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Sample records for oral mucosa mouse

  1. Immunobiology of the oral mucosa in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, N; Néron, S; Mourad, W

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of immunoglobulin (Ig)-synthesizing cells, Thy 1-positive cells and macrophages in the murine oral mucosa was investigated. Immunofluorescence studies of frozen tissue sections showed that IgA-, IgM- and IgG-containing cells and Thy 1-bearing cells were closely associated with the minor salivary glands. A quantitative analysis was then undertaken using single cell suspensions of the tissue. After mechanical disruption or enzymatic digestion of the mucosa, lymphoid cells were recovered almost exclusively from the mucosa of the posterior soft palate where we observed a dense accumulation of minor salivary glands. Thy 1-bearing cells were found at a higher frequency (25% of recovered cells) than membrane Ig-positive B lymphocytes (6-7%) in these suspensions. Cytoplasmic Ig+ cells accounted for about 6% of recovered cells, whereas plaque-forming cells (Ig-secreting cells) occurred at the same frequency as in the spleen (0.1%). Plasma cells of the IgA and IgM isotypes predominated over IgG-secreting cells (A:M:G ratio = 1:1:0.2); this distribution did not directly correlate with the isotype distribution of salivary Igs (A:M:G ratio = 1:0.003:0.07). In addition, about 10-14% of the cells in our preparations were esterase-positive mononuclear cells. Present data indicate that the murine oral mucosa contains both effector and regulatory cells required for the development and expression of local antibody responses. Images Figure 1 PMID:2862103

  2. Apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following oral administration of fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mohammadghasemi, Fahimeh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamyabi-moghaddam, Zahra; Tavassoli, Abbas; Amini-najafi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Fumonisins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins, which contaminate the grains and their products. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and proliferative activity of mouse gastric mucosa following administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine female mice divided into treatment (n=15) and control (n=14) groups. The treatment group received FB1 (150 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks. The gastric atrophy was allocated using grading criteria modeled on the updated Sydney System. Immunohistochemistry studies were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and proliferative activity in gastric mucosa. Results: Mild to moderate gastric atrophy were observed in microscopic findings of the gastric mucosa in treated animals (P<0.05). Number of parietal cells significantly decreased in the treatment group in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Treatment with FB1 for 16 weeks significantly reduced both gastric mucosa height and mitotic index in the gastric glands (P<0.05). TUNEL- and Bax-labeled positive cell numbers significantly increased in the FB1-treated group compared to the control (P<0.05). In addition, proliferative activity of gastric glands in the treated group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Oral administration of FB1 caused atrophy in gastric mucosa both via increasing of apoptosis and suppressing the mitotic activity of these cells. PMID:25810870

  3. Histochemical localisation of carboxylesterase activity in rat and mouse oral cavity mucosa.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Darren A; Bogdanffy, Matthew S; Reed, Celia J

    2002-12-01

    Vinyl acetate (VA) is widely used within the chemical industry, in the manufacture of polyvinyl alcohol, and as polyvinyl acetate emulsions in latex paints, adhesives, paper and paper board coatings. Chronic oral exposure of rodents to high concentrations of VA induces tumours within the oral cavity. Carboxylesterase-dependent hydrolysis of VA is thought to be critical in the development of nasal tumours following inhalation exposure of animals to VA. Therefore, carboxylesterase activity was determined histochemically in the oral cavities of male F344 rats and BDF mice in order to explore the potential role of carboxylesterase-dependent hydrolysis of VA in the development of oral tumours. Following fixation in 10% neutral buffered formalin heads were decalcified in neutral saturated EDTA, embedded in resin, sectioned at six levels (three each for the upper and lower jaws), and carboxylesterase activity revealed in the tissue using alpha-naphthyl butyrate as substrate. The localisation of carboxylesterase activity in freshly dissected rat oral tissue was compared to that of the resin sections and found to be identical, thus validating the decalcification process. A similar pattern of carboxylesterase activity was observed for the two species. Staining was low in areas surrounding the teeth, and medium/high in the buccal mucosa, the central/posterior upper palate and those regions of the lower jaw not proximal to the teeth. In general the intensity of staining was greater in sections from the rat compared to those from the mouse. By comparison, carboxylesterase activity was considerably higher in mouse nasal olfactory epithelium than in any of the oral tissues. Thus the mucosa of the oral cavity has the potential to hydrolyse VA to its metabolites, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, and the presence of carboxylesterases at this site is consistent with, and may be an important determining factor in, the development of oral cavity tumours following exposure to VA.

  4. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  5. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Moharamzadeh, K; Colley, H; Murdoch, C; Hearnden, V; Chai, W L; Brook, I M; Thornhill, M H; Macneil, S

    2012-07-01

    Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as cancer, Candida, and bacterial invasion have been developed as alternatives to animal models for investigation of disease phenomena, their progression, and treatment, including evaluation of drug delivery systems. The introduction of 3D oral mucosal reconstructs has had a significant impact on the approaches to biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials and oral healthcare products as well as the study of implant-soft tissue interfaces. This review article discusses the recent advances in tissue engineering and applications of tissue-engineered human oral mucosa.

  6. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  7. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chilagondanahalli, Nandini L.; Bundele, Manish M.; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic), mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type) of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision. PMID:27672465

  8. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tham, Alex C; Chilagondanahalli, Nandini L; Bundele, Manish M; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic), mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type) of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision. PMID:27672465

  9. Lipoma in oral mucosa: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Ali Tavakoli; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Khabazian, Arezu

    2010-01-01

    Lipoma is a common tumor of soft tissue. Its location on the oral mucosa is rare, representing 1% to 5% of benign oral tumors although it is the most mesenchymal tumor of the trunk and proximal por-tions of extremities. Lipoma of the oral cavity may occur in any region. The buccal mucosa, tongue, and floor of the mouth are among the common locations. The clinical presentation is typically as an asymptomatic yellowish mass. The overlying epithelium is intact, and superficial blood vessels are usually evident over the tumor. Other benign connective tissue lesions such as granular cell tumor, neurofibroma, traumatic fibroma and salivary gland lesions (mucocele and mixed tumor) might be included in differential diagnosis. We present two cases of oral lipoma in unusual locations: one in junction of soft and hard palate and the other in tongue. Both were rare in the literature.

  10. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  11. [Oral medicine 7: white lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    de Visscher, J G A M; van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P

    2013-06-01

    White lesions of the oral mucosa may be due to highly diverse disorders. Most of these disorders are benign but some may be a malignant or premalignant condition. The disease is often confined to the oral mucosa. There are also disorders which are accompanied by skin disorders or systemic diseases. Many white oral mucosa disorders have such characteristic clinical aspects that a diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds only. When the clinical diagnosis is not clear, histopathological examination is carried out. Treatment depends on the histological diagnosis. In some cases, treatment is not necessary while in other cases, treatment is not possible since an effective treatment is not available. Potentially malignant disorders are treated.

  12. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with α-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Morency, R; Laliberte, H; Delamarre, R

    1982-02-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa has been reported mainly among American Indians, Eskimos, and south Africans. Our investigation is the first among Canadian Indians and combines an epidemiological study of FEH in a Cree Indian population living in Fort Georges. P.Q., and a description of its histologic and ultrastructural features. The sample consists of 150 individuals divided into six age groups. The prevalence rate for all groups is 18.6%. Clinically the lesions are nodular, sessile, and tend to merge with the adjoining mucosa upon stretching. Histologically the hyperplasia is limited to the epithelium. E.M. shows papova-virus-like particles. Otolaryngologists' awareness of this lesion could possibly lead to its recognition on a larger scale.

  14. Human papillomavirus infection of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Garlick, J A; Taichman, L B

    1991-08-01

    This article reviews the lesions of oral mucosa that contain human papillomavirus (HPV). These HPV-associated lesions can be classified into two broad types on the basis of their biologic behavior, benign lesions and premalignant malignant or malignant lesions. Benign oral lesions include squamous cell papilloma (SCP), verruca vulgaris (VV), condyloma acuminatum (CA), and focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). Of these entities, VV, CA, and FEH demonstrate characteristic HPV-induced cytopathic effects, whereas SCP infrequently shows such changes. All of these lesions show a clear association with HPV. Premalignant and malignant oral lesions include leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. The etiologic role of HPV in these lesions is still unclear. Koilocytosis is the most common cytopathic effect seen in both groups of lesions. Even though it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between hyperplastic lesions such as SCP, VV, and CA, clinical and certain histologic features can facilitate the diagnosis. Although exceptions do exist, each of the two classes of lesions is most commonly associated with particular HPV types. The benign oral lesions are associated with HPV 2, 4, 6, 11, 13, and 32; the malignant oral lesions are associated with HPV 16 and 18. No preferential association has been demonstrated between specific HPV types and a particular oral lesion.

  15. [Oral medicine 8. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-01-01

    Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.

  16. Feasibility of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Hemar, Julie; Hasirci, Vasif; Breton, Pierre; Damour, Odile

    2012-08-01

    Oral tissue engineering aims to treat and fill tissue deficits caused by congenital defects, facial trauma, or malignant lesion surgery, as well as to study the biology of oral mucosa. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) require a large animal model to evaluate cell-based devices, including tissue-engineered oral mucosa, prior to initiating human clinical studies. Porcine oral mucosa is non-keratinized and resembles that of humans more closely than any other animal in terms of structure and composition; however, there have not been any reports on the reconstruction of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent, probably due to the difficulty to culture porcine fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3D porcine oral mucosa equivalent based on a collagen-GAG-chitosan scaffold, as well as reconstructed porcine epithelium by using an amniotic membrane as support, or without any support in form of epithelial cell sheets by using thermoresponsive culture plates. Explants technique was used for the isolation of the porcine fibroblasts and a modified fibroblast medium containing 20% fetal calf serum was used for their culture. The histological and transmission electron microscopic analyses of the resulting porcine oral mucosa models showed the presence of non-keratinized epithelia expressing keratin 13, the major differentiation marker of non-keratinized oral mucosa, in all models, and the presence of newly synthesized collagen fibers in the lamina propria equivalent of the full-thickness model, indicating the functionality of porcine fibroblasts. PMID:22309108

  17. [Oral status and oral mucosa blood circulation changes in patients with chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, L Iu; Rybakova, M G; Barmasheva, A A; Kuznetsova, I A; Semernin, E N; Shirshova, N A; Shliakhto, E V; Gudkova, A Ia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize dental status and oral mucosa blood flow in patients with chronic heart failure and amyloid deposits in oral mucosa. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of 80 oral mucosa biopsies taken from patients aged 32-72 years with chronic heart failure I-IV NYHA functional class was carried out. It detected a systemic amyloidosis in 15.7% of cases; a local amyloid deposition in oral mucosa was found in 58.5% of cases. Amyloid deposition in oral mucosa was associated with severe chronic generalized periodontitis in more than a half of cases. Amyloid deposits in oral mucosa were revealed more often in patients with metabolic syndrome (63.5%). The article describes dental status and oral mucosa blood flow in patients with heart failure.

  18. Viscoelasticity of human oral mucosa: implications for masticatory biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sawada, A; Wakabayashi, N; Ona, M; Suzuki, T

    2011-05-01

    The dynamic behavior of oral soft tissues supporting removable prostheses is not well understood. We hypothesized that the stress and strain of the mucosa exhibited time-dependent behavior under masticatory loadings. Displacement of the mucosa on the maxillary residual ridge was measured in vivo by means of a magnetic actuator/sensor under vertical loading in partially edentulous individuals. Subject-specific finite element models of homogeneous bone and mucosa were constructed based on computed tomography images. A mean initial elastic modulus of 8.0 × 10(-5) GPa and relaxation time of 494 sec were obtained from the curve adaptation of the finite element output to the in vivo time-displacement relationship. Delayed increase of the maximum compressive strain on the surface of the mucosa was observed under sustained load, while the maximum strain inside the mucosa was relatively low and uninfluenced by the duration of the load. The compressive stress showed a slight decrease with sustained load, due to stress relaxation of the mucosa. On simulation of cyclic load, the increment of the maximum strain and the evidence of residual strain were revealed after each loading. The results support our hypothesis, and suggest that sustained and repetitive loads accumulate as surface strain on the mucosa.

  19. Cellular neurothekeoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Suhr, M

    2001-12-01

    Cellular neurothekeoma is an unusual benign neoplasm which, despite its name, is of uncertain origin. This report describes a cellular neurothekeoma of the cheek mucosa, the first at this site. The tumour presented in a 29-year-old man as a discrete mucosal thickening. Histology showed a generally well circumscribed, but unencapsulated, solid tumour which replaced the entire lamina propria and permeated between minor salivary glands and bundles of striated muscle in the submucosa. There was a sub-epithelial Grenz zone. The tumour was composed of nodules of pale, epithelioid cells separated by fascicles of spindle cells, with smaller strands and nests superficially. The nuclei were vesicular and, though mainly bland, occasionally atypical. The stroma was moderately infiltrated by mixed chronic inflammatory cells. Prominent nerves and blood vessels were seen at the periphery of the lesion, and neoplastic cells were noted within intact striated muscle fascicles. With immunohistochemistry, all the neoplastic cells strongly expressed NKI/C3, synaptophysin, neurone-specific enolase and vimentin, some expressed smooth muscle actin and PGP 9.5, but all were negative for S100, factor XIIIa, CD34, CD56, CD57, CD68, chromogranin A, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen and von Willebrand factor. The origin of the lesion is thus speculative. It was, however, completely excised and in 12 months there has been no recurrence.

  20. Immunohistochemistry of lymphocytes in benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, S-X; Li, Q; Yang, Y-Q; Jin, L-J; Sun, Z; Yu, S-F

    2015-01-01

    Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM) is a common oral mucosa disease and may be regarded as a precancerous lesion. However, the association between its biological behavior and lymphocyte distribution remains unclear. Therefore, to investigate the characteristics of BLOM, we studied the infiltration of lymphocytes associated with it. The expression levels of CD74, CD20, CD3, and CD45RO were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in 14 sam-ples from BLOM, 9 samples from BLOM with atypia hyperplasia, 11 samples from BLOM with canceration, and 10 samples from normal oral mucosa tissues. The results were analyzed by two-sample t-test using SPSS 10.0 for Windows, and P < 0.05 was considered to be sig-nificant. In normal oral mucosa, positive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO were presented in the extra-lymphoid follicle, and the expres-sion levels of CD74 and CD20 were negative. In all BLOM groups, the expression level of CD20 was positive except for one case of BLOM with canceration; the expression levels of CD74 were all positive. Posi-tive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO could be found not only in extra-lymphoid follicles but also in inner-lymphoid follicles in the BLOM groups. The expression levels of CD74 and CD20 in extra-lym-phoid follicles, and CD3 and CD45RO in inner-lymphoid follicles in BLOM were significantly higher than in BLOM with canceration. The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and BLOM is a proliferative lesion.

  1. Raman microspectroscopic study of oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Mamgain, Hitesh; Deshmukh, Atul; Kukreja, Lekha; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among Indian males, with 5-year- survival-rates of less than 50%. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopic methods in non-invasive and objective diagnosis of oral cancers and confounding factors has already been demonstrated. The present Raman microspectroscopic study was undertaken for in-depth and site-specific analysis of normal and tumor tissues. 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained sections from 20 tissues were accrued. Raman data of 160 x 60 μm and 140 x 140 μm in normal and tumor sections, respectively, were acquired using WITec alpha 300R equipped with 532 nm laser, 50X objective and 600 gr/mm grating. Spectral data were corrected for CCDresponse, background. First-derivitized and vector-normalized data were then subjected to K-mean cluster analysis to generate Raman maps and correlated with their respective histopathology. In normal sections, stratification among epithelial layers i.e. basal, intermediate, superficial was observed. Tumor, stromal and inflammatory regions were identified in case of tumor section. Extracted spectra of the pathologically annotated regions were subjected to Principal component analysis. Findings suggest that all three layers of normal epithelium can be differentiated against tumor cells. In epithelium, basal and superficial layers can be separated while intermediate layer show misclassifications. In tumors, discrimination of inflammatory regions from tumor cells and tumor-stroma regions were observed. Finding of the study indicate Raman mapping can lead to molecular level insights of normal and pathological states.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of EMLA cream 5% application to oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vickers, E R; Marzbani, N; Gerzina, T M; McLean, C; Punnia-Moorthy, A; Mather, L

    1997-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine were measured following the application of a 5% eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream to the oral mucosa of twelve subjects. For each subject, a total of 8 g of EMLA was occluded to 18 cm2 of buccal mucosa for 30 min. Analysis was carried out by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and results showed peak concentrations at 40 min for lidocaine and prilocaine. The maximum concentration measured in any subject was 418 ng/ml for lidocaine and 223 ng/ml for prilocaine, well below known toxic levels. No adverse local effects were observed from a 30-min application of EMLA. A follow-up pilot study assessing the clinical efficacy of EMLA for achieving sufficient analgesia for restorative procedures showed that the cream was successful in 75% of subjects tested.

  3. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis.

  4. A novel method for delineation of oral mucosa for radiotherapy dose–response studies

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jamie A.; Welsh, Liam C.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no standard method for delineating the oral mucosa and most attempts are oversimplified. A new method to obtain anatomically accurate contours of the oral mucosa surfaces was developed and applied to 11 patients. This is expected to represent an opportunity for improved toxicity modelling of oral mucositis. PMID:25779721

  5. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  6. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  7. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  8. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  9. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  10. The effect of cola consumption on oral mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapicloğlu, S; Baki, A H; Tekelioğlu, Y; Araz, K

    2000-01-01

    Drinks that contain phosphoric acid have been shown to have erosive effects and cola drinks are strongly acidic (pH 2.5). Gingivitis may be caused by dietary acids. Therefore, this study analyses the interaction of Coca Cola consumption and oral mucosal damage. Thirty rats were divided into three groups of 10. The animals received saline (pH 7.0) or HCl acid buffered to pH 2.6 or Coca Cola (pH 2.6) per os with 24-h free access to these solutions. A biopsy was taken from the front of the gingiva and the tongue. Histopathological analysis showed no specific lesion and there were no differences among saline, Coca Cola and HCl groups. Flow cytometric analysis was used to assess proliferative activity. In the HCl acid and Coca Cola groups, cell cycle analysis showed that the effects of Coca Cola and HCl acid in inducing oral mucosal damage are similar. In both Coca Cola [G0/G1, 70.38+/-7.9; S, 28.06+/-10.13; G2/M, 1.62+/-2.80; proliferative index (PI), 28.68+/-7.981 and HCI (G0/G1, 67.7+/-18.9; S, 27.8+/-17.5; G2/M, 4.4+/-3.8; PI, 30.9+/-20.98), the rat cell population G0/G1 and G2/M phases were found to be low (p < 0.05) and the cell population S and PI phases were found to be significantly elevated compared with the control group (p < 0.05) (G0/G1, 86.92+/-8.69; S, 9.8+/-1.21; G2/M, 3.25+/-2.87; P1, 13.2+/-8.7). This result was reflected in the proliferative index, which is used as a measure of the regeneration index. The data show that Coca Cola and HCl acid have similar proliferative and regenerative effects on oral mucosa, and it is possible that their regenerative effects are caused as a result of an irritant effect.

  11. Screening for Intestinal Microflora Influencing Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Mouse Cecal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    DOBASHI, Yuu; ITOH, Kikuji; TOHEI, Atsushi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have suggested that intestinal microflora reduces the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mouse cecal mucosa. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were used to examine the species of intestinal microflora influencing SOD activity in the cecal mucosa. The total SOD activity in the cecal mucosa of each germ-free (GF), gnotobiotic mouse with Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was significantly higher than that in the cecal mucosa of gnotobiotic mice with chloroform-treated feces (CHF), conventionalized (CVz) mice and conventional (CV) mice (P<0.05). In addition, CuZnSOD mRNA expression showed similar tendencies. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in the cecal mucosa is influenced by CHF inoculation. PMID:24225363

  12. [The study of HPV prevalence in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

    2007-10-01

    Mucosal infection with high-risk human papiloma virus(HPV) types 16 and 18 is the cause of cervical cancer and might be a subset of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), yet the prevalence and type distribution of HPV in oral SCC remained unclear. We systematically reviewed published studies of OSCC biopsies, which were employed to detect and genotype HPV through different methods. The aim of this investigation is to carry out a bibliographic review on the prevalence of HPV in OSCC and normal oral mucosa. Supported by Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.30630065), Key Lab Project of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No.06DZ22026) and Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Grant No. Y0203).

  13. Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

  14. [Generation of a substitute for human oral mucosa and verification of its viability by tissue-engineering].

    PubMed

    Marañés Gálvez, C; Liceras Liceras, E; Alaminos, M; Fernández Valadés, R; Ruiz Montes, A M; Garzón, I; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Campos, A

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of large oral mucosa defects is often challenging, since the shortage of healthy oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues. This way, tissue ingineering techniques may provide a source of autologous tissues available for transplant in these patients. In this work, we have developed a new model for artificial oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering using a fibrin-agarosa scaffold. For that purpose, we have generated primary cultures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts and keratinocytes from small biopsies of normal mucosa oral using enzymatic treatments. Then, we have determined the viability of cultured cells by electron probe quantitative X-ray microanalysis, and we have demonstrated that most of the cells in the primary cultures were alive and hd high K/Na ratios. Once cell viability was determined, we used cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes to develop an artificial oral mucosa construct by using a fibrin-agarosa extracellular matrix and a sequential culture technique using porous culture inserts. Histological analysis of the artificial tissues showed high similarities with normal oral mucosa controls. The epithelium of the oral substitutes had several layers, with desmosomes and apical microvilli and microplicae. Both the controls and de oral mucosa substitutes showed high suprabasal expression of cytokeratin 13 and low expression of cytokeratin 10. All these results suggest that our model of oral mucosa using fibrin-agarose scaffolds show several similarities with native human oral mucosa.

  15. Collagen fibril arrangement and size distribution in monkey oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    OTTANI, V.; FRANCHI, M.; DE PASQUALE, V.; LEONARDI, L.; MOROCUTTI, M.; RUGGERI, A.

    1998-01-01

    Collagen fibre organisation and fibril size were studied in the buccal gingival and hard palate mucosa of Macacus rhesus monkey. Light and electron microscopy analysis showed connective papillae exhibiting a similar inner structure in the different areas examined, but varying in distribution, shape and size. Moving from the deep to surface layers of the buccal gingival mucosa (free and attached portions), large collagen fibril bundles became smaller and progressively more wavy with decreasing collagen fibril diameter. This gradual diameter decrease did not occur in the hard palate mucosa (free portion, rugae and interrugal regions) where the fibril diameter remained constant. A link between collagen fibril diameter and mechanical function is discussed. PMID:9688498

  16. Effects of Glyprolines on DNA Synthesis and Free Radical Oxidation in Mouse Gastric Mucosa Under Physiological Conditions and During Therapy with Oral Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, M Yu; Tolstenok, I V; Lebed'ko, O A; Andreeva, L A; Myasoedov, N F; Timoshin, S S

    2015-08-01

    Studies by (3)H-thymidin autoradiography showed that injections of Pro-Gly-Pro and Arg-Gly-Pro peptides caused no changes in the DNA synthesis processes in the gastric mucosa. Both peptides induced a reduction of free radical oxidation activity, which was shown by chemiluminescence. Indomethacin induced lesions in the gastric mucosa, triggered oxidative stress, and reduced proliferative activity. Injection of Pro-Gly-Pro peptide before indomethacin corrected disorders in oxidative status and normalized DNA synthesis. Preinjection of Arg-Gly-Pro led to enlargement (by 4.6 times) of the focus of lesions in animals treated by indomethacin and augmented oxidative stress.

  17. Effects of Glyprolines on DNA Synthesis and Free Radical Oxidation in Mouse Gastric Mucosa Under Physiological Conditions and During Therapy with Oral Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, M Yu; Tolstenok, I V; Lebed'ko, O A; Andreeva, L A; Myasoedov, N F; Timoshin, S S

    2015-08-01

    Studies by (3)H-thymidin autoradiography showed that injections of Pro-Gly-Pro and Arg-Gly-Pro peptides caused no changes in the DNA synthesis processes in the gastric mucosa. Both peptides induced a reduction of free radical oxidation activity, which was shown by chemiluminescence. Indomethacin induced lesions in the gastric mucosa, triggered oxidative stress, and reduced proliferative activity. Injection of Pro-Gly-Pro peptide before indomethacin corrected disorders in oxidative status and normalized DNA synthesis. Preinjection of Arg-Gly-Pro led to enlargement (by 4.6 times) of the focus of lesions in animals treated by indomethacin and augmented oxidative stress. PMID:26388565

  18. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Raghu; Ranganathan, K.; Kondaiah, Paturu; Devi, R. Uma; Joshua, Elizabeth; Saraswathi, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based research work. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. Results: HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. Conclusion: The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies. PMID:26097346

  19. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukahori, Mioko; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Monden, Yu; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls). Methods A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed. Results A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site. Conclusion The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds. PMID:26730600

  20. Mapping Electrical Impedance Spectra of the Healthy Oral Mucosa: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Ivica; Alajbeg, Ivan; Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Rogulj, Ana Andabak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electrical impedance is the resistance to the electric current flow through a tissue and depends on the tissue’s structure and chemical composition. The aim of this study was to map electrical impedance spectra for each region of the healthy oral mucosa. Materials and Methods Electrical impedance was measured in 30 participants with healthy oral mucosa. Measurements were performed in 14 points on the right and the left side of the oral cavity, and repeated after 7 and 14 days respectively. Results The lowest values were measured on the tongue dorsum and the highest values were measured on the hard palate. No significant differences were found between the right and the left side. Significantly higher values were found in females on the upper labial mucosa, tongue dorsum and the ventral tongue. Significant difference between smokers and non-smokers on the lower labial mucosa and floor of the mouth was found. Electrical impedance was negatively correlated with salivary flow on the upper labial mucosa, hard palate, tongue dorsum and sublingual mucosa. Higher variability of measurements was found at low frequencies. Conclusions Electrical impedance mostly depends on the degree of mucosal keratinization. Demographic and clinical factors probably affect its values. Further studies with bigger number of participants are required. PMID:27688418

  1. Mapping Electrical Impedance Spectra of the Healthy Oral Mucosa: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Ivica; Alajbeg, Ivan; Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Rogulj, Ana Andabak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electrical impedance is the resistance to the electric current flow through a tissue and depends on the tissue’s structure and chemical composition. The aim of this study was to map electrical impedance spectra for each region of the healthy oral mucosa. Materials and Methods Electrical impedance was measured in 30 participants with healthy oral mucosa. Measurements were performed in 14 points on the right and the left side of the oral cavity, and repeated after 7 and 14 days respectively. Results The lowest values were measured on the tongue dorsum and the highest values were measured on the hard palate. No significant differences were found between the right and the left side. Significantly higher values were found in females on the upper labial mucosa, tongue dorsum and the ventral tongue. Significant difference between smokers and non-smokers on the lower labial mucosa and floor of the mouth was found. Electrical impedance was negatively correlated with salivary flow on the upper labial mucosa, hard palate, tongue dorsum and sublingual mucosa. Higher variability of measurements was found at low frequencies. Conclusions Electrical impedance mostly depends on the degree of mucosal keratinization. Demographic and clinical factors probably affect its values. Further studies with bigger number of participants are required.

  2. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  3. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  4. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  5. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion.

  6. IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Altmeier, Simon; Toska, Albulena; Sparber, Florian; Teijeira, Alvaro; Halin, Cornelia; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2016-09-01

    Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. We demonstrate that both the recruitment of circulating neutrophils to the site of infection and the mobilization of newly generated neutrophils from the bone marrow depended on IL-1R. Consistently, IL-1R-deficient mice displayed impaired chemokine production at the site of infection and defective secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the circulation in response to C. albicans. Strikingly, endothelial cells were identified as the primary cellular source of G-CSF during OPC, which responded to IL-1α that was released from keratinocytes in the infected tissue. The IL-1-dependent crosstalk between two different cellular subsets of the nonhematopoietic compartment was confirmed in vitro using a novel murine tongue-derived keratinocyte cell line and an established endothelial cell line. These data establish a new link between IL-1 and granulopoiesis in the context of fungal infection. Together, we identified two complementary mechanisms coordinating the neutrophil response in the oral mucosa, which is critical for preventing fungal growth and dissemination, and thus protects the host from disease. PMID:27632536

  7. IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Altmeier, Simon; Toska, Albulena; Sparber, Florian; Teijeira, Alvaro; Halin, Cornelia; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. We demonstrate that both the recruitment of circulating neutrophils to the site of infection and the mobilization of newly generated neutrophils from the bone marrow depended on IL-1R. Consistently, IL-1R-deficient mice displayed impaired chemokine production at the site of infection and defective secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the circulation in response to C. albicans. Strikingly, endothelial cells were identified as the primary cellular source of G-CSF during OPC, which responded to IL-1α that was released from keratinocytes in the infected tissue. The IL-1-dependent crosstalk between two different cellular subsets of the nonhematopoietic compartment was confirmed in vitro using a novel murine tongue-derived keratinocyte cell line and an established endothelial cell line. These data establish a new link between IL-1 and granulopoiesis in the context of fungal infection. Together, we identified two complementary mechanisms coordinating the neutrophil response in the oral mucosa, which is critical for preventing fungal growth and dissemination, and thus protects the host from disease. PMID:27632536

  8. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  9. Elastofibromatous Changes and Hyperelastosis of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tosios, Konstantinos I.; Economou, Ioanna; Vasilopoulos, Nektarios-Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Three cases of abnormalities of elastic fibers, two of them on the floor of the mouth and one on the lingual alveolar mucosa, close to the floor of the mouth, in a patient with history of homolateral squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth, are presented. Comparison with elastofibromatous changes and elastofibromas are made and their possible pathogenesis is discussed. It is suggested that increased awareness may facilitate recognition of such lesions as they can be easily overlooked, especially when they do not present as discrete tumors or they are associated with other “more significant” pathologic processes. PMID:20237986

  10. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells from car painters.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Victor Hugo; Gomes de Moura, Carolina Foot; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Célia; Araki Ribeiro, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage and cellular death in exfoliated oral mucosa cells and peripheral blood from car painters. A total of 24 car painters and 19 healthy controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mucosa (left and right side) mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the specific nuclear phenotypes. A total of 5 μL from peripheral blood was collected for the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results pointed out statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from car painters. In addition, DNA damage was detected in peripheral blood cells by single cell gel (comet) assay. Nevertheless, exposure to car paints did not cause increases other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karrhyorexis, pyknosis and karyolysis in buccal mucosa cells. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that car painters comprise a high risk group since paints can induce genotoxic and mutagenic effects in peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells, respectively.

  11. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  12. Genotoxicity of inorganic arsenic exposure: Micronuclei frequencies in exfoliated human oral mucosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsebatt, M.E.; Guzman, P.; Salazar, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    Micronuclei (MN) can be formed by acentric chromosome fragments or whole lagging chromosomes. When used in vivo, this assay can potentially detect the clastogenic effect of an exposure. MN are easier to score than chromosome aberrations although both biomarkers of effect are useful tools in risk estimation. We investigated the frequency of MN in exfoliated cells from the oral mucosa in 25-30 volunteers lifetime exposed to approximately 400 {mu}g/L of arsenic in their drinking water. A group of individuals with similar composition with respect to sex, age, and socioeconomic status, but with As levels in the drinking water between 29-32 {mu}g/L, was used as controls. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and by determining the levels of arsenic in urine and water samples. Oral mucosa cells were collected scraping the mucosa with a premoistened wooden spatula and smeared on microscope slides. Feulgen stained samples were scored blind on slides. The frequency of MN in oral mucosa cells was 0.05% in controls and 0.25% in exposed individuals. Exposed males showed higher frequencies of MN than exposed females. Smoking habits did not account for the observed differences. These results demonstrate that buccal mucosa cells are a target tissue in inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water. Several studies have also reported elevated frequencies of MN in oral mucosa cells from individuals exposed to substances or factors associated with increased cancer risk, which makes this non-invasive technique appropriate and sensitive to monitor human exposure to carcinogens such as inorganic arsenic.

  13. Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. T.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jin, H. L.; Chang, F. Y.; Hu, K. Y.; Wu, C. P.; Chiang, C. P.; Yang, C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for noninvasive, real-time oral cancer diagnosis. However, in previous reports, OCT has still been found to be difficult to use in the diagnosis of oral precancerous stages, including mild dysplasia and moderate dysplasia. In clinical applications, early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer can greatly improve the survival rate. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new approach to differentiate the oral precancerous stages based on the evaluation of the optical scattering properties of the epithelial layer, which is where the dysplastic cells start to develop in the precancerous stages. Instead of using exponential decay fitting to evaluate the scattering properties of mucosal tissues based on the Beer-Lambert law, linear fitting of the OCT depth intensity is used to evaluate the scattering properties of normal and dysplastic cells. From the statistical results of the linear fitting, the slope, a, can be an effective indicator to discriminate healthy mucosa and moderate dysplasia when an a value equal to zero is the threshold value, and the intercept, b, can be used to differentiate healthy and dysplastic mucosae, as well as mild and moderate dysplasia, when b values of 0.15 and 0.18 are used as the threshold values, respectively. Furthermore, this approach is also applied to the determination of the safe margin between normal and abnormal mucosae, making it possible to provide real-time, in vivo inspection during oral maxillofacial surgery.

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotype frequency in the oral mucosa of newborns in Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Zappa, A; Bianchi, S; Frati, E; Colzani, D; Amendola, A; Tanzi, E

    2012-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cutaneous and mucosal infections in both adults and children. In order to evaluate HPV prevalence and the spectrum of genotypes in the oral cavity of paediatric subjects, a retrospective study was carried out on oral-pharyngeal swabs collected from 177 newborns aged 0-6 months. HPV-DNA was detected by a nested-PCR; the viral typing was made through DNA sequencing. HPV infection was identified in 25 subjects (14.1%) and the sequence analysis showed eight distinct genotypes. These data confirm HPV detection in newborn oral mucosa. Further investigations are needed to clarify the methods of HPV acquisition.

  15. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques

    PubMed Central

    kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin–like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). Conclusion: It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy. PMID:26120409

  16. Penetration of oligonucleotides into mouse organism through mucosa and skin.

    PubMed

    Vlassov, V V; Karamyshev, V N; Yakubov, L A

    1993-08-01

    Benzylamide 5'-32P-oligonucleotide derivatives were shown to penetrate into mice organism when administered by various routes; intranasally, per os, intravaginally and per rectum. In all cases, the compounds are rapidly accumulated in blood and guts. Analysis of the radioactive material from blood and pancreas revealed intact oligonucleotides. Although concentrations of oligonucleotides in tissues differ considerably by the various methods of administration, the efficiency of delivery is sufficient to consider all the routes as being of therapeutic value. Dose effect on the efficiency of oligonucleotide penetration into mice suggests the transport to be a saturable process. Application of an oligonucleotide lotion on mice ear helices results in reproducible accumulation of radioactivity in the animal tissues. Effectiveness of oligonucleotide delivery into mouse through skin can be improved by using electrophoretic procedure.

  17. Cellular Angiofibroma of Oral Mucosa: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cellular angiofibroma is a benign vascular neoplasm that typically arises in the vulva, perineal, and paratesticular region. Microscopically the lesions exhibit multiple small, non-dilated capillary channels, many of which contain erythrocytes. The endothelial lining cells are prominent, with monomorphic oval nuclei. Interposed among the vessels are both delicate and mature collagen fibers with fibroblastic hypercellularity that is variable in older lesions where sclerosis is prominent. The lesions usually do not recur following simple excision. Recent evidence indicates that cellular angiofibromas may be cytogenetically related to spindle cell lipoma. This represents the first reported instances of cellular angiofibroma in the oral cavity. PMID:19644547

  18. Two-photon autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Shilagard, Tuya; Qiu, Suimin; Vargas, Gracie

    2011-03-01

    The survival rate for individuals diagnosed with oral cancer is correlated with the stage of detection. Thus the development of novel techniques for the earliest possible detection of malignancies is of critical importance. Single photon (1P) autofluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful diagnostic tool in this regard, but 2P (two photon) spectroscopy remains essentially unexplored. In this investigation, a spectroscopic system was incorporated into a custom-built 2P laser scanning microscope. Oral cancer was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian Golden hamsters by tri-weekly topical application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA).Three separated sites where investigated in each hamster at four excitation wavelengths from 780 nm to 890 nm. A Total of 8 hamsters were investigated (4 normal and 4 DMBA treated). All investigated sites were imaged via 2p imaging, marked for biopsy, processed for histology and H&E staining, and graded by a pathologist. The in vivo emission spectrum for normal, mild/high grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma is presented. It is shown that the hamsters with various stages of dysplasia are characterized by spectral differences as a function of depth and excitation wavelength, compared to normal hamsters.

  19. Usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa model for preventing palate bone alterations in rabbits with a mucoperiostial defect.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Valadés-Gámez, Ricardo; Garzón, Ingrid; Liceras-Liceras, Esther; España-López, Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martin-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María-Ángeles; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria-Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández-Valadés, Ricardo

    2016-02-19

    The use of mucoperiostial flaps during cleft palate surgery is associated with altered palatal bone growth and development. We analyzed the potential usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa in an in vivo model of cleft palate. First, a 4 mm palate defect was created in one side of the palate oral mucosa of 3 week-old New Zealand rabbits, and a complete autologous bioengineered oral mucosa (BOM) or acellular fibrin-agarose scaffold (AS) was implanted. No material was implanted in the negative controls (NC), and positive controls were not subjected to palatal defect (PC). Animals were allowed to grow for 6 months and the results were analyzed morphologically (palate mucosa and bone size) and histologically. Results show that palatal mucosa and bone growth and development were significantly altered in NC and AS animals, whereas BOM animals had similar results to PC and the bioengineered oral mucosa was properly integrated in the host palate. The amount and compaction of collagen fibers was similar between BOM and PC, and both groups of animals had comparable contents of proteoglycans and glycoproteins at the palate bone. No differences were found for decorin, osteocalcin and BMP2. The use of bioengineered oral mucosa substitutes is able to improve palate growth and maturation by preventing the alterations found in animals with denuded palate bone. These results support the potential clinical usefulness of BOM substitutes for the treatment of patients with cleft palate and other conditions in which palate mucosa grafts are necessary with consequent bone denudation.

  20. Gene Signature of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts: Comparison with Dermal Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Keiko; Horiguchi, Taigo; Tanimura, Ayako; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucosa is a useful material for regeneration therapy with the advantages of its accessibility and versatility regardless of age and gender. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of oral mucosa. Here we report the first comparative profiles of the gene signatures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts (hOFs), human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), and hOF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hOF-iPSCs), linking these with biological roles by functional annotation and pathway analyses. As a common feature of fibroblasts, both hOFs and hDFs expressed glycolipid metabolism-related genes at higher levels compared with hOF-iPSCs. Distinct characteristics of hOFs compared with hDFs included a high expression of glycoprotein genes, involved in signaling, extracellular matrix, membrane, and receptor proteins, besides a low expression of HOX genes, the hDFs-markers. The results of the pathway analyses indicated that tissue-reconstructive, proliferative, and signaling pathways are active, whereas senescence-related genes in p53 pathway are inactive in hOFs. Furthermore, more than half of hOF-specific genes were similarly expressed to those of hOF-iPSC genes and might be controlled by WNT signaling. Our findings demonstrated that hOFs have unique cellular characteristics in specificity and plasticity. These data may provide useful insight into application of oral fibroblasts for direct reprograming.

  1. Melanoma of the oral mucosa. Clinical cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Naval-Gías, Luis; Martos, Pedro L; Nam-Cha, Syong Hyun; Rodríguez-Campo, Francisco J; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of primary melanomas of the oral mucosa is uncommon. The aggressiveness of this entity and the absence of any standardized treatment protocol make the prognostic unfortunate. The difficulty to obtain free surgical margins, the elevated tendency to invade in depth and the early haematogenous metastasis have been referred as features which may explain its bad prognosis, even in comparison with cutaneous melanoma. However, no large clinical series exist and actually, clinical cases are the main source of information. Due to the absence of any treatment modality which may substantially increase long-term survival, we suggest the use of resective surgery with wide margins and early diagnosis by means of biopsy for suspicious melanotic-pigmented lesions. In this work we present 2 new cases of primary melanoma of the oral mucosa, with a follow-up period of 72 and 12 months respectively, and we make a review of the literature in relation with this rare entity.

  2. Detection of familial adenomatous polyposis with orthogonal polarized spectroscopy of the oral mucosa vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Ali; Edelstein, Daniel L.; Graham, Jenna; Nabili, Afshin; Giardiello, Francis M.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2013-01-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of multiple colonic polyps at younger age with a near 100% lifetime risk of colorectal cancer. The determination of FAP is made after extensive clinical evaluation and genetic testing of at risk individuals. We investigated a novel spectro-polarimetric imaging system capable of capturing high-resolution images of the oral mucosa at different wavelengths in an attempt to distinguish patients with FAP from controls. Results of a clinical trial show that the system is capable of separating FAP positive individuals from controls by measuring the individuals’ oral vascular density and complexity. PMID:21922674

  3. Magnesium sulfate induced toxicity in vitro in AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells and in vivo in mouse gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xulong; Bo, Agula; Chi, Baofeng; Xia, Yuan; Su, Xiong; Sun, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate is widely used as a food additive and as an orally administered medication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity of magnesium sulfate on AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and gastric mucosa in mice. A trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine the reduction in viability of AGS cells exposed to magnesium sulfate, and then effects on cell proliferation were quantified. The role of magnesium sulfate-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in AGS cells was also investigated. mRNA expression for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was determined by RT-PCR, and secretion of these cytokines was measured by ELISA. Immunohistochemical evaluation of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression was conducted in mouse gastric mucosa. Addition of 3 to 50 mM magnesium sulfate to AGS cells inhibited both cell proliferation and cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Magnesium sulfate had little effect on production of IL-1β or IL-6 but significantly inhibited production of IL-8. The animal model demonstrated that magnesium sulfate induced production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These preliminary data suggest that magnesium sulfate had a direct effect on the stomach and initiates cytotoxicity in moderate concentrations and time periods by inhibiting viability and proliferation of AGS cells and by regulating expression and/or release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Microplicae--Specialized Surface Structure of Epithelial Cells of Wet-Surfaced Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, P; Sirviö, E; Mikkonen, J J W; Singh, S P; Schulten, E A J M; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Koistinen, A P; Kullaa, A M

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa is decorated with numerous membrane ridges, termed microplicae (MPLs). The MPL structure is typical of the epithelial surfaces that are covered with protective mucus. Cell membrane MPLs are no longer seen as passive consequences of cellular activity. The interaction between MPLs and the mucins has been demonstrated, however the role of MPL structure seen on the upper surface of the oral epithelial cells is speculative. The cell surface is of potentially great significance, as it harbors many markers for refined prognosis and targets for oral mucosal diseases and cancer therapy. With these aspects in mind, we conducted the present review of the MPL structure and function in order to form the basis for further studies of MPLs of the oral epithelial cells.

  5. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  6. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  7. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties.

  8. Theoretical Considerations and a Mathematical Model for the Analysis of the Biomechanical Response of Human Keratinized Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tsaira, Aikaterini; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Margarita; Kassavetis, Spyros; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris; Logothetidis, Stergios; Naka, Olga; Pissiotis, Argirios; Michalakis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Removable complete and partial dentures are supported by the residual alveolar ridges consisting of mucosa, submucosa, periosteum, and bone. An understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the oral mucosa is essential in order to improve the denture-bearing foundations for complete and partially edentulous patients. The purpose of this paper was to examine the biomechanical behavior of the soft tissues supporting a removable denture and develop a model for that reason. Keratinized oral mucosa blocks with their underlying bone were harvested from the maxillary palatal area adjacent to the edentulous ridges of a cadaver. The compressive response of the oral mucosa was tested by using atomic force microscopy. The specimens were first scanned in order their topography to be obtained. The mechanical properties of the specimens were tested using a single crystal silicon pyramidal tip, which traversed toward the keratinized oral mucosa specimens. Loading-unloading cycles were registered and four mathematical models were tested using MATLAB to note which one approximates the force-displacement curve as close as possible: a. spherical, b. conical, c. third order polynomial, d. Murphy (fourth order polynomial, non-linear Hertzian based). The third order polynomial model showed the best accuracy in representing the force-displacement data of the tested specimens. A model was developed in order to analyze the biomechanical behavior of the human oral keratinized mucosa and obtain information about its mechanical properties. PMID:27621708

  9. [Use of "functional tooth paste," made with nanotechnology, in the treatment of oral mucosa diseases].

    PubMed

    Szabó, György; Németh, Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    The authors report their experience connected with the introduction of "functional toothpaste" in Hungary. This cream (gel), prepared with nanotechnology, contains vitamins C and E, propolis and various herb extracts. It is manufactured in South Korea and is commercially available in the USA, among others. It protects the gingiva, and its use is recommended in cases of diseases of the oral mucosa. The experience in Hungary indicates that it is well applicable after surgery in the oral cavity (it promotes wound healing), in cases involving processes in the oral cavity that heal with difficulty, and during the healing of burn wounds (e.g. after laser surgery). In view of the favourable experience, its distribution in Hungary can be recommended.

  10. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kędra, Bożena; Chomczyk, Monika; Złotkowski, Marcin; Stokowska, Wanda; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bicz, Mieczysław; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Czajka, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech; Zimnoch, Lech; Kędra, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:23042267

  11. Ex vivo and in vivo modulatory effects of umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells on human oral mucosa stroma substitutes.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; González-Andrades, E; Jaimes-Parra, B D; Fernández-Valadés, R; Campos, A; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Alaminos, M; Garzón, I

    2015-11-01

    Novel oral mucosa substitutes have been developed in the laboratory using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells -HWJSC- as an alternative cell source. In the present work, we have generated human oral mucosa substitutes with oral mucosa keratinocytes and HWJSC to determine the influence of these cell sources on stromal differentiation. First, acellular and cellular stroma substitutes and bilayered oral mucosa substitutes with an epithelial layer consisting of oral mucosa keratinocytes -OM samples- or HWJSC -hOM- were generated. Then, tissues were analyzed by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to quantify all major extracellular matrix components after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of ex vivo development, and OM and hOM were also analyzed after in vivo grafting. The results showed that bioengineered oral mucosa stromas displayed an adequate fibrillar mesh. Synthesis of abundant collagen fibers was detected in OM and hOM after 3 weeks, and in vivo grafting resulted in an increased collagen synthesis. No elastic or reticular fibers were found. Glycoprotein synthesis was found at the epithelial-stromal layer when samples were grafted in vivo. Finally, proteoglycans, decorin, versican and aggrecan were strongly dependent on the in vivo environment and the presence of a well-structured epithelium on top. The use of HWJSC was associated to an increased synthesis of versican. These results confirm the usefulness of fibrin-agarose biomaterials for the generation of an efficient human oral mucosa stroma substitute and the importance of the in vivo environment and the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction for the adequate differentiation of the bioengineered stroma.

  12. Innate tissue fluorescence of the oral mucosa of controls and head-and-neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Howard E.; Kolli, Venkateswara; Ansley, John; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y.; Alfano, Robert R.; Schantz, Stimson P.

    1995-04-01

    Base line spectral excitation and emission scans were defined for the oral mucosa in a population of 61 controls, 16 oral tongue cancer patients and 2 patients with tongue leukoplakia. A xenon-based fluorescence spectrophotometer (Mediscience Corp.) with a fiberoptic probe (Mediscience Corp.) was used to collect excitation and emission spectra. Two excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm; (lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm) and two emission scans ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm; (lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360-660 nm) were used to analyze the buccal mucosa (BM), hard palate (HP), floor of mouth (FOM) and dorsal tongue (DT) of 61 control individuals. In 41 controls the lateral tongue site (LT) was added. The same set of scans was performed on tumor lesions and contralateral normal tissues of 16 patients with lateral tongue tumors and on two individuals with leukoplakia of the tongue. Ratios of points on the individual scans were used to quantitate data. The excitation scan ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm) and the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm) were able to statistically discriminate the HP and DT from the BM and FOM. The ratios of intensities of neoplastic mucosa and contralateral sites were significantly different with the excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm, p < 0.001) and ((lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm, p < 0.01) and with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm, p < 0.001). Discrimination was significant with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360- 660 nm, p < 0.07). Innate tissue fluorescence has potential as a monitor of cancer patients and populations at risk for head and neck cancer.

