded in Spain (an area where L. infantum is endemic), suggests that the latter was the causal agent. The only manifestation of leishmaniasis disease in the described cases was the appearance of an oral lesion. Treatment was provided in the form of meglumine antimoniate in two patients, with a favorable response. One of the patients left the hospital after diagnosis, without receiving treatment, and the subsequent course is not known. A review is made of the literature on the subject.

  12. Effects of visible light irradiation on eugenol-treated oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Muraoka, Eitoku; Nakazato, Yoshihiro; Okada, Norihisa

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of eugenol (EUG) and iso-eugenol (IsoEUG)--with or without visible light (VL) irradiation--on oral mucous membranes. Oral mucous membranes of mice were applied with three agents, EUG, IsoEUG, and aceton (as the control) in the absence or presence of VL irradiation. VL irradiation resulted in more tissue damage for EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucosa compared to corresponding compounds without VL irradiation, and that damage under IsoEUG treatment was greater than that under EUG treatment. Necrosis, but not apoptosis, was preferentially expressed in EUG- or IsoEUG-treated mucous membranes in the presence of VL irradiation.

  13. Innate tissue fluorescence of the oral mucosa of controls and head-and-neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Howard E.; Kolli, Venkateswara; Ansley, John; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y.; Alfano, Robert R.; Schantz, Stimson P.

    1995-04-01

    Base line spectral excitation and emission scans were defined for the oral mucosa in a population of 61 controls, 16 oral tongue cancer patients and 2 patients with tongue leukoplakia. A xenon-based fluorescence spectrophotometer (Mediscience Corp.) with a fiberoptic probe (Mediscience Corp.) was used to collect excitation and emission spectra. Two excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm; (lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm) and two emission scans ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm; (lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360-660 nm) were used to analyze the buccal mucosa (BM), hard palate (HP), floor of mouth (FOM) and dorsal tongue (DT) of 61 control individuals. In 41 controls the lateral tongue site (LT) was added. The same set of scans was performed on tumor lesions and contralateral normal tissues of 16 patients with lateral tongue tumors and on two individuals with leukoplakia of the tongue. Ratios of points on the individual scans were used to quantitate data. The excitation scan ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm) and the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm) were able to statistically discriminate the HP and DT from the BM and FOM. The ratios of intensities of neoplastic mucosa and contralateral sites were significantly different with the excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm, p < 0.001) and ((lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm, p < 0.01) and with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm, p < 0.001). Discrimination was significant with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360- 660 nm, p < 0.07). Innate tissue fluorescence has potential as a monitor of cancer patients and populations at risk for head and neck cancer.

  14. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  15. Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid permeation through oral mucosa in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Alleman, Anthony; Lehman, Paul; Blevins, Steve; Stone, Angie; Fink, Louis; Dinehart, Scott; Stern, Scott J.

    1994-07-01

    Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid are photosensitizers that show promise in the photodynamic treatment of cancer, port-wine stains, atherosclerosis and viral lesions. Photofrin is a mixture of porphyrins which, upon the absorption of light, become temporarily cytotoxic. One side-effect associated with the use of Photofrin is long-term cutaneous photosensitivity. It is possible that topical application of this photosensitizing dye will ameliorate such a side-effect. Another way to avoid the cutaneous photosensitivity in photodynamic therapy is to use 5- aminolevulinic acid, which is a porphyrin precursor that causes an increase in the synthesis and concentration of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. 5-aminolevulinic acid is usually applied topically, and so minimizes cutaneous photosensitivity while maximizing the local protoporphyrin concentration. There are a host of disorders in oral mucosa that are potentially treatable by photodynamic therapy. However, since stratum corneum presents an impermeable barrier to many pharmaceuticals, it is not clear that topical application of the photosensitizer will result in a clinically relevant tissue concentration. We have therefore studied the permeation behavior of Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid by applying them to the surface of ex vivo oral mucosa tissue positioned by a Franz diffusion cell. In order to increase the permeability of the photosensitizer across the stratum corneum, we studied the effects of four different drug carriers: phosphate buffered saline, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and Azone with isopropyl alcohol.

  16. Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCDx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Reboiras-López, M D; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity is a simple and noninvasive technique that permits the study of epithelial cells. Liquid-based cytology is an auxiliary diagnostic tool for improving the specificity and sensitivity of conventional cytology. The objective of our study was to compare the quality of normal oral mucosa cytology samples obtained using three different instruments, Cytobrush®, dermatological curette and Oral CDx® for liquid-based cytology. One hundred four cytological samples of oral cavity were analyzed. Samples were obtained from healthy volunteer subjects using all three instruments. The clinical and demographic variables were age, sex and smoking habits. We analyzed cellularity, quality of the preparation and types of cells in the samples. All preparations showed appropriate preparation quality. In all smears analyzed, cells were distributed uniformly and showed no mucus, bleeding, inflammatory exudate or artifacts. We found no correlation between the average number of cells and the type of instrument. The samples generally consisted of two types of cells: superficial and intermediate. No differences were found among the cytological preparations of these three instruments. We did not observe basal cells in any of the samples analyzed.

  17. Evaluation of oral mucosa epithelium in type II diabetic patients by an exfoliative cytology method.

    PubMed

    Jajarm, Hassan Hosseinpour; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Rangiani, Afsaneh

    2008-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that causes chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Although diabetes can cause considerable cellular changes, this field has attracted little research. We therefore decided to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method. In 30 control individuals and 30 patients with type II diabetes, smears were obtained from two distinct oral sites: the buccal mucosa and tongue dorsum. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou solution. Quantitative and qualitative changes were evaluated in each slide. For this purpose, 50 clearly defined cells in each slide were microscopically evaluated, and photographs were subjected to computerized morphometric analysis. Cytoplasmic and nuclear areas in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. The cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio was lower in the control group. At both smear sites, the proportion of cells with nuclear changes was higher in the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in the oral epithelium that are detectable with this exfoliative cytology method. The method may be viable in evaluating this disease.

  18. Treating animal bites: susceptibility of Staphylococci from oral mucosa of cats.

    PubMed

    Muniz, I M; Penna, B; Lilenbaum, W

    2013-11-01

    Infected wounds determined by cats' bites represent high costs to public health, and their adequate treatment relies on the knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial agents found in the oral microbiota. Members of the genus Staphylococcus sp. belong to the microbiota of the oral mucosa of cats and are frequently involved in secondary infections of these wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from oral mucosa of cats. Samples were collected from 200 clinically healthy cats and processed by standard bacteriological methods and tested for susceptibility to a panel of 16 antimicrobials. A total of 212 staphylococci isolates were obtained from 141 of the 200 cats (70.5%), and more than one colony was recognized in 53 cases. Coagulase-negative species were most frequently found (89.6%) distributed among Staphylococcus xylosus (50.9%), Staphylococcus felis (27.4%), Staphylococcus simulans (6.1%) and Staphylococcus sciuri (5.2%). Coagulase-positive species (10.4%) were distributed among Staphylococcus aureus (4.7%) and Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) (5.7%). Regarding to antimicrobial resistance, 178 isolates (83.9%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and rifampicin showed the best results with 100% of sensitive strains. Conversely, high rates of resistance were observed for penicillin and tetracycline (56.1%). The 212 staphylococci isolates and 30 (14.1%) strains were resistant to methicillin (on the disc susceptibility test) and may be preliminarily considered as methicilin-resistant staphylococci. In conclusion, this study reports important rates of antimicrobial resistance among the species of Staphylococcus isolated from clinical specimens of cats, which must be considered for the treating of cats' bites in humans.

  19. Hypermethylation of the p16 gene in normal oral mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    von Zeidler, S Ventorin; Miracca, E C; Nagai, M A; Birman, E G

    2004-11-01

    The oral cavity is the sixth most common anatomical localization of head and neck carcinoma in men. Detection of oral carcinomas in the early asymptomatic stages improves cure rates and the quality of life. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking are the most important known risk factors for the development of head and neck tumors, suggesting that the exposure to these risk factors may increase the predisposition for genetic and epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation. The presence of methylated CpG islands in the promoter region of human genes can suppress their expression due to the presence of 5-methylcytosine that interferes with the binding of transcription factors or other DNA-binding proteins repressing transcription activity. Hypermethylation leading to the inactivation of some tumor suppressor genes, such as p16, has been pointed out as an initial event in head and neck cancer. Our aim was to evaluate an early diagnostic method of oral pre-cancerous lesions through the analysis of methylation of the p16 gene. DNA samples from normal oral mucosa and posterior tongue border from 258 smokers, without oral cancer, were investigated for the occurrence of p16 promoter hypermethylation. The methylation status of the p16 gene was analyzed using MS-PCR (methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and PCR amplification), MSP (Methylation-specific PCR) or direct DNA sequence of bisulfite modified DNA. Hyper-methylation was detected in 9.7% (25/258) of the cases analyzed. These findings provide further evidence that epigenetic alteration, leading to the inactivation of the p16 tumor suppressor gene is an early event that might confer cell growth advantages contributing to the tumorigenic process. Thus, the detection of abnormal p16 methylation pattern may be a valuable tool for early oral cancer detection.

  20. PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC.

  1. The role of autofluorescence diagnostics in the diseases of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciarz-Grzesiok, A.; Waskowska, J.; Kawczyk-Krupka, A.; Ledwon, A.; Misiak, A.; Latos, W.; Koszowski, R.; Sieron-Stoltny, K.; Sieron, A.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction. Life induced fluorescence (LIFE) diagnostics can be used as an imaging system of precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa. Neoplastic lesions are visible in pseudo colours, healthy tissue in green colour and abnormal tissue in red colour. All the observed colours present different intensity. Colour intensity is relevant to the grade of dysplasia, carcinoma progress and is called Numerological Value of Color Index (NCV). The aim of our study was to find correlation between autofluorescence diagnostics combined with NCV assessment and histopathological findings of taken specimen biopsies. Patients and methods. 10 patients participated in our study. Lesions affected a variety of intraoral sites. The most common location was: buccal, gingival and mandibular mucosa. Patients were examined using Life Induced Fluorescence diagnosis (400 - 750 nm wavelength) with Numerological Value of Color index (NCV) using Onco LIFE system. Afterwards the specimen biopsies from the lesions were taken and histopathological examination was performed. Results. Different NCV and dependence of NCV on the histopathological findings were observed. Conclusion. Diagnostic procedures with the application of white-light imaging with LIFE imaging is not only a significantly faster method and a better diagnostic tool of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, but there exist also correlations between measured NCV and histopathological diagnosis. The farther investigations are necessary in order to prove these preliminary findings.

  2. Raman fiberoptic probe for monitoring human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Okagbare, Paul; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    In oral and maxillofacial surgery, there is a need for tissue engineered constructs for dental implants, reconstructions due to trauma, oral cancer or congenital defects. A non-invasive quality monitoring of the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs during their production and implantation is a required component of any successful tissue engineering technique. We demonstrate the design and application of a Raman spectroscopic probe for rapid and noninvasive monitoring of Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs). We conducted in vivo studies to identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs (already developed in vitro), and found that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. This is the first step towards the ultimate goal to design a stand-alone system, which will be usable in a clinical setting, as the data processing and analysis will be performed with minimal user intervention, based on already established and tested Raman spectroscopic indicators for EVPOMEs.

  3. Modeling the Mechanisms by Which HIV-Associated Immunosuppression Influences HPV Persistence at the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Vida; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Leber, Andrew; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Ciupe, Stanca M.

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk of co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), and subsequent malignancies such as oral cancer. To determine the role of HIV-associated immune suppression on HPV persistence and pathogenesis, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the modulation of HPV infection and oral cancer by HIV, we developed a mathematical model of HIV/HPV co-infection. Our model captures known immunological and molecular features such as impaired HPV-specific effector T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses, and enhanced HPV infection due to HIV. We used the model to determine HPV prognosis in the presence of HIV infection, and identified conditions under which HIV infection alters HPV persistence in the oral mucosa system. The model predicts that conditions leading to HPV persistence during HIV/HPV co-infection are the permissive immune environment created by HIV and molecular interactions between the two viruses. The model also determines when HPV infection continues to persist in the short run in a co-infected patient undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, the model predicts that, under efficacious antiretroviral treatment, HPV infections will decrease in the long run due to the restoration of CD4+ T cell numbers and protective immune responses. PMID:28060843

  4. Concanavalin A and ricinus communis receptor sites in normal human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dabelsteen, E; Fejerskov, O; Norén, O; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-01-01

    Fluorescein conjugates of concanavalin A (Con-A) and Ricinus communis fraction 120 (RCA120) were shown to bind to the cell surfaces of basal and spinous cell layers in oral buccal mucosa. Palatal epithelium showed distinct binding to basal and spinous cells; cell membranes in the granular layer occasionally bound Con-A and always RCA120. The ultrastructural localization of Con-A binding sites on exfoliated buccal cells was detected by the Con-A peroxidase staining method. The Con-A receptors were seen on the cell surface in association with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The reaction products appeared as a homogeneous, electron-dense layer containing irregularly distributed globules.

  5. Blood flow and epithelial thickness in different regions of feline oral mucosa and skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G K; Squier, C A; Johnson, W T; Todd, G L

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between epithelial thickness and blood flow was examined in 6 mucosal and 3 skin regions of the cat. Blood flow to these tissues was determined using the radiolabelled microsphere method. From histologic sections the proportion of the tissue biopsy occupied by epithelium and the average epithelial thickness were calculated. The oral tissues had a significantly higher blood flow than the skin regions (p less than 0.05). In terms of epithelial thickness, the tissues could be divided into 4 groups (p less than 0.05). These were: a) palate; b) gingival regions and dorsum of the tongue; c) lip and buccal mucosa; d) all skin regions. When epithelial thickness was related to blood flow there was a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.005) indicating that a thicker epithelium is associated with a higher blood flow. This finding may reflect the greater metabolic demands of the thicker epithelia.

  6. The dynamics of gene expression changes in a mouse model of oral tumorigenesis may help refine prevention and treatment strategies in patients with oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Jean-Philippe; Tortereau, Antonin; Caulin, Carlos; Le Texier, Vincent; Lavergne, Emilie; Thomas, Emilie; Chabaud, Sylvie; Perol, David; Lachuer, Joël; Lang, Wenhua; Hong, Waun Ki; Goudot, Patrick; Lippman, Scott M; Bertolus, Chloé; Saintigny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of the dynamics of molecular changes occurring during the early stages of oral tumorigenesis may help refine prevention and treatment strategies. We generated genome-wide expression profiles of microdissected normal mucosa, hyperplasia, dysplasia and tumors derived from the 4-NQO mouse model of oral tumorigenesis. Genes differentially expressed between tumor and normal mucosa defined the “tumor gene set” (TGS), including 4 non-overlapping gene subsets that characterize the dynamics of gene expression changes through different stages of disease progression. The majority of gene expression changes occurred early or progressively. The relevance of these mouse gene sets to human disease was tested in multiple datasets including the TCGA and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer project. The TGS was able to discriminate oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from normal oral mucosa in 3 independent datasets. The OSCC samples enriched in the mouse TGS displayed high frequency of CASP8 mutations, 11q13.3 amplifications and low frequency of PIK3CA mutations. Early changes observed in the 4-NQO model were associated with a trend toward a shorter oral cancer-free survival in patients with oral preneoplasia that was not seen in multivariate analysis. Progressive changes observed in the 4-NQO model were associated with an increased sensitivity to 4 different MEK inhibitors in a panel of 51 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines of the aerodigestive tract. In conclusion, the dynamics of molecular changes in the 4-NQO model reveal that MEK inhibition may be relevant to prevention and treatment of a specific molecularly-defined subgroup of OSCC. PMID:27027432

  7. Analysis of the influence of parenteral cancer chemotherapy on the health condition of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Mansur; Madej-Czerwonka, Barbara; Jastrzębska-Jamrogiewicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of oral complications in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Material and methods The study was conducted on a group of 58 patients treated with chemotherapy (study group). The control group consisted of 30 healthy patients. Dental status and oral mucosa were examined using the criteria of the National Cancer Institute Toxicity Criteria Scale. The levels of stimulated and unstimulated saliva flow were analysed. Results In the group of patients treated with chemotherapy, 59% of patients had inflammatory changes of the soft tissues of the mouth, such as erythema, erosions, or ulcers, which were discovered during dental examination. Such changes occurred in only 10% of patients in the control group. Six of the patients treated with chemotherapy reported pain with intensity was so severe that it caused swallowing difficulties. Patients in the study group frequently complained about the presence of dry mouth, taste disturbances, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms occurred in 70% of patients undergoing oncological treatment. In both stimulated and unstimulated saliva secretion, the rates were significantly lower in patients from the research group, when compared to the control group. PMID:26199575

  8. Exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa: comparison of two collection methods.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Juliana Brusadin; Lima, Celina Faig; Burim, Rafael Augusto; Brandao, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimaraes; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the sampling efficacy of a cytobrush and metal spatula for exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa. Thirty students with no detectable oral alterations upon clinical examination were submitted to exfoliative cytology of the lateral border of the tongue, using a metal spatula on the left side and a cytobrush on the right side. The smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique and evaluated for cellularity, cell type, cell distribution, homogeneity, and cellular distortion, as well as the presence of mucus, inflammatory infiltrate, and hemorrhage. A statistical test (Z-test) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) showed a significant difference between the metal spatula and cytobrush in terms of cellularity (p = 0.02) and homogeneity (p = 0.01). No difference between the two methods was observed regarding cell type (p = 0.4, Z-test) or cell distribution for the 95% confidence interval (p = 0.2, Fisher's test). Cell distortion and the presence of mucus were observed in five cases that used the metal spatula and in two cases that used the cytobrush. No hemorrhage or inflammatory infiltrate was detected in any of the slides. Based on the results of this study, the cytobrush produced qualitatively better smears in terms of cellularity and homogeneity compared to the metal spatula.

  9. Dynamic changes in cell-surface expression of mannose in the oral epithelium during the development of graft-versus-host disease of the oral mucosa in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of cell-surface glycoconjugates in oral mucosal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still unclear, even though molecular changes in the oral epithelium are essential for the pathogenesis of these lesions. In this study, we investigated changes in the binding of mannose (Man)-specific Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) in the oral mucosa of rats with GVHD. Methods Lewis rat spleen cells were injected into (Lewis x Brown Norway) F1 rats to induce systemic GVHD, including oral mucosal lesions. Tongue and spleen samples were evaluated using lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, transwell migration assays and Stamper-Woodruff binding assays. Results Binding of Man-specific LCA expanded to the epithelial layers of the tongue in GVHD-rats. An expansion of LCA binding was related to the increased expression of mannosyltransferase in the oral mucosa. CD8+ cells, effector cells of oral mucosal GVHD, expressed mannose-binding protein (MBP) and migrated to the medium containing Man in the transwell migration assay. Adherence of CD8+ cells to the oral epithelium could be inhibited by pretreating CD8+ cells with MBP antibody and/or by pretreating sections with Man-specific LCA. Conclusions Increased expression of Man on keratinocytes leads to the migration and/or adhesion of CD8+ cells in the surface epithelium, which is mediated in part by the MBP/Man-binding pathway during the development of oral mucosal GVHD. PMID:24433462

  10. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  11. Biochemical indicators of implantation success of tissue-engineered oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S; Zhou, Y; Kim, H M; Kato, H; Kim, R Y; Bayar, G R; Marcelo, C L; Kennedy, R T; Feinberg, S E

    2015-01-01

    Real-time (RT) determination of the health of in vitro tissue-engineered constructs prior to grafting is essential for prediction of success of the implanted tissue-engineered graft. In addition, the US Food and Drug Administration requires specific release criteria in RT prior to the release of tissue-engineered devices for human use. In principle, assessing the viability and functionality of the cellular component can be achieved by quantifying the secretion of growth factors and chemokines of tissue-engineered constructs. Ex vivo-produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOMEs) were fabricated under thermally stressed conditions at 43 °C for 24 h to create a functionally compromised EVPOME. We used microchannel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to evaluate the functionality of the cellular component, oral keratinocytes, of stressed and unstressed EVPOMEs by measuring the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and -2) into the spent medium, which was collected on the same day prior to graft implantation into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Implanted EVPOMEs' histology on the seventh postimplantation day was used to correlate outcomes of grafting to secreted amounts of IL-8, hBD-1, VEGF, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 from corresponding EVPOMEs. Our findings showed that significantly higher levels of IL-8, hBD-1, and TIMP-2 were secreted from controls than from thermally stressed EVPOMEs. We also found a direct correlation between secreted VEGF and IL-8 and blood vessel counts of implanted EVPOMEs. We concluded that measuring the constitutive release of these factors can be used as noninvasive predictors of healthy tissue-engineered EVPOMEs in RT, prior to their implantation.

  12. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  13. Tissue-Engineered Constructs of Human Oral Mucosa Examined by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kainkaryam, Raghu; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    A noninvasive quality monitoring of tissue-engineered constructs is a required component of any successful tissue-engineering technique. During a 2-week production period, ex vivo produced oral mucosa-equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs) may encounter adverse culturing conditions that might compromise their quality and render them ineffective. We demonstrate the application of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to in vitro monitoring of EVPOMEs during their manufacturing process, with the ultimate goal of applying this technology in situ to monitor the grafted EVPOMEs. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for less-than optimal EVPOMEs that are stressed by higher temperature and exposure to higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal and calcium stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We compared these results to histology and glucose consumption measurements, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is more sensitive and specific to changes in proteins' secondary structure not visible by H&E histology. We also exposed the EVPOMEs to rapamycin, a cell growth inhibitor and cell proliferation capacity preserver, and distinguished between EVPOMEs pretreated with 2 nM rapamycin and controls, using the ratio of the Amide III envelope to the phenylalanine band as an indicator. PMID:22992065

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Mucoadhesive Film Containing Acmella oleracea Extract for Oral Mucosa Topical Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Santana de Freitas-Blanco, Verônica; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Serpe, Luciano; Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Guilherme Damasio, Viviane Aparecida; Yamane, Lais Thiemi; de Paula, Eneida; Ferreira Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an anesthetic mucoadhesive film containing Acmella oleracea (jambu) extract for topical use on oral mucosa. Methods Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of jambu were prepared by maceration. Pigment removal was obtained by adsorption with activated carbon. Three mucoadhesive films were developed using a film casting method: 10 or 20% of crude jambu extract (10% JB and 20% JB), and 10% of crude jambu extract treated with activated carbon (10% JBC). The mucoadhesive films were characterized regarding their uniformity, thickness, pH, and spilanthol content, and their stability was evaluated during 120 days. Gas chromatography was used to quantify the amount of spilanthol. In vitro tests determined the permeation of spilanthol across pig esophageal epithelium mucosa in Franz diffusion cells. Topical anesthetic efficacy was assessed in vivo using a tail flick test in mice. Results The three mucoadhesive films showed physical stability and visual appearances suitable for use on oral mucosa. The permeation study revealed that the spilanthol from 10% JBC presented higher flux and permeability coefficient values, compared to 10% or 20% JB (p < 0.001). Moreover, 10% JBC showed better topical anesthetic efficacy than the other films (p < 0.01). Conclusion Mucoadhesive film containing crude extract of jambu treated with activated carbon is a potential alternative for oral, topical use, encouraging future clinical studies. PMID:27626796

  15. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol: A prospective double blind control study

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine®] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients. Key words:Mouth wash, oral mucosa, cytological change, alcohol. PMID:23085712

  16. Identification of gentian violet concentration that does not stain oral mucosa, possesses anti-candidal activity and is well tolerated.

    PubMed

    Jurevic, R J; Traboulsi, R S; Mukherjee, P K; Salata, R A; Ghannoum, M A

    2011-05-01

    Gentian violet (GV) is recommended for initial treatment of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Currently GV is not used because of its staining effects. In this study, we investigated the staining capacity of three different concentrations of GV to determine a concentration that does not cause staining. The selected concentration that did not cause staining was evaluated for its physical stability and antifungal activity. Fifteen healthy participants were randomized to rinse twice daily for 14 days with one of three GV concentrations: 0.1%, 0.0085%, or 0.00165%. Oral examination and intra-oral photographs were performed at baseline and at the end of therapy. Participants responded to a questionnaire to assess adverse events. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute methodology. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% did not stain the oral mucosa and was well tolerated. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% was stable and possessed antifungal activity when stored at certain temperatures for different time periods. Gentian violet solution at the concentration of 0.00165% does not stain the oral mucosa, is stable and possesses potent antifungal activity.

  17. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression. PMID:21129222

  18. Human papillomavirus-32-associated focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying HPV-16-positive papilloma-like lesions in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Wang, Jiayi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Min; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Finally, human papillomavirus-32-positive focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying human papillomavirus-16-positive oral papilloma-like lesions were detected in different sites of the oral mucosa. Nucleotide sequence sequencing further confirmed the results. So in our clinical work, if the simultaneous occurrences of different human papillomavirus associated lesions are suspected, the multiple biopsies from different lesions and detection of human papillomavirus genotype are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  19. Performance of full-pupil line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2011-01-01

    Point-scanning reflectance confocal microscopes continue to be successfully translated for detection of skin cancer. Line-scanning, with the use of a single scanner and a linear-array detector, offers a potentially smaller, simpler and lower cost alternative approach, to accelerate widespread dissemination into the clinic. However, translation will require an understanding of imaging performance deep within scattering and aberrating human tissues. We report the results of an investigation of the performance of a full-pupil line-scanning reflectance confocal microscope in human skin and oral mucosa, in terms of resolution, optical sectioning, contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, imaging and the effect of speckle noise. PMID:21750780

  20. Bacillus species are present in chewing tobacco sold in the United States and evoke plasma exudation from the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Israel; Pedersen, Gerald W

    2002-09-01

    Five Bacillus species, predominantly Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus, were isolated from two popular brands of commercially available chewing tobacco [(5.0 +/- 1) x 10(6) CFU/ml of supernatant; results for four experiments]. Moreover, the supernatant of the Bacillus culture evoked plasma exudation from postcapillary venules in the intact hamster cheek pouch, exudation that was mediated by the kallikrein/kinin metabolic pathway. Taken together, these data indicate that Bacillus species contaminate chewing tobacco commercially available in the United States and elaborate a potent exogenous virulence factor(s) that injures the oral mucosa.

  1. [Reconstruction of oral mucosa with a micro-vascularized fascia-cutaneous flap from the forearm].

    PubMed

    Burgueño García, Miguel; Cebrián Carretero, José Luis; Muñoz Caro, Jesús Manuel; Arias Gallo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Epidermoid carcinoma of jugal mucosa is an aggressive tumor. Its treatment is based on broad excision and reconstruction in order to avoid fibrosis and restriction of mouth opening. Neck dissection and radiotherapy are indicated in selected cases. We display our experience with microvascularized flaps with the aim of preventing the flaws. We reconsider 8 patients (representing 10 flaps) handle in our Department. Besides we discuss other therapeutic alternatives after the growth's removal. The conclusion reached is that the mucovascularized forearm flaps give a great quantity of thin tissue and therefore so results to be the best option for the reconstruction of the jugal mucosa.

  2. Usage of low-intensity laser radiation for the treatment of the inflammatory processes of the oral cavity mucosa after applying removable plate dentures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivradzhiyan, Edvard; Lesnykh, Nikolay; Kunin, Vadim; Mutafyan, Mikhail

    1995-04-01

    Effective methods of reveling overload zones of the oral mucosa under the bases of plane dentures, the effect of low intensity laser radiation ont he increase of its resistance are discussed. At present removable plate dentures of different modifications to a certain degree restore aesthetic proportions of the face, phonetics and malfunction of the teeth and jaws. Besides, removable bridge are known not to secure even distribution of mastication pressure along the whole dentures bed which results in the development of inflammatory and dystrophic processes, and, finally in the accelerated atrophy of the oral mucosa and bony tissue of the alveolar process of upper and alveolar parts of the mandible. Many papers are devoted to the anti-inflammatory effect of laser therapy. Improvement of metabolic processes and revascularization of the dentures bed mucosa, normalization of the oral microflora structure, anesthetizing effect is noted too. At the same time there are no papers about studying the therapeutic effect of low intensity laser radiation intraumatic dentures stomatitis, inflammation of the oral mucosa in the literature available for us. To increase the functional effectiveness of removable plate dentures, profilaxy of inflammation and dystrophic phenomena and to decrease adaptation period we have developed methods of early detection of overload zone of oral mucosa at the initial stages of acute inflammation with the help of macrohistochemical reaction. Visible with the naked eye for the timely and precise correction of the dentures.

  3. [A comparative study on the responses of blood vessels of oral mucosa to thermal stimulation in dentulous and edentulous subjects].

    PubMed

    Naitoh, T; Torii, K; Kobayashi, Y

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the characteristic changes of vasculature in edentulous alveolar mucosa and the effect of wearing a complete denture during sleep. Thermal stimulations were applied to the oral mucosa of five normal subjects and five completely edentulous patients and the responses of blood vessels were observed using both Impedance Plethysmography (IMP) and Reflection Photoelectric Plethysmography (RPP). Quantitative comparisons were made between edentulous patients and dentulous normal subjects, and between patients wearing complete dentures during sleep and those who do not. The following results were obtained. 1) The responses of blood vessels were divided into four groups. Type 1 showed dilatation in IMP and RPP. Type 2 showed dilatation but had late initial rising in IMP. Type 3 showed initial contraction in either or both IMP and RPP, and followed by dilatation few seconds later. Type 4 showed no changes in RPP but dilatation in IMP. 2) There was definite difference between edentulous and dentulous subjects in the frequency of exhibition of each type. Especially for the edentulous patients type 4 was observed in all stimulation temperature. 3) For the dentulous subjects there were more cases showing responses of RPP in digital apex than those do not. This was most conspicuous at the 50 degrees C stimulation. However for the edentulous patients there were about equal number of each cases. 4) The responses of blood vessels for both dentulous and edentulous subjects became greater and blood volume increased both with time at each temperature and as the stimulation temperature were raised. However the increase in the response was greater for the edentulous patients when the stimulation temperature was raised from 0 degrees C to 50 degrees C. 5) The responses of blood vessels became greater after two weeks when complete dentures were worn during sleep at night. And when dentures were not worn during sleep the responses decreased to a

  4. Receptors for the lectins wheat germ. Ricinus communis I and soybean in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, E

    1981-11-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for the lectins Wheat germ (WGA). Ricinus communis I (RCA I) and Soybean (SBA) was examined in ameloblastomas and normal oral mucosa from 12 patients. The study utilized fluorescein-conjugated WGA, RCA I and SBA. Cell-membrane bound receptors for these 3 lectins were demonstrated in the spinous cell layer of the normal oral mucosa. WGA and RCA I receptors were also located in the basal cell layer, whereas SBA receptors were not detectable there. Cell-membrane bound WGA receptors were shown in the epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. Titrations showed significant differences in staining reactivity related to the morphology of the peripheral epithelial cells of the ameloblastomas. The distribution of RCA I and SBA receptors in the peripheral cells was also related to the morphology of these cells and was independent of the histological types of the tumours. It is suggested that the distribution of these receptors is related to cellular activities such as cell differentiation and cell migration in the tumour and therefore possibly reflects the biological behavior of the tumours.

  5. Astrocyte-Like Cells Derived From Human Oral Mucosa Stem Cells Provide Neuroprotection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Javier; Arie, Ina; Ben-Zur, Tali; Dadon-Nachum, Michal; Pour, Sammy; Araidy, Shareef; Offen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC) are a recently described neural crest-derived stem cell population. Therapeutic quantities of potent hOMSC can be generated from small biopsies obtained by minimally invasive procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of hOMSC to differentiate into astrocyte-like cells and provide peripheral neuroprotection. We induced hOMSC differentiation into cells showing an astrocyte-like morphology that expressed characteristic astrocyte markers as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100β, and the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 and secreted neurotrophic factors (NTF) such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor 1. Conditioned medium of the induced cells rescued motor neurons from hypoxia or oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a neuroprotective effect mediated by soluble factors. Given the neuronal support (NS) ability of the cells, the differentiated cells were termed hOMSC-NS. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury and transplanted with hOMSC-NS showed improved motor function after transplantation. At the graft site we found the transplanted cells, increased levels of NTF, and a significant preservation of functional neuromuscular junctions, as evidenced by colocalization of α-bungarotoxin and synaptophysin. Our findings show for the first time that hOMSC-NS generated from oral mucosa exhibit neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo and point to their future therapeutic use in neural disorders. PMID:24477074

  6. Effectiveness of vital staining with iodine solution in reducing local recurrence after resection of dysplastic or malignant oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Kamata, Takahiro; Li, Xiangjun; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Shimane, Tetsu; Koike, Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of vital staining with iodine solution in reducing local recurrence after resection of dysplastic or malignant oral mucosa. The historical control group had dysplastic or malignant mucosal lesions resected solely on the evidence of direct inspection and palpation. In the vital staining group tissue was resected only after vital staining with iodine solution. Seven of 25 patients in the conventional group developed recurrent dysplastic or cancerous oral mucosa around the primary site, while no patient among 23 reported recurrence in the vital staining group (p<0.01). Kaplan-Meier assessment showed that the 5-year primary control rate was 100% in the vital staining group and 75% in the conventional group. Although this retrospective study has some limitations, the results suggest that vital staining with iodine may be useful in reducing the incidence of recurrence of dysplastic or cancerous epithelium at a primary site. Further well-controlled study is essential.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa after release of submucous fibrosis and bilateral small radial forearm flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Celik, Naci; Wei, Fu-chan; Chang, Yang-ming; Yang, Wen-guei; Chen, Da-jeng; Tsai, Chi-ying

    2002-07-01

    carcinoma of the intraoral mucosa. High risk of cancer occurrence strongly indicates the importance of an earlier and more aggressive surgical approach toward submucous fibrosis, and long-term follow-up on a regular basis. The purpose of an early and aggressive approach to submucous fibrosis is to provide a good quality of life to the patient by improving oral hygiene and oral intake quality and at the same time to obtain a sufficient mouth opening, which is mandatory for the inspection of the excision site and the remaining oral mucosa during follow-up.

  8. Effects of aging in the expression of NOD-like receptors and Inflammasome-related genes in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kirakodu, Sreenatha; Novak, M. John; Exposto, Cristina R.; Stromberg, Arnold J.; Shen, Shu; Orraca, Luis; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Gonzalez, Octavio A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and 7 inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult and aged nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip® Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by qRT-PCR. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g., NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g., NLRC2/NOD2, and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in IL-1β expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with down-regulation of specific NLRs and IRGs. PMID:26197995

  9. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-03-30

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

  10. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis

    PubMed Central

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis. PMID:27025263

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 in oral carcinoma cells and gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Go; Midorikawa, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Yasutaka; Takeyama, Mayu; Yamada, Kenji; Nozawa, Takaomi; Morikawa, Masako; Imai, Kazushi

    2013-07-01

    Oral carcinoma patients with inactivation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) expression worsen their prognoses. Although the genetic mutation could be responsible for the inactivation, no information is available at present. In the present study, genomic DNA of oral carcinoma cells (HOC313, TSU, HSC2, HSC3, KOSC2, KOSC3, SCCKN, OSC19, Ca9.22, and Ho1u1 cells) and normal gingival fibroblasts (GF12 cells) derived from a Japanese population were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primer sets spanning MALT1 exons, and nucleotide substitutions were analyzed by the single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The substitutions were commonly observed in all cells, which express MALT1 at various levels. The substitutions at exons 1 and 9 were located at the 5' untranslated region and replaced (336)Asp to Asn, respectively, and others were positioned at the introns. Among the intronic substitutions, four were matched with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) registered at the database. Since all cells were derived from a Japanese population, all substitutions detected are the SNPs. Absence of the carcinoma cell-specific mutation suggests that the inactivation of MALT1 expression but not the mutation promotes oral carcinoma progression.

  12. Miconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for local delivery to the oral mucosa: improving antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, A I; Silva, A C; Catita, J A M; Cerqueira, F; Gabriel, C; Lopes, C M

    2013-11-01

    Miconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with poor aqueous solubility, which requires the development of drug delivery systems able to improve its therapeutic activity. For this purpose, a miconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) dispersion was prepared and characterized. Further, the dispersion was used to prepare a NLC-based hydrogel formulation proposed as an alternative system to improve the local delivery of miconazole to the oral mucosa. NLC dispersion showed particles in the nanometer range (≈ 200 nm) with low polidispersity index (<0.3), good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency (>87%). A controlled miconazole release was observed from NLC and NLC-based hydrogel formulations, in contrast to a commercial oral gel formulation, which demonstrated a faster release. Additionally, it was observed that the encapsulation of miconazole in the NLC improved its antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the encapsulation of miconazole in NLC allows for obtaining the same therapeutic effect of a commercial oral gel formulation, using a 17-fold lower dose of miconazole.

  13. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Guttenplan, Joseph B; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2012-06-15

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity.

  14. Genotoxic effect of chronic exposure to DDT on lymphocytes, oral mucosa and breast cells of female rats.

    PubMed

    Canales-Aguirre, Alejandro; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Salado-Ponce, Hugo; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth

    2011-02-01

    The genotoxicity of some environmental contaminants may affect human health directly by damaging genetic material and thus plays an important role in cancer development. Xenoestrogens are one kind of environmental pollutants that may alter hormonal routes or directly affect DNA. The number of available biomarkers used to assess genetic risk and cancer is very extensive. The present study evaluated genotoxicity produced by the pesticide DDT on systemic and mammary gland cells obtained from adult female Wistar rats. Oral mucosa cells micronuclei were assessed; the comet assay in peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells was also carried out. Additionally, oxidative stress was studied in mammary tissue through a lipid peroxidation assay. Our data showed an increase in lipid peroxidation, product of an increase in free oxygen radical levels, which leads to an oxidative stress status. Our results suggest that DDT is genotoxic, not only for lymphocytes but also to mammary epithelial cells.