  13. Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid permeation through oral mucosa in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Alleman, Anthony; Lehman, Paul; Blevins, Steve; Stone, Angie; Fink, Louis; Dinehart, Scott; Stern, Scott J.

    1994-07-01

    Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid are photosensitizers that show promise in the photodynamic treatment of cancer, port-wine stains, atherosclerosis and viral lesions. Photofrin is a mixture of porphyrins which, upon the absorption of light, become temporarily cytotoxic. One side-effect associated with the use of Photofrin is long-term cutaneous photosensitivity. It is possible that topical application of this photosensitizing dye will ameliorate such a side-effect. Another way to avoid the cutaneous photosensitivity in photodynamic therapy is to use 5- aminolevulinic acid, which is a porphyrin precursor that causes an increase in the synthesis and concentration of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. 5-aminolevulinic acid is usually applied topically, and so minimizes cutaneous photosensitivity while maximizing the local protoporphyrin concentration. There are a host of disorders in oral mucosa that are potentially treatable by photodynamic therapy. However, since stratum corneum presents an impermeable barrier to many pharmaceuticals, it is not clear that topical application of the photosensitizer will result in a clinically relevant tissue concentration. We have therefore studied the permeation behavior of Photofrin and 5-aminolevulinic acid by applying them to the surface of ex vivo oral mucosa tissue positioned by a Franz diffusion cell. In order to increase the permeability of the photosensitizer across the stratum corneum, we studied the effects of four different drug carriers: phosphate buffered saline, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and Azone with isopropyl alcohol.

  14. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate cell metabolism in malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, Angelika; Hauser, Carmen; Mosch, Simone; Kalinina, Sviatlana

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnosis of tumor tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results interfere with the outcome. Improvement through observation of cell metabolism might offer the solution, but needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. With respect to this, spectrally resolved multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging was investigated to analyze cell metabolism in metabolic phenotypes of malignant and nonmalignant oral mucosa cells. The time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of NADH were measured in cells of different origins. The fluorescence lifetime of bound and free NADH was calculated from biexponential fitting of the fluorescence intensity decay within different spectral regions. The mean lifetime was increased from nonmalignant oral mucosa cells to different squamous carcinoma cells, where the most aggressive cells showed the longest lifetime. In correlation with reports in the literature, the total amount of NADH seemed to be less for the carcinoma cells and the ratio of free/bound NADH was decreased from nonmalignant to squamous carcinoma cells. Moreover for squamous carcinoma cells a high concentration of bound NADH was found in cytoplasmic organelles (mainly mitochondria). This all together indicates that oxidative phosphorylation and a high redox potential play an important role in the energy metabolism of these cells.

  15. Clear cell tumors of the salivary glands, jaws, and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, E; Altini, M; Favia, G

    1997-08-01

    Clear cell tumors of the oral mucosa, jaws, and salivary glands constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions which may be either odontogenic, salivary gland, or metastatic in origin. Clear cells in these proliferations most frequently result from fixation artifact but may also be the result of cytoplasmic accumulation of water, glycogen, intermediate filaments, or immature zymogen granules, or a paucity of cellular organelles. Odontogenic neoplasms that may be characterized by a predominantly clear cell component include odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastoma, and calcifying epithelial odontogenic (Pindborg) tumor. Clear cell tumors of salivary gland origin are almost invariably malignant in nature but they do include two benign lesions; namely, oncocytoma and myoepithelioma. Clear cells in acinic cell carcinoma seldom comprise a significant portion of the tumor whereas clear cell mucoepidermoid carcinomas can readily be identified by an admixture of clear-squamoid, mucous and intermediate cells. Lesions previously reported as "clear cell adenoma" "clear cell carcinoma, or glycogen-rich carcinoma" can be divided into the distinctive biphasic epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and monophasic lesions which have been shown to be either myoepithelial or ductal in origin. The latter are primarily represented by the recently described "hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma." The most common metastatic clear cell tumor in the oral mucosa and the jaws is the renal cell carcinoma. However, metastases of melanoma and malignant clear cell tumors of the prostate, bowel, thyroid, and liver must also be considered.

  16. Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment.

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary gland with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the overlying oral mucosa: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Sasou, S; Obata, K

    1998-05-01

    Two cases of intra-oral pleomorphic adenoma with marked pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the overlying oral mucosa are reported. Incisional biopsy specimens, taken a few weeks before surgical excision of the tumor, showed no squamous cell element. Surgically excised specimens revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with hyperortho- and para-keratinization, which extended from overlying oral squamous epithelium, where an incisional biopsy was performed into the deep tumor area. Approximately half of the tumor area in case 1 and one-third in case 2 were occupied by hyperplastic squamous epithelium of the oral mucosa. Although the induction mechanism of such prominent pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the overlying oral mucosa occupying more than one-third of the tumor area could not be understood, it is thought that surgical injury and/or focal anesthesia during the incisional biopsy played an important role. To the best of our knowledge, these two cases represent the first reported association between benign salivary gland tumor and marked pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the overlying oral mucosa.

  18. Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Topical Application of Black Raspberries on High At-Risk Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Blake M.; Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Accurso, Brent T.; Weghorst, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preclinical efficacy of topical administration of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) to inhibit the progression of premalignant oral lesions and modulate biomarkers of cancer development in high at-risk mucosa (HARM). Study Design Hamster cheek pouches (HCPs) were treated with carcinogen for six weeks to initiate a HARM microenvironment. Subsequently, right HCPs were topically administered a BRB suspension in short-term or long-term studies. After 12 weeks, SCC multiplicity, SCC incidence, and cell proliferation rates were evaluated. mRNA expression was measured in short-term treated pouches for selected oral cancer biomarkers. Results SCC multiplicity (−41.3%), tumor incidence (−37.1%), and proliferation rate (−6.9%) were reduced in HCPs receiving BRBs. Topical BRBs correlated with an increase in Rb1 expression in developing oral lesions. Conclusion Topical BRBs inhibit SCC development when targeted to HARM tissues. These results support the translational role of BRBs to prevent oral cancer development in humans. PMID:25457886

  19. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa for mucosal reconstruction in a pediatric patient with hemifacial microsomia and ankyloglossia.

    PubMed

    Llames, Sara; Recuero, Ignacio; Romance, Ana; García, Eva; Peña, Ignacio; Del Valle, Alvaro Fernández; Meana, Alvaro; Larcher, Fernando; Del Río, Marcela

    2014-03-01

    Many types of soft tissue grafts have been used for the reconstruction of oral mucosal defects. The best results are achieved with mucosal grafts; however, when large areas must be grafted, sufficient donor tissue is not available. Tissue engineering represents an alternative method to obtain sufficient autologous tissue for reconstructing oral wounds. Herein we present a pediatric patient with hemifacial microsomia and congenital ankyloglossia requiring multiple surgical interventions, and in which an autologous full-thickness tissue-engineered oral mucosa was used for successful oral reconstruction. Our study demonstrates that even under challenging conditions, robust tissue-engineered products, such as the fibrin-based oral mucosa described here, can achieve successful tissue regeneration.

  20. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa for mucosal reconstruction in a pediatric patient with hemifacial microsomia and ankyloglossia.

    PubMed

    Llames, Sara; Recuero, Ignacio; Romance, Ana; García, Eva; Peña, Ignacio; Del Valle, Alvaro Fernández; Meana, Alvaro; Larcher, Fernando; Del Río, Marcela

    2014-03-01

    Many types of soft tissue grafts have been used for the reconstruction of oral mucosal defects. The best results are achieved with mucosal grafts; however, when large areas must be grafted, sufficient donor tissue is not available. Tissue engineering represents an alternative method to obtain sufficient autologous tissue for reconstructing oral wounds. Herein we present a pediatric patient with hemifacial microsomia and congenital ankyloglossia requiring multiple surgical interventions, and in which an autologous full-thickness tissue-engineered oral mucosa was used for successful oral reconstruction. Our study demonstrates that even under challenging conditions, robust tissue-engineered products, such as the fibrin-based oral mucosa described here, can achieve successful tissue regeneration. PMID:23879858

  1. Treating animal bites: susceptibility of Staphylococci from oral mucosa of cats.

    PubMed

    Muniz, I M; Penna, B; Lilenbaum, W

    2013-11-01

    Infected wounds determined by cats' bites represent high costs to public health, and their adequate treatment relies on the knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial agents found in the oral microbiota. Members of the genus Staphylococcus sp. belong to the microbiota of the oral mucosa of cats and are frequently involved in secondary infections of these wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from oral mucosa of cats. Samples were collected from 200 clinically healthy cats and processed by standard bacteriological methods and tested for susceptibility to a panel of 16 antimicrobials. A total of 212 staphylococci isolates were obtained from 141 of the 200 cats (70.5%), and more than one colony was recognized in 53 cases. Coagulase-negative species were most frequently found (89.6%) distributed among Staphylococcus xylosus (50.9%), Staphylococcus felis (27.4%), Staphylococcus simulans (6.1%) and Staphylococcus sciuri (5.2%). Coagulase-positive species (10.4%) were distributed among Staphylococcus aureus (4.7%) and Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) (5.7%). Regarding to antimicrobial resistance, 178 isolates (83.9%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and rifampicin showed the best results with 100% of sensitive strains. Conversely, high rates of resistance were observed for penicillin and tetracycline (56.1%). The 212 staphylococci isolates and 30 (14.1%) strains were resistant to methicillin (on the disc susceptibility test) and may be preliminarily considered as methicilin-resistant staphylococci. In conclusion, this study reports important rates of antimicrobial resistance among the species of Staphylococcus isolated from clinical specimens of cats, which must be considered for the treating of cats' bites in humans.

  2. Hypermethylation of the p16 gene in normal oral mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    von Zeidler, S Ventorin; Miracca, E C; Nagai, M A; Birman, E G

    2004-11-01

    The oral cavity is the sixth most common anatomical localization of head and neck carcinoma in men. Detection of oral carcinomas in the early asymptomatic stages improves cure rates and the quality of life. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking are the most important known risk factors for the development of head and neck tumors, suggesting that the exposure to these risk factors may increase the predisposition for genetic and epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation. The presence of methylated CpG islands in the promoter region of human genes can suppress their expression due to the presence of 5-methylcytosine that interferes with the binding of transcription factors or other DNA-binding proteins repressing transcription activity. Hypermethylation leading to the inactivation of some tumor suppressor genes, such as p16, has been pointed out as an initial event in head and neck cancer. Our aim was to evaluate an early diagnostic method of oral pre-cancerous lesions through the analysis of methylation of the p16 gene. DNA samples from normal oral mucosa and posterior tongue border from 258 smokers, without oral cancer, were investigated for the occurrence of p16 promoter hypermethylation. The methylation status of the p16 gene was analyzed using MS-PCR (methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and PCR amplification), MSP (Methylation-specific PCR) or direct DNA sequence of bisulfite modified DNA. Hyper-methylation was detected in 9.7% (25/258) of the cases analyzed. These findings provide further evidence that epigenetic alteration, leading to the inactivation of the p16 tumor suppressor gene is an early event that might confer cell growth advantages contributing to the tumorigenic process. Thus, the detection of abnormal p16 methylation pattern may be a valuable tool for early oral cancer detection. PMID:15492849

  3. Hypermethylation of the p16 gene in normal oral mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    von Zeidler, S Ventorin; Miracca, E C; Nagai, M A; Birman, E G

    2004-11-01

    The oral cavity is the sixth most common anatomical localization of head and neck carcinoma in men. Detection of oral carcinomas in the early asymptomatic stages improves cure rates and the quality of life. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking are the most important known risk factors for the development of head and neck tumors, suggesting that the exposure to these risk factors may increase the predisposition for genetic and epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation. The presence of methylated CpG islands in the promoter region of human genes can suppress their expression due to the presence of 5-methylcytosine that interferes with the binding of transcription factors or other DNA-binding proteins repressing transcription activity. Hypermethylation leading to the inactivation of some tumor suppressor genes, such as p16, has been pointed out as an initial event in head and neck cancer. Our aim was to evaluate an early diagnostic method of oral pre-cancerous lesions through the analysis of methylation of the p16 gene. DNA samples from normal oral mucosa and posterior tongue border from 258 smokers, without oral cancer, were investigated for the occurrence of p16 promoter hypermethylation. The methylation status of the p16 gene was analyzed using MS-PCR (methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and PCR amplification), MSP (Methylation-specific PCR) or direct DNA sequence of bisulfite modified DNA. Hyper-methylation was detected in 9.7% (25/258) of the cases analyzed. These findings provide further evidence that epigenetic alteration, leading to the inactivation of the p16 tumor suppressor gene is an early event that might confer cell growth advantages contributing to the tumorigenic process. Thus, the detection of abnormal p16 methylation pattern may be a valuable tool for early oral cancer detection.

  4. PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.

    PubMed

    Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC.

  5. Raman fiberoptic probe for monitoring human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Okagbare, Paul; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    In oral and maxillofacial surgery, there is a need for tissue engineered constructs for dental implants, reconstructions due to trauma, oral cancer or congenital defects. A non-invasive quality monitoring of the fabrication of tissue engineered constructs during their production and implantation is a required component of any successful tissue engineering technique. We demonstrate the design and application of a Raman spectroscopic probe for rapid and noninvasive monitoring of Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs). We conducted in vivo studies to identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs (already developed in vitro), and found that Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. This is the first step towards the ultimate goal to design a stand-alone system, which will be usable in a clinical setting, as the data processing and analysis will be performed with minimal user intervention, based on already established and tested Raman spectroscopic indicators for EVPOMEs.

  6. Estimation of trace metal elements in oral mucosa specimens by using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dissolved elements from metal dental restorations are a major concern in lesions of the oral mucosa, and the evaluation of accumulated metal elements, especially their distribution and chemical state, is essential for determining the precise effects of trace metals. In this study, X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were applied for distribution analysis of the trace metal elements contained in the oral mucosa, and the chemical states of the elements were estimated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Appropriate combination of these analysis techniques, particularly SR-XRF and PIXE, to visualize the distributions of the elements in the oral mucosa allowed for the observation and evaluation of accumulated metal ions and debris. Importantly, the analyses in this study could be carried out using conventional histopathological specimens without damaging the specimens. Therefore, this method would be applicable for the detection of accumulated trace metal elements in biopsy specimens from the oral mucosa.

  7. Effects of tongue and oral mucosa cleaning on oral Candida species and production of volatile sulfur compounds in the elderly in a nursing home.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hiromi; Takasaki, Kinuko; Teraoka, Kayo; Asaka, Tsugio; Sato, Chifumi; Tsuchiya, Kyoko

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oral care using simple tools and methods on the cleanliness of the oral cavity in the elderly. Enrolled were 84 elderly subjects with a mean (+/-S.D) age of 85.1+/-7.0 years in a nursing home. They were given tongue and oral mucosa cleaning (the oral care) after lunch every day or every other day for two consecutive weeks by the authors. The effect of the oral care was studied in terms of Candida scores in tongue coating, concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) which are the main causative substance of bad breath, and change in tongue coating scores. The above parameters were measured five times; just before the oral care program, weekly during, and at the end of the oral care program. The groups of patients, who were given the oral care, especially the group of patients cared with sponge brushes every day, showed a significant reduction in Candida scores but not in VSC concentration and tongue coating scores. The present method of oral care proved effective in cleaning the tongue and oral mucosa, and the Candida scores appeared to be a reliable indicator for evaluation. It is suggested that this way of oral care is simple, easy and useful not only for the elderly at a nursing home but for the house-bound elder people who will rapidly increase in the near future in Japan.

  8. Detection of Identical Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis from the Blood and Oral Mucosa in a Patient with Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Okui, Akemi; Soga, Yoshihiko; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Nose, Motoko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The detection of infective endocarditis (IE) of oral origin has been previously discussed. However, there are few reports confirming this infection using molecular biological techniques. We herein describe the case of a 67-year-old man who developed IE. Blood culture samples and strains obtained from the gingival and buccal mucosa showed 100% identity to Enterococcus faecalis JCM 5803 on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed the same pattern for these samples, thus confirming the identity of E. faecalis isolates in the blood and oral mucosa. Our observations provide novel information regarding the level of identity between IE pathogens and oral bacteria.

  9. Detection of Identical Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis from the Blood and Oral Mucosa in a Patient with Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Okui, Akemi; Soga, Yoshihiko; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Nose, Motoko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The detection of infective endocarditis (IE) of oral origin has been previously discussed. However, there are few reports confirming this infection using molecular biological techniques. We herein describe the case of a 67-year-old man who developed IE. Blood culture samples and strains obtained from the gingival and buccal mucosa showed 100% identity to Enterococcus faecalis JCM 5803 on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed the same pattern for these samples, thus confirming the identity of E. faecalis isolates in the blood and oral mucosa. Our observations provide novel information regarding the level of identity between IE pathogens and oral bacteria. PMID:26179542

  10. Oral magnesium reduces gastric mucosa susceptibility to injury in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ige, A O; Adewoye, E O; Okwundu, N C; Alade, O E; Onuobia, P C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of magnesium on the gastric defence mechanism in alloxan-diabetic male Wistar rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, A (n=40) and B (n=20). Each group was subdivided into control, diabetic untreated (DU), diabetic magnesium (250mg/kg) treated (DMg250) and diabetic insulin (3IU/kgs.c) treated (DI). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120mg/kg) and both groups were treated for 14days. By day 14, group A rats were sacrificed, the stomach excised and evaluated for histopathology, mucus content, parietal and mucus cell counts. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus of group B rats for biochemical evaluation (blood glucose, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LP) and nitric oxide (NO)) and later sacrificed for gastric SOD, LP and NO evaluation. Blood glucose level was reduced (p<0.05) in all treatment groups compared to DU. Gastric SOD, parietal and mucus cell counts were increased (p<0.05) in the DMg250 and DI compared to DU. Serum LP and NO were reduced while gastric LP was increased in the DMg250 compared to DU. Gastric NO and mucous content were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in all diabetic groups compared to control. The gastric mucosa of the DU group had haemorrhage, inflammation and parasites embedded. The DMg250 and DI had normal submucus and muscle layers with reduced inflammation. Oral magnesium treatment in diabetes exerts hypoglycaemic effects, reduces serum nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, increases gastric superoxide dismutase, mucous cell count and reduces the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ulceration. PMID:27133222

  11. Expression of MUC1 mucin in potentially malignant disorders, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M Harish; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Keshavaiah, Roopavathi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Divya, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mucins alteration in glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of malignant diseases. Therefore, mucins are used as valuable markers to distinguish normal and disease conditions. Many studies on MUC1 expression have been conducted on variety of neoplastic lesions other than head and neck region. None of the study has made an attempt to show its significance in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Hence, ours is one of the pioneer studies done to assess and evaluate the same. Aims: This study aims to compare and correlate the expression of MUC1 mucin protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), PMD's and OSCC by immunohistochemical method. Materials and Methods: Institutional study, archived tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), PMD's (n = 20) and NOM (n = 20) were immunostained for MUC1 mucin and percentage of positive cells evaluated. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney test and Student's t-test. Results: The mean MUC1 mucin positive cells in the study groups were as follows, 40% in OSCC, 28% in PMD's and 0.75% in NOM. Higher mean immunohistochemical score was observed in OSCC group followed by PMD's group and NOM group. The difference in immunohistochemical score among the groups was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The result of the current study suggests that determination of MUC1 mucin expression may be a parameter in the diagnosis of malignant behavior of PMD's to OSCC. MUC1 mucin expression may be a useful diagnostic marker for prediction of the invasive/metastatic potential of OSCC. PMID:27601811

  12. EDTA separation and recombination of epithelium and connective tissue of human oral mucosa. Studies of tissue transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Harder, F

    1985-01-01

    A possible epithelial-mesenchymal interaction in determining epithelial histologic features of human oral mucosa was examined. The study comprised 74 biopsies of normal buccal mucosa and 54 biopsies of normal palatal mucosa. Epithelium was separated from connective tissue by the use of 1 mM ethylenediamine tetraacetate dihydrate. Self-recombined and cross-recombined epithelial and connective tissues and connective tissue sheets alone were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice. Histologic examination of cross-recombined palatal epithelium/buccal connective tissue transplants showed a change in keratinization pattern but no major change in number of epithelial cell layers as the result of connective tissue influence. Transplanted sheets of connective tissue after growth for 14 days showed that complete separation of biopsies from buccal mucosa had been obtained. However, palatal mucosa had been incompletely separated as evidenced by re-epithelialization of most of the connective tissue transplants. The consequences of the incomplete palatal epithelium-connective tissue separation are discussed.

  13. Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

    2002-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

  14. Effects of dietary lipids on cell proliferation of murine oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Actis, AB; Joekes, S; Cremonezzi, D; Morales, G; Eynard, AR

    2002-01-01

    Background The lack of certain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induces perturbation in cell proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation that could be linked to an increased protumorigenic trend. Contrarily, n-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) arrest cell proliferation in several tumor models. According to the concept of field cancerization, multiple patches of abnormal epithelial proliferation may coexist in the vicinity of oropharyngeal neoplasms. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether certain dietary PUFAs differentially modulate the patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis at non-tumoral sites of the oral mucosa in mice bearing DMBA induced salivary tumors. After weaning, BALB/c mice were assigned to four diets: Control (C), Corn Oil (CO), Fish (FO) and Olein (O). Two weeks later, DMBA was injected into the submandibular area. The animals were sacrificed between 94 and 184 days at 4–6 PM. Fixed samples of lip, tongue and palate were stained using H-E and a silver technique. A quantification of AgNORs in the basal (BS) and suprabasal stratum (SBS) of the covering squamous epithelia as well as of mitosis and apoptosis was performed. Results Analysis of Variance showed greater proliferation in tongue than in palate or lip. According to the diet, a significant difference was found in the Fish Oil, in which palate exhibited fewer AgNOR particles than that of the control group, both for BS and SBS (p < 0.05 and 0.152, respectively), indicating a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions These results corroborate and reaffirm that the patterns of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of the oral stratified squamous epithelium may be differentially modulated by dietary lipids, and arrested by n-3 fatty acids, as shown in several other cell populations. PMID:12617749

  15. Chromosome damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in exfoliated cells of oral mucosa from androgenic anabolic steroids users.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jeanderson Pereira; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Marcílio; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) for inducing chromosome damage, apoptosis, and necrosis, using the micronucleus test on exfoliated cells from the oral mucosa of AAS users. The sample consisted of 55 male individuals, practitioners of physical exercise divided into two groups: 25 individuals who were users of AAS and 30 individuals in the control group. Cytological analysis included, in addition to micronuclei, counting of broken eggs and degenerative nuclear changes indicative of apoptosis (karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin, and pyknosis) and necrosis (karyolysis in addition to these changes). The statistical analysis did not show differences in occurrences of micronuclei, karyolysis, and broken eggs between the groups. The occurrence of apoptosis was significantly higher in cells from control subjects. The results obtained showed that inhibition of apoptosis was induced by AAS, suggesting that this may be one of the mechanisms contributing toward the association that has been described between use of AAS and the carcinogenic process.

  16. Tissue-engineered constructs of human oral mucosa examined by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kainkaryam, Raghu; Cole, Jacqueline H; Izumi, Kenji; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Feinberg, Stephen E; Morris, Michael D

    2013-04-01

    A noninvasive quality monitoring of tissue-engineered constructs is a required component of any successful tissue-engineering technique. During a 2-week production period, ex vivo produced oral mucosa-equivalent constructs (EVPOMEs) may encounter adverse culturing conditions that might compromise their quality and render them ineffective. We demonstrate the application of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to in vitro monitoring of EVPOMEs during their manufacturing process, with the ultimate goal of applying this technology in situ to monitor the grafted EVPOMEs. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for less-than optimal EVPOMEs that are stressed by higher temperature and exposure to higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. Raman spectra of EVPOMEs exposed to thermal and calcium stress showed correlation of the band height ratio of CH(2) deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing modes, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We compared these results to histology and glucose consumption measurements, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is more sensitive and specific to changes in proteins' secondary structure not visible by H&E histology. We also exposed the EVPOMEs to rapamycin, a cell growth inhibitor and cell proliferation capacity preserver, and distinguished between EVPOMEs pretreated with 2 nM rapamycin and controls, using the ratio of the Amide III envelope to the phenylalanine band as an indicator. PMID:22992065

  17. Photodynamic detection in visualisation of cutaneous and oral mucosa premalignant and malignant lesions: two clinical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziólkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata; Gerber, Hanna; Dziedzic, Magdalena

    2008-11-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is promising method of visualisation of premalignant and malignant lesions. PDD is consisted of two main agents: special chemical compound which is called photosensitizer and light. Photosensitizer has affinity to fast proliferating cells such as pre- or malignant. During light irradiation (with proper wavelength - corresponding to absorption peak of photosensitizer) photosensitizer gains energy and passes into excited singlet state S1. Returning to basic singlet state Sn, leads to fluorescence. Due to difference between concentration of photosensitizer in lesion and normal tissue it is possible to obtain high contrast image of lesion. Case #1: 53 years old woman with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in nasal region; 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid as a precursor of photosensitizer on eucerin base was used. Case #2: 57 years old woman with multifocal oral leukoplakia on cheek mucosa and tongue; 2% chlorophyll gel as photosesitizer was used. All photographs were taken in white light without any filter and in blue and UV light with orange filter: in both cases the total area of the lesions appeared to be larger than it has been clinically observed. Thus, the PDD might be helpful in evaluation of margins of surgical excision of such lesions.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Mucoadhesive Film Containing Acmella oleracea Extract for Oral Mucosa Topical Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Santana de Freitas-Blanco, Verônica; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Serpe, Luciano; Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Guilherme Damasio, Viviane Aparecida; Yamane, Lais Thiemi; de Paula, Eneida; Ferreira Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an anesthetic mucoadhesive film containing Acmella oleracea (jambu) extract for topical use on oral mucosa. Methods Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of jambu were prepared by maceration. Pigment removal was obtained by adsorption with activated carbon. Three mucoadhesive films were developed using a film casting method: 10 or 20% of crude jambu extract (10% JB and 20% JB), and 10% of crude jambu extract treated with activated carbon (10% JBC). The mucoadhesive films were characterized regarding their uniformity, thickness, pH, and spilanthol content, and their stability was evaluated during 120 days. Gas chromatography was used to quantify the amount of spilanthol. In vitro tests determined the permeation of spilanthol across pig esophageal epithelium mucosa in Franz diffusion cells. Topical anesthetic efficacy was assessed in vivo using a tail flick test in mice. Results The three mucoadhesive films showed physical stability and visual appearances suitable for use on oral mucosa. The permeation study revealed that the spilanthol from 10% JBC presented higher flux and permeability coefficient values, compared to 10% or 20% JB (p < 0.001). Moreover, 10% JBC showed better topical anesthetic efficacy than the other films (p < 0.01). Conclusion Mucoadhesive film containing crude extract of jambu treated with activated carbon is a potential alternative for oral, topical use, encouraging future clinical studies. PMID:27626796

  19. Simultaneous reconstruction of the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa with microvascular transfer of combined first-second toe web and dorsalis pedis flap.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, Pedro; Maruccia, Michele; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-10-01

    The reconstruction of oral commissure, lip and mucosa defects following tumour resection is a challenging task to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the increasing aesthetic and functional demands. The authors describe a case in which the use of combined first-second toe web with dorsalis pedis flap was transferred and an optimal result was achieved for the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa following resection of squamous cell carcinoma and local flap failure. PMID:25469475

  20. Simultaneous reconstruction of the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa with microvascular transfer of combined first-second toe web and dorsalis pedis flap.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, Pedro; Maruccia, Michele; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-10-01

    The reconstruction of oral commissure, lip and mucosa defects following tumour resection is a challenging task to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the increasing aesthetic and functional demands. The authors describe a case in which the use of combined first-second toe web with dorsalis pedis flap was transferred and an optimal result was achieved for the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa following resection of squamous cell carcinoma and local flap failure.

  1. Human papillomavirus-32-associated focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying HPV-16-positive papilloma-like lesions in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Wang, Jiayi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Min; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Finally, human papillomavirus-32-positive focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying human papillomavirus-16-positive oral papilloma-like lesions were detected in different sites of the oral mucosa. Nucleotide sequence sequencing further confirmed the results. So in our clinical work, if the simultaneous occurrences of different human papillomavirus associated lesions are suspected, the multiple biopsies from different lesions and detection of human papillomavirus genotype are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  2. Thermal increase in the oral mucosa and in the jawbone during Nd:YAG laser applications. Ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Vescovi, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean P.; Nammour, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Literature reports bactericidal and biostimulant effects for Nd:YAG laser procedures on bone and oral mucosa but the possible overheating can cause damage to anatomical structures. The aim of the study is the evaluation of thermal increase in different levels of oral tissues: mucosa, periosteum and bone during defocused application of Nd:YAG laser at different parameters. Study Design: Superficial thermal evaluation was performed in pig jaws with a thermal camera device; deep thermal evaluation was realized by 4 thermocouples placed at a subperiosteal level and at 1,2 and 4 mm depth in the jaw bone. Laser applications of 1 minute were performed 5 times (with a pause of 1 minute) on a surface of 4 cm2 with a Nd:YAG laser (VSP mode, 320 micrometer fiber, defocused mode) with different parameters. Temperatures were recorded before and after laser applications and after each pause in order to evaluate also the thermal relaxation of tissues. Results: At submucosal level, mean thermal increase was between 1.1°C and 13.2°C, at 1 mm depth between 1.1°C and 8.5°C, at 2 mm depth between 1.1°C and 6.8°C, at 4 mm depth between 1.0°C and 5.3°C. Temperature decrease during the rest time period was variable between 0°C and 2.5°C. Conclusions: Temperatures reached during clinical procedures with parameters reported in the literature in biostimulation protocols (1.25-2 Watts) for the five minutes of application are not dangerous for biological structures. The decrease in temperature during the rest time period is less considerable in the bone in comparison to oral mucosa. Key words:Nd:YAG laser, thermal increase, thermocouple, thermal camera, low level laser therapy. PMID:22322506

  3. [Reconstruction of oral mucosa with a micro-vascularized fascia-cutaneous flap from the forearm].

    PubMed

    Burgueño García, Miguel; Cebrián Carretero, José Luis; Muñoz Caro, Jesús Manuel; Arias Gallo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Epidermoid carcinoma of jugal mucosa is an aggressive tumor. Its treatment is based on broad excision and reconstruction in order to avoid fibrosis and restriction of mouth opening. Neck dissection and radiotherapy are indicated in selected cases. We display our experience with microvascularized flaps with the aim of preventing the flaws. We reconsider 8 patients (representing 10 flaps) handle in our Department. Besides we discuss other therapeutic alternatives after the growth's removal. The conclusion reached is that the mucovascularized forearm flaps give a great quantity of thin tissue and therefore so results to be the best option for the reconstruction of the jugal mucosa.

  4. Solitary fibrous tumor of the oral mucosa--morphological and immunohistochemical profile in the differential diagnosis with hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Veltrini, Vanessa C; Etges, Adriana; Magalhães, Marina H C G; de Araújo, Ney S; de Araújo, Vera C

    2003-06-01

    The objective was to investigate two cases of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of oral mucosa, emphasizing the differential diagnosis with one case of oral hemangiopericytoma (HPC), in terms of their morphological and immunohistochemical features. Solitary fibrous tumors showed cellularity and collagenization varying from area to area, focal perivascular hyalinization, scattered giant nuclei cells and abundant mast cells throughout the tumor. The hemangiopericytoma case exhibited thin-walled and dilated vessels lined with flat endothelial cells, identified by "staghorn appearance". Tumoral cells of solitary fibrous tumor exhibited immunohistochemical positivity for CD34, as well as endothelial cells. The hemangiopericytoma was positive only in endothelial cells. In solitary fibrous tumor, alpha-smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon and laminin stained the wall vessels. In hemangiopericytoma, on the other hand, the wall vessels were positive only for laminin, which staining was also observed in perivascular tumoral cells. The morphological and immunohistochemical differences observed allowed us to infer these lesions constitute distinct entities.

  5. Thymic necrosis following oral inoculation of mouse thymic virus.

    PubMed

    Morse, S S

    1989-11-01

    Mouse thymic virus (MTLV;ICTV designation murid herpesvirus 3) infects developing T lymphocytes of neonatal mice, causing thymic necrosis and acute immunosuppression. Infected animals shed virus indefinitely. However, although transmission in nature is presumably by contact and is likely to involve the oral-nasal route, virtually all experimental studies with MTLV have used systemic (intraperitoneal) inoculation. In order to determine whether systemic inoculation causes artifacts in pathogenesis of the infection, effects of intraperitoneal and oral-nasal inoculation were compared in newborn mice. Thymic necrosis occurred with either route of inoculation, although rate of infection was lower with oral inoculation, varying from about 20% to 67%. There were no gross differences in pathogenesis. Orally infected animals seroconverted and shed virus. These data indicate that the apparent lymphotropism of thymic virus, and induction of thymic necrosis, are not dependent on route of inoculation.

  6. Effects of aging in the expression of NOD-like receptors and inflammasome-related genes in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, J L; Kirakodu, S; Novak, M J; Exposto, C R; Stromberg, A J; Shen, S; Orraca, L; Gonzalez-Martinez, J; Gonzalez, O A

    2016-02-01

    The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and seven inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult, and aged non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g. NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g. NLRC2/NOD2 and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in interleukin-1β expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with downregulation of specific NLRs and IRGs. PMID:26197995

  7. Reactive hyperplasias,precancerous and malignant lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krahl, Dieter; Altenburg, Andreas; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2008-03-01

    The oral cavity contains many organs and tissues compressed in a small area. Accordingly oral tumors have a wide variety of appearances. Reactive hyper-plastic lesions include epulis,morsicatio,traumatic ulcer or palatal hyperplasia. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and neoplastic lesions. In leukoplakia,the individual risk can be estimated by clinical signs. Nevertheless histopathology is mandatory because precancerous lesions usually precede or accompany most oral cancers. Amalgam tattoo,oral nevi and melanoacanthoma have to be considered as differential diagnoses of oral melanoma. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy. Oral soft tissue tumors such as Kaposi sarcoma and multiple mucosal neuromas in MEN 2b require interdisciplinary management. Diseases affecting the minor salivary glands which may be encountered by dermatologists include mucocele, necrotizing sialometa-plasia,and tumors such as pleomorphic adenoma.

  8. Carbamazepine transbuccal delivery: the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral epithelium and buccal porcine mucosae in the transmucosal permeation.

    PubMed

    Campisi, G; Paderni, C; Saccone, R; Siragusa, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Tripodo, C; Giannola, L I; Florena, A M

    2008-01-01

    Transbuccal drug delivery is an attractive way of administration since several well-known advantages are provided, especially with respect to peroral management. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant which is useful in controlling neuropathic pain, and it is currently administered by peroral route, although its absorption and bioavailability is limited due to various factors. The oral cavity could be an interesting site for transbuccal CBZ delivery due to two properties: slow administration of constant low drug doses and less dose-related side effects. However, in transbuccal absorption a major limitation could be the low permeability of the mucosa which results in low drug bioavailability; thus the aptitude of the drug to penetrate the buccal mucosa has to be assessed by using tissue models resembling human normal mucosa. In our experience, CBZ well permeates mucosal membranes. In order to assess the efficacy of CBZ transbuccal delivery and to verify the reliability of these tissues in permeability testing before and after the passage of CBZ, the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral (RHO) epithelium (E) and buccal porcine mucosae were investigated. Significant histological changes due to CBZ passage were observed both in RHO-E and porcine mucosa. The main findings detected in RHO samples were cellular swellings with a signet ring-like appearance, nuclear swelling, prominent nucleoli lined against the nuclear membrane and the presence of keratohyalin granules. The most striking finding regarding porcine buccal mucosa was a cytoplasmic vacuolization, mainly involving the basal layer. PMID:19144275

  9. Detrimental dermal wound healing: what can we learn from the oral mucosa?

    PubMed

    Glim, Judith E; van Egmond, Marjolein; Niessen, Frank B; Everts, Vincent; Beelen, Robert H J

    2013-01-01

    Wounds in adults are frequently accompanied by scar formation. This scar can become fibrotic due to an imbalance between extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and ECM degradation. Oral mucosal wounds, however, heal in an accelerated fashion, displaying minimal scar formation. The exact mechanisms of scarless oral healing are yet to be revealed. This review highlights possible mechanisms involved in the difference between scar-forming dermal vs. scarless oral mucosal wound healing. Differences were found in expression of ECM components, such as procollagen I and tenascin-C. Oral wounds contained fewer immune mediators, blood vessels, and profibrotic mediators but had more bone marrow-derived cells, a higher reepithelialization rate, and faster proliferation of fibroblasts compared with dermal wounds. These results form a basis for further research that should be focused on the relations among ECM, immune cells, growth factors, and fibroblast phenotypes, as understanding scarless oral mucosal healing may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic strategies to prevent fibrotic scars.

  10. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity. PMID:21815141

  11. In situ detection of human papillomavirus types 13 and 32 in focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Henke, R P; Guèrin-Reverchon, I; Milde-Langosch, K; Koppang, H S; Löning, T

    1989-08-01

    17 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa (FEH, Heck's disease) were investigated for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid sequences by means of in situ DNA hybridization using biotinylated DNA probes of HPV types 1, 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32. Ten of 17 cases were positive for HPV 13 DNA in contrast to 6 of 17 positive cases obtained after application of the HPV 32 probe, with a double infection in one case. The results of our study suggest, that HPV 13 and HPV 32 are very specifically found in lesions of FEH and can be detected in a high percentage of cases using in situ hybridization.

  12. A histochemical comparison of methyl green-pyronin, and hematoxylin and eosin for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sumedha, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Somannavar, P; Nayak, R; Babji, D

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of apoptotic cells in oral pathological states could be useful for determining the rates of tissue turnover, which would help determine prognosis. The use of histochemical stains such as hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and methyl green-pyronin (MGP) can provide a simple and cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells. We compared the efficacy of MGP and H & E for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia (OL), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Ten cases each of OSCC, OSMF, OL and NOM were retrieved from the archives and two serial sections were stained, one with H & E and the other with MGP. Apoptotic cells were identified at 100 x magnification and the apoptotic index was calculated. Apoptotic cells were distinguished more readily in MGP stained sections than in those stained with H & E. Also, the apoptotic cell count was greater in OSCC compared to OL, OSMF and NOM. We concluded that MGP staining can be used as a routine, cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells.

  13. Orally administered phenylbutazone causes oxidative stress in the equine gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Aranzales, J R; Cândido de Andrade, B S; Silveira Alves, G E

    2015-06-01

    Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is widely used in equine medicine, and its side effects on the gastrointestinal tract are well known. The inhibition of prostaglandins and the oxidative stress induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are described as mechanisms of gastric mucosal injury in humans. In horses, only the secondary effect of changes in cyclooxygenases is related to gastric mucosal injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PBZ on certain antioxidative/oxidative parameters of the gastric mucosa. The concentrations of antioxidants and oxidants (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; nitric oxide, NO; total glutathione, GSH; myeloperoxidase, MPO; and malondialdehyde, MDA), PGE2 levels, and the ulcerative lesions score were assessed. The results demonstrated decreased levels of antioxidant variables, increased levels of oxidant variables, and alterations in the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. In conclusion, PBZ induces oxidative stress in the gastric glandular mucosa of horses by changing the antioxidant-oxidant balance of this surface, which might be regarded as another mechanism of injury in the horse stomach.

  14. Carbon monoxide absorption through the oral and nasal mucosae of cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfisch, W.H.; Hoop, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood levels of carbon monoxide increase during cigarette smoking. It has genrally been assumed that increases in blood levels of carbon monoxide could be interpreted as evidence that deep lung penetration of cigarette smoke had occurred. This study was designed to examine whether increased blood levels of carbon monoxide could result from absorption in the nasal and oral cavitites. The nasal and oral cavities of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed, independently of the lungs, to cigarette smoke under rigorous smoking conditions. Pre- and post-exposure blood levels of carbon monoxide were measured. As a positive control, similar volumes of cigarette smoke were passed directly into the lungs, thus bypassing the oral and nasal cavities, and blood levels of carbon monoxide were again measured. The results inidcate that absorption of carbon monoxide in the oral and nasal cavities is negligible under the heavy smoking regimen employed here, and hence, would be negligible under normal smoking conditions.

  15. [Coexistence of infection of the oral cavity and stomach and duodenal mucosa with Helicobacter pylori in patients with ulcer and chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Kopaánski, Z; Cienciala, A; Banaś, J; Kamiński, B; Witkowska, B; Zastepa, P; Brandys, J; Micherdziński, J

    1995-01-01

    In a group of 260 patients with a peptic ulcer of the stomach or the duodenum and/or chronic gastritis, bacteriological tests were conducted aiming at the detection of Helicobacter pylori in the mucosa of the stomach and the duodenum and in the gingival pockets. The presence of the infection of the mucosa of the stomach and/or of the duodenum was confirmed in 197 patients (75.8%). In this group of patients the bacteria occurred simultaneously in the oral cavity in 77 (39.1%) patients. It was found that the frequency of coexistence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the gingival pockets with an infected gastric or duodenal ulcer was not statistically significant. However, there was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in the oral cavity (83.3%) and the simultaneous occurrence of extensive infection of the gastric mucosa. PMID:7754615

  16. Quantification of the global and local complexity of the epithelial-connective tissue interface of normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic oral mucosae using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Landini, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at quantifying the complexity of the epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) in human normal mucosa, premalignant, and malignant lesions using fractal geometry. Two approaches were used to describe the complexity of 377 oral mucosa ECTI profiles. The box counting method was used to estimate their global fractal dimension, while local fractal dimensions were estimated using the mass radius relation at various local scales. The ECTI complexity significantly increased from normal through premalignant to malignant profiles in both global and local (over 283 microm) scales. Normal mucosa samples from different sites of the oral cavity also had different degrees of global complexity. Fractal geometry is a useful morphological marker of tissue complexity changes taking place during epithelial malignancy and premalignancy, and we propose it as a quantitative marker of epithelial complexity. PMID:14521264

  17. Blistering mucocutaneous diseases of the oral mucosa--a review: part 2. Pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Darling, Mark R; Daley, Tom

    2006-02-01

    Oral mucous membranes may be affected by a variety of blistering mucocutaneous diseases. In this paper, we review the clinical manifestations, typical microscopic and immunofluorescence features, pathogenesis, biological behaviour and treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Although pemphigus vulgaris is not a common disease of the oral cavity, its potential to cause severe or life-threatening disease is such that the general dentist must have an understanding of its pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management. PMID:16480607

  18. In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2012-10-01

    Cancers of oral cavities are one of the most common malignancies in India and other south-Asian countries. Tobacco habits are the main etiological factors for oral cancer. Identification of premalignant lesions is required for improving survival rates related to oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods are projected as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. We intend to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting premalignant conditions. Spectra were recorded from premalignant patches, contralateral normal (opposite to tumor site), and cancerous sites of subjects with oral cancers and also from age-matched healthy subjects with and without tobacco habits. A total of 861 spectra from 104 subjects were recorded using a fiber-optic probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectral differences in the 1200- to 1800-cm-1 region were subjected to unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised linear discriminant analysis followed by validation with leave-one-out and an independent test data set. Results suggest that premalignant conditions can be objectively discriminated with both normal and cancerous sites as well as from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits. Findings of the study further support efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral-cancer applications.

  19. Preventive oral supplementation with glutamine and arginine has beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines in endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong; Zhang, Cui; He, Liuqin

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with a combination of arginine and glutamine on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adult rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight of 185 ± 15 g) were randomly divided into five groups: control group A (CA) and control group B (CB), both orally supplemented with 0.9% saline; group Arg, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) arginine; group Gln, supplemented with 300 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine; group AG, supplemented with 150 mg/kg day(-1) arginine and 150 mg/kg day(-1) glutamine. The experiment lasted for 2 weeks. Food intake and body weight were measured during the experiment. At 10.00 h of day 15, animals were injected with 4 mg/kg LPS (group CB, Arg, Gln, and AG) or sterile saline (group CA) after supplementation. Then at 14.00 h, all animals were killed and blood and tissue collected. The results showed that compared with group CB, arginine concentration tended to be increased (P > 0.05) in group Arg and AG, while there was no significant difference in glutamine concentration among the groups challenged with LPS. Oral supplementation with arginine or/and glutamine mitigated morphology impairment (lower villus height, P < 0.05) in the jejunum and ileum induced by LPS challenge. LPS administration resulted in a significant increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA abundance. Arginine only significantly decreased TNF-α mRNA abundance in the ileum, while glutamine significantly decreased both TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in the ileum. A combination of arginine and glutamine significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA abundance in both the jejunum and ileum, while they also significantly decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the ileum. These results revealed that an oral supply of combined arginine and glutamine had more favorable effects on the intestinal mucosa and inflammatory cytokines than a supply of arginine or glutamine alone.

  20. Oxidative and nitrosative stress and apoptosis in oral mucosa cells after ex vivo exposure to lead and benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Wannhoff, A; Bölck, B; Kübler, A C; Bloch, W; Reuther, T

    2013-03-01

    Exposure of human oral mucosa to lead (Pb) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by inhalation and ingestion can lead to pathological conditions via apoptosis and oxidative and nitrosative stress. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Pb and BaP on oral mucosa cells. Furthermore, previous studies focused on chronic Pb and BaP exposure. Therefore, we evaluated important markers of apoptosis and oxidative and nitrosative stress in oral mucosa cells by incubating the cells with Pb and BaP for 5-360 min. Ex vivo samples of human oral mucosa were exposed to Pb or BaP, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate active caspase-3, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2a), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Pb and BaP treatments significantly increased active caspase-3 levels in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the treatments induced an early increase in 3-NT level, which ceased with longer incubation times. 8-Epi-PGF2a level increased only after prolonged incubation with Pb, and this elevation was irrespective of BaP incubation duration. Smokers' samples had significantly lower levels of markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress than did nonsmokers' samples. Thus, single, short-term exposure to Pb or BaP increases the levels of apoptosis markers and markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  1. Orthotopic non-metastatic and metastatic oral cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bais, Manish V; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Trackman, Philip C

    2015-05-01

    Oral cancer is characterized by high morbidity and mortality with a predisposition to metastasize to different tissues, including lung, liver, and bone. Despite progress in the understanding of mutational profiles and deregulated pathways in oral cancer, patient survival has not significantly improved over the past decades. Therefore, there is a need to establish in vivo models that recapitulate human oral cancer metastasis to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel drugs. Here we report orthotopic tongue cancer nude mouse models to study oral cancer growth and metastasis using human metastatic (UMSCC2) and non-metastatic (CAL27) cell lines, respectively. Transduction of these cell lines with lentivirus expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed) followed by injection into tongues of immunodeficient mice generated orthotopic tongue tumors that could be monitored for growth and metastasis by fluorescence measurement with an in vivo Imaging System (IVIS 200). The growth rates of CAL27-DsRed induced tumors were higher than UMSCC2-DsRed tumors after day 15, while UMSCC2-DsRed tumors revealed metastasis beginning on day 21. Importantly, UMSCC2 tumors metastasized to a number of tissues including the submandibular gland, lung, kidney, liver, and bone. Further, immunohistochemical analyses of tongue tumors induced by CAL27 and UMSCC2 cells revealed elevated expression of components of protumorigenic pathways deregulated in human cancers, including Cyclin D1, PCNA, Ki-67, LSD1, LOXL2, MT-MMP1, DPAGT1, E-cadherin, OCT4A, and H3K4me1/2. These orthotopic mouse models are likely to be useful tools for gaining insights into the activity and mechanisms of novel oral cancer drug candidates.

  2. Nanoparticles for Local Drug Delivery to the Oral Mucosa: Proof of Principle Studies

    PubMed Central

    Holpuch, Andrew S.; Hummel, Garrett J.; Tong, Meng; Seghi, Garrett A.; Pei, Ping; Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To determine if solid lipid nanoparticles represent a viable strategy for local delivery of poorly water soluble and unstable chemopreventive compounds to human oral tissues. Methods Nanoparticle uptake and compound retention evaluations employed monolayer-cultured human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and normal human oral mucosal explants. Feasibility of nanoparticle delivery was also evaluated with respect to the presence of phase-III efflux transporters in normal oral mucosal tissue and OSCC tissues. Results Functional uptake assays confirmed significantly greater internalization of nanoparticle-delivered fluorescent probe relative to free-fluorescent probe delivery, while concurrently demonstrating nanoparticle uptake rate differences among the OSCC cell lines and the phagocytic control human monocyte cell line. Mucosal explants exhibited nanoparticle penetration and internalization in the spinous and basal epithelial layers (7/10 specimens), and also exhibited the presence of the phase-III efflux transporters multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Conclusions These data confirm nanoparticle internalization by OSCC cells and support the premise that nanoparticle-based delivery provides higher final intracellular levels relative to bolus administration. Furthermore, the penetration and subsequent internalization of nanoparticles within the proliferating basal layer cells demonstrates the feasibility of nanoparticle formulations for local delivery and stabilization of oral chemopreventive compounds. PMID:20354767

  3. Identification of human connective tissue in transplant of human oral mucosa in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Hansen, I L; Harder, F; Dabelsteen, E

    1984-01-01

    The present study describes a method for identification of connective tissue of human oral mucosal transplants in nude mice. The method was based on the development of a murine antiserum to human fibroblasts. After absorption with murine fibroblasts the antiserum in an immunofluorescence method appeared to react specifically with human connective tissue of frozen sections, whereas the antiserum did not react with murine connective tissue. The antiserum, applied to frozen sections of human oral mucosal transplants in nude mice, could distinguish between human and murine connective tissue in the sections. The ability to distinguish between the two types of tissue was utilized to elucidate a possible relation between epithelial morphology and underlying type of connective tissue. It was found that the formation of rete ridges of transplanted human oral epithelium was dependent on the presence of subepithelial human connective tissue. The method described may be useful for the recognition of human tissue in experimental studies of human transplants to other species.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  5. Intestinal mucosa permeability following oral insulin delivery using core shell corona nanolipoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuying; Guo, Shiyan; Zhu, Chunliu; Zhu, Quanlei; Gan, Yong; Rantanen, Jukka; Rahbek, Ulrik Lytt; Hovgaard, Lars; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-12-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (NC) have excellent capacity for protein entrapment, favorable epithelial permeability, and are regarded as promising nanocarriers for oral protein delivery. Herein, we designed and evaluated a class of core shell corona nanolipoparticles (CSC) to further improve the absorption through enhanced intestinal mucus penetration. CSC contains chitosan nanoparticles as a core component and pluronic F127-lipid vesicles as a shell with hydrophilic chain and polyethylene oxide PEO as a corona. These particles were developed by hydration of a dry pluronic F127-lipid film with NC suspensions followed by extrusion. Insulin nested inside CSC was well protected from enzymatic degradation. Compared with NC, CSC exhibited significantly higher efficiency of mucosal penetration and, consequently, higher cellular internalization of insulin in mucus secreting E12 cells. The cellular level of insulin after CSC treatment was 36-fold higher compared to treatment with free insulin, and 10-fold higher compared to NC. CSC significantly facilitated the permeation of insulin across the ileum epithelia, as demonstrated in an ex vivo study and an in vivo absorption study. CSC pharmacological studies in diabetic rats showed that the hypoglycemic effects of orally administrated CSC were 2.5-fold higher compared to NC. In conclusion, CSC is a promising oral protein delivery system to enhance the stability, intestinal mucosal permeability, and oral absorption of insulin.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of oral Candida infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Freire, Fernanda; Ferraresi, Cleber; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Species of the fungal genus Candida, can cause oral candidiasis especially in immunosuppressed patients. Many studies have investigated the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill fungi in vitro, but this approach has seldom been reported in animal models of infection. This study investigated the effects of PDT on Candida albicans as biofilms grown in vitro and also in an immunosuppressed mouse model of oral candidiasis infection. We used a luciferase-expressing strain that allowed non-invasive monitoring of the infection by bioluminescence imaging. The phenothiazinium salts, methylene blue (MB) and new methylene blue (NMB) were used as photosensitizers (PS), combined or not with potassium iodide (KI), and red laser (660nm) at four different light doses (10J, 20J, 40J and 60J). The best in vitro log reduction of CFU/ml on biofilm grown cells was: MB plus KI with 40J (2.31 log; p<0.001); and NMB without KI with 60J (1.77 log; p<0.001). These conditions were chosen for treating the in vivo model of oral Candida infection. After 5days of treatment the disease was practically eradicated, especially using MB plus KI with 40J. This study suggests that KI can potentiate PDT of fungal infection using MB (but not NMB) and could be a promising new approach for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  7. [Tissue and cell interactions in the oral mucosa after cytostatic drugs administration].

    PubMed

    Bykov, V L; Leont'eva, I V

    2011-01-01

    In the preceding work ("Morphology", 2011, issue 2), the regularities of oral mucosal (OM) epithelium injury after the cytostatic drug (CSD) treatment and its further regeneration, were reviewed. This paper presents the systematized summary of current literature data and the authors' own findings on the regularities of CSD effect on non-epithelial OM cell populations and their interactions with each other and the epithelium. The changes of intraepithelial tissue homeostasis, associated with CSD effect on intraepithelial lymphocytes, granulocytes, dendritic antigen presenting cells and melanocytes, interacting with epitheliocytes, are described. The data are presented, indicating that along with the epithelium, the cell populations of lamina propria and submucosal connective tissue, as well as the small blood vessels, are important targets of CSD in the OM tissues. The concept of a unifying model, describing tissue, cellular and molecular mechanisms of the oral mucositis development after CSD treatment, is reviewed.

  8. Automated segmentation of oral mucosa from wide-field OCT images (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldan, Ryan N.; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Cahill, Lucas; Liu, Kelly; MacAulay, Calum; Poh, Catherine F.; Lane, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can discriminate morphological tissue features important for oral cancer detection such as the presence or absence of basement membrane and epithelial thickness. We previously reported an OCT system employing a rotary-pullback catheter capable of in vivo, rapid, wide-field (up to 90 x 2.5mm2) imaging in the oral cavity. Due to the size and complexity of these OCT data sets, rapid automated image processing software that immediately displays important tissue features is required to facilitate prompt bed-side clinical decisions. We present an automated segmentation algorithm capable of detecting the epithelial surface and basement membrane in 3D OCT images of the oral cavity. The algorithm was trained using volumetric OCT data acquired in vivo from a variety of tissue types and histology-confirmed pathologies spanning normal through cancer (8 sites, 21 patients). The algorithm was validated using a second dataset of similar size and tissue diversity. We demonstrate application of the algorithm to an entire OCT volume to map epithelial thickness, and detection of the basement membrane, over the tissue surface. These maps may be clinically useful for delineating pre-surgical tumor margins, or for biopsy site guidance.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  10. Development of an oral mucosa model to study host-microbiome interactions during wound healing.

    PubMed

    De Ryck, Tine; Grootaert, Charlotte; Jaspaert, Laura; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Van Gele, Mireille; De Schrijver, Joachim; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Swift, Simon; Bracke, Marc; Van de Wiele, Tom; Vanhoecke, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Crosstalk between the human host and its microbiota is reported to influence various diseases such as mucositis. Fundamental research in this area is however complicated by the time frame restrictions during which host-microbe interactions can be studied in vitro. The model proposed in this paper, consisting of an oral epithelium and biofilm, can be used to study microbe-host crosstalk in vitro in non-infectious conditions up to 72 h. Microbiota derived from oral swabs were cultured on an agar/mucin layer and challenged with monolayers of keratinocytes grown on plastic or collagen type I layers embedded with fibroblasts. The overall microbial biofilm composition in terms of diversity remained representative for the oral microbiome, whilst the epithelial cell morphology and viability were unaffected. Applying the model to investigate wound healing revealed a reduced healing of 30 % in the presence of microbiota, which was not caused by a reduction of the proliferation index (52.1-61.5) or a significantly increased number of apoptotic (1-1.13) or necrotic (32-30.5 %) cells. Since the model allows the separate study of the microbial and cellular exometabolome, the biofilm and epithelial characteristics after co-culturing, it is applicable for investigations within fundamental research and for the discovery and development of agents that promote wound healing.

  11. Laminin α5 influences the architecture of the mouse small intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Zhen X.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The mammalian intestine displays two distinct patterns of mucosal organization. The small intestine contains mucosal epithelial invaginations called crypts of Lieberkühn that are continuous with evaginations into the lumen called villi. The colon also contains crypts, but its epithelial surface is lined by flat surface cuffs. The epithelial cells of both organs communicate with the underlying mesenchyme through a basement membrane that is composed of a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, including members of the laminin family. The basement membranes of the small intestine and colon contain distinct laminin subtypes; notably, the villus basement membrane is rich in laminin α5. Here we show that diminution of laminin α5 in a mouse model led to a compensatory deposition of colonic laminins that resulted in a transformation from a small intestinal to a colonic mucosal architecture. The alteration in mucosal architecture was associated with reduced levels of nuclear p27Kip1, a cell cycle regulator, and altered intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Our results suggest that laminin α5 plays a crucial role in establishing and maintaining the specific mucosal pattern of the mouse small intestine. PMID:18628307

  12. Hierarchical deconstruction of mouse olfactory sensory neurons: from whole mucosa to single-cell RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Khan, Mona; Omura, Masayo; Scialdone, Antonio; Mombaerts, Peter; Marioni, John C.; Logan, Darren W.

    2015-01-01

    The mouse olfactory mucosa is a complex chemosensory tissue composed of multiple cell types, neuronal and non-neuronal. We have here applied RNA-seq hierarchically, in three steps of decreasing cellular heterogeneity: starting with crude tissue samples dissected from the nose, proceeding to flow-cytometrically sorted pools of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), and finally arriving at single mature OSNs. We show that 98.9% of intact olfactory receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mature OSNs. We uncover a hitherto unknown bipartition among mature OSNs. We find that 19 of 21 single mature OSNs each express a single intact OR gene abundantly, consistent with the one neuron-one receptor rule. For the 9 single OSNs where the two alleles of the abundantly expressed OR gene exhibit single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we demonstrate that monoallelic expression of the abundantly expressed OR gene is extremely tight. The remaining two single mature OSNs lack OR gene expression but express Trpc2 and Gucy1b2. We establish these two cells as a neuronal cell type that is fundamentally distinct from canonical, OR-expressing OSNs and that is defined by the differential, higher expression of 55 genes. We propose this tiered experimental approach as a paradigm to unravel gene expression in other cellularly heterogeneous systems. PMID:26670777

  13. Study of the extraction process and in vivo inhibitory effect of ganoderma triterpenes in oral mucosa cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ruhui; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Shang; Gao, Wenxin; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Haotian; Han, Bing

    2011-06-24

    the normal state, simple epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma disease grades. Using the optimized extraction process, ganoderma triterpenes could be extracted with high efficiency, and the results of animal tests showed inhibitory effects of ganoderma triterpenes on oral mucosa cancer.

  14. Homeostasis alteration within small intestinal mucosa after acute enteral refeeding in total parenteral nutrition mouse model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongjia; Barrett, Meredith; Hou, Yue; Yoon, Hong Keun; Ochi, Takanori; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2016-02-15

    Feeding strategies to care for patients who transition from enteral nutrient deprivation while on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feedings generally proceed to full enteral nutrition once the gastrointestinal tract recovers; however, an increasing body of literature suggests that a subgroup of patients may actually develop an increased incidence of adverse events, including death. To examine this further, we studied the effects of acute refeeding in a mouse model of TPN. Interestingly, refeeding led to some beneficial effects, including prevention in the decline in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation. However, refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as an upregulation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). Refeeding also failed to prevent TPN-associated increases in IEC apoptosis, loss of epithelial barrier function, and failure of the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive stem cell expression. Transitioning from TPN to enteral feedings led to a partial restoration of the small bowel microbial population. In conclusion, while acute refeeding led to some restoration of normal gastrointestinal physiology, enteral refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal inflammatory markers and may suggest alternative strategies to enteral refeeding should be considered.

  15. Element concentrations in the intestinal mucosa of the mouse as measured by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    von Zglinicki, T; Roomans, G M

    1989-06-01

    Subcellular ion distribution in villus, crypt, Paneth and smooth muscle cells of the mouse small intestine under resting conditions was investigated by X-ray microanalysis of ultrathin cryosections. In addition, the mass distribution was estimated by measuring the optical transmission of the compartments in transmission electron micrographs. Each cell type is characterized by a special composition in terms of the major monovalent ions Na, K, and Cl. In particular, among crypt epithelial cells, those cells containing small secretion granula (termed crypt A cells) also display cytoplasmic ion concentrations significantly different from crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula (crypt B cells). Monovalent ion concentrations in the cytoplasm of Paneth cells, muscle cells, and crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula are higher than expected from osmotic considerations. Hence, significant binding of ions to cytoplasmic polyelectrolytes is assumed in these cells. There are gradients of dry mass and K concentration from the luminal to the basal side of the cell, both in crypt and in villus cells. The terminal web in these cells is rich in Na and Cl. The elemental composition of the large, dark secretion granula in Paneth cells is similar to that of the small dark granula in crypt cells. However, the two morphologically different types of granula within the Paneth cells have a significantly different elemental composition, which might reflect maturation of secretion granula.

  16. Element concentrations in the intestinal mucosa of the mouse as measured by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    von Zglinicki, T; Roomans, G M

    1989-06-01

    Subcellular ion distribution in villus, crypt, Paneth and smooth muscle cells of the mouse small intestine under resting conditions was investigated by X-ray microanalysis of ultrathin cryosections. In addition, the mass distribution was estimated by measuring the optical transmission of the compartments in transmission electron micrographs. Each cell type is characterized by a special composition in terms of the major monovalent ions Na, K, and Cl. In particular, among crypt epithelial cells, those cells containing small secretion granula (termed crypt A cells) also display cytoplasmic ion concentrations significantly different from crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula (crypt B cells). Monovalent ion concentrations in the cytoplasm of Paneth cells, muscle cells, and crypt epithelial cells lacking secretion granula are higher than expected from osmotic considerations. Hence, significant binding of ions to cytoplasmic polyelectrolytes is assumed in these cells. There are gradients of dry mass and K concentration from the luminal to the basal side of the cell, both in crypt and in villus cells. The terminal web in these cells is rich in Na and Cl. The elemental composition of the large, dark secretion granula in Paneth cells is similar to that of the small dark granula in crypt cells. However, the two morphologically different types of granula within the Paneth cells have a significantly different elemental composition, which might reflect maturation of secretion granula. PMID:2814397

  17. Novel papillomavirus isolated from the oral mucosa of a polar bear does not cluster with other papillomaviruses of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Hans; Rector, Annabel; Bertelsen, Mads F; Leifsson, Pall S; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-05-25

    Papillomatosis has been documented in several carnivores, and papillomavirus (PV) types have been characterized from lesions in a number of carnivore species: the canine oral PV (COPV), the Felis domesticus PV type 1 (FdPV-1) isolated from a Persian cat, the Procyon lotor PV type 1 (PlPV-1) isolated from a raccoon, the canine PV type 2 (CPV-2) from a dog's foot pad lesion and the canine PV type 3 (CPV-3) associated with a canine epidermodysplasia verruciformis - like disease. A tissue sample was taken from a papillomatous lesion on the oral mucosa of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Extracted DNA was used as a template for multiply primed rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and restriction enzyme analysis of the RCA product indicated the presence of papillomaviral DNA. The genome of this PV was cloned and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The Ursus maritimus PV type 1 (UmPV-1) genome counts 7582 basepairs and is smaller than that of other papillomaviruses from carnivore species. UmPV-1 contains the typical noncoding region NCR1, but unlike the carnivore PVs of the Lambda genus, UmPV-1 does not possess a second noncoding region NCR2. Phylogenetic analysis based on a nucleotide sequence alignment of the L1 ORF of UmPV-1 and 51 other PV types indicates that UmPV-1 does not cluster with any of the other carnivore PVs, but branches off near the root of the common branch of the genus Alphapapillomavirus. PMID:18215475

  18. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage. PMID:26062010

  19. Colonization by Candida Species of the Oral and Vaginal Mucosa in HIV-Infected and Noninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haihong; Wang, Cuiwei; Hamilton, Pilar; Blackmon, Mandy; Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard; Li, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients continues to be a public health problem. Effective antifungal therapies are few in number and have inherent problems such as selecting for drug-resistant strains of Candida species. To evaluate the state of Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosa, we recruited 80 women, both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Diet diaries were collected by participants to examine the role of diet on fungal growth. Baseline studies were initially done in participants that followed the colonization of both mucosal sites over 0–90 days. The most common Candida species from both groups of patients were C. albicans and C. glabrata. Among the HIV-infected cohort, the percentage of participants who were positive for Candida spp. was higher than in the HIV-uninfected control group. Furthermore, the frequency of colonization (1 episode versus >1 episode) was also increased in the HIV-infected cohort. These data indicate that Candida species remain an important component of the microbial community in both populations. PMID:23098053

  20. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage.

  1. Bioeffect of lipohemia rabbits irradiated in oral mucosa with 650-nm diode-laser-accompanied oxygen inspiration and clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fu-Shou; Tang, Jin-Xian; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Pang, Hi-Xiu

    1998-11-01

    The study on irradiating in oral mucosa of rabbits with 650 nm diode laser and clinical application has been reported in this paper. The result of animal experiment showed: the obvious decrease of cholesterin and triglyceride has been found among those highly lipohemia rabbits in the experiments of 650nm diode laser irradiating accompanying with oxygen, as well as the parameters of hemorheology obviously being improved, as compared with highly lipohemia rabbits un-irradiating, the statistical analysis showing P < 0.01. In the meantime, the observation of histopathology shows, the lipide decreasing in aorta wall, intramyocardinal membranous layer,and renal interstitial in the group of rabbits which are irradiated with laser and accompanying with oxygen inspiration, and even the perfectly recovered tissue in some rabbits has been seen. This experimental result is significantly for clinical application. The results of clinic application showed, that the patients employed this method which treatment cerebral infarction, lipohemia, the total effective ratio achieved 91.7 percent, perfect effect 30.6 percent.

  2. SU-D-16A-02: A Novel Methodology for Accurate, Semi-Automated Delineation of Oral Mucosa for Radiation Therapy Dose-Response Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J; Welsh, L; Gulliford, S; Harrington, K; Nutting, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The significant morbidity caused by radiation-induced acute oral mucositis means that studies aiming to elucidate dose-response relationships in this tissue are a high priority. However, there is currently no standardized method for delineating the mucosal structures within the oral cavity. This report describes the development of a methodology to delineate the oral mucosa accurately on CT scans in a semi-automated manner. Methods: An oral mucosa atlas for automated segmentation was constructed using the RayStation Atlas-Based Segmentation (ABS) module. A radiation oncologist manually delineated the full surface of the oral mucosa on a planning CT scan of a patient receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the head and neck region. A 3mm fixed annulus was added to incorporate the mucosal wall thickness. This structure was saved as an atlas template. ABS followed by model-based segmentation was performed on four further patients sequentially, adding each patient to the atlas. Manual editing of the automatically segmented structure was performed. A dose comparison between these contours and previously used oral cavity volume contours was performed. Results: The new approach was successful in delineating the mucosa, as assessed by an experienced radiation oncologist, when applied to a new series of patients receiving head and neck RT. Reductions in the mean doses obtained when using the new delineation approach, compared with the previously used technique, were demonstrated for all patients (median: 36.0%, range: 25.6% – 39.6%) and were of a magnitude that might be expected to be clinically significant. Differences in the maximum dose that might reasonably be expected to be clinically significant were observed for two patients. Conclusion: The method developed provides a means of obtaining the dose distribution delivered to the oral mucosa more accurately than has previously been achieved. This will enable the acquisition of high quality dosimetric data for use in

  3. CO2 laser biopsies of oral mucosa: an immunocytological and histological comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Martignone, Alessandra; Cisternino, Aurelia; Vezzoni, Franco; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The relationship between bioptic technique and tissue preservation has been studied in 18 oral biopsies of young patients obtained by electro surgery or CO2 laser surgery. Biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and histologically, histochemically and immunocytochemically treated. All the biopsies show inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial spongiosis, trichocariosis, supra basal small blisters, and epithelial clefts with lamina detaching from the corium. Histochemistry shows both the presence of edema and acid mucopolysaccharides inside the corium, and variable glycogen content in epithelial cells. Trichocariotic cells show a positive MiB1/Ki67 expression, when they are present. Nevertheless, laser biopsies show a lower amount of basophilic fibrous tissue and of bc12 bodies detection, connected with a higher amount of glycogen, Cytokeratin and MiB1/Ki67 expression in epithelial cells, compared to bovie biopsies. The result show a higher degree of damages in particular at the epithelial level, in electro surgery biopsies rather than laser biopsies. The best epithelial and corium preservation showed by laser biopsies suggest a chance of reversible condition, which can lead to a complete recovery due to its higher capability of restoring tissues.

  4. Histology of the Oral Mucosa in Patients With BRONJ at III Stage: A Microscopic Study Proves the Unsuitability of Local Mucosal Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Sara Di; Trapassi, Alberto; Corradino, Bartolo; Cordova, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonate Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) is a newly recognized condition reported in patients treated with aminobisphosphonates (BF). BRONJ is defined as the presence of exposed necrotic alveolar bone that does not resolve over a period of 8 weeks in a patient taking bisphosphonates who has not had radiotherapy to the jaw. Treatment protocols have been outlined, but trials and outcomes of treatment and long-term follow-up data are not yet available. In 2004 an expert panel outlined recommendations for the management of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Through the histological study of the oral mucosa over the bone necrosis and around the osteonecrosis area in 8 patients affected by BRONJ at III stage, the authors highlight the inappropriateness of the local mucosal flaps to cover the losses of substance of the jaw, BF-related. Methods Mucosa tissue was taken from 8 patients, affected by BRONJ, III stage. The samples taken from the mucosa around and over the osteonecrosis area were fixed with formalin and an ematossilina-eosin dichromatic coloring was carried out. Results The samples of mucosa showed pathognomonic signs of cell suffering that prove that in these patients using local mucosa flaps is inappropriate. Conclusions The authors suggest that only a well vascularized flap as free flap must be used to cover the osteonecrosis area in patients with BRONJ stage III. Because of the structural instability of the mucosa in patients suffering of osteonecrosis Bf related the local flaps are prone to ulceration and to relapse. PMID:23390472

  5. Carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) for corneal epithelium reconstruction: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wood, Andrew; Hoft, Richard; Pan, Derek; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Makalinao, Andrew; French, Samuel W; Niihara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas did not show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while there was a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas.

  6. Carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) for corneal epithelium reconstruction: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wood, Andrew; Hoft, Richard; Pan, Derek; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Makalinao, Andrew; French, Samuel W; Niihara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas did not show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while there was a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas. PMID:25881998

  7. Single-Dose Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Syme, Alasdair; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The generation of a self-resolved radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) mouse model using the highest possibly tolerable single ionizing radiation (RT) dose was needed in order to study RIOM management solutions. We used 10-week-old male BALB/c mice with average weight of 23 g for model production. Mice were treated with an orthovoltage X-ray irradiator to induce the RIOM ulceration at the intermolar eminence of the animal tongue. General anesthesia was injected intraperitoneally for proper animal immobilization during the procedure. Ten days after irradiation, a single RT dose of 10, 15, 18, 20, and 25 Gy generated a RIOM ulcer at the intermolar eminence (posterior upper tongue surface) with mean ulcer floor (posterior epithelium) heights of 190, 150, 25, 10, and 10 μm, respectively, compared to 200 μm in non-irradiated animals. The mean RIOM ulcer size % of the total epithelialized upper surface of the animal tongue was RT dose dependent. At day 10, the ulcer size % was 2, 5, 27, and 31% for 15, 18, 20, and 25 Gy RT, respectively. The mean relative surface area of the total epithelialized upper surface of the tongue was RT dose dependent, since it was significantly decreased to 97, 95, 88, and 38% with 15, 18, 20, and 25 Gy doses, respectively, at day 10 after RT. Subcutaneous injection of 1 mL of 0.9% saline/6 h for 24 h yielded a 100% survival only with 18 Gy self-resolved RIOM, which had 5.6 ± 0.3 days ulcer duration. In conclusion, we have generated a 100% survival self-resolved single-dose RIOM male mouse model with long enough duration for application in RIOM management research. Oral mucositis ulceration was radiation dose dependent. Sufficient hydration of animals after radiation exposure significantly improved their survival. PMID:27446800

  8. Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions.

  9. The role and application of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral mucosa pathology - contemporary knowledge with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazanowska, Krzysztofa; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the current available literature, the authors have presented a short description of cytological examination and its application in the oral mucosa disease diagnostic process. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of this method are described. The available diagnostic tools used for oral smears were reviewed as well as more and more often available methods which aim at making the diagnosis process more accurate and more favorable for patients. Oral cytology analysis may, in the near future, be a very useful examination for patients in terms of diagnostics and monitoring, not only during the treatment but also afterwards. The authors would like to demonstrate what a beneficial tool this cytological examination could be as a fast and cheap cancer prophylactic test. This opinion is based on the fact that this cytological method has significantly improved the detection of uterine cervical cancer during a gynecological examination since the introduction of the Papanicolau technique in the 40s.

  10. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters.

  11. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly.

  12. Increased levels of the acetaldehyde-derived DNA adduct N 2-ethyldeoxyguanosine in oral mucosa DNA from Rhesus monkeys exposed to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Balbo, Silvia; Juanes, Rita Cervera; Khariwala, Samir; Baker, Erich J; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is a human carcinogen. A causal link has been established between alcohol drinking and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, colon, liver and breast. Despite this established association, the underlying mechanisms of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. Various mechanisms may come into play depending on the type of cancer; however, convincing evidence supports the concept that ethanol's major metabolite acetaldehyde may play a major role. Acetaldehyde can react with DNA forming adducts which can serve as biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and potentially of cancer risk. The major DNA adduct formed from this reaction is N (2)-ethylidenedeoxyguanosine, which can be quantified as its reduced form N (2)-ethyl-dG by LC-ESI-MS/MS. To investigate the potential use of N (2)-ethyl-dG as a biomarker of alcohol-induced DNA damage, we quantified this adduct in DNA from the oral, oesophageal and mammary gland tissues from rhesus monkeys exposed to alcohol drinking over their lifetimes and compared it to controls. N (2)-Ethyl-dG levels were significantly higher in the oral mucosa DNA of the exposed animals. Levels of the DNA adduct measured in the oesophageal mucosa of exposed animals were not significantly different from controls. A correlation between the levels measured in the oral and oesophageal DNA, however, was observed, suggesting a common source of formation of the DNA adducts. N (2) -Ethyl-dG was measured in mammary gland DNA from a small cohort of female animals, but no difference was observed between exposed animals and controls. These results support the hypothesis that acetaldehyde induces DNA damage in the oral mucosa of alcohol-exposed animals and that it may play role in the alcohol-induced carcinogenic process. The decrease of N (2)-ethyl-dG levels in exposed tissues further removed from the mouth also suggests a role of alcohol metabolism in the oral cavity, which may be considered separately from ethanol liver metabolism in the

  13. Evaluation of Various Nuclear Cytological Changes in Normal Buccal Mucosa and Peritumoural Area in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Sadia; Kashif, Muhammad; Nagi, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the role of serial cytological assay in calculating the nuclear response of contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peritumoural area of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. This prospective, nonrandomized study was comprised of 76 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma on cyclical chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiosensitivity was evaluated using serial scrape smears taken before and after immediate exposure to CCRT, at 17th day of CCRT (mid of treatment), and at the end of treatment. The nuclear changes, such as multinucleation, micronucleation, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear budding, prominent nucleoli, and binucleation occurring in both irradiated cancer cells and contralateral normal buccal mucosa, had a statistically significant dose related increase with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion. We recommend regular use of serial cytological assay during CCRT as it may prove to be a valuable tool for assessment of chemoradiosensitivity and persistence of tumour/dysplastic cells after radiotherapy. PMID:27148467

  14. In-Vivo Nonlinear Optical Microscopy (NLOM) of Epithelial-Connective Tissue Interface (ECTI) Reveals Quantitative Measures of Neoplasia in Hamster Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Ortiz, Daniel; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-connective tissue interface (ECTI) plays an integral role in epithelial neoplasia, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This interface undergoes significant alterations due to hyperproliferating epithelium that supports the transformation of normal epithelium to precancers and cancer. We present a method based on nonlinear optical microscopy to directly assess the ECTI and quantify dysplastic alterations using a hamster model for oral carcinogenesis. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic normal mucosa were imaged in-vivo by both multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) to obtain cross-sectional reconstructions of the oral epithelium and lamina propria. Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histopathological grading and measurement of ECTI parameters. An ECTI shape parameter was calculated based on deviation from the linear geometry (ΔLinearity) seen in normal mucosa was measured using MPAM-SHGM and histology. The ECTI was readily visible in MPAM-SHGM and quantitative shape analysis showed ECTI deformation in dysplasia but not in normal mucosa. ΔLinearity was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in dysplasia (0.41±0.24) than normal (0.11±0.04) as measured in MPAM-SHGM and results were confirmed in histology which showed similar trends in ΔLinearity. Increase in ΔLinearity was also statistically significant for different grades of dysplasia. In-vivo ΔLinearity measurement alone from microscopy discriminated dysplasia from normal tissue with 87.9% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, while calculations from histology provided 96.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Among other quantifiable architectural changes, a progressive statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness was seen with increasing grade of dysplasia. MPAM-SHGM provides new noninvasive ways for direct characterization of ECTI which may be used in preclinical studies to investigate the role of this interface in

  15. Chromosome damage and cytotoxicity in oral mucosa cells after 2 months of exposure to anabolic steroids (decadurabolin and winstrol) in weight lifting.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A S; Aguiar, Odair; Medalha, Carla C; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from anabolic steroid users after 2 months of exposure. Two experimental groups consisting of 15 adult males who practise weight lifting and are anabolic steroid users or 15 adult males who practise weight lifting, but are non-anabolic steroid users, were recruited. In addition, 20 sedentary males, who do not practise any physical activity regularly, were matched by age with experimental groups. No significant statistical differences (p>0.05) were noticed in individuals who practise physical activity only. On the other hand, an increase of micronucleated cells (MNCs) in anabolic steroid (decadurabulin and Winstrol) users was observed. Regarding cytotoxic parameters, the same observation has occurred, that is, significant statistical differences (p<0.05) were noticed in the group exposed to anabolic steroids when compared with other controls, as depicted by high frequencies of pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis. Taken together, our results suggest that genomic instability and cytotoxicity are induced by anabolic steroid administration in oral mucosa cells as assessed by the micronucleus test.

  16. Candida albicans and Streptococcus salivarius modulate IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha expression and secretion by engineered human oral mucosa cells.

    PubMed

    Mostefaoui, Yakout; Bart, Christian; Frenette, Michel; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the involvement of oral epithelial cells via two cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and one chemokine (IL-8) in local defences against live yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius) using an engineered human oral mucosa model. We report that the yeast changed from the blastospore to the hyphal form and induced significant tissue disorganization at later contact periods (24 and 48 h) compared to the bacteria. However, this effect did not reduce the viability or total number of epithelial cells. Gene activation analyses revealed that IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels rose in tissues in contact with live C. albicans or S. salivarius. Gene activation was followed by an upregulation of protein secretion. IL-6 levels were higher after contact with C. albicans than with S. salivarius. IL-8 levels after contact with S. salivarius were higher than with C. albicans. Our study suggests that S. salivarius is more efficient at inducing proinflammatory mediator release than C. albicans. These results provide additional evidence for the contribution of oral epithelial cells to the inflammatory response against fungi and bacteria. PMID:15469436

  17. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. PMID:8575807

  18. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  19. TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE DISPOSITION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID IN THE MOUSE
    AFTER ACUTE ORAL ADMINISTRATION

    Michael F. Hughes, Ph.D., Brenda C. Edwards, Carol T. Mitchell and Elaina M. Kenyon, Ph.D. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Nation...

  20. BMP4 and FGF strongly induce differentiation of mouse ES cells into oral ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suga, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomiko; Sakakibara, Mayu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Ozone, Chikafumi; Ogawa, Koichiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Tsunekawa, Shin; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    During embryonic development, oral ectoderm differentiates into the adenohypophysis, dental epithelia, salivary glands, and nasal pit. Few reports exist concerning the induction of oral ectoderm from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Generally, any lot differences in fetal bovine serum (FBS) and serum replacer may affect the induction of ES cell-differentiation. Using a previously established culture strategy for differentiation, the proportion of cell aggregates containing Pitx1+ oral ectoderm varied widely between 9-36% when several different lots of FBS or serum replacer were used. We therefore tried to enhance the differentiation method. We found that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) treatments improved oral ectoderm induction. Such treatment also improved the differentiation of oral ectoderm into the adenohypophysis. Furthermore, increased BMP4 treatment induced dental epithelium and mesenchyme. Such differentiation suggests that the Pitx1+ layer displays similar properties to oral ectoderm, as found in vivo. Differentiation of ES cells into oral ectoderm using different lots of FBS and serum replacer increased 78-90% after treatment with BMP4 and FGF. In summary, we have established a robust strategy for the induction of oral ectoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells. PMID:26209816

  1. BMP4 and FGF strongly induce differentiation of mouse ES cells into oral ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suga, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomiko; Sakakibara, Mayu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Ozone, Chikafumi; Ogawa, Koichiro; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Tsunekawa, Shin; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    During embryonic development, oral ectoderm differentiates into the adenohypophysis, dental epithelia, salivary glands, and nasal pit. Few reports exist concerning the induction of oral ectoderm from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Generally, any lot differences in fetal bovine serum (FBS) and serum replacer may affect the induction of ES cell-differentiation. Using a previously established culture strategy for differentiation, the proportion of cell aggregates containing Pitx1+ oral ectoderm varied widely between 9-36% when several different lots of FBS or serum replacer were used. We therefore tried to enhance the differentiation method. We found that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) treatments improved oral ectoderm induction. Such treatment also improved the differentiation of oral ectoderm into the adenohypophysis. Furthermore, increased BMP4 treatment induced dental epithelium and mesenchyme. Such differentiation suggests that the Pitx1+ layer displays similar properties to oral ectoderm, as found in vivo. Differentiation of ES cells into oral ectoderm using different lots of FBS and serum replacer increased 78-90% after treatment with BMP4 and FGF. In summary, we have established a robust strategy for the induction of oral ectoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells.

  2. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  3. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity. PMID:26010270

  4. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity.

  5. Areca nut-induced buccal mucosa fibroblast contraction and its signaling: a potential role in oral submucous fibrosis--a precancer condition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Hui-Lin; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2013-05-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an oral habit that increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition showing epithelial atrophy and tissue fibrosis. Persistent fibroblast contraction may induce the fibrotic contracture of tissue. In this study, we found that areca nut extract (ANE) (200-1200 µg/ml) stimulated buccal mucosa fibroblast (OMF)-populated collagen gel contraction. Arecoline but not arecaidine-two areca alkaloids, slightly induced the OMF contraction. Exogenous addition of carboxylesterase (2U/ml) prevented the arecoline- but not ANE-induced OMF contraction. OMF expressed inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors. ANE-induced OMF (800 µg/ml) contraction was inhibited by U73122 [phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (IP3 receptor antagonist), respectively. Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and verapamil, two calcium mobilization modulators, also suppressed the ANE-induced OMF contraction. ANE induced calcium/calmodulin kinase II and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in OMF. Moreover, W7 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitor), HA1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), ML-7 (MLC kinase inhibitor) and cytochalasin B (actin filament polymerization inhibitor) inhibited the ANE-induced OMF contraction. Although ANE elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in OMF, catalase, superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine showed no obvious effect on ANE-elicited OMF contraction. These results indicate that BQ chewing may affect the wound healing and fibrotic processes in OSF via inducing OMF contraction by ANE and areca alkaloids. AN components-induced OMF contraction was related to PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/calmodulin and Rho signaling pathway as well as actin filament polymerization, but not solely due to ROS production.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of the risk of tobacco abuse in oral mucosa using fluorescence spectroscopy: a clinical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazeer, Shaiju S.; Asish, Rajashekharan; Venugopal, Chandrashekharan; Anita, Balan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jayasree, Ramapurath S.

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco abuse and alcoholism cause cancer, emphysema, and heart disease, which contribute to high death rates, globally. Society pays a significant cost for these habits whose first demonstration in many cases is in the oral cavity. Oral cavity disorders are highly curable if a screening procedure is available to diagnose them in the earliest stages. The aim of the study is to identify the severity of tobacco abuse, in oral cavity, as reflected by the emission from endogenous fluorophores and the chromophore hemoglobin. A group who had no tobacco habits and another with a history of tobacco abuse were included in this study. To compare the results with a pathological condition, a group of leukoplakia patients were also included. Emission from porphyrin and the spectral filtering modulation effect of hemoglobin were collected from different sites. Multivariate analysis strengthened the spectral features with a sensitivity of 60% to 100% and a specificity of 76% to 100% for the discrimination. Total hemoglobin and porphyrin levels of habitués and leukoplakia groups were comparable, indicating the alarming situation about the risk of tobacco abuse. Results prove that fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis is an effective noninvasive tool for the early diagnosis of pathological changes due to tobacco abuse.

  7. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

    2013-07-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

  8. Naegleria fowleri glycoconjugates with residues of α-D-mannose are involved in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Godinez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; De Oca, Arturo Contis-Montes; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the possible role of glycoconjugates containing α-D-mannose and α-D-glucose residues in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal epithelium. Trophozoites incubated with 20 μg of one of three different lectins which preferentially recognized these residues were inoculated intranasally in Balb/c mice. Mouse survival was 40% with Pisum sativum and Canavalia ensiformis and 20% with Galanthus nivalis amebic pretreatment, compared with 0% survival for control animals administered trophozoites without pretreatment. Possibly some of the glycoproteins found in Naegleria fowleri represent an adherence factor. Differences in the saccharide sequences of the Naegleria species, even on the same glycoconjugate structure, could explain the different results corresponding to the distinct pretreatments (C. ensiformis, G. nivalis, and P. sativum). We found a higher expression of glycoconjugates recognized by P. sativum in Naegleria lovaniensis than N. fowleri, probably due to the higher number of oligosaccharides containing an α-1,6-linked fucose moiety expressed on the former species. PMID:23922203

  9. Naegleria fowleri glycoconjugates with residues of α-D-mannose are involved in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Godinez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; De Oca, Arturo Contis-Montes; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the possible role of glycoconjugates containing α-D-mannose and α-D-glucose residues in adherence of trophozoites to mouse nasal epithelium. Trophozoites incubated with 20 μg of one of three different lectins which preferentially recognized these residues were inoculated intranasally in Balb/c mice. Mouse survival was 40% with Pisum sativum and Canavalia ensiformis and 20% with Galanthus nivalis amebic pretreatment, compared with 0% survival for control animals administered trophozoites without pretreatment. Possibly some of the glycoproteins found in Naegleria fowleri represent an adherence factor. Differences in the saccharide sequences of the Naegleria species, even on the same glycoconjugate structure, could explain the different results corresponding to the distinct pretreatments (C. ensiformis, G. nivalis, and P. sativum). We found a higher expression of glycoconjugates recognized by P. sativum in Naegleria lovaniensis than N. fowleri, probably due to the higher number of oligosaccharides containing an α-1,6-linked fucose moiety expressed on the former species.

  10. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases.

  11. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  12. Laser irradiation of bone. I. An in vitro study concerning the effects of the CO2 laser on oral mucosa and subjacent bone.

    PubMed

    Krause, L S; Cobb, C M; Rapley, J W; Killoy, W J; Spencer, P

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate the histologic effects of CO2 laser irradiation on biopsies of porcine oral mucosa and underlying bone under conditions that simulate the applications of the laser during gingival surgery; and second, to evaluate the histologic effects on cortical bone following irradiation with increasing energy densities. Specimens consisting of mucosa and underlying bone were subjected to multiple passes of the laser beam in the same line of incision at energy densities ranging from 240 to 1,032 J/cm2. A second group of specimens consisting only of cortical bone was irradiated by a single pass of the laser at energy densities ranging from 40 to 2,062 J/cm2. In both groups the mean depth of ablation, width of surface damage, and widths of the zones of thermal necrosis and thermal damage were determined. Results showed a direct correlation between increasing energy density and/or number of energy beam passes and increasing depths of ablation and widths of surface damage. Further, more than three passes at 1,032 J/cm2 penetrated the mucosal layer to involve underlying bone. The mean depth of ablation for bone specimens following a single pass of the energy beam ranged from 0.02 mm at 160 J/cm2 to a maximum of 0.75 mm at 2,062 J/cm2. Using those energy densities most common to oral soft tissue surgery, the mean depth of ablation in bone specimens ranged from 0.17 mm at 240 J/cm2 to 0.28 mm at 640 J/cm2 to 0.35 mm at 1,032 J/cm2. All specimens regardless of tissue composition, energy density, or number of energy beam passes exhibited a distinct layer of residual carbonized tissue, a zone of thermal necrosis characterized by tissue coagulation, and a zone of tissue exhibiting thermal damage. PMID:9379332

  13. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit. PMID:17696743

  14. [The expression of TLR4 and HBD3 in epithelial cells of oral mucosa by surgical treatment of periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Zorina, O A; Gankovskaya, L V; Balykin, R A; Svitich, O A; Ivanyushko, T P

    2016-01-01

    The expression of TLR4 and HBD3 in epithelial cells of the oral cavity was studied using polymerase chain reaction in real-time in patients with inflammatory and destructive periodontal lesions before and after surgery using osteoplastic material. Analysis of TLR4 and HBD3 expression in epithelial cells demonstrates the key role of the innate immune factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and destructive periodontal lesions. TLR4 gene expression was increased 1.5-7.0 times and HBD3 1.5-5.0 times compared to healthy individuals. Surgical treatment resulted in an effective rehabilitation and normalization of innate immunity. PMID:27636754

  15. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  16. [Candida carriage in the oral mucosa of a student population: adhesiveness of the strains and predisposing factors].

    PubMed

    Negroni, M; González, M I; Levin, B; Cuesta, A; Iovanniti, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish oral carriage of Candida and possible factors associated to their virulence in young adults and their relation with local and general situations considered as predisposing factors. Samples were obtained from dorsum tongue in 70 students attending the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Buenos Aires) average age: 23, all in healthy oral conditions. Of these, 21.42% were Candida positive. These samples were seeded in CHROMagar. Candida identification was completed in milk agar and Fungichrom 1. The following species were identified: 11 Candida albicans (C.a), 2 Candida parapsilosis (C.p) and 1 Candida glabrata (C.g). In one case, 2 species (C.a and C.g) were isolated in the same sample. Virulence was determined as adherence capacity by biofilm or in vitro plaque formation and hydrophobicity. Different host factors were analyzed statistically to establish their importance as predisposing factors to allow Candida colonization. Adherence of C.a. was found to be similar in all C.a. strains, whereas significant differences were found between C.a. and C.p. and between C.a. and C.g. Only the antiseptic mouthrinse and the diet were significant among the considered factors.

  17. A novel protocol allowing oral delivery of a protein complement inhibitor that subsequently targets to inflamed colon mucosa and ameliorates murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Elvington, M; Blichmann, P; Qiao, F; Scheiber, M; Wadsworth, C; Luzinov, I; Lucero, J; Vertegel, A; Tomlinson, S

    2014-08-01

    While there is evidence of a pathogenic role for complement in inflammatory bowel disease, there is also evidence for a protective role that relates to host defence and protection from endotoxaemia. There is thus concern regarding the use of systemic complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. Local delivery of a complement inhibitor to the colon by oral administration would ameliorate such concerns, but while formulations exist for oral delivery of low molecular weight drugs to the colon, they have not been used successfully for oral delivery of proteins. We describe a novel pellet formulation consisting of cross-linked dextran coated with an acrylic co-polymer that protects the complement inhibitor CR2-Crry from destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. CR2-Crry containing pellets administered by gavage, were characterized using a therapeutic protocol in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral treatment of established colitis over a 5-day period significantly reduced mucosal inflammation and injury, with similar therapeutic benefit whether or not the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, was co-administered. Reduction in injury was associated with the targeting of CR2-Crry to the mucosal surface and reduced local complement activation. Treatment had no effect on systemic complement activity. This novel method for oral delivery of a targeted protein complement inhibitor will reduce systemic effects, thereby decreasing the risk of opportunistic infection, as well as lowering the required dose and treatment cost and improving patient compliance. Furthermore, the novel delivery system described here may provide similar benefits for administration of other protein-based drugs, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies.