  15. Orally administered phenylbutazone causes oxidative stress in the equine gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Aranzales, J R; Cândido de Andrade, B S; Silveira Alves, G E

    2015-06-01

    Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is widely used in equine medicine, and its side effects on the gastrointestinal tract are well known. The inhibition of prostaglandins and the oxidative stress induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are described as mechanisms of gastric mucosal injury in humans. In horses, only the secondary effect of changes in cyclooxygenases is related to gastric mucosal injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PBZ on certain antioxidative/oxidative parameters of the gastric mucosa. The concentrations of antioxidants and oxidants (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; nitric oxide, NO; total glutathione, GSH; myeloperoxidase, MPO; and malondialdehyde, MDA), PGE2 levels, and the ulcerative lesions score were assessed. The results demonstrated decreased levels of antioxidant variables, increased levels of oxidant variables, and alterations in the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. In conclusion, PBZ induces oxidative stress in the gastric glandular mucosa of horses by changing the antioxidant-oxidant balance of this surface, which might be regarded as another mechanism of injury in the horse stomach.

  16. A histochemical comparison of methyl green-pyronin, and hematoxylin and eosin for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sumedha, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Somannavar, P; Nayak, R; Babji, D

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of apoptotic cells in oral pathological states could be useful for determining the rates of tissue turnover, which would help determine prognosis. The use of histochemical stains such as hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and methyl green-pyronin (MGP) can provide a simple and cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells. We compared the efficacy of MGP and H & E for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia (OL), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Ten cases each of OSCC, OSMF, OL and NOM were retrieved from the archives and two serial sections were stained, one with H & E and the other with MGP. Apoptotic cells were identified at 100 x magnification and the apoptotic index was calculated. Apoptotic cells were distinguished more readily in MGP stained sections than in those stained with H & E. Also, the apoptotic cell count was greater in OSCC compared to OL, OSMF and NOM. We concluded that MGP staining can be used as a routine, cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells.

  17. Carbon ions and X‑rays induce pro‑inflammatory effects in 3D oral mucosa models with and without PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Tschachojan, Viktoria; Schroer, Henrike; Averbeck, Nicole; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Oral mucositis is a severe complication of radiotherapy. Hence, it may constitute a serious medical safety risk for astronauts during extended space flights, such as missions to Mars, during which they are exposed to heavy-ion irradiation. For risk assessment of developing radiation-induced mucositis, a three-dimensional (3D) organotypic oral mucosa model was irradiated with 12C heavy ions or X‑rays. The present study focused mainly on early radiation‑induced effects, such as the activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the expression or release of pro-inflammatory marker molecules. The 3D oral mucosa models with or without peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were irradiated with X‑rays or 12C heavy ions followed by snap freezing. Subsequently, cryosections were derived from the specimens, which were immunostained for analysis of compactness, DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and activation of NFκB. Radiation‑induced release of interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 8 (IL8) was quantified by ELISA. Quantification of the DNA damage in irradiated mucosa models revealed distinctly more DSB after heavy-ion irradiation compared to X‑rays at definite time points, suggesting a higher gene toxicity of heavy ions. NFκB activation was observed after treatment with X‑rays or 12C particles. ELISA analyses showed significantly higher IL6 and IL8 levels after irradiation with X‑rays and 12C particles compared to non-irradiated controls, whereas co‑cultures including PBMCs released 2 to 3-fold higher interleukin concentrations compared to mucosa models without PBMCs. In this study, we demonstrated that several pro-inflammatory markers are induced by X‑rays and heavy-ion irradiation within an oral mucosa model. This suggests that oral mucositis indeed poses a risk for astronauts on extended space flights.

  18. Protection of the Oral Mucosa by Salivary Histatin-5 against Candida albicans in an Ex Vivo Murine Model of Oral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian M.; Zhu, Jingsong; Fidel, Paul L.; Scheper, Mark A.; Hackett, William; Shaye, Sara El; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity is a primary target for opportunistic infections, particularly oral candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. A commensal fungus commonly colonizing mucosal surfaces, under conditions of immune dysfunction C. albicans can become a pathogen causing recurrent infections. Yet, the role of host oral innate immunity in the development of candidiasis is not fully elucidated. Specifically, the host salivary antimicrobial peptide histatin-5 (Hst-5) has been proposed to play a protective role in the oral cavity against C. albicans. However, investigations demonstrating its efficacy oral tissue have been lacking. To that end in this study, an ex vivo murine model of infection was developed. Viable C. albicans counts and histopathological analyses demonstrated a significant protective effect for Hst-5 on mouse oral tissue against C. albicans. More importantly, host saliva exerted a comparable anti-candidal effect. However, this effect was neutralized upon treatment of saliva with proteases and C. albicans, previously shown to degrade Hst-5, indicating that Hst-5 is likely the salivary component responsible for the observed protection. Combined, the findings from this study demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of salivary Hst-5 in protecting host tissue against C. albicans infection, thereby affirming the therapeutic potential of this natural host peptide. PMID:20491938

  19. Valuation of exfoliative cytology as prediction factor in oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Brunotto, Mabel; Zárate, Ana María; Cismondi, Adriana; Fernández, María del Carmen; Noher de Halac, Rita Inés

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was immunolabeling oncoproteins Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 in order to evaluate their expression in premalignant and malignant stomatological lesions in oral epithelial, and to compare this expression with exfoliative cytology alterations in the same patients. It was studied biopsies and cytologies of 13 subjects with oral lichen planus, with or without Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma clinically diagnosed and confirmed by anatomopathological studies. The oral lichen planus lesion presented binuclei orange cells; and in leukoplakia lesions only orange stained was observed; meanwhile koilocytes, inflammatory cells, enlarge nuclear volume and pathogenic microorganisms were observed in the HPV infections and squamous cells carcinoma (SCC). The Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 proteins were found modified in the leukoplakia, oral lichen planus and cancer. Cytological alterations and positive immunolabeling or over-expression of Ck14 cytokeratine in the upper epithelial stratus should be indicator of malignant transformations as doing subsequence exams.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  1. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  2. Surgical Outcomes of Porcine Acellular Dermis Graft in Anophthalmic Socket: Comparison with Oral Mucosa Graft

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Livia; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Kim, Chang Yeom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We describe our experience with the Permacol graft in anophthalmic socket reconstruction, and compare it to the autologous buccal mucosal graft, emphasizing the postoperative vascularization and contraction of each graft. Methods This was a retrospective comparative study. We measured the time necessary for the graft surface to be completely vascularized, as well as the fornix depth of the conjunctival sac in anophthalmic patients. Results Ten patients underwent Permacol graft reconstruction, with 44 undergoing buccal mucosal graft reconstruction. Seven eyelids (70%) in the Permacol group had a good outcome, with improvement in lower eyelid position and prosthesis retention. Nine out of 10 eyelids (90%) in this group showed complete vascularization of the graft at 2.6 ± 1.9 months postoperatively, while the grafted buccal mucosa was fully vascularized at 1.1 ± 0.3 months postoperatively (p < 0.01). Postoperative fornix depth in the Permacol group was 9.1 ± 2.2 mm, compared to 14.9 ± 4.5 mm in the buccal mucosal graft group (p < 0.01). Mean increases in fornix depth were 33.1% and 67.9% of the mean vertical length of the implanted graft. Conclusions The Permacol graft can be useful as spacer graft material in anophthalmic socket patients. It takes longer to vascularize, and undergoes greater graft shrinkage with time, compared to the buccal mucosal graft. PMID:28243018

  3. Oral mucosa as a source of Mycobacterium leprae infection and transmission, and implications of bacterial DNA detection and the immunological status.

    PubMed

    Martinez, T S; Figueira, M M N R; Costa, A V; Gonçalves, M A; Goulart, L R; Goulart, I M B

    2011-11-01

    Leprosy is an important health problem in Brazil despite extensive use of multidrug therapy. The nasal mucosa is the preferential site of entry and exit of Mycobacterium leprae, and although lesions have been found in the oral mucosa, its potential involvement in the transmission of leprosy bacilli has never been investigated. We investigated the presence of the M. leprae DNA in buccal swabs of leprosy patients (334) and household contacts (1288) through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and correlated this with clinical and laboratorial evaluations. The overall positivity for patients and contacts was 18.26% and 6.83%, respectively. Subclinical infection among contacts was considered when PCR and anti-PGL-1 ELISA presented positive results. This study provides evidence that the oral mucosa may be a secondary site of M. leprae transmission and infection, and contacts with bacillary DNA may be actively involved in transmission. We have also shown that bacilli DNA is more frequently found in the oral mucosa of PB patients. Our findings have great epidemiological relevance and indicate an additional strategy for leprosy control programmes and dental clinics.

  4. A study on the differences between oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosas measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Y; Yoshida, S; Yanagisawa, S; Shimizu, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the differences of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal gingival epithelium (NGE) or normal subgingival tissue (NST). We used 15 specimens of OSCC which had not been treated before measurement and 10 of NGE or NST. We also used cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma (COSCC) and the tissue (MSCC) which massed for 3 months after the cultured oral squamous cell carcinoma was transplanted into the lower back of a rat. Those tissue spectra were compared with the purified human collagens and human keratin. One half of every tissue specimen was measured with FTIR and the other half was investigated histologically. The differences of FTIR spectra between OSCC and NGE were observed in the bands between 1431 and 1482 cm(-1) and between 1183 and 1274 cm(-1). The shoulder at 1368 cm(-1) tended to disappear in OSCC, and the peaks at 1246 and 1083 cm(-1) found in NGE tended to shift to those at 1242 and 1086 cm(-1) in OSCC, respectively. The infrared spectrum of NST was noticed to be strongly influenced by the presence of collagen. Significant differences were also observed in the second derivative FTIR spectra between OSCC and NGE. Our data suggested that this infrared technique is applicable to clinical diagnostics.

  5. Effects of curcumin and capsaicin irradiated with visible light on murine oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Okada, Norihisa; Muraoka, Eitoku; Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Machino, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of curcumin and capsaicin, with or without visible light (VL) irradiation for 5 min, on the oral mucous membrane in mice. Capsaicin-treated, but not curcumin-treated, buccal epithelium exhibited slight tissue damage; VL irradiation caused excessive tissue damage, particularly when combined with the former treatment. The TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method demonstrated that both capsaicin and curcumin induced apoptosis, with the apoptotic effect of capsaicin appearing at an early stage of application. VL irradiation increased the number of apoptotic cells, particularly those upon in the capsaicin-treated area. Capsaicin and curcumin acted as photosensitizers exposure to VL, in the presence of oxygen. Curcumin and capsaicin with VL irradiation could thus be used for photodynamic therapy in the clinical setting, especially in precancerous oral diseases.

  6. Automated segmentation of oral mucosa from wide-field OCT images (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldan, Ryan N.; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Cahill, Lucas; Liu, Kelly; MacAulay, Calum; Poh, Catherine F.; Lane, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can discriminate morphological tissue features important for oral cancer detection such as the presence or absence of basement membrane and epithelial thickness. We previously reported an OCT system employing a rotary-pullback catheter capable of in vivo, rapid, wide-field (up to 90 x 2.5mm2) imaging in the oral cavity. Due to the size and complexity of these OCT data sets, rapid automated image processing software that immediately displays important tissue features is required to facilitate prompt bed-side clinical decisions. We present an automated segmentation algorithm capable of detecting the epithelial surface and basement membrane in 3D OCT images of the oral cavity. The algorithm was trained using volumetric OCT data acquired in vivo from a variety of tissue types and histology-confirmed pathologies spanning normal through cancer (8 sites, 21 patients). The algorithm was validated using a second dataset of similar size and tissue diversity. We demonstrate application of the algorithm to an entire OCT volume to map epithelial thickness, and detection of the basement membrane, over the tissue surface. These maps may be clinically useful for delineating pre-surgical tumor margins, or for biopsy site guidance.

  7. Oral manifestations in Urbach--Wiethe disease (lipoglycoproteinosis; lipoid proteinosis; hyalinosis cutis et mucosae).

    PubMed

    Hofer, P A; Bergenholtz, A

    1975-01-01

    The oral manifestations in 27 patients with Urbach--Wiethe disease (UWD) discovered in Northern Sweden are described. The oral regions most frequently affected are the lips, the back of the tongue, the frenulum of the tongue, the palate and the back wall of the pharynx. The general impression is that older patients usually have more marked manifestations than younger, indicating that the oral lesions may become more severe with increasing age. Histopathologically, the disorder is essentially a microangiopathy in which the walls of small blood vessels are thick and PAS-positive, indicating the presence of glycoproteins. In clinically affected regions there are usually PAS-positive extravascular deposits. In material used of lipid histochemical studies, sudanophil droplets were found in the vessel walls. By staining with osmium tetroxide the osmium is--contrary to previous assumptions--in some way bound to the droplets, but for unknown reasons is not reduced to a coloured product. The binding of osmium was demonstrated by the OTAN (osmium textroxide alpha-naphthylamine) method. The exact significance of this finding awaits further studies. The implications of dental anomalies occurring in UWD are discussed.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  9. [The informative value of determination of the cytological status of nasal and oral mucosae in the assessment of the quality of water].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Gorelova, Zh Iu; Aleksandrova, V P; Aleksandrovskiĭ, S B; Shamarin, A A; Sevost'ianova, E M

    2005-01-01

    The nasal and oral mucosal cytological status was studied in children of a control kindergarten who used boiled Moscow tap water and in those of two experimental kindergartens who had drunk bottled "Troitsa" water supplemented by a fortified "Zolotoy Shar" drink for 6 months. Impression smears were taken from their nasal and oral mucosae twice: before and 6 months after water use. The data presented indicate that the use of the water of improved quality in its trace and vitamin contents may be used in preventive and rehabilitative medicine as it leads to improvement of the nasal and oral cytological status, by normalizing and/or positively affecting the latter.

  10. Regionalization of pIgR expression in the mucosa of mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo A; Reina-Garfias, Humberto; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Rivera-Aguilar, Víctor; Miliar-García, Angel; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2010-01-18

    Few reports exist on the differences in cell populations or immunological functions between the proximal and distal segments of the small intestine (SI). In the current contribution we analyzed the expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and alpha chains as well as the density of IgA-producing cells from the proximal and distal intestinal segments from Balb/c mice. Furthermore, by using real-time RT-PCR we quantified the expression of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-4 and TGF-beta), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) involved in pIgR expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). In this study, for the first time it has been demonstrated that the expression of the pIgR as well as alpha chain was greater in the proximal than the distal segment of the small intestine of normal mice. Moreover, we found striking differences in the expression of cytokines at the different intestinal compartments. Whereas the expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta was higher in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) of the distal than proximal segment, it was higher in IEC of the proximal than distal segment. In contrast, the expression of the gene for IL-4 was higher in the LPL of the proximal segment and the IEC of the distal segment. Although the overall expression of TNF-alpha, IL-4, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta was higher in the whole mucosa of the distal than proximal segment, we propose that cytokines produced by epithelial cells (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta) autocrinally up-regulate the expression of mRNA for the pIgR. Finally the expression of the GR was higher in the proximal segment, while the expression of the gene for TLR-4 was significantly higher in the IEC of the distal than proximal segment. The higher expression of pIgR found in the proximal segment is probably related to the effect on epithelial cells of the higher production of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta, as well as the higher expression of the

  11. Hierarchical deconstruction of mouse olfactory sensory neurons: from whole mucosa to single-cell RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Luis R; Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Khan, Mona; Omura, Masayo; Scialdone, Antonio; Mombaerts, Peter; Marioni, John C; Logan, Darren W

    2015-12-16

    The mouse olfactory mucosa is a complex chemosensory tissue composed of multiple cell types, neuronal and non-neuronal. We have here applied RNA-seq hierarchically, in three steps of decreasing cellular heterogeneity: starting with crude tissue samples dissected from the nose, proceeding to flow-cytometrically sorted pools of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), and finally arriving at single mature OSNs. We show that 98.9% of intact olfactory receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mature OSNs. We uncover a hitherto unknown bipartition among mature OSNs. We find that 19 of 21 single mature OSNs each express a single intact OR gene abundantly, consistent with the one neuron-one receptor rule. For the 9 single OSNs where the two alleles of the abundantly expressed OR gene exhibit single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we demonstrate that monoallelic expression of the abundantly expressed OR gene is extremely tight. The remaining two single mature OSNs lack OR gene expression but express Trpc2 and Gucy1b2. We establish these two cells as a neuronal cell type that is fundamentally distinct from canonical, OR-expressing OSNs and that is defined by the differential, higher expression of 55 genes. We propose this tiered experimental approach as a paradigm to unravel gene expression in other cellularly heterogeneous systems.

  12. Preservation of epithelial progenitor cells from collagenase-digested oral mucosa during ex vivo cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Jen; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Hung-Chi; Wu, Sung-En; Wang, Tze-Kai; Sun, Chi-Chin; Ma, Kevin Sheng-Kai; Chen, Jan-Kan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To avoid xenogeneic infection, we report a novel protocol for producing animal-derived component-free oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) sheet for transplantation, in which collagenase was used to replace dispase II/trypsin-EDTA for digesting oral mucosal tissue, and human platelet-derived PLTMax to replace fetal bovine serum. The resulting epithelial aggregates were expanded on de-epithelialized amniotic membranes without 3T3 feeder cells, and serum-free EpiLife was used to reduce contamination by submucosal mesenchymal cells. The OMEC sheets thus generated showed similar positive keratin 3/76-positive and keratin 8-negative staining patterns compared with those generated by the original protocol. Colony formation efficiency assay, BrdU label retention assay, and p63 and p75NTR immunostaining results indicated that higher proliferative potentials and more progenitor cells were preserved by the modified protocol. TaqMan array analysis revealed that the transcription of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was up-regulated along with an increase in β-catenin signaling and its downstream cell cycle modulators, cyclin D1 and p27KIP1. Furthermore, ILK silencing led to the inhibition of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, suppressed p63 expression, and reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and p27KIP1; these observations suggest that ILK/β-catenin pathway may be involved in cell proliferation regulation during the ex vivo expansion of OMECs for transplantation purposes. PMID:27824126

  13. Oral epithelial atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, peppers and hot meals, using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ebnoof, Syda Omer M Ali; Hussein, Mohmmed Omer M; Gbreel, Afra Yousif A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate cytological atypical changes in apparently healthy oral mucosa exposed to smoking, alcohol, hot meals, and peppers using the AgNOR and Papanicolaou methods. A total of 180 individuals were evaluated, of which 60 were smokers, 34 were alcohol users, 52 were habitual peppers and hot meal (exposed) consumers, 24 were non-exposed, and 10 were patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), as an internal control. Cytological materials were obtained by brushing of buccal mucosa, on the border of the tongue and on the floor of the mouth, and participants underwent the Papanicolaou test for cytological changes and AgNOR staining for evaluation of the mean number of AgNOR dots per nucleus. SPSS program was used to perform the Pearson chi-square test. The 95% confidence level, Odds Ratio (OR), and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used. The features of cytological atypia were verified among 10 individuals, including 5 smokers, 2 alcohol users, 2 hot meals and peppers consumers, and one non-exposed. For atypia among tobacco smokers, the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and the 95% CI were found to be 2 (0.246-16.24). Increased keratinization was detected among 27 (45%) of the smokers (P < 0.0001), 17 (32.7%) of the pepper and hot meals consumers (P < 0.005), 4 (11.8%) of the alcohol consumers, and among 2 (3.7%) of the non-exposed group. Statistical analyses revealed a greater mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in smokers (3.68) followed by (2.82) alcohol consumers, compared to the habitual peppers and hot meal consumers (2.28) and the non-exposed group (2.00). What's more, 80% of the smears with cytological atypia were identified with 6 +/- 2 AgNOR mean count. The increase of the variables suggests that the evaluation of epithelial atypical changes in individuals exposed to smoking and alcohol carcinogens may be a useful screening tool. While hot meals and peppers did not seem to be a risk for oral mucosal proliferation, they increased the potency of

  14. Homeostasis alteration within small intestinal mucosa after acute enteral refeeding in total parenteral nutrition mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjia; Barrett, Meredith; Hou, Yue; Yoon, Hong Keun; Ochi, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Feeding strategies to care for patients who transition from enteral nutrient deprivation while on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feedings generally proceed to full enteral nutrition once the gastrointestinal tract recovers; however, an increasing body of literature suggests that a subgroup of patients may actually develop an increased incidence of adverse events, including death. To examine this further, we studied the effects of acute refeeding in a mouse model of TPN. Interestingly, refeeding led to some beneficial effects, including prevention in the decline in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation. However, refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as an upregulation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). Refeeding also failed to prevent TPN-associated increases in IEC apoptosis, loss of epithelial barrier function, and failure of the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive stem cell expression. Transitioning from TPN to enteral feedings led to a partial restoration of the small bowel microbial population. In conclusion, while acute refeeding led to some restoration of normal gastrointestinal physiology, enteral refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal inflammatory markers and may suggest alternative strategies to enteral refeeding should be considered. PMID:26635320

  15. Metastasis of renal clear-cell carcinoma to the oral mucosa, an atypical location.

    PubMed

    Maestre-Rodríguez, Oscar; González-García, Raúl; Mateo-Arias, Jesús; Moreno-García, Carlos; Serrano-Gil, Herminia; Villanueva-Alcojol, Laura; Campos-de-Orellana, Ana Ma; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2009-11-01

    The majority of cases of metastatic tumors involve the mandible and some the maxilla but they are considerably less common in intraoral soft tissues. In addition, the primary tumor is known in the majority of cases; although in one-third of such cases, metastasis is the first clinical manifestation. The most common primary tumors metastasizing to the mouth are lung carcinoma in men and breast carcinoma in women. An oral metastasis implies a serious prognosis, as in the majority of patients there is multiple organ involvement at the time of diagnosis. We present the case of a 52-year old patient with renal pathology who came to the emergency room due to a rapidly increasing gingival tumor. With the provisional clinical diagnosis of a pyogenic granuloma,the tumor was excised. Subsequent anatomopathological analysis revealed a tumor metastasis compatible with clear-cell carcinoma, and its renal origin was confirmed by means of immunohistochemical techniques.

  16. Genomic instability in non-neoplastic oral mucosa cells can predict risk during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Fávero Salvadori, Daisy Maria; da Silva, Renata Nunes; Ribeiro Darros, Bruno; Alencar Marques, Mariangela Esther

    2004-10-01

    4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of DNA damage induced by 4NQO in oral mucosa cells by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution by drinking water for 4, 12 or 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. Statistically significant increase of DNA damage was observed in non-neoplastic oral cells at four weeks of 4NQO administration when compared with control (P < 0.05). The level of DNA damage was directly associated with the severity of histological changes. The results suggest that histologically normal tissue is able to harbor genetically unstable cells contributing to the initiation of oral carcinogenesis. Genomic instability appears to be associated with the risk and progression of oral cancer.

  17. p53 mutation is rare in oral mucosa brushings from patients previously treated for a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Acha-Sagredo, Amelia; Ruesga, Maria T; Rodriguez, Carlos; Aguirregaviria, Jose I; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Califano, Joseph A; Aguirre, Jose M

    2009-08-01

    Mutations of the tumour suppressor gene p53 are common in human cancer, and seem to be an early event in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. The aim of our study was to determine the status of the tumour suppressor gene p53 in the oral mucosa of patients previously treated for a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, at risk of developing an oral squamous cell carcinoma, but without oral clinical lesions. Oral brushings from 87 patients were sequenced with matched genomic DNA. No mutations were found in exons 5, 7 and 8, whereas in exon 6 silent mutations (n=6) and a polymorphism (n=7) were found. Mutation of the tumour suppressor gene p53 does not seem to be a frequent event in patients at risk but without oral lesions.

  18. Novel papillomavirus isolated from the oral mucosa of a polar bear does not cluster with other papillomaviruses of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Hans; Rector, Annabel; Bertelsen, Mads F; Leifsson, Pall S; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-05-25

    Papillomatosis has been documented in several carnivores, and papillomavirus (PV) types have been characterized from lesions in a number of carnivore species: the canine oral PV (COPV), the Felis domesticus PV type 1 (FdPV-1) isolated from a Persian cat, the Procyon lotor PV type 1 (PlPV-1) isolated from a raccoon, the canine PV type 2 (CPV-2) from a dog's foot pad lesion and the canine PV type 3 (CPV-3) associated with a canine epidermodysplasia verruciformis - like disease. A tissue sample was taken from a papillomatous lesion on the oral mucosa of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Extracted DNA was used as a template for multiply primed rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and restriction enzyme analysis of the RCA product indicated the presence of papillomaviral DNA. The genome of this PV was cloned and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The Ursus maritimus PV type 1 (UmPV-1) genome counts 7582 basepairs and is smaller than that of other papillomaviruses from carnivore species. UmPV-1 contains the typical noncoding region NCR1, but unlike the carnivore PVs of the Lambda genus, UmPV-1 does not possess a second noncoding region NCR2. Phylogenetic analysis based on a nucleotide sequence alignment of the L1 ORF of UmPV-1 and 51 other PV types indicates that UmPV-1 does not cluster with any of the other carnivore PVs, but branches off near the root of the common branch of the genus Alphapapillomavirus.

  19. Effects of oral intake of cetirizine HCl and desloratadine molecules on the middle ear mucosa: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim

    2014-04-01

    We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule.

  20. Comparison of divided and full pupil configurations for line-scanning confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Glazowski, Chris; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-02-01

    Confocal point-scanning microscopy has been showing promise in the detection, diagnosing and mapping of skin lesions in clinical settings. The noninvasive technique allows provides optical sectioning and cellular resolution for in vivo diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma and pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of margins. The imaging has also enabled more accurate "guided" biopsies while minimizing the otherwise large number of "blind" biopsies. Despite these translational advances, however, point-scanning technology remains relatively complex and expensive. Line-scanning technology may offer an alternative approach to accelerate translation to the clinic. Line-scanning, using fewer optical components, inexpensive linear-array detectors and custom electronics, may enable smaller, simpler and lower-cost confocal microscopes. A line is formed using a cylindrical lens and scanned through the back focal plane of the objective with a galvanometric scanner. A linear CCD is used for detection. Two pupil configurations were compared for performance in imaging human tissue. In the full-pupil configuration, illumination and detection is made through the full objective pupil. In the divided pupil approach, half the pupil is illuminated and the other half is used for detection. The divided pupil configuration loses spatial and axial resolution due to a diminished NA, but the sectioning capability and rejection of background is improved. Imaging in skin and oral mucosa illustrate the performance of the two configurations.

  1. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage.

  2. SU-D-16A-02: A Novel Methodology for Accurate, Semi-Automated Delineation of Oral Mucosa for Radiation Therapy Dose-Response Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J; Welsh, L; Gulliford, S; Harrington, K; Nutting, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The significant morbidity caused by radiation-induced acute oral mucositis means that studies aiming to elucidate dose-response relationships in this tissue are a high priority. However, there is currently no standardized method for delineating the mucosal structures within the oral cavity. This report describes the development of a methodology to delineate the oral mucosa accurately on CT scans in a semi-automated manner. Methods: An oral mucosa atlas for automated segmentation was constructed using the RayStation Atlas-Based Segmentation (ABS) module. A radiation oncologist manually delineated the full surface of the oral mucosa on a planning CT scan of a patient receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the head and neck region. A 3mm fixed annulus was added to incorporate the mucosal wall thickness. This structure was saved as an atlas template. ABS followed by model-based segmentation was performed on four further patients sequentially, adding each patient to the atlas. Manual editing of the automatically segmented structure was performed. A dose comparison between these contours and previously used oral cavity volume contours was performed. Results: The new approach was successful in delineating the mucosa, as assessed by an experienced radiation oncologist, when applied to a new series of patients receiving head and neck RT. Reductions in the mean doses obtained when using the new delineation approach, compared with the previously used technique, were demonstrated for all patients (median: 36.0%, range: 25.6% – 39.6%) and were of a magnitude that might be expected to be clinically significant. Differences in the maximum dose that might reasonably be expected to be clinically significant were observed for two patients. Conclusion: The method developed provides a means of obtaining the dose distribution delivered to the oral mucosa more accurately than has previously been achieved. This will enable the acquisition of high quality dosimetric data for use in

  3. Genetically modified mouse models for oral drug absorption and disposition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Seng Chuan; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2013-12-01

    Intestinal absorption is an essential step in the therapeutic use of most orally administered drugs and often mediated by enterocyte transmembrane transporters. Here we discuss several of these drug transport systems and knockout mouse models to study them. These studies showed that Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) can limit intestinal drug absorption. Organic cation transporter n1 (Octn1) and Octn2 might also facilitate intestinal drug absorption, although direct in vivo evidence is lacking. On the other hand, intestinal uptake of drugs is facilitated by the Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (Ent1), Mrp3 and possibly Mrp4. No significant role in intestinal absorption for Oct1 and Oct2 or for Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatp) 1a and 1b was found so far.

  4. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 μm fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  5. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Kusumoto, Junya; Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto; Komori, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1–4) (TRPV1–4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1–4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1–4 expression. Materials and Methods Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1–4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1–4 mRNA in human oral mucosa. In addition, we compared the TRPV1–4 levels in mucosa from patients with SCC to those in normal oral mucosa. Results The receptors were expressed in oral mucosa at all sites (tongue, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and oral floor) and the expression was stronger in epithelia from patients with SCC than in normal epithelia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and tobacco use were strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and were found to have a remarkable influence on TRPV1–4 receptor expression in normal oral mucosa. In particular, patients with a history of alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher expression levels. Conclusion Various external stimuli may influence the behavior of cancer cells. Overexpression of TRPV1-4 is likely to be a factor in enhanced sensitivity to external stimuli. These findings could contribute to the establishment of novel strategies for cancer therapy or prevention. PMID:28081185

  6. Histology of the Oral Mucosa in Patients With BRONJ at III Stage: A Microscopic Study Proves the Unsuitability of Local Mucosal Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Sara Di; Trapassi, Alberto; Corradino, Bartolo; Cordova, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) is a newly recognized condition reported in patients treated with aminobisphosphonates (BF). BRONJ is defined as the presence of exposed necrotic alveolar bone that does not resolve over a period of 8 weeks in a patient taking bisphosphonates who has not had radiotherapy to the jaw. Treatment protocols have been outlined, but trials and outcomes of treatment and long-term follow-up data are not yet available. In 2004 an expert panel outlined recommendations for the management of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Through the histological study of the oral mucosa over the bone necrosis and around the osteonecrosis area in 8 patients affected by BRONJ at III stage, the authors highlight the inappropriateness of the local mucosal flaps to cover the losses of substance of the jaw, BF-related. Methods Mucosa tissue was taken from 8 patients, affected by BRONJ, III stage. The samples taken from the mucosa around and over the osteonecrosis area were fixed with formalin and an ematossilina-eosin dichromatic coloring was carried out. Results The samples of mucosa showed pathognomonic signs of cell suffering that prove that in these patients using local mucosa flaps is inappropriate. Conclusions The authors suggest that only a well vascularized flap as free flap must be used to cover the osteonecrosis area in patients with BRONJ stage III. Because of the structural instability of the mucosa in patients suffering of osteonecrosis Bf related the local flaps are prone to ulceration and to relapse. PMID:23390472

  7. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Apparently Normal Oral Mucosa and its Correlation With Clinicopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sindhu; Nayak, Ramakant; Bhat, Kishore; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Babji, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) is essential for its growth, invasion, and metastasis. This entails a shift in the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. CD105 and TGF-β1 are 2 such proangiogenic factors wherein CD105 exerts its angiogenic effect by binding to and modulating the TGF-β1 pathway. A total of 50 resected specimens of OSCC were considered. One tissue specimen was taken from tumor proper and another specimen from adjacent apparently normal mucosa (AANM). Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained using CD105 and TGF-β1 antibodies. The expression of each antibody was individually assessed and then compared. Pearson χ test was used for statistical comparison of expression. CD105 was significantly expressed in OSCC as compared with AANM and also correlated with increasing TNM stage. The mean microvessel density was higher in OSCC. TGF-β1 was significantly expressed in epithelium of OSCC as compared with AANM. On comparing expression of TGF-β1 and CD105, 79.54% of endothelial cells expressed positivity for both molecules. Both CD105 and TGF-β1 were increased in OSCC, although based on our results CD105 alone can be used as a prognostic marker. On the basis of immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in endothelial cells, our results demonstrate that CD105 acts as one of the receptors of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells and induces the angiogenic pathway in OSCC.

  8. Efficiency of systemic versus intralesional bone marrow-derived stem cells in regeneration of oral mucosa after induction of formocresol induced ulcers in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Lobna A.; El-Menoufy, Hala; Sadeq, Hesham S.; Ragae, Alyaa; Sabry, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the key to regenerative wound healing. MSCs have spatial memory and respond to local environment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of systemic and intralesional transplantation of BMSCs for regeneration of oral mucosa in an in vivo dog model. Materials and Methods: Transplantation of undifferentiated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled autologous BMSCs systemically, submucosally or vehicle (saline) was injected around the chemically induced oral ulcer in each group of 18 adult dogs. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. One way ANOVA was used to compare between means of the three groups. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: Flow cytometric analysis of the MSCs at the passage 3 showed that these cells were negative for CD45 (2.39%). They expressed high levels of CD29 (98.34%). Frozen fluorescence microscopy of sections of the cell-treated oral tissue of all groups indicated that the GFP-transduced implanted cells were integrated within the transplanted tissues. The treatment resulted in dramatic wound edge activation and resurfacing of oral mucosa wound. Conclusion: Our results revealed that BMSCs may be labeled with (GFP), in order to know the distribution of these cells after administration, and suggest that intralesional administration is an appropriate procedure to achieve acceptable regeneration of the previously injured oral mucosa more than systemic route. PMID:24932192

  9. Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions.

  10. Clock Genes Regulate the Circadian Expression of Piezo1, TRPV4, Connexin26, and VNUT in an Ex Vivo Mouse Bladder Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Tatsuya; Mitsui, Takahiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Kira, Satoru; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Norifumi; Hirayama, Yuri; Shibata, Keisuke; Shigetomi, Eiji; Shinozaki, Yoichi; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Nakao, Atsuhito; Takeda, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice is an experimental model mouse for nocturia (NOC). Using the bladder mucosa obtained from ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, we investigated the gene expression rhythms of mechanosensory cation channels such as transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) and Piezo1, and main ATP release pathways including vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) and Connexin26(Cx26), in addition to clock genes. Materials and methods Eight- to twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (WT) and age- and sex-matched C57BL/6 ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, which were bred under 12-h light/dark conditions for 2 weeks, were used. Gene expression rhythms and transcriptional regulation mechanisms in clock genes, mechanosensor, Cx26 and VNUT were measured in the mouse bladder mucosa, collected every 4 hours from WT and ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice using quantitative RT-PCR, a Western blot analysis, and ChIP assays. Results WT mice showed circadian rhythms in clock genes as well as mechanosensor, Cx26 and VNUT. Their expression was low during the sleep phase. The results of ChIP assays showed Clock protein binding to the promotor regions and the transcriptional regulation of mechanosensor, Cx26 and VNUT. In contrast, all of these circadian expressions were disrupted in ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice. The gene expression of mechanosensor, Cx26 and VNUT was maintained at a higher level in spite of the sleep phase. Conclusions Mechanosensor, Cx26 and VNUT expressed with circadian rhythm in the mouse bladder mucosa. The disruption of circadian rhythms in these genes, induced by the abnormalities in clock genes, may be factors contributing to NOC because of hypersensitivity to bladder wall extension. PMID:28060940

  11. The role and application of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral mucosa pathology - contemporary knowledge with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazanowska, Krzysztofa; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the current available literature, the authors have presented a short description of cytological examination and its application in the oral mucosa disease diagnostic process. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of this method are described. The available diagnostic tools used for oral smears were reviewed as well as more and more often available methods which aim at making the diagnosis process more accurate and more favorable for patients. Oral cytology analysis may, in the near future, be a very useful examination for patients in terms of diagnostics and monitoring, not only during the treatment but also afterwards. The authors would like to demonstrate what a beneficial tool this cytological examination could be as a fast and cheap cancer prophylactic test. This opinion is based on the fact that this cytological method has significantly improved the detection of uterine cervical cancer during a gynecological examination since the introduction of the Papanicolau technique in the 40s.

  12. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters.

  13. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly.

  14. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

  15. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    PubMed

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  16. Real-time quantification of proteins secreted by artificial connective tissue made from uni- or multidirectional collagen I scaffolds and oral mucosa fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Rosa Helena; Suesca, Edward; Millán, Diana; González, José Manuel; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2014-03-04

    Previously, we found that oral autologous artificial connective tissue (AACT) had a different protein secretion profile to that of clot-embedded AACT. Other oral mucosa substitutes, having different cell types and scaffolds, had dissimilar secretion profiles of proteins (including that for AACT) that influence healing outcome; thus, to ascertain the profiles of factors secreted by artificial tissue and whether they are influenced by their microstructure might help in understanding their bioactivity. An important component of tissue microstructure is the fiber orientation of the scaffold used for manufacturing it. This work developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology to quantify factors secreted by oral artificial connective tissue (ACT) in culture medium, and a method to manufacture unidirectional laminar collagen I scaffolds. The SPR methodology was used for assessing differences in the protein secretion profile of ACT made with collagen scaffolds having different fiber orientation (unidirectional vs multidirectional). Oral fibroblasts seeded onto unidirectional scaffolds increased the secretion of six factors involved in modulating healing compared to those seeded onto multidirectional scaffolds. Histological analysis of uni- and multidirectional ACT showed that cells differ in their alignment and morphology. This SPR-methodology led to nanoscale detection of paracrine factors and might be useful to study biomarkers of three-dimensional cell growth, cell differentiation, and wound-healing progression.

  17. Chromosome damage and cytotoxicity in oral mucosa cells after 2 months of exposure to anabolic steroids (decadurabolin and winstrol) in weight lifting.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A S; Aguiar, Odair; Medalha, Carla C; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from anabolic steroid users after 2 months of exposure. Two experimental groups consisting of 15 adult males who practise weight lifting and are anabolic steroid users or 15 adult males who practise weight lifting, but are non-anabolic steroid users, were recruited. In addition, 20 sedentary males, who do not practise any physical activity regularly, were matched by age with experimental groups. No significant statistical differences (p>0.05) were noticed in individuals who practise physical activity only. On the other hand, an increase of micronucleated cells (MNCs) in anabolic steroid (decadurabulin and Winstrol) users was observed. Regarding cytotoxic parameters, the same observation has occurred, that is, significant statistical differences (p<0.05) were noticed in the group exposed to anabolic steroids when compared with other controls, as depicted by high frequencies of pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis. Taken together, our results suggest that genomic instability and cytotoxicity are induced by anabolic steroid administration in oral mucosa cells as assessed by the micronucleus test.