  18. A novel protocol allowing oral delivery of a protein complement inhibitor that subsequently targets to inflamed colon mucosa and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Elvington, M; Blichmann, P; Qiao, F; Scheiber, M; Wadsworth, C; Luzinov, I; Lucero, J; Vertegel, A; Tomlinson, S

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence of a pathogenic role for complement in inflammatory bowel disease, there is also evidence for a protective role that relates to host defence and protection from endotoxaemia. There is thus concern regarding the use of systemic complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. Local delivery of a complement inhibitor to the colon by oral administration would ameliorate such concerns, but while formulations exist for oral delivery of low molecular weight drugs to the colon, they have not been used successfully for oral delivery of proteins. We describe a novel pellet formulation consisting of cross-linked dextran coated with an acrylic co-polymer that protects the complement inhibitor CR2-Crry from destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. CR2-Crry containing pellets administered by gavage, were characterized using a therapeutic protocol in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral treatment of established colitis over a 5-day period significantly reduced mucosal inflammation and injury, with similar therapeutic benefit whether or not the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, was co-administered. Reduction in injury was associated with the targeting of CR2-Crry to the mucosal surface and reduced local complement activation. Treatment had no effect on systemic complement activity. This novel method for oral delivery of a targeted protein complement inhibitor will reduce systemic effects, thereby decreasing the risk of opportunistic infection, as well as lowering the required dose and treatment cost and improving patient compliance. Furthermore, the novel delivery system described here may provide similar benefits for administration of other protein-based drugs, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies. PMID:24730624

  19. A novel protocol allowing oral delivery of a protein complement inhibitor that subsequently targets to inflamed colon mucosa and ameliorates murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Elvington, M; Blichmann, P; Qiao, F; Scheiber, M; Wadsworth, C; Luzinov, I; Lucero, J; Vertegel, A; Tomlinson, S

    2014-08-01

    While there is evidence of a pathogenic role for complement in inflammatory bowel disease, there is also evidence for a protective role that relates to host defence and protection from endotoxaemia. There is thus concern regarding the use of systemic complement inhibition as a therapeutic strategy. Local delivery of a complement inhibitor to the colon by oral administration would ameliorate such concerns, but while formulations exist for oral delivery of low molecular weight drugs to the colon, they have not been used successfully for oral delivery of proteins. We describe a novel pellet formulation consisting of cross-linked dextran coated with an acrylic co-polymer that protects the complement inhibitor CR2-Crry from destruction in the gastrointestinal tract. CR2-Crry containing pellets administered by gavage, were characterized using a therapeutic protocol in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral treatment of established colitis over a 5-day period significantly reduced mucosal inflammation and injury, with similar therapeutic benefit whether or not the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, was co-administered. Reduction in injury was associated with the targeting of CR2-Crry to the mucosal surface and reduced local complement activation. Treatment had no effect on systemic complement activity. This novel method for oral delivery of a targeted protein complement inhibitor will reduce systemic effects, thereby decreasing the risk of opportunistic infection, as well as lowering the required dose and treatment cost and improving patient compliance. Furthermore, the novel delivery system described here may provide similar benefits for administration of other protein-based drugs, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-α antibodies. PMID:24730624

  20. Impact of Eating Probiotic Yogurt on Colonization by Candida Species of the Oral and Vaginal Mucosa in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haihong; Wang, Cuiwei; Hamilton, Pilar R.; Blackmon, Mandy L.; Chen, Hui; Calderone, Richard A.; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background Candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients continues to be a public health problem. Antifungal therapies are not always effective and may result in complications, such as the development of drug-resistant strains of Candida species. Objectives This study evaluated the impact of probiotic consumption on Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosa. Patients/Methods A pilot study was conducted in 24 women (17 HIV-infected, 7 HIV-uninfected) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The women underwent a 60-day initiation period with no probiotic consumption, followed by two 15-day consumption periods, with a different probiotic yogurt (DanActive™ or YoPlus™ yogurt) during each interval. There was a 30-day washout period between the two yogurt consumption periods. Oral and vaginal culture swabs were collected on days 0, 60, 74, and 120. Candida was detected by inoculating each swab in both Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without chloramphenicol and CHROMagar. Results Less fungal colonization among women was observed when the women consumed probiotic yogurts (54 % of the women had vaginal fungal colonization during the non-probiotic yogurt consumption period, 29 % during the DanActive™ period, and 38 % during YoPlus™ yogurt consumption period), and HIV-infected women had significantly lower vaginal fungal colonization after they consumed DanActive™ yogurt compared to the nonintervention periods (54 vs 29 %, p = 0.03). Conclusions These data are promising, but as expected in a small pilot study, there were some significant changes but also some areas where colonization was not changed. This type of conflicting data is supportive of the need for a larger trial to further elucidate the role of probiotic yogurts in fungal growth in HIV-infected women. PMID:23925786

  1. Er,CR:YSGG lasers induce fewer dysplastic-like epithelial artefacts than CO2 lasers: an in vivo experimental study on oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    González-Mosquera, A; Seoane, J; García-Caballero, L; López-Jornet, P; García-Caballero, T; Varela-Centelles, P

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to assess wounds made by lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) for their epithelial architectural changes and width of damage. We allocated 60 Sprague-Dawley(®) rats into groups: glossectomy by CO(2) laser at 3 different wattages (n=10 in each); glossectomy by Er,Cr:YSGG laser at two different emissions (n=10 in each), and a control group (n=10). Histological examination assessed both prevalence and site of thermal artefacts for each group. Both lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) caused the same type of cytological artefacts. The 3W Er,Cr:YSGG laser produced the fewest cytological artefacts/specimen, and was significantly different from the other experimental groups: 3W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.8 to 1.0); the 6W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.1 to 2.0) and the 10W CO(2) laser (95% CI=1.1 to 3.0). CO(2) lasers (3-10W) generate epithelial damage that can simulate dysplastic changes with cytological atypia that affects mainly the basal and suprabasal layers. Irradiation with Er,CR:YSGG laser (2-4W) produces significantly fewer cellular artefacts and less epithelial damage, which may be potentially useful for biopsy of oral mucosa.

  2. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

  3. Peroxiredoxin 1 has an anti-apoptotic role via apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and p38 activation in mouse models with oral precancerous lesions

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIANFEI; JING, XINYING; NIU, WENWEN; ZHANG, MIN; GE, LIHUA; MIAO, CONGCONG; TANG, XIAOFEI

    2016-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) is important in the protection of cells from oxidative damage and the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Prx1 is overexpressed in oral precancerous lesions of oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral cancer; however, the association between Prx1 expression and OLK pathogenesis remains unknown. The present study investigated the role of Prx1 and its molecular mechanisms in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis during the pathogenesis of OLK. Wild-type and Prx1 knockout mice were treated with 50 µg/ml 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) or 4NQO + H2O2 for 16 weeks to establish mouse models with tongue precancerous lesions. Apoptotic cells were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. The expression of Prx1, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), phosphor-ASK1, p38 and phosphor-p38 was analyzed using immunohistochemical staining, and their mRNA expression levels were evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The present results demonstrated that 4NQO or 4NQO + H2O2 induced the development of tongue precancerous lesions in Prx1 knockout and wild-type mice. Prx1 was overexpressed in tongue precancerous lesions compared with normal tongue mucosa. There was a significant decrease in the degree of moderate or severe epithelial dysplasia, and mild epithelial dysplasia was clearly elevated, in Prx1 knockout mice treated with 4NQO + H2O2 compared with wild-type mice treated with 4NQO + H2O2. Prx1 suppressed apoptosis and upregulated phosphor-ASK1 and phosphor-p38 expression in tongue precancerous lesions. The present results suggest that Prx1 suppresses oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via the ASK1/p38 signalling pathway in mouse tongue precancerous lesions. In conclusion, Prx1 and H2O2 have a coordination role in promoting the progression of tongue precancerous mucosa lesions. The present findings provide novel insight into Prx1 function and the mechanisms of Prx1 in OLK

  4. Methylation-Associated Gene Silencing of RARB in Areca Carcinogens Induced Mouse Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yung-An; Fan, Shin-Ru; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Nai-Wen; Cheng, Ju-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Regarding oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development, chewing areca is known to be a strong risk factor in many Asian cultures. Therefore, we established an OSCC induced mouse model by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), or arecoline, or both treatments, respectively. These are the main two components of the areca nut that could increase the occurrence of OSCC. We examined the effects with the noncommercial MCGI (mouse CpG islands) microarray for genome-wide screening the DNA methylation aberrant in induced OSCC mice. The microarray results showed 34 hypermethylated genes in 4-NQO plus arecoline induced OSCC mice tongue tissues. The examinations also used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and bisulfite sequencing to realize the methylation pattern in collected mouse tongue tissues and human OSCC cell lines of different grades, respectively. These results showed that retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) was indicated in hypermethylation at the promoter region and the loss of expression during cancer development. According to the results of real-time PCR, it was shown that de novo DNA methyltransferases were involved in gene epigenetic alternations of OSCC. Collectively, our results showed that RARB hypermethylation was involved in the areca-associated oral carcinogenesis. PMID:25197641

  5. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Gerhard H.; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:27579226

  6. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Müller-Richter, Urs D A; Weyandt, Gerhard H; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C

    2016-05-01

    Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:27579226

  7. Adjuvant antifungal therapy using tissue tolerable plasma on oral mucosa and removable dentures in oral candidiasis patients: a randomised double-blinded split-mouth pilot study.

    PubMed

    Preissner, Saskia; Kastner, Isabell; Schütte, Eyke; Hartwig, Stefan; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Robert; Hertel, Moritz

    2016-07-01

    Extended use of antimycotics in oral candidiasis therapy gives rise to problems related to fungal drug resistance. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) in denture stomatitis patients. It was hypothesised that (I): erythema and (IIa): complaint remission would be accelerated and (IIb): colony forming unit (CFU) reduction would be improved. The halves of the upper jaws of eight patients were randomly assigned to control (nystatin, chlorhexidine and placebo treatment) and test sides (nystatin, chlorhexidine and TTP administered six times each 7 days). The patients and the investigators, who were different from the therapists, were both blinded. Compared to the control sides, the erythema surface was reduced significantly more extensively on the test sides between 2 and 6 weeks of antifungal therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Visual analogue scale values and the frequency of moderate or heavy growth of Candida post-treatment did not differ significantly between both sides (P > 0.05). The primary hypothesis was confirmed, which may be interpreted as an accelerated remission. As drug therapy is usually limited to the time in which signs of infection are present, TTP might help reducing antifungal use. Even though the secondary hypotheses were not confirmed, persistence of Candida might be only colonisation.

  8. Oral LD50 toxicity modeling and prediction of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals on rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed using the LD(50) oral toxicity data of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) on rodents: rat and mouse. PFCs are studied under the EU project CADASTER which uses the available experimental data for prediction and prioritization of toxic chemicals for risk assessment by using the in silico tools. The methodology presented here applies chemometrical analysis on the existing experimental data and predicts the toxicity of new compounds. QSAR analyses were performed on the available 58 mouse and 50 rat LD(50) oral data using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA). Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori from available experimental datasets in terms of structure and response. These sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the models were verified on 376 per- and polyfluorinated chemicals including those in REACH preregistration list. The rat and mouse endpoints were predicted by each model for the studied compounds, and finally 30 compounds, all perfluorinated, were prioritized as most important for experimental toxicity analysis under the project. In addition, cumulative study on compounds within the AD of all four models, including two earlier published models on LC(50) rodent analysis was studied and the cumulative toxicity trend was observed using principal component analysis (PCA). The similarities and the differences observed in terms of descriptors and chemical/mechanistic meaning encoded by descriptors to prioritize the most toxic compounds are highlighted.

  9. Activity of potent and selective host defense peptide mimetics in mouse models of oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Lisa K; Freeman, Katie B; Masso-Silva, Jorge A; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W; Diamond, Gill

    2014-07-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  10. Activity of Potent and Selective Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in Mouse Models of Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Freeman, Katie B.; Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G.; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

  11. [Criteria for assessing the functional state of the oral mucosa following the combined treatment of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area].

    PubMed

    Korchak, V V; Volozhin, A I; Zandelov, V L

    1990-01-01

    Polarography and thermometry were employed in examination of the buccal mucosa in 62 patients after combined treatment and primary plasty for malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area. Measurements of pO2 and buccal mucosa temperature were found to yield objective data on the function of the accepting bed in restoration surgery for postoperative defects and to be helpful for the prediction of local complications. Preoperative irradiation according to intensive concentrated scheme induces less marked changes in the mucosa, this being of prophylactic value in cases when local complications develop. The possibility of local complications increases when pO2 reduces twofold and lower vs. the initial level before irradiation. PMID:2371729

  12. Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse intestine by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: Utility of sampling strategies and methods to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Estela; Puhl, Nathan J; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2009-08-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a molecular technique used for comparative analysis of microbial community structure and dynamics. We evaluated three sampling methods for recovering bacterial community DNA associated with intestinal mucosa of mice (i.e. mechanical agitation with PBS, hand washing with PBS containing Tween 80, and direct DNA extraction from mucosal plugs). In addition, the utility of two methods (i.e. Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease) to reduce single-stranded DNA artifacts was tested. T-RFLP analysis indicated that diverse communities of bacteria are associated with mucosa of the ileum, cecum, and descending colon of mice. Although there was no significant difference in bacterial community structure between the mechanical agitation and direct DNA extraction methods regardless of intestinal location, community diversity was reduced for the hand wash method in the colon. The use of Klenow fragment and mung-bean nuclease have been reported to eliminate single-stranded DNA artifacts (i.e. pseudo-T-restriction fragments), but neither method was beneficial for characterizing mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the mouse cecum. Our study showed that the mechanical agitation and direct plug extraction methods yielded equivalent bacterial community DNA from the mucosa of the small and large intestines of mice, but the latter method was superior for logistical reasons. We also applied a combination of different statistical approaches to analyze T-RFLP data, including statistical detection of true peaks, analysis of variance for peak number, and group significance test, which provided a quantitative improvement for the interpretation of the T-RFLP data.

  13. Interaction of mouse intestinal P-glycoprotein with oral antidiabetic drugs and its inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Harman; Grewal, Ravneet K

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a progressive insulin secretory defect accompanied by resistance to insulin, and thereby making glycemic control a major concern in the treatment of these patients. Oral drug administration, though a popular option for its non-invasiveness, suffer from poor bioavailability. It could be related to the efflux transport of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In the present study, we explored the binding interactions of antidiabetic drugs i.e., sulfonylurea drugs (glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide) and rapid acting insulin secretagogues viz., nateglinide, repaglinide and rosiglitazone; and Pgp inhibitors i.e., Generation I (verapamil and tamoxifen), III (tetradrine and tariquidar), and natural inhibitors (fumagillin and piperine) in mouse Pgp model. Our results revealed that fumagillin piperine and verapamil possess maximum interaction energies with Pgp compared to antidiabetic drugs. These observations elucidate the role of fumagillin and piperine as potential natural compounds which could intervene in the efflux action of Pgp in extruding the antidiabetic drugs and may have implications for increasing efficacy of oral antidiabetic therapy. PMID:26548081

  14. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  15. From mouse to man: predictions of human pharmacokinetics of orally administered docetaxel from preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Koolen, S L W; van Waterschoot, R A B; van Tellingen, O; Schinkel, A H; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M; Huitema, A D R

    2012-03-01

    Intravenously administered docetaxel is approved for the treatment of various types of cancer. An oral regimen, in combination with ritonavir, is being evaluated in clinical trials. The pharmacokinetics of docetaxel are determined by the activity of the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The effects of these proteins on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel were investigated in different mouse models that lack 1 or both detoxifying systems. Docetaxel was given to these mice orally or intravenously with or without a strong CYP3A inhibitor, ritonavir. The data of these 2 preclinical studies were pooled and analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The results of the preclinical studies could be integrated successfully, with only a small difference in residual error (33% and 26%, respectively). Subsequently, the model was used to predict human exposure using allometric scaling and this was compared with clinical trial data. This model led to adequate predictions of docetaxel exposure in humans.

  16. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid orally administered suppress P-selectin expression on mouse platelets.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae B

    2009-10-01

    Caffeic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid are naturally occurring phenolic acid and its quinic acid ester found in plants. In this article, potential effects of 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid on P-selectin expression were investigated due to its significant involvement in platelet activation. First, the effects of 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes were determined due to their profound involvement in regulating P-selectin expression on platelets. At the concentration of 0.05 microM, 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid were both able to inhibit COX-I enzyme activity by 60% (P<.013) and 57% (P<.017), respectively. At the same concentration, 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid were also able to inhibit COX-II enzyme activity by 59% (P<.012) and 56% (P<.015), respectively. As expected, 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid were correspondingly able to inhibit P-selectin expression on the platelets by 33% (P<.011) and 35% (P<.018), at the concentration of 0.05 microM. In animal studies, 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid orally administered to mice were detected as intact forms in the plasma. Also, P-selectin expression was respectively reduced by 21% (P<.016) and 44% (P<.019) in the plasma samples from mice orally administered 5-caffeoylquinic acid (400 microg per 30 g body weight) and caffeic acid (50 microg per 30 g body weight). These data suggest that both 5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid orally administered can be absorbed and suppress P-selectin expression on mouse platelets.

  17. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orally administrated daily saline, probiotic suspension of Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus (Lcr35) or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (LaBi). Diarrhea score, pro-inflammatory cytokines serum levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth and total RNA from tissue were assessed. Samples of blood, liver and spleen tissues were assessed for translocation. Results Marked diarrhea developed in the 5-FU groups but was attenuated after oral Lcr35 and LaBi administrations. Diarrhea scores decreased significantly from 2.64 to 1.45 and 0.80, respectively (P<0.001). Those mice in 5-FU groups had significantly higher proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α: 234.80 vs. 29.10, P<0.001, IL-6: 25.13 vs. 7.43, P<0.001, IFN-γ: 22.07 vs. 17.06, P = 0.137). A repairing of damage in jejunal villi was observed following probiotics administration. We also found TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal mucositis tissues following 5-FU treatment (TNF-α: 4.35 vs. 1.18, IL-1β: 2.29 vs. 1.07, IL-6: 1.49 vs. 1.02) and that probiotics treatment suppressed this up-regulation (P<0.05). No bacterial translocation was found in this study. Conclusions In conclusion, our results show that oral administration of probiotics Lcr35 and LaBi can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. This suggests probiotics may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in

  18. Combination of Estrogen and Immunosuppressive Agents to Establish a Mouse Model of Candidiasis with Concurrent Oral and Vaginal Mucosal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Mei, Huan; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; Zeng, Rong; Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-02-01

    Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions.

  19. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2006-05-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins.

  20. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins. PMID:16603603

  1. The Therapeutic Effect of PLAG against Oral Mucositis in Hamster and Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha-Reum; Yoo, Nina; Kim, Joo Heon; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung-Jae; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Han, Mi Young; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jae Wha

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride) in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals’ cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gage needle on days 1, 2, and 7. PLAG was administered daily at 250 mg/kg/day. PLAG administration significantly reduced 5-FU/scratching-induced mucositis. Dramatic reversal of weight loss in PLAG-treated hamsters with mucositis was observed. Histochemical staining data also revealed newly differentiated epidermis and blood vessels in the cheek pouches of PLAG-treated hamsters, indicative of recovery. Whole blood analyses indicated that PLAG prevents 5-FU-induced excessive neutrophil transmigration to the infection site and eventually stabilizes the number of circulating neutrophils. In a mouse mucositis model, mice with 5-FU-induced disease treated with PLAG exhibited resistance to body-weight loss compared with mice that received 5-FU or 5-FU/scratching alone. PLAG also dramatically reversed mucositis-associated weight loss and inhibited mucositis-induced inflammatory responses in the tongue and serum. These data suggest that PLAG enhances recovery from 5-FU-induced oral mucositis and may therefore be a useful therapeutic agent for treating side effects of chemotherapy, such as mucositis and cachexia. PMID:27800302

  2. In vivo determination of aluminum, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, titanium and vanadium in oral mucosa cells from orthodontic patients with mini-implants by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Angeles; Puerto, Maria; Calleja, Ana; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Miniscrews are used as orthodontic anchorage devices in the dentistry clinical practice but the in vivo metallic release from these structures has been not previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti and V in oral mucosa cells of control subjects, patients under orthodontic treatment and with both, orthodontic treatment and miniscrew, in order to know the contribution of these mini-implants to the total metallic content. ICP-MS measurements revealed the following ascending order: Cr

  3. Oral Supplementation with Cocoa Extract Reduces UVB-Induced Wrinkles in Hairless Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Song, Dasom; Kim, Junil; Choi, Jina; Kim, Jong Rhan; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Lee, Sein; Hong, Ji Sun; Song, Dayoung; Kim, Seong-Jin; Son, Myoung-Jin; Choi, Sang-Woon; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Tae-Aug; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-05-01

    Cacao beans contain various bioactive phytochemicals that could modify the pathogeneses of certain diseases. Here, we report that oral administration of cacao powder (CP) attenuates UVB-induced skin wrinkling by the regulation of genes involved in dermal matrix production and maintenance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 788 genes are down- or upregulated in the CP supplemented group, compared with the UVB-irradiated mouse skin controls. Among the differentially expressed genes, cathepsin G and serpin B6c play important roles in UVB-induced skin wrinkle formation. Gene regulatory network analysis also identified several candidate regulators responsible for the protective effects of CP supplementation against UVB-induced skin damage. CP also elicited antiwrinkle effects via inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases-1 expression in both the human skin equivalent model and human dermal fibroblasts. Inhibition of UVB-induced activator protein-1 via CP supplementation is likely to affect the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1. CP supplementation also downregulates the expression of cathepsin G in human dermal fibroblasts. 5-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, a major in vivo metabolite of CP, showed effects similar to CP supplementation. These results suggest that cacao extract may offer a protective effect against photoaging by inhibiting the breakdown of dermal matrix, which leads to an overall reduction in wrinkle formation. PMID:26854493

  4. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans.

  5. Anti-tumor properties of orally administered glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine oligomers in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Sachie; Azuma, Kazuo; Kurozumi, Seiji; Kiyose, Masatoshi; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Itoh, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Sato, Kimihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-13

    The current study evaluated the anti-tumor activities of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomer (NACOS) and glucosamine oligomer (COS) after their oral administration in a tumor (colon 26)-bearing mouse model. Compared to the control group, NACOS and COS groups showed significantly suppressed tumor growth, and apparent, marked apoptosis in tumor tissues. Furthermore, serum interleukin-12p70 and interferon-γ levels significantly increased in the NACOS and COS groups compared to the corresponding levels in the control group. Collectively, the results indicate the oral administration of NACOS and COS could enhance innate immunity. Results of experiments in Myd-88 knockout mice revealed that the apparent effects were related to both Myd-88-dependent and Myd-88-independent pathways. The data indicated that oral administration of NACOS and COS produced anti-tumor effects through the induction of apoptosis and stimulation of the immune system, which suggests that NACOS and COS are candidate anti-tumor functional foods.

  6. Claudin immunolocalization in neonatal mouse epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Arabzadeh, Azadeh; Yerlikaya, Seda; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-11-01

    Emerging evidence supports the notion that claudins (Cldns) are dynamically regulated under normal conditions to respond to the selective permeability requirements of various tissues, and that their expression is developmentally controlled. We describe the localization of those Cldns that we have previously demonstrated to be functionally important in epidermal differentiation and the formation of the epidermal permeability barrier, e.g., Cldn1, Cldn6, Cldn11, and Cldn18, and the presence of Cldn3 and Cldn5 in various neonatal mouse epithelia including the epidermis, nail, oral mucosa, tongue, and stomach. Cldn1 is localized in the differentiated and/or undifferentiated compartments of the epidermis and nail and in the dorsal surface of the tongue and glandular compartment of the stomach but is absent from the oral mucosa and the keratinized compartment of the stomach. Cldn3 is present in the basal cells of the nail matrix and both compartments of the murine stomach but not in the epidermis, oral mucosa, or tongue. Cldn5 is found in the glandular compartment of the stomach but not in the epidermis, nail unit, oral mucosa, forestomach, and tongue. Cldn6, Cldn11, and Cldn18 occur in the differentiating suprabasal compartment of the epidermis, nail, and oral mucosa and in the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the tongue and the keratinized squamous epithelium of the stomach. The simple columnar epithelium of the glandular stomach stains for Cldn18 and reveals a non-membranous pattern for Cldn6 and Cldn11 expression. Our results demonstrate differential Cldn protein profiles in various epithelial tissues and their differentiation stages. Although the molecular mechanisms regulating Cldn expression are unknown, elucidation of their differential localization patterns in tissues with diverse permeability requirements should provide a better understanding of the role of tight junctions in tissue function. PMID:17828607

  7. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the oral mucosa following cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Richard M; Gibson, Rachel J; Sonis, Stephen T; Keefe, Dorothy M K

    2007-04-01

    Oral mucositis is a serious and debilitating side effect of cancer treatment. Greater understanding of the pathobiology of mucositis has recently led to the advent of targeted treatments for specific patient populations; however the treatment for mucositis remains palliative for most patients. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) are thought to play important roles in the development of mucositis. In this study, 20 patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy had oral mucosal biopsies taken prior to and following administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. The samples were stained for NF-kappaB and COX-2 using routine immunohistochemistry. The results from this preliminary study demonstrated statistically significant increased oral mucosal staining for NF-kappaB and COX-2 following cytotoxic chemotherapy and provide further support for the role of NF-kappaB and COX-2 in the pathogenesis of mucositis. PMID:16979925

  8. Periluminal Distribution of HIV-Binding Target Cells and Gp340 in the Oral, Cervical and Sigmoid/Rectal Mucosae: A Mapping Study.

    PubMed

    Patyka, Mariia; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew; Abrams, William R; Kurago, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the transmission of HIV is most likely to occur via rectal or vaginal routes, and rarely through oral exposure. However, the mechanisms of virus entry at mucosal surfaces remain incompletely understood. Prophylactic strategies against HIV infection may be attainable once gaps in current knowledge are filled. To address these gaps, we evaluated essentially normal epithelial surfaces and mapped the periluminal distribution of CD4+ HIV target cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and an HIV-binding molecule gp340 that can be expressed by epithelial cells in secreted and cell-associated forms. Immunohistochemistry for CD4, CD16, CD3, CD1a and gp340 in human oral, rectal/sigmoid and cervical mucosal samples from HIV-negative subjects demonstrated that periluminal HIV target cells were more prevalent at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces lined by simple columnar epithelium, than at oral and ectocervical surfaces covered by multilayered stratified squamous epithelium (p<0.001). gp340 expression patterns at these sites were also distinct and strong in oral minor salivary gland acini and ducts, including ductal saliva, in individual rectum/sigmoid and endocervix periluminar columnar cells, and in ectocervix squamous cells. Only weak expression was noted in the oral non-ductal squamous epithelium. We conclude that periluminal HIV target cells, together with periluminal epithelial cell-associated gp340 appear to be most accessible for HIV transmission at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces. Our data help define vulnerable structural features of mucosal sites exposed to HIV.

  9. Periluminal Distribution of HIV-Binding Target Cells and Gp340 in the Oral, Cervical and Sigmoid/Rectal Mucosae: A Mapping Study.

    PubMed

    Patyka, Mariia; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew; Abrams, William R; Kurago, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that the transmission of HIV is most likely to occur via rectal or vaginal routes, and rarely through oral exposure. However, the mechanisms of virus entry at mucosal surfaces remain incompletely understood. Prophylactic strategies against HIV infection may be attainable once gaps in current knowledge are filled. To address these gaps, we evaluated essentially normal epithelial surfaces and mapped the periluminal distribution of CD4+ HIV target cells, including T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and an HIV-binding molecule gp340 that can be expressed by epithelial cells in secreted and cell-associated forms. Immunohistochemistry for CD4, CD16, CD3, CD1a and gp340 in human oral, rectal/sigmoid and cervical mucosal samples from HIV-negative subjects demonstrated that periluminal HIV target cells were more prevalent at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces lined by simple columnar epithelium, than at oral and ectocervical surfaces covered by multilayered stratified squamous epithelium (p<0.001). gp340 expression patterns at these sites were also distinct and strong in oral minor salivary gland acini and ducts, including ductal saliva, in individual rectum/sigmoid and endocervix periluminar columnar cells, and in ectocervix squamous cells. Only weak expression was noted in the oral non-ductal squamous epithelium. We conclude that periluminal HIV target cells, together with periluminal epithelial cell-associated gp340 appear to be most accessible for HIV transmission at rectal/sigmoid and endocervical surfaces. Our data help define vulnerable structural features of mucosal sites exposed to HIV. PMID:26172445

  10. Visual observation of the dynamic flow of elastomer rubber impression material between the impression tray and oral mucosa while seating the impression tray.

    PubMed

    Nishigawa, G; Natsuaki, N; Maruo, Y; Okamoto, M; Minagi, S

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to inspect visually, the dynamics of the impression flow at seating of the impression tray. The effects of the relief and the escape hole of the impression tray on the impression flow were also examined. Three types of the transparent impression tray (flat tray, relief tray and escape hole tray) were prepared. Transparent silicone polymer was put on the impression tray surface. Four drops of the dark blue silicone impression material was injected into the transparent silicone polymer on the impression tray. The impression tray was seated on the model of the denture-supporting mucosa. The movement of the four drops caused by the impression flow was visually recorded with the video camera and examined. The result for the flat tray showed that the impression material moved from inside to the outside. It was also shown that the speed of the moved impression material increased as the seating of the impression tray advanced. The results for the relief tray and the escape hole tray showed the effect of the relief and the escape hole prepared to the impression tray on the speed and the direction of the flow of the impression material.

  11. Effects of tea from Turnera ulmifolia L. on mouse gastric mucosa support the Turneraceae as a new source of antiulcerogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Gracioso, Juliano de Souza; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2002-04-01

    Turnera ulmifolia is a plant belonging to the family Turneraceae, popularly known in Brazil as chanana. This species is distributed from Guyana to southern Brazil where it is considered a weed. The plant occurs in tropical rain forest, fields, and gardens. Chanana tea is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diseases related mainly to gastric dysfunction including gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, the ability of a lyophilized infusion, as an aqueous fraction (AqF) of the aerial parts of T. ulmifolia, was investigated for its ability to prevent ulceration of the gastric and duodenal mucosa was examined in mice and rats, respectively. The AqF significantly reduced the formation of lesions associated with HCl/ethanol administration by 39% and 46%, respectively, at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. The AqF also significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions induced by a combination of indomethacin and bethanechol by 58% and 72% at doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. In stress-induced gastric ulcer, the inhibition by the AqF was 48%, 57%, and 58% at doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively (p<0.05). A pyloric ligature experiment showed that the highest dose of the AqF significantly affected the gastric juice parameters by increasing the pH from 2.5 (control) to 5.3 and decreasing the acid output from 11.3 (control) to 3.7 mEq/ml/4 h. The AqF had no significant effect on duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine. Preliminary phytochemical screening confirmed that flavonoids were the major constituents of the AqF of T. ulmifolia. These results indicate that this extract has a significant antiulcerogenic effect, as popularly believed.

  12. Prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model showing hyperactivity, reduced cingulate cortex volume, reduced dopamine turnover and responsiveness to oral methylphenidate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinmin; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Yuehang; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, nicotine replacement therapy and smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy are associated with cognitive disabilities later in life in children exposed prenatally to nicotine. The disabilities include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder. However, the structural and neurochemical bases of these cognitive deficits remain unclear. Using a mouse model we show that prenatal nicotine exposure produces hyperactivity, selective decreases in cingulate cortical volume and radial thickness as well as decreased dopamine turnover in the frontal cortex. The hyperactivity occurs in both male and female offspring and peaks during the “active” or dark phase of the light-dark cycle. These features of the mouse model closely parallel the human ADHD phenotype, whether or not the ADHD is associated with prenatal nicotine exposure. A single oral, but not intraperitoneal, administration of a therapeutic equivalent dose (0.75 mg/kg) of methylphenidate decreases the hyperactivity and increases the dopamine turnover in the frontal cortex of the prenatally nicotine exposed mice, once again paralleling the therapeutic effects of this compound in ADHD subjects. Collectively, our data suggest that the prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model has striking parallels to the ADHD phenotype not only in behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurochemical features but also with respect to responsiveness of the behavioral phenotype to methylphenidate treatment. The behavioral, neurochemical and anatomical biomarkers in the mouse model could be valuable for evaluating new therapies for ADHD and mechanistic investigations into its etiology. PMID:22764249

  13. Biological effects caused by low-power laser light in the treatment of the dentition, periodontium, and mucosa of oral cavity, and lip diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Erina, Stanislava V.; Kashuba, Victor A.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Buerger, F.; Herdt, Alexander; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Ippolitov, Yu. A.; Tchernov, V. I.

    1997-12-01

    Nowadays low-power therapy is one of the leading trends in a combined treatment of the oral cavity and lips diseases. The present paper sums up the results of the investigation into the biological effects caused by low-power laser light (LPLL) during its interaction with hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity and lips. A research on the effect of LPLL upon the remineralization processes in the hard dental tissues in the stage in the stage of an initial caries was carried out in 150 patients. The biological effects caused by an interaction of LPLL with the parodontium tissues in the process of treatment of medium degree disease of the parodontium were studied in 140 patients; the effects of the above mentioned character which generated in lips tissues during treatment of a post-radiation chilitis were analyzed in 32 patients. Immunological, biochemical histochemical, morphological, stomatoscopic, bacteriological and other methods were employed while studying the bioeffects caused by LPLL in the parodontium, lips tissues and hard tissues of the tooth.

  14. Characterization of oral ulcer and pathological scar in nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Sukhitashvili, N; Imnadze, I; Tabaghua, G; Gogilashvili, Q; Amiranashvili, I

    2012-04-01

    Ulceration of mouth mucosa is frequently occurs after injuries in oral cavity. Oral ulcers are relatively common and these lesions cause strong pain and discomfort. Frequently, injury of the oral tissues results in abnormal fibroblast activation and keloid formation. This pathological scar formation is often associates with pain and malfunction of the organ. To understand these phenomena and develop effective treatment, reproducible animal models have to be introduced. Athymic nude mice where used to create animal models. 1% HCl acid solution was used for chemical damage of the mucosa tissue. Surgical operation was performed to create traumatic injury in the mouse oral cavity. Tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry methods. All of the HCl treated animals developed ulcers on the skin and mucosa of the oral cavity. Most of the mice on the place of surgical wound developed keloid tissue. Mice in which we induced pathological processes of the oral tissue, did not gain body weight. Moreover their mass had tendency to decrease. Hematoxilyn-eosin staining of the ulcerated mice tissues revealed extended coagulation necrosis - covering all tissue layers of the oral cavity. Strong local inflammatory cell infiltration and absence of proliferative cells has been demonstrated in these ulcerated and adjusted oral tissues. Morphological analysis of scar tissue revealed fibrotic hypertrophy of the injured oral tissues in these animals with the expressed infiltration of inflammatory cells. Our animal models reflect morphology of the specific injury and functionally imitate the disease.

  15. Autoimmunity of the lung and oral mucosa in a multisystem inflammatory disease: The spark that lights the fire in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Mikuls, Ted R; Payne, Jeffrey B; Deane, Kevin D; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that autoimmunity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is initiated outside the joint. This is supported by the observation that circulating autoantibodies, including both rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody, can be detected in many subjects years before the development of initial joint symptoms leading to an RA diagnosis. Of the potential extra-articular sites implicated in disease initiation, mucosal tissues have garnered increasing attention. Several lines of investigation have separately implicated mucosal tissues from varying anatomic locations as possible initiating sites for RA, including those from the lung and oral cavity. In this review we summarize recent reports incriminating these mucosal tissues as the initial site of autoantibody generation and inflammation in patients with RA.

  16. Downregulation of Keratin 76 Expression during Oral Carcinogenesis of Human, Hamster and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Emma; Pandey, Manishkumar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kane, Shubhada; Patil, Asawari; Maru, Girish B.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Watt, Fiona M.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Keratins are structural marker proteins with tissue specific expression; however, recent reports indicate their involvement in cancer progression. Previous study from our lab revealed deregulation of many genes related to structural molecular integrity including KRT76. Here we evaluate the role of KRT76 downregulation in oral precancer and cancer development. Methods We evaluated KRT76 expression by qRT-PCR in normal and tumor tissues of the oral cavity. We also analyzed K76 expression by immunohistochemistry in normal, oral precancerous lesion (OPL), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and in hamster model of oral carcinogenesis. Further, functional implication of KRT76 loss was confirmed using KRT76-knockout (KO) mice. Results We observed a strong association of reduced K76 expression with increased risk of OPL and OSCC development. The buccal epithelium of DMBA treated hamsters showed a similar trend. Oral cavity of KRT76-KO mice showed preneoplastic changes in the gingivobuccal epithelium while no pathological changes were observed in KRT76 negative tissues such as tongue. Conclusion The present study demonstrates loss of KRT76 in oral carcinogenesis. The KRT76-KO mice data underlines the potential of KRT76 being an early event although this loss is not sufficient to drive the development of oral cancers. Thus, future studies to investigate the contributing role of KRT76 in light of other tumor driving events are warranted. PMID:23936238

  17. RELATIVE POTENCY OF ORAL ANTIGENS IN PROVOKING FOOD ALLERGY IN THE MOUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. While the oral route is the most relevant method of exposure, oral tolerance is an impediment. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish...

  18. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  19. The Role of E-Cadherin in Maintaining the Barrier Function of Corneal Epithelium after Treatment with Cultured Autologous Oral Mucosa Epithelial Cell Sheet Grafts for Limbal Stem Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, Richard H.; Wood, Andrew; Oliva, Joan; Niihara, Hope; Makalinao, Andrew; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Pan, Derek; Tiger, Kumar; Garcia, Julio; Laporte, Amanda; French, Samuel W.; Niihara, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of E-cadherin in epithelial barrier function of cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) grafts was examined. CAOMECS were cultured on a temperature-responsive surface and grafted onto rabbit corneas with Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD). E-cadherin levels were significantly higher in CAOMECS compared to normal and LSCD epithelium. Beta-catenin colocalized with E-cadherin in CAOMECS cell membranes while phosphorylated beta-catenin was significantly increased. ZO-1, occludin, and Cnx43 were also strongly expressed in CAOMECS. E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization at the cell membrane was reduced in LSCD corneas, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a restoration of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression. LSCD corneas did not show continuous staining for ZO-1 or for Cnx43, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a positive expression of ZO-1 and Cnx43. Cascade Blue® hydrazide did not pass through CAOMECS. Because E-cadherin interactions are calcium-dependent, EGTA was used to chelate calcium and disrupt cell adhesion. EGTA-treated CAOMECS completely detached from cell culture surface, and E-cadherin levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, E cadherin high expression contributed to CAOMECS tight and gap junction protein recruitment at the cell membrane, thus promoting cellular adhesion and a functional barrier to protect the ocular surface. PMID:27777792

  20. Exploratory study of oral mucosal colonization of human gastric Helicobacter pylori in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xueqin; Tang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohuan; Li, Hongming; Cui, Zhixin; Hu, Sijuan; Huang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this study, human gastric Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was closely attached to the pre-treated mouse buccal mucosa by using artificial oral film to induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. Sixty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, in which Hp biofilm colonization was detected in three mice in Hp film group (Hp mesh biofilm accumulation under an optical microscope; Hp accumulated colonization under an electron microscope). There were no Hp biofilms detected in Hp smear group or the control group with black film. In this study, human gastric Hp was first used to artificially induce the growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice. The mouse model of oral infection with Hp was initially established, providing animal experimental evidences for oral conditions of growth and colonization of Hp on the buccal mucosa in mice, and providing a workable animal modeling method for further research of joint infection of Hp on the mouth and stomach, as well as the relationship between oral Hp and gastric Hp. PMID:24753744

  1. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  2. Expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens in tobacco seeds and evaluation of gut immunity after oral administration in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luciana; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Reggi, Serena; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Baldi, Antonella; Sala, Vittorio; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Coddens, Annelies; Cox, Eric; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Verocytotoxic Escherichia (E.) coli strains are responsible for swine oedema disease, which is an enterotoxaemia that causes economic losses in the pig industry. The production of a vaccine for oral administration in transgenic seeds could be an efficient system to stimulate local immunity. This study was conducted to transform tobacco plants for the seed-specific expression of antigenic proteins from a porcine verocytotoxic E. coli strain. Parameters related to an immunological response and possible adverse effects on the oral administration of obtained tobacco seeds were evaluated in a mouse model. Tobacco was transformed via Agrobacteium tumefaciens with chimeric constructs containing structural parts of the major subunit FedA of the F18 adhesive fimbriae and VT2e B-subunit genes under control of a seed specific GLOB promoter. We showed that the foreign Vt2e-B and F18 genes were stably accumulated in storage tissue by the immunostaining method. In addition, Balb-C mice receiving transgenic tobacco seeds via the oral route showed a significant increase in IgA-positive plasma cell presence in tunica propria when compared to the control group with no observed adverse effects. Our findings encourage future studies focusing on swine for evaluation of the protective effects of transformed tobacco seeds against E. coli infection.

  3. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Thompson, Chad M.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2012-07-15

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC{sub 50}s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (μg Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ≥ 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ∼ 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ► Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ► Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ► Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ► Species

  4. [G1 and G2 chalones of the gastric mucosa].

    PubMed

    Aruin, L I; Smotrova, I A; Gorodinskaia, V S

    1984-04-01

    A study was made of the action of human gastric mucosa G1 and G2 chalones on cellular regeneration of mouse gastric mucosa and of the duration of their maximal effect. Chalone fractions were obtained from the mucous membranes of 21 stomachs resected for peptic ulcer by the method of fractional ethanol precipitation. The data indicate that the maximal inhibitory action of G1 chalone occurs in 3, whereas that of chalone G2 in 6 hours. Some specificity of the action of chalones was discovered depending on the part of the gastric mucosa from which they were obtained. PMID:6232965

  5. Mouse Model of Oral Infection with Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis▿

    PubMed Central

    KuoLee, R.; Zhao, X.; Austin, J.; Harris, G.; Conlan, J. W.; Chen, W.

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Little is known about the immunopathogenesis of oral infection with this pathogen. Here, for the first time, we examined the susceptibility of mice to intragastric inoculation with virulent type A F. tularensis and characterized the course of infection and the associated host responses. Both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice were relatively susceptible to intragastric inoculation of type A F. tularensis with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 106 organisms, which was 100,000-fold higher than the LD100 for intradermal or respiratory routes of infection. Mice deficient in gamma interferon or tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 were more susceptible than wild-type controls to oral infection with a high dose of the pathogen. After oral inoculation, F. tularensis appeared first in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and then rapidly spread to the livers and spleens, where the organism multiplied to high numbers and induced marked neutrophilic infiltration and severe tissue necrosis. Infected mice showed rapid increases in tissue cytokine mRNA expression, which peaked in the MLN at 2 days postinfection (dpi) and in the liver and spleen at 3 dpi. The levels of gamma interferon, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, KC, interferon-inducible protein 10, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were elevated from day 2 postinoculation onward. Moreover, mice intradermally immunized with the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis showed little survival advantage over naive mice after oral challenge with type A F. tularensis. These results suggest that type A F. tularensis is an effective oral pathogen that can cause fatal systemic infection and could pose a public health concern, particularly to immunocompromised individuals, if ingested in contaminated water and food. PMID:17242058

  6. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Jhillu S.; Lavanya, Madugula P.; Das, Pragna P.; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K.; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2010-04-01

    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  7. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Jacob A; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for medical applications and holds great potential for noninvasive early detection of cancer. It has been reported that early cancer detection can improve the survival and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. In this paper, we explored the possibility of differentiating between premalignant lesions and healthy tongue tissue using hyperspectral imaging in a chemical induced oral cancer animal model. We proposed a novel classification algorithm for cancer detection using hyperspectral images. The method detected the dysplastic tissue with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89. The hyperspectral imaging and classification technique may provide a new tool for oral cancer detection.

  9. Hyperspectral Imaging of Neoplastic Progression in a Mouse Model of Oral Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for medical applications and holds great potential for noninvasive early detection of cancer. It has been reported that early cancer detection can improve the survival and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. In this paper, we explored the possibility of differentiating between premalignant lesions and healthy tongue tissue using hyperspectral imaging in a chemical induced oral cancer animal model. We proposed a novel classification algorithm for cancer detection using hyperspectral images. The method detected the dysplastic tissue with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89. The hyperspectral imaging and classification technique may provide a new tool for oral cancer detection. PMID:27656034

  10. Induction of immune tolerance to caseins and whey proteins by oral intubation in mouse allergy model.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, U K; Kapila, R; Singh, S; Dahiya, D; Kapila, S; Kansal, V K

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral tolerance of caseins (CSN) and whey proteins (WP) in alleviating the allergic response to cow's milk proteins in Swiss albino mice raised on a milk protein-free diet. Oral tolerance was induced by feeding mice with 20 mg of CSN or WP once in a day for 4 days consecutively before immunization with respective protein by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections (20 μg 200 per μl of PBS) using 2% of alum Al(OH)3 as adjuvant. Three weeks later, oral tolerance induction was analysed in humoral and cellular compartments of CSN- and WP-fed versus saline-fed control mice groups by measuring seric and intestinal antibody responses, mRNA abundance in splenic tissue and cytokine secretion patterns. The specific serum immunoglobulin-E (IgE) levels were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05), while sIgA was enhanced in these groups when compared with their respective saline-fed mice. Moreover, the mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in both CSN- and WP-tolerized mice were found to be significantly decreased, while the abundance of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was increased significantly, as compared to respective control groups. Finally, cytokine profiles indicated a reciprocal decrease in IL-4 and IFN-γ versus an increase in IL-10 secretions in supernatants of cultured splenocytes of tolerized mice. Taken together, these results clearly showed that oral administration of cows' milk caseins and whey proteins can induce significant hyposensitization in mice, with the participation of suppressor cytokines.

  11. BMP-2 regulates the formation of oral sulcus in mouse tongue by altering the balance between TIMP-1 and MMP-13.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Tadayoshi; Suga, Takeo; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Morito, Mitsuhiko; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether BMP-2 regulates the oral sulcus formation of mouse embryonic tongue by modifying the expression of TIMP and MMP. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 180% increase in the depth of oral sulcus cavity (P < 0.01) by stimulating the invagination of oral sulcus into the mesenchymal tissues consisting of tongue floor, whereas the recombinant BMP-2 suppressed the process in the organ culture system of mouse embryonic tongue. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 60% decrease in the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA (P < 0.05) and a drastic decline in TIMP-1 protein was observed around the oral sulcus in the BMP-2 siRNA treated mandibles. The recombinant BMP-2 induced a 220% increases in the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA and the area of the immunostaining for TIMP-1 around the oral sulcus was larger in the mandibles treated with the recombinant BMP-2 than the vehicle. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 60% increase in the expression of MMP-13 protein and a marked increase in the staining intensity for MMP-13 was observed in the epithelial region of the BMP-2 siRNA treated mandibles. The recombinant BMP-2 induced a 70% decrease in the expression of MMP-13 mRNA and the decrease was mainly observed in the tissues around oral sulcus. The expressions of BMP-2, TIMP-1, and MMP-13 were verified in the tissues around in vivo developing oral sulcus at E11, 12, and 13 by immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that BMP-2 regulates the formation of oral sulcus by altering the balance between TIMP-1 and MMP-13.

  12. Multi-photon imaging of tumor cell invasion in an orthotopic mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gatesman Ammer, Amanda; Hayes, Karen E; Martin, Karen H; Zhang, Lingqing; Spirou, George A; Weed, Scott A

    2011-07-25

    Loco-regional invasion of head and neck cancer is linked to metastatic risk and presents a difficult challenge in designing and implementing patient management strategies. Orthotopic mouse models of oral cancer have been developed to facilitate the study of factors that impact invasion and serve as model system for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutics. In these systems, visualization of disseminated tumor cells within oral cavity tissues has typically been conducted by either conventional histology or with in vivo bioluminescent methods. A primary drawback of these techniques is the inherent inability to accurately visualize and quantify early tumor cell invasion arising from the primary site in three dimensions. Here we describe a protocol that combines an established model for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (SCOT) with two-photon imaging to allow multi-vectorial visualization of lingual tumor spread. The OSC-19 head and neck tumor cell line was stably engineered to express the F-actin binding peptide LifeAct fused to the mCherry fluorescent protein (LifeAct-mCherry). Fox1(nu/nu) mice injected with these cells reliably form tumors that allow the tongue to be visualized by ex-vivo application of two-photon microscopy. This technique allows for the orthotopic visualization of the tumor mass and locally invading cells in excised tongues without disruption of the regional tumor microenvironment. In addition, this system allows for the quantification of tumor cell invasion by calculating distances that invaded cells move from the primary tumor site. Overall this procedure provides an enhanced model system for analyzing factors that contribute to SCOT invasion and therapeutic treatments tailored to prevent local invasion and distant metastatic spread. This method also has the potential to be ultimately combined with other imaging modalities in an in vivo setting.

  13. Morphoclinical aspects of the human paraprostethic gingival mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mercuţ, Veronica; Andrei, Victoria; Pancă, Oana Adina

    2005-01-01

    The multiple and various changes that the human gingival mucosa undergoes when coming into contact with a denture, require a histopathological study correlated with that of clinical manifestations. The highlighting of the histological lesions of the prosthetic field's mucosa is extremely important in the study concerning the tolerance of the oral cavity tissues towards the materials of dentures, because it has been observed that different materials can cause the same type of clinical changes. The clinical research has been carried out having as a basis a group of patients, carriers of fixed dentures made of different materials, the study method consisting in their clinical evaluation. The investigation of microscopic preparations, obtained through drawing mucosa from those patients under study, has been made by using both usual colorations for an overall examination of the tissue architecture, as well as special colorations for pointing out certain structures. The results of the investigation have made clear the fact that the clinical changes of the prosthetic field's mucosa can be adaptable to the denture or can react pathologically to the various possibilities of denture aggression. The histopathological picture of the paraprosthetic mucosa lesions is polymorphous due to the morphofunctional complexity as well as to the reacting capacity of the oral mucosa when interfering with a fixed denture. PMID:16688373

  14. Vital-dye-enhanced multimodal imaging of neoplastic progression in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebust, Anne; Rosbach, Kelsey; Wu, Jessica Keren; Nguyen, Jennifer; Gillenwater, Ann; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    In this longitudinal study, a mouse model of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis was used to assess the ability of optical imaging with exogenous and endogenous contrast to detect neoplastic lesions in a heterogeneous mucosal surface. Widefield autofluorescence and fluorescence images of intact 2-NBDG-stained and proflavine-stained tissues were acquired at multiple time points in the carcinogenesis process. Confocal fluorescence images of transverse fresh tissue slices from the same specimens were acquired to investigate how changes in tissue microarchitecture affect widefield fluorescence images of intact tissue. Widefield images were analyzed to develop and evaluate an algorithm to delineate areas of dysplasia and cancer. A classification algorithm for the presence of neoplasia based on the mean fluorescence intensity of 2-NBDG staining and the standard deviation of the fluorescence intensity of proflavine staining was found to separate moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, and cancer from non-neoplastic regions of interest with 91% sensitivity and specificity. Results suggest this combination of noninvasive optical imaging modalities can be used in vivo to discriminate non-neoplastic from neoplastic tissue in this model with the potential to translate this technology to the clinic.

  15. Oral curcumin mitigates the clinical and neuropathologic phenotype of the Trembler-J mouse: a potential therapy for inherited neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, Mehrdad; Shiga, Kensuke; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; He, Feng; Shaw, Chad A; Yan, Jiong; Wensel, Theodore G; Snipes, G Jackson; Lupski, James R

    2007-09-01

    Mutations in myelin genes cause inherited peripheral neuropathies that range in severity from adult-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 to childhood-onset Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy. Many myelin gene mutants that cause severe disease, such as those in the myelin protein zero gene (MPZ) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22), appear to make aberrant proteins that accumulate primarily within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in Schwann cell death by apoptosis and, subsequently, peripheral neuropathy. We previously showed that curcumin supplementation could abrogate ER retention and aggregation-induced apoptosis associated with neuropathy-causing MPZ mutants. We now show reduced apoptosis after curcumin treatment of cells in tissue culture that express PMP22 mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oral administration of curcumin partially mitigates the severe neuropathy phenotype of the Trembler-J mouse model in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of curcumin significantly decreases the percentage of apoptotic Schwann cells and results in increased number and size of myelinated axons in sciatic nerves, leading to improved motor performance. Our findings indicate that curcumin treatment is sufficient to relieve the toxic effect of mutant aggregation-induced apoptosis and improves the neuropathologic phenotype in an animal model of human neuropathy, suggesting a potential therapeutic role in selected forms of inherited peripheral neuropathies. PMID:17701891

  16. Effect of surface chemistry on nanoparticle interaction with gastrointestinal mucus and distribution in the gastrointestinal tract following oral and rectal administration in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Ensign, Laura; Reddy, Mihika; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2015-01-10

    It is believed that mucoadhesive surface properties on particles delivered to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract improve oral absorption or local targeting of various difficult-to-deliver drug classes. To test the effect of nanoparticle mucoadhesion on distribution of nanoparticles in the GI tract, we orally and rectally administered nano- and microparticles that we confirmed possessed surfaces that were either strongly mucoadhesive or non-mucoadhesive. We found that mucoadhesive particles (MAP) aggregated in mucus in the center of the GI lumen, far away from the absorptive epithelium, both in healthy mice and in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In striking contrast, water absorption by the GI tract rapidly and uniformly transported non-mucoadhesive mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) to epithelial surfaces, including reaching the surfaces between villi in the small intestine. When using high gavage fluid volumes or injection into ligated intestinal loops, common methods for assessing oral drug and nanoparticle absorption, we found that both MAP and MPP became well-distributed throughout the intestine, indicating that the barrier properties of GI mucus were compromised. In the mouse colorectum, MPP penetrated into mucus in the deeply in-folded surfaces to evenly coat the entire epithelial surface. Moreover, in a mouse model of UC, MPP were transported preferentially into the disrupted, ulcerated tissue. Our results suggest that delivering drugs in non-mucoadhesive MPP is likely to provide enhanced particle distribution, and thus drug delivery, in the GI tract, including to ulcerated tissues.

  17. Effect of surface chemistry on nanoparticle interaction with gastrointestinal mucus and distribution in the gastrointestinal tract following oral and rectal administration in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Ensign, Laura; Reddy, Mihika; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2015-01-10

    It is believed that mucoadhesive surface properties on particles delivered to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract improve oral absorption or local targeting of various difficult-to-deliver drug classes. To test the effect of nanoparticle mucoadhesion on distribution of nanoparticles in the GI tract, we orally and rectally administered nano- and microparticles that we confirmed possessed surfaces that were either strongly mucoadhesive or non-mucoadhesive. We found that mucoadhesive particles (MAP) aggregated in mucus in the center of the GI lumen, far away from the absorptive epithelium, both in healthy mice and in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In striking contrast, water absorption by the GI tract rapidly and uniformly transported non-mucoadhesive mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) to epithelial surfaces, including reaching the surfaces between villi in the small intestine. When using high gavage fluid volumes or injection into ligated intestinal loops, common methods for assessing oral drug and nanoparticle absorption, we found that both MAP and MPP became well-distributed throughout the intestine, indicating that the barrier properties of GI mucus were compromised. In the mouse colorectum, MPP penetrated into mucus in the deeply in-folded surfaces to evenly coat the entire epithelial surface. Moreover, in a mouse model of UC, MPP were transported preferentially into the disrupted, ulcerated tissue. Our results suggest that delivering drugs in non-mucoadhesive MPP is likely to provide enhanced particle distribution, and thus drug delivery, in the GI tract, including to ulcerated tissues. PMID:25449804

  18. Muscularis mucosae - the forgotten sibling.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kohsuke; Kamikawa, Yuichiro

    2007-10-01

    Lamina muscularis mucosae sitting beneath mucosal surface of the digestive tract has received little attention to date compared with external smooth muscle layers. Motor activity of the muscularis mucosae shows a great regional and species difference. Autonomic innervation profile is also different from esophagus to colon or between animal species. Intracellular transduction mechanisms for motor activity of the muscularis mucosae are also different from those of external longitudinal and circular muscles or from vascular and airway smooth muscles. Since the submucosal area is a major source for eicosanoid production, abnormality of muscularis mucosae motor activity may link with abnormality of mucosal absorption and secretion functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease accompanied with altered motor activity of the muscularis mucosae. Much attention should be attracted to the human muscularis mucosae as a new therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel diseases.

  19. Canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maamouri, F; Bellil, K; Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Kchir, N; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M

    2007-06-01

    Canalicular adenoma is a benign tumor which comprises 1% of salivary gland neoplasms and 4% of minor salivary gland tumors. It occurs in the upper lip mucosa in about 90% of cases. The next most common location is the buccal mucosa (9.5% of tumors). We present herein a new case of canalicular adenoma of buccal mucosa involving a 74-year-old man. He was suffering of a slowly growing and painless nodule of the right buccal mucosa. The treatment was surgery and histological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of canalicular adenoma. No recurrence was noted one year later.

  20. [Oral viral infections].

    PubMed

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  1. A surprising cross-species conservation in the genomic landscape of mouse and human oral cancer identifies a transcriptional signature predicting metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Michael D.; Winkler, Ashley E.; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Chalivendra, Varun; Law, Jonathan H.; Rickert, Charles G.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Judd, Nancy P.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Lewis, James S.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Uppaluri, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improved understanding of the molecular basis underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) aggressive growth has significant clinical implications. Herein, cross-species genomic comparison of carcinogen-induced murine and human OSCCs with indolent or metastatic growth yielded results with surprising translational relevance. Experimental Design Murine OSCC cell lines were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) to define their mutational landscape, to define novel candidate cancer genes and to assess for parallels with known drivers in human OSCC. Expression arrays identified a mouse metastasis signature and we assessed its representation in 4 independent human datasets comprising 324 patients using weighted voting and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to stratify outcomes. A qRT-PCR assay based on the mouse signature coupled to a machine-learning algorithm was developed and used to stratify an independent set of 31 patients with respect to metastatic lymphadenopathy. Results NGS revealed conservation of human driver pathway mutations in mouse OSCC including in Trp53, MAPK, PI3K, NOTCH, JAK/STAT and FAT1–4. Moreover, comparative analysis between The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and mouse samples defined AKAP9, MED12L and MYH6 as novel putative cancer genes. Expression analysis identified a transcriptional signature predicting aggressiveness and clinical outcomes, which were validated in 4 independent human OSCC datasets. Finally, we harnessed the translational potential of this signature by creating a clinically feasible assay that stratified OSCC patients with a 93.5% accuracy. Conclusions These data demonstrate surprising cross-species genomic conservation that has translational relevance for human oral squamous cell cancer. PMID:24668645

  2. Reductions in human Lyme disease risk due to the effects of oral vaccination on tick-to-mouse and mouse-to-tick transmission.

    PubMed

    Voordouw, Maarten J; Tupper, Haley; Önder, Özlem; Devevey, Godefroy; Graves, Christopher J; Kemps, Brian D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-04-01

    Vaccinating wildlife is becoming an increasingly popular method to reduce human disease risks from pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. To successfully limit human disease risk, vaccines targeting the wildlife reservoirs of B. burgdorferi must be easily distributable and must effectively reduce pathogen transmission from infected animals, given that many animals in nature will be infected prior to vaccination. We assessed the efficacy of an easily distributable oral bait vaccine based on the immunogenic outer surface protein A (OspA) to protect uninfected mice from infection and to reduce transmission from previously infected white-footed mice, an important reservoir host of B. burgdorferi. Oral vaccination of white-footed mice effectively reduces transmission of B. burgdorferi at both critical stages of the Lyme disease transmission cycle. First, oral vaccination of uninfected white-footed mice elicits an immune response that protects mice from B. burgdorferi infection. Second, oral vaccination of previously infected mice significantly reduces the transmission of B. burgdorferi to feeding ticks despite a statistically nonsignificant immune response. We used the estimates of pathogen transmission to and from vaccinated and unvaccinated mice to model the efficacy of an oral vaccination campaign targeting wild white-footed mice. Projection models suggest that the effects of the vaccine on both critical stages of the transmission cycle of B. burgdorferi act synergistically in a positive feedback loop to reduce the nymphal infection prevalence, and thus human Lyme disease risk, well below what would be expected from either effect alone. This study suggests that oral immunization of wildlife with an OspA-based vaccine can be a promising long-term strategy to reduce human Lyme disease risk.

  3. Acute allergic skin response as a new tool to evaluate the allergenicity of whey hydrolysates in a mouse model of orally induced cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Schouten, Bastiaan; Hofman, Gerard A; van Baalen, Ton; Nijkamp, Frans P; Knippels, Léon M J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Garssen, Johan

    2010-06-01

    Hypoallergenic milk formulae are used for cow's milk allergic infants and may be a good option for infants at risk. Clinical studies have shown that the protein source or the hydrolysis methodology used may influence the effectiveness in infants stressing the importance of adequate pre-clinical testing of hypoallergenic formulae in an in vivo model of orally induced cow's milk allergy. This study was undertaken to introduce a new read-out system to measure the residual allergenicity of whey hydrolysates on both the sensitization and challenge phase of orally induced cow's milk allergy in mice. Mice were sensitized orally to whey or a partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) to measure the residual sensitizing capacity. To predict the residual allergenicity of hydrolysates, whey allergic mice were challenged in the ear with pWH, extensive whey hydrolysate or an amino acid-based formula. An acute allergic skin response (ear swelling at 1 h), whey-specific serum antibodies, and local MCP-1 concentrations were measured. In contrast to whey, oral sensitization with pWH did not result in the induction of whey-specific antibodies, although a minor residual skin response to whey was observed after challenge. Skin exposure to whey hydrolysates showed a hydrolysation dependent reduction of the acute allergic skin response in whey allergic mice. In contrast to whey, skin exposure to pWH did not enhance tissue MCP-1 levels. The acute allergic skin response in mice orally sensitized to cow's milk proteins reveals a new pre-clinical tool which might provide information about the residual sensitizing capacity of hydrolysates supporting the discussion on the use of hypoallergenic formulae in high risk children. This mouse model might be a relevant model for the screening of new hypoallergenic formulae aimed to prevent or treat cow's milk allergy.

  4. Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro. PMID:18650554

  5. Oral administration of PF-01247324, a subtype-selective Nav1.8 blocker, reverses cerebellar deficits in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shields, Shannon D; Butt, Richard P; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar symptoms significantly diminish quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously showed that sodium channel Nav1.8, although normally restricted to peripheral somatosensory neurons, is upregulated in the cerebellum in MS, and that Nav1.8 expression is linked to ataxia and MS-like symptoms in mice. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of the Nav1.8 blocker A-803467 temporarily reversed electrophysiological and behavioral manifestations of disease in a mouse MS model; unfortunately A-803467 is not orally bioavailable, diminishing the potential for translation to human patients. In the present study, we assessed the effect of per os (p.o.) dosing of a new orally bioavailable Nav1.8-selective blocker, PF-01247324, in transgenic mice expressing Nav1.8 in Purkinje neurons, and in wildtype mice in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. PF-01247324 was administered by oral gavage at 1000 mg/kg; control groups received an equal volume of vehicle. Behavioral assays of motor coordination, grip strength, and ataxia were performed. We observed significant improvements in motor coordination and cerebellar-like symptoms in mice that received PF-01247324 compared to control littermates that received vehicle. These preclinical proof-of-concept data suggest that PF-01247324, its derivatives, or other Nav1.8-selective blockers merit further study for providing symptomatic therapy for cerebellar dysfunction in MS and related disorders. PMID:25747279

  6. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  7. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  8. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A.; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A.; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for “CBD botanical drug substance,” on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage – after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment. PMID:27757083

  9. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lower lip in a child.

    PubMed

    Bombeccari, Gian Paolo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo; Ruffoni, Diego; Gianatti, Andrea; Mariani, Umberto; Spadari, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip in a child is a very rare clinical entity whose cause is poorly understood. We describe an 11-year-old boy who presented with a 5-month history of an asymptomatic nodule on the lower lip with the clinical appearance of a benign mucocele. After surgical excision of the lower lip lesion, lymphocyte phenotypic analysis and histologic examination of the specimen disclosed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue type of the buccal minor salivary glands. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip may clinically resemble a large mucocele. To prevent a delayed detection of lip mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma, an incisional biopsy of large mucous cysts of the oral mucosa before marsupialization is recommended. PMID:22152894

  10. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lower lip in a child.

    PubMed

    Bombeccari, Gian Paolo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo; Ruffoni, Diego; Gianatti, Andrea; Mariani, Umberto; Spadari, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip in a child is a very rare clinical entity whose cause is poorly understood. We describe an 11-year-old boy who presented with a 5-month history of an asymptomatic nodule on the lower lip with the clinical appearance of a benign mucocele. After surgical excision of the lower lip lesion, lymphocyte phenotypic analysis and histologic examination of the specimen disclosed an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue type of the buccal minor salivary glands. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma of the lip may clinically resemble a large mucocele. To prevent a delayed detection of lip mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma, an incisional biopsy of large mucous cysts of the oral mucosa before marsupialization is recommended.

  11. Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa.

    PubMed

    Galletta, Vivian C; Artico, Gabriela; Dal Vechio, Aluana M C; Lemos Jr, Celso A; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:22147048

  12. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the muscularis mucosae in the ruminant forestomach.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, N; Yoshiki, A; Sasaki, M; Baltazar, E T; Hondo, E; Yamamoto, Y; Agungpriyono, S; Yamada, J

    2003-06-01

    The muscularis mucosae and condensed fibrous layer of the ruminant forestomach were studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) and gamma-smooth muscle actin (gammaSMA). The specimens were collected from the rumen, reticulum and omasum of cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goat, Barbary sheep, Japanese serow, sika deer and mouse deer. The muscularis mucosae showed immunoreactivity for both alphaSMA and gammaSMA. On the other hand, the condensed fibrous layer appearing between the propria mucosa and tela submucosa was immunoreactive only for alphaSMA except for that in the goat and Barbary sheep reticulum which is intermingled with gammaSMA immunoreactivity. The distribution of muscularis mucosae and/or condensed fibrous layer varied among the compartments of forestomach and ruminant species. In the rumen, only the condensed fibrous layer was detected. On the other hand, the omasum contained only the muscularis mucosae. In the reticulum, both were detected. The amount of the condensed fibrous layer in the reticulum varied among different species in the following order of abundance: goat > Barbary sheep > sika deer> sheep > water buffalo > cattle and Japanese serow. Smooth muscle cells of external muscle layer were immunoreactive for alphaSMA and gammaSMA whereas those of blood vessels and pericytes were immunoreactive only for alphaSMA. The present findings on the actin immunoreactivity and distribution profile of muscularis mucosae and the condensed fibrous layer provide additional knowledge to further understand the histophysiological specialization of the different compartments of the ruminant forestomach.

  13. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa masquerading as a salivary gland neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Nayal, Bhavna; Kantipudi, Swarna; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral cavity is a rare occurrence with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the third most common tumor to metastasize to this location. Buccal mucosa is rarely involved and in the absence of a known primary, such lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. The histomorphological features may mimic a primary salivary gland neoplasm adding to the dilemma. We present one such case of metastatic RCC of the buccal mucosa.

  14. Fibrolipoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Masayasu; Saida, Naotaka; Tanaka, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms derived from mature adipose tissue. However, they rarely arise in the oral cavity. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mainly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic issues. This article describes the case of a 71-year-old male with a fibrolipoma of the left buccal mucosa and a review of previous articles about fibrolipoma. PMID:26885425

  15. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  16. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable.

  17. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  18. Oral TNFα Modulation Alters Neutrophil Infiltration, Improves Cognition and Diminishes Tau and Amyloid Pathology in the 3xTgAD Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gabbita, S. Prasad; Johnson, Ming F.; Kobritz, Naomi; Eslami, Pirooz; Poteshkina, Aleksandra; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Turman, John; Zemlan, Frank; Harris-White, Marni E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines such as TNFα can polarize microglia/macrophages into different neuroinflammatory types. Skewing of the phenotype towards a cytotoxic state is thought to impair phagocytosis and has been described in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Neuroinflammation can be perpetuated by a cycle of increasing cytokine production and maintenance of a polarized activation state that contributes to AD progression. In this study, 3xTgAD mice, age 6 months, were treated orally with 3 doses of the TNFα modulating compound isoindolin-1,3 dithione (IDT) for 10 months. We demonstrate that IDT is a TNFα modulating compound both in vitro and in vivo. Following long-term IDT administration, mice were assessed for learning & memory and tissue and serum were collected for analysis. Results demonstrate that IDT is safe for long-term treatment and significantly improves learning and memory in the 3xTgAD mouse model. IDT significantly reduced paired helical filament tau and fibrillar amyloid accumulation. Flow cytometry of brain cell populations revealed that IDT increased the infiltrating neutrophil population while reducing TNFα expression in this population. IDT is a safe and effective TNFα and innate immune system modulator. Thus small molecule, orally bioavailable modulators are promising therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26436670

  19. Role of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a foodborne mycotoxin found in grain-based foods, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although induction of anorexia has been described as a hallmark of DON-induced toxicity in many animal species, the mechanistic basis for this adverse effect is not fully understood. The purpose of this research was to determine the role of two proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in DON-induced anorexia. In a nocturnal mouse food consumption model, DON-induced anorectic response occurred at 1 hr and lasted up to 6 hr. Similar anorectic effects were observed following acute administration of exogenous TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral exposure to DON at 5 mg/kg bw stimulated splenic and hepatic mRNA and plasma protein elevations of TNF-α and IL-1β that corresponded to anorexia induction. Pretreatment with the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) antagonist R-7050 dose-dependently attenuated both TNF-α- and DON-induced anorexia. While, the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) antagonist IL-1RA dose-dependently attenuated both IL-1β- and DON-induced anorexia. Taken together, the results suggest that both TNF-α and IL-1β play contributory role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to DON.

  20. Role of Bcr1-activated genes Hwp1 and Hyr1 in Candida albicans oral mucosal biofilms and neutrophil evasion.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Prabhat; Thompson, Angela; Xie, Zhihong; Kashleva, Helena; Ganguly, Shantanu; Mitchell, Aaron P; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2011-01-25

    Candida albicans triggers recurrent infections of the oropharyngeal mucosa that result from biofilm growth. Prior studies have indicated that the transcription factor Bcr1 regulates biofilm formation in a catheter model, both in vitro and in vivo. We thus hypothesized that Bcr1 plays similar roles in the formation of oral mucosal biofilms and tested this hypothesis in a mouse model of oral infection. We found that a bcr1/bcr1 mutant did not form significant biofilm on the tongues of immunocompromised mice, in contrast to reference and reconstituted strains that formed pseudomembranes covering most of the tongue dorsal surface. Overexpression of HWP1, which specifies an epithelial adhesin that is under the transcriptional control of Bcr1, partly but significantly rescued the bcr1/bcr1 biofilm phenotype in vivo. Since HWP1 overexpression only partly reversed the biofilm phenotype, we investigated whether additional mechanisms, besides adhesin down-regulation, were responsible for the reduced virulence of this mutant. We discovered that the bcr1/bcr1 mutant was more susceptible to damage by human leukocytes when grown on plastic or on the surface of a human oral mucosa tissue analogue. Overexpression of HYR1, but not HWP1, significantly rescued this phenotype. Furthermore a hyr1/hyr1 mutant had significantly attenuated virulence in the mouse oral biofilm model of infection. These discoveries show that Bcr1 is critical for mucosal biofilm infection via regulation of epithelial cell adhesin and neutrophil function.

  1. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  2. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  3. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  4. The recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine induces protection against C. difficile spore challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanguang; Yan, Weiwei; McDonough, Sean P; Lin, Nengfeng; Wu, Katherine J; He, Hongxuan; Xiang, Hua; Yang, Maosheng; Moreira, Maira Aparecida S; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2015-03-24

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in the developed world. Two potent cytotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are the virulence factors of this disease and can be a good vaccine candidate against CDI. In the present study, we genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis to express the nontoxic, recombinant fragments derived from TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domains (Tcd-AC and Tcd-BC) as an oral vaccine candidate. The immunogenicity of the genetically engineered L. lactis oral vaccine delivery system (animal groups LAC and LBC or the combination of both, LACBC) was compared with the recombinant TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domain proteins (animal groups PAC and PBC or the combination of both, PACBC), which were expressed and purified from E. coli. After the C. difficile challenge, the control groups received PBS or engineered L. lactis with empty vector, showed severe diarrhea symptoms and died within 2-3 days. However, both the oral vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine groups had significantly lower mortalities, body weight decreases and histopathologic lesions than the control sham-vaccine groups (p<0.05) except group LBC which only had a 31% survival rate after the challenge. The data of post infection survival showed that an average of 86% of animals survived in groups PAC and PACBC, 75% of animals survived in group LACBC, and 65% of animals survived in group LAC. All of the vaccinated animals produced higher titers of both IgG and IgA than the control groups (p<0.05), and the antibodies were able to neutralize the cytopathic effect of toxins in vitro. The results of this study indicate that there is a potential to use L. lactis as a delivery system to develop a cost effective oral vaccine against CDI. PMID:25698490

  5. The recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine induces protection against C. difficile spore challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanguang; Yan, Weiwei; McDonough, Sean P; Lin, Nengfeng; Wu, Katherine J; He, Hongxuan; Xiang, Hua; Yang, Maosheng; Moreira, Maira Aparecida S; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2015-03-24

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in the developed world. Two potent cytotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are the virulence factors of this disease and can be a good vaccine candidate against CDI. In the present study, we genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis to express the nontoxic, recombinant fragments derived from TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domains (Tcd-AC and Tcd-BC) as an oral vaccine candidate. The immunogenicity of the genetically engineered L. lactis oral vaccine delivery system (animal groups LAC and LBC or the combination of both, LACBC) was compared with the recombinant TcdA and TcdB C-terminal receptor binding domain proteins (animal groups PAC and PBC or the combination of both, PACBC), which were expressed and purified from E. coli. After the C. difficile challenge, the control groups received PBS or engineered L. lactis with empty vector, showed severe diarrhea symptoms and died within 2-3 days. However, both the oral vaccine and recombinant protein vaccine groups had significantly lower mortalities, body weight decreases and histopathologic lesions than the control sham-vaccine groups (p<0.05) except group LBC which only had a 31% survival rate after the challenge. The data of post infection survival showed that an average of 86% of animals survived in groups PAC and PACBC, 75% of animals survived in group LACBC, and 65% of animals survived in group LAC. All of the vaccinated animals produced higher titers of both IgG and IgA than the control groups (p<0.05), and the antibodies were able to neutralize the cytopathic effect of toxins in vitro. The results of this study indicate that there is a potential to use L. lactis as a delivery system to develop a cost effective oral vaccine against CDI.

  6. Scap is required for sterol synthesis and crypt growth in intestinal mucosa[S

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Linden, Albert G.; January, Brandon A.; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for cleavage and activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which activate the transcription of genes in sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Liver-specific loss of Scap is well tolerated; hepatic synthesis of sterols and fatty acids is reduced, but mice are otherwise healthy. To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap−) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT2, a fusion protein of Cre recombinase with a mutated ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. After 4 days of tamoxifen, Vil-Scap− mice succumb with a severe enteropathy and near-complete collapse of intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap− mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Death is prevented when culture medium is supplemented with cholesterol and oleate. These data show that, unlike the liver, the intestine requires Scap to sustain tissue integrity by maintaining the high levels of lipid synthesis necessary for proliferation of intestinal crypts. PMID:25896350

  7. Concentrations of acidic antiinflammatory drugs in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Frey, H H; El-Sayed, M A

    1977-12-01

    In rats, the concentrations of the acidic antiinflammatory drugs salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid and indomethacin in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa were determined 30 and 60 min after oral or subcutaneous administration. In another series of experiments, solutions of the drugs were introduced into the ligated stomach and the concentrations in the mucosa and in the contents of the stomach were determined after 60 min. The ratio between the concentrations in the musoca and those in serum or gastric contents were much lower than expected according to the distribution by passive non-ionic diffusion. This apparent discrepancy may be explained as a result of a drug-induced damage to the mucosal cell allowing free diffusion of ionized drug across the cell membrane. PMID:603322

  8. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2016-04-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells. PMID:26877262

  9. One Odontogenic Cell-Population Contributes to the Development of the Mouse Incisors and of the Oral Vestibule.

    PubMed

    Hovorakova, Maria; Lochovska, Katerina; Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Domonkosova Tibenska, Kristina; Dornhoferova, Michaela; Horakova-Smrckova, Lucie; Bodorikova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of human historical tooth-like structures found in the vestibular area of jaws confirmed their relation to teeth and thus the capability of the vestibular tissue to form teeth. The location of labelled cells descendant of the early appearing Shh expression domain related to the rudimentary incisor anlage not only in the rudimentary and functional incisor germs but also in the externally located anlage of the oral vestibule documented the odontogenic potential of the vestibular epithelium. This potential can be awakened under pathological conditions and become a source of pathologies in the vestibular area. PMID:27611193

  10. One Odontogenic Cell-Population Contributes to the Development of the Mouse Incisors and of the Oral Vestibule

    PubMed Central

    Hovorakova, Maria; Lochovska, Katerina; Zahradnicek, Oldrich; Domonkosova Tibenska, Kristina; Dornhoferova, Michaela; Horakova-Smrckova, Lucie; Bodorikova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of human historical tooth-like structures found in the vestibular area of jaws confirmed their relation to teeth and thus the capability of the vestibular tissue to form teeth. The location of labelled cells descendant of the early appearing Shh expression domain related to the rudimentary incisor anlage not only in the rudimentary and functional incisor germs but also in the externally located anlage of the oral vestibule documented the odontogenic potential of the vestibular epithelium. This potential can be awakened under pathological conditions and become a source of pathologies in the vestibular area. PMID:27611193

  11. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions.

  12. Oral Manifestations of Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; Durighetto, Antonio Francisco; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny

    2015-06-01

    Known as "the great imitator," secondary syphilis may clinically manifest itself in myriad ways, involving different organs including the oral mucosa, and mimicking, both clinically and histologically, several diseases, thereby making diagnosis a challenge for clinicians. We highlight the clinical aspects of oral manifestation in 7 patients with secondary syphilis. Clinicians should consider secondary syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and/or white oral lesions. PMID:25892249

  13. Post-exposure efficacy of oral T-705 (Favipiravir) against inhalational Ebola virus infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Smither, Sophie J; Eastaugh, Lin S; Steward, Jackie A; Nelson, Michelle; Lenk, Robert P; Lever, Mark S

    2014-04-01

    Filoviruses cause disease with high case fatality rates and are considered biological threat agents. Licensed post-exposure therapies that can be administered by the oral route are desired for safe and rapid distribution and uptake in the event of exposure or outbreaks. Favipiravir or T-705 has broad antiviral activity and has already undergone phase II and is undergoing phase III clinical trials for influenza. Here we report the first use of T-705 against Ebola virus. T-705 gave 100% protection against aerosol Ebola virus E718 infection; protection was shown in immune-deficient mice after 14 days of twice-daily dosing. T-705 was also shown to inhibit Ebola virus infection in cell culture. T-705 is likely to be licensed for use against influenza in the near future and could also be used with a new indication for filovirus infection.

  14. Mouse models for assessing the cross-protective efficacy of oral non-typhoidal Salmonella vaccine candidates harbouring in-frame deletions of the ATP-dependent protease lon and other genes.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hidenori; Fukiya, Satoru; Kodama-Akaboshi, Chie; Eguchi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2015-03-01

    In BALB/c mouse models of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, a single oral immunization with a mutant strain with an insertion of the chloramphenicol resistance gene into the ATP-dependent protease clpP or lon gene decreased the number of salmonellae in each tissue sample 5 days after oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium at weeks 26 and 54 post-immunization. These data suggested that an oral immunization with the ClpP- or Lon-disrupted S. Typhimurium strain could provide long-term protection against oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium. Accordingly, recombinant oral non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) vaccines were constructed by incorporating mutants of both S. Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis harbouring stable in-frame markerless deletions of the clpP-lon-sulA (suppressor of lon), lon-sulA or lon-msbB (acyltransferase) genes. Amongst these orally administered vaccine candidates, those with the lon-sulA gene deletion mutants of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis protected BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice against oral challenge with both virulent S. Typhimurium and virulent S. Enteritidis. Therefore, the in-frame markerless lon-sulA gene deletion mutant of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis could be a promising cross-protective NTS live vaccine candidate for practical use in humans.

  15. Lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa of patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Kanzaki, Hiromitzu; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    A 77-year-old Japanese man underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection twice over a 5-year period for the treatment of two separate early gastric cancers. He had been taking lanthanum carbonate, an orally administered phosphate binder, for 3 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed reddish mucosa in the greater curvature and anterior wall of the gastric angle, while granular, white deposits were also observed in some areas of this reddish mucosa. Additionally, biopsy specimens from the gastric mucosa revealed the deposition of fine, amorphous, eosinophilic material, which appeared bright on scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of lanthanum and phosphate in these bright areas, and elemental mapping confirmed that their distribution was identical to that seen in the bright areas. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa was determined. PMID:27383105

  16. Rare Carcinoma Ex-pleomorphic Adenoma of Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Prashant; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Agrawal, Dipti; Singh, Sompal

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is exceedingly rare in minor salivary glands of oral cavity. We present a case of CXPA arising from buccal mucosa in a 44-year-old male patient. The man presented to surgery outpatient department with right buccal mucosa swelling. Clinical impression suggests a neoplasm of buccal mucosa and the patient was sent for fine needle aspiration cytology. By examining the cytological smears, possibility of carcinoma was revealed. The mass was dissected and excised with safety margins. Examining Hematoxylin and Eosin slides, final diagnosis of CXPA was given. Patient did not turn for regular follow-ups and presented 1 year after surgery with recurrence at the same site. CXPA is an uncommon malignant tumor with highly aggressive biological behavior. Its occurrence in sites like buccal mucosa is rare. Hence, quite a diagnostic challenge at such sites cause diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27134712

  17. “Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: Case report and literature review”

    PubMed Central

    Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity. Key words:Lipoma, osteolipoma, panoramic radiography, radio-opaque, radiography. PMID:27034764

  18. The corn smut-made cholera oral vaccine is thermostable and induces long-lasting immunity in mouse.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Navarro-Tovar, Gabriela; León-Gallo, Amalia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2016-09-20

    The use of corn smut for the production of recombinant vaccines has been recently implemented by our group. In this study, the stability and immunogenic properties of the corn smut-based cholera vaccine, based on the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), were determined in mouse. The immunogenic potential of distinct corn smut CTB doses ranging from 1 to 30μg were assessed, with maximum humoral responses at both the systemic (IgG) and intestinal (IgA) levels at a dose of 15μg. The humoral response last for up to 70days after the third boost. Mice were fully protected against a challenge with cholera toxin after receiving three 15μg-doses. Remarkably, the corn smut-made vaccine retained its immunogenic activity after storage at room temperature for a period of 1year and no reduction on CTB was observed following exposure at 50°C for 2h. These data support the use of the corn smut-made CTB vaccine as a highly stable and effective immunogen and justify its evaluation in target animal models, such as piglet and sheep, as well as clinical evaluations in humans. PMID:27165506

  19. The corn smut-made cholera oral vaccine is thermostable and induces long-lasting immunity in mouse.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Navarro-Tovar, Gabriela; León-Gallo, Amalia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2016-09-20

    The use of corn smut for the production of recombinant vaccines has been recently implemented by our group. In this study, the stability and immunogenic properties of the corn smut-based cholera vaccine, based on the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), were determined in mouse. The immunogenic potential of distinct corn smut CTB doses ranging from 1 to 30μg were assessed, with maximum humoral responses at both the systemic (IgG) and intestinal (IgA) levels at a dose of 15μg. The humoral response last for up to 70days after the third boost. Mice were fully protected against a challenge with cholera toxin after receiving three 15μg-doses. Remarkably, the corn smut-made vaccine retained its immunogenic activity after storage at room temperature for a period of 1year and no reduction on CTB was observed following exposure at 50°C for 2h. These data support the use of the corn smut-made CTB vaccine as a highly stable and effective immunogen and justify its evaluation in target animal models, such as piglet and sheep, as well as clinical evaluations in humans.

  20. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  1. Effect of orally administered collagen hydrolysate on gene expression profiles in mouse skin: a DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Oba, Chisato; Ito, Kyoko; Ichikawa, Satomi; Morifuji, Masashi; Nakai, Yuji; Ishijima, Tomoko; Abe, Keiko; Kawahata, Keiko

    2015-08-01

    Dietary collagen hydrolysate has been hypothesized to improve skin barrier function. To investigate the effect of long-term collagen hydrolysate administration on the skin, we evaluated stratum corneum water content and skin elasticity in intrinsically aged mice. Female hairless mice were fed a control diet or a collagen hydrolysate-containing diet for 12 wk. Stratum corneum water content and skin elasticity were gradually decreased in chronologically aged control mice. Intake of collagen hydrolysate significantly suppressed such changes. Moreover, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression in the skin of mice that had been administered collagen hydrolysate. Twelve weeks after the start of collagen intake, no significant differences appeared in the gene expression profile compared with the control group. However, 1 wk after administration, 135 genes were upregulated and 448 genes were downregulated in the collagen group. This suggests that gene changes preceded changes of barrier function and elasticity. We focused on several genes correlated with functional changes in the skin. Gene Ontology terms related to epidermal cell development were significantly enriched in upregulated genes. These skin function-related genes had properties that facilitate epidermal production and differentiation while suppressing dermal degradation. In conclusion, our results suggest that altered gene expression at the early stages after collagen administration affects skin barrier function and mechanical properties. Long-term oral intake of collagen hydrolysate improves skin dysfunction by regulating genes related to production and maintenance of skin tissue.

  2. Oral encapsulated vascular malformation: An undescribed presentation in the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Márcio-Américo; Dias, Pedro-de Souza; Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions have been classified in two broad categories, hemangiomas and malformations. Encapsulated vascular lesions have not been reported in the oral cavity, but they were described in other sites, mainly in the orbit. Herein, we present a case of an oral encapsulated vascular lesion located in the right buccal mucosa of a 69-year-old male, including histological and immunohistochemical description and a literature review. Key words:Buccal mucosa, hemangioma, vascular malformation, oral cavity. PMID:26855712

  3. [Oral contraception].

    PubMed

    Guillat, J C

    1980-04-20

    OC (oral contraception) includes the combined and sequential methods, postcoital and progestin only contraception, mini pills, and macro pills. The mechanism of action of OC modifies the hypothalamo-hypophysary secretion, the uterine mucosa, and the cervical mucus. Effectiveness of OC is nearly 100%; prescription of OC requires a complete clinical and biological evaluation of the patient. Contraindications to OC are any form of cancer, hypertension, vascular or thrombotic antecedents, obesity, tabagism, diabetes. OC users must be checked at least every 6 months, and treatment can last, if there are no evident signs of side effects, until about age 40. The most commonly known side effects of OC are menstruation disorders, cardio- and cerebrovascular effects, hepatic and metabolic effects; there is no evidence that OC can cause carcinogenic effects, but it can increase teratogenic risk. The association of OC with such drugs as Rifampicine, anticonvulsants and/or tranquillizers, can nullify contraceptive effectiveness. PMID:6900393

  4. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route.

  5. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route. PMID:26826555

  6. [Precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Loeb, I; Evrard, L

    2008-09-01

    Precancerous states of the oral mucosa refers to pathologies in which there is a risk of malignancy development, compared to normal mucosa. Some histological alterations characteristic of precancerous lesions can be easily detected in a biopsy of the lesion, allowing their classification, and hence adequate treatment. A systematic examination of the oral mucosa in patients is recommended, especially in patients who show risk factors such as tabagism and/or alcohol consumption, in order to contribute to a decrease in the incidence of malignant tumor of the oral cavity. PMID:18949975

  7. Prominent features of allergic angioedema on oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Duvancić, Tomislav; Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Brekalo, Ante; Situm, Mirna; Sinković, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Angioedema indicates acute subcutaneous edema that characterizes improperly restricted cutaneous or mucous membrane swelling, which can occur only once or be relapsing. Edema usually occurs in the periorbital area, lips, tongue, extremities and intestinal wall. It has turned out that angioedema is usually caused by the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) or allergies to certain allergens (allergic or IgE-mediated angioedema), followed by C1 inhibitor deficiency (hereditary and acquired angioedema), or the cause is unknown (idiopathic angioedema). It has been shown that patients with angioedema often have urticaria, which is noted in approximately 50% of cases. Usually there is a type I allergic reaction to some food allergens or drugs or insect stings. The most common causes of allergic angioedema are bee and wasp stings, reactions to medications or injections for sensitivity testing, and certain foods (especially eggs, shellfish and nuts). In diagnostic terms, it is important to determine the potential allergen, which is commonly performed with cutaneous tests, such as prick test, etc. The main risk of angioedema is swelling of the tongue, larynx and trachea, which can lead to airway obstruction and death, therefore tracheotomy is indicated in such cases. The initial treatment of patients with most forms of angioedema included administration of antihistamines and glucocorticoids, while epinephrine is given if there is fear from laryngeal edema.

  8. A Solitary Phlebolith in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Entity and Clinicopathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, A; Kumar, N Govindraj; Kumar, B Jambukeshwar; Naik, Raghavendra M; Sangineedi, Y Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Pathological conditions can give rise to calcifications within oral mucosa representing either a local or systemic disturbance. Inflammation, trauma, debris acting as nidus and vascular lesions have been attributed as principal causes for occurrence of calcifications within the oral mucosa. Occurrence of multiple calcified thrombi (phleboliths) is considered pathognomonic for hemangiomas and vascular malformations in the oral and maxillofacial region. Isolated occurrence of phlebolith in oral mucosa though very rare, especially without any underlying vascular lesions, can be diagnostically challenging. Either a traumatic association at that site or a hemangioma of childhood that has regressed once the individual became an adult are the possible explanations suggested for the occurrence of these unique solitary phleboliths. Histologically, an "onion-ring"-like concentric lamellar fibrosis around a central core with varying amounts of calcifications and presence of minute vascular channels within or around calcified lamellae is characteristic for phlebolith. There is a high propensity for misdiagnosing solitary phlebolith located in sites like the buccal mucosa where various other pathologic soft-tissue calcifications, such as sialoliths, calcified lymph nodes, traumatic myositis ossificans, etc. can occur and they too appear radiopaque in radiographs. Besides, the absence of any associated underlying vascular lesion adds to the mispercep-tion. In such cases, histopathological examination with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining alone may not be sufficient to determine the accurate diagnosis. Allied clinical history and immunohistochemistry can aid to arrive at the final diagnosis. We report such a case of nonvascular lesion-associated solitary phlebolith in the right buccal mucosa of a healthy 49-year-old male patient and discuss its differential diagnosis with emphasis on histological presentation. PMID:27659092

  9. Antioxidative effects of lactic acid bacteria on the colonic mucosa of iron-overloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masahiko; Ohishi, Kenji; Yoshida, Yasuto; Yokoi, Wakae; Sawada, Haruji

    2003-07-16

    The antioxidative effects of lactic acid bacteria on lipid peroxidation in the colonic mucosa were investigated. Among 49 strains of lactic acid bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus YIT 2001 showed the highest inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation in liposomes induced by ferrous iron. Feeding a diet containing 0.4% St. thermophilus YIT 2001 (2 x 10(8) colony-forming units per mouse per day) for 2 weeks caused a significant decrease of lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) in the colonic mucosa of iron-overloaded mice (0.07% Fe in the diet). The mucosal lipid peroxide level did not correlate with the soluble iron concentration of the cecal contents. Therefore, it is suggested that the antioxidative effect of St. thermophilus YIT 2001 in the colonic mucosa was not due to the removal of ferrous iron from the reaction system of lipid peroxidation. PMID:12848525

  10. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  11. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions.

  12. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  13. Normal keratinized mucosa transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Reibel, J; Harder, F

    1981-01-01

    Two types of normal keratinized mucosa were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice of two different strains. 24 intact specimens of clinically normal human palatal mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu NC. The transplants were recovered after 42 d with a recovery rate of 96%. Moreover, 22 intact specimens of normal rat forestomach mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu BALB/c/BOM. These transplants were recovered after 21 d with a recovery rate of 63%. The histologic features of the transplants were essentially the same as those of the original tissues. However, epithelial outgrowths from the transplants differed with respect to the pattern of keratinization. The outgrowths of human palatal mucosa transplants were essentially unkeratinized, while the outgrowths of the rat forestomach transplants showed continued keratinization.

  14. Results of examination of the nasal mucosa. [in Apollo 17 BIOCORE pocket mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. M.; Vogel, F. S.; Lloyd, B.; Benton, E. V.; Cruty, M. R.; Haymaker, W.; Leon, H. A.; Billingham, J.; Turnbill, C. E.; Teas, V.

    1975-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium, but not the nasal respiratory epithelium, of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived their flight on Apollo XVII showed both diffuse alterations and numerous disseminated focal lesions. The olfactory mucosa of the mouse that died during flight was also affected, but to a minor degree insofar as could be determined. All this was in contrast to the normal appearance of the olfactory mucosa of the numerous control animals. A number of possible causes were considered: systemic or regional infection; inhaled particulate material (seed dust); by-products from the KO2 bed in aerosol or particulate form; gas contaminants originating in the flight package; volatile substances from the dead mouse; weightlessness; and cosmic ray particle radiation. Where feasible, studies were conducted in an effort to rule in or rule out some of these potentially causative factors. No definitive conclusions were reached as to the cause of the lesions in the flight mice.

  15. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.

  16. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth. PMID:19950517

  17. Optical reconstruction of murine colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cambrian Y.; Dubé, Philip E.; Girish, Nandini; Reddy, Ajay T.

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal layer of the colon is a unique and dynamic site where host cells interface with one another and the microbiome, with major implications for physiology and disease. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating colonic regeneration, inflammation, dysplasia, and dysbiosis remain undercharacterized, partly because the use of thin tissue sections in many studies removes important volumetric context. To address these challenges in visualization, we have developed the deep mucosal imaging (DMI) method to reconstruct continuous extended volumes of mouse colorectal mucosa at cellular resolution. Use of ScaleA2 and SeeDB clearing agents enabled full visualization of the colonic crypt, the fundamental unit of adult colon. Confocal imaging of large colorectal expanses revealed epithelial structures involved in repair, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and stem cell function, in fluorescent protein-labeled, immunostained, paraffin-embedded, or human biopsy samples. We provide freely available software to reconstruct and explore on computers with standard memory allocations the large DMI datasets containing in toto representations of distal colonic mucosal volume. Extended-volume imaging of colonic mucosa through the novel, extensible, and readily adopted DMI approach will expedite mechanistic investigations of intestinal physiology and pathophysiology at intracrypt to multicrypt length scales. PMID:25721303

  18. Preparation of the Multifunctional Liposome-Containing Microneedle Arrays as an Oral Cavity Mucosal Vaccine Adjuvant-Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the multifunctional liposome-constituted microneedle arrays (LiposoMAs) have been proven to be an interesting vaccine adjuvant-delivery system (VADS) that are stable and can be vaccinated via oral cavity mucosal route. When given to mice at oral mucosa, the LiposoMAs can effectively eliminate the ingredient loss caused by chewing, swallowing, and saliva flowing and can, thus, elicit robust systemic as well as mucosal immunoresponses against the loaded antigens. In addition, the LiposoMAs can induce a mixed Th1/Th2 immunoresponse and strong cellular/humoral immunity due to special adjuvanticity and targeting delivery functions of the nanoparticulate VADS. In this chapter, the preparation, characterization as well as mucosal vaccination of the LiposoMAs are introduced. In addition, the methods for sampling mouse organs, tissues, and cells and for evaluation of the immunization efficacy are mainly included. PMID:27076328

  19. The Effect of Propolis in Healing Injured Nasal Mucosa: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Abdelmonem, Said; Abdelsameea, Ahmed A.; AlShawadfy, Mohamed; El-Kashishy, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries. Objective  This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats. Methods  We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope. Results  The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth. Conclusion  Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats. PMID:27413403

  20. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  1. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia.