  18. Hyperplasia of gastric mucosa in donor rats orally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs and in recipient rats surgically implanted with the larvae in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Konno, K; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

    1999-06-01

    Rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the liver show a remarkable increase in their stomach weight, hyperplasia, and hypergastrinemia. However, it is unknown what causes these phenomena. Hence, as a preliminary study to investigate the importance of larval parasitism in the liver, two experiments were done. In the first experiment, 14 donor rats were orally inoculated with 3,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs. In the second experiment, 136-300 of the larvae obtained from the rats were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of 7 recipient rats. Gastrin levels and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa were investigated. In all, 11 donor rats showed hypergastrinemia and hyperplasia, 5 recipient rats showed gastric mucosal hyperplasia accompanied by excessive mucous cell proliferation, and 2 recipient rats showed hypergastrinemia. These results suggest that parasitism of the liver by the larvae is not essential for the development of hyperplasia and that factors from the larvae might cause these phenomena.

  19. Nickel-Related Intestinal Mucositis in IBS-Like Patients: Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and Oral Mucosa Patch Test in Use.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Raffaele; Puzzono, Marta; Rosato, Edoardo; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Greco, Francesca; Picarelli, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) is often the trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like gastrointestinal disorders: its ingestion may cause allergic contact mucositis, identifiable by means of oral mucosa patch test (omPT). OmPT effectiveness has been proven, but it is still an operator-dependent method. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) was tested to support omPT in Ni allergic contact mucositis diagnosis. Group A: 22 patients with intestinal/systemic symptoms related to the ingestion of Ni-containing foods. Group B: 12 asymptomatic volunteers. Ni-related symptoms and their severity were tested by a questionnaire. All patients underwent Ni omPT with clinical evaluation at baseline (T0), after 30 min (T1), after 2 h (T2), and after 24-48 h (T3). LDPI was performed to evaluate the mean mucosal perfusion at T0, T1, and T2. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test and Bonferroni multiple-comparison test. All 22 Ni-sensitive patients (group A) presented oral mucosa hyperemia and/or edema at T2. Eight out of the same 22 patients presented a local delayed vesicular reaction at T3 (group A1), unlike the remaining 14 out of 22 patients (group A2). All 12 patients belonging to control group B did not show any alteration. The mean mucosal perfusion calculated with LDPI showed an increase in both subgroups A1 and A2. In group B, no significant perfusion variations were observed. LDPI may support omPT for diagnostic purposes in Ni allergic contact mucositis. This also applies to symptomatic Ni-sensitive patients without aphthous stomatitis after 24-48 h from omPT and that could risk to miss the diagnosis.

  20. TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE
    AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    Michael F. Hughes, Ph.D., Brenda C. Edwards, Carol T. Mitchell and Elaina M. Kenyon, Ph.D. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Nation...

  1. Exploring beyond the oral mucosa in patients affected with autoimmune blistering diseases: the importance of endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    España, A; Fernandez, S

    2016-09-14

    Autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) comprise several entities characterized by the presence of autoantibodies targeted against structural proteins either in desmosomes or in the dermoepidermal junction of polystratified squamous epithelium. Patients develop blisters, erosions in cutaneous surfaces or mucosas. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic mucocutaneous lesions, the typical findings on histological studies and direct immunofluorescence assays, and the presence of specific autoantibodies against the epidermal antigens. It may not be possible for dermatologists to appropriately explore the nose and throat (NT). Thus, a clinical exploration by endoscopic procedures of NT may be a useful tool during the conventional dermatological exam. The aims of this review are to draw attention to the most frequent NT manifestations in AIBD patients, and underline the utility of endoscopic procedures to achieve a more successful and rationale management of patients. Additionally, we will provide brief information related to the anatomical structures and type of epithelium in NT areas which may explain the extent and type of NT involvement in AIBD. Endoscopic exploration in AIBD patients is important for several reasons. Firstly, it will allow the real NT mucosal involvement in each patient to be determined, thus making a differential diagnosis during the endoscopic exam possible, based on the localization of mucosal lesions. Secondary mucosal morbidity can also be ruled out. Secondly, the clinical response to treatment may be established, especially in NT mucosa, as these are anatomical areas subjected to important local traumas, and physiological functions such as breathing, swallowing, speech production and phonation may be damaged. Therefore, a multidisciplinary management in AIBD is mandatory by both dermatologists and otorhinolaryngologists, adding the clinical exploration by endoscopic procedures of NT to the conventional dermatological exam in all AIBD patients

  2. Differential immunohistochemical expression profiles of perlecan-binding growth factors in epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mayumi; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Abé, Tatsuya; Babkair, Hamzah; Saito, Chikara; Saku, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The intercellular deposit of perlecan, a basement-membrane type heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is considered to function as a growth factor reservoir and is enhanced in oral epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS). However, it remains unknown which types of growth factors function in these perlecan-enriched epithelial conditions. The aim of this study was to determine immunohistochemically which growth factors were associated with perlecan in normal oral epithelia and in different epithelial lesions from dysplasia and CIS to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Eighty-one surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC containing different precancerous stages, along with ten of normal mucosa, were examined by immunohistochemistry for growth factors. In normal epithelia, perlecan and growth factors were not definitely expressed. In epithelial dysplasia, VEGF, SHH, KGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1were localized in the lower half of rete ridges (in concordance with perlecan, 33-100%), in which Ki-67 positive cells were densely packed. In CIS, perlecan and those growth factors/receptors were more strongly expressed in the cell proliferating zone (63-100%). In SCC, perlecan and KGF disappeared from carcinoma cells but emerged in the stromal space (65-100%), while VEGF, SHH, and VEGF receptors remained positive in SCC cells (0%). Immunofluorescence showed that the four growth factors were shown to be produced by three oral SCC cell lines and that their signals were partially overlapped with perlecan signals. The results indicate that perlecan and its binding growth factors are differentially expressed and function in specific manners before (dysplasia/CIS) and after (SCC) invasion of dysplasia/carcinoma cells.

  3. Combinations of single doses and fractionated treatments of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) and irradiation: effect on mouse lip mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Landuyt, W.; Ang, K. K.; van der Schueren, E.

    1986-01-01

    Tolerance of the lip mucosa of NMRI mice to single and fractionated irradiation combined with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP) was investigated. For the various combination schedules total drug doses varying from 6 mg kg-1 to 13 mg kg-1 were injected i.p. It was found that cis-DDP did not alter the radiation sensitivity of this tissue at any of the time intervals tested (ranging from 24 h before to 72 h after single dose irradiations). When 5 daily drug injections were given concomitantly with 5 daily radiation treatments, a slight reduction of the lip mucosal reactions occurred, possibly due to partial synchronisation during treatment. No effect was seen when a single injection of cis-DDP preceded two irradiations given with increasing intervals up to 4 h. Both these combined fractionated treatment data suggest no inhibitory effect on repair of sublethal radiation damage. When repeated daily injections of cis-DDP were given in between 2 radiation doses separated by 10 days, no interference with repopulation could be detected. The present study also demonstrated an increase in systemic drug toxicity when cis-DDP was combined with irradiation, compared with that seen with either agent alone. PMID:3778802

  4. Mucosal pemphigus vulgaris anti-Dsg3 IgG is pathogenic to the oral mucosa of humanized Dsg3 mice.

    PubMed

    Culton, Donna A; McCray, Suzanne K; Park, Moonhee; Roberts, James C; Li, Ning; Zedek, Daniel C; Anhalt, Grant J; Cowley, Dale O; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A

    2015-06-01

    There are two major clinical subsets of pemphigus vulgaris (PV)-mucosal PV (mPV) and mucocutaneous PV (mcPV). The mPV subset exhibits anti-human desmoglein (Dsg) 3 autoantibodies that fail to recognize murine Dsg3 (mDsg3); thus, passive transfer experiments of mPV IgG into wild-type (WT) mice have been unsuccessful at inducing disease. We therefore generated a fully humanized Dsg3 (hDSG3) murine model utilizing a hDsg3 transgenic animal crossed to the mDsg3 knockout line. Expression of hDsg3 in the mucosa rescues the mDsg3 knockout phenotype. Well-characterized mPV sera bind mucosal epithelia from the hDsg3 mice, but not mucosal tissues from WT mice, as detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IF). The majority of mPV sera preferentially recognize hDsg3 compared with mDsg3 by immunoprecipitation as well. Passive transfer of mPV IgG into adult hDsg3 mice, but not WT mice, induces suprabasilar acantholysis in mucosal tissues, thus confirming the pathogenicity of mPV anti-hDsg3 IgG in vivo. Human anti-hDsg3 antibodies are detected in perilesional mucosa as well as in sera of recipient mice by IF. These findings suggest that the Dsg3 epitopes targeted by pathogenic mPV IgG are human specific. This hDsg3 mouse model will be invaluable in studying the clinical transition from mPV to mcPV.

  5. Mucosal pemphigus vulgaris anti-Dsg3 IgG are pathogenic to the oral mucosa of humanized Dsg3 mice

    PubMed Central

    Culton, Donna A.; McCray, Suzanne K.; Park, Moonhee; Roberts, James C.; Li, Ning; Zedek, Daniel C.; Anhalt, Grant J.; Cowley, Dale; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    There are two major clinical subsets of pemphigus vulgaris (PV), mucosal PV (mPV) and mucocutaneous PV (mcPV). The mPV subset exhibits anti-human desmoglein (Dsg) 3 autoantibodies that fail to recognize murine Dsg3; thus, passive transfer experiments of mPV IgG into WT mice have been unsuccessful at inducing disease. We therefore generated a fully humanized Dsg3 (hDSG3) murine model utilizing a human Dsg3 transgenic animal crossed to the murine Dsg3 knockout line. Expression of hDsg3 in the mucosa rescues the murine Dsg3 knockout phenotype. Well characterized mPV sera bind mucosal epithelia from the hDsg3 mice, but not mucosal tissues from WT mice by as detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The majority of mPV sera preferentially recognize hDsg3 compared to mDsg3 by immunoprecipitation as well. Passive transfer of mPV IgG into adult hDsg3 mice, but not WT mice, induces suprabasilar acantholysis in mucosal tissues, thus confirming pathogenicity of mPV anti-hDsg3 IgG in vivo. Human anti-hDsg3 antibodies are detected in perilesional mucosa as well as in sera of recipient mice by immunofluorescence. These findings suggest that the Dsg3 epitopes targeted by pathogenic mPV IgG are human specific. This hDsg3 mouse model will be invaluable in studying the clinical transition from mPV to mcPV. PMID:25695683

  6. Differential Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by Benzo[a]pyrene in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines and by Tobacco Smoking in Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Angela C.; Appleton, Kathryn; Henriod, Joel B.; Krayer, Joe W.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sigmon, Ryan C.; Kurtz, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BP), are major tobacco carcinogens. Their carcinogenic effects require metabolic activation by cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzymes. Relative CYP isoform expression is related to tissue-specific tobacco-related squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) susceptibility. There have been conflicting reports regarding relative CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 oral expression, and information regarding CYP1B1 expression in oral tissues is limited. OBJECTIVE To quantify BP- and tobacco-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in oral SCC cells and oral mucosa. STUDY DESIGN Real-time qPCR was performed to measure 1) BP-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in seven oral/other head and neck SCC cell lines 2) CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in gingiva from 22 smokers and 24 nonsmokers. RESULTS SCC lines exhibited either similar induction of both isoforms or preferential CYP1A1 induction (CYP1A1-to-CYP1B1 ratios 0.8-4.3). In contrast, gingival tissues from smokers exhibited preferential CYP1B1 induction. Marked interindividual variation in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression was observed among smokers. CONCLUSIONS In vitro conditions may not account for factors that modulate expression in vivo. Interindividual variation in inducible CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression may account in part for variation in tobacco-related oral SCC risk. PMID:19576839

  7. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  8. Peripheral blood lymphocyte typing as a useful tool to objectify the oral mucosa patch test in the diagnosis of allergic contact mucositis to nickel.

    PubMed

    Di Tola, Marco; Amodeo, Rachele; Marino, Mariacatia; Tabacco, Fabio; Casale, Rossella; Bove, Maurizio; Rossi, Alfredo; Cardelli, Patrizia; Picarelli, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) exposure through the intestinal mucosa may cause a hypersensitivity reaction recently defined as allergic contact mucositis (ACM). This condition is identifiable by the oral mucosa patch test (omPT), a qualitative and subjective examination that requires clinical expertise. Our aim was to evaluate if a peripheral blood lymphocyte typing performed before and after the omPT for Ni may be able to objectify this examination for diagnostic purposes. Thirty patients with symptoms referable to the ingestion of Ni-rich foods were subjected to omPT for Ni. Before and after the omPT, each patient underwent blood sampling for the typing of total lymphocytes and their subsets (T, T helper or Th, T cytotoxic or Tc, B, natural killer or NK). Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. According to the omPT outcomes, 18 patients were defined as Ni-sensitive and the remaining 12 as controls. In Ni-sensitive patients, the number of total, T, Th, Tc, and B lymphocytes/μL whole blood increased after the omPT (p<0.0001 for the first three, p=0.0004 and p=0.0001 for the last two lymphocyte types). No omPT-dependent lymphocyte increase was observed in controls. The post/pre omPT cell ratio, especially if calculated for Th lymphocytes, appears to be an effective index for diagnostic purposes (sensitivity=100%, specificity=83.3%, Youden index=0.833, area under curve (AUC)=0.926, p<0.0001). In conclusion, the peripheral blood lymphocyte typing with calculation of post/pre omPT cell ratio has the potential to support the omPT in diagnosing ACM, with the advantage of providing quantitative and objective data.

  9. Naegleria fowleri glycoconjugates with residues of α-D-mannose are involved in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Godinez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; De Oca, Arturo Contis-Montes; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the possible role of glycoconjugates containing α-D-mannose and α-D-glucose residues in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal epithelium. Trophozoites incubated with 20 μg of one of three different lectins which preferentially recognized these residues were inoculated intranasally in Balb/c mice. Mouse survival was 40% with Pisum sativum and Canavalia ensiformis and 20% with Galanthus nivalis amebic pretreatment, compared with 0% survival for control animals administered trophozoites without pretreatment. Possibly some of the glycoproteins found in Naegleria fowleri represent an adherence factor. Differences in the saccharide sequences of the Naegleria species, even on the same glycoconjugate structure, could explain the different results corresponding to the distinct pretreatments (C. ensiformis, G. nivalis, and P. sativum). We found a higher expression of glycoconjugates recognized by P. sativum in Naegleria lovaniensis than N. fowleri, probably due to the higher number of oligosaccharides containing an α-1,6-linked fucose moiety expressed on the former species.

  10. Areca nut-induced buccal mucosa fibroblast contraction and its signaling: a potential role in oral submucous fibrosis--a precancer condition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Hui-Lin; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2013-05-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an oral habit that increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition showing epithelial atrophy and tissue fibrosis. Persistent fibroblast contraction may induce the fibrotic contracture of tissue. In this study, we found that areca nut extract (ANE) (200-1200 µg/ml) stimulated buccal mucosa fibroblast (OMF)-populated collagen gel contraction. Arecoline but not arecaidine-two areca alkaloids, slightly induced the OMF contraction. Exogenous addition of carboxylesterase (2U/ml) prevented the arecoline- but not ANE-induced OMF contraction. OMF expressed inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors. ANE-induced OMF (800 µg/ml) contraction was inhibited by U73122 [phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (IP3 receptor antagonist), respectively. Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and verapamil, two calcium mobilization modulators, also suppressed the ANE-induced OMF contraction. ANE induced calcium/calmodulin kinase II and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in OMF. Moreover, W7 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitor), HA1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), ML-7 (MLC kinase inhibitor) and cytochalasin B (actin filament polymerization inhibitor) inhibited the ANE-induced OMF contraction. Although ANE elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in OMF, catalase, superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine showed no obvious effect on ANE-elicited OMF contraction. These results indicate that BQ chewing may affect the wound healing and fibrotic processes in OSF via inducing OMF contraction by ANE and areca alkaloids. AN components-induced OMF contraction was related to PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/calmodulin and Rho signaling pathway as well as actin filament polymerization, but not solely due to ROS production.

  11. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity.

  12. Noninvasive assessment of the risk of tobacco abuse in oral mucosa using fluorescence spectroscopy: a clinical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Asish, Rajashekharan; Venugopal, Chandrashekharan; Anita, Balan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco abuse and alcoholism cause cancer, emphysema, and heart disease, which contribute to high death rates, globally. Society pays a significant cost for these habits whose first demonstration in many cases is in the oral cavity. Oral cavity disorders are highly curable if a screening procedure is available to diagnose them in the earliest stages. The aim of the study is to identify the severity of tobacco abuse, in oral cavity, as reflected by the emission from endogenous fluorophores and the chromophore hemoglobin. A group who had no tobacco habits and another with a history of tobacco abuse were included in this study. To compare the results with a pathological condition, a group of leukoplakia patients were also included. Emission from porphyrin and the spectral filtering modulation effect of hemoglobin were collected from different sites. Multivariate analysis strengthened the spectral features with a sensitivity of 60% to 100% and a specificity of 76% to 100% for the discrimination. Total hemoglobin and porphyrin levels of habitués and leukoplakia groups were comparable, indicating the alarming situation about the risk of tobacco abuse. Results prove that fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis is an effective noninvasive tool for the early diagnosis of pathological changes due to tobacco abuse.

  13. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23715031

  14. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

    2013-07-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

  15. Molecular Characteristics of High-Dose Melphalan Associated Oral Mucositis in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Gene Expression Study on Human Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bødker, Julie Støve; Christensen, Heidi Søgaard; Johansen, Preben; Nielsen, Søren; Christiansen, Ilse; Bergmann, Olav Jonas; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen; Vyberg, Mogens; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background Toxicity of the oral and gastrointestinal mucosa induced by high-dose melphalan is a clinical challenge with no documented prophylactic interventions or predictive tests. The aim of this study was to describe molecular changes in human oral mucosa and to identify biomarkers correlated with the grade of clinical mucositis. Methods and Findings Ten patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were included. For each patient, we acquired three buccal biopsies, one before, one at 2 days, and one at 20 days after high-dose melphalan administration. We also acquired buccal biopsies from 10 healthy individuals that served as controls. We analyzed the biopsies for global gene expression and performed an immunohistochemical analysis to determine HLA-DRB5 expression. We evaluated associations between clinical mucositis and gene expression profiles. Compared to gene expression levels before and 20 days after therapy, at two days after melphalan treatment, we found gene regulation in the p53 and TNF pathways (MDM2, INPPD5, TIGAR), which favored anti-apoptotic defense, and upregulation of immunoregulatory genes (TREM2, LAMP3) in mucosal dendritic cells. This upregulation was independent of clinical mucositis. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 (surface receptors on dendritic cells) were expressed at low levels in all patients with MM, in the subgroup of patients with ulcerative mucositis (UM), and in controls; in contrast, the subgroup with low-grade mucositis (NM) displayed 5–6 fold increases in HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 expression in the first two biopsies, independent of melphalan treatment. Moreover, different splice variants of HLA-DRB1 were expressed in the UM and NM subgroups. Conclusions Our results revealed that, among patients with MM, immunoregulatory genes and genes involved in defense against apoptosis were affected immediately after melphalan administration, independent of the presence of clinical mucositis. Furthermore, our results suggested that the expression levels of HLA

  16. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  17. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    PubMed

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  18. A novel protocol allowing oral delivery of a protein complement inhibitor that subsequently targets to inflamed colon mucosa and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Elvington, M; Blichmann, P; Qiao, F; Scheiber, M; Wadsworth, C; Luzinov, I; Lucero, J; Vertegel, A; Tomlinson, S

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence of a pathogenic role for complement in inflammatory bowel disease, there is also evidence for a protective role that relates to host defence and protection from endotoxaemia. There is thus concern regarding the use of systemic complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. Local delivery of a complement inhibitor to the colon by oral administration would ameliorate such concerns, but while formulations exist for oral delivery of low molecular weight drugs to the colon, they have not been used successfully for oral delivery of proteins. We describe a novel pellet formulation consisting of cross-linked dextran coated with an acrylic co-polymer that protects the complement inhibitor CR2-Crry from destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. CR2-Crry containing pellets administered by gavage, were characterized using a therapeutic protocol in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral treatment of established colitis over a 5-day period significantly reduced mucosal inflammation and injury, with similar therapeutic benefit whether or not the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, was co-administered. Reduction in injury was associated with the targeting of CR2-Crry to the mucosal surface and reduced local complement activation. Treatment had no effect on systemic complement activity. This novel method for oral delivery of a targeted protein complement inhibitor will reduce systemic effects, thereby decreasing the risk of opportunistic infection, as well as lowering the required dose and treatment cost and improving patient compliance. Furthermore, the novel delivery system described here may provide similar benefits for administration of other protein-based drugs, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies. PMID:24730624

  19. Er,CR:YSGG lasers induce fewer dysplastic-like epithelial artefacts than CO2 lasers: an in vivo experimental study on oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    González-Mosquera, A; Seoane, J; García-Caballero, L; López-Jornet, P; García-Caballero, T; Varela-Centelles, P

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to assess wounds made by lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) for their epithelial architectural changes and width of damage. We allocated 60 Sprague-Dawley(®) rats into groups: glossectomy by CO(2) laser at 3 different wattages (n=10 in each); glossectomy by Er,Cr:YSGG laser at two different emissions (n=10 in each), and a control group (n=10). Histological examination assessed both prevalence and site of thermal artefacts for each group. Both lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) caused the same type of cytological artefacts. The 3W Er,Cr:YSGG laser produced the fewest cytological artefacts/specimen, and was significantly different from the other experimental groups: 3W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.8 to 1.0); the 6W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.1 to 2.0) and the 10W CO(2) laser (95% CI=1.1 to 3.0). CO(2) lasers (3-10W) generate epithelial damage that can simulate dysplastic changes with cytological atypia that affects mainly the basal and suprabasal layers. Irradiation with Er,CR:YSGG laser (2-4W) produces significantly fewer cellular artefacts and less epithelial damage, which may be potentially useful for biopsy of oral mucosa.

  20. Orally administrated dipeptide Ser-Tyr efficiently stimulates noradrenergic turnover in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Takashi; Moriyasu, Kazuki; Nakahata, Akane; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro; Furuya, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of orally administrated dipeptides containing Tyr (Y) on the metabolism of catecholamines in mouse brains. We found that among eight synthetic dipeptides whose sequences are present frequently in soy proteins, Ser-Tyr (SY), Ile-Tyr, and Tyr-Pro had the highest apparent permeability coefficients in monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. When administrated orally, SY markedly increased tyrosine content in the cerebral cortex compared to the vehicle control, Ile-Tyr, Tyr-Pro, and Y alone. The oral administration of SY more effectively increased 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol, the principal metabolite of noradrenaline, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus than did Ile-Tyr, Tyr-Pro, or Y alone. Central noradrenergic turnover was also markedly stimulated by SY administration. These in vivo observations strongly suggest that SY is more potent in boosting central catecholamine transmission, particularly the noradrenergic system, than Y alone or other dipeptides that include Y.

  1. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

  2. Antimicrobial Decapeptide KSL-W Attenuates Candida albicans Virulence by Modulating Its Effects on Toll-Like Receptor, Human Beta-Defensin, and Cytokine Expression by Engineered human Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    University, Quebec, QC, Canada b Microbiology Branch, US Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment, Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA...innate immunity of epithelial cells in prevent - ing Candida infection of the oral mucosa. Primary epithelial cells obtained from various sources...play a role in preventing microbial infections [8,19,45]. Generally, these antimicrobial peptides exhibit selective toxicity for microorganisms and

  3. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Gerhard H.; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:27579226

  5. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Müller-Richter, Urs D A; Weyandt, Gerhard H; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C

    2016-05-01

    Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results.

  6. Adjuvant antifungal therapy using tissue tolerable plasma on oral mucosa and removable dentures in oral candidiasis patients: a randomised double-blinded split-mouth pilot study.

    PubMed

    Preissner, Saskia; Kastner, Isabell; Schütte, Eyke; Hartwig, Stefan; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Robert; Hertel, Moritz

    2016-07-01

    Extended use of antimycotics in oral candidiasis therapy gives rise to problems related to fungal drug resistance. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) in denture stomatitis patients. It was hypothesised that (I): erythema and (IIa): complaint remission would be accelerated and (IIb): colony forming unit (CFU) reduction would be improved. The halves of the upper jaws of eight patients were randomly assigned to control (nystatin, chlorhexidine and placebo treatment) and test sides (nystatin, chlorhexidine and TTP administered six times each 7 days). The patients and the investigators, who were different from the therapists, were both blinded. Compared to the control sides, the erythema surface was reduced significantly more extensively on the test sides between 2 and 6 weeks of antifungal therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Visual analogue scale values and the frequency of moderate or heavy growth of Candida post-treatment did not differ significantly between both sides (P > 0.05). The primary hypothesis was confirmed, which may be interpreted as an accelerated remission. As drug therapy is usually limited to the time in which signs of infection are present, TTP might help reducing antifungal use. Even though the secondary hypotheses were not confirmed, persistence of Candida might be only colonisation.

  7. Projections from the oral pontine reticular nucleus to the spinal cord of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated projections of the mouse oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) to the spinal cord by (a) injecting a retrograde tracer fluoro-gold (FG) to the lumbar cord and (b) an anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to PnO. We found that PnO projects to the entire spinal cord with an ipsilateral predominance. PnO fibers mainly travel in the ipsilateral ventral funiculus in the entire cord, terminating in laminae 7-10 with a lower density of fibers and boutons in lower segments. A small number of fibers travel in the contralateral ventral funiculus in the cervical cord with a similar terminating pattern to the ipsilateral counterpart. The present study is the first demonstration of PnO fiber terminals in the mouse spinal cord. This pathway might be responsible for muscle atonia during REM sleep, but needs physiological research to confirm this.

  8. Oral treatment with desipramine improves breathing and life span in Rett syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Sébastien; Mebarek, Saida; Lajard, Anne-Marie; Picard, Nathalie; Dutschmann, Mathias; Hilaire, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disease due to Mecp2 gene mutations that is associated to complex neurological symptoms, with bioaminergic deficits and life-threatening apneas related to sudden and unexpected death. In male mice, Mecp2-deficiency similarly induces medullary bioaminergic deficits, severe apneas and short life span. Here, we show that long-term oral treatment of Mecp2-deficient male mice with desipramine, an old drug of clinical use known to block norepinephrine uptake and to strengthen its synaptic effects, significantly alleviates their breathing symptoms and prolongs their life span. Although these mouse results identify desipramine as the first oral pharmacological treatment potentially able to alleviate breathing symptoms of Rett syndrome, we recommend further studies of desipramine effects in Mecp2-deficient mice before attempting any clinical trials in Rett patients.

  9. Osteolipoma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alvimar-Lima; de Castro, Eni-Vaz-Franco-Lima; Felipini, Renata-Callestini; Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina-Prado; Soubhia, Ana-Maria-Pires

    2010-03-01

    Lipomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms of soft tissue that can be found in any part of the human body. Conversely, their presence in the oral mucosa is rather uncommon, with approximately 4% of the cases occurring in the oral cavity. In such cases, they are likely to have originated from mature adipose tissue and to be among several described histological variants of lipomas, which are identified according to the predominant type of tissue. There is a rare lipoma, known as an osteolipoma or an ossifying lipoma; however, little has been written this type of lipoma characterized by a classical lipoma with areas of osseous metaplasia. Considering the few cases of oral osteolipomas previously described in the English-related literature and the consequent risk of misdiagnosis and overtreatment, this paper describes an extreme case of an osteolipoma affecting the buccal mucosa of an adult patient. This paper focuses particularly on the pathogenesis of this lesion and the discussion of a correct diagnosis.

  10. Oral LD50 toxicity modeling and prediction of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals on rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed using the LD(50) oral toxicity data of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) on rodents: rat and mouse. PFCs are studied under the EU project CADASTER which uses the available experimental data for prediction and prioritization of toxic chemicals for risk assessment by using the in silico tools. The methodology presented here applies chemometrical analysis on the existing experimental data and predicts the toxicity of new compounds. QSAR analyses were performed on the available 58 mouse and 50 rat LD(50) oral data using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA). Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori from available experimental datasets in terms of structure and response. These sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the models were verified on 376 per- and polyfluorinated chemicals including those in REACH preregistration list. The rat and mouse endpoints were predicted by each model for the studied compounds, and finally 30 compounds, all perfluorinated, were prioritized as most important for experimental toxicity analysis under the project. In addition, cumulative study on compounds within the AD of all four models, including two earlier published models on LC(50) rodent analysis was studied and the cumulative toxicity trend was observed using principal component analysis (PCA). The similarities and the differences observed in terms of descriptors and chemical/mechanistic meaning encoded by descriptors to prioritize the most toxic compounds are highlighted.

  11. Activity of Potent and Selective Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in Mouse Models of Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Freeman, Katie B.; Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G.; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

  12. Vinyl acetate induces intracellular acidification in mouse oral buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Wagner, Mark; Melvin, James E; Bogdanffy, Matthew S

    2005-08-14

    Vinyl acetate exposure in drinking water has been associated with tumor formation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. One potential mechanism for inducing carcinogenesis involves acidification of the intracellular environment due to the metabolism of vinyl acetate to acetic acid. Prolonged intracellular acidification is thought to produce cytotoxic and/or mitogenic responses that are the sentinel pharmacodynamic steps toward cancer. To determine whether exposure to vinyl acetate affects the intracellular pH of intact oral cavity tissue, isolated mouse oral buccal epithelium was loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then exposed to vinyl acetate concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 microM for up to 4 min. Extracellular vinyl acetate exposure induced a progressive intracellular acidification that was reversible upon removal of the vinyl acetate. The rate of the acidification was concentration-dependent and increased exponentially within the concentration range tested. The magnitude of the vinyl acetate-induced acidification was inhibited by pretreatment with the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vinyl acetate contributes to the generation and progression of oral cavity tumors via a process of intracellular acidification. Such a process has been proposed to have practical dose-response thresholds below which the intracellular environment can be maintained within homeostatic bounds and the contribution of exposure to carcinogenic risk is negligible.

  13. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies and methods to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Estela; Puhl, Nathan J; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2009-08-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a molecular technique used for comparative analysis of microbial community structure and dynamics. We evaluated three sampling methods for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation with PBS, hand washing with PBS containing Tween 80, and direct DNA extraction from mucosal plugs). In addition, the utility of two methods (i.e. Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease) to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts was tested. T-RFLP analysis indicated that diverse communities of bacteria are associated with mucosa of the ileum, cecum, and descending colon of mice. Although there was no significant difference in bacterial community structure between the mechanical agitation and direct DNA extraction methods regardless of intestinal location, community diversity was reduced for the hand wash method in the colon. The use of Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease have been reported to eliminate single-stranded DNA artifacts (i.e. pseudo-T-restriction fragments), but neither method was beneficial for characterizing mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse cecum. Our study showed that the mechanical agitation and direct plug extraction methods yielded equivalent bacterial community DNA from the mucosa of the small and large intestines of mice, but the latter method was superior for logistical reasons. We also applied a combination of different statistical approaches to analyze T-RFLP data, including statistical detection of true peaks, analysis of variance for peak number, and group significance test, which provided a quantitative improvement for the interpretation of the T-RFLP data.

  14. Tracking vaginal, anal and oral infection in a mouse papillomavirus infection model

    PubMed Central

    Budgeon, Lynn R.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Balogh, Karla; Myers, Roland; Cooper, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive and practical techniques to longitudinally track viral infection are sought after in clinical practice. We report a proof-of-principle study to monitor the viral DNA copy number using a newly established mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) mucosal infection model. We hypothesized that viral presence could be identified and quantified by collecting lavage samples from cervicovaginal, anal and oral sites. Nude mice infected at these sites with infectious MmuPV1 were tracked for up to 23 weeks starting at 6 weeks post-infection. Viral DNA copy number was determined by SYBR Green Q-PCR analysis. In addition, we tracked viral DNA load through three complete oestrous cycles to pinpoint whether there was a correlation between the DNA load and the four stages of the oestrous cycle. Our results showed that high viral DNA copy number was reproducibly detected from both anal and cervicovaginal lavage samples. The infection and disease progression were further confirmed by histology, cytology, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the viral copy number fluctuated over the oestrous cycle, with the highest level at the oestrus stage, implying that multiple sampling might be necessary to provide a reliable diagnosis. Virus DNA was detected in oral lavage samples at a later time after infection. Lower viral DNA load was found in oral samples when compared with those in anal and vaginal tracts. To our knowledge, our study is the first in vivo study to sequentially monitor papillomavirus infection from mucosal anal, oral and vaginal tracts in a preclinical model. PMID:26399579

  15. Efficacy of Oral Cochleate-Amphotericin B in a Mouse Model of Systemic Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Rosaria; Paderu, Padmaja; Delmas, Guillaume; Chen, Zi-Wei; Mannino, Raphael; Zarif, Leila; Perlin, David S.

    2000-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P < 0.05). Overall, these data demonstrate that cochleates are an effective oral delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis. PMID:10952579

  16. Efficacy of oral cochleate-amphotericin B in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, R; Paderu, P; Delmas, G; Chen, Z W; Mannino, R; Zarif, L; Perlin, D S

    2000-09-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P < 0.05). Overall, these data demonstrate that cochleates are an effective oral delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis.

  17. A mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 strain causes neurological disease in mice after oral infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fang; Chou, Chun-Ting; Lei, Huan-Yao; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Shih-Min; Yan, Jing-Jou; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Jen-Reng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Chen, Shun-Hua; Yu, Chun-Keung

    2004-08-01

    A mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain with increased virulence in mice, MP4, was generated after four serial passages of the parental EV71 strain 4643 in mice. Strain MP4 exhibited a larger plaque size, grew more rapidly, and was more cytotoxic in vitro than strain 4643. Although strains 4643 and MP4 both induced apoptosis of SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, MP4 was more virulent than 4643 in 1-day-old mice (50% lethal doses, 10(2) and 10(4) PFU/mouse, respectively). Strain MP4 (5 x 10(6) PFU/mouse), but not 4643, could orally infect 7-day-old mice, resulting in rear-limb paralysis followed by death 5 to 9 days after inoculation with the virus. Histopathologically, neuronal loss and apoptosis were evident in the spinal cords as well as the brain stems of the infected mice. The limb muscles displayed massive necrosis. There was early and transient virus replication in the intestines, whereas the spinal cord, brain, and muscle became the sites of viral replication during the late phase of the infection. Virus transmission occurred among infected and noninfected cagemates, as demonstrated by the occurrence of seroconversion and the presence of viable viruses in the stool samples of the latter. Protection against EV71 challenge was demonstrated following administration of hyperimmune serum 1 day after inoculation with the virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genome of EV71 strain MP4 revealed four nucleotide changes on the 5' untranslated region, three on the VP2 region, and eight on the 2C region, resulting in one and four amino acid substitutions in the VP2 and 2C proteins, respectively.

  18. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  19. Development and application of an oral challenge mouse model for studying Clostridium perfringens type D infection.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E; Sayeed, Sameera; Fisher, Derek J; Poon, Rachael; Adams, Vicki; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A; Saputo, Julian; Uzal, Francisco A

    2007-09-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D isolates cause enterotoxemia in sheep, goats, and probably cattle. While the major disease signs and lesions of type D animal disease are usually attributed to epsilon toxin, a class B select agent, these bacteria typically produce several lethal toxins. Understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of improved vaccines are hindered by the lack of a small-animal model mimicking natural disease caused by type D isolates. Addressing this need, we developed an oral challenge mouse model of C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia. When BALB/c mice with a sealed anus were inoculated by intragastric gavage with type D isolates, 7 of 10 type D isolates were lethal, as defined by spontaneous death or severe clinical signs necessitating euthanasia. The lethalities of the seven type D isolates varied between 14 and 100%. Clinical signs in the lethally challenged mice included seizures, convulsions, hyperexcitability, and/or depression. Mild intestinal gas distention and brain edema were observed at necropsy in a few mice, while histology showed multifocal acute tubular necrosis of the kidney and edema in the lungs of most challenged mice that developed a clinical response. When the lethality of type D isolates in this model was compared with in vitro toxin production, only a limited correlation was observed. However, mice could be protected against lethality by intravenous passive immunization with an epsilon toxin antibody prior to oral challenge. This study provides an economical new model for studying the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type D infections.

  20. Effects of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on mouse oesophageal mucosa changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency and deoxycholic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zapaterini, Joyce R; de Moura, Nelci A; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-08-01

    The noxious effects of dietary zinc deficiency (ZD) and deoxycholic bile acid (DCA) supplementation in the oesophagus were investigated. The additional influence of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on the changes in the oesophageal mucosa induced by dietary ZD plus DCA was also assessed. Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into four groups: Group 1 was fed control diet and groups 2-4 were fed ZD plus DCA diet. After 5 weeks, groups 3 and 4 were exposed to 10% ethanol intake or cigarette smoke for 15 weeks, respectively. All animals were euthanized at the end of week 20, and the oesophagus, lung, liver and colon were collected and analysed by conventional morphology. Cell proliferation was assessed in the oesophageal mucosa by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein by Western blotting. Dietary ZD plus DCA treatment induced mild hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia, increased cell proliferation index and COX-2 protein expression in the oesophagus, and intranuclear inclusion, karyocytomegaly and microvesicular fatty change in the liver. Cigarette smoke increased COX-2 protein expression in oesophageal mucosa and irregular enlargement of alveolus and alveolar ductal air spaces, while ethanol enhanced liver damage induced by ZD plus DCA diet. These findings indicate that dietary ZD plus DCA treatment during 20 weeks induces a pattern of chemical oesophageal injury but not Barrett's-like lesions.

  1. Combination of Estrogen and Immunosuppressive Agents to Establish a Mouse Model of Candidiasis with Concurrent Oral and Vaginal Mucosal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Mei, Huan; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; Zeng, Rong; Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-02-01

    Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions.