    PubMed

    May, A J; Chatzeli, L; Proctor, G B; Tucker, A S

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia. PMID:26321752

  2. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  3. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  4. Bioactivation of the Nasal Toxicant 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile: An Assessment of Metabolic Activity in Human Nasal Mucosa and Identification of Indicators of Exposure and Potential Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; D’Agostino, Jaime; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    The herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) is a potent nasal toxicant in rodents; however it is not known whether DCBN causes similar nasal toxicity in humans. The tissue-selective toxicity of DCBN in mouse nasal mucosa is largely dependent on target tissue bioactivation by CYP2A5. The human orthologs of CYP2A5, CYP2A6 and CYP2A13, are both expressed in nasal mucosa, and are capable of activating DCBN. In this study, we directly determined the ability of human nasal mucosa to bioactivate DCBN. We also tested the suitability of a glutathione conjugate of DCBN (GS-DCBN) or its derivatives as biomarkers of DCBN exposure and nasal toxicity in mouse models. We found that human fetal nasal-mucosa microsomes catalyze the formation of GS-DCBN, with a Km value comparable to that of adult mouse nasal-mucosa microsomes. The activity of the human nasal-mucosa microsomes was inhibited by 8-methoxypsoralen, a known CYP2A inhibitor. GS-DCBN and its metabolites were detected in the nasal mucosa and nasal-wash fluid obtained from DCBN-treated mice, in amounts that increased with escalations in DCBN dose, and they were all still detectable at 24 h after a DCBN treatment (at 10 mg/kg). Further studies in Cyp2a5-null mice indicated that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid were generated in the nasal mucosa, rather than in other organs. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that the human nasal mucosa is capable of bioactivating DCBN, and that GS-DCBN and its metabolites in nasal-wash fluid may collectively serve as indicators of DCBN exposure and potential nasal toxicity in humans. PMID:23360412

  5. Reconstruction of a full-thickness collagen-based human oral mucosal equivalent.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Auxenfans, Céline; Pierrillas, Pascal; Justin, Virginie; Breton, Pierre; Burillon, Carole; Hasirci, Vasif; Damour, Odile

    2009-11-01

    Tissue engineered human oral mucosa has the potential to be applied to the closure of surgical wounds after tissue deficits due to facial trauma, malignant lesion surgery or preposthetic procedure. It can also be used to elucidate the biology and pathology of oral mucosa and as a model alternative to animals for safety testing of oral care products. Using the technology previously developed in our laboratory for the production of a skin equivalent, we were able to reconstruct a nonkeratinized full-thickness human oral mucosal equivalent closely mimicking human native oral mucosa. The successive coculture of human lamina propria fibroblasts and human oral epithelial cells isolated from the nonkeratinized region of oral cavity in a porous collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-chitosan scaffold gave rise to a lamina propria equivalent (LPE) and then to an oral mucosa equivalent (OME). The results of the histology, immunohistology and transmission electron microscopy of this OME demonstrated the presence of a nonkeratinized pluristratified and differentiated epithelium as in native nonkeratinized human oral mucosa expressing both K13 and K3/76. This epithelium was firmly anchored to the LPE by a continuous and ultrastructurally well-organized basement membrane. In the LPE, fibroblasts synthesized new extracellular matrix where the average collagen fibre diameter was 28.4 nm, close to that of native oral mucosa. The proliferative capacity of the basal cells was demonstrated by the expression of Ki67. PMID:19698987

  6. Mechano-chemical nociceptors in the avian trigeminal mucosa.

    PubMed

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2004-10-01

    This study characterised and compared the properties of chemically sensitive nociceptors in the avian nasal and oral epithelia recorded from either microelectrode stabs of the trigeminal ganglion (nasal mucosa) or microdissected twigs of the nasopalatine nerve (palatine mucosa) in urethane anaesthetized hens. A total of 146 slowly and rapidly adapting nasal and palate mechanically sensitive receptors were identified exhibiting von Frey thresholds to mechanical stimulation ranging from 0.2 to 8.3 g (mean 3.21+/-2.28 g, n=39) in the nasal cavity and <0.1 to 15 g (mean 2.17+/-2.69 g, n=62) in the palate. Receptive fields were situated throughout the nasal cavity and palate. A subset of receptors (classified as polymodal nociceptors) exhibited chemical sensitivity when exposed to noxious levels of ammonia gas, and some polymodal afferents also responded to acetic acid vapour or carbon dioxide exposure. Responses to ammonia were characterised by delayed onset, rapid prolonged discharge patterns usually outlasting the chemical stimulation. Clear concentration-response relationships were apparent for chemically receptive afferents in both the nasal and oral cavities, although curve shape varied considerably between receptors. Statistical comparisons of the responses of polymodal nociceptors in each mucosal region revealed no significant difference between their mechanical thresholds, but nasal afferents exhibited lower chemical (ammonia) thresholds and higher maximal firing rates. These response characteristics highlight distinct sensitivities to potentially painful chemical stimulation between epithelial areas. These effects may be due to the inherent properties of the nociceptors in each region but are also likely to reflect the role of the perireceptor environment in mediating peripheral nociception.

  7. The mouse anti-morphine constipation test--a simple laboratory test of the gastrointestinal side-effect potential of orally administered prostaglandin analogues.

    PubMed

    Christmas, A J

    1979-08-01

    A test is described which is simple, reliable and highly sensitive to the diarrhoea-inducing properties of orally administered prostaglandin analogues in mice. Comparison with human data shows similar orders of relative potency.

  8. Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of High Grade Transformation: The Case Report in the Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Francisco Jadson; Porto, Damião Edgleys; Cavalcante, Josuel Raimundo; Oka, Salomão Cury-Rad; Godoy, Gustavo Pina

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma was first described by Danath et al. in 1972 and is classified as a rare low-grade biphasic neoplasm of the salivary glands. This case report presents a male patient who had a lesion in the oral mucosa with a history of recurrence of the tumor. The outcome resulted in a profile consistent with an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with a high degree of transformation. The case highlights the importance of histopathological evaluation of oral lesions, which occasionally may not present typical clinical aspects of malignant lesion. PMID:22962565

  9. [Killer toxin and enzyme production by Candida albicans isolated from buccal mucosa in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, E E; Silva, S C; Soares, A J; Attux, C; Cruvinel, B; Silva, M do R

    1998-01-01

    Opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are primarily caused by Candida and frequently occur in patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. Of the specimens received from the oral mucosa of 44 patients with cancer, 25 (56.8%) yielded Candida on culture in Sabouraud agar. Twenty four of these isolates were identified as C. albicans (96%) and 1 as C. krusei (4%). The phenotypic characteristics of these isolates showed that all of them were strongly proteolytic, had a high ability to produce phospholipase, and presented the byotypes characterized as 811 (95.8%) and 511 (4.2%) in terms of susceptibility to killer toxins. PMID:9859695

  10. Histological features of oral epithelium in seven animal species: As a reference for selecting animal models.

    PubMed

    Sa, Guoliang; Xiong, Xuepeng; Wu, Tianfu; Yang, Jincheng; He, Sangang; Zhao, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    Several animals have been used as models for basic and clinical research on oral mucosa. Few studies have focused on the selection of an appropriate animal model. This study aimed to provide histological references for selecting a potential model. Histological features were assessed by exploring 6 morphological characteristics and 2 immunohistochemical markers. The morphological characteristics included keratinization, basal membrane appearance, epithelial thickness, rete ridge length, adjacent rete ridge distance, and regional variation; the immunohistochemical markers included Ki67 (a proliferative marker) and Cytokeratin 19 (CK19; a stemness marker). The histological similarity of each species compared to humans was calculated according to the designated scoring criteria. The results showed that the buccal mucosae from dog and pig were non-keratinized, with similar rete ridge length and distance, compared to that of humans. The dog, rat, and cavy mucosae had analogous gross appearances in the basal membrane. The dog oral mucosae shared similar epithelial thickness with human oral mucosae. Compared to the human mucosa, the dog, pig, rat, and rabbit mucosae exhibited corresponding regional variations. The Ki67-positive cells in human and canine mucosae were predominantly localized in the suprabasal layers, whereas most of the proliferative cells were in the basal layer in other species. CK19 immunoreactivities were detected only in human and canine mucosae. The canine mucosae gained the highest point value (14), whereas the scores for the pig, rat, rabbit, cavy, sheep, and buffalo mucosae were 8, 6, 5, 5, 5, and 2, respectively. The histological variations in the oral epithelium of diverse animal species are considerable; the mucosae from dogs are most similar to human mucosae, implicating its histological basis as an animal model.

  11. Stromal myofibroblasts in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de-Assis, Eliene M.; Pimenta, Luiz G.G.S.; Costa-e-Silva, Edson; Souza, Paulo E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the main potentially malignant disorder and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral mucosa. Stromal myofibroblasts play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, due to its ability to modify the extracellular matrix. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of stromal myofibroblasts in OL and OSCC. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between histologically high- and low-invasive OSCC were also assessed. Study Design: A total of 30 OL and 41 OSCC from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated. 10 samples of normal oral mucosa were used as a control. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical detection of alpha smooth muscle actin and its presence was classified as negative, scanty or abundant. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between high- and low-invasive OSCC were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Myofibroblasts were not detected in normal oral mucosa and OL, whatever its histological grade. In OSCC, the presence of stromal myofibroblasts was classified as negative in 11 (26.8%), scanty in 15 (36.6%), and abundant in 15 samples (36.6%). The presence of stromal myofibroblasts was statistically higher in high-invasive OSCC than in low-invasive OSCC (p<0.05). Conclusions: Stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in OL, indicating that these cells are not important during oral carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, stromal myofibroblasts were heterogeneously detected in OSCC and its presence was higher in tumors with a more diffuse histological pattern of invasion. These findings suggest that myofibroblasts are associated with the creation of a permissive environment for tumor invasion in OSCC. Key words:Leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, myofibroblast. PMID:22322518

  12. The buccal mucosa as a route for TiO2 nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Leitinger, Gerd; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity, although part of the aero-digestive tract, is still neglected in terms of risk assessment with respect to nanoparticle uptake. If nanoparticles enter the oral cavity, either via oral products or inhaled materials, it is not clear whether they rapidly interact with the mucosae or are swallowed. In this study, interactions of three distinct titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (i.e. NM 100, NM 101 and NM 105) with oral tissues are presented. Physicochemical properties were addressed in relevant media, and particle penetration was investigated with an ex vivo model using porcine mucosa. To avoid modification of the particle surfaces via labeling, multiphoton microscopy was introduced as an accurate method to detect TiO2 particles within the tissue. The spatiotemporal aspects of nanoparticle uptake, as well as the intracellular localization in human epithelial cells, were studied and potential toxic effects were evaluated. Although TiO2 particles formed large aggregates once dispersed in media, 10-50% remained in the nanoscale range, rapidly interacting with the mucus layer and infecting the epithelium. However, differences in the penetration depth were observed depending on the particle characteristics. NM 100 and NM 105 were found in both the upper part and the lower part of the buccal mucosa, while NM 101 (smallest particle sizes) only penetrated the upper parts. Transport studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles were found in vesicles, as well as freely distributed in the cytoplasm. Cell viability/integrity was not affected negatively; however, NM 105 triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. These data clearly suggest that the oral cavity should be considered in further risk assessment studies.

  13. Effect of free thymol on differential gene expression in gastric mucosa of the young pig.

    PubMed

    Colombo, M; Priori, D; Gandolfi, G; Boatto, G; Nieddu, M; Bosi, P; Trevisi, P

    2014-05-01

    Thymol is the most common molecule in thyme and has been proposed as an oral alternative to antibiotics in the feed of pigs and broilers. The knowledge of the in vivo physiological effects of thymol on tissues is limited, particularly its impact on the gastric mucosa, where it is primarily absorbed when it is orally supplied. In this study, thymol (TH, 50 mg/ kg BW) or a placebo (CO) was introduced directly into the stomach of 8 weaned pigs that were slaughtered 12 h later and sampled for gastric oxyntic and pyloric mucosa. The analysis of whole transcript expression was performed using Affymetrix© Porcine Gene 1.1 ST array strips. Affymetrix Transcripts IDs were associated with 13 406 human gene names based on Sus scrofa Ensemble. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed, comparing TH and CO pigs. For each gene set, the normalized enrichment score (NES) was defined as significant when the false discovery rate % was <25 and the P-value of NES was <0.05. In response to TH, 72 and 19 gene sets were significantly enriched in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets involved in mitosis and its regulation ranked near the top, primarily in the oxyntic mucosa; the gene set DIGESTION ranked first and ninth in the pyloric and oxyntic mucosa, respectively. Within this group, somatostatin (SST), SST receptors, peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1) and calpain 9 (gastrointestinal tract-specific calpain) were the most strongly upregulated genes. Thymol reduced the enrichment of 120 and 59 gene sets in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets related to ion transport and channeling and aqueous pores across membranes, including short transient receptor potential (TRP) channel 4, potassium voltage-gated channel members 1 and 2, and ryanodine receptors 2 and 3, were less enriched. The downregulation of these genes sensitive to thymol in vitro could depend on the thymol dose and contact with the gastric tissues that causes an adaptive

  14. A Mouse Model for Candida glabrata Hematogenous Disseminated Infection Starting from the Gut: Evaluation of Strains with Different Adhesion Properties

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Ralitsa; Angoulvant, Adela; Tefit, Maurel; Gay, Frédérick; Guitard, Juliette; Mazier, Dominique; Fairhead, Cécile; Hennequin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion to digestive mucosa is considered a crucial first step in the pathogenicity of invasive Candida infections. Candida glabrata disseminated infections predominantly start from the gut. A mouse model of disseminated infection starting from the gut was set up. Hematogenous dissemination was obtained after a low-protein diet followed by a regimen of cyclophosphamide-methotrexate and an oral inoculation of the yeasts via the drinking water. The liver was the first organ infected (day 7 post-infection), and lethality was 100% at day 21 post-infection. This new mouse model was used to compare the mortality rate and fungal burden in deep organs induced by 5 strains exhibiting different levels of adhesion to enterocyte Caco-2 cells, as determined in a test on 36 C. glabrata strains. In this model, no statistical difference of lethality was demonstrated between the strains, and fungal burden varied in kidneys and lungs but without correlation with the level of adhesion to enterocytes. Further studies using the model developed here allow analysis of the crossing of the digestive mucosa by yeasts, and help relate this to yet-poorly understood adhesion phenotypes. PMID:23936069

  15. Suppressive effects of bifidobacteria on lipid peroxidation in the colonic mucosa of iron-overloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Sawada, H; Ohishi, K; Yoshida, Y; Yokoi, W; Watanabe, T; Yokokura, T

    2001-07-01

    The antioxidative effects of live bifidobacteria on lipid peroxidation in the colonic mucosa were investigated. Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Yakult, which has been used for production of fermented milk, most effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation catalyzed by ferrous iron in liposomes among 10 species of bifidobacteria from human intestinal flora. Oral administration of B. bifidum strain Yakult for 2 wk significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) in the colonic mucosa of iron-overload mice (Fe 0.07% in diet). The iron concentrations in plasma and cecum contents were not affected by administration of B. bifidum strain Yakult. Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Yakult had no chelating or incorporating activity for ferrous iron in vitro. Therefore, the antioxidative effect of B. bifidum strain Yakult in the colonic mucosa was not thought to be based on the removal of ferrous iron from the reaction system of lipid peroxidation. These results suggested that B. bifidum strain Yakult protected the colonic mucosa from oxidative injury without inhibiting iron absorption. PMID:11467806

  16. Management of oral candidiasis in denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Noriyuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Motoe; Aoki, Hiromochi; Sawada, Tomofumi; Kawabata, Masatsuna; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Oono, Akinori; Tanaka, Kinya; Hori, Norio; Toyoda, Minoru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In many cases, dentists try to manage denture pain by adjusting dentures. However, some patients complain of oral discomfort over a long period even after appropriate denture adjustments. In some of these situations, simple denture adjustment does not alleviate the discomfort of these patients. It is known that denture stomatitis may occur in response to plaque accumulation on dentures. One of the chief pathogenic microorganisms causing this type of inflammation is Candida albicans. A common symptom of oral candidiasis is pain in the oral mucosa complicated by angular stomatitis. In this paper, we report a case of oral candidiasis that was diagnosed and managed based on the patient's complaints.

  17. Role of Oral Mucosal Fluid and Electrolyte Absorption and Secretion in Dry Mouth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo H; Castro, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Dry mouth is induced by dehydration of the oral mucosa, resulting from an imbalance of fluid supply and clearance within the oral cavity. Saliva is the major source of oral mucosal fluid, whereas oral fluid clearance includes evaporation and swallowing. Oral mucosal fluid absorption has been suggested to play a critical role in oral fluid clearance; over-absorption of water and ions across the oral mucosa under certain conditions may be a major component for oral fluid imbalance, leading to mucosal dehydration. While numerous studies have confirmed that the oral mucosa absorbs fluid and electrolytes, the pathways and mechanisms mediating the absorption remain undefined. The transcellular pathway regulating oral mucosal epithelial absorption includes aquaporins, epithelial Na+ channel and/or Na+/H+ exchanger, whereas the paracellular transport is likely to be mediated by tight junctions. The regulatory mechanisms of these pathways require further elucidation. It remains unclear whether the oral mucosa also secretes fluid and ions into the oral cavity. Although intercellular lipids secreted by epithelial cells form the major barrier to paracellular water and ion transport, the role and regulation of these lipids in oral mucosal hydration in physiological and pathological conditions need further investigation. Delineation of these mechanisms will be conducive to the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions for dry mouth. PMID:26485506

  18. Glutamine supplementation does not improve protein synthesis rate by the jejunal mucosa of the malnourished rat.

    PubMed

    Tannus, Andrea Ferreira S; Darmaun, Dominique; Ribas, Durval F; Oliveira, José Eduardo D; Marchini, Julio Sergio

    2009-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid, improves nitrogen balance, acts as a stimulant of protein synthesis, and decreases proteolysis in myopathic children. In contrast, other studies have shown no beneficial effect of glutamine supplementation on burn victims or critically ill patients. Nonetheless, we hypothesized that glutamine supplementation would increase the fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR) in the jejunal mucosa of malnourished male Wistar rats. Thus, the objective of the present study was to test the effect of daily oral glutamine supplementation (0.42 g kg(-1) d(-1) for 14 days) on the FSR of the jejunal mucosa of healthy and malnourished rats. A 4-hour kinetic study with l-[1-(13)C]leucine was subsequently performed, and jejunal biopsies were obtained 1.5 cm from the Treitz angle and analyzed. Malnourished rats showed a 25% weight loss and increased urinary nitrogen excretion. Plasma amino acid concentration did not differ between groups. (13)C enrichment in plasma and jejunal cells was higher in the malnourished groups than in the healthy group. The FSR (percent per hour) was similar for the control and experimental groups (P > .05), with a mean range of 22%/h to 27%/h. Oral glutamine supplementation alone did not induce higher protein incorporation by the jejunal mucosa in malnourished rats, regardless of total food intake or the presence or absence of glutamine supplementation.

  19. Anatomical Mapping and Density of Merkel Cells in Skin and Mucosae of the Dog.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Gustavo A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Quesada, Óscar; Herráez, Pedro; Fernández, Antonio; Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Merkel cells (MCs) are specialized cutaneous receptor cells involved with tactile sense. Although the distribution of MCs has been extensively studied in humans and rodents, their precise distribution and density throughout skin in the dog has not previously been determined. Knowledge of their distribution could facilitate understanding of their functions. By using of immunohistochemistry, density, and anatomical mapping of the MCs population in the dog skin was determined. Assessment of the MCs innervation was also achieved. Different patterns were noted in epidermis, hair follicles, or mucosa, including variable-sized clusters, linear or horse-shaped arrangements, and scattered and individualized cells. MCs revealed great variations in density and distribution over the body surface, with the highest numbers in oral mucosa and facial skin. There was no correlation of MCs density with age, sex, type of breed, coat type or pigmentation. Between 41 and 65% of MCs in hairy and glabrous skin and 8-18% of MCs in oral mucosa were in intimate contact with intraepithelial axon terminals. These findings indicate that canine MCs are numerous in sensory receptive areas and may be associated with the tactile sense in the dog. The present article enhances the knowledge of the skin structure in this species. Anat Rec, 299:1157-1164, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27341526

  20. Anatomical Mapping and Density of Merkel Cells in Skin and Mucosae of the Dog.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Gustavo A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Quesada, Óscar; Herráez, Pedro; Fernández, Antonio; Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Merkel cells (MCs) are specialized cutaneous receptor cells involved with tactile sense. Although the distribution of MCs has been extensively studied in humans and rodents, their precise distribution and density throughout skin in the dog has not previously been determined. Knowledge of their distribution could facilitate understanding of their functions. By using of immunohistochemistry, density, and anatomical mapping of the MCs population in the dog skin was determined. Assessment of the MCs innervation was also achieved. Different patterns were noted in epidermis, hair follicles, or mucosa, including variable-sized clusters, linear or horse-shaped arrangements, and scattered and individualized cells. MCs revealed great variations in density and distribution over the body surface, with the highest numbers in oral mucosa and facial skin. There was no correlation of MCs density with age, sex, type of breed, coat type or pigmentation. Between 41 and 65% of MCs in hairy and glabrous skin and 8-18% of MCs in oral mucosa were in intimate contact with intraepithelial axon terminals. These findings indicate that canine MCs are numerous in sensory receptive areas and may be associated with the tactile sense in the dog. The present article enhances the knowledge of the skin structure in this species. Anat Rec, 299:1157-1164, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  2. Oral Feeding of Pomegranate Fruit Extract Inhibits Early Biomarkers of UVB Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Afaq, Farrukh; Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Pomegranate from the plant Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we have demonstrated that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. Here, we evaluated the effect of PFE on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing SKH-1 hairless mice. PFE was provided in drinking water (0.2%, wt/vol) to SKH-1 hairless mice for 14 days before a single UVB (180 mJ/cm2) irradiation. We found that oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-induced: (i) skin edema, (ii) hyperplasia, (iii) infiltration of leukocytes, (iv) lipid peroxidation, (v) hydrogen peroxide generation, (vi) ODC activity, and (vii) ODC, COX-2 and PCNA protein expression. Oral feeding of PFE enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Importantly, PFE treatment further enhanced UVB-mediated increase in tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-mediated: (i) nuclear translocation of NF-κB, (ii) activation of IKKα, and (iii) phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Taken together, we provide evidence that oral feeding of PFE to mice affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential. PMID:20946358

  3. Inhibition of EGFR-STAT3 signaling with erlotinib prevents carcinogenesis in a chemically-induced mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J; Seethala, Raja R; Singh, Shivendra V; Freilino, Maria L; Bednash, Joseph S; Thomas, Sufi M; Panahandeh, Mary C; Gooding, William E; Joyce, Sonali C; Lingen, Mark W; Neill, Daniel B; Grandis, Jennifer R

    2011-02-01

    Chemoprevention of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a disease associated with high mortality rates and frequent occurrence of second primary tumor (SPT), is an important clinical goal. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 signaling pathway is known to play a key role in HNSCC growth, survival, and prognosis, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of HNSCC. In the current study, the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced murine model of oral carcinogenesis was utilized to investigate the chemopreventive activities of compounds that target the EGFR-STAT3 signaling pathway. This model mimics the process of oral carcinogenesis in humans. The drugs under investigation included erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the EGFR, and guggulipid, the extract of an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, which contains guggulsterone, a compound known to inhibit STAT3. Dietary administration of guggulipid failed to confer protection against oral carcinogenesis. On the other hand, the mice placed on erlotinib-supplemented diet exhibited a 69% decrease (P < 0.001) in incidence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions compared with mice on the control diet. Immunostaining of dysplastic lesions demonstrated modest decreases in STAT3 levels, with both drug treatments, that were not statistically significant. The results of the present study provide the basis for exploring the efficacy of erlotinib for prevention of HNSCC in a clinical setting. PMID:21163936

  4. Recurrent sialadenoma papilliferum of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, M T; López Amado, M; García Sarandeses, A

    1995-08-01

    Sialadenoma papilliferum is a rare, benign, exophytic tumour of the salivary glands. The prognosis is exceptionally good. Since the lesion was first described, 30 cases have been reported in the English literature, and only one of these is known to have recurred. A case of sialadenoma papilliferum occurring in the buccal mucosa with recurrence three years after local excision, is presented. The literature is briefly discussed.

  5. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  6. Unifocal orofacial granulomatosis in retromolar mucosa: surgical treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; García-Caballero, Lucía; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M.; Romero-Méndez, María A.

    2014-01-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is defined by permanent or recurrent swelling of orofacial tissues with different multiform and multifocal clinical patterns. An 11-year old boy presented with a 2-month history of mucosa enlargement. Intraoral examination revealed an erythematous, polylobulated, exophytic lesion with a smooth surface located in retromolar mucosa, non-tender and non-infiltratated to palpation. The diagnosis was inflammatory lesion compatible with pyogenic granuloma and laser excision was decided. Haematological parameters were within normal range, as well as chest Xrays. These findings lead to a diagnosis of non-symptomatic orofacial granulomatosis, whose early diagnosis can minimize the impact of systemic-related disorders, like Chron’s disease. Key words:Laser, orofacial granulomatosis, childhood, oral lesions, diagnosis. PMID:24790722

  7. Calcium secretion in canine tracheal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Bazzaz, F.J.; Jayaram, T.

    1985-10-01

    Calcium (Ca) affects many cellular functions of the respiratory tract mucosa and might alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. To evaluate Ca homeostasis in a respiratory epithelium we investigated transport of Ca by the canine tracheal mucosa. Mucosal tissues were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and bathed with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C. Unidirectional fluxes of 45Ca were determined in tissues that were matched by conductance and short-circuit current (SCC). Under short-circuit conditions there was a significant net Ca secretion of 1.82 +/- 0.36 neq . cm-2 . h-1 (mean +/- SE). Under open-circuit conditions, where the spontaneous transepithelial potential difference could attract Ca toward the lumen, net Ca secretion increased significantly to 4.40 +/- 1.14 compared with 1.54 +/- 1.17 neq . cm-2 . h-1 when the preparation was short-circuited. Addition of a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (2 mM in the mucosal bath), decreased tissue conductance and SCC and slightly decreased the unidirectional movement of Ca from submucosa to lumen. Submucosal epinephrine (10 microM) significantly enhanced Ca secretion by 2.0 +/- 0.63 neq . cm-2 . h-1. Submucosal ouabain (0.1 mM) failed to inhibit Ca secretion. The data suggest that canine tracheal mucosa secretes Ca; this secretory process is augmented by epinephrine or by the presence of a transepithelial potential difference as found under in vivo conditions.

  8. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  9. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder.

  10. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder. PMID:26617710

  11. The effects of cosmic particle radiation on pocket mice aboard Apollo XVII: IX Results of examination of the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kraft, L M; Vogel, F S; Lloyd, B; Benton, E V; Cruty, M R; Haymaker, W; Leon, A; Billingham, J; Turnbill, C E; Teas, V; Look, B C; Suri, K; Miquel, J; Ashley, W W; Behnke, A R; Samorajski, T; Bailey, O T; Zeman, W

    1975-04-01

    The olfactory epithelium, but not the nasal respiratory epithelium, of the four pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) that survived their flight on Apollo XVII showed both diffuse alterations and numerous disseminated focal lesions. The olfactory mucosa of the mouse that died during flight was also affected, but to a minor degree insofar as could be determined. All this was in contrast to the normal appearance of the olfactory mucosa of the numerous control animals. A number of possible causes were considered: systemic or regional infection; inhaled particulate material (seed dust); by-products from the KO2 bed in aerosol or particulate form; gas contaminants originating in the flight package; volatile substances from the dead mouse; weightlessness; and cosmic ray particle radiation. Where feasible, studies were conducted in an effort to rule in or rule out some of these potentially causative factors. No definitive conclusions were reached as to the cause of the lesions in the flight mice.

  12. High-Resolution Optical Imaging of Benign and Malignant Mucosa in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: An Atlas for Image-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L.; Vila, Peter M.; Park, Richard W.; Schwarz, Richard; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Teng, Marita S.; Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.; Miles, Brett; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Background High-resolution optical imaging provides real-time visualization of mucosa in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) which allows non-invasive discrimination of benign and neoplastic epithelium. The high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) utilizes a fiberoptic probe in conjunction with a tissue contrast agent to display nuclei and cellular architecture. This technology has broad potential applications to intraoperative margin detection and early cancer detection. Methods Our group has created an extensive image collection of both neoplastic and normal epithelium of the UADT. Here, we present and describe imaging characteristics of benign, dysplastic, and malignant mucosa in the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Results There are differences in the nuclear organization and overall tissue architecture of benign and malignant mucosa which correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. Different anatomic subsites also display unique imaging characteristics. Conclusion HRME allows discrimination between benign and neoplastic mucosa, and familiarity with the characteristics of each subsite facilitates correct diagnosis. PMID:23641314

  13. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-μm-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  14. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizen, S. )

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  15. Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Loss, Rafael; Sandrin, Rodrigo; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells of the oral mucosa infected by Candida albicans using exfoliative cytology. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 patients with oral candidiasis and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for morphologic and cytomorphometric technique. Morphologically, candida-infected epithelial cells exhibited nuclear enlargement, perinuclear rings, discrete orangeophilia, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic area (CA) of the epithelial cells was diminished in patients undergoing candidiasis as compared to the non-infected controls. In addition, there was an augmentation in nuclear area (NA) and NA/CA area ratio. This study revealed that oral mucosa of patients undergoing candidal infection exhibited significant changes in the size and shape of the oral epithelial cells.

  16. Role of topical drugs in treatment of oral mucosal diseases. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Soheyl; Gupta, Deepak; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Singla, Isha; Gupta, Rajesh; Goel, Varun

    2013-11-01

    Few topical formulations have been designed specifically to treat oral mucosal diseases. Local drug delivery may provide a more targeted and efficient option than systemic delivery for diseases of the oral mucosa. The permeability to the topical drugs differs according to the thickness of the epithelium and the extent of keratinization. The loss of the permeability barrier in the oral mucosa, due to ulceration or erosion, leads to rapid diffusion of the drug into tissues as compared to the intact areas of the mucosa. Oral mucosal delivery has the potential to treat many different conditions and diseases, such as oral cancer, mucositis, lichen planus, herpes simplex, candidiasis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, vesiculo-bullous diseases, neuropathic pain and salivary dysfunction. Each therapy requires distinct penetration and drug retention profiles in order to optimize treatment and minimize side effects. In this paper, topical medications are discussed, as these are advantageous for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions with fewer side effects.

  17. Analysis of micronuclei and DNA single-strand breaks in mouse splenocytes and peripheral lymphocytes after oral administration of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram).

    PubMed

    Villani, P; Andreoli, C; Crebelli, R; Pacchierotti, F; Zijno, A; Carere, A

    1998-03-01

    The fungicide thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide, TMTD) was administered by repeated oral intubations to groups of male B6C3F1 mice at 100, 300 and 900 mg/kg body weight for 4 consecutive days, or at 300 mg/kg for 8 and 12 days. 24 hr after the last treatment animals were killed, and splenocyte cultures were set up for the analysis of micronuclei by the cytokinesis-block method. DNA single strand breaks (ssb) and alkali labile sites were also analysed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in splenocytes and lymphocytes of animals receiving the 8- and 12-day treatments. Parallel experiments with human peripheral lymphocytes were carried out to assess the ability of thiram to induce micronuclei and DNA ssb and alkaline labile sites under in vitro conditions. No significant increase of micronucleated splenocytes was observed in treated animals, despite some evidence of treatment-related cellular toxicity. A borderline excess of DNA damage was suggested by the Comet assay on circulating lymphocytes, whereas negative results were obtained with splenocytes. In vitro, positive results with both genetic end points were obtained in assays with human lymphocytes in the dose ranges 0.5-24 microg/ml and 0.1-8 microg/ml for micronucleus and Comet assays, respectively. These results suggest that thiram, despite its established genotoxicity in vitro, is devoid of appreciable clastogenic and/or aneugenic activity in vivo after oral administration to mice at the maximum tolerated dose.

  18. Detection of orally administered inositol stereoisomers in mouse blood plasma and their effects on translocation of glucose transporter 4 in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Yamaoka, Masaru; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-22

    Simple pharmacological studies on inositol stereoisomers are presented in this study. Male ICR mice were orally administered 1 g/kg BW of three inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol (MI), d-chiro-inositol (DCI), and scyllo-inositol (SI), and blood plasma samples and skeletal muscle fractions were prepared after an hour. The plasma samples were subjected to gas chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) analysis. None of the three stereoisomers was seen in untreated samples, but substantial amounts ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mM were detected only after administration, indicating that orally administered inositol stereoisomers were readily absorbed and their levels elevated in the bloodstream. In addition, plasma of SI-administered animals contained substantial MI, suggesting a possible metabolic conversion of SI to MI. In the skeletal muscle fractions, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) content in the plasma membrane increased, indicating that inositol stereoisomers stimulated GLUT4 translocation.

  19. Nuclear fractal dimension: A new objective approach for discriminating normal mucosa, dysplasia and carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Phulari, Rashmi G S; Rathore, Rajendrasinh S; Talegaon, Trupti Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various clinical and histological factors have helped in predicting the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, there has been a need for more specialized diagnostic and prognostic factors to avoid subjective variation among opinion. Thus, fractal dimension (FD) can be used as an index of the morphological changes that the epithelial cells undergo during their transformation into neoplastic cell. In oral cancer study, nuclear FD (NFD) can be used as a quantitative index to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and neoplastic oral mucosa. Aim: To use nuclear fractal geometry to compare the morphometric complexity in the normal, epithelial dysplasia and OSCC cases and to verify the difference among the various histological grades of dysplasia and OSCC. It was fulfilled by estimating the FDs of the nuclear surface. Materials and Methods: Histopathologically diagnosed cases of epithelial dysplasia and OSCC were taken from the archives. Photomicrographs were captured with the help of Lawrence and Mayo research microscope. The images were then subjected to image analysis using the Image J software with FracLac plugin java 1.6 to obtain FDs. FD of ten selected nuclei was calculated using the box-counting algorithm. Statistical Analysis: was done using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant difference post hoc tests with STATAIC-13 software. Results and Conclusion: NFD can provide valuable information to discriminate between normal mucosa, dysplasia and carcinoma objectively without subjective discrimination. PMID:27721604

  20. An Orally Bioavailable, Indole-3-glyoxylamide Based Series of Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitors Showing Tumor Growth Inhibition in a Mouse Xenograft Model of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Colley, Helen E; Muthana, Munitta; Danson, Sarah J; Jackson, Lucinda V; Brett, Matthew L; Harrison, Joanne; Coole, Sean F; Mason, Daniel P; Jennings, Luke R; Wong, Melanie; Tulasi, Vamshi; Norman, Dennis; Lockey, Peter M; Williams, Lynne; Dossetter, Alexander G; Griffen, Edward J; Thompson, Mark J

    2015-12-10

    A number of indole-3-glyoxylamides have previously been reported as tubulin polymerization inhibitors, although none has yet been successfully developed clinically. We report here a new series of related compounds, modified according to a strategy of reducing aromatic ring count and introducing a greater degree of saturation, which retain potent tubulin polymerization activity but with a distinct SAR from previously documented libraries. A subset of active compounds from the reported series is shown to interact with tubulin at the colchicine binding site, disrupt the cellular microtubule network, and exert a cytotoxic effect against multiple cancer cell lines. Two compounds demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibition in a mouse xenograft model of head and neck cancer, a type of the disease which often proves resistant to chemotherapy, supporting further development of the current series as potential new therapeutics.

  1. [Treatment of severe scrotal hypospadias with onlay-type urethroplasty using mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Castañón, M; Grande, C; Muñoz, M E; García, A; Morales, L

    1999-07-01

    Failure in repairing severe hypospadias complicated with fistula and cutaneous retraction is often associated with lack of subcutaneous tissue and skin providing protection to the neourethra. We report the results of treatment in 6 patients with scrotal hypospadias with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. A neourethra was created by the onlay technique applying an oral mucosa graft and preserving in all cases the dorsal preputial skin for the island cutaneous flap. All patients had hypospadias without previous repairs excepting one of them, who had had one first time hypospadias repair in other hospital. Patients age ranged between 2 years and 3 months, and 4 years (mean: 2 years and 9 months). In all cases, hypospadias was scrotal type with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. All patients had prior hormone stimulation with dehydrotestosterone 3%. Surgical repair was performed in one-stage. Urethroplasty included preservation of the urethral plate, oral mucosa graft to provide ventral coverage, and island cutaneous flap with the dorsal preputial skin. In all cases, the chord was dissected behind the urethral plate. In 3 patients a dorsal Nesbit plication was necessary to obtain a complete straighten penis. Results in all 6 cases were satisfactory. Only one patient had a small leakage at the previous neomeatus. The other five patients are asymptomatic. Follow-up ranges from 6 months to 2 years. We conclude that urethroplasty in association with a well vascularized island flap of dorsal preputial skin decrease the incidence of fistulae. In patients with severe hypospadias with scarce dorsal prepuce urethroplasty should be completed with oral mucosa grafts preserving dorsal preputial skin for the ventral cutaneous plasty.

  2. Innovative dual impression technique for patients with atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, G; Agarwal, Swatantra; Nirmala, B. G; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris is an oral fibrosing disease resulting in marked rigidity and an eventual inability to open the mouth or had limited mouth opening. Patients with limited mouth opening are a common occurrence in prosthodontic practice. The majority of these patients can be treated with exercise and stretching movements before impressions are made. Some will not respond to these procedures because of facial scarring and surgical manipulation of the facial muscles. This article presents an impression procedure for overcoming difficulties encountered in such reduced mouth opening patients that can be assembled intraorally, disassembled intraorally, and reassembled extraorally. PMID:26929494

  3. [Benign chronic bullous dermatosis in childhood with involvement of the mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Gassenmaier, A; Keller, J; Spira, I

    1986-08-15

    We report on a rare case of benign chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood (BCBDC) in a 5-year-old girl. In addition to the characteristic symptoms such as abrupt onset of the disease, tense blisters, predominant affection of the face, and later imitation of impetigo, we observed uncommonly extensive involvement of the oral mucosa. Whereas histopathology was not diagnostic, direct immunofluorescence could verify BCBDC as it showed linear deposits of IgA along the basement membrane zone. This case gives rise to the discussion of the clinical entity and nomenclature of BCBDC in relation to similar bullous diseases of childhood and adults.

  4. Spindle Cell Lipoma Occurring in the Buccal Mucosa: An Unusual Location of This Benign Lipomatous Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Milhan, Noala Vicensoto Moreira; Cavalcante, Ana Sueli Rodrigues; Marques, Yonara Maria Freire Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous neoplasm, which rarely occurs in the oral cavity. The aims of this paper are to report a case of spindle cell lipoma located in buccal mucosa and discuss the main clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of this entity. Thus, we report a 4-year history of an asymptomatic smooth surface nodule in an elderly Caucasian man with clinical hypothesis of fibroma. The histopathological examination showed spindle cells, mature adipose tissue, and many mast cells in a stroma of connective tissue presenting ropey collagen fibers bundles. After immunohistochemical analysis, the final diagnosis was spindle cell lipoma. PMID:26491592

  5. Posttraumatic spindle cell nodule of the buccal mucosa. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Zellers, R A; Bicket, W J; Parker, M G

    1992-08-01

    A benign posttraumatic spindle cell proliferation arising at a site of laceration in the buccal mucosa of a 19-year old man is described. This lesion, which histologically mimicked a leiomyosarcoma, appears to represent a reactive process similar to that described as postoperative spindle cell nodules of the genitourinary tract. Reexcision of the area 1 month after biopsy revealed only scar formation and mild chronic inflammation. Recognition of this type of benign spindle cell proliferation at traumatized sites in the oral cavity is important if misdiagnosis and subsequent aggressive therapy is to be avoided.

  6. Characterization and immunohistochemical localization of the glycoconjugates of the rabbit bladder mucosa.

    PubMed

    Buckley, M S; Washington, S; Laurent, C; Erickson, D R; Bhavananadan, V P

    1996-06-01

    An impairment of the mucosal glycoconjugates could be an important factor in the development of bladder disorders such as interstitial cystitis. However, very little definitive biochemical information is available on the glycoco-jugate components of the mammalian bladder mucosa. In this-study, the mucosa from metabolically radiolabeled rabbit bladder was separated, delipidated, and digested with protease, and the released glycosaminoglycans and glycopeptides were fractionated. About 80 and 36% of the nondialyzable tritium and 35S activities, respectively, was associated with the sialoglycopeptide fractions. The balance of the total tritium activity in the protease digest was in glycosaminoglycans identified as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfates, and heparan sulfate. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-heparan sulfate antibodies, including one against mouse syndecan-1, indicated the presence of heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the epithelium. In contrast, there was no significant staining of the bladder epithelium with anti-chondroitin-4- and 6-sulfate antibodies or hyaluronan-binding protein. The lamina propria and muscle layers showed strong staining with anti-chondroitin-4-sulfate antibody and hyaluronan-binding protein and weak staining with anti-chondroitin-6-sulfate antibody. The insignificant levels of glycosaminoglycans in the glycocalyx of bladder mucosa epithelium suggest that glycosaminoglycans may be less important than other glycoconjugates in maintaining normal epithelial function and in bladder disorders such as interstitial cystitis.

  7. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Dongjuan; Liu, Sai; Xu, Hao; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of OLK with and without mild/moderate dysplasia (P < 0.001). In addition, IL-37 expression was lower in OSCC with lymph node metastasis than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). What’s more, overexpression of IL-37 in RAW264.7 cells remarkably reduced the pseudopodia, vacuolization and the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Finally, we found IL-37 and its receptor IL-18Rα but not its binding partner IL-18BP have similar tissue location and expression trend in different stages of oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Overall, IL-37 can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions. PMID:27225603

  8. [Normal microflora of the pharyngeal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Kolotilova, L V; Akishina, T M; Zargarian, O P; Lomnitskaia, V B; Pruzhniak, O V; Lutsik, T S

    1989-10-01

    Aerobic microflora of the throat mucosa was studied in 518 healthy persons aged 1 to 50 years. On the basis of the study results, criteria for estimating microbiocenoses of the upper respiratory tracts were defined. It was shown that the throat symbiotic flora included three groups of microorganisms playing different roles in the development of microbiocenosis. The indigenous group consisted of representatives of Streptococcus and Neisseria and was characterized by permanent (90-100 per cent) and intensive (3-8 lg CFU/ml) colonization, broad species spectrum, associations of 2-3 and more species and no significant influence of sociological, age and season factors. The representatives of the facultative group i.e. bacteria belonging to Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Haemophilus were less frequent (25-50 per cent). The intensity of their isolation was lower (1-4 lg CFU/ml) and their species spectrum was narrow. The microorganisms of the transitory group were characterized by low frequency (5-20 per cent) and insignificant contamination of the throat mucosa (1-2 lg CFU/ml). The nature of the colonization was monospecific. The group was more numerous by generic composition (Candida, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Branhamella, Moraxella and Micrococcus). However, it was generally limited by one colonization type. The facultative and transitory groups were subject to age and season variation. They were also different in urban and rural populations.

  9. [Changes in the mouth mucosa during local UHF-hyperthermia and radiotherapy of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, Iu I; Dmitrieva, L A; Didenko, V I; Belova, N M; Spektor, B M

    1990-04-01

    Morphological investigations under experimental conditions have demonstrated that local UHF-hyperthermia at 42-43 degrees C for 30 min does not cause alterative changes of the oral mucosa in animals. The revealed signs of activization of metabolic processes can probably increase radiosensitivity of tumors and their reparation. A favorable course of radiation mucositis was noted after experimental local hyperthermia and irradiation. Morphological changes of the oral mucosa, determined mainly by exposure to radiation, are characterized in the early period by alternative and dystrophic changes, and later on (in 3 mos.) by atrophy and sclerosis. In patients local UHF-hyperthermia had a radiosensitizing effect on the oral mucosa at 40-41,5 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. However it did not prevent the completion of a radical split course in the regimen of dynamic dose fractionation nor did it increase the number of postradiation complications. Under this temperature-time regimen the time of development and a degree of expression of radiation reactions did not depend on the succession of hyperthermia and irradiation, and the time of heating. PMID:2336006

  10. Effects of oral exposure to naturally-occurring and synthetic deoxynivalenol congeners on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-07-15

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expressions. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. - Highlights: • We compared effects of DON congeners on biomarker proinflammatory genes in mice. • Oral DON induced splenic IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α,CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNAs. • 8-Ketotrichothecene ranking for

  11. Do we need keratinized mucosa for a healthy peri-implant soft tissue?

    PubMed

    Esfahanizadeh, Nasrin; Daneshparvar, Niloufar; Motallebi, Sara; Akhondi, Nasrin; Askarpour, Farinaz; Davaie, Sotudeh

    2016-01-01

    The presence of keratinized mucosa plays a fundamental role in peri-implant soft tissue health. This study assessed the impact of the width of keratinized mucosa (WKM) on peri-implant soft tissue parameters. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 bone-level implants in 36 patients. A minimum of 6 months had passed since the loading of implants, and the patients had at least 1 implant in 1 quadrant at the molar or premolar site restored with a single crown or fixed partial denture. The health of peri-implant soft tissue was assessed with a modified bleeding index (MBI), modified plaque index (MPI), and modified gingival index (MGI). Probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), and WKM were also measured. History of smoking and oral hygiene methods were recorded. A significant inverse correlation existed between WKM and the parameters MBI, MPI, MGI, and GR (P < 0.05). Values of MBI, MPI, MGI, and GR were significantly lower in areas with WKM ≥ 2 mm and higher in areas with WKM < 2 mm (P < 0.05). The WKM was greatest in subjects using the vibratory toothbrushing technique and narrowest in those using the horizontal toothbrushing technique (P < 0.05). The mean WKM was significantly greater in smokers than in nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Results of this study indicate that an association exists between WKM and peri-implant soft tissue health. A minimum of 2 mm of keratinized mucosa around implants is recommended. PMID:27367634

  12. In situ detection of urease-positive Helicobacter pylori-like organisms on swine gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Kathleen A; Krakowka, Steven; Ringler, Susan S; Ellis, John A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the visual localization of urease activity of Helicobacter pylori-like organisms (HPLO) on swine gastric mucosa by in vitro optimization of the urea concentration and pH indicator of a urease test reagent. Five 21-day-old conventional pigs were infected orally with HPLO (3 pigs) or Brucella broth alone (2 pigs). At 17 d after infection the pigs were euthanized and their stomachs excised and tested for HPLO by a modified urease test formulation sprayed onto the gastric mucosa, as well as confirmatory culture and isolation of HPLO from urease-positive sites. This study showed improved detection of HPLO in porcine gastric mucosa with the use of a modified urease test formulation containing 5% urea and the pH indicator bromocresol purple compared with the use of a conventional formulation of 2% urea and phenol red. This test can readily be applied to achieve a presumptive diagnosis of HPLO in cases of gastritis or gastric esophageal ulceration in pigs.

  13. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. PMID:26786962

  14. Oral administration of lipopolysaccharides activates B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity and lamina propria of the gut and induces autoimmune symptoms in an autoantibody transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    About a half of the antierythrocyte autoantibody transgenic (autoAb Tg) mice, in which almost all B cells are detected in the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, but not in the peritoneal cavity, suffer from autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The occurrence of this disease is strongly linked to production of autoAb by activated peritoneal B-1 cells in the Tg mice. In this study, we have shown that oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activated B-1 cells in the lamina propria of the gut as well as the peritoneal cavity in the healthy Tg mice and induced the autoimmune symptoms in all the Tg mice. The activation of peritoneal and lamina propria B-1 cells by enteric LPS is found not only in the anti-RBC autoAb Tg mice and normal mice but also in the aly mice which congenitally lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. These results suggest that B-1 cells in the two locations may form a common pool independent of Peyer's patches and lymph nodes, and can be activated by enteric thymus-independent antigens or polyclonal activators such as LPS. The induction of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the Tg mice by enteric LPS through the activation of B-1 cells in the lamina propria of gut and in the peritoneal cavity suggests that B-1 cells and bacterial infection may play a pathogenic role in the onset of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8006578

  15. Targeted therapy via oral administration of attenuated Salmonella expression plasmid-vectored Stat3-shRNA cures orthotopically transplanted mouse HCC.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y; Guo, B; Jia, H; Ji, K; Sun, Y; Li, Y; Zhao, T; Gao, L; Meng, Y; Kalvakolanu, D V; Kopecko, D J; Zhao, X; Zhang, L; Xu, D

    2012-06-01

    The development of RNA interference-based cancer gene therapies has been delayed due to the lack of effective tumor-targeting delivery systems. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) has a natural tropism for solid tumors. We report here the use of attenuated S. Typhimurium as a vector to deliver shRNA directly into tumor cells. Constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key transcription factor involved in both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth and metastasis. In this study, attenuated S. Typhimurium was capable of delivering shRNA-expressing vectors to the targeted cancer cells and inducing RNA interference in vivo. More importantly, a single oral dose of attenuated S. Typhimurium carrying shRNA-expressing vectors targeting Stat3 induced remarkably delayed and reduced HCC (in 70% of mice). Cancer in these cured mice did not recur over 2 years following treatment. These data demonstrated that RNA interference combined with Salmonella as a delivery system may offer a novel clinical approach for cancer gene therapy. PMID:22555509

  16. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy, stimulates cell-mediated immunity and antibody production in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Mill) Liliaceae, succulent plant native to northern Africa, is presently cultivated in many regions of the world. Traditionally, its inner part of parenchyma, which contains aloe gel, was used for the treatment of minor wounds, inflammatory skin disorders, thermal and radiation burns and to alleviate chronic osteoarthritis pain. It also possesses some antimicrobial activity. Now, aloe gel is also increasingly consumed as a dietary supplement. Some data suggest its immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of orally administered aloe gel on some parameters of cellular and humoral immunity viz. mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and their chemokinetic activity, and anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody production in Balb/c mice. Results Daily treatment of mice for 14 and 21 days with 50 µl or 150 µl of aloe gel dose resulted in enhanced chemokinetic activity and stronger response of their splenic lymphocytes to mitogen PHA and enhancement of anti-SRBC antibody production. PMID:26155113

  17. [Immunomorphology of oral lichen planus].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Ivina, A A; Guseva, A V; Babichenko, I I

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to immunohistochemical study of reticular and erosive forms of oral lichen planus. Morphological examination of the reticular form revealed the increased number of Langerhans cells (CD1a), mast cells (CD25) and T lymphocytes (CD4, CD8, CD16) in the oral epithelium. Activation of these cells leads to the secretion of TNF-α and destruction of basal keratinocytes, which manifests as a focal reduction of intercellular protein expression of E-cadherin. Destruction of basal keratinocytes in a reticular form of oral lichen planus is accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferative activity of the basal cell layer (21.7±10.2%) compared with normal mucosa (33.6±7.0%), p=0.0045. In erosive form along with the above changes IgG and C3d complement's elements are revealed, which confirms the activation of immune complex mechanisms in the erosion area.

  18. Differential Effects of Oral Exposure to Naturally-Occurring and Synthetic Deoxynivalenol Congeners on Proinflammatory Cytokine and Chemokine mRNA Expression in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenda; He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Krantis, Anthony; Durst, Tony; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expression. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528’s effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity. PMID:24793808

  19. An immunohistological study of cytokeratin 20 in human and mammalian oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Cort, E M; Patel, P; Berkovitz, B K

    2000-10-01

    Cytokeratin (CK) 20 is a low molecular-weight intermediate filament reportedly expressed only by benign and malignant gastrointestinal epithelium, urothelium and Merkel cells. The main aims here were to map its expression in normal oral mucosa of humans and other mammals, and to determine whether it was expressed by abnormal human oral epithelium. Salivary and odontogenic epithelium were also analysed. An immunoperoxidase method was used on wax-embedded and cryostat sections. In addition, double-labelling experiments were undertaken to determine the association between CK 20 expression and that of CK 8/18 or S100 protein. Normal human oral mucosa from four sites, together with abdominal skin, was studied in autopsy samples from 32 individuals. CK 20-positive, basally situated, round or angular cells, consistent with Merkel cells, were recorded in 24/32 (75.0%) samples of mandibular gingiva, 25/32 (78.1%) samples of hard palate, 7/32 (21.9%) samples of buccal mucosa, 0/32 samples of lateral border of tongue, and 2/32 (6.3%) samples of abdominal skin. Double-labelling showed that all CK 20-positive Merkel cells also expressed CK 8/18 and S100. The only other cells to express CK 20 were human taste buds. There was no expression by dysplastic or invasive oral epithelium from biopsy samples. Colonic mucosa showed luminal-cell positivity in man, marmoset, ferret, rabbit and guinea-pig, but oral mucosa was universally negative in non-human species. It is concluded that in oral mucosa CK 20 is a specific marker of Merkel cells and taste buds, that Merkel cells are more frequently present in keratinized than non-keratinized oral mucosa, that CK 20-positive Merkel cells are also S100-positive, that there may be interspecies variations in CK 20 polypeptide composition and that, by contrast to urothelium, CK 20 has no value in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia.

  20. Oral structure representation in human somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yohei; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Shintani, Masuro; Kaneko, Yuzuru; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2008-10-15

    To clarify the topography of the areas representing whole intraoral structures and elucidate bilateral neuronal projection to those areas in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex, we recorded somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEFs), which reflect the earliest cortical responses to pure tactile stimulation, using magnetoencephalography and a piezo-driven tactile stimulation device. Subjects consisted of 10 healthy male adults. Following tactile stimulation of 6 sites on the oral mucosa (inferior/superior buccal mucosa, posterior/anterior tongue mucosa, and upper/lower lip mucosa), SEFs with a peak latency of 15 ms (1M) were identified bilaterally. In contrast, SEFs with a peak latency of 30 ms following right index finger tactile stimulation were identified only in the contralateral hemisphere. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) generating 15 ms components were found along the posterior wall of the central sulcus, bilaterally. The ECD locations for oral mucosa-representing areas were located inferiorly to those for the index finger, with the following pattern of organization from top to bottom along the central sulcus: index finger, upper or lower lip, anterior or posterior tongue and superior or inferior buccal mucosa, with a wide distribution, covering 30% of the S1 cortex. Source strength for 1M in the ipsilateral hemisphere was weaker than that in the contralateral hemisphere. These results clearly indicate that sensory afferents innervating the intraoral region project to both the contralateral and ipsilateral 3b areas via the trigeminothalamic tract, where contralateral projection is predominant. The results clarify the intraoral structure-representing areas in the S1 cortex, adding those areas to the classical "sensory homunculus". PMID:18672075

  1. Quantification of telomerase activity in normal oral mucosal tissue and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Arpita; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Sattur, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The role of telomeres and telomerase in oral cancer is an area of much recent interest. The understanding of the role of telomere biology, the end replication problem leading to genomic instability and the reactivation of telomerase, is absolutely critical to our understanding of oral cancer, and more so, to our ability of early diagnosis and developing novel therapies and cancer prevention approaches. The aim of the present study was to quantify telomerase activity (TA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral mucosa and assess the role of telomerase as diagnostic and prognostic marker of oral malignancy. Materials and Methods: We quantified TA in 45 patients with OSCC and 20 normal oral mucosal specimens using polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and compared it with the clinical status and grade of malignancy. Results: TA was detected in 89% of malignant and 5% of normal oral mucosal tissue. The TA levels ranged from 0.28 to 6.91 (mean 2.05, standard deviation [SD] 1.33) in OSCC and 0.21 to 1.09 (mean 0.54, SD 0.27) in normal oral mucosa. There was no relationship between TA levels and clinical stages, site of the lesion, history of adverse habits, or sex of the patient. However, under the WHO classification, there were significant differences (P < 0.00) between Grades I, II, and III. Furthermore, increasing age of the patient significantly correlated with TA. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that activation of TA is frequent in OSCC. Statistically significant difference in quantified telomerase levels of OSCC and normal oral mucosa (P < 0.00) demonstrates the significant clinical usefulness of telomerase activation as a valuable marker for diagnosis while significant correlation of TA with grades of malignancy indicates its effectiveness as marker for prognosis of OSCC.

  2. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

  3. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  4. [Oral candidiasis and dentures].

    PubMed

    Ahariz, M; Loeb, I; Courtois, P

    2010-04-01

    Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus usually colonize the human oral cavity. Immunocompromised patients or individuals with an imbalance of their oral microflora can develop yeast infections from this reservoir. However, saliva protects oral mucosa against candidosis; in turn, dry mouth is associated with increased yeast counts and candidosis risk. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown Candida incorporation into biofilms covering different biomaterials such as dentures: these biofilms may be an increased risk factor for invasive candidosis when the host immune system is compromised. Daily denture brushing is recommended to all wearers. Family or healthcare workers must take over this task when there is autonomy loss, especially in the elderly. In case of candidosis in denture wearers, decontamination of dentures is mandatory. Antimycotics (azoles, nystatin) must be kept for curative treatments of infected patients; they are less active against Candida biofilms on dentures and could lead to emergent resistance if applied daily to dentures against yeast colonization. There are several antiphlogistic solutions with antifungal properties. Nevertheless, literature data does not integrate all aspects of denture care: welfare of denture wearers, prevention of candidosis, biomaterial defects after decontamination processing, and taking into account possible Candida biofilm development. Daily brushing of dentures remains the key recommendation.

  5. Disruption of the arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase gene in the mouse alters the phenotype for methylation of arsenic and affects distribution and retention of orally administered arsenate.

    PubMed

    Drobna, Zuzana; Naranmandura, Hua; Kubachka, Kevin M; Edwards, Brenda C; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Styblo, Miroslav; Le, X Chris; Creed, John T; Maeda, Noboyu; Hughes, Michael F; Thomas, David J

    2009-10-01

    The arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) gene encodes a 43 kDa protein that catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic. Altered expression of AS3MT in cultured human cells controls arsenic methylation phenotypes, suggesting a critical role in arsenic metabolism. Because methylated arsenicals mediate some toxic or carcinogenic effects linked to inorganic arsenic exposure, studies of the fate and effects of arsenicals in mice which cannot methylate arsenic could be instructive. This study compared retention and distribution of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice and in wild-type C57BL/6 mice in which expression of the As3mt gene is normal. Male and female mice of either genotype received an oral dose of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kg containing [(73)As]-arsenate. Mice were radioassayed for up to 96 h after dosing; tissues were collected at 2 and 24 h after dosing. At 2 and 24 h after dosing, livers of As3mt knockouts contained a greater proportion of inorganic and monomethylated arsenic than did livers of C57BL/6 mice. A similar predominance of inorganic and monomethylated arsenic was found in the urine of As3mt knockouts. At 24 h after dosing, As3mt knockouts retained significantly higher percentages of arsenic dose in liver, kidneys, urinary bladder, lungs, heart, and carcass than did C57BL/6 mice. Whole body clearance of [(73)As] in As3mt knockouts was substantially slower than in C57BL/6 mice. At 24 h after dosing, As3mt knockouts retained about 50% and C57BL/6 mice about 6% of the dose. After 96 h, As3mt knockouts retained about 20% and C57BL/6 mice retained less than 2% of the dose. These data confirm a central role for As3mt in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic and indicate that phenotypes for arsenic retention and distribution are markedly affected by the null genotype for arsenic methylation, indicating a close linkage between the metabolism and retention of arsenicals.

  6. Autofluorescence imaging in recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Martin; Fuss, Juliana; Derman, Mehmet Ali; Kreppel, Matthias; Neugebauer, Jörg; Rothamel, Daniel; Drebber, Uta; Zoeller, Joachim E

    2016-03-01

    The survival of patients with oral cancer is decreased by locoregional recurrence after an initial multimodal treatment. In order to identify lesions in the oral cavity for a possible recurrence, clinical evaluation as well as MRI or CT scanning is advised. The evaluation of mucosa lesions is hampered by changes related to radio- and chemotherapy as well as reconstruction with tissue flaps. Several techniques for easier identification of tissue abnormalities in the oral cavity have been advocated as adjuncts in order to facilitate identification. Especially methods using altered tissue fluorescence have gained much interest during the last decade. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate fluorescence properties of undiagnosed mucosa lesions with the VELscope device in patients with multimodal treated oral cancer prior to histological confirmation. In total, 41 patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) (19 females and 22 males) with undiagnosed mucosa lesions where included in the study. After clinical evaluation, examination and documentation using the VELscope® device were performed. Then, an incisional biopsy was performed. An autofluorescence loss indicating a malignant or dysplastic mucosa condition could be detected in six patients (14.6 %); however, only one OSCC and one SIN revealed a complete autofluorescence loss. In four patients, OSCC was present in lesions with retained autofluorescence. Sensitivity and specificity for the VELscope® examination to identify malignant oral lesions by autofluorescence were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 33.3 and 88.6 %, respectively. No statistical correlation between gender and lesion appearance versus autofluorescence loss could be detected. In contrast to mucosa lesions in patients with no prior treatment, the autofluorescence evaluation with the VELscope reveals no additional information in our analysis. Accordingly, invasive biopsies

  7. Accessory oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

  8. The permeation of nalmefene hydrochloride across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Gani; Gao, Yongliang; Nie, Shufang; Pan, Weisan

    2006-12-01

    The permeability of nalmefene hydrochloride (NH) across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa was investigated in vitro. Five different regions of ovine nasal mucosa (superior turbinate mucosa, middle turbinate mucosa, inferior turbinate mucosa, posterior septum mucosa, and anterior septum mucosa) were studied. The results showed that the permeability coefficients of NH through different regions of nasal mucosa were different, and the suitable regions for the absorption of NH were the middle turbinate mucosa, the posterior septum mucosa and the superior turbinate. At the same time, the middle turbinate mucosa was the largest region among the five regions, thus it was the main absorption region for NH. The high uniformity of the middle turbinate mucosa also made it the most suitable model for the permeation of NH in vitro.

  9. Increased susceptibility to otitis media in a Splunc1-deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jennifer A; Meyerholz, David K; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L; Naumann, Paul W; Salzman, Nita H; McCray, Paul B

    2015-05-01

    Otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear) is one of the most common diseases of early childhood. Susceptibility to otitis is influenced by a number of factors, including the actions of innate immune molecules secreted by the epithelia lining the nasopharynx, middle ear and Eustachian tube. The SPLUNC1 (short palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone 1) protein is a highly abundant secretory product of the mammalian nasal, oral and respiratory mucosa that is thought to play a multifunctional role in host defense. In this study we investigated Splunc1 expression in the ear of the mouse, and examined whether this protein contributes to overall host defense in the middle ear and/or Eustachian tube. We found that Splunc1 is highly expressed in both the surface epithelium and in submucosal glands in these regions in wild-type mice. In mice lacking Splunc1, we noted histologically an increased frequency of otitis media, characterized by the accumulation of leukocytes (neutrophils with scattered macrophages), proteinaceous fluid and mucus in the middle ear lumens. Furthermore, many of these mice had extensive remodeling of the middle ear wall, suggesting a chronic course of disease. From these observations, we conclude that loss of Splunc1 predisposes mice to the development of otitis media. The Splunc1(-/-) mouse model should help investigators to better understand both the biological role of Splunc1 as well as host defense mechanisms in the middle ear.

  10. Increased susceptibility to otitis media in a Splunc1-deficient mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jennifer A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Naumann, Paul W.; Salzman, Nita H.; McCray, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear) is one of the most common diseases of early childhood. Susceptibility to otitis is influenced by a number of factors, including the actions of innate immune molecules secreted by the epithelia lining the nasopharynx, middle ear and Eustachian tube. The SPLUNC1 (short palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone 1) protein is a highly abundant secretory product of the mammalian nasal, oral and respiratory mucosa that is thought to play a multifunctional role in host defense. In this study we investigated Splunc1 expression in the ear of the mouse, and examined whether this protein contributes to overall host defense in the middle ear and/or Eustachian tube. We found that Splunc1 is highly expressed in both the surface epithelium and in submucosal glands in these regions in wild-type mice. In mice lacking Splunc1, we noted histologically an increased frequency of otitis media, characterized by the accumulation of leukocytes (neutrophils with scattered macrophages), proteinaceous fluid and mucus in the middle ear lumens. Furthermore, many of these mice had extensive remodeling of the middle ear wall, suggesting a chronic course of disease. From these observations, we conclude that loss of Splunc1 predisposes mice to the development of otitis media. The Splunc1−/− mouse model should help investigators to better understand both the biological role of Splunc1 as well as host defense mechanisms in the middle ear. PMID:25765466

  11. ORAL PAPILLOMATOSIS OF RABBITS: A VIRUS DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Robert J.; Kidd, John G.

    1943-01-01

    Papillomas occur frequently on the oral mucosa of domestic rabbits procured in the metropolitan area of New York. They are small and benign, and are situated mostly on the under side of the tongue. A filtrable virus can be extracted from them with which growths can be reproduced in the oral mucosa of several species of rabbits and hares but which fails to cause lesions when inoculated into other rabbit tissues and into the oral mucosa of other species. The virus differs notably from the Shope virus, which causes cutaneous papillomas in rabbits but proves innocuous to oral mucosa: rabbits solidly immune to the oral papilloma virus are fully susceptible to the Shope virus and vice versa. The oral papillomas are not highly contagious, for susceptible animals kept in individual cages in the same rooms with others carrying the growths, fed the same kind of food, and cared for by the same attendants, do not "catch" them. They are found much more frequently in the offspring of dams that carry the growths than in those of mothers free from them, and the causative virus can be recovered from the mouth washings of rabbits having no growths. The observations indicate that the virus may be spread by transfer from the mother to the young during the period of suckling, and that it may lie latent in the mouth, doing no harm unless the mucous membrane is injured. The slight trauma occurring now and then when coarse foods are chewed may furnish the required tissue nidus under natural conditions, for papillomas occasionally appear after virus has been dropped into the mouths of uninoculated rabbits; but the more extensive injury and healing resulting from experimental tattoo inoculations proves regularly effective in this respect. Tar can also act as an efficient adjuvant to the virus, the incidence of "spontaneous" oral papillomas being much higher in domestic rabbits that had had the opportunity to lick tar from their ears and paws during long periods than in normal control

  12. Cinnamon-induced Oral Mucosal Contact Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Ana P. M; Migliari, Dante A

    2015-01-01

    Contact stomatitis associated with consumption of cinnamon flavoring agents is a relatively uncommon disorder. Of relevance, both clinical features and the histopathologic findings of this condition are nonspecific, and, more importantly, may resemble some other inflammatory oral mucosa disorders, eventually making diagnosis difficult. Usually a patient exhibits a combination of white and erythematous patches of abrupt onset, accompanied by a burning sensation. To shed some light on this subject, a case of a 64-year-old woman with hypersensitivity contact reaction on the oral mucosa due to cinnamon mints is presented, with emphasis on differential diagnosis and the process for confirmation of the diagnosis. The treatment consists of discontinuing the use of cinnamon products. Clinicians will be able to recognize this disorder following a careful clinical examination and detailed history. This recognition is important in order to avoid invasive and expensive diagnostic procedures. PMID:26312097

  13. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  14. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  15. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: A rare oral tumor

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sila; Ray, Jay Gopal; Deb, Tushar; Patsa, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the malignant neoplasm of striated muscle and a relatively uncommon tumor of the oral cavity. Embryonal variety is the most common subtype, observed in children below 10 years of age but occasionally seen in adolescents and young adults. The present report describes a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the left posterior buccal mucosa, with extension in the adjacent alveolus, soft palate, oropharynx and nasopharynx of a 17-year-old female. PMID:27721622

  16. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  17. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  18. [Pten gene expression in the endometrial mucosa].

    PubMed

    Bakiewicz, Anna; Goździk, Jarosław; Sporny, Stanisław

    2006-04-01

    The opinions about the causes of the endometrial carcinoma have changed since 1995, due to molecular biology progress. The findings concerning the recently discovered suppressor PTEN gene localized on the chromosome 10 -10q23.3, the product of which is a specific phosphatase are especially valuable. The loss of the gene function is directly linked with the genesis and progression of endometrial carcinoma, as well as cancers of other tissues and organs, including thyroid, breast, ovary, prostate or skin. Immunohistochemical studies with the use of the 6H2.1 antibody directed against the protein coded by the PTEN gene indicate that the protein cannot be found in more than half of the patients with endometrial carcinoma and its precursor--EIN. Mutations of the PTEN gene have also been detected in many young women with normal microscopic structure of the endometrial mucosa. Thus, a test for the absence of the PTEN gene product in the endometrial cells may be used for precise identification of early stages of carcinogenesis.

  19. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  20. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  1. Denture hyperplasia with areas simulating oral inverted ductal papilloma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Jorge, Jacks; Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayrosa; León, Jorge Esquiche; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2005-07-01

    Denture hyperplasia is a reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, usually associated to an ill-fitting denture. This lesion is easily diagnosed and in some cases distinct microscopic variations such as osseous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia may be found. These metaplastic alterations probably are associated with the lymphocytic infiltrate usually present in denture hyperplasia. We present a case of denture hyperplasia containing salivary gland tissue with ductal alterations mimicking an oral inverted ductal papilloma.

  2. The relationship between the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and gastric in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Loster, B W; Majewski, S W; Cześnikiewicz-Guzik, M; Bielanski, W; Pierzchalski, P; Konturek, S J

    2006-09-01

    There are numerous studies suggesting that inflammation of the oral cavity caused by bacteria or fungi is accompanied by gastric inflammation. This is particularly relevant in patients using complete dentures. Since the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity can be easily discovered by bacteria culture and that in the stomach by (13)C urea breath test (UBT) and histology of gastric endoscopic biopsy samples it is reasonably to state that the majority of the patients show the presence of bacterium in oral cavity and active gastric H. pylori infection. When comparing, however, the bacteria culture originating from the oral mucosa to those from the gastric mucosa, employing molecular biology examination, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we found that the oral bacteria and those originating from stomach are completely different, suggesting that H. pylori may be present only transiently in oral cavity and does not play major role in gastric H. pylori infection. Thus, oral cavity does not serve as bacterial reservoir to infect gastric mucosa. Most important finding of our study is that patients with recognized inflammation in the oral cavity in the form of stomatitis prothetica hyperplasica both fibrosa as well as papillaris showed in nearly 100% gastric H. pylori infection, usually without the presence of the same bacterium in the oral cavity, suggesting that gastric H. pylori infection affects oral mucosa at distance by some, as yet, unknown mechanism.

  3. Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  4. Roseomonas mucosa Isolated from Bloodstream of Pediatric Patient ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bard, J. Dien; Deville, J. G.; Summanen, P. H.; Lewinski, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of catheter-related bacteremia associated with Roseomonas mucosa isolated from an immunocompromised pediatric patient with a history of multiple episodes of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. PMID:20534804

  5. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE Is Dispensable for Immunity to Systemic, Oral and Cutaneous Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Heather R.; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M.; Garg, Abhishek V.; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections. PMID:25849644

  6. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  7. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  8. Oral and vulvovaginal changes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia; Martins, Natalia Regina; Kroumpouzos, George

    2016-01-01

    Physiologic alterations of the oral and vulvovaginal mucosal surfaces result from the profound hormonal and immunologic changes of gestation. High estrogen levels are responsible for the vascular changes noted on mucosal surfaces. Gingival hyperemia and edema, gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma are the most common alterations of the oral mucosa during gestation. Physiologic changes of the vulvovaginal area are mainly of vascular nature, and include among others varicose veins. The oral and vulvovaginal mucosal surfaces can be affected by diseases that can worsen or develop in pregnancy. Oral lesions are encountered in a large spectrum of diseases including aphthosis, pemphigus vulgaris, systemic lupus, and Behçet disease. Pregnancy dermatoses such as impetigo herpetiformis and gestational pemphigoid can exceptionally affect the oral mucosa. Infections of the vulvovaginal region by Candida species, Trichomononas vaginalis, human papilloma virus, and herpes simplex virus have been associated with fetal risks. The dermatologist, obstetric medicine physician, and neonatologist should be familiar with the above physiologic changes as well as maternal/fetal risks relevant to disease affecting these mucosal surfaces during gestation. PMID:27265073

  9. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the oesophagus mimicking ulceration.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Levine, M S; Shultz, C F

    1999-09-01

    We report two patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the oesophagus in whom emergency contrast medium studies after traumatic endoscopy revealed broad, flat depressions on the right lateral wall of the upper oesophagus that could initially be mistaken for ulcers or even intramural dissections. However, the appearance and location of these lesions is so characteristic of ectopic gastric mucosa that confirmation with endoscopic biopsy specimens probably is not required in asymptomatic patients.

  10. Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Met in oral squamous cell carcinoma and in an organotypic oral cancer model.

    PubMed

    Brusevold, Ingvild J; Søland, Tine M; Khuu, Cuong; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Bryne, Magne

    2010-08-01

    Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, is important in transducing signals for tumour growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of Met expression and its value as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The material consisted of 53 OSCCs and five healthy controls from normal oral mucosa supplied with cell lines, 10 organotypic models supplied with oral cancer cells, and three organotypic models supplied with normal keratinocytes. Met protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Met expression was scarce and limited to the basal layer in normal oral mucosa, but was more extensive in the tumours. Cytoplasmic expression of Met was found in the majority of the tumours, and nuclear expression was found in 72%, including a high fraction of the cells located at the invasive front. Organotypic models with normal or malignant oral cells yielded principally similar results as in the mucosa and the cancers, respectively. A smaller amount of Met immunoreactivity was detected, by western blotting, in the nuclear fraction of cultured oral cancer cells. In conclusion, Met was upregulated in OSCCs and was also found in the nucleus. However, Met was not a marker for prognosis in this study. PMID:20662906

  11. Application of direct oral microscopy in evaluating mucosal margins around invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Michcik, Adam; Michajłowski, Igor; Starzyńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique, which aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The oral mucosa is examined at multiple magnifications and features such as sub-epithelial mucosal vessels, surface patterns, colour tone, transparency and the exact demarcation of mucosal lesions are estimated. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) oscillates between 1.9% and 3.5%, which makes it the eighth most common carcinoma occurring around the world and in Poland. The 5-year survival rates oscillate between 20% and 30%. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate clinically unchanged mucosal margins around OSCC by direct oral microscopy. The authors approached the question whether the borders of mucosal margins around OSCC established via direct oral microscopy differ from those established based on clinical examination. Material and methods Fifteen patients diagnosed with OSCC were enrolled. Patients were first clinically examined to evaluate the extent of the tumour and to plan resection margins. Eventually, direct oral microscopy was performed to establish the width of the subclinically unchanged mucosal margins based on a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae, followed by comparison with those established by clinical evaluation. Results Histopathologic results of biopsies from areas indicated by direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 86.7% of patients, whereas biopsies from areas indicated by clinical examination revealed dysplasia only in 40% of individuals, resulting in the need for widening of mucosal margins. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy enables detection of dysplasia within clinically unaltered mucosal margins around OSCC, which results in more precise establishing of resection boundaries, contributing to improvement of resection totality. PMID:26759543

  12. Liposomes as drug carriers for oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Harsanyi, B B; Hilchie, J C; Mezei, M

    1986-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the potential of liposomes as drug carriers to the ulcerated oral mucosa. Radioactive triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (3H-TRMAp) was encapsulated in large multilamellar lipid vesicles and served as the test lotion. 3H-TRMAp in solution served as control. Forty-six hamsters were divided into three groups. In group I, multiple confluent ulcers in both cheek pouches were treated by topical application. In group II, single ulcers on the cheeks were treated by intramucosal injection. In group III, multiple confluent ulcers were produced in the cheek pouch on one side, with a single ulcer in the contralateral cheek pouch; no drug was applied, and the tissues were prepared for histology. Hamsters were killed at three and 24 hours, respectively, after treatment. Pouches were divided into ulcerated and intact adjacent mucosa. Cheeks were divided into ulcerated mucosa and distant mucosa. Drug levels in the four mucosal portions as well as in the blood, liver, spleen, brain, and thalamic region were determined by radioactive tracer technique. At three hours, liposomal drug concentrations were lower than in control animals in the brain and the thalamic region. At 24 hours, liposomal drug values were higher than in control animals in the ulcerated mucosa and lower than in control animals in the thalamic region. Mean drug concentrations in the ulcerated mucosa were higher in group II than group I. The results parallel those of Mezei and Gulasekharam (1980, 1982); liposomes increase local and decrease systemic drug concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future.

  14. Communication—Microelectrode Detection of Cholesterol Efflux from the Human Buccel Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaochun; Kelley, Thomas J.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Burgess, James D.

    2016-01-01

    It has previously demonstrated that cholesterol efflux from the cell plasma membrane is increased in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis (CF) compared to a wild-type control. A noninvasive means of characterizing plasma membrane cholesterol efflux at the surface of airway tissue of CF patients is needed to extend the trends found in animal models of CF to the human disease state. Microelectrode-induced cholesterol efflux from the plasma membrane of cells at the surface of tissue is proposed as a strategy to demonstrate increased cholesterol efflux for CF in human subjects. Data demonstrating detection of cholesterol efflux from the human buccal mucosa is reported as proof-of-concept for an in vivo diagnostic assay. PMID:27546897

  15. Concerted loss of TGFβ-mediated proliferation control and E-cadherin disrupts epithelial homeostasis and causes oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andl, Thomas; Le Bras, Grégoire F.; Richards, Nicole F.; Allison, Gillian L.; Loomans, Holli A.; Washington, M.Kay; Revetta, Frank; Lee, Rebecca K.; Taylor, Chase; Moses, Harold L.; Andl, Claudia D.

    2014-01-01

    Although the etiology of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral mucosa is well understood, the cellular origin and the exact molecular mechanisms leading to their formation are not. Previously, we observed the coordinated loss of E-cadherin (CDH1) and transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) in esophageal squamous tumors. To investigate if the coordinated loss of Cdh1 and Tgfbr2 is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis in vivo, we developed two mouse models targeting ablation of both genes constitutively or inducibly in the oral–esophageal epithelium. We show that the loss of both Cdh1 and Tgfbr2 in both models is sufficient to induce squamous cell carcinomas with animals succumbing to the invasive disease by 18 months of age. Advanced tumors have the ability to invade regional lymph nodes and to establish distant pulmonary metastasis. The mouse tumors showed molecular characteristics of human tumors such as overexpression of Cyclin D1. We addressed the question whether TGFβ signaling may target known stem cell markers and thereby influence tumorigenesis. From our mouse and human models, we conclude that TGFβ signaling regulates key aspects of stemness and quiescence in vitro and in vivo. This provides a new explanation for the importance of TGFβ in mucosal homeostasis. PMID:25233932

  16. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia complicated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Tangsun, Yinyan; Xiao, Yonglong; Zhang, Deping; Cao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Tissue eosinophilia is rarely observed in cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B cell origin. The present study describes a rare case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which was initially misdiagnosed as eosinophilic pneumonia. The initial diagnosis was formed based on the results of chest radiography, peripheral eosinophilia tests and bronchoalveolar lavage, and the clinical course of the patient. Following administration of methylprednisolone (40 mg/day) for 4 days and oral administration of prednisolone (30 mg/day), the clinical course rapidly improved and the eosinophil count immediately decreased a to normal level. However, abnormal shadows observed on computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest did not diminish. At 6 months after the initiation of treatment, CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy was performed, and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was made based on immunohistochemical examination. Primary lung MALT lymphoma remains a rare entity, with an indolent course and a reasonably favorable prognosis, whose diagnosis may be challenging. PMID:27588128

  17. Esophageal mucosa exfoliation induced by oxalic acid poisoning: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIERU; KAN, BAOTIAN; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WU, XIAOPENG; YU, GUANCAI; SUN, JING

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the case of a 44-year-old woman with oral oxalic acid poisoning. As the illness progressed, the patient exhibited severe metabolic acidosis, large-area esophageal mucosa injury and acute kidney injury, which required dialysis. A guide wire slipped out of position during the process of hemodialysis and moved back and forth in the veins, but was removed successfully by interventional endovascular treatment. However, the patient's esophageal mucosa exfoliated, which lead to severe benign esophageal stenosis and dysphagia. Balloon distention was conducted twice in the upper digestive tract using X-ray location in combination with a dumb-bell bladder and interventional wire. The patient exhibited convulsions, shock, embolism and loss of consciousness while undergoing the second balloon distention procedure. Following symptomatic treatment, the patient eventually remained in a stable condition, the digestive tract expansion procedure was not resumed and a jejunostomy was performed in order to facilitate enteral nutrition, which was administered via the jejunum and had little stimulatory effect on the pancreas. Following various treatments, the patient's condition improved markedly, with renal function returning to normal. PMID:26889241

  18. Esomeprazole immediate release tablets: Gastric mucosa ex vivo permeation, absorption and antisecretory activity in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Camillo; Flammini, Lisa; Vivo, Valentina; Colombo, Paolo; Colombo, Gaia; Elviri, Lisa; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Buttini, Francesca; Bettini, Ruggero; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rossi, Alessandra

    2016-10-10

    The aim of this work was to study the esomeprazole activity on the control of gastric secretion after administration of a novel immediate release tablet. The ex vivo permeation of esomeprazole across porcine gastric mucosa from immediate release tablets, containing sodium carbonate or magnesium oxide as alkalinizing agents, was firstly assessed. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies in conscious rats following the administration of immediate release tablets with sodium carbonate, in comparison with delayed-release tablets having the same formula, were also conducted. The results showed an important effect of sodium carbonate and magnesium oxide on the drug release, on the ex vivo trans-mucosal transport and the stability in acid environment. In particular, the presence of sodium carbonate in esomeprazole tablet formulation provided the maximum increase of the drug in vitro transport across the mucosa. Then, the absorption and the antisecretory activity of this proton pump inhibitor orally administered in rats as immediate release tablets containing Na2CO3, was superior but not significantly different compared to delayed-release tablets having the same formula. In the adopted animal model, an activity of esomeprazole from immediate release alkaline formulation was seen also in presence of partial gastric absorption allowing inhibition of proton pumps reached via systemic circulation. This esomeprazole immediate release formulation could be used for the on-demand treatment of acid-related disorders such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

  19. Esomeprazole immediate release tablets: Gastric mucosa ex vivo permeation, absorption and antisecretory activity in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Camillo; Flammini, Lisa; Vivo, Valentina; Colombo, Paolo; Colombo, Gaia; Elviri, Lisa; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Buttini, Francesca; Bettini, Ruggero; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rossi, Alessandra

    2016-10-10

    The aim of this work was to study the esomeprazole activity on the control of gastric secretion after administration of a novel immediate release tablet. The ex vivo permeation of esomeprazole across porcine gastric mucosa from immediate release tablets, containing sodium carbonate or magnesium oxide as alkalinizing agents, was firstly assessed. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies in conscious rats following the administration of immediate release tablets with sodium carbonate, in comparison with delayed-release tablets having the same formula, were also conducted. The results showed an important effect of sodium carbonate and magnesium oxide on the drug release, on the ex vivo trans-mucosal transport and the stability in acid environment. In particular, the presence of sodium carbonate in esomeprazole tablet formulation provided the maximum increase of the drug in vitro transport across the mucosa. Then, the absorption and the antisecretory activity of this proton pump inhibitor orally administered in rats as immediate release tablets containing Na2CO3, was superior but not significantly different compared to delayed-release tablets having the same formula. In the adopted animal model, an activity of esomeprazole from immediate release alkaline formulation was seen also in presence of partial gastric absorption allowing inhibition of proton pumps reached via systemic circulation. This esomeprazole immediate release formulation could be used for the on-demand treatment of acid-related disorders such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease. PMID:27574989

  20. Human papillomavirus infections and oral tumors.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Stina

    2003-08-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in human papillomaviruses (HPV) because of their potential role in the pathogenesis of malignant tumors. In 1983, we published the first evidence that HPV might be involved in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The identification of morphological similarities between oral and cervical mucosa lead us to this original proposal. In a recent meta-analysis, HPV was indeed confirmed as an independent risk factor for oral carcinoma. To date, totally more than 100 types of HPV have been identified. As in anogenital cancers, HPV type 16 is the most prevalent type in oral carcinomas. The benign oral lesions, associated with HPV infection, include squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verrucca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). Papillomas and condylomas are mostly caused by HPV type 6 or 11, while oral verrucas are associated with the skin types 2 or 4. A family history of FEH has been suggested. The FEH lesions are caused by HPV types 13 and 32, only detected in oral epithelium. In immunocompromised patients, benign HPV-induced lesions are characterized by atypical morphology and the simultaneous detection of multiple HPV types. Oral benign HPV lesions are mostly asymptomatic, and may persist or regress spontaneously.

  1. Exposure to a social stressor disrupts the community structure of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of diverse populations of commensal bacteria that interact with host physiological function. Dysregulating these populations, through exogenous means such as antibiotics or dietary changes, can have adverse consequences on the health of the host. Studies from laboratories such as ours have demonstrated that exposure to psychological stressors disrupts the population profile of intestinal microbiota. To date, such studies have primarily focused on prolonged stressors (repeated across several days) and have assessed fecal bacterial populations. It is not known whether shorter stressors can also impact the microbiota, and whether colonic mucosa-associated populations can also be affected. The mucosa-associated microbiota exist in close proximity to elements of the host immune system and the two are tightly interrelated. Therefore, alterations in these populations should be emphasized. Additionally, stressors can induce differential responses in anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone outputs in variant strains of mice. Thus, whether stressor exposure can have contrasting effects on the colonic microbiota in inbred C57BL/6 mice and outbred CD-1 mice was also examined. Results In the present study, we used high throughput pyrosequencing to assess the effects of a single 2-hour exposure to a social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), on colonic mucosa-associated microbial profiles of C57BL/6 mice. The data indicate that exposure to the stressor significantly changed the community profile and significantly reduced the relative proportions of two genera and one family of highly abundant intestinal bacteria, including the genus Lactobacillus. This finding was confirmed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. The use of qPCR also identified mouse strain-specific differences in bacterial abundances. L. reuteri, an immunomodulatory species, was decreased in

  2. Hemangiolymphangioama of buccal mucosa: Report of a rare case and review of literature on treatment aspect

    PubMed Central

    Sobhana, C. R.; Beena, V. T.; Soni, Ashish; Choudhary, Kanaram; Sapru, Deepthy

    2012-01-01

    Hemangiomas are lesions that are not present at birth. They manifest within first month of life, exhibit a rapid proliferative phase, and slowly involute to non-existent. Hemangiomas of the oral cavity are not common pathological entities, but the head and neck are common sites. Furthermore some time histologically lymphatic channels may be evident in hemangiomas, and then it will be categorized according predominant component, e.g.; hemangiolymphangiomas or lymphangiohemangiomas, vice versa is true for lymphangiomas. Most true hemangiomas involute with time, but 10-20% of true hemnagioma in completely involute and required post- adolescent ablative treatment. In the present article we are reporting a case of hemangiolypmangiomas of left buccal mucosa in an 18-year-old male patient. We have also reviewed various treatment modalities and their clinical implication. PMID:23833496

  3. Propolis aqueous extract preserves functional integrity of murine intestinal mucosa after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Khayyal, Mohamed T; El-Hazek, Rania M; El-Ghazaly, Mona A

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a specially prepared water propolis extract (PWE) to preserve the functional activity of the intestinal mucosa after radiation exposure was studied. PWE was given orally (650 mg/kg) to rats five days prior to irradiation by 6 Gy and continued for further two days. Rats were sacrificed 24h later, intestinal segments were examined histologically and homogenates were used to assess relevant biochemical parameters reflecting intestinal injury. Irradiation led to a rise in the histological damage score, a rise in tissue TNF-α and TBARS, and a decrease in sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, GSH and cholecystokinin as well as a decrease in plasma citrulline. The findings reflect a decrease in intestinal functional activity. PWE preserved the intestinal integrity and largely protected against the changes induced in the histology damage score and all parameters measured, possibly as a result of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of its caffeic acid content.

  4. [Does summer smog damage the nasal mucosa and contribute to bacterial rhinitis?].

    PubMed

    Gehrckens, R

    1995-04-01

    Smog in hot summers contains noxious agents resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels whose levels are highest in industrial areas. Reactions of the oxygen radical of ozone with sulfur dioxides, nitrous oxides, hydrocarbons and the water molecules of the nasal mucous membrane presumably support the formation of acids such as H2SO4 or HNO3 (from H2SO3 or HNO2 [3, 4]). Acid corrosion seems to damage the mucous membrane, leading to local erosions, bleeding, and necrotic changes. The collapsed local defense system and necrotic mucosa are an ideal culture medium for a wide spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. Main signs of tissue pathology are bleeding spots or pustules, nasal congestion, degenerative mucositis, pruritus, as well as epipharyngeal and pharyngeal irritation. Therapy is possible with topical or oral antibiotics. Prophylaxis includes avoiding touching the mucous membranes and reducing outdoor activity on hot summer days. Further clinical and scientific examination would be helpful in determining additional explanations. PMID:7790239

  5. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa

  6. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa

  7. Genetic Ablation of Parietal Cells in Transgenic Mice: A New Model for Analyzing Cell Lineage Relationships in the Gastric Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Victor; West, A. Brian; Goldenring, James R.; Levenson, Robert

    1996-03-01

    The gastric mucosa of mammalian stomach contains several differentiated cell types specialized for the secretion of acid, digestive enzymes, mucus, and hormones. Understanding whether each of these cell lineages is derived from a common stem cell has been a challenging problem. We have used a genetic approach to analyze the ontogeny of progenitor cells within mouse stomach. Herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase was targeted to parietal cells within the gastric mucosa of transgenic mice, and parietal cells were ablated by treatment of animals with the antiherpetic drug ganciclovir. Ganciclovir treatment produced complete ablation of parietal cells, dissolution of gastric glands, and loss of chief and mucus-producing cells. Termination of drug treatment led to the reemergence of all major gastric epithelial cell types and restoration of glandular architecture. Our results imply the existence of a pluripotent stem cell for the gastric mucosa. Parietal cell ablation should provide a model for analyzing cell lineage relationships within the stomach as well as mechanisms underlying gastric injury and repair.

  8. A cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal changes in tobacco users

    PubMed Central

    Khot, Komal; Deshmane, Swati; Bagri-Manjarekar, Kriti; Warke, Darshana; Kotak, Keyuri

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Tobacco use is the major cause of oral cancer, which is the sixth most common form of malignancy globally. Even in the absence of clinical manifestations, early changes in the oral mucosa can be detected microscopically by exfoliative cytology. The present study aimed to study and compare the cellular changes in the oral mucosa of tobacco users using cytomorphometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects were included: 20 without any tobacco use habits, 20 tobacco chewers, 20 smokers, and 20 mishri users. Smears were collected from each subject, fixed, and stained using Papanicolaou stain. All slides were evaluated for nuclear and cytoplasmic changes using image analysis software. Results: Statistically significant decrease in cytoplasmic area and an increase in nuclear area and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio were observed in tobacco users. Conclusion: Tobacco in any form causes significant cellular changes, which could be the earliest indicators of developing malignant pathology. Exfoliative cytology can be used to detect such changes. PMID:26604613

  9. Oral leukoplakia: a clinicopathological review.

    PubMed

    van der Waal, I; Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; Smeele, L E

    1997-09-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant or potentially malignant lesion of the oral mucosa. It seems preferable to use the term leukoplakia as a clinical term only. When a biopsy is taken, the term leukoplakia should be replaced by the diagnosis obtained histologically. The annual percentage of malignant transformation varies in different parts of the world, probably as a result of differences in tobacco and dietary habits. Although epithelial dysplasia is an important predictive factor of malignant transformation, it should be realized that not all dysplastic lesions will become malignant. On the other hand non-dysplastic lesions may become malignant as well. In some parts of the world the tongue and the floor of the mouth can be considered to be high-risk sites with regard to malignant transformation of leukoplakia, while this does not have to be the case in other parts of the world. The cessation of tobacco habits, being the most common known aetiological factor of oral leukoplakia, has been shown to be an effective measure with regard to the incidence of leukoplakia and, thereby, the incidence of oral cancer as well. Screening for oral precancer may be indicated in individuals at risk.

  10. Oral melanoacanthoma and oral melanotic macule: a report of 8 cases, review of the literature, and immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlos-Bregni, Román; Contreras, Elisa; Netto, Ana Carolina; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Jorge, Jacks; León, Jorge Esquiche; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2007-09-01

    Oral melanoacanthoma (MA) is a rare, benign pigmented lesion, similar to cutaneous MA, characterized by hyperplasia of spinous keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The pathogenesis of oral MA remains uncertain, although its clinical behavior is suggestive of a reactive origin. The most common intraoral sites are the buccal mucosa, lip, palate and gingiva. The average age of presentation is 28 years, mainly in blacks, with a strong female predilection. The oral melanotic macule (MM) is a small, well-circumscribed brown-to-black macule that occurs on the lips and mucous membranes. The etiology is not clear and it may represent a physiologic or reactive process. The average age of presentation is 43 years, with a female predilection. A biopsy is recommended to distinguish these lesions from each other and from other oral melanocytic lesions. We depict four cases each of oral MA and MM, affecting Caucasian and Latin American mestizo patients. The clinicopathological features of these cases reflect its ample spectrum, and to the best of our knowledge, it is the first example of oral MA affecting a Caucasian boy reported in the English literature. Therefore oral MA and MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions in the oral mucosa in these populations.

  11. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC. PMID:26983454

  12. Oral lichen planus: a literature review and update.

    PubMed

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Cirillo, Nicola; McCullough, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common chronic inflammatory condition that can affect skin and mucous membranes, including the oral mucosa. Because of the anatomic, physiologic and functional peculiarities of the oral cavity, the oral variant of LP (OLP) requires specific evaluations in terms of diagnosis and management. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the current developments in the understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical-pathologic presentation, and treatment of OLP, and provide follow-up recommendations informed by recent data on the malignant potential of the disease as well as health economics evaluations. PMID:27349424

  13. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. Aims: To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. Subjects and Methods: In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. Statistical Analysis: All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were

  14. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  15. TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression in normal oral epithelium oral dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fernanda-Paula; Corrêa Pontes, Flávia-Sirotheau; Cury, Sérgio-Elias; Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Rebelo-Pontes, Hélder; Pinto-Júnior, Décio-dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of TWIST and p-Akt proteins in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), correlating their expressions with the histological features of the lesions. Study design: Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 10 normal oral epithelium, 30 OL and 20 OSCC formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Immunoperoxidase reactions for TWIST and p-Akt proteins were applied on the specimens and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Results: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post tests revealed a significant difference in TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression among normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TWIST and p-Akt expressions according to the Pearson’s correlation test. Conclusions: The results obtained in the current study suggest that TWIST and p-Akt may participate of the multi-step process of oral carcinogenesis since its early stages. Key words: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry. PMID:21743395

  16. Rectal mucosa: malignant and premalignant changes after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Elias, E.G.

    1981-03-01

    A spectrum of changes that range from crypt basophilia through varying degrees of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ have been observed in the flat, nonraised mucosa of the rectum in a patient who received pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix. This case demonstrates (1) the morphological evidence of the relationship between radiation and large-bowel carcinoma, (2) that large-bowel carcinoma may arise directly from the flat mucosa without having to go through a benign polyp-cancer sequence, (3) that early carcinoma arising from the flat mucosa may clinically resemble radiation proctocolitis, and therefore, (4) that increased vigilance is needed for the follow-up of patients who undergo pelvic irradiation.

  17. Oral cenesthopathy.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Miura, Anna; Watanabe, Motoko; Takenoshita, Miho; Uezato, Akihito; Toriihara, Akira; Nishikawa, Toru; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cenesthopathy is characterized by abnormal and strange bodily sensations and is classified as a 'delusional disorder, somatic type' or 'somatoform disorder' according to the DSM 5. The oral cavity is one of the frequent sites of cenesthopathy, thus the term 'oral cenesthopathy.' Patients with oral cenesthopathy complain of unusual sensations without corresponding abnormal findings in the oral area, such as excessive mucus secretion, a slimy sensation, or a feeling of coils or wires being present within the oral region. They usually visit multiple dentists rather than psychiatrists. Without a proper diagnosis, they repeatedly pursue unnecessary surgical procedures to remove their 'foreign body'. This sometimes creates a dilemma between the dentists and patients. The nosography of oral cenesthopathy has been discussed in some case reports and reviews but is overlooked in mainstream medicine. This review focuses on the various aspects of oral cenesthopathy. The estimated prevalence of cenesthopathy was 0.2 to 1.9 % in a study done at a Japanese university psychiatry clinic and 27 % in a study done at a Japanese psychosomatic dentistry clinic. Oral cenesthopathy do not have clear disposition, while some studies reported that elderly women were most commonly affected. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. However, recent studies have suggested a right > left asymmetrical pattern of the cerebral blood flow of patients with oral cenesthopathy. Antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy might be effective in some cases, though it is known to be intractable. To date, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, classification and treatment of oral cenesthopathy are unknown due to the few reports on the disorder, though there are a few case reports. To overcome this difficult medical condition, clinico-statistical and case-control studies done under rigorous criteria and with a large sample size are required. PMID

  18. Functional characterization of middle ear mucosa residues in cholesteatoma samples.

    PubMed

    Sudhoff, H; Bujía, J; Holly, A; Kim, C; Fisseler-Eckhoff, A

    1994-03-01

    Cholesteatoma epithelium is characterized by a keratinocyte dysregulation with an aggressive growth that leads to the destruction of normal middle ear mucosa. The abnormal behavior of cholesteatoma epithelium seems to be induced by the presence of a heavy immune cell infiltrate releasing different cytokines and growth factors in high amounts. Middle ear mucosa rests are often observed within the cholesteatoma stroma or adjacent to the advancing front of cholesteatoma epithelium. This study investigated the presence of interleukin-1 (IL-1), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) in the mucosa rests as well as the expression of an activation marker, 4F2. The findings were correlated with the features of a surrounding stroma with an enhanced immune cell infiltrate. Cholesteatoma epithelium showed a high staining intensity of IL-1, TGF-alpha, and EGF-R. In contrast to this, middle ear mucosa did not show any positive reactions for the mentioned factors. Epidermal growth factor immunoreactivity was found in neither cholesteatoma epithelium nor in middle ear mucosa residues. The authors found a high concentration of lymphocytes and macrophages in the surrounding stroma. Most of these cells expressed TGF-alpha, IL-1, and 4F2, suggesting an activated form. Results indicate that keratinocytes present in the middle ear mucosa do not appear to react to the stimuli released by the inflamed stroma, reflecting important differences in the cell biological features of the keratinocytes that form parts of both types of epithelium.