  2. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins. PMID:16603603

  3. Estrogenic chemicals in plastic and oral contraceptives disrupt development of the fetal mouse prostate and urethra

    PubMed Central

    Timms, Barry G.; Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Barton, Lesley; Bradley, Sarahann; Richter, Catherine A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of human fetuses to man-made estrogenic chemicals can occur through several sources. For example, fetal exposure to ethinylestradiol occurs because each year ≈3% of women taking oral contraceptives become pregnant. Exposure to the estrogenic chemical bisphenol A occurs through food and beverages because of significant leaching from polycarbonate plastic products and the lining of cans. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice ethinylestradiol (0.1 μg/kg per day) and bisphenol A (10 μg/kg per day), which are doses below the range of exposure by pregnant women. In male mouse fetuses, both ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A produced an increase in the number and size of dorsolateral prostate ducts and an overall increase in prostate duct volume. Histochemical staining of sections with antibodies to proliferating cell nuclear antigen and mouse keratin 5 indicated that these increases were due to a marked increase in proliferation of basal epithelial cells located in the primary ducts. The urethra was malformed in the colliculus region and was significantly constricted where it enters the bladder, which could contribute to urine flow disorders. These effects were identical to those caused by a similar dose (0.1 μg/kg per day) of the estrogenic drug diethylstilbestrol (DES), a known human developmental teratogen and carcinogen. In contrast, a 2,000-fold higher DES dose completely inhibited dorsolateral prostate duct formation, revealing opposite effects of high and low doses of estrogen. Acceleration in the rate of proliferation of prostate epithelium during fetal life by small amounts of estrogenic chemicals could permanently disrupt cellular control systems and predispose the prostate to disease in adulthood. PMID:15867144

  4. The Therapeutic Effect of PLAG against Oral Mucositis in Hamster and Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha-Reum; Yoo, Nina; Kim, Joo Heon; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung-Jae; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Han, Mi Young; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jae Wha

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride) in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals’ cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gage needle on days 1, 2, and 7. PLAG was administered daily at 250 mg/kg/day. PLAG administration significantly reduced 5-FU/scratching-induced mucositis. Dramatic reversal of weight loss in PLAG-treated hamsters with mucositis was observed. Histochemical staining data also revealed newly differentiated epidermis and blood vessels in the cheek pouches of PLAG-treated hamsters, indicative of recovery. Whole blood analyses indicated that PLAG prevents 5-FU-induced excessive neutrophil transmigration to the infection site and eventually stabilizes the number of circulating neutrophils. In a mouse mucositis model, mice with 5-FU-induced disease treated with PLAG exhibited resistance to body-weight loss compared with mice that received 5-FU or 5-FU/scratching alone. PLAG also dramatically reversed mucositis-associated weight loss and inhibited mucositis-induced inflammatory responses in the tongue and serum. These data suggest that PLAG enhances recovery from 5-FU-induced oral mucositis and may therefore be a useful therapeutic agent for treating side effects of chemotherapy, such as mucositis and cachexia. PMID:27800302

  5. Disruption of the ECM33 gene in Candida albicans prevents biofilm formation, engineered human oral mucosa tissue damage and gingival cell necrosis/apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

  6. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida. PMID:22665950

  7. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 protects hairless mouse against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Mee; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Soo Dong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Ji Woong; Jang, Sung Sik; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Chung, Dae Kyun; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2014-11-28

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alters multiple molecular pathways in the skin, thereby inducing skin damage, including photoaging. In recent years, probiotics have gained interest due to their beneficial effects on skin health, such as inhibiting atopic dermatitis and improving skin immunity or inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of probiotics on UVBinduced photoaging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 against UVB-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice. The results showed that L. plantarum HY7714 treatment effectively rescued UVB-reduced procollagen expression through the inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Data from a western blot showed that L. plantarum HY7714 inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, thereby suppressing the UVB-induced phosphorylation and expression of c-Jun. Oral administration of L. plantarum HY7714 clearly inhibited the number, depth, and area of wrinkles in hairless mouse skin. Histological data showed that L. plantarum HY7714 significantly inhibited UVB-induced epidermal thickness in mice. Western blot and zymography data also revealed that L. plantarum HY7714 effectively inhibited MMP-13 expression as well as MMP-2 and -9 activities in dermal tissue. Collectively, these results provide further insight regarding the skin biological actions of L. plantarum HY7714, a potential skin anti-photoaging agent.

  8. In vivo determination of aluminum, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, titanium and vanadium in oral mucosa cells from orthodontic patients with mini-implants by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Angeles; Puerto, Maria; Calleja, Ana; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Miniscrews are used as orthodontic anchorage devices in the dentistry clinical practice but the in vivo metallic release from these structures has been not previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti and V in oral mucosa cells of control subjects, patients under orthodontic treatment and with both, orthodontic treatment and miniscrew, in order to know the contribution of these mini-implants to the total metallic content. ICP-MS measurements revealed the following ascending order: Cr

  9. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans.

  10. Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT

    PubMed Central

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Nowak, Jan K.; Karnowski, Karol; Zebryk, Paweł; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the mucosa of the lower lip and labial minor salivary glands is demonstrated in vivo using swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1310 nm with modified interface. Volumetric data sets of the inner surface of the lower lip covering ~230 mm2 field are obtained from patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and a control group. OCT enables high-resolution visualization of mucosal architecture using cross-sectional images as well as en-face projection images. Comprehensive morphometry of the labial minor salivary glands is performed, and statistical significance is assessed. Statistically significant differences in morphometric parameters are found when subgroups of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome are analyzed. PMID:24466492

  11. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  12. Oral recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis TDM induced granulomatous lung pathology.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose 6'6-dimycolate (TDM) is the most abundant glycolipid on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TDM is capable of inducing granulomatous pathology in mouse models that resembles those induced by MTB infection. Using the acute TDM model, this work investigates the effect of recombinant human and mouse lactoferrin to reduce granulomatous pathology. C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with TDM at a dose of 25 μg·mouse(-1). At day 4 and 6, recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin (1 mg·(100 μL)(-1)·mouse(-1)) were delivered by gavage. At day 7 after TDM injection, mice were evaluated for lung pathology, cytokine production, and leukocyte populations. Mice given human or mouse lactoferrin had reduced production of IL-12p40 in their lungs. Mouse lactoferrin increased IL-6 and KC (CXCL1) in lung tissue. Increased numbers of macrophages were observed in TDM-injected mice given human or mouse lactoferrin. Granulomatous pathology, composed of mainly migrated leukocytes, was visually reduced in mice that received human or mouse lactoferrin. Quantitation of granulomatous pathology demonstrated a significant decrease in mice given human or mouse lactoferrin compared with TDM control mice. This report is the first to directly compare the immune modulatory effects of both heterologous recombinant human and homologous mouse lactoferrin on the development of TDM-induced granulomas.

  13. Periluminal Distribution of HIV-Binding Target Cells and Gp340 in the Oral, Cervical and Sigmoid/Rectal Mucosae: A Mapping Study.

    PubMed

    Patyka, Mariia; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew; Abrams, William R; Kurago, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the transmission of HIV is most likely to occur via rectal or vaginal routes, and rarely through oral exposure. However, the mechanisms of virus entry at mucosal surfaces remain incompletely understood. Prophylactic strategies against HIV infection may be attainable once gaps in current knowledge are filled. To address these gaps, we evaluated essentially normal epithelial surfaces and mapped the periluminal distribution of CD4+ HIV target cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and an HIV-binding molecule gp340 that can be expressed by epithelial cells in secreted and cell-associated forms. Immunohistochemistry for CD4, CD16, CD3, CD1a and gp340 in human oral, rectal/sigmoid and cervical mucosal samples from HIV-negative subjects demonstrated that periluminal HIV target cells were more prevalent at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces lined by simple columnar epithelium, than at oral and ectocervical surfaces covered by multilayered stratified squamous epithelium (p<0.001). gp340 expression patterns at these sites were also distinct and strong in oral minor salivary gland acini and ducts, including ductal saliva, in individual rectum/sigmoid and endocervix periluminar columnar cells, and in ectocervix squamous cells. Only weak expression was noted in the oral non-ductal squamous epithelium. We conclude that periluminal HIV target cells, together with periluminal epithelial cell-associated gp340 appear to be most accessible for HIV transmission at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces. Our data help define vulnerable structural features of mucosal sites exposed to HIV.

  14. Differences in Oral Structure and Tissue Interactions during Mouse vs. Human Palatogenesis: Implications for the Translation of Findings from Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Deng, Mei; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Glass, Ian A.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2017-01-01

    Clefting of the secondary palate is one of the most common human birth defects and results from failure of the palatal shelves to fuse during embryonic development. Palatogenesis is traditionally considered to be a highly conserved developmental process among mammalian species. However, cleft palate phenotypes in humans are considerably more variable than those seen in mice, the most common animal model for studying palatal development and pathogenesis of cleft palate. In this investigation, we utilized macroscopic observations, histology and 3D imaging techniques to directly compare palate morphology and the oral-nasal cavity during palate closure in mouse embryos and human conceptuses. We showed that mouse and human palates display distinct morphologies attributable to the structural differences of the oral-nasal cavity. We further showed that the palatal shelves interact differently with the primary palate and nasal septum in the hard palate region and with pharyngeal walls in the soft palate region during palate closure in mice and humans. Knowledge of these morphological differences is important for improved translation of findings in mouse models of human cleft lip/palate and, as such, should ultimately enhance our understanding of human palatal morphogenesis and the pathogenesis of cleft lip/palate in humans. PMID:28360863

  15. Narrow band (light) imaging of oral mucosa in routine dental patients. Part I: Assessment of value in detection of mucosal changes.

    PubMed

    Truelove, Edmond L; Dean, David; Maltby, Samuel; Griffith, Matthew; Huggins, Kimberly; Griffith, Mickealla; Taylor, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the value of adding narrow band (light) imaging (NBI) to the standard oral soft tissue examination process used to detect mucosal change. A total of 620 dental patients who came to the clinic for regular dental evaluation or for treatment of acute dental problems were given a standard oral soft tissue examination by dental students under faculty supervision. The results of the white light examination were recorded after the tissues were examined with NBI, at which point areas with a loss of fluorescence (LOF) were recorded. The nature of the tissue change was classified clinically as normal variation, inflammatory, traumatic, dysplastic, or other, and patients were categorized depending on their clinical findings: normal, need follow-up visit, or immediate biopsy. Risk factors related to oral dysplasia also were recorded. The addition of NBI added between one and two minutes to the examination process. Of the 620 examinations, an area with an LOF suggestive of pathology was detected in 69 subjects (11.1%). After a second immediate evaluation, 28 of the 69 subjects were scheduled for follow-up or biopsy. None of the lesions discovered in these 28 subjects had been detected using standard (white light) examination. Adding NBI to the routine clinical examination resulted in detection of changes not seen with white light examination in 11.1% of patients; of these, a small but important number were found to have otherwise undetected persistent changes representing inflammatory lesions or potentially dangerous oral dysplasia. Adding NBI as an adjunctive diagnostic procedure improved the quality and outcome of the examination process.

  16. The ΔF508-CFTR mutation inhibits wild-type CFTR processing and function when co-expressed in human airway epithelia and in mouse nasal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rescue or correction of CFTR function in native epithelia is the ultimate goal of CF therapeutics development. Wild-type (WT) CFTR introduction and replacement is also of particular interest. Such therapies may be complicated by possible CFTR self-assembly into an oligomer or multimer. Results Surprisingly, functional CFTR assays in native airway epithelia showed that the most common CFTR mutant, ΔF508-CFTR (ΔF-CFTR), inhibits WT-CFTR when both forms are co-expressed. To examine more mechanistically, both forms of CFTR were transfected transiently in varying amounts into IB3-1 CF human airway epithelial cells and HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells null for endogenous CFTR protein expression. Increasing amounts of ΔF-CFTR inhibited WT-CFTR protein processing and function in CF human airway epithelial cells but not in heterologous HEK-293 cells. Stably expressed ΔF-CFTR in clones of the non-CF human airway epithelial cell line, CALU-3, also showed reduction in cAMP-stimulated anion secretion and in WT-CFTR processing. An ultimate test of this dominant negative-like effect of ΔF-CFTR on WT-CFTR was the parallel study of two different CF mouse models: the ΔF-CFTR mouse and the bitransgenic CFTR mouse corrected in the gut but null in the lung and airways. WT/ΔF heterozygotes had an intermediate phenotype with regard to CFTR agonist responses in in vivo nasal potential difference (NPD) recordings and in Ussing chamber recordings of short-circuit current (ISC) in vitro on primary tracheal epithelial cells isolated from the same mice. In contrast, CFTR bitransgenic +/− heterozygotes had no difference in their responses versus +/+ wild-type mice. Conclusions Taken altogether, these data suggest that ΔF-CFTR and WT-CFTR co-assemble into an oligomeric macromolecular complex in native epithelia and share protein processing machinery and regulation at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As a consequence, ΔF-CFTR slows WT-CFTR protein processing

  17. Helicobacter-induced expression of Bcl-X(L) in B lymphocytes in the mouse model: a possible step in the development of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Morgner, A; Sutton, P; O'Rourke, J L; Enno, A; Dixon, M F; Lee, A

    2001-06-01

    Primary gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma may develop from chronic infection with Helicobacter sp. in the mouse model. The mechanisms of pathogenesis remain unclear. Regulation of B-cell proliferation and death are important features to investigate. Proteins encoded by bcl-2 family genes, e.g., Bcl-X(L), regulate apoptosis; and alterations in the expression of these genes can contribute to the development of cancer. Our aim was to determine the role of Bcl-X(L) in B lymphocytes in the development of gastric MALT lymphoma associated with Helicobacter infection using the BALB/c mouse model. We analyzed 37 animals with Helicobacter-associated MALT (n = 25), low-grade MALT lymphoma (n = 10) and high-grade lymphoma (n = 2), investigating the in vivo distribution of Bcl-X(L) in B cells/B-lymphoma cells using immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cultivation of B cells/B-lymphoma cells was employed to perform RT-PCR analysis of Bcl-X(L) mRNA expression after cell stimulation with Helicobacter antigen. We found significant Bcl-X(L) protein expression in B lymphocytes within MALT and low-grade MALT lymphoma, whereas there was no and minimal expression, respectively, of Bcl-X(L) in the 2 high-grade MALT lymphoma cases. Expression of bcl-X(L) mRNA in B lymphocytes was up-regulated in vitro upon Helicobacter-antigen stimulation and associated with prolonged cell survival. These findings support the hypothesis that Bcl-X(L) plays a role in the pathogenesis of B-cell MALT lymphoma by providing cell-survival signals and by triggering the acquisition of MALT.

  18. Oral Administration of Gintonin Attenuates Cholinergic Impairments by Scopolamine, Amyloid-β Protein, and Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Shin, Eun-Joo; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Joon Yong; Han, Jung-Soo; Chung, ChiHye; Jang, Choon-Gon; Rhim, Hyewon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. Oral administration of gintonin ameliorates learning and memory dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models. The brain cholinergic system plays a key role in cognitive functions. The brains of AD patients show a reduction in acetylcholine concentration caused by cholinergic system impairments. However, little is known about the role of LPA in the cholinergic system. In this study, we used gintonin to investigate the effect of LPA receptor activation on the cholinergic system in vitro and in vivo using wild-type and AD animal models. Gintonin induced [Ca(2+)]i transient in cultured mouse hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Gintonin-mediated [Ca(2+)]i transients were linked to stimulation of acetylcholine release through LPA receptor activation. Oral administration of gintonin-enriched fraction (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg, 3 weeks) significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Oral administration of gintonin (25 or 50 mg/kg, 2 weeks) also significantly attenuated amyloid-β protein (Aβ)-induced cholinergic dysfunctions, such as decreased acetylcholine concentration, decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and immunoreactivity, and increased acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. In a transgenic AD mouse model, long-term oral administration of gintonin (25 or 50 mg/kg, 3 months) also attenuated AD-related cholinergic impairments. In this study, we showed that activation of G protein-coupled LPA receptors by gintonin is coupled to the regulation of cholinergic functions. Furthermore, this study showed that gintonin could be a novel agent for the restoration of cholinergic system damages due to Aβ and could be utilized for AD prevention or therapy.

  19. Biological effects caused by low-power laser light in the treatment of the dentition, periodontium, and mucosa of oral cavity, and lip diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Erina, Stanislava V.; Kashuba, Victor A.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Buerger, F.; Herdt, Alexander; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Tchernov, V. I.

    1997-12-01

    Nowadays low-power therapy is one of the leading trends in a combined treatment of the oral cavity and lips diseases. The present paper sums up the results of the investigation into the biological effects caused by low-power laser light (LPLL) during its interaction with hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity and lips. A research on the effect of LPLL upon the remineralization processes in the hard dental tissues in the stage in the stage of an initial caries was carried out in 150 patients. The biological effects caused by an interaction of LPLL with the parodontium tissues in the process of treatment of medium degree disease of the parodontium were studied in 140 patients; the effects of the above mentioned character which generated in lips tissues during treatment of a post-radiation chilitis were analyzed in 32 patients. Immunological, biochemical histochemical, morphological, stomatoscopic, bacteriological and other methods were employed while studying the bioeffects caused by LPLL in the parodontium, lips tissues and hard tissues of the tooth.

  20. RELATIVE POTENCY OF ORAL ANTIGENS IN PROVOKING FOOD ALLERGY IN THE MOUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. While the oral route is the most relevant method of exposure, oral tolerance is an impediment. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish...

  1. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  2. Pharmacokinetic study of p-coumaric acid in mouse after oral administration of extract of Ananas comosus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Xing, Dong-Ming; Lei, Fan; Lan, Jia-Qi; Du, Li-Jun

    2006-09-01

    Quantification of p-coumaric acid in mouse plasma following oral administration of Ananas comosus L. leaves was achieved by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a mobile phase of water-acetonitrile (82:18, v/v) and UV detection at 310 nm. The method was linear (determination coefficient, r2 = 0.9997) within the tested range (0.04-1.28 microg/mL). Intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variation and accuracy bias were acceptable (maximal CV value was 4.06% for intra-day and 4.19% for inter-day) over the entire range. The recoveries were 90.63, 97.98 and 100.01% for concentrations of 0.04, 0.32 and 1.28 microg/mL, respectively. This is a very rapid, sensitive and economical way to determine p-coumaric acid concentration in mouse plasma after oral administration of A. comosus leaves. The concentration-time curve was fitted to the one-compartment model. This is the first time that p-coumaric acid extracted from A. comosus leaves was detected by HPLC-UV method and its pharmacokinetic characteristic was comprehensively studied.

  3. Antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W attenuates Candida albicans virulence by modulating its effects on Toll-like receptor, human β-defensin, and cytokine expression by engineered human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Semlali, A; Leung, K P; Curt, S; Rouabhia, M

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the toxicity of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W on normal human gingival epithelial cell cultures, its effect on Candida albicans adhesion and growth, and the activation of epithelial cell innate immunity. Our results indicate that KSL-W had no toxic effect on cell adhesion or growth, suggesting its safe use with human cells. Pre-treating C. albicans with KSL-W attenuated the yeast's virulence as demonstrated by its reduced adhesion and growth on engineered human oral mucosa epithelium and the subsequent decreased expression of some innate defense molecules by targeted epithelial cells. Indeed, the expression of Toll-like receptors and human β-defensins was reduced in tissues infected with KSL-W-treated Candida. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β and IL-6) by the epithelial cells was also regulated by KSL-W in a manner similar to that of antifungal molecule amphotericin B. These findings therefore show that KSL-W is safe for use with human cells and is able to attenuate Candida virulence by modulating its effects on host innate immunity. This study proposes the potential application of KSL-W peptide as an alternative antifungal agent.

  4. The Role of E-Cadherin in Maintaining the Barrier Function of Corneal Epithelium after Treatment with Cultured Autologous Oral Mucosa Epithelial Cell Sheet Grafts for Limbal Stem Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, Richard H.; Wood, Andrew; Oliva, Joan; Niihara, Hope; Makalinao, Andrew; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Pan, Derek; Tiger, Kumar; Garcia, Julio; Laporte, Amanda; French, Samuel W.; Niihara, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of E-cadherin in epithelial barrier function of cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) grafts was examined. CAOMECS were cultured on a temperature-responsive surface and grafted onto rabbit corneas with Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD). E-cadherin levels were significantly higher in CAOMECS compared to normal and LSCD epithelium. Beta-catenin colocalized with E-cadherin in CAOMECS cell membranes while phosphorylated beta-catenin was significantly increased. ZO-1, occludin, and Cnx43 were also strongly expressed in CAOMECS. E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization at the cell membrane was reduced in LSCD corneas, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a restoration of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression. LSCD corneas did not show continuous staining for ZO-1 or for Cnx43, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a positive expression of ZO-1 and Cnx43. Cascade Blue® hydrazide did not pass through CAOMECS. Because E-cadherin interactions are calcium-dependent, EGTA was used to chelate calcium and disrupt cell adhesion. EGTA-treated CAOMECS completely detached from cell culture surface, and E-cadherin levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, E cadherin high expression contributed to CAOMECS tight and gap junction protein recruitment at the cell membrane, thus promoting cellular adhesion and a functional barrier to protect the ocular surface. PMID:27777792

  5. The short- and long-term effects of orally administered high-dose reduced graphene oxide nanosheets on mouse behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding; Zhang, Zheyu; Liu, Yayun; Chu, Maoquan; Yang, Chengyu; Li, Wenhao; Shao, Yuxiang; Yue, Yan; Xu, Rujiao

    2015-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO), a carbon-based nanomaterial, has enormous potential in biomedical research, including in vivo cancer therapeutics. Concerns over the toxicity remain outstanding and must be investigated before clinical application. The effect of rGO exposure on animal behaviors, such as learning and memory abilities, has not been clarified. Herein, we explored the short- and long-term effects of orally administered rGO on mouse behaviors, including general locomotor activity level, balance and neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and anxiety behaviors, and learning and memory abilities using open-field, rotarod, and Morris water maze tests. Compared with mice administered buffer-dispersed mouse chow or buffer alone, mice receiving a high dose of small or large rGO nanosheets showed little change in exploratory, anxiety-like, or learning and memory behaviors, although general locomotor activity, balance, and neuromuscular coordination were initially affected, which the mechanisms (e.g. the influence of rGO exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase in mouse serum) were discussed. The results presented in this work look to provide a deep understanding of the in vivo toxicity of rGO to animals, especially its effect on learning and memory and other behaviors.

  6. Effect of orally administered Lactobacillus brevis HY7401 in a food allergy mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Bang, Jieun; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-11-28

    We had found that orally administered Lactobacillus species were effective immune modulators in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. To validate these findings, we investigated the effects of orally administered Lactobacillus brevis HY7401 in OVA-T cell receptor transgenic mice. This strain showed a tendency to induce Th1 cytokines and inhibit Th2 cytokines. All assayed isotypes of OVA-specific antibody were effectively reduced. Systemic anaphylaxis was also relatively reduced with the probiotic administration. These results reveal that L. brevis HY7401 might be useful to promote anti-allergic processes through oral administration.

  7. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  8. Effect of toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly I:C on intestinal mucosa and epithelial barrier function in mouse models of acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong-Wei; Yue, Yue-Hong; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiu-Li; Lu, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Ji-Min; Hou, Hong-Tao; Lang, Xiao-Meng; He, Li-Li; Hu, Qi-Lu; Dun, Zi-Qian

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate potential effects of poly I:C on mucosal injury and epithelial barrier disruption in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. METHODS Thirty C57BL/6 mice were given either regular drinking water (control group) or 2% (w/v) DSS drinking water (model and poly I:C groups) ad libitum for 7 d. Poly I:C was administrated subcutaneously (20 μg/mouse) 2 h prior to DSS induction in mice of the poly I:C group. Severity of colitis was evaluated by disease activity index, body weight, colon length, histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Intestinal permeability was analyzed by the fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled-dextran (FITC-D) method. Ultrastructural features of the colon tissue were observed under electron microscopy. Expressions of tight junction (TJ) proteins, including zo-1, occludin and claudin-1, were measured by immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, Western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS DSS caused significant damage to the colon tissue in the model group. Administration of poly I:C dramatically protected against DSS-induced colitis, as demonstrated by less body weight loss, lower disease activity index score, longer colon length, colonic MPO activity, and improved macroscopic and histological scores. It also ameliorated DSS-induced ultrastructural changes of the colon epithelium, as observed under scanning electron microscopy, as well as FITC-D permeability. The mRNA and protein expressions of TJ protein, zo-1, occludin and claudin-1 were also found to be significantly enhanced in the poly I:C group, as determined by immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, Western blot and RT-qPCR. By contrast, poly I:C pretreatment markedly reversed the DSS-induced up-regulated expressions of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-17 and IFN

  9. Expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens in tobacco seeds and evaluation of gut immunity after oral administration in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luciana; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Reggi, Serena; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Baldi, Antonella; Sala, Vittorio; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Coddens, Annelies; Cox, Eric; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Verocytotoxic Escherichia (E.) coli strains are responsible for swine oedema disease, which is an enterotoxaemia that causes economic losses in the pig industry. The production of a vaccine for oral administration in transgenic seeds could be an efficient system to stimulate local immunity. This study was conducted to transform tobacco plants for the seed-specific expression of antigenic proteins from a porcine verocytotoxic E. coli strain. Parameters related to an immunological response and possible adverse effects on the oral administration of obtained tobacco seeds were evaluated in a mouse model. Tobacco was transformed via Agrobacteium tumefaciens with chimeric constructs containing structural parts of the major subunit FedA of the F18 adhesive fimbriae and VT2e B-subunit genes under control of a seed specific GLOB promoter. We showed that the foreign Vt2e-B and F18 genes were stably accumulated in storage tissue by the immunostaining method. In addition, Balb-C mice receiving transgenic tobacco seeds via the oral route showed a significant increase in IgA-positive plasma cell presence in tunica propria when compared to the control group with no observed adverse effects. Our findings encourage future studies focusing on swine for evaluation of the protective effects of transformed tobacco seeds against E. coli infection.

  10. Effect of the oral administration of nanoencapsulated quercetin on a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso E Ibiapina; Puerta, Elena; Suárez-Santiago, José Eduardo; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Ramirez, Maria J; Irache, Juan M

    2017-01-30

    Quercetin has been identified as a promising compound with a neuroprotective potential against age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, the clinical application of quercetin is hampered by its low oral bioavailability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of nanoencapsulated quercetin in zein nanoparticles (NPQ), that significantly improves the oral absorption and bioavailability of the flavonoid, as potential oral treatment for AD. For this purpose, SAMP8 mice were orally treated for two months with either NPQ (25mg/kg every 48h) or a solution of quercetin (Q; 25mg/kg daily). NPQ displayed a size of 260nm and a payload of about 70μg/mg. For Q, no significant effects were observed in animals. On the contrary, the oral administration of NPQ improved the cognition and memory impairments characteristics of SAMP8 mice. These observations appeared to be related with a decreased expression of the hippocampal astrocyte marker GFAP. Furthermore, significant levels of quercetin were quantified in the brain of mice treated with nanoparticles. These findings highlight the potential of zein nanoparticles to promote the oral absorption of quercetin as well as the therapeutic potential of this flavonoid in AD pathogenesis.

  11. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Thompson, Chad M.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2012-07-15

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (μg Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ≥ 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ∼ 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ► Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ► Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ► Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ► Species

  12. YAP Regulates the Expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in Mouse and Human Oral and Skin Epithelial Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Shuangyun; Lin, Qingjie

    2015-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a Hippo signaling transcriptional coactivator that plays pivotal roles in stem cell proliferation, organ size control, and tumor development. The downstream targets of YAP have been shown to be highly context dependent. In this study, we used the embryonic mouse tooth germ as a tool to search for the downstream targets of YAP in ectoderm-derived tissues. Yap deficiency in the dental epithelium resulted in a small tooth germ with reduced epithelial cell proliferation. We compared the gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) Yap conditional knockout and YAP transgenic mouse tooth germs using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further confirmed the differentially expressed genes using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in oral and dental epithelial tissues as well as in the epidermis of skin during embryonic and adult stages. Sphere formation assay suggested that Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 are functionally involved in YAP-regulated epithelial progenitor cell proliferation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay implies that YAP may regulate Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 expression through TEAD transcription factors. These results provide mechanistic insights into abnormal YAP activities in mice and humans. PMID:25691658

  13. YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in mouse and human oral and skin epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Shuangyun; Lin, Qingjie; Wang, Xiu-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a Hippo signaling transcriptional coactivator that plays pivotal roles in stem cell proliferation, organ size control, and tumor development. The downstream targets of YAP have been shown to be highly context dependent. In this study, we used the embryonic mouse tooth germ as a tool to search for the downstream targets of YAP in ectoderm-derived tissues. Yap deficiency in the dental epithelium resulted in a small tooth germ with reduced epithelial cell proliferation. We compared the gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) Yap conditional knockout and YAP transgenic mouse tooth germs using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) and further confirmed the differentially expressed genes using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that YAP regulates the expression of Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 in oral and dental epithelial tissues as well as in the epidermis of skin during embryonic and adult stages. Sphere formation assay suggested that Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 are functionally involved in YAP-regulated epithelial progenitor cell proliferation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay implies that YAP may regulate Hoxa1 and Hoxc13 expression through TEAD transcription factors. These results provide mechanistic insights into abnormal YAP activities in mice and humans.

  14. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Jhillu S.; Lavanya, Madugula P.; Das, Pragna P.; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K.; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2010-04-01

    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  15. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jhillu S; Lavanya, Madugula P; Das, Pragna P; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Leary, R; Bagchi, A; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Bhadra, Utpal

    2010-04-16

    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  16. Effect of oral methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) on the male mouse reproductive tract and oxidative stress in liver.

    PubMed

    de Peyster, Ann; Rodriguez, Yvonne; Shuto, Rika; Goldberg, Beck; Gonzales, Frank; Pu, Xinzhu; Klaunig, James E

    2008-01-01

    MTBE is found in water supplies used for drinking and other purposes. These experiments follow up on earlier reports of reproductive tract alterations in male mice exposed orally to MTBE and explored oxidative stress as a mode of action. CD-1 mice were gavaged with 400-2000 mg/kg MTBE on days 1, 3, and 5, injected i.p. with hCG (2.5 IU/g) on day 6, and necropsied on day 7. No effect was seen in testis histology or testosterone levels. Using a similar dosing protocol, others had initially reported disruption of seminiferous tubules in MTBE-gavaged mice, although later conclusions published were consistent with our findings. Another group had also reported testicular and other reproductive system abnormalities in male BALB/c mice exposed for 28 days to 80-8000 microg/ml MTBE in drinking water. We gave these MTBE concentrations to adult mice for 28 days and juvenile mice for 51 days through PND 77. Evidence of oxidative stress was examined in liver homogenates from the juvenile study using MDA, TEAC and 8OH2hG as endpoints. MTBE exposures at the levels examined indicated no significant changes in the male mouse reproductive tract and no signs of hepatic oxidative stress. This appears to be the first oral MTBE exposure of juvenile animals, and also the first to examine potential for MTBE to cause oxidative stress in vivo using a typical route of human exposure.

  17. Hyperspectral Imaging of Neoplastic Progression in a Mouse Model of Oral Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-02-27

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for medical applications and holds great potential for noninvasive early detection of cancer. It has been reported that early cancer detection can improve the survival and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. In this paper, we explored the possibility of differentiating between premalignant lesions and healthy tongue tissue using hyperspectral imaging in a chemical induced oral cancer animal model. We proposed a novel classification algorithm for cancer detection using hyperspectral images. The method detected the dysplastic tissue with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89. The hyperspectral imaging and classification technique may provide a new tool for oral cancer detection.

  18. Hyperspectral Imaging of Neoplastic Progression in a Mouse Model of Oral Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for medical applications and holds great potential for noninvasive early detection of cancer. It has been reported that early cancer detection can improve the survival and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. In this paper, we explored the possibility of differentiating between premalignant lesions and healthy tongue tissue using hyperspectral imaging in a chemical induced oral cancer animal model. We proposed a novel classification algorithm for cancer detection using hyperspectral images. The method detected the dysplastic tissue with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89. The hyperspectral imaging and classification technique may provide a new tool for oral cancer detection. PMID:27656034

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for medical applications and holds great potential for noninvasive early detection of cancer. It has been reported that early cancer detection can improve the survival and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. In this paper, we explored the possibility of differentiating between premalignant lesions and healthy tongue tissue using hyperspectral imaging in a chemical induced oral cancer animal model. We proposed a novel classification algorithm for cancer detection using hyperspectral images. The method detected the dysplastic tissue with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89. The hyperspectral imaging and classification technique may provide a new tool for oral cancer detection.

  20. Induction of immune tolerance to caseins and whey proteins by oral intubation in mouse allergy model.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, U K; Kapila, R; Singh, S; Dahiya, D; Kapila, S; Kansal, V K

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral tolerance of caseins (CSN) and whey proteins (WP) in alleviating the allergic response to cow's milk proteins in Swiss albino mice raised on a milk protein-free diet. Oral tolerance was induced by feeding mice with 20 mg of CSN or WP once in a day for 4 days consecutively before immunization with respective protein by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections (20 μg 200 per μl of PBS) using 2% of alum Al(OH)3 as adjuvant. Three weeks later, oral tolerance induction was analysed in humoral and cellular compartments of CSN- and WP-fed versus saline-fed control mice groups by measuring seric and intestinal antibody responses, mRNA abundance in splenic tissue and cytokine secretion patterns. The specific serum immunoglobulin-E (IgE) levels were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05), while sIgA was enhanced in these groups when compared with their respective saline-fed mice. Moreover, the mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in both CSN- and WP-tolerized mice were found to be significantly decreased, while the abundance of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was increased significantly, as compared to respective control groups. Finally, cytokine profiles indicated a reciprocal decrease in IL-4 and IFN-γ versus an increase in IL-10 secretions in supernatants of cultured splenocytes of tolerized mice. Taken together, these results clearly showed that oral administration of cows' milk caseins and whey proteins can induce significant hyposensitization in mice, with the participation of suppressor cytokines.

  1. Oral administration of nano-titanium dioxide particle disrupts hepatic metabolic functions in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Julin; Luo, Min; Tan, Zhen; Dai, Manyun; Xie, Minzhu; Lin, Jiao; Hua, Huiying; Ma, Qing; Zhao, Jinshun; Liu, Aiming

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 nano-particle (TiO2 NP) is widely used in industrial, household necessities, as well as medicinal products. However, the effect of TiO2 NP on liver metabolic function has not been reported. In this study, after mice were orally administered TiO2 NP (21nm) for 14days, the serum and liver tissues were assayed by biochemical analysis, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and transmission electron microscopy. The serum bilirubin was increased in a dose dependent manner. Deposition of TiO2 NP in hepatocytes and the abnormality of microstructures was observed. Expression of metabolic genes involved in the endogenous and exogenous metabolism was modified, supporting the toxic phenotype. Collectively, oral administration of TiO2 NP (21nm) led to deposition of particles in hepatocytes, mitochondrial edema, and the disturbance of liver metabolism function. These data suggested oral administration disrupts liver metabolic functions, which was more sensitive than regular approaches to detect material hepatotoxicity. This study provided useful information for risk analysis and regulation of TiO2 NPs by administration agencies.

  2. [Contact allergies of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Pevny, I; Binzenhöfer, A

    1984-02-15

    Patch tests were performed on 132 patients suspected of allergic sensitivity to dentures. Of these, 98 reacted positively to at least one substance. While only 4 patients showed positive reactions to methyl methacrylate, 42 (31,8%) had positive tests with the catalyst benzoyl peroxide, 4 and 5 patients, respectively, were positive to 4 different inhibitors, 7 patients reacted positively to various softeners and 3 to the reducing agent hydrazine sulfate. 43 positive reactions occurred on the commercial products, of these 39,5% on the liquid monomer, 23,2% on the polymer in powder form and 37,2% on the polymer in lamellar form. Among the 132 patients, 111 positive tests on metal allergens could be observed. Cadmium-, copper- and nickel-salts accounted for one half of all reactions. The sensitivity index of cadmium was 18,2% and of copper 13,6%, which indicates a high allergen exposition. Nickel, chrome and cobalt allergies were registered in 9,9; 8,3 and 6,1% of the patients, respectively, what is only slightly below the sensitivity indices of our standard test results in Würzburg.

  3. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum lysates attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis lesions in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Rim; Kim, Na-Ra; Jeong, Bong Jun; Lee, Jong Suk; Jang, Soojin; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a well-documented probiotic that has been used in clinical trials for the regulation of the immune system and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of L. plantarum cell lysates on the immune regulation through the in vitro and in vivo studies. L. plantarum lysates were prepared by sonication method, and we observed that the repetition of disruption step increased indicator components within the bacterial lysates. Indicator components might affect TNF-α production. L. plantarum lysates did not induce TNF-α production, while LPS-induced TNF-α production was dramatically inhibited in a sonication-dependent manner in THP-1 cells. Oral administration of L. plantarum lysates effectively attenuated the horny layer formation and decreased epidermal thickening in NC/Nga mice skin. The damage to barrier function after the 8 weeks oral administration was reduced by L. plantarum lysates as compared to that in the atopic dermatitis (AD) mice. Further study revealed that L. plantarum lysates polarized Th1 response via induction of IL-12 and IFN-γ production and inhibition of IL-4 and IgE production in NC/Nga mice. Together, our results suggest that L. plantarum lysates are remarkable material for host homeostasis and it could be used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  4. Optimization and evaluation of MALDI TOF mass spectrometric imaging for quantification of orally dosed octreotide in mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Rao, Tai; Shen, Boyu; Zhu, Zhangpei; Shao, Yuhao; Kang, Dian; Li, Xinuo; Yin, Xiaoxi; Li, Haofeng; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji; Liang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-TOF-MSI) has received considerable attention in recent years since it allows molecular mapping of diverse bimolecular in animal/plant tissue sections, although some barriers still exist in absolute pixel-to-pixel quantification. Octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analogue, has been widely used to prevent gastrointestine bleeding in the clinic. The aim of the present study is to develop a MALDI-TOF-MSI method for quantitatively visualizing spatial distribution of octreotide in mouse tissues. In this process, a structurally similar internal standard was spotted onto tissue section together with matrix solution to minimize signal variation and give excellent quantitative results. The 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was chosen as the most suitable matrix via comparing the signal/noise generated by MALDI-TOF-MSI after cocrystallization of octreotide with different matrix candidates. The reliability of MALDI-TOF-MSI, with respect to linearity, sensitivity and precision, was tested via measuring octreotide in fresh tissue slices at different concentrations. The validated method was then successfully applied to visualize the distribution of octreotide in mouse tissues after oral administration of octreotide at 20mg/kg. The results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF-MSI could not only clearly visualize the spatial distribution of octreotide, but also make the calculation of the key pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax and t1/2) possible. More importantly, the tissue concentration-time curves of octreotide determined by MALDI-TOF-MSI agreed well with those measured based on LC-MS/MS.These findings illustrate the potential of MALDI-TOF-MSI in pharmacokinetic profiling during drug development.

  5. Vital-dye-enhanced multimodal imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebust, Anne; Rosbach, Kelsey; Wu, Jessica Keren; Nguyen, Jennifer; Gillenwater, Ann; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    In this longitudinal study, a mouse model of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis was used to assess the ability of optical imaging with exogenous and endogenous contrast to detect neoplastic lesions in a heterogeneous mucosal surface. Widefield autofluorescence and fluorescence images of intact 2-NBDG-stained and proflavine-stained tissues were acquired at multiple time points in the carcinogenesis process. Confocal fluorescence images of transverse fresh tissue slices from the same specimens were acquired to investigate how changes in tissue microarchitecture affect widefield fluorescence images of intact tissue. Widefield images were analyzed to develop and evaluate an algorithm to delineate areas of dysplasia and cancer. A classification algorithm for the presence of neoplasia based on the mean fluorescence intensity of 2-NBDG staining and the standard deviation of the fluorescence intensity of proflavine staining was found to separate moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and cancer from non-neoplastic regions of interest with 91% sensitivity and specificity. Results suggest this combination of noninvasive optical imaging modalities can be used in vivo to discriminate non-neoplastic from neoplastic tissue in this model with the potential to translate this technology to the clinic.

  6. Vital-dye-enhanced multimodal imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellebust, Anne; Rosbach, Kelsey; Wu, Jessica Keren; Nguyen, Jennifer; Gillenwater, Ann; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In this longitudinal study, a mouse model of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis was used to assess the ability of optical imaging with exogenous and endogenous contrast to detect neoplastic lesions in a heterogeneous mucosal surface. Widefield autofluorescence and fluorescence images of intact 2-NBDG-stained and proflavine-stained tissues were acquired at multiple time points in the carcinogenesis process. Confocal fluorescence images of transverse fresh tissue slices from the same specimens were acquired to investigate how changes in tissue microarchitecture affect widefield fluorescence images of intact tissue. Widefield images were analyzed to develop and evaluate an algorithm to delineate areas of dysplasia and cancer. A classification algorithm for the presence of neoplasia based on the mean fluorescence intensity of 2-NBDG staining and the standard deviation of the fluorescence intensity of proflavine staining was found to separate moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and cancer from non-neoplastic regions of interest with 91% sensitivity and specificity. Results suggest this combination of noninvasive optical imaging modalities can be used in vivo to discriminate non-neoplastic from neoplastic tissue in this model with the potential to translate this technology to the clinic. PMID:24362926

  7. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  8. Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead Optimization, Parasite Life Cycle Stage Profile, Mechanistic Evaluation, Killing Kinetics, and in Vivo Oral Efficacy in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kawaljit; Okombo, John; Brunschwig, Christel; Ndubi, Ferdinand; Barnard, Linley; Wilkinson, Chad; Njogu, Peter M; Njoroge, Mathew; Laing, Lizahn; Machado, Marta; Prudêncio, Miguel; Reader, Janette; Botha, Mariette; Nondaba, Sindisiwe; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Lauterbach, Sonja; Churchyard, Alisje; Coetzer, Theresa L; Burrows, Jeremy N; Yeates, Clive; Denti, Paolo; Wiesner, Lubbe; Egan, Timothy J; Wittlin, Sergio; Chibale, Kelly

    2017-02-23

    Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the recently identified pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole (PBI) antimalarials have led to the identification of potent, metabolically stable compounds with improved in vivo oral efficacy in the P. berghei mouse model and additional activity against parasite liver and gametocyte stages, making them potential candidates for preclinical development. Inhibition of hemozoin formation possibly contributes to the mechanism of action.

  9. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  10. Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae.

    PubMed

    Vago, Bernadette; Hausser, Ingrid; Hennies, Hans Christian; Enk, Alexander; Jappe, Uta

    2007-05-01

    Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by deposition of hyaline material around the basement membrane of the skin and mucous membranes. Typical clinical symptoms are hoarseness, infiltration of the mucous membranes and papular verrucous skin changes. Mutations within the extracellular matrix protein gene (ECM-1) are the underlying defect. We report on a 24-year-old man, who had first been seen in our department at the age of seven and had undergone the necessary diagnostic procedures and who revisited 17 years later with hoarseness and extensive verrucous skin changes at elbows and knees which were removed by excision. A new mutation of the ECM1 gene was identified.

  11. Novel orally available salvinorin A analog PR-38 inhibits gastrointestinal motility and reduces abdominal pain in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, M; Polepally, P R; Sobczak, M; Grzywacz, D; Kamysz, W; Sibaev, A; Storr, M; Do Rego, J C; Zjawiony, J K; Fichna, J

    2014-07-01

    The opioid and cannabinoid systems play a crucial role in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Selective opioid as well as cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists exert a potent inhibitory action on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and pain. In this study, we examined (in vitro and in vivo) whether PR-38 (2-O-cinnamoylsalvinorin B), a novel analog of salvinorin A, can interact with both systems and demonstrate therapeutic effects. We used mouse models of hypermotility, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We also assessed the influence of PR-38 on the central nervous system by measurement of motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors in mice. Subsequently, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of PR-38 in mouse blood samples after intraperitoneal and oral administration. PR-38 significantly inhibited mouse colonic motility in vitro and in vivo. Administration of PR-38 significantly prolonged the whole GI transit time, and this effect was mediated by µ- and κ-opioid receptors and the CB1 receptor. PR-38 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. These data expand our understanding of the interactions between opioid and cannabinoid systems and their functions in the GI tract. We also provide a novel framework for the development of future potential treatments of functional GI disorders.

  12. Mouse breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediates etoposide resistance and transport, but etoposide oral availability is limited primarily by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Allen, John D; Van Dort, Sonja C; Buitelaar, Marije; van Tellingen, Olaf; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2003-03-15

    The breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP (BCRP/ABCG2)] has not previously been directly identified as a source of resistance to epipodophyllotoxins.However, when P-glycoprotein (P-gp)- and Mrp1-deficient mouse fibroblast and kidney cell lines were selected for resistance to etoposide, amplification and overexpression of Bcrp1 emerged as the dominant resistance mechanism in five of five cases. Resistance was accompanied by reduced intracellular etoposide accumulation. Bcrp1 sequence in all of the resistant lines was wild-type in the region spanning the R482 mutation hot spot known to alter the substrate specificity of mouse Bcrp1 (mouse cognate of BCRP) and human BCRP. Transduced wild-type Bcrp1 cDNA mediated resistance to etoposide and teniposide in fibroblast lines and trans-epithelial etoposide transport in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells. Bcrp1-mediated etoposide resistance was reversed by two structurally different BCRP/Bcrp1 inhibitors, GF120918 and Ko143. BCRP/Bcrp1 (inhibition) might thus impact on the antitumor activity and pharmacokinetics of epipodophyllotoxins. However, treatment of P-gp-deficient mice with GF120918 did not improve etoposide oral uptake, suggesting that Bcrp1 activity is not a major limiting factor in this process. In contrast, use of GF120918 to inhibit P-gp in wild-type mice increased the plasma levels of etoposide after oral administration 4-5-fold. It may thus be worthwhile to test inhibition of P-gp in humans to improve the oral availability of etoposide.

  13. Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro.

  14. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration.

  15. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration. PMID:427634

  16. [Exfoliatio areata linguae et mucosae oris: a mucous membrane manifestation of psoriasis pustulosa?].

    PubMed

    Casper, U; Seiffert, K; Dippel, E; Zouboulis, C C

    1998-11-01

    Lesions of the oral mucosa are frequently described in association with psoriasis, particularly in the pustular type. Controversy surrounds the question whether mucosal lesions can be considered as oral manifestation of psoriasis. Two patients presented with concurrent pustular psoriasis and mucosal lesions with the characteristic picture of geographic tongue. Histopathology of the mucosa showed typical features of psoriasis such as marked acanthosis, clubbing of the rete ridges, focal parakeratosis and neutrophilic infiltrates. There was parallel improvement of the skin and the mucosal lesions with systemic retinoid treatment. On the basis of the histopathological features and the clinical course we favour the hypothesis that geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of pustular psoriasis.

  17. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  18. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A.; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A.; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for “CBD botanical drug substance,” on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage – after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment. PMID:27757083

  19. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage - after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.

  20. Efficacy of an oral and tropically stable lipid-based formulation of Amphotericin B (iCo-010) in an experimental mouse model of systemic candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective An oral lipid based formulation that exhibits tropical stability (iCo-010) was developed to enhance the absorption of orally administered amphotericin B (AmB). iCo-010 has previously shown high efficacy in an acute model of systemic candidiasis in rats, directing the focus of this study to be its efficacy in a chronic model of systemic candidiasis in mice. Methods Mice were infected with 0.6 to 1×108 CFUs of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 strain by tail vein injection and were left for three days to develop the infection after which time treatment was initiated. The infected animals were assigned to the following treatment groups: no treatment (control) or iCo-010 at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered by oral gavage once daily (QD) for 5 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 7 days after the last dose and the concentration of AmB and the fungal burden were assessed within the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen and brain. Results Although the infection was relatively low (~ 60–100 CFUs/ 1 ml tissue homogenate) in the liver, lungs and heart, the infection level was very high (70 000 CFUs / 1 ml tissue homogenate) in the kidney tissues for the control group. The highest concentrations of AmB were recovered in the kidneys and the spleen. The fungal burden in the tissues was lowered by 69-96% in the treatment groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion Oral iCo-010 is an effective treatment of systemic candidiasis in the mouse model. PMID:24164705

  1. [Oral manifestations in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2010-11-01

    Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.

  2. Expression of p75(NGFR), a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-08-29

    We investigated the expression of p75(NGFR), a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75(NGFR), BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (-)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75(NGFR) (-)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75(NGFR) (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75(NGFR) (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium.

  3. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa masquerading as a salivary gland neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Nayal, Bhavna; Kantipudi, Swarna; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral cavity is a rare occurrence with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the third most common tumor to metastasize to this location. Buccal mucosa is rarely involved and in the absence of a known primary, such lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. The histomorphological features may mimic a primary salivary gland neoplasm adding to the dilemma. We present one such case of metastatic RCC of the buccal mucosa. PMID:27721630

  4. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  5. Role of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a foodborne mycotoxin found in grain-based foods, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although induction of anorexia has been described as a hallmark of DON-induced toxicity in many animal species, the mechanistic basis for this adverse effect is not fully understood. The purpose of this research was to determine the role of two proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in DON-induced anorexia. In a nocturnal mouse food consumption model, DON-induced anorectic response occurred at 1 hr and lasted up to 6 hr. Similar anorectic effects were observed following acute administration of exogenous TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral exposure to DON at 5 mg/kg bw stimulated splenic and hepatic mRNA and plasma protein elevations of TNF-α and IL-1β that corresponded to anorexia induction. Pretreatment with the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) antagonist R-7050 dose-dependently attenuated both TNF-α- and DON-induced anorexia. While, the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) antagonist IL-1RA dose-dependently attenuated both IL-1β- and DON-induced anorexia. Taken together, the results suggest that both TNF-α and IL-1β play contributory role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to DON.

  6. Oral TNFα Modulation Alters Neutrophil Infiltration, Improves Cognition and Diminishes Tau and Amyloid Pathology in the 3xTgAD Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gabbita, S. Prasad; Johnson, Ming F.; Kobritz, Naomi; Eslami, Pirooz; Poteshkina, Aleksandra; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Turman, John; Zemlan, Frank; Harris-White, Marni E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines such as TNFα can polarize microglia/macrophages into different neuroinflammatory types. Skewing of the phenotype towards a cytotoxic state is thought to impair phagocytosis and has been described in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Neuroinflammation can be perpetuated by a cycle of increasing cytokine production and maintenance of a polarized activation state that contributes to AD progression. In this study, 3xTgAD mice, age 6 months, were treated orally with 3 doses of the TNFα modulating compound isoindolin-1,3 dithione (IDT) for 10 months. We demonstrate that IDT is a TNFα modulating compound both in vitro and in vivo. Following long-term IDT administration, mice were assessed for learning & memory and tissue and serum were collected for analysis. Results demonstrate that IDT is safe for long-term treatment and significantly improves learning and memory in the 3xTgAD mouse model. IDT significantly reduced paired helical filament tau and fibrillar amyloid accumulation. Flow cytometry of brain cell populations revealed that IDT increased the infiltrating neutrophil population while reducing TNFα expression in this population. IDT is a safe and effective TNFα and innate immune system modulator. Thus small molecule, orally bioavailable modulators are promising therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26436670

  7. Changes in mouse hippocampal EEG characteristics after oral administration of Ro 41-3696, nitrazepam, or zopiclone alone and in combination with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, M; Tanaka, Y; Himori, N

    1994-11-01

    Ro 41-3696, a benzoquinolizinone derivative, is a partial agonist to the benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor and is expected to be a nonsedative hypnotic. The present comparative study was performed to examine the effects of the oral administration of Ro 41-3696, nitrazepam or zopiclone alone and in combination with a 'social' dose of ethanol on mouse hippocampal EEG. Ro 41-3696 (1-10 mg/kg), nitrazepam (0.1 and 1 mg/kg), and zopiclone (1 and 10 mg/kg) each alone caused an increase in the drowsy EEG pattern associated with a decrease in the duration of hippocampal rhythmic slow-wave activity (RSA). On the other hand, nitrazepam markedly lowered, while Ro 41-3696 and zopiclone slightly lowered the RSA frequency during waking mobility. In combination with a noneffective oral dose (1 g/kg) of ethanol, the reductions in both total duration and peak frequency of RSA caused by nitrazepam, unlike those by Ro 41-3696 and zopiclone, were significantly potentiated. In addition, only nitrazepam produced motor impairment. These results suggest that Ro 41-3696 acts more selectively than nitrazepam to promote the drowsy EEG pattern, and the partial agonistic properties may minimize the residual effects during waking mobility similar to the short-acting agent zopiclone.

  8. Direct Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Treatments with Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) and Miltefosine in a Mouse Model of L. major Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Anny; Caridha, Diana P.; Leed, Susan; Ngundam, Franklyn; Sena, Jenell; Bosschaerts, Tom; Parriott, Sandi; Hickman, Mark R.; Hudson, Thomas H.; Grogl, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) represents a range of skin diseases caused by infection with Leishmania parasites and associated with tissue inflammation and skin ulceration. CL is clinically widespread in both the Old and New World but lacks treatments that are well tolerated, effective and inexpensive. Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) is a new orally bioavailable drug of the alkylphosphocholine family with potent antileishmanial activity against a broad range of Leishmania species/strains. Methodology/principal findings The potential of OlPC against Old World CL was evaluated in a mouse model of Leishmania (L.) major infection in BALB/c mice. Initial dose-response experiments showed that an oral daily dose of 40 mg/kg of OlPC was needed to impact time to cure and lesion sizes. This dose was then used to directly compare the efficacy of OlPC to the efficacy of the antileishmanial drugs miltefosine (40 mg/kg/day), fluconazole (160 mg/kg/day) and amphotericin B (25 mg/kg/day). OlPC, miltefosine and fluconazole were given orally for 21 days while amphotericin B was administered intraperitoneally for 10 days. Ulcer sizes and animal weights were followed up on a weekly basis and parasitemia was determined by means of a real-time in vivo imaging system which detects luminescence emitted from luciferase-expressing infecting L. major parasites. Amphotericin B and OlPC showed excellent efficacy against L. major lesions in terms of reduction of parasitic loads and by inducing complete healing of established lesions. In contrast, treatment with miltefosine did not significantly affect parasitemia and lesion sizes, while fluconazole was completely ineffective at the dose regimen tested. Conclusions/Significance Given the data showing the outstanding efficacy and tolerability of OlPC, our results suggest that OlPC is a promising new drug candidate to improve and simplify current clinical management of L. major CL. PMID:25210745

  9. [Applying toothpaste and mouthwash BLUEM in complex oral care in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I M; Tambovtseva, N V

    2014-01-01

    For patients with coronary heart disease oral hygiene and treatment of oral mucosa inflammatory changes and periodontal disease are of vital importance. Dental status assessment in 110 patients hospitalized in cardiology department revealed that they all suffered from periodontal disease, diseases of teeth and oral mucosa. In 100% of cases it was necessary to improve oral hygiene. Inclusion in everyday hygienic oral care of toothpaste and mouthwash Bluem reduced the severity of inflammatory changes and improved the hygienic condition of the oral cavity.

  10. Oral benzo[a]pyrene-induced cancer: two distinct types in different target organs depend on the mouse Cyp1 genotype

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanquan; Dragin, Nadine; Miller, Marian L.; Stringer, Keith F.; Johansson, Elisabet; Chen, Jing; Uno, Shigeyuki; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Rubio, Carlos A.; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) found in combustion processes. Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) can both detoxify PAHs and activate them to cancer-causing reactive intermediates. Following high dosage of oral BaP (125 mg/kg/day), ablation of the mouse Cyp1a1 gene causes immunosuppression and death within ~28 days, whereas Cyp1(+/+) wild-type mice remain healthy for >12 months on this regimen. In the present study, male Cyp1(+/+) wild-type, Cyp1a1(−/−) and Cyp1b1(−/−) single-knockout, and Cyp1a1/1b1(−/−) double-knockout mice received a lower dose (12.5 mg/kg/day) of oral BaP. Tissues from 16 different organs––including proximal small intestine (PSI), liver, preputial gland duct (PGD)––were evaluated; microarray cDNA expression and >30 mRNA levels were measured. Cyp1a1(−/−) mice revealed markedly increased CYP1B1 mRNA levels in the PSI, and between 8 and 12 weeks developed unique PSI adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Cyp1a1/1b1(−/−) mice showed no PSI tumors but instead developed squamous cell carcinoma of the PGD. Cyp1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(−/−) mice remained healthy with no remarkable abnormalities in any tissue examined. PSI adenocarcinomas exhibited striking up-regulation of the Xist gene, suggesting epigenetic silencing of specific genes on the Y-chromosome; the Rab30 oncogene was up-regulated; the Nr0b2 tumor suppressor gene was down-regulated; paradoxical over-expression of numerous immunoglobulin kappa and heavy chain variable genes was found––although the adenocarcinoma showed no immunohistochemical evidence of being lymphatic in origin. This oral BaP mouse paradigm represents an example of “gene-environment interactions” in which the same exposure of carcinogen results in altered target organ and tumor type, as a function of just one or two globally absent genes. PMID:20127859

  11. The recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine induces protection against C. difficile spore challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanguang; Yan, Weiwei; McDonough, Sean P; Lin, Nengfeng; Wu, Katherine J; He, Hongxuan; Xiang, Hua; Yang, Maosheng; Moreira, Maira Aparecida S; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2015-03-24

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in the developed world. Two potent cytotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are the virulence factors of this disease and can be a good vaccine candidate against CDI. In the present study, we genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis to express the nontoxic, recombinant fragments derived from TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domains (Tcd-AC and Tcd-BC) as an oral vaccine candidate. The immunogenicity of the genetically engineered L. lactis oral vaccine delivery system (animal groups LAC and LBC or the combination of both, LACBC) was compared with the recombinant TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domain proteins (animal groups PAC and PBC or the combination of both, PACBC), which were expressed and purified from E. coli. After the C. difficile challenge, the control groups received PBS or engineered L. lactis with empty vector, showed severe diarrhea symptoms and died within 2-3 days. However, both the oral vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine groups had significantly lower mortalities, body weight decreases and histopathologic lesions than the control sham-vaccine groups (p<0.05) except group LBC which only had a 31% survival rate after the challenge. The data of post infection survival showed that an average of 86% of animals survived in groups PAC and PACBC, 75% of animals survived in group LACBC, and 65% of animals survived in group LAC. All of the vaccinated animals produced higher titers of both IgG and IgA than the control groups (p<0.05), and the antibodies were able to neutralize the cytopathic effect of toxins in vitro. The results of this study indicate that there is a potential to use L. lactis as a delivery system to develop a cost effective oral vaccine against CDI.

  12. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  13. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  14. Scap is required for sterol synthesis and crypt growth in intestinal mucosa[S

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Linden, Albert G.; January, Brandon A.; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for cleavage and activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which activate the transcription of genes in sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Liver-specific loss of Scap is well tolerated; hepatic synthesis of sterols and fatty acids is reduced, but mice are otherwise healthy. To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap−) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT2, a fusion protein of Cre recombinase with a mutated ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. After 4 days of tamoxifen, Vil-Scap− mice succumb with a severe enteropathy and near-complete collapse of intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap− mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Death is prevented when culture medium is supplemented with cholesterol and oleate. These data show that, unlike the liver, the intestine requires Scap to sustain tissue integrity by maintaining the high levels of lipid synthesis necessary for proliferation of intestinal crypts. PMID:25896350

  15. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  16. Oral administered particulate yeast-derived glucan promotes hepatitis B virus clearance in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Dandan; Shi, Bisheng; Ren, Guangxu; Peng, Xiuhua; Fang, Zhong; Kozlowski, Maya; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaonan; Wu, Min; Wang, Cong; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection is associated with ineffective immune response for the clearance of virus. Immunomodulators represent an important class of therapeutics, which potentially could be beneficial for the treatment of HBV infection. The particulate yeast-derived glucan (PYDG) has been shown to enhance the innate and adaptive immune responses. We therefore, assessed the efficacy of PYDG in enhancing HBV specific immune responses by employing the hydrodynamic injection-based (HDI) HBV transfection mouse model. Mice were intragatric administered PYDG daily for 9 weeks post pAAV/HBV1.2 hydrodynamic injection. PYDG treatment significantly promoted HBV DNA clearance and production of HBsAb compared to control mice. PYDG treatment resulted in recruitment of macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and effector T cells to the liver microenvironment, accompanied by a significantly augmented DCs maturation and HBV-specific IFN-γ and TNF-α production by T cell. In addition, enhanced production of Th1 cytokines in liver tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) was associated with PYDG administration. Live imaging showed the accumulation of PYDG in the mouse liver. Our results demonstrate that PYDG treatment significantly enhances HBV-specific Th1 immune responses, accompanied by clearance of HBV DNA, and therefore holds promise for further development of therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B.

  17. Osseous choristoma of the oral soft tissue. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Oral osseous choristoma is a rare developmental alteration, their principal localization is nearly to base of the tongue (foramen caecum). The oral mucosa localization of osseous choristoma is extremely rare. At date only 10 cases of oral mucosa osseous choristoma had been reported. In the present paper we reported a new case of oral mucosa osseous choristoma in a Klippel-Feil syndrome patient. A review of available literature was made. We presented a 28 years old female patient who showed into the right oral mucosa, a hard, mobile, and asymptomatic mass, with minimum 4 years of evolution. The histological image showed a lesion constituted by lamellar bone, osteocytes and haematopoyetic tissue. The diagnosis of osseous choristoma was made. It is discusses their possible association with Klippel-Feil syndrome. The osseous choristoma of buccal mucosa is most frequently in fifth decade of the life although is reported between 12-to-64 years old, with a female predisposition.

  18. Transitions in oral and intestinal microflora composition and innate immune receptor-dependent stimulation during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mizuho; Osaka, Toshifumi; Tawaratsumida, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Takashi; Tada, Hiroyuki; Chen, Grace Y; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Núñez, Gabriel; Inohara, Naohiro

    2010-02-01

    Commensal bacteria possess immunostimulatory activities that can modulate host responses to affect development and homeostasis in the intestine. However, how different populations of resident bacteria stimulate the immune system remains largely unknown. We characterized here the ability of intestinal and oral microflora to stimulate individual pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in bone marrow-derived macrophages and mesothelial cells. The intestinal but not oral microflora elicited age- and cell type-specific immunostimulation. The immunostimulatory activity of the intestinal microflora varied among individual mice but was largely mediated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) during breast-feeding, whereas it became TLR4 independent after weaning. This transition was associated with a change from a microflora rich in TLR4-stimulatory proteobacteria to one dominated by Bacteroidales and/or Clostridiales that poorly stimulate TLR4. The major stimulatory activity of the intestinal microflora was still intact in NOD1-, NOD2-, TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR5-, TLR9-, TLR11-, ASC-, or RICK-deficient cells but still relied on the adaptor MyD88. These studies demonstrate a transition in the intestinal microflora accompanied by a dynamic change of its ability to stimulate different PRRs which control intestinal homeostasis.

  19. One Odontogenic Cell-Population Contributes to the Development of the Mouse Incisors and of the Oral Vestibule

    PubMed Central

    Hovorakova, Maria; Lochovska, Katerina; Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Domonkosova Tibenska, Kristina; Dornhoferova, Michaela; Horakova-Smrckova, Lucie; Bodorikova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of human historical tooth-like structures found in the vestibular area of jaws confirmed their relation to teeth and thus the capability of the vestibular tissue to form teeth. The location of labelled cells descendant of the early appearing Shh expression domain related to the rudimentary incisor anlage not only in the rudimentary and functional incisor germs but also in the externally located anlage of the oral vestibule documented the odontogenic potential of the vestibular epithelium. This potential can be awakened under pathological conditions and become a source of pathologies in the vestibular area. PMID:27611193

  20. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R.; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Bielenberg, Diane R.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells. PMID:26877262

  1. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2016-04-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells.

  2. Post-exposure efficacy of oral T-705 (Favipiravir) against inhalational Ebola virus infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Smither, Sophie J; Eastaugh, Lin S; Steward, Jackie A; Nelson, Michelle; Lenk, Robert P; Lever, Mark S

    2014-04-01

    Filoviruses cause disease with high case fatality rates and are considered biological threat agents. Licensed post-exposure therapies that can be administered by the oral route are desired for safe and rapid distribution and uptake in the event of exposure or outbreaks. Favipiravir or T-705 has broad antiviral activity and has already undergone phase II and is undergoing phase III clinical trials for influenza. Here we report the first use of T-705 against Ebola virus. T-705 gave 100% protection against aerosol Ebola virus E718 infection; protection was shown in immune-deficient mice after 14 days of twice-daily dosing. T-705 was also shown to inhibit Ebola virus infection in cell culture. T-705 is likely to be licensed for use against influenza in the near future and could also be used with a new indication for filovirus infection.

  3. ORAL AMELANOTIC MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  4. Oral verruciform xanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia; Staines, Konrad; Pring, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is a key for the correct management of this lesion. Excision of this lesion is curative. PMID:25819830

  5. Chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitors in a transgenic mouse model of gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiguchi, Kaoru; Ruffino, Lynnsie; Kawamoto, Toru; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Digiovanni, John

    2005-08-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer after hepatocellular cancer. At the time of diagnosis, most BTC are at an advanced stage and are unresectable. There is presently no effective curative treatment of the advanced disease nor is there any effective clinical therapy that will prevent the development of BTC. All of these factors render gallbladder cancer nearly incurable with a poor survival rate. The aim of our study was to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of gallbladder carcinoma as the advancement of more effective treatment options would significantly improve prognosis. In the present study, we examined the effect of gefitinib, a selective epidermal growth factor receptor/tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR/TKI), on the development of gallbladder carcinoma in BK5.erbB2 mice. In addition, we examined the effect of another quinazoline derivative, GW2974, which is able to block the activation of both the EGFR and erbB2, in this model. Animals were treated with either 400 ppm gefitinib or 200 ppm GW2974 as a supplement in the diet using either a chemopreventive or therapeutic protocol. The results show that both compounds were potent chemopreventive and therapeutic agents in this mouse model of human BTC. The results also suggest that activation of the EGFR plays an important role in development of BTC in this model and that targeting both the EGFR and erbB2 may be an effective strategy for treatment of this disease.

  6. The corn smut-made cholera oral vaccine is thermostable and induces long-lasting immunity in mouse.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Navarro-Tovar, Gabriela; León-Gallo, Amalia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2016-09-20

    The use of corn smut for the production of recombinant vaccines has been recently implemented by our group. In this study, the stability and immunogenic properties of the corn smut-based cholera vaccine, based on the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), were determined in mouse. The immunogenic potential of distinct corn smut CTB doses ranging from 1 to 30μg were assessed, with maximum humoral responses at both the systemic (IgG) and intestinal (IgA) levels at a dose of 15μg. The humoral response last for up to 70days after the third boost. Mice were fully protected against a challenge with cholera toxin after receiving three 15μg-doses. Remarkably, the corn smut-made vaccine retained its immunogenic activity after storage at room temperature for a period of 1year and no reduction on CTB was observed following exposure at 50°C for 2h. These data support the use of the corn smut-made CTB vaccine as a highly stable and effective immunogen and justify its evaluation in target animal models, such as piglet and sheep, as well as clinical evaluations in humans.

  7. Prevention of inflammation-mediated acquisition of metastatic properties of benign mouse fibrosarcoma cells by administration of an orally available superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Okada, F; Shionoya, H; Kobayashi, M; Kobayashi, T; Tazawa, H; Onuma, K; Iuchi, Y; Matsubara, N; Ijichi, T; Dugas, B; Hosokawa, M

    2006-01-01

    Weakly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic QR-32 cells derived from a fibrosarcoma in C57BL6 mouse are converted to malignant cells once they have grown after being coimplanted with a gelatine sponge which induces inflammation. We administered a newly developed peroral superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxykine, and as control vehicle, gliadin and saline, starting 2 days before the coimplantation and continued daily throughout the experiment. In the oxykine group, tumour incidence was lower (41%) than in the gliadin or saline group (83 and 79%, respectively). The inhibitory effect of oxykine was lost when an individual component of oxykine was administered, that is, SOD alone and gliadin alone. The effect was also abolished when administered by intraperitoneal route. When perfused in situ with nitroblue tetrazolium, an indicator of superoxide formation, the tumour masses from gliadin and saline groups displayed intense formazan deposition, whereas, those from oxykine group had less deposition. Enzymatic activity of SOD was also increased in oxykine group. Arising tumour cells in gliadin and saline groups acquired metastatic phenotype, but those in oxykine group showed reduced metastatic ability. These results suggested that the orally active SOD derivative prevented tumour progression promoted by inflammation, which is thought to be through scavenging inflammatory cell-derived superoxide anion. PMID:16508635

  8. Use of buccal mucosa in hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Diaz, Omar; Castellan, Miguel; Gosalbez, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Hypospadias is an embryological disorder that results in an abnormal ventral positioning of the urethral meatus. Among multiple surgical techniques described to correct this anomaly, the use of buccal mucosa grafts has gained popularity among pediatric urologists, pediatric surgeons and plastic surgeons. Buccal mucosa grafts have shown favorable histological changes that result in an excellent scaffold for urethral reconstructive surgery. This review describes the evolution of the use of buccal mucosa grafts in hypospadias repair.

  9. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the alveolar mucosa of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Johann, A C B R; Caldeira, P C; Abdo, E N; Sousa, S O M; Aguiar, M C F; Mesquita, R A

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare lesion composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by inflammatory infiltrate. The objective of this paper is to report an uncommon case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor located in the alveolar mucosa of the mandible. A 33-year-old male presented an asymptomatic tumoral lesion, firm, pedunculated, pink-colored, covered by smooth mucosa, with focal ulceration, measuring 30x20x20 mm, located in the left posterior alveolar mucosa. Clinical diagnosis was soft tissue tumor. An excisional biopsy was made. Microscopic examination showed compact fascicular spindle cells proliferation with a diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Large ganglion-like cells were observed. The lesional cells were immunopos-itive to vimentin, a-smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, and CD68. Negative immunostain was observed to S-100, Bcl-2, Ki-67, desmin, CD34, and cytokeratin. A diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor was performed. After 28 months of follow-up there was no recurrence. Although no evidence of oral inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor recurrence or malignant transformation has been reported, it has been observed that in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of other regions a prolonged follow-up is necessary after surgical excision.

  10. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  11. Oral mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Oral mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the oral mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. Material and methods The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The condition of the oral mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for oral mucositis. Results In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the oral mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of oral mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the oral mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and oral ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. Oral mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Conclusion Local treatment of oral mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood conditions in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the condition of the oral mucosa. PMID:23788849

  12. A novel flow through diffusion cell for assessing drug transport across the buccal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lestari, Maria L A D; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Finnin, Barrie C

    2009-12-01

    A novel flow through (FT) diffusion cell for assessing the permeability of compounds across the buccal mucosa was designed. Porcine buccal mucosa was mounted between two chambers with flow through capacity in both the donor and receptor chambers. The permeability of caffeine (CAF), triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), and estradiol (E(2)) was determined over 4 h and flux values were compared to those obtained using a modified Ussing chamber (MUC). No significant differences in the flux of each probe compound were observed using either the MUC or the novel FT cell. The design of the FT cell allowed for monitoring appearance of receptor solution within the donor chamber during the initial equilibration period, allowing for visual inspection of tissue integrity. These permeability studies demonstrate that this FT cell is a suitable alternative model for assessing drug permeability across the buccal mucosa, without the limitations associated with the static MUC. This novel model was then utilized to determine whether salmeterol xinafoate (SX) could permeate the buccal mucosa at concentrations expected in the oral cavity following inhalation. Concentration-dependent studies demonstrated that SX permeates the buccal mucosa via passive diffusion and that oral mucosal absorption may contribute significantly to the overall systemic exposure of inhaled SX.

  13. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route.

  14. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones are being used extensively throughout the world, with more than four billion accounts existing in 2009. This technology applies electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health effects of this radiation have been subject of debate for a long time, both within the scientific community and within the general public. This study investigated the effect of mobile phone use on genomic instability of the human oral cavity's mucosa cells. 131 Individuals donated buccal mucosa cells extracted by slightly scraping the oral cavity with a cotton swab. Every participant filled out a questionnaire about mobile phone use including duration of weekly use, overall period of exposure and headset usage. 13 Individuals did not use mobile phones at all, 85 reported using the mobile phone for three hours per week or less, and 33 reported use of more than three hours per week. Additionally, information on age, gender, body weight, smoking status, medication and nutrition was retrieved. For staining of the cells a procedure using alpha-tubulin-antibody and chromomycin A(3) was applied. Micronuclei and other markers were evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope. A second scorer counted another 1000 cells, resulting in 2000 analyzed cells per individual. Mobile phone use did not lead to a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei.

  15. Free Gingival Graft to Increase Keratinized Mucosa after Placing of Mandibular Fixed Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Elcio

    2017-01-01

    Insufficiently keratinized tissue can be increased surgically by free gingival grafting. The presence or reconstruction of keratinized mucosa around the implant can facilitate restorative procedure and allow the maintenance of an oral hygiene routine without irritation or discomfort to the patient. The aim of this clinical case report is to describe an oral rehabilitation procedure of an edentulous patient with absence of keratinized mucosa in the interforaminal area, using a free gingival graft associated with a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis. The treatment included the manufacturing of a maxillary complete denture and a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis followed by a free gingival graft to increase the width of the mandibular keratinized mucosa. Free gingival graft was obtained from the palate and grafted on the buccal side of interforaminal area. The follow-up of 02 and 12 months after mucogingival surgery showed that the free gingival graft promoted peri-implant health, hygiene, and patient comfort. Clinical Significance. The free gingival graft is an effective treatment in increasing the width of mandibular keratinized mucosa on the buccal side of the interforaminal area and provided an improvement in maintaining the health of peri-implant tissues which allows for better oral hygiene. PMID:28293441

  16. [Reiter's syndrome oral manifestations].

    PubMed

    Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G

    1988-01-01

    Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Boesen, P V; Laszewski, M J; Robinson, R A; Dawson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Inverted papillomas of the oral cavity are rare lesions. Although in the seven oral cases previously reported the lesions were benign, approximately 10% to 15% of inverted papillomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses develop or are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa. Histologically, this lesion demonstrated the morphologic features of inverted papilloma in the superficial portion, and squamous carcinoma in deeper sections. This case suggests that although rare, inverted papillomas of the oral cavity should be considered potentially malignant or capable of harboring a malignancy.

  18. Oral Hemorrhagic Blister: An Enigma

    PubMed Central

    Shashikumar, BM; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, MR

    2013-01-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. PMID:24082207

  19. Oral hemorrhagic blister: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Shashikumar, Bm; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, Mr

    2013-09-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.

  20. The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446

  1. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-18

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.

  2. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions. PMID:27688388

  3. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    PubMed

    Castrup, H J

    1979-05-10

    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  4. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  5. Oral epithelial hyperplasia in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Girtan, Mihaela; Zurac, Sabina; Stăniceanu, Florica; Bastian, Alexandra; Popp, Cristiana; Nichita, Luciana; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic systemic disorders with major influences of the oral cavity microenvironment. Oral manifestations of diabetes are diverse; they are represented by candidose, lichen plan, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, salivary disorders, oral mucosa atrophy and rarely hypertrophy; a possible link between oral cancer and diabetes is suspected, both in animal models and humans. We report a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes with class I Kennedy edentation with mobile denture prosthesis; latter in the clinical follow-up, a hyperplasic lesion of the oral mucosa with p53 expression within the epithelial nuclei was identified, p53 being the more likely pathogenic pathway involved in diabetes-related oral cancer. The approach of this patient required multidisciplinary investigations and careful follow-up.

  6. Results of examination of the nasal mucosa. [in Apollo 17 BIOCORE pocket mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Vogel, F. S.; Lloyd, B.; Benton, E. V.; Cruty, M. R.; Haymaker, W.; Leon, H. A.; Billingham, J.; Turnbill, C. E.; Teas, V.

    1975-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium, but not the nasal respiratory epithelium, of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived their flight on Apollo XVII showed both diffuse alterations and numerous disseminated focal lesions. The olfactory mucosa of the mouse that died during flight was also affected, but to a minor degree insofar as could be determined. All this was in contrast to the normal appearance of the olfactory mucosa of the numerous control animals. A number of possible causes were considered: systemic or regional infection; inhaled particulate material (seed dust); by-products from the KO2 bed in aerosol or particulate form; gas contaminants originating in the flight package; volatile substances from the dead mouse; weightlessness; and cosmic ray particle radiation. Where feasible, studies were conducted in an effort to rule in or rule out some of these potentially causative factors. No definitive conclusions were reached as to the cause of the lesions in the flight mice.

  7. Optical reconstruction of murine colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cambrian Y.; Dubé, Philip E.; Girish, Nandini; Reddy, Ajay T.

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal layer of the colon is a unique and dynamic site where host cells interface with one another and the microbiome, with major implications for physiology and disease. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating colonic regeneration, inflammation, dysplasia, and dysbiosis remain undercharacterized, partly because the use of thin tissue sections in many studies removes important volumetric context. To address these challenges in visualization, we have developed the deep mucosal imaging (DMI) method to reconstruct continuous extended volumes of mouse colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution. Use of ScaleA2 and SeeDB clearing agents enabled full visualization of the colonic crypt, the fundamental unit of adult colon. Confocal imaging of large colorectal expanses revealed epithelial structures involved in repair, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and stem cell function, in fluorescent protein-labeled, immunostained, paraffin-embedded, or human biopsy samples. We provide freely available software to reconstruct and explore on computers with standard memory allocations the large DMI datasets containing in toto representations of distal colonic mucosal volume. Extended-volume imaging of colonic mucosa through the novel, extensible, and readily adopted DMI approach will expedite mechanistic investigations of intestinal physiology and pathophysiology at intracrypt to multicrypt length scales. PMID:25721303

  8. Differences in the expression of five senescence markers in oral cancer, oral leukoplakia and control samples in humans

    PubMed Central

    BASCONES-MARTÍNEZ, ANTONIO; LÓPEZ-DURÁN, MERCEDES; CANO-SÁNCHEZ, JORGE; SÁNCHEZ-VERDE, LYDIA; DÍEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, ANA; AGUIRRE-ECHEBARRÍA, PABLO; ÁLVAREZ-FERNÁNDEZ, EMILIO; GONZÁLEZ-MOLES, MIGUEL ANGEL; BASCONES-ILUNDAIN, JAIME; MUZIO, LORENZO LO; CAMPO-TRAPERO, JULIÁN

    2012-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) may be a response to oncogenic activation, acting as a natural barrier against carcinogenesis at a premalignant stage. Thus, numerous cells in premalignant lesions enter senescence, but none or few in malignant tumours. This event could be due to the loss of senescence pathway effectors, including p16 (INK4a)-pRb or ARF-p53. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the expression of certain senescent markers between oral precancer and cancer tissue samples. The expression of cyclin D1, Rb, maspin, p53 and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) was analyzed in 20 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of normal oral mucosa (NOM), 14 samples of oral leukoplakia without dysplasia (OLD−), 11 samples of leukoplakia with dysplasia (OLD+) and 15 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays. The expression of p16-pRb pathway markers, cyclin D1, maspin and Rb, was more frequent in OLD+ samples than in OSCC samples, although a statistical significance was only observed for maspin (P=0.036). Cyclin D1 expression was also significantly more frequent in OLD− samples vs. NOM samples. For the ARF-p53 pathway, the expression of p53 and MDM2 was significantly more frequent in the OLD− samples compared to in the NOM ones. These findings may indicate a role for cellular senescence in oral carcinogenesis, considering maspin as a reliable senescence marker and prognostic factor in oral premalignant lesions. PMID:22783442

  9. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.

  10. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Abdelmonem, Said; Abdelsameea, Ahmed A.; AlShawadfy, Mohamed; El-Kashishy, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective  This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods  We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results  The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion  Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats. PMID:27413403

  11. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  12. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  13. [Oral cavity changes in alcoholic patients].

    PubMed

    Esguep, A; Ceballos, M; Smith, P

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this study was to look for pathological changes in the oral cavity in a group of 40 non cirrhotic male alcoholics, ranging in age from 30 to 40 years old. These subjects were compared with a group of 40 non alcoholic male subjects of similar age. The presence of lip, dental, periodontal, salivary gland and oral mucosa lesions was recorded. In alcoholics, pigmented lesions were observed in the lips in all the subjects (compared to 36% of controls), in the cheek mucosa in 65% and in the palate mucosa in 35.5%. Sixty five percent of alcoholics were partially edentate (compared to 32.5% of controls). It is concluded that the consideration of oral changes as a whole could be useful in the diagnosis of occult alcoholism. Moreover these patients have an important need of odontological attention that has to be considered.

  14. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  15. Oral and perioral piercing complications.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-12-04

    BACKGROUND.: The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing METHODS.: A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ;;oral and perioral, piercing , ;;oral, piercing and disease", ;;recessions and oral piercing . It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series RESULTS.: A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. CONCLUSION.: Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS.: Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

  16. Oral lichenoid tissue reactions: diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Khudhur, Ahmed Salih; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Carrozzo, Marco

    2014-03-01

    The concept of lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis was introduced in dermatology to define a number of diverse inflammatory skin diseases linked together by the presence of common histopathological features. Similarly to the skin, the oral mucosa is affected by a variety of oral lichenoid lesions. Oral LTRs (OLTRs) include: oral lichen planus; oral lichenoid contact lesion; oral lichenoid drug reaction; oral lichenoid lesions of graft-versus-host disease; oral discoid lupus erythematosus; oral lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus; erythema multiforme; paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome; chronic ulcerative stomatitis and lichen planus pemphigoid. Traditionally, diagnosis of OLTRs relies on clinical and histological correlation but in several instances this approach fails to provide a reliable diagnosis. Inclusion of molecular techniques may refine our ability to differentiate OLTRs.

  17. Src family kinases mediate betel quid-induced oral cancer cell motility and could be a biomarker for early invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Hung, Chih-Chang; Huang, Kai-Lieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Yen, Ching-Yu; Wu, Yu-Jen; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Jou, Yuh-Shan

    2008-12-01

    Betel quid (BQ)-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9) presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs). Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01). These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  18. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  19. Oral transmucosal drug delivery for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jenny K W; Xu, Yingying; Worsley, Alan; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-06-01

    The formulation of medicines for children remains a challenge. An ideal pediatric formulation must allow accurate dose administration and be in a dosage form that can be handled by the target age group. It is also important to consider the choices and the amount of excipients used in the formulation for this vulnerable age group. Although oral formulations are generally acceptable to most pediatric patients, they are not suitable for drugs with poor oral bioavailability or when a rapid clinical effect is required. In recent years, oral transmucosal delivery has emerged as an attractive route of administration for pediatric patients. With this route of administration, a drug is absorbed through the oral mucosa, therefore bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism and thus avoiding drug degradation or metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. The high blood flow and relatively high permeability of the oral mucosa allow a quick onset of action to be achieved. It is a simple and non-invasive route of drug administration. However, there are several barriers that need to be overcome in the development of oral transmucosal products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current development of oral transmucosal delivery specifically for the pediatric population in order to achieve systemic drug delivery. The anatomical and physiological properties of the oral mucosa of infants and young children are carefully examined. The different dosage forms and formulation strategies that are suitable for young patients are discussed.

  20. [Gran versus host disease with oral involvement: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Rojas A, Gonzalo; González G, Néstor; Venables G, Cristián; Araos H, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Gran versus Host Disease (GVHD) is a common complication in allogenic bone marrow transplants and in some cases, it involves the oral mucosa. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and timely treatment is essential to prevent local complications which interfere with normal oral functions and facilitate infection spread. We report a 17 years old woman with GVHD associated to lichenoid and ulcerative lesion in the oral mucosa, which responded to the topical administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus ointment.

  1. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  2. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  3. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease.

  4. Oral administration of a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit promotes mucosal healing in the colon.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, K J; Royal, J M; Kouokam, J C; Haribabu, B; Jala, V R; Yaddanapudi, K; Hamorsky, K T; Dryden, G W; Matoba, N

    2016-11-02

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of a licensed oral cholera vaccine. However, CTB has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects whose impacts on the gut are not fully understood. Here, we found that oral administration in mice of a plant-made recombinant CTB (CTBp) significantly increased several immune cell populations in the colon lamina propria. Global gene expression analysis revealed that CTBp had more pronounced impacts on the colon than the small intestine, with significant activation of TGFβ-mediated pathways in the colon epithelium. The clinical relevance of CTBp-induced impacts on colonic mucosa was examined. In a human colon epithelial model using Caco2 cells, CTBp, but not the non-GM1-binding mutant G33D-CTBp, induced TGFβ-mediated wound healing. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) acute colitis mouse model, oral administration of CTBp protected against colon mucosal damage as manifested by mitigated body weight loss, decreased histopathological scores, and blunted escalation of inflammatory cytokine levels while inducing wound healing-related genes. Furthermore, biweekly oral administration of CTBp significantly reduced disease severity and tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane/DSS model of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Altogether, these results demonstrate CTBp's ability to enhance mucosal healing in the colon, highlighting its potential application in ulcerative colitis therapy besides cholera vaccination.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 2 November 2016. doi:10.1038/mi.2016.95.

  5. Update on oral herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

    2014-04-01

    Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs.

  6. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K

    2013-03-30

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease.

  7. Humanized-BLT mouse model of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Xu; Kang, Guobin; Kumar, Pankaj; Lu, Wuxun; Li, Yue; Zhou, You; Li, Qingsheng; Wood, Charles

    2014-02-25

    Lack of an effective small-animal model to study the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection in vivo has hampered studies on the pathogenesis and transmission of KSHV. The objective of our study was to determine whether the humanized BLT (bone marrow, liver, and thymus) mouse (hu-BLT) model generated from NOD/SCID/IL2rγ mice can be a useful model for studying KSHV infection. We have tested KSHV infection of hu-BLT mice via various routes of infection, including oral and intravaginal routes, to mimic natural routes of transmission, with recombinant KSHV over a 1- or 3-mo period. Infection was determined by measuring viral DNA, latent and lytic viral transcripts and antigens in various tissues by PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical staining. KSHV DNA, as well as both latent and lytic viral transcripts and proteins, were detected in various tissues, via various routes of infection. Using double-labeled immune-fluorescence confocal microscopy, we found that KSHV can establish infection in human B cells and macrophages. Our results demonstrate that KSHV can establish a robust infection in the hu-BLT mice, via different routes of infection, including the oral mucosa which is the most common natural route of infection. This hu-BLT mouse not only will be a useful model for studying the pathogenesis of KSHV in vivo but can potentially be used to study the routes and spread of viral infection in the infected host.

  8. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  9. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions. PMID:19570281

  10. Oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits early biomarkers of UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Afaq, Farrukh; Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Pomegranate from the plant Punica granatum L. possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we have demonstrated that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibited UVB-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases pathways. Here, we evaluated the effect of PFE on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing SKH-1 hairless mice. PFE was provided in drinking water (0.2%, wt/vol) to SKH-1 hairless mice for 14 days before a single UVB (180 mJ cm(-2)) irradiation. We found that oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-induced: (1) skin edema; (2) hyperplasia; (3) infiltration of leukocytes; (4) lipid peroxidation; (5) hydrogen peroxide generation; (6) ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity; and (7) ODC, cyclooxygenase-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expression. Oral feeding of PFE enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Importantly, PFE treatment further enhanced UVB-mediated increase in tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-mediated: (1) nuclear translocation of NF-κB; (2) activation of IKKα; and (3) phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Taken together, we provide evidence that oral feeding of PFE to mice affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential.

  11. HMX: Toxicokinetics of (14)C-HMX Following Oral Administration to the Rat and Mouse and Intravenous Administration to the Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    considered to describe accurately the methods and procedures used in the study and the * original data generated during the study. Signed...following the oral adminis- tration. J~ssue concentrations of radioactivity following an intravenous dose of C-HMX were generally higher than plasma...January 1983 SAll data generated and recorded during this study will be stored in the Scientific Archives of Inveresk Research International Limited. I V

  12. Development, optimization and characterization of a full-thickness tissue engineered human oral mucosal model for biological assessment of dental biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Moharamzadeh, K; Brook, I M; Van Noort, R; Scutt, A M; Smith, K G; Thornhill, M H

    2008-04-01

    Restorative dental materials and oral health care products come into direct contact with oral mucosa and can cause adverse reactions. In order to obtain an accurate risk assessment, the in vitro test model must reflect the clinical situation as closely as possible. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a three-dimensional full-thickness engineered human oral mucosal model, which can be used for biological assessment of dental materials. In this study human oral fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated from patients and seeded onto a number of collagen-based and synthetic scaffolds using a variety of cell seeding techniques and grown at the air/liquid interface to construct human oral mucosa equivalents. Suitability of 10 different scaffolds for engineering human oral mucosa was evaluated in terms of biocompatibility, biostability, porosity, and the ability to mimic normal human oral mucosa morphology. Finally an optimized full-thickness engineered human oral mucosa was developed and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining. The oral mucosa reconstruct resembled native human oral mucosa and it has the potential to be used as an accurate and reproducible test model in mucotoxicity and biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials.

  13. Combined Zoledronic Acid and Meloxicam Reduced Bone Loss and Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Bone-Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C.K.; Dirksen, W.P.; Carlton, M.M.; Lanigan, L.G.; Pillai, S.P.; Werbeck, J.L.; Simmons, J.K.; Hildreth, B.E.; London, C.A.; Toribio, R.E.; Rosol, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is common in cats and humans and invades oral bone. We hypothesized that the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, with the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), would inhibit tumor growth, osteolysis and invasion in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) xenografts in mice. Human and feline OSCC cell lines expressed cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and 2 and the SCCF2 cells had increased COX-2 mRNA expression with bone conditioned medium. Luciferase-expressing feline SCCF2Luc cells were injected beneath the perimaxillary gingiva and mice were treated with 0.1 mg/kg ZOL twice weekly, 0.3 mg/kg meloxicam daily, combined ZOL and meloxicam, or vehicle. ZOL inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption at the tumor-bone interface. Meloxicam was more effective than ZOL at reducing xenograft growth but did not affect osteoclastic bone resorption. Although a synergistic effect of combined ZOL and meloxicam was not observed, combination therapy was well tolerated and may be useful in the clinical management of bone-invasive feline OSCC. PMID:23651067

  14. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  15. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  16. Rare tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Monika; Swanson, Paul E

    2016-10-01

    In spite of increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the last few decades, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) still remains the dominant subtype of esophageal cancer worldwide. Apart from conventional SCC, some rare unconventional tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa are also well known. This study provides an introduction to these and presents a brief review of the literature, including the diagnostic and prognostic importance of each variant.

  17. [Expression of proliferation and apoptosis markers in neoplasms of colon mucosa after cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Galitskiĭ, M V; Khomeriki, S G; Nikiforov, P A

    2009-01-01

    The cholecystectomy results in change of cholic acids flow into intestine. Permanent type of the bile flow provokes the increase of proliferation of colic epithelial cells and increases the risk for development of right-sided colorectal tumors. Meanwhile morphological features of colorectal tumors at the patients with cholecystectomy are still remaining to be clarified. The goal of the study was to investigate immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas at the patients with cholecystectomy. Fifty patients (40 with retained function of gallbladder and 10 patients with cholecystectomy) histologically diagnosed as proximal colon adenoma or adenocarcinoma were included into the study. Colonoscopic biopsies have been taken from the lesion in cancer patients, and colonoscopic polypectomy has been performed for adenomas. In addition, biopsies have been taken from the adjacent healthy colon mucosa at least 5 cm from the lesion in each patient. 83 tumors and 49 samples of mucosa were immunostained with monoclonal mouse anti-human p53 protein (Dako) and monoclonal mouse anti-human Ki-67 antigen (Novocastra). The index of Ki-67 expression in healthy colon mucosa at the patients with cholecystectomy was 37,5 +/- 1,8% (p < 0,05) as compared to 31,36 +/- 1,9 at the patients without cholecystectomy. No significant difference was detected in the comparison of Ki-67 expression levels between the healthy mucosa and adenomas at the patients with cholecystectomy 43,4 +/- 3,45 (p > 0,05), but more prominent increase was revealed in adenocarcinomas 64,33 +/- 7,67% (p < 0,01). Protein p53 expression in healthy mucosa at the patients with a cholecystectomy was at the same level as at the patients without cholecystectomy (37%). At the patients without cholecystectomy the frequency of revealing p53 in adenomas does not vary, compared with healthy mucosa, however in adenocarcinomas p53 was not revealed at none case. As a contrast, in

  18. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  19. Lasers in oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1994-12-01

    The indications of lasers in oral surgery are defined by the laser-tissue interaction types. These are mainly thermal effects depending especially on the absorption of laser light in varying biological tissues. In histological sections different laser effects are demonstrated on oral mucosa, bone and cartilage, which have a great influence on wound healing and subsequently on clinical indications of the different wavelengths. On the one hand the good coagulation effect of the Nd:YAG laser is wanted for hemostasis in soft tissue surgery. On the other hand, for the treatment of precancerous dysplasias or neoplasias an effective cutting with a coagulation effect like using the CO2 laser is necessary. However, the excision of benign mucosal lesions as well as performing osteotomies or shaping of cartilage should be undertaken with the Er:YAG laser without greater coagulation and consequently without any delay of wound healing.

  20. Unifocal orofacial granulomatosis in retromolar mucosa: surgical treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; García-Caballero, Lucía; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M.; Romero-Méndez, María A.

    2014-01-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is defined by permanent or recurrent swelling of orofacial tissues with different multiform and multifocal clinical patterns. An 11-year old boy presented with a 2-month history of mucosa enlargement. Intraoral examination revealed an erythematous, polylobulated, exophytic lesion with a smooth surface located in retromolar mucosa, non-tender and non-infiltratated to palpation. The diagnosis was inflammatory lesion compatible with pyogenic granuloma and laser excision was decided. Haematological parameters were within normal range, as well as chest Xrays. These findings lead to a diagnosis of non-symptomatic orofacial granulomatosis, whose early diagnosis can minimize the impact of systemic-related disorders, like Chron’s disease. Key words:Laser, orofacial granulomatosis, childhood, oral lesions, diagnosis. PMID:24790722

  1. Unifocal orofacial granulomatosis in retromolar mucosa: surgical treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Seoane-Romero, Juan M; García-Caballero, Lucía; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M; Romero-Méndez, María A; Varela-Centelles, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is defined by permanent or recurrent swelling of orofacial tissues with different multiform and multifocal clinical patterns. An 11-year old boy presented with a 2-month history of mucosa enlargement. Intraoral examination revealed an erythematous, polylobulated, exophytic lesion with a smooth surface located in retromolar mucosa, non-tender and non-infiltratated to palpation. The diagnosis was inflammatory lesion compatible with pyogenic granuloma and laser excision was decided. Haematological parameters were within normal range, as well as chest Xrays. These findings lead to a diagnosis of non-symptomatic orofacial granulomatosis, whose early diagnosis can minimize the impact of systemic-related disorders, like Chron's disease. Key words:Laser, orofacial granulomatosis, childhood, oral lesions, diagnosis.

  2. Apremilast Is Effective in Lichen Planus Mucosae-Associated Stenotic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Jürg; Gubler, Christoph; Kaufmann, Karin; Nobbe, Stephan; Navarini, Alexander A.; French, Lars E.

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman with extensive lichen planus mucosae (LPM) developed stenotic esophagitis that was refractory to intravenous glucocorticosteroids. Esophageal dilatations to 14 mm width were repeatedly performed without any lasting effect. After introducing oral apremilast, she experienced complete clinical remission within the first 4 weeks of treatment. Control esophagoscopy confirmed a marked recovery of the esophageal mucosa with no recurrence of the former stenosis. Our observation is in line with the case series of Paul et al. [J Am Acad Dermatol 2013;68: 255–261] who first reported on the benefit of apremilast in patients with extensive LPM. Ideally, the effectiveness of apremilast in LPM should be studied in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27721755

  3. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  4. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: IX Results of examination of the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kraft, L M; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R; Haymaker, W; Leon, A; Billingham, J; Turnbill, C E; Teas, V; Look, B C; Suri, K; Miquel, J; Ashley, W W; Behnke, A R; Samorajski, T; Bailey, O T; Zeman, W

    1975-04-01

    The olfactory epithelium, but not the nasal respiratory epithelium, of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived their flight on Apollo XVII showed both diffuse alterations and numerous disseminated focal lesions. The olfactory mucosa of the mouse that died during flight was also affected, but to a minor degree insofar as could be determined. All this was in contrast to the normal appearance of the olfactory mucosa of the numerous control animals. A number of possible causes were considered: systemic or regional infection; inhaled particulate material (seed dust); by-products from the KO2 bed in aerosol or particulate form; gas contaminants originating in the flight package; volatile substances from the dead mouse; weightlessness; and cosmic ray particle radiation. Where feasible, studies were conducted in an effort to rule in or rule out some of these potentially causative factors. No definitive conclusions were reached as to the cause of the lesions in the flight mice.

  5. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder.

  6. Perceived oral health status, oral function and related behaviour among the patients of Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Isogai, E; Mizugai, H; Miura, K

    2000-01-01

    The majority of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) suffers from oral ulcers. The aim of the present study was to survey self-rated oral health status, oral function, and oral health behaviour of patients with BD in eastern Japan. Subjects were 33 BD patients and 101 healthy individuals ranging in age from 20 to 59 years. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The items of oral health in the questionnaire included subjective symptoms, self-rated dental problems and oral health behaviour. We found that compared to the healthy subjects, BD patients experienced more severe physical limitations, mainly involving difficulty in pronouncing words (p < 0.01) and the pain of oral mucosa and gingival tissue caused by oral ulcers (p < 0.01). Based on the results of oral health behaviour, BD patients did not behave positively with regard to maintaining oral health including regular tooth brushing despite relatively higher risk of dental diseases that they face. The present results suggest that oral ulcers due to BD induced dental disorder such as the pain of gingiva, oral mucosa, and difficulty in the pronouncing of words. In spite of this, their oral health behaviour is not positive compared to the healthy subjects. Thus, the need to develop a more active pragramme for oral health education for patients with BD is indicated.

  7. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizen, S. )

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  8. Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Loss, Rafael; Sandrin, Rodrigo; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells of the oral mucosa infected by Candida albicans using exfoliative cytology. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 patients with oral candidiasis and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for morphologic and cytomorphometric technique. Morphologically, candida-infected epithelial cells exhibited nuclear enlargement, perinuclear rings, discrete orangeophilia, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic area (CA) of the epithelial cells was diminished in patients undergoing candidiasis as compared to the non-infected controls. In addition, there was an augmentation in nuclear area (NA) and NA/CA area ratio. This study revealed that oral mucosa of patients undergoing candidal infection exhibited significant changes in the size and shape of the oral epithelial cells.

  9. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  10. Nuclear fractal dimension: A new objective approach for discriminating normal mucosa, dysplasia and carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Phulari, Rashmi G S; Rathore, Rajendrasinh S; Talegaon, Trupti Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various clinical and histological factors have helped in predicting the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, there has been a need for more specialized diagnostic and prognostic factors to avoid subjective variation among opinion. Thus, fractal dimension (FD) can be used as an index of the morphological changes that the epithelial cells undergo during their transformation into neoplastic cell. In oral cancer study, nuclear FD (NFD) can be used as a quantitative index to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and neoplastic oral mucosa. Aim: To use nuclear fractal geometry to compare the morphometric complexity in the normal, epithelial dysplasia and OSCC cases and to verify the difference among the various histological grades of dysplasia and OSCC. It was fulfilled by estimating the FDs of the nuclear surface. Materials and Methods: Histopathologically diagnosed cases of epithelial dysplasia and OSCC were taken from the archives. Photomicrographs were captured with the help of Lawrence and Mayo research microscope. The images were then subjected to image analysis using the Image J software with FracLac plugin java 1.6 to obtain FDs. FD of ten selected nuclei was calculated using the box-counting algorithm. Statistical Analysis: was done using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant difference post hoc tests with STATAIC-13 software. Results and Conclusion: NFD can provide valuable information to discriminate between normal mucosa, dysplasia and carcinoma objectively without subjective discrimination. PMID:27721604

  11. Re-epithelialization of the Buccal Mucosa after Alkaline Chemical Injury.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Saneyuki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Katakura, Akira; Yamane, Gen-Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water and bicarbonate toothpaste. However, the effects of an alkaline pH on the oral mucosa had not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate how basal keratinocytes are actively involved in re-epithelialization after alkaline chemical injury. We generated epithelial defects in the oral mucosa of mice by applying an alkaline chemical, and the localization of cytokeratin 13, cytokeratin 14, PCNA and p63 was investigated during the re-epithelialization process. PCNA- and p63-positive staining was seen in basal cells covering the wound surface at 1 day after the chemical injury. Cytokeratin 14-positive and PCNA-negative basal keratinocytes were localized in a few layers of the wound epithelium during epithelial outgrowth. Cytokeratin 14-positive and PCNA-positive basal keratinocytes, indicating proliferation, were localized over the entire layer of the epithelium at the wound margin. These results imply that basal keratinocytes at the wound margin migrate to the wound surface, provoke differentiation and keratinization during epithelial outgrowth and that epithelial cells are supplied from the wound margin to the epithelial outgrowth after alkaline chemical injury.

  12. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  13. Chronic oral or intraarticular administration of docosahexaenoic acid reduces nociception and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant–induced knee arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) reduce joint destruction and inflammation present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of individual ω-3 PUFAs on chronic arthritic pain have not been evaluated to date. Thus, our aim in this study was to examine whether purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an ω-3 PUFA) reduces spontaneous pain-related behavior and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of knee arthritis. Methods Unilateral arthritis was induced by multiple injections of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right knee joints of male ICR adult mice. Mice that received CFA injections were then chronically treated from day 15 until day 25 post–initial CFA injection with oral DHA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg daily) or intraarticular DHA (25 and 50 μg/joint twice weekly). Spontaneous flinching of the injected extremity (considered as spontaneous pain-related behavior), vertical rearing and horizontal exploratory activity (considered as functional outcomes) and knee edema were assessed. To determine whether an endogenous opioid mechanism was involved in the therapeutic effect of DHA, naloxone (NLX, an opioid receptor antagonist, 3 mg/kg subcutaneously) was administered in arthritic mice chronically treated with DHA (30 mg/kg by mouth) at day 25 post–CFA injection. Results The intraarticular CFA injections resulted in increasing spontaneous flinching and knee edema of the ipsilateral extremity as well as worsening functional outcomes as time progressed. Chronic administration of DHA, given either orally or intraarticularly, significantly improved horizontal exploratory activity and reduced flinching behavior and knee edema in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of NLX did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of DHA. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate DHA’s antinociceptive and

  14. [Treatment of severe scrotal hypospadias with onlay-type urethroplasty using mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Castañón, M; Grande, C; Muñoz, M E; García, A; Morales, L

    1999-07-01

    Failure in repairing severe hypospadias complicated with fistula and cutaneous retraction is often associated with lack of subcutaneous tissue and skin providing protection to the neourethra. We report the results of treatment in 6 patients with scrotal hypospadias with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. A neourethra was created by the onlay technique applying an oral mucosa graft and preserving in all cases the dorsal preputial skin for the island cutaneous flap. All patients had hypospadias without previous repairs excepting one of them, who had had one first time hypospadias repair in other hospital. Patients age ranged between 2 years and 3 months, and 4 years (mean: 2 years and 9 months). In all cases, hypospadias was scrotal type with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. All patients had prior hormone stimulation with dehydrotestosterone 3%. Surgical repair was performed in one-stage. Urethroplasty included preservation of the urethral plate, oral mucosa graft to provide ventral coverage, and island cutaneous flap with the dorsal preputial skin. In all cases, the chord was dissected behind the urethral plate. In 3 patients a dorsal Nesbit plication was necessary to obtain a complete straighten penis. Results in all 6 cases were satisfactory. Only one patient had a small leakage at the previous neomeatus. The other five patients are asymptomatic. Follow-up ranges from 6 months to 2 years. We conclude that urethroplasty in association with a well vascularized island flap of dorsal preputial skin decrease the incidence of fistulae. In patients with severe hypospadias with scarce dorsal prepuce urethroplasty should be completed with oral mucosa grafts preserving dorsal preputial skin for the ventral cutaneous plasty.

  15. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC.

  16. Oral lichen planus: study of 21 cases*

    PubMed Central

    Werneck, Juliana Tristão; Costa, Taiara de Oliveira; Stibich, Christian Abreu; Leite, Cristhiane Almeida; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Silva Junior, Arley

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is considered to be the most common dermatological disease involving the oral mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, clinical features, and the presence of dysplasia and candidiasis in patients with oral lichen planus. METHODS: A total of 21 patients were selected from 258 patients at risk for oral cancer development. RESULTS: Most of the patients were white (76,2%), female (66,6%), with mean age of 58.8 years. Eight were smokers and seven were alcohol consumers. The buccal mucosa was the most affected site, followed by the tongue and the gingiva. The reticular pattern was the most common appearance. Histopathology depicted dysplasia in nine cases and cytopathology was positive for Candida in eight cases in the first appointment. CONCLUSION: Our data are similar to the literature. Cytopathology was important for the diagnosis of candidiasis. Although the presence of dysplasia was verified, further studies are necessary to clarify the importance of this finding. PMID:26131860

  17. Characterization and immunohistochemical localization of the glycoconjugates of the rabbit bladder mucosa.

    PubMed

    Buckley, M S; Washington, S; Laurent, C; Erickson, D R; Bhavananadan, V P

    1996-06-01

    An impairment of the mucosal glycoconjugates could be an important factor in the development of bladder disorders such as interstitial cystitis. However, very little definitive biochemical information is available on the glycoco-jugate components of the mammalian bladder mucosa. In this-study, the mucosa from metabolically radiolabeled rabbit bladder was separated, delipidated, and digested with protease, and the released glycosaminoglycans and glycopeptides were fractionated. About 80 and 36% of the nondialyzable tritium and 35S activities, respectively, was associated with the sialoglycopeptide fractions. The balance of the total tritium activity in the protease digest was in glycosaminoglycans identified as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfates, and heparan sulfate. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-heparan sulfate antibodies, including one against mouse syndecan-1, indicated the presence of heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the epithelium. In contrast, there was no significant staining of the bladder epithelium with anti-chondroitin-4- and 6-sulfate antibodies or hyaluronan-binding protein. The lamina propria and muscle layers showed strong staining with anti-chondroitin-4-sulfate antibody and hyaluronan-binding protein and weak staining with anti-chondroitin-6-sulfate antibody. The insignificant levels of glycosaminoglycans in the glycocalyx of bladder mucosa epithelium suggest that glycosaminoglycans may be less important than other glycoconjugates in maintaining normal epithelial function and in bladder disorders such as interstitial cystitis.

  18. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Papazian, A; Braillon, A; Dupas, J L; Sevenet, F; Capron, J P

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100 patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis, and 300 control patients without signs of liver disease or portal hypertension. This endoscopic pattern was observed in 94 of the patients with cirrhosis, whereas oesophageal varices were seen in 78 only. In contrast, only one patient of the control group had this aspect. Moreover, this sign was also found in seven of eight patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension, but was seen neither in 100 patients with chronic alcoholism but without liver disease, nor in 10 cirrhotic patients with end-to-side portacaval shunts. These endoscopic changes might be because of mucosal and/or submucosal oedema and congestion highlighting the normal areae gastricae pattern and related to raised portal pressure. We conclude that the mosaic pattern of the gastric mucosa is a sensible and specific sign for diagnosis of portal hypertension, whatever the cause. Images Figure PMID:3781334

  19. Proteome Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Gut Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell; Glerup, Henning; Bonderup, Ole Kristian; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Meyer, Michael Kruse; Bøgsted, Martin; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend; Andersen, Vibeke; Stensballe, Allan

    2017-01-06

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease leading to cartilage damage and ultimately impaired joint function. To gain new insight into the systemic immune manifestations of RA, we characterized the colon mucosa proteome from 11 RA-patients and 10 healthy controls. The biopsies were extracted by colonoscopy and analyzed by label-free quantitative proteomics, enabling the quantitation of 5366 proteins. The abundance of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was statistically significantly increased in RA-patient biopsies compared with controls and correlated with the administered dosage of methotrexate (MTX), the most frequently prescribed immunosuppressive drug for RA. Additionally, our data suggest that treatment with Leflunomide, a common alternative to MTX, increases DHFR. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy, which furthermore demonstrated that DHFR was located in the cytosol of the intestinal epithelial and interstitial cells. Finally, we identified 223 citrullinated peptides from 121 proteins. Three of the peptides were unique to RA. The list of citrullinated proteins was enriched in extracellular and membrane proteins and included known targets of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). Our findings support that the colon mucosa could trigger the production of ACPAs, which could contribute to the onset of RA. The MS data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001608 and PXD003082.

  20. Mucoadhesion dependence of pharmaceutical polymers on mucosa characteristics.

    PubMed

    Accili, Daniela; Menghi, Giovanna; Bonacucina, Giulia; Martino, Piera Di; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2004-07-01

    Well known mucoadhesive polymers such as Carbopol 974P and Pharmacoat 606 and three different mucosas (sublingual, oesophageal and duodenal bovine) were used to verify how the mucoadhesive properties of materials may depend on the mucosa characteristics and if a polymer may reveal more mucoadhesive than another and vice versa by changing the type of interacting mucosa. So, tablets of Carbopol 974P and Pharmacoat 606 were prepared and their mucoadhesion on the three mucosas was set in terms of maximum load and work of detachment, using a texture analyzer. At the same time, mucosas were characterized by immunohistochemical techniques and lectin histochemistry. Results obtained from the Tensile test analyses show that the adhesive power of the two polymers is different in the three mucosas. Particularly, in the sublingual mucosa, Carbopol was more mucoadhesive than Pharmacoat. On the contrary, Pharmacoat was more mucoadhesive than Carbopol in duodenal mucosa. The significantly different behavior of polymers was correlated with the desquamation layer thickness and the differential sialic acid and fucose exposition in the targeted mucosas.

  1. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking for

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  4. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  5. Development of an engineering autologous palatal mucosa-like tissue for potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Luitaud, C; Laflamme, C; Semlali, A; Saidi, S; Grenier, G; Zakrzewski, A; Rouabhia, M

    2007-11-01

    The goal of this study was to optimize key processes in recreating functional and viable palatal mucosa-like tissue that would be easy to handle and would promote wound healing. Normal human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells and a clinically useful biomaterial, CollaTape, were used. Structural and ultrastructural analyses showed that the gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells adhered to the biomaterial and proliferated. Following a 6-day culture, using 10(5) fibroblasts and 10(6) epithelial cells, a well-organized palatal mucosa-like tissue was engineered. The engineered epithelium displayed various layers, including a stratum corneum, and contained cytokeratin 16-positive cells located in the supra-basal layer. This palatal mucosa-like engineered tissue was designed to meet a variety of surgical needs. The biodegradable collagen membrane (CollaTape) contributed to the flexibility of the engineered tissue. This engineered innovative tissue may contribute to the reconstruction of oral soft-tissue defects secondary to trauma, congenital defects, and acquired diseases.

  6. Cytoprotective activity of deboxamet: a possible interference with prostaglandin and prostacyclin metabolism in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Franzone, J S; Cirillo, R; Cravanzola, C

    1988-01-01

    Deboxamet (5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-indolyl-acetohydroxamic acid) is a new synthetic drug with anti-ulcer and anti-secretory activity. The authors evaluated the ability of deboxamet to protect the rat gastric mucosa against the intensive necroses induced experimentally by absolute ethanol, NaCl (25%), HCl (0.6 N), acetylsalicylic acid plus HCl, and sodium taurocholate plus HCl. Deboxamet, as compared with pirenzepine, sulglycotide and PGE2, displayed a cytoprotective activity against these necrotizing agents. The involvement of deboxamet with prostacyclin metabolism was also investigated. In order to assess the presence of PGI2-like substances, extracts of mucosa from rats treated orally with deboxamet and sulglycotide were assayed i) on isolated rabbit mesenteric artery, ii) for hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rat, and iii) for anti-platelet activity. Deboxamet, like sulglycotide, was able to raise the availability of prostacyclins in the rat gastric mucosa, which is an important action in maintaining its cellular integrity. However, our results cannot determine whether this activity is due to an enhanced biosynthesis or a decreased degradation of prostacyclins.

  7. Carvedilol-loaded nanocapsules: Mucoadhesive properties and permeability across the sublingual mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Paula Dos Santos; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Frank, Luiza Abrahão; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2017-05-01

    Carvedilol is a drug used to treat heart failure, hypertension, and coronary artery diseases . However, it has low oral bioavailability (25-35%) due to its high first-pass hepatic metabolism. The objective of this study was to develop carvedilol-loaded mucoadhesive nanocapsules as delivery systems for the sublingual administration of the drug. Nanocapsules were prepared using poly(ε-caprolactone) (CAR-LNC) and Eudragit® RS 100 (CAR-NC) as polymeric wall. In vitro interaction of formulations with mucin was performed to predict their mucoadhesion capacity. The permeability and washability profiles of carvedilol were evaluated using porcine sublingual mucosa. The mean diameter of particles in formulations was in the nanometric range, and particles had low polydispersity and slightly acidic pH. Zeta potential values were positive for CAR-NC and negative for CAR-LNC. Encapsulation efficiency was higher than 87% and 99% for CAR-NC and CAR-LNC, respectively. Both formulations presented controlled drug release profiles and mucoadhesive properties. Carvedilol was able to permeate through the sublingual mucosa. Nanoencapsulation improved retention time on the mucosa and permeation in presence of simulated salivary flux. This study highlighted the suitability of using CAR-loaded nanocapsules in the development of innovative sublingual dosage forms.

  8. Oral administration of lipopolysaccharides activates B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity and lamina propria of the gut and induces autoimmune symptoms in an autoantibody transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    About a half of the antierythrocyte autoantibody transgenic (autoAb Tg) mice, in which almost all B cells are detected in the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, but not in the peritoneal cavity, suffer from autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The occurrence of this disease is strongly linked to production of autoAb by activated peritoneal B-1 cells in the Tg mice. In this study, we have shown that oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activated B-1 cells in the lamina propria of the gut as well as the peritoneal cavity in the healthy Tg mice and induced the autoimmune symptoms in all the Tg mice. The activation of peritoneal and lamina propria B-1 cells by enteric LPS is found not only in the anti-RBC autoAb Tg mice and normal mice but also in the aly mice which congenitally lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. These results suggest that B-1 cells in the two locations may form a common pool independent of Peyer's patches and lymph nodes, and can be activated by enteric thymus-independent antigens or polyclonal activators such as LPS. The induction of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the Tg mice by enteric LPS through the activation of B-1 cells in the lamina propria of gut and in the peritoneal cavity suggests that B-1 cells and bacterial infection may play a pathogenic role in the onset of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8006578

  9. Effects of manganese forms on biogenic amines in the brain and behavioral alterations in the mouse: Long-term oral administration of several manganese compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Junko; Sakamoto, Michiko )

    1992-02-01

    This work has identified the relative toxicity of four forms of manganese, using biogenic amine levels, tissue retention, weight gain, and activity scores as criteria. Male mice were chronically treated with four forms of manganese administered orally, mixed with the diet, for 12 months. The Mn levels were higher in some parts of brain after feeding insoluble salts than after the soluble salts. The concentration of manganese was significantly increased in the liver and spleen of the manganese carbonate-exposed group, compared with the concentration in the control group. Manganese dioxide feeding lowered dopamine and increased homovanilic acid. Since manganese dioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent in organic chemistry, it possibly enhanced the oxidative metabolite of dopamine. Accumulation of manganese in the brain correlated with reduced hypothalamic dopamine levels in the manganese acetate-exposed group; and the amount of manganese accumulated correlated with the intensity of suppression of motor activity. These findings indicate that manganese dioxide is more toxic than divalent manganese. Of the divalent manganese compounds, manganese acetate seemed to have the greatest toxic effect.

  10. Targeted therapy via oral administration of attenuated Salmonella expression plasmid-vectored Stat3-shRNA cures orthotopically transplanted mouse HCC

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Y; Guo, B; Jia, H; Ji, K; Sun, Y; Li, Y; Zhao, T; Gao, L; Meng, Y; Kalvakolanu, DV; Kopecko, DJ; Zhao, X; Zhang, L; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    The development of RNA interference-based cancer gene therapies has been delayed due to the lack of effective tumor-targeting delivery systems. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) has a natural tropism for solid tumors. We report here the use of attenuated S. Typhimurium as a vector to deliver shRNA directly into tumor cells. Constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key transcription factor involved in both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth and metastasis. In this study, attenuated S. Typhimurium was capable of delivering shRNA-expressing vectors to the targeted cancer cells and inducing RNA interference in vivo. More importantly, a single oral dose of attenuated S. Typhimurium carrying shRNA-expressing vectors targeting Stat3 induced remarkably delayed and reduced HCC (in 70% of mice). Cancer in these cured mice did not recur over 2 years following treatment. These data demonstrated that RNA interference combined with Salmonella as a delivery system may offer a novel clinical approach for cancer gene therapy. PMID:22555509

  11. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization.

  12. Design and validation of an orally administrated active L. fermentum-L. acidophilus probiotic formulation using colorectal cancer Apc (Min/+) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kahouli, Imen; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Westfall, Susan; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A; Prakash, Satya

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have beneficial properties in attenuating the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, functional evidence to support such effects for some probiotic bacteria are relatively unknown. Here, we document a significant antioxidant, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314 and Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 on CRC cells, particularly when used in combination (La-Lf). Furthermore, a superior synergistic activity on the inhibition of tumor growth and modulation of cell proliferation and epithelial markers in the Apc (Min/+) CRC mouse model was explored, based on the expression levels of Ki-67, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) proteins. The anti-cancer activity of La-Lf co-culture was significantly enhanced in vitro with significant reduced proliferation (38.8 ± 6.9 %, P = 0.009) and increased apoptosis (413 RUL, P < 0.001) towards cancer cells, as well as significant protection of normal colon cell growth from toxic treatment (18.6 ± 9.8 %, P = 0.001). La-Lf formulation (10(10)cfu/animal/day) altered aspects of intestinal tumorigenesis by significantly reducing intestinal tumor multiplicity (1.7-fold, P = 0.016) and downregulating cellular proliferation markers, including β-catenin (P = 0.041) and Ki-67 (P = 0.008). In conclusion, La-Lf showed greater protection against intestinal tumorigenesis supporting a potential use as a biotherapeutic for the prevention of CRC.

  13. Oral biopsy in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Mota-Ramírez, Amparo; Silvestre, Francisco Javier; Simó, Juan Manuel

    2007-11-01

    The conclusions drawn from the study of an oral biopsy are considered essential for the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the oral mucosa, and for the subsequent planning of appropriate treatment. Although the obtainment of biopsies is widely used in all medical fields, the practice is not so widespread in dental practice--fundamentally because of a lack of awareness of the procedure among dental professionals. In this context, it must be taken into account that the early diagnosis of invasive oral malignancy may be critical for improving the patient prognosis. However, in some cases the results are adversely affected by incorrect manipulation of the biopsy material. The present study provides an update on the different biopsy sampling techniques and their application. Such familiarization in turn will contribute to knowledge of the material and instruments required for correct biopsy performance in dentistry, as well as of the material required for correct sample storage and transport.

  14. Oral administration of paeoniflorin attenuates allergic contact dermatitis by inhibiting dendritic cell migration and Th1 and Th17 differentiation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongmei; Li, Xuefeng; Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Quanjing; Shen, Yongnian; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Zheng, Hailin; Lu, Guixia; Qiu, Ying; Liu, Weida

    2015-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a hapten-specific CD4(+) T-cells mediated inflammatory response of the skin. Its pathomechanism involves 2 phases, an induction phase and an elicitation phase. Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin play key roles in presenting low molecular weight chemicals (haptens) to the lymph nodes. Therefore, inhibition of the migration of LCs or DCs and T-cell proliferation is each expected to control ACD disease. To explore the effectiveness of paeoniflorin (PF) on the migration of LCs and T-cell proliferation in vivo, we establish a murine model of ACD, promoted by repeated exposure to an allergen (specifically 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)). Administration of PF inhibits DC migration in this DNCB-induced model in the induction phase. As a result, epidermal LC density in the elicitation phase increased in PF-treated mice when compared to PF-untreated mice. At the same time, PF reduced IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) and IL-17(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation (but not IL-4(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation), leading to an attenuated cutaneous inflammatory response. Consistent with this T-cell proliferation profile, secretions of IFN-γ and IL-17 were reduced and IL-10 secretion increased in PF-treated mice, but production of IL-4 and IL-5 remained unchanged in the skin and blood samples. These results suggest that oral administration of PF can treat and prevent ACD effectively through inhibition of DC migration, and thus decrease the capacity of DCs to stimulate Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  15. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of biomarker response and tumor growth inhibition to an orally available heat shock protein 90 inhibitor in a human tumor xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shinji; Nguyen, Leslie; Vekich, Sylvia; Shen, Zhongzhou; Yin, Min-Jean; Mehta, Pramod P; Kung, Pei-Pei; Vicini, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    PF04942847 [2-amino-4-{4-chloro-2-[2-(4-fluoro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy]-6-methylphenyl}-N-(2,2-difluoropropyl)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide] was identified as an orally available, ATP-competitive, small-molecule inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). The objectives of the present study were: 1) to characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the plasma concentrations of PF04942847 to the inhibition of HSP90-dependent protein kinase, AKT, as a biomarker and 2) to characterize the relationship of AKT degradation to tumor growth inhibition as a pharmacological response (antitumor efficacy). Athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were treated with PF04942847 once daily at doses selected to encompass ED(50) values. Plasma concentrations of PF04942847 were adequately described by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. A time delay (hysteresis) was observed between the plasma concentrations of PF04942847 and AKT degradation; therefore, a link model was used to account for the hysteresis. The model reasonably fit the time courses of AKT degradation with the estimated EC(50) of 18 ng/ml. For tumor growth inhibition, the signal transduction model reasonably fit the inhibition of individual tumor growth curves with the estimated EC(50) of 7.3 ng/ml. Thus, the EC(50) for AKT degradation approximately corresponded to the EC(50) to EC(80) for tumor growth inhibition, suggesting that 50% AKT degradation was required for significant antitumor efficacy (50-80%). The consistent relationship between AKT degradation and antitumor efficacy was also demonstrated by applying an integrated signal transduction model for linking AKT degradation to tumor growth inhibition. The present results will be helpful in determining the appropriate dosing regimen and guiding dose escalation to achieve efficacious systemic exposure in the clinic.

  16. Extraneural Sclerosing Perineurioma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Clinicopathologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Greene, David J.; Brodsky, Gilbert; Kabani, Sadru P.

    2010-01-01

    The perineurioma is an infrequently encountered benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of a clonal proliferation of perineurial cells. Rare cases of perineurioma have been reported in the oral cavity. An extraneural sclerosing perineurioma arising in the buccal mucosa of a 17-year-old male is presented. Histopathologically, the tumor is composed of a well circumscribed nodular proliferation of spindle cells arranged in a storiform growth pattern, in some areas subtly arranged around vascular channels. The tumor cells reveal positive immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), collagen type IV and vimentin, and negative immunostaining for S-100 protein, consistent with a perineurial origin. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of an extraneural sclerosing perineurioma involving the oral cavity. PMID:20364337

  17. Products used on female genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Lennon, Lisa; Ajayi, Funmi

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of products are used by women in the genital area and, therefore, come into contact with the genital mucosa. The largest category of such products would be those used for cleanliness and odor control, such as soaps and body washes, douches, premoistened wipes and towelettes, dusting powder and deodorant sprays. A second large category of products are those intended to absorb fluids, such as products used for menstrual protection (tampons, pads and panty liners) and incontinence protection. Lubricants and moisturizers, and aesthetic products (hair removal products and dyes) are also fairly common. In addition, over the counter medications are now available for the treatment of fungal infections. This chapter briefly discusses the products women use on or around the genital area, the perceived or real benefits, and the potential health effects of these products.

  18. Pigmented oral compound nevus of retromolar area - A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Gombra, Virender; Kaur, Mandeep; Sircar, Keya; Popli, Deepika Bablani

    2016-12-01

    Solitary pigmented melanocytic intraoral lesions of the oral cavity are rare. Oral nevus is a congenital or acquired benign neoplasm. Oral compound nevus constitutes 5.9%-16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. The oral compound nevus is commonly seen on hard palate and buccal mucosa and rarely on other intraoral sites. The objective of this article is to present a rare case report of oral compound nevus in the retromolar pad region along with a review of literature. A 22 year old female reported with a solitary black pigmented papule at retromolar pad region which was surgically removed and microscopic investigation confirmed the diagnosis of oral compound nevus.

  19. Pathogenic Mechanism of Mouse Brain Damage Caused by Oral Infection with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Eiji; Yunou, Yoshihisa; Kurioka, Takaaki; Harada, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Higashi, Nobutaka

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strain SmrN-9) caused neurologic symptoms in malnourished mice with positive immunoreactions of Stx2 in brain tissues. The present study explores the mechanism of how Stx injures the vascular endothelium to enter the central nervous system in mice. Oral infection with strain SmrN-9 elicited a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) response in the blood as early as 2 days after infection, while Stx was first detected at 3 days postinfection. In the brain, TNF-α was detected at day 3, and its quantity was increased over the next 3 days. Frozen sections of the brains from moribound mice contained high numbers of apoptotic cells. Glycolipids recognized by an anti-Gb3 monoclonal antibody were extracted from the brain, and purified Stx2 was able to bind to the glycolipids. In human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured with fluorescein-labeled Stx2 (100 ng/ml), TNF-α (20 U/ml) significantly facilitated the intracellular compartmentalization of fluorescence during 24 h of incubation, suggesting the enhanced intracellular processing of Stx2. Consequently, higher levels of apoptosis in HUVEC were found at 48 h. Short-term exposure of HUVEC to Stx2 abrogated their apoptotic response to subsequent incubation with TNF-α alone or TNF-α and Stx2. In contrast, primary exposure of HUVEC to TNF-α followed by exposure to Stx2 alone or TNF-α and Stx2 induced apoptosis at the same level as obtained after 48-h incubation with these two agents. These results suggest that the rapid production of circulating TNF-α after infection induces a state of competence in vascular endothelial cells to undergo apoptosis, which would be finally achieved by subsequent elevation of Stx in the blood. In this synergistic action, target cells must be first exposed to TNF-α. Such cell injury may be a prerequisite to brain damage after infection with Stx-producing E. coli O157:H7

  20. An immunohistological study of cytokeratin 20 in human and mammalian oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Cort, E M; Patel, P; Berkovitz, B K

    2000-10-01

    Cytokeratin (CK) 20 is a low molecular-weight intermediate filament reportedly expressed only by benign and malignant gastrointestinal epithelium, urothelium and Merkel cells. The main aims here were to map its expression in normal oral mucosa of humans and other mammals, and to determine whether it was expressed by abnormal human oral epithelium. Salivary and odontogenic epithelium were also analysed. An immunoperoxidase method was used on wax-embedded and cryostat sections. In addition, double-labelling experiments were undertaken to determine the association between CK 20 expression and that of CK 8/18 or S100 protein. Normal human oral mucosa from four sites, together with abdominal skin, was studied in autopsy samples from 32 individuals. CK 20-positive, basally situated, round or angular cells, consistent with Merkel cells, were recorded in 24/32 (75.0%) samples of mandibular gingiva, 25/32 (78.1%) samples of hard palate, 7/32 (21.9%) samples of buccal mucosa, 0/32 samples of lateral border of tongue, and 2/32 (6.3%) samples of abdominal skin. Double-labelling showed that all CK 20-positive Merkel cells also expressed CK 8/18 and S100. The only other cells to express CK 20 were human taste buds. There was no expression by dysplastic or invasive oral epithelium from biopsy samples. Colonic mucosa showed luminal-cell positivity in man, marmoset, ferret, rabbit and guinea-pig, but oral mucosa was universally negative in non-human species. It is concluded that in oral mucosa CK 20 is a specific marker of Merkel cells and taste buds, that Merkel cells are more frequently present in keratinized than non-keratinized oral mucosa, that CK 20-positive Merkel cells are also S100-positive, that there may be interspecies variations in CK 20 polypeptide composition and that, by contrast to urothelium, CK 20 has no value in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia.

  1. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  2. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Feller, Liviu; Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Jadwat, Yusuf; Lemmer, Johan

    2014-03-24

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis.There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease.In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation.

  3. Apoptosis in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R

    2001-10-01

    Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness.

  4. Oral mucosal disease: pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Mignogna, Michele

    2008-06-01

    Pemphigus defines a group of rare mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases of which pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is the most common. The aetiology and pathogenesis of PV are not completely clear, but there is a fairly strong genetic background: ethnic groups such as Ashkenazi Jews and people of Mediterranean and Indian origin are particularly susceptible and there is a link to HLA class II alleles. The initiating event in PV is not clear, but circulating IgG autoantibodies develop, directed particularly against the intercellular cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in desmosomes of stratified squamous epithelium. Oral lesions often herald the disease and are initially vesiculobullous, but they rupture readily to leave ulcers. Involvement of other mucosa and skin is almost inevitable and PV is potentially life threatening. The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy with histological examination and immunostaining. Management is largely by systemic immunosuppression with corticosteroids, usually azathioprine or other agents, but newer treatments with potentially fewer adverse effects look promising.

  5. Increased susceptibility to otitis media in a Splunc1-deficient mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jennifer A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Naumann, Paul W.; Salzman, Nita H.; McCray, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear) is one of the most common diseases of early childhood. Susceptibility to otitis is influenced by a number of factors, including the actions of innate immune molecules secreted by the epithelia lining the nasopharynx, middle ear and Eustachian tube. The SPLUNC1 (short palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone 1) protein is a highly abundant secretory product of the mammalian nasal, oral and respiratory mucosa that is thought to play a multifunctional role in host defense. In this study we investigated Splunc1 expression in the ear of the mouse, and examined whether this protein contributes to overall host defense in the middle ear and/or Eustachian tube. We found that Splunc1 is highly expressed in both the surface epithelium and in submucosal glands in these regions in wild-type mice. In mice lacking Splunc1, we noted histologically an increased frequency of otitis media, characterized by the accumulation of leukocytes (neutrophils with scattered macrophages), proteinaceous fluid and mucus in the middle ear lumens. Furthermore, many of these mice had extensive remodeling of the middle ear wall, suggesting a chronic course of disease. From these observations, we conclude that loss of Splunc1 predisposes mice to the development of otitis media. The Splunc1−/− mouse model should help investigators to better understand both the biological role of Splunc1 as well as host defense mechanisms in the middle ear. PMID:25765466

  6. Tetraploidy with double t(11;18) of recurrent MALT lymphoma in buccal mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mituyoshi; Goto, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma that accounts for about 5% to 8% of all B-cell lymphomas. It is rare for a recurrent oral MALT lymphoma to have tetraploidy with a double t(11;18) chromosomal abnormality, however. A 66-year-old Japanese woman with a swelling of the right buccal mucosa was referred to our hospital. A tumor was excised, and a pathologic diagnosis of MALT lymphoma with a t(11;18) (q21; q21) chromosome translocation was made. Two years later, swelling of the right buccal mucosa recurred, which was then excised and pathologically diagnosed as MALT lymphoma. This tumor did not have a t(11;18) (q21; q21) chromosome translocation, but exhibited tetraploidy with double t(11;18). FISH analysis revealed that the recurrent MALT lymphoma of the buccal mucosa had tetraploidy with double t(11;18). This is the first reported case of a recurrent MALT lymphoma showing tetraploidy with double t(11;18).

  7. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Stefano

    2009-01-30

    The World Health Organization has clearly identified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increase our ability to differentiate between benign abnormalities and dysplastic/malignant changes as well as to identify areas of dysplasia/early OSCC that are not visible to naked eye. These include the use of toluidine blue, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. The present paper reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of the aforementioned techniques in improving the identification of dysplastic/malignant changes of the oral mucosa. We conclude that available studies have shown promising results, but strong evidence to support the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids is still lacking. Further research with clear objectives, well-defined population cohorts, and sound methodology is strongly required.

  8. Cholera-toxin suppresses carcinogenesis in a mouse model of inflammation-driven sporadic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Doulberis, Michael; Angelopoulou, Katerina; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Abas, Zaphiris; Erdman, Suzan E; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2015-02-01

    Human studies and clues from animal models have provided important links between gastrointestinal (GI) tract bacteria and colon cancer. Gut microbiota antigenic stimuli play an important role in shaping the intestinal immune responses. Therefore, especially in the case of inflammation-associated colon cancer, gut bacteria antigens may affect tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the oral administration of a bacterial product with known immunomodulatory properties on inflammation-driven colorectal neoplasmatogenesis. For that, we used cholera-toxin and a well-established mouse model of colon cancer in which neoplasia is initiated by a single dose of the genotoxic agent azoxymethane (AOM) and subsequently promoted by inflammation caused by the colitogenic substance dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). We found that a single, low, non-pathogenic dose of CT, given orally at the beginning of each DSS treatment cycle downregulated neutrophils and upregulated regulatory T-cells and IL-10 in the colonic mucosa. The CT-induced disruption of the tumor-promoting character of DSS-induced inflammation led to the reduction of the AOM-initiated colonic polypoidogenesis. This result adds value to the emerging notion that certain GI tract bacteria or their products affect the immune system and render the microenvironment of preneoplastic lesions less favorable for promoting their evolution to cancer.

  9. Cinnamon-induced Oral Mucosal Contact Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Ana P. M; Migliari, Dante A

    2015-01-01

    Contact stomatitis associated with consumption of cinnamon flavoring agents is a relatively uncommon disorder. Of relevance, both clinical features and the histopathologic findings of this condition are nonspecific, and, more importantly, may resemble some other inflammatory oral mucosa disorders, eventually making diagnosis difficult. Usually a patient exhibits a combination of white and erythematous patches of abrupt onset, accompanied by a burning sensation. To shed some light on this subject, a case of a 64-year-old woman with hypersensitivity contact reaction on the oral mucosa due to cinnamon mints is presented, with emphasis on differential diagnosis and the process for confirmation of the diagnosis. The treatment consists of discontinuing the use of cinnamon products. Clinicians will be able to recognize this disorder following a careful clinical examination and detailed history. This recognition is important in order to avoid invasive and expensive diagnostic procedures. PMID:26312097

  10. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  11. Microvasculature of the gastric mucosa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alguacil, N; Gaspar-Simón, I; Martín, R; Gomez-García, J; Martín-Orti, R

    1997-01-01

    A corrosion casting technique was used to study differences in the microvascular architecture of the pars cardiaca, the fundus ventriculi, the corpus ventriculi and the pars pylorica of the canine gastric mucosa. This technique revealed an unusual arrangement of the microvascular architecture in the nonglandular region surrounding the esophageal opening. Capillaries run tortuously along the mucosal surface parallel to the long axis of the esophagus, and some capillaries form a polygonal network that extends around the seromucous glands. In contrast, the mucosal capillaries of the glandular regions of the stomach are arranged in a symmetric pattern associated with the gastric glands. There are also differences in the mucosal microvessels of the cardiac and fundic areas compared to the corpus and the antrum. In the cardiac and fundic regions, a sparse microvascular pattern was observed and fewer capillaries drained into a single venule. However, the vessels surrounding the gastric glands in the corpus and antral areas drained into venules perpendicular to the hexagonal arrangement of the capillaries.

  12. Cell volume regulation in goldfish intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Groot, J A

    1981-11-01

    1. Ion and water content of goldfish intestinal mucosa, stripped free from muscular layers were measured under various incubation conditions. 2. Ouabain induces an increase in cation content that is electrically compensated for by chloride. The increase in solute content is accompanied by an increase in water content. 3. When extracellular chloride is partially replaced by sulphate, ouabain does induce cell shrinkage. 4. Anoxia induces a rapid increase in cell volume that is restored by oxygenation of the incubation solution. Ouabain prevents the restoration of volume. 5. It is concluded that the classical ouabain-sensitive Na/K pump participates in the maintenance of cellular volume. We suggest that the constancy in volume after ouabain poisoning as is reported for many tissues might be due to a low chloride conductance of its membranes. 6. Anisotonic media (range: 0.6-1.2 isotonicity), made by variation on mannitol concentration, induce changes in cell water content that deviates from the simplified van't Hoff equation by about 10%. No change in water content after the initial increase was found. 7. We conclude that goldfish enterocytes do not possess a mechanism for rapid volume readjustment.

  13. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  14. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  15. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  16. Oral postinflammatory pigmentation: an analysis of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Mergoni, Giovanni; Ergun, Sertan; Vescovi, Paolo; Mete, Özgür; Tanyeri, Hakkı; Meleti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Oral postinflammatory pigmentation (OPP) is a discoloration of the oral mucosa caused by an excess of melanin production and deposition within the basal layer of the epithelium and connective tissue of areas affected by chronic inflammation. Therefore, it is mandatory to demonstrate the association with a previous or concomitant inflammatory process in the same area of oral mucosa. Clinically OPP appears as a localized or diffuse, black to brown pigmentation. OPP may persist for many years even though the disappearing of the pigmentation after the resolution of the inflammatory state has been reported. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records and, when performed, biopsy examinations of 7 cases of OPP. Four cases were associated with oral lichen planus, two cases with lichenoid lesions and one case with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Despite a possible high prevalence of OPP, only a few reports concerning diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation have been published so far.

  17. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: A rare oral tumor

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sila; Ray, Jay Gopal; Deb, Tushar; Patsa, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the malignant neoplasm of striated muscle and a relatively uncommon tumor of the oral cavity. Embryonal variety is the most common subtype, observed in children below 10 years of age but occasionally seen in adolescents and young adults. The present report describes a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the left posterior buccal mucosa, with extension in the adjacent alveolus, soft palate, oropharynx and nasopharynx of a 17-year-old female. PMID:27721622

  18. Oral mucosal immunotherapy using a toothpaste delivery system for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Reisacher, William; Rudner, Shara; Kotik, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    Oral Mucosal Immunotherapy is a novel method of delivering allergenic extracts to the tolerogenic oropharyngeal mucosa using a compounded toothpaste vehicle. This article describes three cases where individuals with seasonal allergic rhinitis demonstrated symptom improvement as well as decreased skin reactivity after using Oral Mucosal Immunotherapy in a pre-seasonal and co-seasonal fashion.

  19. Clinical, histologic, cytologic, and ultrastructural characteristics of the oral lesions from hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia. A disease of gap junction and desmosome formation.

    PubMed

    Witkop, C J; White, J G; Sauk, J J; King, R A

    1978-11-01

    Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disorder affecting all of the orificial mucosa with cataracts, follicular keratosis of skin, nonscarring alopecia, bouts of pneumonia, spontaneous pneumothorax, and terminal cor pulmonale. The oral lesion is a fiery red, flat or micropapillary-appearing mucosa most frequently involving the gingiva and hard palate. All oral and pharyngeal mucosa may be involved, however. Red scrotal mucosa of the tongue is common. Histologically, the oral mucosa shows a lack of cornified and keratinized cells, a decrease in the thickness of the epithelial cell layer, dyshesion, and dyskeratosis. Papanicolaou smears show lack of epithelial cell maturation, poikilocytosis, anisocytosis, large paranuclear cytoplasmic vacuoles, and cytoplasmic strand-shaped inclusions. Ultrastructural features include a paucity of desmosomes, intercellular accumulations of amorphous material, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and paranuclear lesions with strands of material resembling gap junctions and desmosomes. The condition most likely represents a basic defect in gap junction and desmosome formation.

  20. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  1. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  2. Oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T

    2001-04-01

    Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.

  3. Denture hyperplasia with areas simulating oral inverted ductal papilloma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Jorge, Jacks; Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayrosa; León, Jorge Esquiche; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2005-07-01

    Denture hyperplasia is a reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, usually associated to an ill-fitting denture. This lesion is easily diagnosed and in some cases distinct microscopic variations such as osseous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia may be found. These metaplastic alterations probably are associated with the lymphocytic infiltrate usually present in denture hyperplasia. We present a case of denture hyperplasia containing salivary gland tissue with ductal alterations mimicking an oral inverted ductal papilloma.

  4. Exploring bacterial flora in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Metgud, R; Gupta, K; Gupta, J

    2014-02-01

    The oral cavity contains a unique and diverse microflora. While most of these organisms exhibit commensalism, shifts in bacterial community dynamics cause pathological changes within the oral cavity and at distant sites. We assessed the microbial flora using cultured saliva and oral swabs from subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy controls. Microbial samples were collected from the carcinoma site, contralateral healthy mucosa, and saliva of the study group and samples were collected from healthy mucosa and saliva of controls. Samples were stored on ice and transported to the laboratory for culture. The median number of colony forming units (CFU)/ml at carcinoma sites was significantly greater than at the contralateral healthy mucosa. Similarly, in saliva of carcinoma subjects, the median number of CFU/ml was significantly greater than in saliva of control subjects.

  5. Oral mucosal progenitor cell clones resist in vitro myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Locke, Matthew; Davies, Lindsay C; Stephens, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Progenitor cells derived from the oral mucosa lamina propria (OMLP-PCs) demonstrate an ability to differentiate into tissue lineages removed from their anatomical origin. This clonally derived population of neural-crest cells have demonstrated potential to differentiate along mesenchymal and neuronal cell lineages.

  6. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions.

    PubMed

    González, Joaquín V; Gutiérrez, Rafael A; Keszler, Alicia; Colacino, Maria del Carmen; Alonio, Lidia V; Teyssie, Angelica R; Picconi, Maria Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.

  7. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling.

  8. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE Is Dispensable for Immunity to Systemic, Oral and Cutaneous Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Heather R.; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M.; Garg, Abhishek V.; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections. PMID:25849644

  9. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  10. Phagocytes in cell suspensions of human colon mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Beeken, W; Northwood, I; Beliveau, C; Gump, D

    1987-01-01

    Because little is known of the phagocytes of the human colon we enumerated these cells in mucosal suspensions and studied their phagocytic activity. Phagocyte rich suspensions were made by EDTA collagenase dissociation followed by elutriation centrifugation. Phagocytosis was evaluated by measuring cellular radioactivity after incubation of phagocytes with 3H-adenine labelled E coli ON2 and checked microscopically. Dissociation of normal mucosa from colorectal neoplasms yielded means of 1.9 X 10(6) eosinophils, 1.4 X 10(6) macrophages and 2 X 10(5) neutrophils per gram of mucosa. Visually normal mucosa of inflammatory states yielded 2.2 X 10(6) eosinophils, 2.3 X 10(6) macrophages and 7 X 10(5) neutrophils per gram of mucosa. Phagocyte rich suspensions of normal mucosa from tumour patients phagocytosed 21.8% of a pool of opsonised tritiated E coli ON2 and by microscopy 100% of mucosal neutrophils ingested bacteria, 83% of eosinophils were phagocytic, and 53% of macrophages contained bacteria. These results suggest that in the human colonic mucosa, the eosinophil is more abundant than the macrophage and the per cent of those cells exhibiting phagocytosis is intermediate between that of the macrophage and the neutrophil. Thus these three types of cells are actively phagocytic and share the potential for a major role in host defence against invasive enteric bacteria. PMID:3666566

  11. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  12. [Oral health of users of psychoactive substances].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Fabien

    2016-12-01

    This article reminds you that, whatever the psychoactive substance in question, it is not one that has repercussions on the oral health of its user. This affects both the tooth, the periodontal and oral mucosa. Drug addicts, especially those engaged in polydrug use, represent the population at the largest risk for oral cancer. Of all the factors, smoking is by far the largest risk. The alcohol has a synergistic effect with the tobacco, so that the combined effect is more than multiplied. Preventing risks of these products is possible through good oral hygiene and lifestyle, preventive care and followed by a regular dentist. Regaining self-esteem, however, should be one of the key dimensions of social reappropriation through his body.

  13. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future.

  14. Application of direct oral microscopy in evaluating mucosal margins around invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Michcik, Adam; Michajłowski, Igor; Starzyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique, which aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The oral mucosa is examined at multiple magnifications and features such as sub-epithelial mucosal vessels, surface patterns, colour tone, transparency and the exact demarcation of mucosal lesions are estimated. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) oscillates between 1.9% and 3.5%, which makes it the eighth most common carcinoma occurring around the world and in Poland. The 5-year survival rates oscillate between 20% and 30%. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate clinically unchanged mucosal margins around OSCC by direct oral microscopy. The authors approached the question whether the borders of mucosal margins around OSCC established via direct oral microscopy differ from those established based on clinical examination. Material and methods Fifteen patients diagnosed with OSCC were enrolled. Patients were first clinically examined to evaluate the extent of the tumour and to plan resection margins. Eventually, direct oral microscopy was performed to establish the width of the subclinically unchanged mucosal margins based on a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae, followed by comparison with those established by clinical evaluation. Results Histopathologic results of biopsies from areas indicated by direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 86.7% of patients, whereas biopsies from areas indicated by clinical examination revealed dysplasia only in 40% of individuals, resulting in the need for widening of mucosal margins. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy enables detection of dysplasia within clinically unaltered mucosal margins around OSCC, which results in more precise establishing of resection boundaries, contributing to improvement of resection totality. PMID:26759543

  15. [Cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gastric mucosa: injury of the mucosa and the protective action of antacids].

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, A

    1995-01-01

    Gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to many substances, some made by their own body as HCl, pepsin, etc, others from exogenous origin as NSAIDs, alcohol etc. that injury the mucosa. The body has build protective mechanism against the injury that we describe in the article. We know antacids acts neutralizing the acid a now we know it work as a powerful stimulant of the mucosal protection. This is called cytoprotection and is described in the article.

  16. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1978-02-01

    This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.

  17. Esomeprazole immediate release tablets: Gastric mucosa ex vivo permeation, absorption and antisecretory activity in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Camillo; Flammini, Lisa; Vivo, Valentina; Colombo, Paolo; Colombo, Gaia; Elviri, Lisa; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Buttini, Francesca; Bettini, Ruggero; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rossi, Alessandra

    2016-10-10

    The aim of this work was to study the esomeprazole activity on the control of gastric secretion after administration of a novel immediate release tablet. The ex vivo permeation of esomeprazole across porcine gastric mucosa from immediate release tablets, containing sodium carbonate or magnesium oxide as alkalinizing agents, was firstly assessed. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies in conscious rats following the administration of immediate release tablets with sodium carbonate, in comparison with delayed-release tablets having the same formula, were also conducted. The results showed an important effect of sodium carbonate and magnesium oxide on the drug release, on the ex vivo trans-mucosal transport and the stability in acid environment. In particular, the presence of sodium carbonate in esomeprazole tablet formulation provided the maximum increase of the drug in vitro transport across the mucosa. Then, the absorption and the antisecretory activity of this proton pump inhibitor orally administered in rats as immediate release tablets containing Na2CO3, was superior but not significantly different compared to delayed-release tablets having the same formula. In the adopted animal model, an activity of esomeprazole from immediate release alkaline formulation was seen also in presence of partial gastric absorption allowing inhibition of proton pumps reached via systemic circulation. This esomeprazole immediate release formulation could be used for the on-demand treatment of acid-related disorders such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

  18. Esophageal mucosa exfoliation induced by oxalic acid poisoning: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIERU; KAN, BAOTIAN; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WU, XIAOPENG; YU, GUANCAI; SUN, JING

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the case of a 44-year-old woman with oral oxalic acid poisoning. As the illness progressed, the patient exhibited severe metabolic acidosis, large-area esophageal mucosa injury and acute kidney injury, which required dialysis. A guide wire slipped out of position during the process of hemodialysis and moved back and forth in the veins, but was removed successfully by interventional endovascular treatment. However, the patient's esophageal mucosa exfoliated, which lead to severe benign esophageal stenosis and dysphagia. Balloon distention was conducted twice in the upper digestive tract using X-ray location in combination with a dumb-bell bladder and interventional wire. The patient exhibited convulsions, shock, embolism and loss of consciousness while undergoing the second balloon distention procedure. Following symptomatic treatment, the patient eventually remained in a stable condition, the digestive tract expansion procedure was not resumed and a jejunostomy was performed in order to facilitate enteral nutrition, which was administered via the jejunum and had little stimulatory effect on the pancreas. Following various treatments, the patient's condition improved markedly, with renal function returning to normal. PMID:26889241

  19. Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of diverse populations of commensal bacteria that interact with host physiological function. Dysregulating these populations, through exogenous means such as antibiotics or dietary changes, can have adverse consequences on the health of the host. Studies from laboratories such as ours have demonstrated that exposure to psychological stressors disrupts the population profile of intestinal microbiota. To date, such studies have primarily focused on prolonged stressors (repeated across several days) and have assessed fecal bacterial populations. It is not known whether shorter stressors can also impact the microbiota, and whether colonic mucosa-associated populations can also be affected. The mucosa-associated microbiota exist in close proximity to elements of the host immune system and the two are tightly interrelated. Therefore, alterations in these populations should be emphasized. Additionally, stressors can induce differential responses in anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone outputs in variant strains of mice. Thus, whether stressor exposure can have contrasting effects on the colonic microbiota in inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD-1 mice was also examined. Results In the present study, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate that exposure to the stressor significantly changed the community profile and significantly reduced the relative proportions of two genera and one family of highly abundant intestinal bacteria, including the genus Lactobacillus. This finding was confirmed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. The use of qPCR also identified mouse strain-specific differences in bacterial abundances. L. reuteri, an immunomodulatory species, was decreased in

  20. Regression of oral hairy leukoplakia after orally administered acyclovir therapy.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L; Herbst, J S; Ablashi, D V; Atherton, S; Frank, B; Rosen, L; Horwitz, S N

    1988-01-15

    To define the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of oral hairy leukoplakia, 13 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men with clinical and histologic evidence of oral hairy leukoplakia were enrolled in an open-label trial of orally administered acyclovir therapy (3.2 g/d for 20 days). Of six patients who received therapy, five exhibited clinical regression. Once therapy was discontinued, recurrences occurred in all responders. Among seven patients who refused therapy, no spontaneous remissions occurred. Before therapy, EBV replication within the leukoplakia was demonstrated by immunofluorescence tissue staining or electron microscopy in five patients who were studied. Human papillomavirus was not detected by immunocytochemistry or electron microscopy from tissue specimens of six patients. After therapy, biopsy specimens from two patients with complete responses revealed a normalization of histologic abnormalities and an inability to detect EBV in previously involved mucosa by immunofluorescence or in situ DNA hybridization assays. It was concluded that EBV replication within the epithelial cells of the tongue is necessary for the development of oral hairy leukoplakia.

  1. The epithelialization process in the healing temporalis myofascial flap in oral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cheung, L K

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the epithelialization process in the healing temporalis myofascial flap (TMF). Eight cats underwent maxillectomy and immediate reconstruction with TMF. They were killed at the determined time and the reconstructed maxillae were processed for examination by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results revealed that epithelialization of the healing TMF was initiated by hyperplastic changes followed by active migration of epithelial cells deriving from the wound margins. The partial maxillectomy wound was completely covered by a smooth oral mucosa at postoperative week 24. The mucosa had histological and ultrastructural features different from normal palatal mucosa.

  2. Extreme Microstomia in an 8-Month-Old Infant: Bilateral Commissuroplasty Using Rhomboid Buccal Mucosa Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Jaminet, Patrick; Werdin, Frank; Kraus, Armin; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan; Sinis, Nektarios

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A case of extreme microstomia in an 8-month-old infant is presented. As a result of caustic acid ingestion at the age of a few weeks, the male infant developed progressive stricture of the perioral region preventing him from normal food intake. Methods: The patient was treated by bilateral commissurotomies and a total of 4 rhomboid flaps based in the buccal mucosa. Results: We were able to enlarge the mouth aperture and subsequently cover the created soft tissue defects, with good esthetic result. The patient learned to suck the feeding bottle and was able to demonstrate oral dynamics, including laughing and crying. Conclusion: We present our surgical technique, the postoperative functional and esthetic outcome, and a brief literature review. Only few publications deal with the same matter and none with a similar life-threatening case. PMID:20076787

  3. Genetic Ablation of Parietal Cells in Transgenic Mice: A New Model for Analyzing Cell Lineage Relationships in the Gastric Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Victor; West, A. Brian; Goldenring, James R.; Levenson, Robert

    1996-03-01

    The gastric mucosa of mammalian stomach contains several differentiated cell types specialized for the secretion of acid, digestive enzymes, mucus, and hormones. Understanding whether each of these cell lineages is derived from a common stem cell has been a challenging problem. We have used a genetic approach to analyze the ontogeny of progenitor cells within mouse stomach. Herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase was targeted to parietal cells within the gastric mucosa of transgenic mice, and parietal cells were ablated by treatment of animals with the antiherpetic drug ganciclovir. Ganciclovir treatment produced complete ablation of parietal cells, dissolution of gastric glands, and loss of chief and mucus-producing cells. Termination of drug treatment led to the reemergence of all major gastric epithelial cell types and restoration of glandular architecture. Our results imply the existence of a pluripotent stem cell for the gastric mucosa. Parietal cell ablation should provide a model for analyzing cell lineage relationships within the stomach as well as mechanisms underlying gastric injury and repair.

  4. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa

  5. Oral melanoacanthoma and oral melanotic macule: a report of 8 cases, review of the literature, and immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlos-Bregni, Román; Contreras, Elisa; Netto, Ana Carolina; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Jorge, Jacks; León, Jorge Esquiche; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2007-09-01

    Oral melanoacanthoma (MA) is a rare, benign pigmented lesion, similar to cutaneous MA, characterized by hyperplasia of spinous keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The pathogenesis of oral MA remains uncertain, although its clinical behavior is suggestive of a reactive origin. The most common intraoral sites are the buccal mucosa, lip, palate and gingiva. The average age of presentation is 28 years, mainly in blacks, with a strong female predilection. The oral melanotic macule (MM) is a small, well-circumscribed brown-to-black macule that occurs on the lips and mucous membranes. The etiology is not clear and it may represent a physiologic or reactive process. The average age of presentation is 43 years, with a female predilection. A biopsy is recommended to distinguish these lesions from each other and from other oral melanocytic lesions. We depict four cases each of oral MA and MM, affecting Caucasian and Latin American mestizo patients. The clinicopathological features of these cases reflect its ample spectrum, and to the best of our knowledge, it is the first example of oral MA affecting a Caucasian boy reported in the English literature. Therefore oral MA and MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions in the oral mucosa in these populations.

  6. Oral submucous fibrosis: etiology, pathogenesis, and future research.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, R.

    1994-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition of the oral cavity, has been studied by a number of workers in the field. The available epidemiological data showed a clear-cut geographical and ethnic predisposition, which suggested that certain customs/habits prevalent among the population groups in south-east Asia might be possible etiological factors. However, none of these customs was shown to be causally linked and the association in many cases was 'casual'. This led some workers to consider the importance of systemic predisposition, in addition to the effects of local factors on the oral mucosa. More research is needed to elucidate this problem. PMID:7867145

  7. Oral lichen planus: a literature review and update.

    PubMed

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Cirillo, Nicola; McCullough, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common chronic inflammatory condition that can affect skin and mucous membranes, including the oral mucosa. Because of the anatomic, physiologic and functional peculiarities of the oral cavity, the oral variant of LP (OLP) requires specific evaluations in terms of diagnosis and management. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the current developments in the understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical-pathologic presentation, and treatment of OLP, and provide follow-up recommendations informed by recent data on the malignant potential of the disease as well as health economics evaluations.

  8. Oral manifestations caused by the linear IgA disease.

    PubMed

    Eguia del Valle, Asier; Aguirre Urízar, José Manuel; Martínez Sahuquillo, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Linear IgA deposit related disease or Linear IgA disease (LAD) is a chronic, uncommon and autoimmunological mucocutaneous disease, characterised by linear IgA deposits along the basement membrane zone. In mainly cases, moreover cutaneous lesions, there are oral mucosal and other mucosal lesions. There are also, some cases published of Linear IgA disease limited to oral mucosa. The known of this disease is important for the establishment of a correct differential diagnosis in cases of blistering mucocutaneous diseases. In this paper, we analyze the most important features of this disease, attending specially to the oral manifestations.

  9. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds.

  10. Ultrastructure observation of middle ear mucosa with laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mengkui; Yang, Shulan; Fang, Yaoyun; Sun, Jianhe

    1998-08-01

    In order to study the effects of He-Ne laser on the mucosa of middle ear mucosa from 9 patients with chronic otitis media, all of who had slight damp eardrum, were irradiated by low power He-Ne laser ten minutes per day for ten days. Specimen was taken before and after irradiation and observed under scanning electron microscope. It was found that the surface structure of the mucosa was more integral, the arrangement of the epithelial cell was closer together and microvilli arose among the noncilliated cells after irradiation. The inflammatory cell disappeared arid the morphologic structure appeared normal. These data provided the therapeutic evidence for the lower power He-Ne laser irradiation on patients with chronic purulent otitis midia.

  11. Sulglycotide displays cytoprotective activity in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Niada, R; Mantovani, M; Prino, G; Omini, C; Berti, F

    1983-01-01

    Sulglycotide, a well known antisecretory and antiulcer compound, has been further investigated for its ability to protect rat gastric mucosa against extensive necrosis induced by absolute ethanol, NaOH (0.2N) and NaCl (30%). Sulglycotide, which has been compared with cimetidine, displays a dose-dependent cytoprotective activity against the above necrotizing agents. The results obtained indicate that Sulglycotide requires a normal prostaglandin biosynthetic process in order to manifest its antiulcer activity. In fact gastric mucosa from animals treated with Sulglycotide releases in vitro a greater amount of PGl2-like activity; and furthermore no protection was observed against gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. As far as the mode of action of Sulglycotide is concerned it is tempting to speculate that the compound may interfere with prostaglandin degradation or it may trigger an adaptive cytoprotection which is important in maintaining the cellular integrity of rat gastric mucosa.

  12. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of lung: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Subir; Deb, Asit Ranjan; Aich, Ranen Karti; Chakraborty, Sudipto; Das, Diptimoy; Dee, Abhijit

    2010-07-01

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a rare disease particularly when occurring in the lungs. In 1983, Issacson and Wright first described it as a distinct clinicopathological entity. A 39-year-old woman was suffering from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the lung and was treated with moderate dose radiotherapy only. Six months after treatment the woman is symptom free and without any evidence of relapse. The disease undergoes a very indolent course and local form of treatment like surgery or radiotherapy is effective though radiotherapy is probably associated with higher local control rate and event free survival particularly in early stages. But for diagnostic purpose thoracotomy is generally required in pulmonary variety. Due to rarity of cases it is almost impossible to compare surgery with radiotherapy in mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma disorder in a prospective manner. Radiotherapy is the preferred mode of treatment either alone or in combination with surgery.

  13. Metabolism of dopamine by the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Donovan, Maureen D

    2006-11-01

    The nasal route of administration offers several advantages over oral and intravenous administration, including the ability to avoid hepatic first pass metabolism. Dopamine deficiency has been associated with several neurological disorders; it has been shown to have good systemic bioavailability and significant uptake into the CNS following intranasal administration. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the limiting role of mucosal metabolism of dopamine during nasal absorption. In vitro transport and initial rate studies were carried out using nasal mucosal explants to study dopamine permeability and metabolism. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was the only metabolite detected. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for DOPAC formation, was localized to the submucosal region of the nasal explants. The amount of DOPAC formed during the transport studies was less than 0.5% of the initial amount of dopamine placed into the system. Iproniazid, an MAO inhibitor, blocked DOPAC formation but had no effect on dopamine transport. The limited extent of dopamine metabolism compared to its mucosal transport demonstrates that nasal dopamine transport is not significantly reduced by mucosal metabolism and suggests that the nasal route may be promising for the efficient delivery of dopamine to the CNS.

  14. Lgr5 Marks Neural Crest Derived Multipotent Oral Stromal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Boddupally, Keerthi; Wang, Guangfang; Chen, Yibu; Kobielak, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that multipotent stem cells with neural crest (NC) origin persist into adulthood in oral mucosa. However their exact localization and role in normal homeostasis is unknown. In this study, we discovered that Lgr5 is expressed in NC cells during embryonic development, which give rise to the dormant stem cells in the adult tongue and oral mucosa. Those Lgr5 positive oral stromal stem cells display properties of NC stem cells including clonal growth and multipotent differentiation. RNA sequencing revealed that adult Lgr5+ oral stromal stem cells express high number of neural crest related markers like Sox9, Twist1, Snai1, Myc, Ets1, Crabp1, Epha2, and Itgb1. Using lineage-tracing experiments, we show that these cells persist more than a year in the ventral tongue and some areas of the oral mucosa and give rise to stromal progeny. In vivo transplantation demonstrated that these cells reconstitute the stroma. Our studies show for the first time that Lgr5 is expressed in the NC cells at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) and is maintained during embryonic development and postnataly in the stroma of the ventral tongue, and some areas of the oral mucosa and that Lgr5+ cells participate in the maintenance of the stroma.

  15. TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression in normal oral epithelium oral dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fernanda-Paula; Corrêa Pontes, Flávia-Sirotheau; Cury, Sérgio-Elias; Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Rebelo-Pontes, Hélder; Pinto-Júnior, Décio-dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of TWIST and p-Akt proteins in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), correlating their expressions with the histological features of the lesions. Study design: Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 10 normal oral epithelium, 30 OL and 20 OSCC formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Immunoperoxidase reactions for TWIST and p-Akt proteins were applied on the specimens and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Results: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post tests revealed a significant difference in TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression among normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TWIST and p-Akt expressions according to the Pearson’s correlation test. Conclusions: The results obtained in the current study suggest that TWIST and p-Akt may participate of the multi-step process of oral carcinogenesis since its early stages. Key words: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry. PMID:21743395

  16. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for rats and mice orally exposed to chromium.

    PubMed

    Kirman, C R; Hays, S M; Aylward, L L; Suh, M; Harris, M A; Thompson, C M; Haws, L C; Proctor, D M

    2012-10-25

    A multi-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to describe the behavior of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in rats and mice following long-term oral exposure. Model compartments were included for GI lumen, oral mucosa, forestomach/stomach, small intestinal mucosa (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), blood, liver, kidney, bone, and a combined compartment for remaining tissues. Data from ex vivo Cr(VI) reduction studies were used to characterize reduction of Cr(VI) in fed rodent stomach fluid as a second-order, pH-dependent process. For model development, tissue time-course data for total chromium were collected from rats and mice exposed to Cr(VI) in drinking water for 90 days at six concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 180 mg Cr(VI)/L. These data were used to supplement the tissue time-course data collected in other studies with oral administration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), including that from recent NTP chronic bioassays. Clear species differences were identified for chromium delivery to the target tissue (small intestines), with higher concentrations achieved in mice than in rats, consistent with small intestinal tumor formation, which was observed upon chronic exposures in mice but not in rats. Erythrocyte:plasma chromium ratios suggest that Cr(VI) entered portal circulation at drinking water concentrations equal to and greater than 60 mg/L in rodents. Species differences are described for distribution of chromium to the liver and kidney, with liver:kidney ratios higher in mice than in rats. Overall, the PBPK model provides a good description of chromium toxicokinetics, with model predictions for tissue chromium within a factor of 3 for greater than 80% of measurements evaluated. The tissue data and PBPK model predictions indicate a concentration gradient in the small intestines (duodenum > jejunum > ileum), which will be useful for assessing the tumor response gradient observed in mouse small intestines in terms of target tissue dose. The rodent PBPK

  17. Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

    2013-02-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products.

  18. Remodeling of the residual gastric mucosa after roux-en-y gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Arapis, Konstantinos; Cavin, Jean Baptiste; Gillard, Laura; Cluzeaud, Françoise; Lettéron, Philippe; Ducroc, Robert; Le Beyec, Johanne; Hourseau, Muriel; Couvelard, Anne; Marmuse, Jean-Pierre; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the remodeling of intestinal mucosa after bariatric surgeries has been the matter of numerous studies to our knowledge, very few reported on the remodeling of the residual gastric mucosa. In this study, we analyzed remodeling of gastric mucosa after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) in rats. Diet-induced obese rats were subjected to RYGB, VSG or sham surgical procedures. All animals were assessed for food intake, body-weight, fasting blood, metabolites and hormones profiling, as well as insulin and glucose tolerance tests before and up to 5 weeks post-surgery. Remodeling of gastric tissues was analyzed by routine histology and immunohistochemistry studies, and qRT-PCR analyses of ghrelin and gastrin mRNA levels. In obese rats with impaired glucose tolerance, VSG and RYGB caused substantial weight loss and rats greatly improved their oral glucose tolerance. The remaining gastric mucosa after VSG and gastric pouch (GP) after RYGB revealed a hyperplasia of the mucous neck cells that displayed a strong immunoreactivity for parietal cell H+/K+-ATPase. Ghrelin mRNA levels were reduced by 2-fold in remaining fundic mucosa after VSG and 10-fold in GP after RYGB. In the antrum, gastrin mRNA levels were reduced after VSG in line with the reduced number of gastrin positive cells. This study reports novel and important observations dealing with the remaining gastric mucosa after RYGB and VSG. The data demonstrate, for the first time, a hyperplasia of the mucous neck cells, a transit cell population of the stomach bearing differentiating capacities into zymogenic and peptic cells.

  19. Assessing the patient at risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Scully, C

    1997-01-01

    Patients and health care workers require continuing education to promote knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and risk factors for oral cancer. This paper reviews the literature assessing diagnostic tools that are currently available or being developed, in order to assist in the biopsy site selection and subsequent diagnosis of patients at risk for oral cancer. There is a general consensus that oral examination of patients at risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) should be conducted on a routine basis. However, there can be false-positive and false-negative findings. Toluidine blue has been shown to be useful as an adjunct to the clinical examination when used by experienced clinicians. Exfoliative cytology is not currently used as a routine measure for the evaluation of lesions of the oral mucosa, but further development and the application of biologic markers to cytologic specimens may increase its value. Fluorescent imaging of malignant lesions of the oral mucosa has been shown to be sensitive and specific in animal models but thus far has been reported in only one human trial. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques when used by general practitioners need to be assessed. Further, none of the above procedures has yet been shown to be a cost-effective public health measure in screening for oral cancer.

  20. Intestinal micropatches for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Wong, Jessica; Gogoi, Rohan; Brown, Tyler; Mitragotri, Samir

    2017-03-19

    Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health issue that has almost reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Injectable insulin has been typically utilized for the management of this chronic disease. However, lack of patient compliance with injectable formulations has spurred the development of oral insulin formulations, which although appealing, face several delivery challenges. We have developed novel mucoadhesive intestinal patches, several hundred micrometers in dimension (micropatches) that address the challenges of oral insulin delivery. The micropatches adhere to the intestinal mucosa, release their drug load rapidly within 30 min and are effective in lowering blood glucose levels in vivo. When insulin-loaded micropatches were administered with a permeation enhancer and protease inhibitor, a peak efficacy of 34% drop in blood glucose levels was observed within 3 h. Efficacy further improved to 41% when micropatches were administered in multiple doses. Here, we describe the design of micropatches as an oral insulin formulation and report their in vivo efficacy.

  1. The cytological diagnosis of extra-oral plasmablastic lymphoma: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Pai, Kanthilatha; Rao, Lakshmi

    2013-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHLs) which are associated with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are heterogeneous. Plasmablastic Lymphoma (PBL) was first recognized as an aggressive, invariably fatal subtype of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma which occurred mostly in patients with AIDS, with distinct histomorphologic and immunophenotypic findings, which affected the jaw and the oral mucosa exclusively. Subsequently, there have been case reports which have described extra-oral plasmablastic lymphomas in the lung, jejunum, caecum, nasal mucosa, etc. We are reporting a case of this rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma which presented as a soft tissue mass, which we believe is the first case to be diagnosed by FNAC.

  2. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  3. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  4. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  5. Removal of the intestinal mucosa: photochemical approach in bladder augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselhuhn, Gregory D.; Kropp, Kenneth A.; Keck, Rick W.; Selman, Steven H.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine whether 5-aminoleuvinic acid in combination with light could be used as an adjunct to intestinal bladder augmentation with the aim of removing intestinal mucosa with subsequent re-epithelialization of the treated segment with urothelium. Histopathologic studies of so-treated intestinal segments used in bladder augmentation demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  6. The in vivo fate of nanoparticles and nanoparticle-loaded microcapsules after oral administration in mice: Evaluation of their potential for colon-specific delivery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiming; Fuchs, Adrian V; Boase, Nathan R B; Rolfe, Barbara E; Coombes, Allan G A; Thurecht, Kristofer J

    2015-08-01

    Anti-cancer drug loaded-nanoparticles (NPs) or encapsulation of NPs in colon-targeted delivery systems shows potential for increasing the local drug concentration in the colon leading to improved treatment of colorectal cancer. To investigate the potential of the NP-based strategies for colon-specific delivery, two formulations, free Eudragit® NPs and enteric-coated NP-loaded chitosan-hypromellose microcapsules (MCs) were fluorescently-labelled and their tissue distribution in mice after oral administration was monitored by multispectral small animal imaging. The free NPs showed a shorter transit time throughout the mouse digestive tract than the MCs, with extensive excretion of NPs in faeces at 5h. Conversely, the MCs showed complete NP release in the lower region of the mouse small intestine at 8h post-administration. Overall, the encapsulation of NPs in MCs resulted in a higher colonic NP intensity from 8h to 24h post-administration compared to the free NPs, due to a NP 'guarding' effect of MCs during their transit along mouse gastrointestinal tract which decreased NP excretion in faeces. These imaging data revealed that this widely-utilised colon-targeting MC formulation lacked site-precision for releasing its NP load in the colon, but the increased residence time of the NPs in the lower gastrointestinal tract suggests that it is still useful for localised release of chemotherapeutics, compared to NP administration alone. In addition, both formulations resided in the stomach of mice at considerable concentrations over 24h. Thus, adhesion of NP- or MC-based oral delivery systems to gastric mucosa may be problematic for colon-specific delivery of the cargo to the colon and should be carefully investigated for a full evaluation of particulate delivery systems.

  7. Oral and dental signs of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID

  8. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  9. Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL

  10. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Human Oral Mucosal Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jay O.; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Kacker, Ashutosh; Choksi, Vishal L.; Bocker, Jennifer M.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Yantiss, Rhonda K.; Hughes, Duncan B.; Du, Baoheng; Judson, Benjamin L.; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Use of tobacco is responsible for approximately 30% of all cancer-related deaths in the United States including cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. In the current study, 40 current and 40 age- and gender-matched never smokers underwent buccal biopsies to evaluate the effects of smoking on the transcriptome. Microarray analyses were carried out using Affymetrix HGU 133 Plus2 arrays. Smoking altered the expression of numerous genes: 32 genes showed increased expression and 9 genes showed reduced expression in the oral mucosa of smokers vs. never smokers. Increases were found in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidant stress, eicosanoid synthesis, nicotine signaling and cell adhesion. Increased numbers of Langerhans cells were found in the oral mucosa of smokers. Interestingly, smoking caused greater induction of aldo-keto reductases, enzymes linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induced genotoxicity, in the oral mucosa of women than men. Striking similarities in expression changes were found in oral compared to the bronchial mucosa. The observed changes in gene expression were compared to known chemical signatures using the Connectivity Map database, and suggested that geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, might be an anti-mimetic of tobacco smoke. Consistent with this prediction, geldanamycin caused dose-dependent suppression of tobacco smoke extract-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in vitro. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke, support the potential use of oral epithelium as a surrogate tissue in future lung cancer chemoprevention trials and illustrate the potential of computational biology to identify chemopreventive agents. PMID:20179299

  11. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  12. Reduction of radiochemotherapy-induced early oral mucositis by recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin): Experimental studies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, Wolfgang . E-mail: doerr@rcs.urz.tu-dresden.de; Baessler, Stefan; Reichel, Sandra; Spekl, Kathrin

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF or palifermin) on oral mucositis induced by radiochemotherapy in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) and/or 5-fluorouracil were given before single dose irradiation, combined with palifermin before or after the treatment, or both. Daily fractionated irradiation for 2 weeks was followed by graded test doses. With additional chemotherapy in Week 1, palifermin was given before radiotherapy and at the end of the first week, or additionally at the end of Week 2. Radiochemotherapy in Week 2 was combined with palifermin at the end of Weeks 1 and 2, Weeks 1, 2, and 3, or additionally before radiotherapy. Ulceration of mouse tongue mucosa was analyzed as the endpoint. Results: The dose associated with ulcer induction in 50% of the mice (ED{sub 50}) for single-dose irradiation was 11.5 {+-} 0.7 Gy. Palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} to about 19 Gy in all protocols tested. Similar values were observed when chemotherapy was added before irradiation. With fractionated irradiation, palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} for test irradiation from 5.7 {+-} 1.5 Gy to 12-15 Gy, depending on the administration protocol. With chemotherapy in Week 1, two palifermin injections had no significant effect, but a third injection increased the ED{sub 50} to 13 Gy. With chemotherapy in Week 2, all palifermin protocols resulted in ED{sub 50} values of 13-14 Gy. Conclusion: A marked increase in oral mucosal radiation tolerance by palifermin was found, which was preserved in combinations with chemotherapy using cisplatin and/or 5-fluorouracil.

  13. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy.

  14. Antimicrobial peptide control of pathogenic microorganisms of the oral cavity: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Rocha; de Freitas, Victor Aragão Abreu; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, molecules produced in many different organisms, have high biocidal activity against several microorganisms. However, several questions about these molecules remain unclear. Therefore, this report details a systematic survey of the literature on the use of antimicrobial peptides against oral pathogens and indicates which peptides and microorganisms are most extensively studied. Articles were located using the PubMed and Science Direct databases with the following inclusion criteria: publication date between 2002 and 2011; keywords "biofilm OR biological film OR biological layer OR bacterial growth" AND "peptide" AND "oral cavity OR mouth OR buccal mucosa OR oral mucosa OR mouth mucosa"; and abstract in English. A total of 73 articles were selected after refinement of the data. An increase in publications focusing on the use of antimicrobial peptides against oral microorganisms was observed. In addition, the peptides produced by cells of the oral mucosa (defensins, LL-37 and histatins) as well as Streptococcus mutans (among cariogenic bacteria) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (among periodontal bacteria) were the most studied subjects. It was concluded that the use of antimicrobial peptides as a tool for microbial control is of increasing importance, likely due to its widespread use, mechanism of action, and low rates of bacterial resistance.

  15. Characterization of oral involvement in acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Ion, Daniela; Stevenson, Kristen; Woo, Sook-Bin; Ho, Vincent T; Soiffer, Robert; Antin, Joseph H; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2014-11-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral features associated with aGVHD in patients who underwent HSCT between 1995 and 2010 and developed prominent oral aGVHD. Data was collected from patient medical records and analyzed descriptively. Twenty-one cases were identified, of which 5 (24%) demonstrated only oral features; the remaining 16 had variable involvement of skin (n = 14), liver (n = 7), and gut (n = 5). The median time to onset of any sign of aGVHD was 22 days (range, 8 to 154 days), and that for onset of oral aGVHD was 35 days (range, 11 to 159 days). Sites affected by nonspecific erythema and ulcerations included buccal mucosa (19 of 21; 90%) tongue (18 of 21; 86%; dorsum in 8), labial mucosa (16 of 21; 76%), palatal mucosa (15 of 21; 71%; hard palate in 7), and floor of mouth (7 of 21; 33%). Eight cases (38%) presented with lip ulceration and crusting. In addition to systemic therapies, topical solutions of dexamethasone, tacrolimus, and morphine were used for ancillary support. Oral features of aGVHD may be the initial manifestation and include nonspecific erythema and ulcerations of keratinized and nonkeratinized mucosa and lips. Intensive topical therapies may help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

  16. Orally Targeted Delivery of Tripeptide KPV via Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Nanoparticles Efficiently Alleviates Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Xu, Zhigang; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Mingzhen; Han, Moon Kwon; Kang, Yuejun; Merlin, Didier

    2017-01-28

    Overcoming adverse effects and selectively delivering drug to target cells are two major challenges in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Lysine-proline-valine (KPV), a naturally occurring tripeptide, has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory responses of colonic cells. Here, we loaded KPV into hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant HA-KPV-NPs had a desirable particle size (∼272.3 nm) and a slightly negative zeta potential (∼-5.3 mV). These NPs successfully mediated the targeted delivery of KPV to key UC therapy-related cells (colonic epithelial cells and macrophages). In addition, these KPV-loaded NPs appear to be nontoxic and biocompatible with intestinal cells. Intriguingly, we found that HA-KPV-NPs exert combined effects against UC by both accelerating mucosal healing and alleviating inflammation. Oral administration of HA-KPV-NPs encapsulated in a hydrogel (chitosan/alginate) exhibited a much stronger capacity to prevent mucosa damage and downregulate TNF-α, thus they showed a much better therapeutic efficacy against UC in a mouse model, compared with a KPV-NP/hydrogel system. These results collectively demonstrate that our HA-KPV-NP/hydrogel system has the capacity to release HA-KPV-NPs in the colonic lumen and that these NPs subsequently penetrate into colitis tissues and enable KPV to be internalized into target cells, thereby alleviating UC.

  17. A novel method for the culture and polarized stimulation of human intestinal mucosa explants.

    PubMed

    Tsilingiri, Katerina; Sonzogni, Angelica; Caprioli, Flavio; Rescigno, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Few models currently exist to realistically simulate the complex human intestine's micro-environment, where a variety of interactions take place. Proper homeostasis directly depends on these interactions, as they shape an entire immunological response inducing tolerance against food antigens while at the same time mounting effective immune responses against pathogenic microbes accidentally ingested with food. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved also through various complex interactions between the microbiota (including food-associated beneficial bacterial strains) and the host, that regulate the attachment/degradation of mucus, the production of antimicrobial peptides by the epithelial barrier, and the "education" of epithelial cells' that controls the tolerogenic or immunogenic phenotype of unique, gut-resident lymphoid cells' populations. These interactions have been so far very difficult to reproduce with in vitro assays using either cultured cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, mouse models differ substantially in components of the intestinal mucosa (mucus layer organization, commensal bacteria community) with respect to the human gut. Thus, studies of a variety of treatments to be brought in the clinics for important stress-related or pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer have been difficult to carry out. To address these issues, we developed a novel system that enables us to stimulate explants of human intestinal mucosa that retain their in situ conditioning by the host microbiota and immune response, in a polarized fashion. Polarized apical stimulation is of great importance for the outcome of the elicited immune response. It has been repeatedly shown that the same stimuli can produce completely different responses when they bypass the apical face of the intestinal epithelium, stimulating epithelial cells basolaterally or coming into direct contact with lamina

  18. Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

  19. An update on oral human papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ankit H.; Chotaliya, Kiran; Marfatia, Y. S.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) constitutes the majority of newly acquired sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in United States as per the centers for disease control factsheet 2013. Genital HPV is the most common STI with incidence of about 5.5 million world-wide, nearly 75% of sexually active men and women have been exposed to HPV at some point in their lives. Oral Sexual behavior is an important contributor to infection of HPV in the oral mucosa especially in cases known to practice high risk behavior and initiating the same at an early age. HPV infection of the oral mucosa currents is believed to affect 1-50% of the general population, depending on the method used for diagnosis. The immune system clears most HPV naturally within 2 years (about 90%), but the ones that persist can cause serious diseases. HPV is an essential carcinogen being implicated increasingly in association with cancers occurring at numerous sites in the body. Though there does not occur any specific treatment for the HPV infection, the diseases it causes are treatable such as genital warts, cervical and other cancers. PMID:24339456

  20. Oral health protocol for the dependent institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Gil-Montoya, Jose Antonio; de Mello, Ana Lucia Ferreira; Cardenas, Ciro Barreto; Lopez, Inmaculada Guardia

    2006-01-01

    Establishing an oral hygiene protocol for the frail and functionally dependent elderly should be of special concern to health care providers. The previous assessment of a care center, including patients or residents and staff, allows an effective strategy to be designed. Oral health protocols are mainly based on the daily removal of bacterial plaque from teeth or prostheses (or both), cleaning of oral mucosa, and continual oral hydration. These practices are facilitated by the use of electric toothbrushes and products such as chlorhexidine, fluoride toothpastes, and rinses or gels for dry mouth. This type of protocol should include regular collaboration with dental professionals and provide a program of continuous training for nursing staff on oral health issues.

  1. MZC Gel Inhibits SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in Macaque Vaginal Mucosa and SHIV-RT in Rectal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Calenda, Giulia; Villegas, Guillermo; Barnable, Patrick; Litterst, Claudia; Levendosky, Keith; Gettie, Agegnehu; Cooney, Michael L; Blanchard, James; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    The Population Council's microbicide gel MZC (also known as PC-1005) containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) has shown promise as a broad-spectrum microbicide against HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human papillomavirus. Previous data show antiviral activity against these viruses in cell-based assays, prevention of vaginal and rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection, and reduction of vaginal HSV shedding in rhesus macaques and also excellent antiviral activity against HSV and human papillomavirus in murine models. Recently, we demonstrated that MZC is safe and effective against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. Here we established models of ex vivo SHIV-RT/HSV-2 coinfection of vaginal mucosa and SHIV-RT infection of rectal mucosa in macaques (challenge of rectal mucosa with HSV-2 did not result in reproducible tissue infection), evaluated antiviral activity of MZC, and compared quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay readouts for monitoring SHIV-RT infection. MZC (at nontoxic dilutions) significantly inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal and rectal mucosas and HSV-2 in vaginal mucosa when present during viral challenge. Analysis of SHIV-RT infection and MZC activity by 1-step simian immunodeficiency virus gag quantitative RT-PCR and p27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated similar virus growth dynamics and MZC activity by both methods and higher sensitivity of quantitative RT-PCR. Our data provide more evidence that MZC is a promising dual compartment multipurpose prevention technology candidate.

  2. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  3. [The role of hormones from the mucosa of the gastric antrum in regulating gastric secretion].

    PubMed

    Groĭsman, S D; Gubkin, V A; Babenkov, G D

    1993-09-01

    Removal of antral mucosa obviously reduced the sensitivity of glandulocytes to pentagastrin in dogs with Basov-Pavlov fistulae. Activation of the endocrinal cells of the antral mucosa after fundal and antral parts separation exerted an opposite effect. The data obtained suggest that, along with gastrin, there is another hormonal factor facilitating the action of gastrin in the antral mucosa.

  4. Metallic ion content and damage to the DNA in oral mucosa cells patients treated dental implants.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Perrez, Francisco Parra; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Ros-Llor, Irene; LLor-Ros, Irene; Ramírez-Fernández, Piedad

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential genotoxicity of dental implants, evaluating biomarkers of DNA damage (micronuclei and/or nuclear buds), cytokinetic defects (binucleated cells) and the presence of trace metals in gingival cells of patients with implants, comparing these with a control group. A total of 60 healthy adults (30 patients with dental implants and 30 control patients without) were included in the study. Medical and dental histories were made for each including life-style factors. Genotoxicity effects were assessed by micronucleus assays in the gingival epithelial cells of each patient; 1,000 epithelial cells were analyzed, evaluating the frequency of micronucleated cells and other nuclear anomalies. The concentration of metals (Al(27), Ag(107), Co (59), Cr (52), Cu(63), Fe(56), Sn(118), Mn(55), Mo(92), Ni(60), Pb(208), Ti(47)) were assayed by means of coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The frequency of micronuclei in the patient group with implants was higher than in the control group but without statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Similar results were found for binucleated cells and nuclear buds (P > 0.05). For metals assayed by ICP-MS, significant differences were found for Ti(47) (P ≤ 0.045). Univariate analysis identified a significant association between the presence of micronuclei and age. Dental implants do not induce DNA damage in gingival cells, the slight effects observed cannot be indicated as biologically relevant.

  5. Paraffinoma of lips and oral mucosa: Case report and brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Zustin, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial application of paraffin in plastic and reconstructive surgery is obsolete due to the development of permanent and extensive foreign body granulomas at the site of application. These granulomas can cause severe physical impairment and develop their own prognostic worth. Furthermore, the disperse oil droplets are not a locally stable suspension. Therefore, the desired aesthetic aspect can get lost in the course of a potential dislocation of the suspension. In addition, the interstitial confluence of non-resorbable droplets to larger oil drops causes palpable and sometimes visible indurations of the skin, the correlate of chronic inflammation. This case report describes the efforts undertaken to release the patient at least temporarily from her paraffin granulomas and to improve her appearance. The relevant literature is briefly discussed. Furthermore, we present some immunohistochemical findings to specify the foreign body reaction associated with paraffin injections into connective tissues. PMID:26504716

  6. Verrucous carcinoma, hyperplasia and leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: a clinico-histopathological and histometric study.

    PubMed

    Keszler, A; Gutierrez, R; Dominguez, F V

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen cases of verrucous leucoplakia (VL), 3 of verrucous hyperplasia (VH) and 19 of verrucous carcinoma (VC) were evaluated by means of 4 clinical features, 12 microscopic parameters and 6 epithelial histometric measurements. No significant clinical differences were detected, but histologic data showed that orthokeratinization was more frequent in VL and VH, while parakeratinization proved more common in VC. Sharp epithelial projections predominated in all three lesion types, though lymphoplasmatic infiltration and Russell bodies were more frequent in VH. Histometrically, there were statistical differences between VL or VH vs VC in three parameters, namely connective tissue-epithelial interface (Ice), epithelial height (He) and connective tissue-epithelial interface plus verrucous epithelial surface (Ice + Sve). To conclude, in this series, VH failed to exhibit significant clinical or histologic differences vs VL or VC, but histometric analysis was able to detect epithelial differences between both premalignant lesions and VC.

  7. [Role of keratynocytes in preservation of oral mucosa epithelium integrity. Part II].

    PubMed

    Joanna, Zarzecka; Zapała, Jan; Drukała, Justyna

    2005-01-01

    The keratinocytes participate in all wound healing phases indirectly (secretion of polypeptide growth factors and enzymes) or directly (reepithelialization). In vitro culturing, and clinical application of keratinocytes in facilitating the process of wound healing have been the aim of many studies. The proliferation index of epithelial keratinocytes is higher than of those from the epidermis, in vitro epithelial cell differentiation is relatively slow and due to culturing it is possible to get an adequate quantity of material for transplantation procedure. A new method of culturing (an enzymatic method of cell isolation, serum free, and without feeder layer-mice's fibroblasts 3T3-method of culturing) allows to obtain epithelial cells with density required for transplantation in 10 days. The clinical application of Keratinocytes in Fibrin Glue Suspension (KFGS) on the wounded tissue allows to reinforce healing properties of both constituents (cells and fibrin matrix). Authors described two cases of KFGS application i.e.: in widening of attached gingiva, and in covering the wounded area after the excision of granuloma (granuloma fissuratum).

  8. Autologous Fat Grafting in the Treatment of Painful Postsurgical Scar of the Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lisa, Andrea; Summo, Valeria; Bandi, Valeria; Maione, Luca; Murolo, Matteo; Klinger, Francesco; Klinger, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background. Persistent pain as a consequence of surgical treatment has been reported for several common surgical procedures and represents a clinical problem of great magnitude. Material and Methods. We describe the case of a 47-year-old female who presented a retractile scar that adhered to deep planes at the upper right of the vestibule due to surgical removal of maxillary exostosis, which determined important pain symptoms extending till the right shoulder during both chewing and rest. We subsequently treated her with autologous fat grafting according to Coleman's technique. Results. Clinical assessments were performed at 5 and 14 days, 1, 3, and 6 months, and 1 year after surgical procedure. We observed a progressive release of scar retraction together with an important improvement of pain symptoms. Conclusion. The case described widens the possible application of autologous fat grafting on a new anatomical site as buccal vestibule and in one specific clinical setting confirming its promising biological effects.

  9. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  10. Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children.

    PubMed

    Rioboo-Crespo, Maria del Rosario; Planells-del Pozo, Paloma; Rioboo-García, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of finding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a wide variability in the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in different regions of the world and have led researchers to draw disparate conclusions. Moreover, studies have not been designed using standard criteria, further explaining the wide variability in the percentage of different groups of children with oral lesions, which ranges from 4.1 to 52.6%. The lesions most frequently considered by authors and that most often appear in the different studies are: recurrent aphthous stomatitis (0.9-10.8%), labial herpes (0.78-5.2%), fissured tongue (1.49-23%), geographic tongue (0.60-9.8%), oral candidiasis (0.01-37%) and traumatic injury (0.09%-22.15%). Dentists must be able to detect any of the numerous possible disorders and perform the correct differential diagnosis, key to the treatment plan. The aim of this paper, based on a review of the different national and international studies, is to contribute data on the most important oral mucosal diseases in the paediatric population in terms of prevalence and differential diagnosis.

  11. Examining smoking-induced differential gene expression changes in buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene expression changes resulting from conditions such as disease, environmental stimuli, and drug use, can be monitored in the blood. However, a less invasive method of sample collection is of interest because of the discomfort and specialized personnel necessary for blood sampling especially if multiple samples are being collected. Buccal mucosa cells are easily collected and may be an alternative sample material for biomarker testing. A limited number of studies, primarily in the smoker/oral cancer literature, address this tissue's efficacy as an RNA source for expression analysis. The current study was undertaken to determine if total RNA isolated from buccal mucosa could be used as an alternative tissue source to assay relative gene expression. Methods Total RNA was isolated from swabs, reverse transcribed and amplified. The amplified cDNA was used in RT-qPCR and microarray analyses to evaluate gene expression in buccal cells. Initially, RT-qPCR was used to assess relative transcript levels of four genes from whole blood and buccal cells collected from the same seven individuals, concurrently. Second, buccal cell RNA was used for microarray-based differential gene expression studies by comparing gene expression between a group of female smokers and nonsmokers. Results An amplification protocol allowed use of less buccal cell total RNA (50 ng) than had be