  19. [Xenograft of human nasopharyngeal mucosa in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Huang, P

    1989-01-01

    Human nasopharyngeal mucosa from 22-cases of chronic nasopharyngitis was transplanted into 26 nude mice. The xenografts were examined on 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after transplantation, and found to have survived in 19 mice. The survival rate was 73.1 per cent. The developed epithelia took the shape of cystic cavities, which gradually enlarged and the thickly laminated columnar epithelia with cells in mitoses or squamous metaplasia changed into thin and flat ones. The epithelium proliferated actively after 15 to 30 days of transplantation. The results afford useful reference to the study of induction of cancer in human nasopharyngeal mucosa transplanted into nude mice.

  20. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE ORAL CAVITY.

    PubMed

    Boras, Vanja Vučićević; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Brailo, Vlaho; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Gabrić, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-06-01

    Every medication may lead to adverse effects, even when used in standard doses and mode of application. In the oral cavity, adverse effects may affect every part of oral mucosa and are the result of medications taken either locally or systemically. Oral adverse reactions to drugs are not typical and therefore sometimes not easy to recognize. On diagnosing adverse side effects in the oral cavity, experienced clinician will usually diagnose the condition on the basis of detailed medical history and clinical finding. However, the only objective evidence for the offending drug is 're-challenge', i.e. exposure to the drug after its discontinuation. It carries a huge risk of anaphylactic reaction; therefore it has to be performed in a controlled hospital setting. Therapy is based on immediate exclusion of the offending drug and, if lesions are present in the oral cavity, topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy is prescribed. This article gives a review of patients with oral adverse drug reactions referred to the Department of Oral Medicine in Zagreb.

  1. Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

    2013-02-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products. PMID:22920576

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in high-risk premalignant oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Sudbø, Jon; Ristimäki, Ari; Sondresen, Jan Erik; Kildal, Wanja; Boysen, Morten; Koppang, Hanna S; Reith, Albrecht; Risberg, Björn; Nesland, Jahn M; Bryne, Magne

    2003-07-01

    Emerging data indicate a link between genetic instability and up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). To see if individuals at high risk of oral cancer are candidates for treatment with selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs), levels of COX-2 expression in healthy, premalignant and cancerous oral mucosa were compared with the occurrence of DNA ploidy status as a genetic risk marker of oral cancer. COX-2 gene product was evaluated immunohistochemically in 30 healthy persons, in 22 patients with dysplastic lesions without previous or concomitant carcinomas, and in 29 patients with oral carcinomas. The immunohistochemical findings were verified by western blotting. COX-2 expression was correlated to DNA content as a genetic risk marker of oral cancer. COX-2 was up-regulated from healthy to premalignant to cancerous oral mucosa. Thus, COX-2 expression was found in 1 case of healthy oral mucosa (3%). All specimens from healthy mucosa had a normal DNA content. In patients with premalignancies. In 29 patients with oral carcinomas, cyclooxygenase-2 expression was observed in 26 (88%), and aneuploidy was observed in 25 cases (94%, P=0.04). Notably, of 22 patients with dysplastic lesions, COX-2 was exclusively expressed in a subgroup of nine patients (41%) identified to be at high risk of cancer by the aberrant DNA content of their lesions. Seven of these patients were followed for 5 years or more. An oral carcinoma developed in six of them (85%; P=0.02). These findings emphasize the need to determine whether coxibs can reduce the risk of oral cancer in patients with high-risk precancerous lesions. PMID:12747975

  3. Oral and dental signs of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID

  4. The in vivo fate of nanoparticles and nanoparticle-loaded microcapsules after oral administration in mice: Evaluation of their potential for colon-specific delivery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiming; Fuchs, Adrian V; Boase, Nathan R B; Rolfe, Barbara E; Coombes, Allan G A; Thurecht, Kristofer J

    2015-08-01

    Anti-cancer drug loaded-nanoparticles (NPs) or encapsulation of NPs in colon-targeted delivery systems shows potential for increasing the local drug concentration in the colon leading to improved treatment of colorectal cancer. To investigate the potential of the NP-based strategies for colon-specific delivery, two formulations, free Eudragit® NPs and enteric-coated NP-loaded chitosan-hypromellose microcapsules (MCs) were fluorescently-labelled and their tissue distribution in mice after oral administration was monitored by multispectral small animal imaging. The free NPs showed a shorter transit time throughout the mouse digestive tract than the MCs, with extensive excretion of NPs in faeces at 5h. Conversely, the MCs showed complete NP release in the lower region of the mouse small intestine at 8h post-administration. Overall, the encapsulation of NPs in MCs resulted in a higher colonic NP intensity from 8h to 24h post-administration compared to the free NPs, due to a NP 'guarding' effect of MCs during their transit along mouse gastrointestinal tract which decreased NP excretion in faeces. These imaging data revealed that this widely-utilised colon-targeting MC formulation lacked site-precision for releasing its NP load in the colon, but the increased residence time of the NPs in the lower gastrointestinal tract suggests that it is still useful for localised release of chemotherapeutics, compared to NP administration alone. In addition, both formulations resided in the stomach of mice at considerable concentrations over 24h. Thus, adhesion of NP- or MC-based oral delivery systems to gastric mucosa may be problematic for colon-specific delivery of the cargo to the colon and should be carefully investigated for a full evaluation of particulate delivery systems.

  5. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  6. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock. PMID:23874986

  7. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  8. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  9. Chromogranin positive cells in colorectal carcinoma and transitional mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Mimori, K; Kamakura, T; Adachi, Y; Ikeda, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--Immunostaining of chromogranin identifies gastrointestinal mucosal endocrine cells. The detailed distribution and significance of chromogranin positive cells in colorectal carcinomas and in transitional mucosa remain unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify these aspects. METHODS--The distribution of chromogranin positive cells was studied by immunohistochemical methods in normal epithelium remote from carcinoma, in transitional mucosa, and in carcinomas of the colorectum. In selected cases northern or western blot analyses were performed. RESULTS--Chromogranin positive cells were seen in the lower third of the normal crypts and less frequently in transitional mucosa. Thirty five per cent (n = 38) of colorectal carcinomas showed immunohistochemically positive carcinoma cells in the tumour tissue. Northern and western blot analyses showed similar results. There was no difference in clinicopathological factors, including prognosis, between chromogranin positive cases of colorectal carcinoma (n = 38) and chromogranin negative cases (n = 70). CONCLUSIONS--Neuroendocrine cell differentiation is controlled in transitional mucosa and the presence of chromogranin positive cells in carcinoma tissue does not influence the patient's prognosis. Images PMID:7560204

  10. [Changes of the gastroduodenal mucosa in ulcer complicated by hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Trofimov, N V; Kryshen', V P

    2011-07-01

    Deep clinico-morphological analysis was performed in patients, suffering gastroduodenal ulcer, complicated by hemorrhage. The most severe inflammatory changes were revealed in gastric antrum mucosa. These changes correlated with features of unstable hemostasis and massive blood loss. The data obtained permit to prognosticate the severity course of pathological process and to improve the program of treatment.

  11. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  12. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  13. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  14. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  15. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  16. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  17. Reduction of radiochemotherapy-induced early oral mucositis by recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin): Experimental studies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, Wolfgang . E-mail: doerr@rcs.urz.tu-dresden.de; Baessler, Stefan; Reichel, Sandra; Spekl, Kathrin

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF or palifermin) on oral mucositis induced by radiochemotherapy in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) and/or 5-fluorouracil were given before single dose irradiation, combined with palifermin before or after the treatment, or both. Daily fractionated irradiation for 2 weeks was followed by graded test doses. With additional chemotherapy in Week 1, palifermin was given before radiotherapy and at the end of the first week, or additionally at the end of Week 2. Radiochemotherapy in Week 2 was combined with palifermin at the end of Weeks 1 and 2, Weeks 1, 2, and 3, or additionally before radiotherapy. Ulceration of mouse tongue mucosa was analyzed as the endpoint. Results: The dose associated with ulcer induction in 50% of the mice (ED{sub 50}) for single-dose irradiation was 11.5 {+-} 0.7 Gy. Palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} to about 19 Gy in all protocols tested. Similar values were observed when chemotherapy was added before irradiation. With fractionated irradiation, palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} for test irradiation from 5.7 {+-} 1.5 Gy to 12-15 Gy, depending on the administration protocol. With chemotherapy in Week 1, two palifermin injections had no significant effect, but a third injection increased the ED{sub 50} to 13 Gy. With chemotherapy in Week 2, all palifermin protocols resulted in ED{sub 50} values of 13-14 Gy. Conclusion: A marked increase in oral mucosal radiation tolerance by palifermin was found, which was preserved in combinations with chemotherapy using cisplatin and/or 5-fluorouracil.

  18. Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hong; Tian, Xin; Liu, Ou-Sheng; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Quan, Hong-Zhi; Xie, Shang; Gao, Shan; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes. PMID:25126189

  19. The effect of mouse strain on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mice infected with HSV-1 can develop lethal encephalitis or virus induced CNS demyelination. Multiple factors affect outcome including route of infection, virus and mouse strain. When infected with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 strain 2 via the oral mucosa, susceptible SJL/J, A/J, and PL/J mice develop demyelinating lesions throughout the brain. In contrast, lesions are restricted to the brainstem (BST) in moderately resistant BALB/c mice and are absent in resistant BL/6 mice. The reasons for the strain differences are unknown. Methods In this study, we combine histology, immunohistochemistry, and in-situ hybridization to investigate the relationship between virus and the development of lesions during the early stage (< 24 days PI) of demyelination in different strains of mice. Results Initially, viral DNA and antigen positive cells appear sequentially in non-contiguous areas throughout the brains of BALB/c, SJL/J, A/J, and PL/J mice but are restricted to an area of the BST of BL/6 mice. In SJL/J, A/J, and PL/J mice, this is followed by the development of 'focal' areas of virus infected neuronal and non-neuronal cells throughout the brain. The 'focal' areas follow a hierarchical order and co-localize with developing demyelinating lesions. When antigen is cleared, viral DNA positive cells can remain in areas of demyelination; consistent with a latent infection. In contrast, 'focal' areas are restricted to the BST of BALB/c mice and do not occur in BL/6 mice. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that susceptible mouse strains, infected with HSV-1 via the oral mucosa, develop CNS demyelination during the first 24 days PI in several stages. These include: the initial spread of virus and infection of cells in non-contiguous areas throughout the brain, the development of 'focal' areas of virus infected neuronal and non-neuronal cells, the co-localization of 'focal' areas with developing demyelinating lesions, and latent infection in a number of the

  20. Diagnosis and clinical course of canine oral papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Bredal, W P; Thoresen, S I; Rimstad, E; Aleksandersen, M; Nafstad, P H

    1996-03-01

    A six-month-old intact male rottweiler presented with papillomatous growths protruding from the oral mucous membranes. A tentative diagnosis of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) infection was made based on the gross appearance of the numerous lesions and the young age of the patient. Two warts from the oral mucosa were removed surgically for further diagnostic investigations. The viral aetiology of the diseases was confirmed by histopathological and electron microscopic findings, and by the identification of specific COPV DNA is removed oral papillomatous tissue. The patient was followed clinically and complete regression of the oral lesions occurred after four weeks. Neither the route of transmission nor the source of infection was found. Immunodeficiency as a contributing aetiological factor to the development of COPV-induced lesions as discussed. PMID:8683957

  1. Oral health protocol for the dependent institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Gil-Montoya, Jose Antonio; de Mello, Ana Lucia Ferreira; Cardenas, Ciro Barreto; Lopez, Inmaculada Guardia

    2006-01-01

    Establishing an oral hygiene protocol for the frail and functionally dependent elderly should be of special concern to health care providers. The previous assessment of a care center, including patients or residents and staff, allows an effective strategy to be designed. Oral health protocols are mainly based on the daily removal of bacterial plaque from teeth or prostheses (or both), cleaning of oral mucosa, and continual oral hydration. These practices are facilitated by the use of electric toothbrushes and products such as chlorhexidine, fluoride toothpastes, and rinses or gels for dry mouth. This type of protocol should include regular collaboration with dental professionals and provide a program of continuous training for nursing staff on oral health issues.

  2. Single oral paracoccidioidomycosis mimicking other lesions: report of eight cases.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Gondak, Rogério; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; dos Santos Silva, Alan Roger; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is an endemic disease, representing a serious health problem in Latin American countries. This infection primarily affects the lungs and is acquired by inhalation of the fungus. It can spread to other organs and tissues, mainly the oral cavity affecting more adult men from 30 to 50 years of age. On clinical presentation, several signs associated with impaired general and nutritional conditions can be noted. Oral manifestation is more common in the soft palate, gingiva, lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The classical clinical presentation is a superficial ulcer with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points. Usually, the oral lesion is extensive and generalized. Although uncommon, when the oral manifestation is single, others lesions, particularly squamous cell carcinoma, must be included in the differential diagnosis. In this article, the authors discuss the unusual presentation of eight cases of single oral paracoccidioidomycosis and its diagnostic importance. PMID:21837507

  3. Unmet diagnostic needs in contact oral mucosal allergies.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Paolino, Giovanni; Vacca, Maddalena; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Nettis, Eustachio

    2016-01-01

    The oral mucosa including the lips is constantly exposed to several noxious stimuli, irritants and allergens. However, oral contact pathologies are not frequently seen because of the relative resistance of the oral mucosa to irritant agents and allergens due to anatomical and physiological factors. The spectrum of signs and symptoms of oral contact allergies (OCA) is broad and a large number of condition can be the clinical expression of OCA such as allergic contact stomatitis, allergic contact cheilitis, geographic tongue, oral lichenoid reactions, burning mouth syndrome. The main etiological factors causing OCA are dental materials, food and oral hygiene products, as they contain flavouring agents and preservatives. The personal medical history of the patient is helpful to perform a diagnosis, as a positive history for recent dental procedures. Sometimes histology is mandatory. When it cannot identify a direct cause of a substance, in both acute and chronic OCA, patch tests can play a pivotal role in the diagnosis. However, patch tests might have several pitfalls. Indeed, the presence of metal ions as haptens and specifically the differences in their concentrations in oral mucosa and in standard preparation for patch testing and in the differences in pH of the medium might result in either false positive/negative reactions or non-specific irritative reactions. Another limitation of patch test results is the difficulty to assess the clinical relevance of haptens contained in dental materials and only the removal of dental materials or the avoidance of other contactant and consequent improvement of the disease may demonstrate the haptens' responsibility. In conclusion, the wide spectrum of clinical presentations, the broad range of materials and allergens which can cause it, the difficult interpretation of patch-test results, the clinical relevance assessment of haptens found positive at patch test are the main factors that make sometimes difficult the diagnosis

  4. Dermographism in the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Binmadi, Nada; Almazrooa, Soulafa

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 20 Final Diagnosis: Dermographism Symptoms: Unusual skin reaction to trauma Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Dentistry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Dermographism is a type of physical urticaria that can be induced by writing on the skin. It occurs in 2–5% of the population and is considered to be a normal physiological phenomenon. However, in a small subset of patients, it can be symptomatic and may affect the quality of life. The etiology of this disease remains unclear. Case Report: Herein, we present a case of dermographism in a 20-year-old male and discuss the involvement of the oral mucosa in this condition. Conclusions: Although this condition is well known to occur in the skin, we believe this condition is rarely discussed among dentists. All healthcare providers, especially dentists, should know its potential to cause complications during dental procedures. PMID:27324161

  5. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy.

  6. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  7. A novel method for the culture and polarized stimulation of human intestinal mucosa explants.

    PubMed

    Tsilingiri, Katerina; Sonzogni, Angelica; Caprioli, Flavio; Rescigno, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Few models currently exist to realistically simulate the complex human intestine's micro-environment, where a variety of interactions take place. Proper homeostasis directly depends on these interactions, as they shape an entire immunological response inducing tolerance against food antigens while at the same time mounting effective immune responses against pathogenic microbes accidentally ingested with food. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved also through various complex interactions between the microbiota (including food-associated beneficial bacterial strains) and the host, that regulate the attachment/degradation of mucus, the production of antimicrobial peptides by the epithelial barrier, and the "education" of epithelial cells' that controls the tolerogenic or immunogenic phenotype of unique, gut-resident lymphoid cells' populations. These interactions have been so far very difficult to reproduce with in vitro assays using either cultured cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, mouse models differ substantially in components of the intestinal mucosa (mucus layer organization, commensal bacteria community) with respect to the human gut. Thus, studies of a variety of treatments to be brought in the clinics for important stress-related or pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or colorectal cancer have been difficult to carry out. To address these issues, we developed a novel system that enables us to stimulate explants of human intestinal mucosa that retain their in situ conditioning by the host microbiota and immune response, in a polarized fashion. Polarized apical stimulation is of great importance for the outcome of the elicited immune response. It has been repeatedly shown that the same stimuli can produce completely different responses when they bypass the apical face of the intestinal epithelium, stimulating epithelial cells basolaterally or coming into direct contact with lamina

  8. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  9. Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M; Gadivan, Mohsin

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC. PMID:25328294

  10. Effects of oral care in Down syndrome children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kieko; Shirakawa, Tetsuo; Niikuni, Naoko; Sakata, Hideaki; Asanuma, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS) children with sleep apnea often present with oral breathing associated with nasal obstruction. This causes the oral cavity and pharynx to become dry. We describe the treatment of three DS children with sleep apnea who were treated using products for oral dryness. Snoring disappeared after treatment in two of the children and apnea disappeared in all three. The symptoms of a reddened oral mucosa and coated tongue disappeared in all three DS children. Saliva pH testing demonstrated that the pH value increased in all of the children after treatment. These results indicate that oral care can improve the oral hygiene status of DS children, and that proper oral care can help prevent oral mucosal dryness and thereby reduce sleep apnea symptoms.

  11. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  12. Animal models of oral candidiasis. A review.

    PubMed

    Allen, C M

    1994-08-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal infection of the human oral mucosa, yet much remains to be understood with respect to the pathogenesis of the disease. Numerous difficulties are inherent in designing studies that use human beings as subjects. The use of various animal species in experimental contexts has helped to provide insight with respect to this condition. A variety of manipulations of the system can be performed, including altering the host immune response, the mucosal environment, or the systemic environment. In addition, organism-related factors can be examined in a more controlled setting. The information obtained from such studies could not be obtained in an in vitro situation.

  13. Non-invasive monitoring of vascularization of grafted engineered human oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D. E.; Seetamraju, M.; Gurjar, R. S.; Kuo, R. S.; Fasi, A.; Feinberg, S. E.

    2012-03-01

    Accident victims and victims of explosive devices often suffer from complex maxillofacial injuries. The lips are one of the most difficult areas of the face to reconstruct after an avulsion. Lip avulsion results in compromised facial esthetics and functions of speech and mastication. The process of reconstruction requires assessment of the vascularization of grafted ex vivo engineered tissue while it is buried underneath the skin. We describe the design and animal testing of a hand-held surgical probe based upon diffuse correlation spectroscopy to assess vascularization.

  14. Paraffinoma of lips and oral mucosa: Case report and brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Zustin, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial application of paraffin in plastic and reconstructive surgery is obsolete due to the development of permanent and extensive foreign body granulomas at the site of application. These granulomas can cause severe physical impairment and develop their own prognostic worth. Furthermore, the disperse oil droplets are not a locally stable suspension. Therefore, the desired aesthetic aspect can get lost in the course of a potential dislocation of the suspension. In addition, the interstitial confluence of non-resorbable droplets to larger oil drops causes palpable and sometimes visible indurations of the skin, the correlate of chronic inflammation. This case report describes the efforts undertaken to release the patient at least temporarily from her paraffin granulomas and to improve her appearance. The relevant literature is briefly discussed. Furthermore, we present some immunohistochemical findings to specify the foreign body reaction associated with paraffin injections into connective tissues. PMID:26504716

  15. The phenotype of gastric mucosa coexisting with Barrett's oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Rugge, M; Russo, V; Busatto, G; Genta, R; Di, M; Farinati, F; Graham, D

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aims—Barrett's oesophagus complicates the gastro-oesophageal acid reflux. Helicobacter pylori infection, particularly with cagA positive strains, induces inflammatory/atrophic lesions of the gastric mucosa, which may impair acid output. No systematic study has investigated the phenotype of the gastric mucosa coexisting with Barrett's oesophagus. This study was designed to identify the phenotype of gastric mucosa associated with Barrett's oesophagus. Methods—In this retrospective case control study, the phenotype of the gastric mucosa was histologically characterised in 53 consecutive patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 53 (sex and age matched) non-ulcer dyspeptic controls. Both patients and controls underwent extensive sampling of the gastric mucosa (two antral, one incisural, and two oxyntic biopsies). Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was categorised (type I, complete IM; types II and III, incomplete IM) by the high iron diamine stain; cagA status was ascertained by genotyping. Results—Helicobacter pylori was present in 19 of the 53 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 30 of the 53 controls (p < 0.02); eight of the 19 patients with Barrett's oesophagus and 28 of the 35 controls harboured cagA positive H pylori (p < 0.03). The histological severity of non-atrophic gastritis detected in the controls was significantly higher than that detected in the patients with Barrett's oesophagus (p < 0.0001). Multifocal atrophic gastritis was present in 4% of the patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 23% of controls (p < 0.01). The odds ratio for the association between multifocal atrophic gastritis and Barrett's oesophagus was 0.20 (95% confidence interval, 0.006 to 0.60). Gastric IM was detected in 13.2% of the patients with Barrett's oesophagus and in 30.1% of the controls (p < 0.03). Type III IM at the gastric mucosa was only detected among controls. Conclusions—Barrett's oesophagus is associated with a low prevalence of H pylori cagA positive

  16. Patch Testing with Dental Screening Series in Oral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Woo-Il; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Background The oral mucosa is constantly exposed to several irritants and allergens including dental materials, but the role of contact allergy in oral disease is obscure. Objective To analyze positive patch test results in patients with oral diseases and evaluate the clinical relevance of oral diseases with contact allergy to dental materials. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patch test results with dental screening series in 44 patients with oral disease from 2004~2011. Results Oral diseases included oral lichen planus (54.5%), cheilitis (27.3%), burning mouth syndrome (9.1%), and others (9.1%). Thirty-one of 44 patients (70.5%) had positive reactions to one or more allergens. The most commonly detected allergens were gold sodium thiosulfate (25.0%) and nickel sulfate (25.0%), followed by potassium dichromate (22.7%), cobalt (15.9%), palladium (6.8%), mercury (4.5%), copper (4.5%), and methylhydroquinone (4.5%). Six of 24 patients with oral lichen planus had a symptom in areas adjacent to dental materials and positive patch test reactions to allergens contained in the suspected dental materials. Conclusion Patch tests with dental screening series are worth considering for oral diseases, especially for oral lichen planus. PMID:26273153

  17. Can MMP-9 be a Prognosticator Marker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Shiva Kumar; Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours severely endanger the life of cancer patients. Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the commonly found malignancies in the oral cavity and its survival rate has not improved from past few decades. Since an important risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma is the presence of epithelial dysplasia, it is necessary to check the presence of a prognosticator marker in both of them. As matrix metalloproteinase’s (MMP’s) are involved in degradation of type IV collagen, which are one of the important components of extracellular matrix components which play a relevant role in several steps of tumour progression such as invasion and metastasis. We have studied MMP-9 expression to evaluate its prognostic potential in oral cancers as well as oral epithelial dysplasia along with tissues of normal oral epithelium. Materials and Methods The expression was examined using immunohistochemistry procedure with MMP-9 in 100 samples including cases of epithelium from normal oral mucosa, oral dysplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. One set of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of the three categories were stained by haematoxylin and eosin. The sections were then evaluated under microscope. Data was examined for statistical significance using SPSS 13.0 by Mann-Whitney Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test. Results With MMP-9 gain of expression was noted from Control group to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic staining was seen with MMP-9. Statistically highly significant differences were seen between oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the oral squamous cell carcinoma group. Conclusion This study suggested that oral squamous cell carcinoma shows higher MMP-9 expression as compared to oral epithelial dysplasia followed by epithelium from normal oral mucosa. However, no correlation was found among the

  18. Oral mucocele: Review of literature and a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nallasivam, K. U.; Sudha, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    Mucocele is the most common lesion of the oral mucosa, which results from the accumulation of mucous secretion due to trauma and lip biting habits or alteration of minor salivary glands. Mostly they are two types based on histological features which as follows: Extravasation and retention. Mucoceles can appear at anywhere in the oral mucosa such as lip, cheeks and the floor of the mouth, but mainly appear in the lip. Diagnosis is mostly based on clinical findings. The most common location of the extravasation mucocele is the lower lip. Mucoceles most probably affect young patients but can affect all the age groups. They may have a soft consistency, bluish, and transparent cystic swelling, history of bursting and collapsing due to which resolves themselves then refilling which may be repeated. The treatment of choice is surgical removal of the mucocele. PMID:26538955

  19. Oral mucocele: Review of literature and a case report.

    PubMed

    Nallasivam, K U; Sudha, B R

    2015-08-01

    Mucocele is the most common lesion of the oral mucosa, which results from the accumulation of mucous secretion due to trauma and lip biting habits or alteration of minor salivary glands. Mostly they are two types based on histological features which as follows: Extravasation and retention. Mucoceles can appear at anywhere in the oral mucosa such as lip, cheeks and the floor of the mouth, but mainly appear in the lip. Diagnosis is mostly based on clinical findings. The most common location of the extravasation mucocele is the lower lip. Mucoceles most probably affect young patients but can affect all the age groups. They may have a soft consistency, bluish, and transparent cystic swelling, history of bursting and collapsing due to which resolves themselves then refilling which may be repeated. The treatment of choice is surgical removal of the mucocele. PMID:26538955

  20. Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to rat and human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Ravdin, J I; John, J E; Johnston, L I; Innes, D J; Guerrant, R L

    1985-01-01

    We studied the adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled axenic Entamoeba histolytica (strain HM1-IMSS) to in vitro preparations of rat and human colonic mucosa. Studies were performed with fixed or unfixed rat colonic mucosa, unfixed rat mucosa exposed to trypsin, unfixed rat submucosa, and fixed human colonic mucosa. Twenty percent of the amebae adhered to fixed rat colonic mucosa; adherence was specifically inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), galactose, and asialofetuin. The adherence of amebae to fixed human colonic mucosa was also GalNAc inhibitable. Greater adherence was found with unfixed rat colonic mucosa (40.9%) and was not GalNAc inhibitable unless the tissue was first exposed to trypsin. However, GalNAc did inhibit the adherence of amebae to unfixed rat submucosa. Glutaraldehyde fixation of amebae inactivates known amebic adhesion proteins; there was a markedly decreased adherence of fixed amebae to trypsin-exposed mucosa or fixed rat colonic mucosa. However, fixed or viable amebae had equal levels of adherence to unfixed rat colonic mucosa, suggesting the presence of a host adhesion protein that binds to receptors on amebae. Human (10%) and rabbit (5%) immune sera reduced the adherence of viable amebae to fixed rat colonic mucosa. We concluded that the GalNAc-inhibitable adhesion protein on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites mediated adherence to fixed rat mucosa, fixed human colonic mucosa, trypsin-exposed unfixed rat mucosa, and unfixed rat submucosa. The surface of unfixed rat colonic mucosa contained a glutaraldehyde- and trypsin-sensitive host adhesion protein, perhaps in the overlying mucus blanket, which bound viable or fixed E. histolytica trophozoites. Images PMID:2580787

  1. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  2. Oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  3. Oral or parenteral administration of curcumin does not prevent the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells engrafted into a NOD/SCID mouse model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of orally and parenterally administered curcumin was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by flow cytometry. Once engraftment was observed...

  4. New developments and opportunities in oral mucosal drug delivery for local and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Hearnden, Vanessa; Sankar, Vidya; Hull, Katrusha; Juras, Danica Vidović; Greenberg, Martin; Kerr, A Ross; Lockhart, Peter B; Patton, Lauren L; Porter, Stephen; Thornhill, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    The oral mucosa's accessibility, excellent blood supply, by-pass of hepatic first-pass metabolism, rapid repair and permeability profile make it an attractive site for local and systemic drug delivery. Technological advances in mucoadhesives, sustained drug release, permeability enhancers and drug delivery vectors are increasing the efficient delivery of drugs to treat oral and systemic diseases. When treating oral diseases, these advances result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy, reduced drug wastage and the prospect of using biological agents such as genes, peptides and antibodies. These technologies are also increasing the repertoire of drugs that can be delivered across the oral mucosa to treat systemic diseases. Trans-mucosal delivery is now a favoured route for non-parenteral administration of emergency drugs and agents where a rapid onset of action is required. Furthermore, advances in drug delivery technology are bringing forward the likelihood of transmucosal systemic delivery of biological agents.

  5. Protective effects of oral administration of yeast thioredoxin against gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Yukiko; Kinugasa, Kimihiro; Kitajima, Rie; Nishiumi, Shin; Ashida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Hajime; Fujita, Tuyosi; Kanzaki, Ken; Masutani, Hiroshi; Yodoi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a redox regulating protein which has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced damage to cells and tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of orally administered TRX derived from edible yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on gastric mucosa. First, we examined the digestibility of orally administered yeast TRX in mice, and detected yeast TRX in the stomach for 4 h after administration. Next, we investigated the mitigation of gastric mucosal injury after the oral administration of yeast TRX in water-immersion restraint stress and HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models. Furthermore, we conducted DNA microarray analysis, using the HCl/ethanol-induced model, which revealed that several groups of genes related to tissue repair were upregulated in ulcer regions in the stomachs of rats administered with yeast TRX. These results demonstrated the viability of the use of oral administrations of yeast TRX to protect the gastric mucosa. PMID:25229862

  6. Microbial Amyloids Induce Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 Responses via Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation in the Intestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Nishimori, Jessalyn H.; Newman, Tiffanny N.; Oppong, Gertrude O.; Rapsinski, Glenn J.; Yen, Jui-Hung; Biesecker, Steven G.; Wilson, R. Paul; Butler, Brian P.; Winter, Maria G.; Tsolis, Renee M.; Ganea, Doina

    2012-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/TLR1 receptor complex responds to amyloid fibrils, a common component of biofilm material produced by members of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. To determine whether this TLR2/TLR1 ligand stimulates inflammatory responses when bacteria enter intestinal tissue, we investigated whether expression of curli amyloid fibrils by the invasive enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium contributes to T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses by measuring cytokine production in the mouse colitis model. A csgBA mutant, deficient in curli production, elicited decreased expression of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 in the cecal mucosa compared to the S. Typhimurium wild type. In TLR2-deficient mice, IL-17A and IL-22 expression was blunted during S. Typhimurium infection, suggesting that activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway contributes to the expression of these cytokines. T cells incubated with supernatants from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with curli fibrils released IL-17A in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. Lower levels of IL-6 and IL-23 production were detected in the supernatants of the TLR2-deficient BMDCs treated with curli fibrils. Consistent with this, three distinct T-cell populations—CD4+ T helper cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and γδ T cells—produced IL-17A in response to curli fibrils in the intestinal mucosa during S. Typhimurium infection. Notably, decreased IL-6 expression by the dendritic cells and decreased IL-23 expression by the dendritic cells and macrophages were observed in the cecal mucosa of mice infected with the curli mutant. We conclude that TLR2 recognition of bacterial amyloid fibrils in the intestinal mucosa represents a novel mechanism of immunoregulation, which contributes to the generation of inflammatory responses, including production of IL-17A and IL-22, in response to bacterial entry into the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23027540

  7. Two Cases of Bacteremia Due to Roseomonas mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Moon, Jung Suk; Song, Kyung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Roseomonas is a genus of pink-pigmented nonfermentative bacilli. These slow-growing, gram-negative cocobacilli form pink-colored colonies on sheep blood agar. They differ from other pink-pigmented nonfermenters, including Methylobacterium, in morphology, biochemical characteristics, and DNA sequence. Roseomonas strains are rarely isolated in clinical laboratories; therefore, we report two cases in order to improve our ability to identify these pathogens. We isolated two strains of Roseomonas mucosa from the venous blood cultures of two patients, an 84-yr-old woman with common bile duct obstruction and a 17-yr-old male with acute myeloid leukemia who had an indwelling central-venous catheter for chemotherapy. The isolated strains were confirmed as R. mucosa by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:27139611

  8. [Microflora of pharyngeal mucosa in children with solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, V B; Baturo, A P; Romanenko, E E; Kostinov, M P; Zaeva, G E; Mikhaĭlova, S N; Leonova, A Iu; Moiseenko, E I

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological study of pharyngeal mucosa in 43 children with solid tumors revealed that 77.2% of isolated microorganisms belonged to Gram-positive flora. It was shown that streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the main species. Species composition of streptococci included both pyogenic (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. equi) andviridans species (S. acidominimus, S. oralis and "S. milleri" group). Nocardioform actinomycetes, corynebacteria and other staphylococci were referred to additional microflora. Accidental microflora was represented by Neisseria spp., non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, enterobacteria and yeast-like fungi. Microbiologic study of pharyngeal mucosa biocenosis showed that monoculture was present only in 2.3% of cases; in other cases microorganisms formed both intra-genus and inter-species associations. 2-6-component associations were revealed with predominance of 3-4-component associations (37.2% and 32.6% respectively). Relationship of distribution of microorganisms belonging to main and additional microflora was revealed. PMID:19186552

  9. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  10. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of abnormal oral mucosal smears.

    PubMed Central

    Cowpe, J G; Longmore, R B; Green, M W

    1988-01-01

    In this study quantitative techniques have been applied to smears collected from the buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. The results display an encouraging success rate for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. 'Intrapatient' normal smears provide a satisfactory control for comparison with pathological smears. Early results indicate that quantitative cytology could be of great value for monitoring and follow-up of suspicious lesions and provide an excellent additional diagnostic test for detecting early oral malignancy. PMID:3184106

  11. The quantitative assessment of normal canine small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hart, I R; Kidder, D E

    1978-09-01

    Quanitative methods of assessing the architecture of small intestinal mucosa have been applied to biopsy material from normal dogs. Mucosal samples taken from four predetermined sites show that there are significant quantitative differences between the various levels of the small bowel. Animals of one year of age and older show no correlation between age or weight and mucosal dimensions. The significance of these findings, in relation to examination of biopsy material from cases of clinical small intestinal disease, is discussed. PMID:364574

  12. Endocrine cells in the human oxyntic mucosa. A histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Simonsson, M; Eriksson, S; Håkanson, R; Lind, T; Lönroth, H; Lundell, L; O'Connor, D T; Sundler, F

    1988-11-01

    The oxyntic mucosa of the human stomach harbors at least five different endocrine cell types (ECL cells, A-like or X cells, somatostatin cells (D), enterochromaffin (EC) cells, and D1 or P cells). Little is known about their functional roles, and of the hormones they produce only somatostatin has been identified. The relative frequency and regional distribution of the different endocrine cell populations were studied in 13 adults with no manifest gastrointestinal disease. From each of them at least three biopsy specimens were taken at seven fixed locations within the oxyntic mucosa. The specimens were examined for the different endocrine cell types by means of immunocytochemistry (staining with antisera against chromogranin A,5-hydroxytryptamine, and somatostatin) and silver staining techniques (demonstration of argyrophil cells by the methods of Grimelius or Sevier-Munger). Chromogranin-positive cells included all endocrine cells identified by the other staining techniques. Grimelius-positive cells included all endocrine cells except the somatostatin cells. Sevier-Munger-positive cells, finally, included the ECL cells and the EC cells. The frequency of ECL cells could be calculated by subtracting the number of EC cells from the number of Sevier-Munger-positive cells. The ECL cells represented 35% of the total endocrine number, somatostatin cells 26%, and EC cells 25%. The remaining 14% consisted of A-like cells, D1 cells, and P cells. Generally, the endocrine cells predominated in the basal portion of the glands, but the various populations of endocrine cells were not uniformly distributed in the various regions of the oxyntic mucosa. However, representative specimens could be obtained from the main body of the stomach, and the results indicate that the examination of a fairly small number of specimens from the main body of the stomach may be sufficient for assessing the frequency of endocrine cells in the oxyntic mucosa of individual patients. PMID:2470131

  13. l-Menthol sprayed on gastric mucosa causes edematous change

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akihiro; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Hayashi, Shintaro; Nozaki, Masashi; Yoshida, Atsui; Ohashi, Noritsugu

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: l-Menthol (LM), sprayed on the distal gastric mucosa, is a safe antispasmodic agent used during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, it seems to affect gastric mucosal endoscopic findings. Therefore, we evaluated whether LM causes specific changes and impacts the endoscopic morphology of gastric lesions. Patients and methods: A total of 98 patients scheduled to undergo EGD were randomly assigned to receive LM solution (160 mg of 0.8 % LM added to 2.5 mL of indigo carmine [IC]; n = 49; LM group) or decuple-diluted IC solution without LM (n = 49; placebo group). We compared the incidence of specific mucosal changes and the difference in the endoscopic findings of several gastric lesions between these groups. Results: Annular-reticular – like mucosal changes appeared immediately after the administration of LM solution. This change was observed in 71.4 % of the LM group compared with 12.2 % of the placebo group (P < 0.01). In the placebo group, this change was observed in 14.7 % of subjects with atrophic gastritis compared with 6.7 % of those without atrophic gastritis (P = 0.39), whereas in the LM group, this change was observed in 84.8 % of subjects with atrophic gastritis compared with 43.8 % of those without atrophic gastritis (P < 0.01). Most early gastric cancers, erosions, and ulcers observed in this study became well demarcated after LM administration, although the incidence of gastric lesions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: LM changes the gastric mucosa into edematous mucosa, and this occurs more frequently in atrophic gastric mucosa than in pathologic lesions. LM may facilitate the demarcation of pathologic gastric lesions without intestinal metaplasia. PMID:26135260

  14. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  15. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  16. Method of expression of certain bacterial microflora mucosa olfactory area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Nosova, Yana V.; Shushlyapina, Natalia O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Burlibay, Aron; Zhassandykyzy, Maral

    2015-12-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem - the development of new express diagnostic methods, based on which a doctor-otolaryngologist can quickly and efficiently determine a violation of smell. The work is based on the methods of processing and analysis of medical images and signals. We have also identified informative indicators of endoscopic image of the olfactory region of the nasal mucosa of the upper course.

  17. Uptake and storage of vitamin A as lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of cells in the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Haruki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Hebiguchi, Taku; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) was injected subcutaneously or administered to rats by tube feeding. After subcutaneous injection, vitamin A was taken up and stored in cells of the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine. After oral administration, vitamin A was absorbed by the intestinal absorptive epithelial cells and transferred to cells of the lamina propria mucosae, where cells took up and stored the transferred vitamin A. The morphology of these cells was similar to that of hepatic stellate cells (also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells or Ito cells). Thus, these cells in the intestine could take up vitamin A from the systemic circulation and as well as by intestinal absorption, and store the vitamin in the lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The data suggest that these cells are extrahepatic stellate cells of the digestive tract that may play roles in both the absorption and homeostasis of vitamin A. PMID:23765517

  18. Uptake and storage of vitamin A as lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of cells in the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Haruki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Hebiguchi, Taku; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) was injected subcutaneously or administered to rats by tube feeding. After subcutaneous injection, vitamin A was taken up and stored in cells of the lamina propria mucosae of the rat intestine. After oral administration, vitamin A was absorbed by the intestinal absorptive epithelial cells and transferred to cells of the lamina propria mucosae, where cells took up and stored the transferred vitamin A. The morphology of these cells was similar to that of hepatic stellate cells (also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells or Ito cells). Thus, these cells in the intestine could take up vitamin A from the systemic circulation and as well as by intestinal absorption, and store the vitamin in the lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The data suggest that these cells are extrahepatic stellate cells of the digestive tract that may play roles in both the absorption and homeostasis of vitamin A.

  19. Local Immunoglobulin E in the Nasal Mucosa: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  20. [Gastroduodenal mucosa sensitivity to estrogen in ulcers complicated by hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Duzhiy, I D; Romanyuk, A M; Kharchenko, S V; Moskalenko, R A; Pyatykop, G I; Lyndin, M S

    2015-02-01

    Expression of alpha-receptors of estrogen (RE) in accordance to immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling in gastroduodenal mucosa cells was studied up in patients, suffering the ulcer disease and without it. In 4 patients (group I) a gastroduodenal mucosa affection was revealed, they were operated on for hemorrhage from gastroduodenal ulcers; in 3 patients (group II) gastroduodenal mucosa affection was not observed; in 4 patients (group III, control), a mammary gland cancer was diagnosed, a positive reaction on alpha-RE was noted. In groups I and II the biopsies were studied, obtained from pylorus and gastric fundus, as well as from duodenal ampula, and in a group III--obtained from the tumor. In a control group a positive labeling of nuclei was revealed in biopsies. In patients of groups I and II the alpha-RE expression by cellular nuclei was not revealed, but, the lots of positive IHC labeling of cytoplasm in glandular and stromal mucosal cells of the investigated gut were noted. Positive IHC labeling of cytoplasm for alpha-RE witnesses about sensitivity to them in norma and pathological processes. But, a trustworthy difference of alpha-RE expression by cellular nuclei was not noted. For confirmation or denial of this hypothesis further clinical and IHC investigations are needed.

  1. Heterotopic gastrointestinal mucosa and pancreatic tissue in a retroperitoneal tumor.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Hakamada, Kenichi; Narumi, Shunji; Totsuka, Eishi; Aoki, Kazunori; Kamata, Yoshimasa; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2006-01-01

    We believe that this is the first report of a retroperitoneal tumor consisting of heterotopic gastrointestinal mucosa and pancreatic tissue. The patient was a 19-year-old woman with the chief complaint being occasional back pain. Abdominal computerized tomography demonstrated a 3.1 x 2.5 x 3.2-cm low-density solid and cystic lesion adjoining the left renal vein between the aorta and inferior vena cava. Angiography revealed that the inferior vena cava was displaced by the hypovascular tumor. The retroperitoneal lesion was diagnosed preoperatively as a benign tumor such as a neurogenic neoplasm or lymphangioma. At laparotomy, a cystic tumor was found, which existed behind the inferior vena cava and renal vessels, and contained reddish-brown fluid, suggesting hemorrhage in the past. The cut surface of the tumor showed a unilocular cyst with partially hypertrophic wall. Histopathological examination revealed a cystic tumor lined with heterotopic gastric and duodenal mucosa, with pancreatic tissue in the muscularis propria. In addition, evidence of bleeding from the gastric mucosa was observed in the cystic tumor. External secretion from these tissues could have triggered the hemorrhage and expanded the tumor, possibly resulting in the back pain.

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  3. Oral Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

  4. Salivary gland cysts of the oral cavity: clinical observation and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Bodner, L; Tal, H

    1991-03-01

    Mucoceles are common cystic lesions of the oral mucosa. Extravasation mucoceles are mainly found in the lower lip of young patients, whereas retention mucoceles are usually located in the cheek or palate of older patients. The disparate site and age incidences of extravasation and retention mucoceles suggest that these two types are not related and have different pathogenesis. Treatment modalities for mucoceles are reviewed, with special attention to the cryosurgical technique for the treatment of oral ranulas. PMID:1860124

  5. Oral Microbial Ecology and the Role of Salivary Immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Harold; Lavoie, Marc C.

    1998-01-01

    In the oral cavity, indigenous bacteria are often associated with two major oral diseases, caries and periodontal diseases. These diseases seem to appear following an inbalance in the oral resident microbiota, leading to the emergence of potentially pathogenic bacteria. To define the process involved in caries and periodontal diseases, it is necessary to understand the ecology of the oral cavity and to identify the factors responsible for the transition of the oral microbiota from a commensal to a pathogenic relationship with the host. The regulatory forces influencing the oral ecosystem can be divided into three major categories: host related, microbe related, and external factors. Among host factors, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) constitutes the main specific immune defense mechanism in saliva and may play an important role in the homeostasis of the oral microbiota. Naturally occurring SIgA antibodies that are reactive against a variety of indigenous bacteria are detectable in saliva. These antibodies may control the oral microbiota by reducing the adherence of bacteria to the oral mucosa and teeth. It is thought that protection against bacterial etiologic agents of caries and periodontal diseases could be conferred by the induction of SIgA antibodies via the stimulation of the mucosal immune system. However, elucidation of the role of the SIgA immune system in controlling the oral indigenous microbiota is a prerequisite for the development of effective vaccines against these diseases. The role of SIgA antibodies in the acquisition and the regulation of the indigenous microbiota is still controversial. Our review discusses the importance of SIgA among the multiple factors that control the oral microbiota. It describes the oral ecosystems, the principal factors that may control the oral microbiota, a basic knowledge of the secretory immune system, the biological functions of SIgA, and, finally, experiments related to the role of SIgA in oral microbial ecology

  6. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  7. In silico analysis of gene expression profiles in the olfactory mucosae of aging senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Thomas V; Peng, Xuejun; Green, C Paul; Stromberg, Arnold J; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Mattson, Mark P; Getchell, Marilyn L

    2004-08-01

    We utilized high-density Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays to investigate gene expression in the olfactory mucosae of near age-matched aging senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). The senescence-prone (SAMP) strain has a significantly shorter lifespan than does the senescence-resistant (SAMR) strain. To analyze our data, we applied biostatistical methods that included a correlation analysis to evaluate sources of methodologic and biological variability; a two-sided t-test to identify a subpopulation of Present genes with a biologically relevant P-value <0.05; and a false discovery rate (FDR) analysis adjusted to a stringent 5% level that yielded 127 genes with a P-value of <0.001 that were differentially regulated in near age-matched SAMPs (SAMP-Os; 13.75 months) compared to SAMRs (SAMR-Os, 12.5 months). Volcano plots related the variability in the mean hybridization signals as determined by the two-sided t-test to fold changes in gene expression. The genes were categorized into the six functional groups used previously in gene profiling experiments to identify candidate genes that may be relevant for senescence at the genomic and cellular levels in the aging mouse brain (Lee et al. [2000] Nat Genet 25:294-297) and in the olfactory mucosa (Getchell et al. [2003] Ageing Res Rev 2:211-243), which serves several functions that include chemosensory detection, immune barrier function, xenobiotic metabolism, and neurogenesis. Because SAMR-Os and SAMP-Os have substantially different median lifespans, we related the rate constant alpha in the Gompertz equation on aging to intrinsic as opposed to environmental mechanisms of senescence based on our analysis of genes modulated during aging in the olfactory mucosa. PMID:15248299

  8. Genome Sequence of Two Novel Species of Torque Teno Minivirus from the Human Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Parras-Moltó, Marcos; Suárez-Rodríguez, Patricia; Eguia, Asier; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Anelloviridae is a family of circular, single-stranded DNA viruses highly prevalent among humans. We report the genome sequence of two torque teno miniviruses found in human oral mucosa samples. Genome organization, phylogenetic analysis, and pairwise comparisons reveal that they belong to novel species within the Betatorquevirus genus. PMID:25291759

  9. Oral Kaposi's sarcoma: Sole presentation in HIV seropositive patient

    PubMed Central

    Arul, A. Sri Kennath J.; Kumar, A. Ramesh; Verma, Sonika; Arul, A. Sri Sennath J.

    2015-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occurs with increased frequency in all HIV transmission groups and at a particularly high rate among homosexual men. It usually presents initially as violaceous cutaneous lesions, but oral mucosa, lymph nodes and visceral organs may be affected, sometimes without skin involvement. KS in a 20-year-old HIV-seropositive patient with oral involvement as the sole presentation of the disease is presented herewith; thus contributing a new AIDS-related KS case reported in Indian Literature. PMID:26283853

  10. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  11. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. PMID:24806665

  12. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus