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Sample records for oral testosterone undecanoate

  1. Use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect doping with oral testosterone undecanoate: inter-individual variability of 13C/12C ratio.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Saudan, Christophe; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Strahm, Emmanuel; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Bagutti, Carlo; Cauderay, Michel; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2006-05-01

    The metabolic effect of multiple oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) doses over 4 weeks was assessed in seven voluntary men. The protocol was designed to detect accumulation of the substance by choosing the appropriate spot urines collections time and to study the urinary clearance of the substance after weeks of treatment. Urines were analysed by a new GC/C/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) method to establish the delta(13)C-values of testosterone metabolites (androsterone and etiocholanolone) together with an endogenous reference compound (16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol). The significant differences in inter-individual metabolism following TU intake was illustrated by large variations in delta(13)C-values of both T metabolites (maximum Deltadelta(13)C-values = 5.5 per thousand), as well as by very stable longitudinal T/E profiles and carbon isotopic ratios in the first hours following administration. According to T/E ratios and delta(13)C-values, the washout period after 80 mg TU intake was less than 48 h for all subjects and no accumulation phenomenon was observed upon chronic oral administration.

  2. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Gregory S. Y.; Somerville, Colin P.; Jones, Timothy W.; Walsh, John P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle). While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, individual components of pharmaceuticals should be tested when investigating drug allergies. Doctors should be alert to the potential for serious reactions to any of the components of Reandron 1000. PMID:22272209

  3. Testosterone undecanoate improves lipid profile in patients with type 1 diabetes and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Chillarón, Juan J; Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Albareda, Mercè; Fontserè, Sara; Colom, Cristina; Vila, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores Le-Roux, Juana A

    2016-09-30

    Testosterone deficiency (Td) has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Few studies have evaluated this condition in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) on insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile in patients with Td and T1D. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study.

  4. [Study on preparation of testosterone undecanoate ethosomes and its in vitro transdermal penetration].

    PubMed

    Meng, Shu; Yang, Li-Qun; Ma, Li-Ying; Guo, Jing; Li, Miao; Yang, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Ethosomes, as a new vector for transdermal drug delivery, could obviously improve the transdermal penetration of drugs. In this study, we prepared testosterone undecanoate ethosomes, with TU ethosomes as the basic remedy, to determine its appearance, particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE) and membrane fluidity. Meanwhile, a transdermal test was conducted in mice, in order to determine the permeability characteristics of ethosomes as a vector for transdermal drug delivery, and compare transdermal behaviors of TU ethosomes, liposomes and their ethanol solutions.

  5. Factors influencing time course of pain after depot oil intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Gideon; Fennell, Carolyn; Spasevska, Sasa; Turner, Leo; Conway, Ann J; Handelsman, David J

    2010-03-01

    Pain following depot intramuscular (IM) injection of oil vehicle-based drugs has been little studied. This study aimed to determine prospectively the prevalence, determinants, severity and functional consequences of pain during the week after IM injection of 1 000 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) in a 4-mL castor oil vehicle. Androgen-deficient men receiving regular T replacement therapy at an academic andrology clinic were recruited to report pain scores using a coloured visual linear analogue scale at seven times over the first day and daily for a week after a deep IM gluteal injection. The time course and covariables influencing pain scores were analysed by mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Following 168 injections in 125 men, pain was reported by 80% of men, peaking immediately after injection, reaching only moderate severity, lasting 1-2 days and returning to baseline by day 4. The pain required little analgesic use and produced minimal interference in daily activities. The time course of pain scores was reproducible in the 43 men who underwent two consecutive injections. Pain was more severe in men who had an earlier painful injection, but less severe in older and more obese men. There were negligible differences in post-injection pain experience between experienced nurses administering injections. Deep IM gluteal injection of depot TU in 4-mL castor oil is well tolerated and post-injection pain is influenced by earlier painful injection experience, as well as age and obesity.

  6. Circulating prolactin and its response to TRH following administration of testosterone undecanoate in normal men.

    PubMed

    Kicovic, P M; Luisi, M; Franchi, F; Krempl, S

    1978-10-01

    To investigate the effect of orally administered testosterone undercanoate (TU) on circulating prolactin (PRL) and PRL response to TRH stimulation, 8 eugonadal male volunteers, aged 19--30, presenting with normal plasma levels of FSH, LH, testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and PRL, were given 120 mg/day of TU for 6 days. Plasma PRL levels were measured daily during the pre-treatment phase (3 days), treatment phase (6 days) and post-treatment phase (3 days) by radioimmunoassay. The TRH Test (200 micrograms iv) was done on the 3rd day of the pretreatment phase and on the treatment phase. No significant changes in circulating PRL levels or in PRL response to TRH stimulation were observed. Plasma T and E2 levels showed a slight, but not significant tendency to increase, while gonadotropin levels remained unchanged.

  7. Effect of long-acting testosterone undecanoate treatment on quality of life in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome: a double blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Seng-Fah; Ng, Chirk-Jenn; Lee, Boon-Cheok; Lee, Verna-KM; Khoo, Ee-Ming; Lee, Eng-Giap; Tan, Hui-Meng

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate on overall quality of life (QoL) in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). A randomized controlled trial over a 12-month period was carried out in 2009. One hundred and twenty men aged 40 years and above with a diagnosis of TDS (serum total testosterone <12 nmol l−1 and total Aging Male Symptom (AMS) scores ≥27) were invited to participate. Interventions comprised intramuscular injection of either placebo or 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate, given at weeks 0, 6, 18, 30 and 42. This paper presents the secondary analysis of QoL changes measured in the scores of Short-Form-12 (SF-12) scale at baseline, weeks 30 and 48 after the first injection. A total of 56/60 and 58/60 men from the active treatment and placebo group, respectively, completed the study. At week 48, before adjusting for baseline differences, the QoL of men in the treatment group improved significantly in five out of the eight domains on SF-12. The physical health composite scores improved 4.0 points from a baseline of 41.9±7.0 in the treatment group compared to 0.8 point from a baseline of 43.7±7.1 in the placebo group (F=3.652, P=0.027). The mental health composite scores improved 4.4 points from a baseline of 37.1±9.0 in the treatment group compared to 1.0 points from a baseline of 37.6±7.9 in the placebo group (F=4.514, P=0.018). After adjusting for baseline differences, significant improvement was observed in mental health composite scores, but not in physical health composite scores. Long-acting testosterone undecanoate significantly improved the mental health component of QoL in men with TDS. PMID:22635164

  8. Suppression of spermatogenesis by testosterone undecanoate-loaded injectable in situ-forming implants in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Dan; Meng, Shu; Wang, Ping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Dan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of administration of testosterone undecanoate (TU)-loaded injectable in situ-forming implant (ISFI) for contraception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were treated with vehicle, TU-loaded ISFIs (540, 270 and 135 mg TU kg-1 ) or TU injections (45 mg TU kg-1 every 30 days) for 120 days. Fertility tests served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Serum testosterone concentration, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, and histology of the testis were monitored. The TU-loaded ISFIs increased serum testosterone levels in rats steadily without fluctuation over 3 months. One month after TU administration, the epididymal sperm count decreased significantly in all experimental groups. After 3 months, the animals treated with 270 and 135 mg kg-1 TU-loaded ISFIs were 100% infertile, and no implantation sites were produced in the mated females. However, some of males treated with 540 mg kg-1 ISFI or TU injections were still fertile but numbers of implantation sites were also significantly lower than control values. TU-loaded ISFI at an appropriate dose has potential as a long-acting male contraceptive drug that suppresses spermatogenesis consistently over a period of 3 months.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10 and the effectiveness of combined tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate treatment in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai-fa; Zhao, Yi-li; Ding, Shang-shu; Wu, Qi-fei; Wang, Xing-yang; Shi, Jia-qi; Sun, Fa; Xing, Jun-ping

    2015-03-01

    Tamoxifen citrate, as the first line of treatment for infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia, was proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and testosterone undecanoate has shown benefits in semen values. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of treatment with tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia, and whether the results would be affected by polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10. A total of 230 infertile men and 147 controls were included in the study. Patients were treated with tamoxifen citrate and testosterone undecanoate. Sex hormone, sperm parameters, and incidence of spontaneous pregnancy were detected. There were no significant differences between the control and patient groups with respect to CYP2D6*10 genotype frequencies (P>0.05). The follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels were raised, and sperm concentration and motility were increased at 3 months and became significant at 6 months, and they were higher in the wild-type allele (C/C) than in the heterozygous variant allele (C/T) or homozygous variant allele (T/T) subgroups (P<0.05). In addition, the percentage of normal morphology was raised at 6 months, and represented the highest percentage in the C/C subgroup (P<0.05). The incidence of spontaneous pregnancy in the C/C subgroup was higher than that in the C/T or T/T subgroups (P<0.01). This study showed that the CYP2D6*10 variant genotype demonstrated worse clinical effects in infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia.

  10. Comparison of the single dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of two novel oral formulations of dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU): a potential oral, male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, R; Page, S T; Swerdloff, R S; Liu, P Y; Amory, J K; Leung, A; Hull, L; Blithe, D; Christy, A; Chao, J H; Bremner, W J; Wang, C

    2017-03-01

    Dimethandrolone (DMA, 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) has both androgenic and progestational activities, ideal properties for a male hormonal contraceptive. In vivo, dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) is hydrolyzed to DMA. We showed previously that single oral doses of DMAU powder in capsule taken with food are well tolerated and effective at suppressing both LH and testosterone (T), but absorption was low. We compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two new formulations of DMAU, in castor oil and in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), with the previously tested powder formulation. DMAU was dosed orally in healthy adult male volunteers at two academic medical centers. For each formulation tested in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 10 men received single, escalating, oral doses of DMAU (100, 200, and 400 mg) and two subjects received placebo. All doses were evaluated for both fasting and with a high fat meal. All three formulations were well tolerated without clinically significant changes in vital signs, blood counts, or serum chemistries. For all formulations, DMA and DMAU showed higher maximum (p < 0.007) and average concentrations (p < 0.002) at the 400 mg dose, compared with the 200 mg dose. The powder formulation resulted in a lower conversion of DMAU to DMA (p = 0.027) compared with both castor oil and SEDDS formulations. DMAU in SEDDS given fasting resulted in higher serum DMA and DMAU concentrations compared to the other two formulations. Serum LH and sex hormone concentrations were suppressed by all formulations of 200 and 400 mg DMAU when administered with food, but only the SEDDS formulation was effectively suppressed serum T when given fasting. We conclude that while all three formulations of oral DMAU are effective and well tolerated when administered with food, DMAU in oil and SEDDS increased conversion to DMA, and SEDDS may have some effectiveness when given fasting. These properties might be

  11. The effect of food composition on serum testosterone levels after oral administration of Andriol® Testocaps®

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Peter G; Bagchus, Wilma; Lass, Holger; Thomsen, Torben; Geurts, T B Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective Andriol® Testocaps® is a new oral formulation of testosterone undecanoate (TU) for treatment of hypogonadism. As TU is taken up by the intestinal lymphatic system, both the presence and the composition of food influence the absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food composition on the pharmacokinetics of oral TU. Design An open-label, single-centre, four-way crossover study. With a washout period of 6–7 days, 80 mg TU was administered in the morning 5 min after consuming each of four different meals in a randomized order (A: 230 kcal, 0·6 g lipid; B: 220 kcal, 5 g lipid; C: 474 kcal, 19 g lipid; D: 837 kcal, 44 g lipid). Patients Twenty-four postmenopausal volunteers. Measurements Serial blood samples were collected until 24 h after dosing to determine testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results The bioavailability of testosterone after a low-calorie meal containing 0·6 g lipid or 5 g lipid was relatively low, the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC0–tlast) for testosterone being 30·7 and 43·5 nmol h/l, respectively. The bioavailability of testosterone after a meal containing 19 g lipid was considerably higher (AUC0–tlast = 146 nmol h/l), whereas increasing the lipid content to 44 g lipid did not further increase the bioavailability of testosterone (AUC0–tlast = 154 nmol h/l). Conclusion Approximately 19 g of lipid per meal efficiently increases absorption of testosterone from oral TU. Therefore, coadministration with a normal rather than a fatty meal is sufficient to increase serum testosterone levels when using oral TU. PMID:17371478

  12. Urinary analysis of four testosterone metabolites and pregnanediol by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry after oral administrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Maître, Arnaud; Saudan, Christophe; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2004-09-01

    The most frequently used method to demonstrate testosterone abuse is the determination of the testosterone and epitestosterone concentration ratio (T/E ratio) in urine. Nevertheless, it is known that factors other than testosterone administration may increase the T/E ratio. In the last years, the determination of the carbon isotope ratio has proven to be the most promising method to help discriminate between naturally elevated T/E ratios and those reflecting T use. In this paper, an excretion study following oral administration of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate initially and 13 h later is presented. Four testosterone metabolites (androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5 alpha-androstanediol, and 5 beta-androstanediol) together with an endogenous reference (5 beta-pregnanediol) were extracted from the urines and the delta(13)C/(12)C ratio of each compound was analyzed by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results show similar maximum delta(13)C-value variations (parts per thousand difference of delta(13)C/(12)C ratio from the isotope ratio standard) for the T metabolites and concomitant changes of the T/E ratios after administration of the first and the second dose of T. Whereas the T/E ratios as well as the androsterone, etiocholanolone and 5 alpha-androstanediol delta(13)C-values returned to the baseline 15 h after the second T administration, a decrease of the 5 beta-androstanediol delta-values could be detected for over 40 h. This suggests that measurements of 5 beta-androstanediol delta-values allow the detection of a testosterone ingestion over a longer post-administration period than other T metabolites delta(13)C-values or than the usual T/E ratio approach.

  13. Peculiar observations in measuring testosterone in women treated with oral contraceptives supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    PubMed

    Heijboer, Annemieke C; Zimmerman, Yvette; de Boer, Theo; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2014-03-20

    Total testosterone is considered to be decreased during the use of combined oral contraceptives. There is, however, considerable concern about the quality of testosterone assays, especially at low levels. We aimed to confirm testosterone levels measured by direct radioimmunoassay in a recent clinical trial with a state-of-the-art LC-MSMS method. Surplus specimens with known testosterone levels collected during the study (Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN06414473) were reanalyzed with an LC-MSMS method. This method was compared to another LC-MSMS method that had shown to concur excellently to a reference method. Follow-up experiments were designed to explain the results. In contrast to our expectation, LC-MSMS measurements did not corroborate the data obtained by radioimmunoassay. Subsequent experiments showed that this could be attributed to a strong dependency of the radioimmunoassay on SHBG. Testosterone results (n = 198) obtained by direct radioimmunoassay showed a negative correlation to SHBG levels (r = -0.676; p<0.001). By contrast, testosterone results obtained by LC-MSMS were not related to SHBG (r = 0.100; NS). In conclusion, our results indicate that total testosterone measurements during oral contraceptive use are unreliable when performed with assays sensitive to the SHBG concentration. The discrepancy with the literature can most likely be explained by the sensitivity of the immunoassay used to SHBG. Given the sharp increase in SHBG during the use of many oral contraceptives, total testosterone may not decrease, whereas its bioavailability, estimated by free testosterone levels, will be diminished. Studies aiming at restoration of testosterone homeostasis during oral contraception need to take this into account.

  14. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Castillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy.

  15. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Nieschlag, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Castillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy. PMID:24435052

  16. Recent trends in the treatment of testosterone deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bum Sik; Ahn, Tai Young

    2007-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is defined as a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age and is characterized by typical symptoms and deficiency in serum testosterone levels. TDS is a result of the interaction of hypothalamo-pituitary and testicular factors. Now, treatment of TDS with testosterone is still controversial due to a lack of large, controlled clinical trials on efficacy. The risks of treatment with testosterone appear to be minimal, although long-term studies on the safety of testosterone therapy are lacking. The aim of the therapy is to establish a physiological concentration of serum testosterone in order to correct the androgen deficiency, relieve its symptoms and prevent long-term sequelae. All of the available products, despite their varying pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles, are able to reach this goal. Newer testosterone patches seem not to cause severe skin irritation. Testosterone gels minimize the skin irritation while providing flexibility in dosing and a low discontinuation rate. Oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) is free of liver toxicity. Recent formulation of oral TU markedly increased shelf-live, a major drawback in the older preparation. Producing swings in testosterone levels rising rapidly to the supraphysiological range is not the case with the new injectable long-acting preparation of TU. To be able to rapidly react and stop treatment in cases where side-effects and contraindications are detected, the short-acting transdermal and oral delivery modes have certain advantages. However, there is no evidence that the use of an injectable long-acting TU in men with TDS has limitations in clinical application for this reason. The use of dehydroepiandrosterone is still controversial because of a lack of well designed long-term trials, although some recent studies suggest positive effects on various body systems. Only a few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of hCG (human

  17. Profiling of steroid metabolites after transdermal and oral administration of testosterone by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Badoud, F; Boccard, J; Schweizer, C; Pralong, F; Saugy, M; Baume, N

    2013-11-01

    The screening of testosterone (T) misuse for doping control is based on the urinary steroid profile, including T, its precursors and metabolites. Modifications of individual levels and ratio between those metabolites are indicators of T misuse. In the context of screening analysis, the most discriminant criterion known to date is based on the T glucuronide (TG) to epitestosterone glucuronide (EG) ratio (TG/EG). Following the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) recommendations, there is suspicion of T misuse when the ratio reaches 4 or beyond. While this marker remains very sensitive and specific, it suffers from large inter-individual variability, with important influence of enzyme polymorphisms. Moreover, use of low dose or topical administration forms makes the screening of endogenous steroids difficult while the detection window no longer suits the doping habit. As reference limits are estimated on the basis of population studies, which encompass inter-individual and inter-ethnic variability, new strategies including individual threshold monitoring and alternative biomarkers were proposed to detect T misuse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a new generation high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS) to investigate the steroid metabolism after transdermal and oral T administration. An approach was developed to quantify 12 targeted urinary steroids as direct glucuro- and sulfo-conjugated metabolites, allowing the conservation of the phase II metabolism information, reflecting genetic and environmental influences. The UHPLC-QTOF-MS(E) platform was applied to clinical study samples from 19 healthy male volunteers, having different genotypes for the UGT2B17 enzyme responsible for the glucuroconjugation of T. Based on reference population ranges, none of the traditional markers of T misuse could detect doping after topical administration of T, while the

  18. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral testosterone enanthate plus dutasteride for 4 weeks in normal men: implications for male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Page, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen.

  19. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  20. Effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception, and training on exercise-induced changes in circulating DHEA-sulphate and testosterone in young women.

    PubMed

    Enea, C; Boisseau, N; Ottavy, M; Mulliez, J; Millet, C; Ingrand, I; Diaz, V; Dugué, B

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of menstrual cycle, oral contraception, and training status on the exercise-induced changes in circulating DHEA-sulphate and testosterone in young women. Twenty-eight healthy women were assigned to an untrained group (n = 16) or a trained group (n = 12) depending on their training background. The untrained group was composed of nine oral contraceptive users (OC+) and seven eumenorrheic women (OC-). The trained group was composed of OC+ subjects only. All the OC+ subjects were taking the same low-dose oral contraception. Three laboratory sessions were organised in a randomised order: a prolonged exercise test until exhaustion, a short-term exhaustive exercise test, and a control session. Blood specimens were collected before, during and after the exercise tests and at the same time of the day during the control session. Basal circulating testosterone was significantly lower in trained as compared to untrained subjects. In all subjects, the prolonged exhaustive exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone. The short-term exercise induced a significant increase in circulating DHEA-s in untrained eumenorrheic and in trained OC users only. Menstrual phases in OC- did not influence the responses. It was found that exhaustive physical exercise induced an increase in circulating DHEA-s and testosterone in young women. Oral contraception may limit short-term exercise-induced changes.

  1. Testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men participating in competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Gooren, L J; Behre, H M

    2008-06-01

    Testosterone has a steeply dose-dependent effect on muscle mass and strength irrespective of gonadal status. So, for reasons of fairness, people who engage in competitive sports should not administer exogenous testosterone raising their blood testosterone levels beyond the range of normal. There is a ban on exogenous androgens for men and women in sports, but an exception has been made for men with androgen deficiency due to pituitary or testicular disease. Men who receive testosterone administration for the indication hypogonadism have an interest in the use of testosterone preparations generating blood testosterone levels within the normal range of healthy, eugonadal men. On the grounds of a positive correlation between blood testosterone concentrations muscle and volume/strength, they are best served with a parenteral testosterone preparation, rather than transdermal testosterone, but they should not run the risk of being excluded from competition because of supraphysiological testosterone levels. The latter is a realistic risk with the traditional parenteral testosterone esters. The new parenteral testosterone undecanoate preparation offers much better perspectives. Its pharmacokinetics have been investigated in detail and there is a fair degree of predictability of resulting blood testosterone levels with use of this preparation.

  2. Detection of testosterone esters in blood.

    PubMed

    Forsdahl, Guro; Erceg, Damir; Geisendorfer, Thomas; Turkalj, Mirjana; Plavec, Davor; Thevis, Mario; Tretzel, Laura; Gmeiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Injections of synthetic esters of testosterone are among the most common forms of testosterone application. In doping control, the detection of an intact ester of testosterone in blood gives unequivocal proof of the administration of exogenous testosterone. The aim of the current project was to investigate the detection window for injected testosterone esters as a mixed substance preparation and as a single substance preparation in serum and plasma. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of blood collection devices was evaluated. Collection tubes with stabilizing additives, as well as non-stabilized serum separation tubes, were tested. A clinical study with six participants was carried out, comprising a single intramuscular injection of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (Nebido(®)) or a mixture of 30 mg testosterone propionate, 60 mg testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg testosterone decanoate (Sustanon(®)). Blood was collected throughout a testing period of 60 days. The applied analytical method for blood analysis included liquid-liquid extraction and preparation of oxime derivatives, prior to TLX-sample clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. All investigated testosterone esters could be detected in post-administration blood samples. The detection time depended on the type of ester administered. Furthermore, results from the study show that measured blood concentrations of especially short-chained testosterone esters are influenced by the type of blood collection device applied. The testosterone ester detection window, however, was comparable.

  3. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    ... depending on the amount of testosterone in your blood during your treatment.Testosterone buccal systems may control your condition but will not cure it. Continue to use testosterone even if you feel well. Do not stop using testosterone without talking to your doctor. If ...

  4. The effect of testosterone and a nutritional supplement on hospital admissions in under-nourished, older people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss and under-nutrition are relatively common in older people, and are associated with poor outcomes including increased rates of hospital admissions and death. In a pilot study of 49 undernourished older, community dwelling people we found that daily treatment for one year with a combination of testosterone tablets and a nutritional supplement produced a significant reduction in hospitalizations. We propose a larger, multicentre study to explore and hopefully confirm this exciting, potentially important finding (NHMRC project grant number 627178). Methods/Design One year randomized control trial where subjects are allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. 200 older community-dwelling, undernourished people [Mini Nutritional Assessment score <24 and either: a) low body weight (body mass index, in kg/m2: <22) or b) recent weight loss (>7.5% over 3 months)]. Hospital admissions, quality-adjusted life years, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, body composition and other variables will be assessed. Discussion The pilot study showed that combined treatment with an oral testosterone and a supplement drink was well tolerated and safe, and reduced the number of people hospitalised and duration of hospital admissions in undernourished, community dwelling older people. This is an exciting finding, as it identifies a treatment which may be of substantial benefit to many older people in our community. We now propose to conduct a multi-centre study to test these findings in a substantially larger subject group, and to determine the cost effectiveness of this treatment. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12610000356066 PMID:22023735

  5. Testosterone therapy has positive effects on anthropometric measures, metabolic syndrome components (obesity, lipid profile, Diabetes Mellitus control), blood indices, liver enzymes, and prostate health indicators in elderly hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Canguven, O; Talib, R A; El Ansari, W; Yassin, D-J; Salman, M; Al-Ansari, A

    2017-03-10

    To alleviate late-onset hypogonadism, testosterone treatment is offered to suitable patients. Although testosterone treatment is commonly given to late-onset hypogonadism patients, there remains uncertainty about the metabolic effects during follow-ups. We assessed the associations between testosterone treatment and wide range of characteristics that included hormonal, anthropometric, biochemical features. Patients received intramuscular 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate for 1 year. Patient anthropometric measurements were undertaken at baseline and at each visit, and blood samples were drawn at each visit, prior to the next testosterone undecanoate. Eighty-eight patients (51.1 ± 13.0 years) completed the follow-up period. Testosterone treatment was associated with significant increase in serum testosterone levels and significant stepladder decrease in body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glycated haemoglobin from baseline values among all patients. There was no significant increase in liver enzymes. There was an increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit, as well as in prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume, but no prostate biopsy intervention was needed for study patients during 1-year testosterone treatment follow-up. Testosterone treatment with long-acting testosterone undecanoate improved the constituents of metabolic syndrome and improved glycated haemoglobin in a stepladder fashion, with no adverse effects.

  6. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, wash them right away with warm, clean water. Call a doctor if your eyes become irritated.Testosterone topical comes in single use tubes and packets and a multiple use pump. The pump releases a specific amount of testosterone ...

  7. Testosterone Therapies.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit

    2016-05-01

    There are numerous testosterone formulations now available, and patients and clinicians should take into account the "4 Cs": cost, compliance, convenience, and concentration levels. Testosterone is a natural contraceptive and should not be used in men trying to achieve a pregnancy. All testosterone gels and solutions have an increased risk of transference, and there should be increased caution when in contact with children and pregnant women.

  8. The effect of combined oral contraception on testosterone levels in healthy women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Y.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) reduce levels of androgen, especially testosterone (T), by inhibiting ovarian and adrenal androgen synthesis and by increasing levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Although this suppressive effect has been investigated by numerous studies over many years, to our knowledge no systematic review concerning this issue had been performed. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of COCs on concentrations of total T, free T and SHBG in healthy women and to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T and free T. METHODS A review of the literature was performed using database searches (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) and all publications (from inception date until July 2012) investigating the effect of COCs on androgen levels in healthy women were considered eligible for selection. Three reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction and critical appraisal. For the meta-analysis, data on total T, free T and SHBG were extracted and combined using random effects analysis. Additional subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate differences between the various types of COCs (e.g. estrogen dose, type of progestin) and the assays used to assess total T or free T. RESULTS A total of 151 records were identified by systematic review and 42 studies with a total of 1495 healthy young women (age range: 18–40 years) were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies were experimental studies and 21 were non-comparative. Pooling of the results derived from all the included papers showed that total T levels significantly decreased during COC use [mean difference (MD) (95% confidence interval, CI) −0.49 nmol/l (−0.55, −0.42); P < 0.001]. Significantly lower levels of free T were also found [relative change (95% CI) 0.39 (0.35, 0.43); P < 0

  9. Effect of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Cognitive Performance and Depression in Men with Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive function and depression in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome. Materials and Methods We carried out a prospective, placebo-controlled trial involving 106 men with total testosterone levels <3.3 ng/mL and symptoms of hypogonadism. Based on whether the patients received TRT (injection with 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate) or a placebo (advice to modify lifestyle), the study population was divided into a TRT group (n=54) and a control group (n=52). Results The age among patients in the TRT and control groups was 56.7±12.6 years and 57.8±11.4 years, respectively (p> 0.05). At baseline, no significant differences between the TRT and control groups were noted regarding serum testosterone or prostate-specific antigen levels, or regarding the scores for aging symptoms (Aging Males' Symptoms scale), erectile function (5-item International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire), cognitive function (Korean Mini-Mental State Examination), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). At 8 months after intervention total serum testosterone levels and erectile function scores had significantly increased (p<0.05), whereas the scores for aging symptoms and depression had significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the TRT group; no significant improvement in any parameters was noted for the control group. Notably, significant improvement in cognitive function was noted among patients with cognitive impairment at baseline (cognitive function score <25) who received TRT. Conclusions TRT may be considered in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome if low testosterone levels are associated with depression or cognitive impairment. PMID:28053949

  10. [Testosterone therapy].

    PubMed

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency.

  11. Low-intermediate dose testosterone replacement therapy by different pharmaceutical preparations improves frailty score in elderly hypogonadal hyperglycaemic patients.

    PubMed

    Strollo, Felice; Strollo, Giovanna; Morè, Massimo; Magni, Paolo; Macchi, Chiara; Masini, Maria Angela; Carucci, Iarba; Celotti, Fabio; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Gentile, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    An open-label follow-up study of low-to-intermediate dose testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) was conducted in 64 overweight patients (aged 65-75 years) with late onset hypogonadism (LOH) and increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Patients were subdivided into four treatment groups: oral testosterone (T) (T undecanoate, 80 mg/d), transmucosal T (60 mg/d), transdermal T (30 mg/d) or no treatment (control), and evaluated at 0 and 6 months. FPG, hemoglobin (Hb), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and total T were measured and the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fitness level (6-min walking test), Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale, handgrip strength and energy expenditure with physical activity (Minnesota questionnaire for Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA)) were evaluated and a "frailty score" (based on: grip strength, gait speed and LTPA) was calculated. T levels increased in all treatment groups; the oral T group had values still in the hypogonadal range (5.9 ± 1.1 nmol/L). PSA and Hb concentrations did not change in any group. BMI, waist circumference, FPG and HOMA-IR improved in all T-treated groups after 6 months, with a greater effect seen with transmucosal and transdermal T compared with oral T. This study indicates that low-to-intermediate dose TRT may be safely utilized in LOH patients to ameliorate somatic and psychological frailty symptoms in association with improved anthropometric and glycometabolic parameters in aging, overweight men with LOH and impaired fasting glucose.

  12. Testosterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnose several conditions in men, women, girls, and boys. Testosterone is the main sex hormone in men, ... such as: Delayed or precocious (early) puberty in boys Decreased sex drive in men and women Erectile ...

  13. Effect of estrogen and testosterone replacement therapy on cognitive fatigue.

    PubMed

    Möller, Marika Christina; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; von Schoultz, Bo; Bartfai, Aniko

    2013-02-01

    Both estrogen and testosterone insufficiency has been associated with reduced psychological well-being including fatigue. However, hormonal replacement studies on fatigue are rare. Therefore, we wanted to study the effect of testosterone and estrogen replacement therapy on cognitive fatigue and the relation between sex hormone levels and cognitive fatigue in oophorectomized women. Fifty women with surgically induced menopause (mean age: 54.0 ± 2.9 years) were randomly assigned to treatment with estradiol valerate in combination with testosterone undecanoate or placebo for 24 weeks in a double-blind cross-over study. Neuropsychological tests and questionnaires were used to assess cognitive fatigue and psychological well-being. Cognitive fatigue was significantly associated to poor self-rated health and higher body mass index but not to general psychological well-being or sex hormone levels. Treatment with testosterone + estrogen had no significant effect on cognitive fatigue but the results indicated a curvilinear relation for hormonal levels. The estrogen/testosterone ratio was more related to functions rather than high or low hormone levels per se. We found that cognitive fatigue is frequent in oophorectomized women and negatively associated to self-perceived health and positively associated to BMI. A well-balanced ratio between estrogen and testosterone levels may be important for cognitive fatigue.

  14. Supplementation with vitamin D does not increase serum testosterone levels in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Jorde, R; Grimnes, G; Hutchinson, M S; Kjærgaard, M; Kamycheva, E; Svartberg, J

    2013-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and testosterone. It is not known if this relation is causal, which in theory could be in both directions. A cross-sectional population based study was designed with pooled data from 3 vitamin D randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed in Tromsø with weight reduction, insulin sensitivity, and depression scores as endpoints, and one testosterone RCT in subjects with low serum testosterone (<11.0 nmol/l) and with body composition as endpoint. Serum 25(OH)D and androgens were measured in 893 males in the cross-sectional part, at baseline and after 6-12 months of supplementation with vitamin D 20 000 IU-40 000 IU per week vs. placebo in the vitamin D RCTs (n=282), and at baseline and after one year treatment with testosterone undecanoate 1 000 mg or placebo injections (at baseline and after 6, 16, 28, and 40 weeks) in the testosterone RCT (n=37). In the cross-sectional study, serum 25(OH)D was found to be a significant and positive predictor of serum testosterone. In the vitamin D RCTs, no significant effect on serum total or free testosterone levels was seen, and in the testosterone RCT no significant effect on serum 25(OH)D was seen. This was unchanged in sub-analyses in subjects with low serum 25(OH)D (or testosterone) levels. In conclusion, in subjects without significant vitamin D deficiency, there is no increase in serum testosterone after high dose vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, in subjects with moderately low serum testosterone levels, substitution with testosterone does not increase serum 25(OH)D.

  15. Effect of orchiectomy and testosterone replacement on lower urinary tract function in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Li; de Groat, William C

    2016-11-01

    Lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms (LUTS), including frequency, urgency, incomplete voiding, and slow stream, are common in both men and women with advancing age. The most common cause for LUTS in aging men is benign prostatic hyperplasia. Some studies have also revealed an inverse association of serum testosterone levels with LUTS; however, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones affect the LUT have not been clarified. In the present study, we examined the effect of orchiectomy and testosterone replacement on LUT function in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Six weeks after bilateral orchiectomy or sham operations and 3 wk after injection of long-acting testosterone undecanoate (100 mg/kg im), transvesical cystometry and external urethral sphincter electromyogram (EUS EMG) recordings were performed under urethane anesthesia. The micturition reflex was elicited in both sham and orchiectomized animals. In orchiectomized rats, volume threshold for inducing micturition decreased by 47.6%; however, contraction amplitude, duration, and voiding efficiency were similar in sham and orchiectomized rats. The active period during EUS EMG bursting was lengthened during micturition in orchiectomized animals. Testosterone treatment, which normalized plasma testosterone levels, reversed these changes but also increased the duration of EUS EMG bursting. Orchiectomy also reduced mean voiding flow rate estimated from the duration of EUS EMG bursting, an effect that was not reversed by testosterone. The results indicate that orchiectomy affects both the active and passive properties of the bladder and urethra, and that many, but not all, of the changes can be reversed by testosterone.

  16. Effect of multiple oral doses of androgenic anabolic steroids on endurance performance and serum indices of physical stress in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Baume, Norbert; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Bagutti, Carlo; Cauderay, Michel; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2006-11-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are doping agents that are mostly used for improvement of strength and muscle hypertrophy. In some sports, athletes reported that the intake of AAS is associated with a better recovery, a higher training load capacity and therefore an increase in physical and mental performances. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, the effect of multiple doses of AAS on different physiological parameters that could indirectly relate the physical state of athletes during a hard endurance training program. In a double blind settings, three groups (n = 9, 8 and 8) were orally administered placebo, testosterone undecanoate or 19-norandrostenedione, 12 times during 1 month. Serum biomarkers (creatine kinase, ASAT and urea), serum hormone profiles (testosterone, cortisol and LH) and urinary catecholamines (noradrenalin, adrenalin and dopamine) were evaluated during the treatment. Running performance was assessed before and after the intervention phase by means of a standardized treadmill test. None of the measured biochemical variables showed significant impact of AAS on physical stress level. Data from exercise testing on submaximal and maximal level did not reveal any performance differences between the three groups or their response to the treatment. In the present study, no effect of multiple oral doses of AAS on endurance performance or bioserum recovery markers was found.

  17. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-08-26

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  18. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  19. Testosterone Therapy in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... softness of the testicles Size of the penis Measurement of testosterone levels Generally, blood levels of testosterone ... levels may be different in different laboratories. Morning measurement (when levels are highest) is recommended. Illness, malnutrition, ...

  20. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Considering testosterone therapy to help you feel younger and more vigorous as you age? ... 01, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/testosterone-therapy/art-20045728 . ...

  1. Assays of Serum Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Herati, Amin S; Cengiz, Cenk; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of male hypogonadism depends on an assessment of the clinical signs and symptoms of hypogonadism and serum testosterone level. Current clinical laboratory testosterone assay platforms include immunoassays and mass spectrometry. Despite significant advances to improve the accuracy and precision of the currently available assays, limited comparability exists between assays at the lower and upper extremes of the testosterone range. Because of this lack of comparability, there is no current gold standard assay for the assessment of total testosterone levels.

  2. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  3. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  4. Testosterone and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Mazur, Allan; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2006-01-01

    Popular perceptions of the effect of testosterone on "manly" behavior are inaccurate. We need to move away from such simplistic notions by treating testosterone as one component along with other physiological, psychological and sociological variables in interactive and reciprocal models of behavior. Several hormones can now be measured in saliva,…

  5. Testosterone and musical talent.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1991-01-01

    Two recently published hypotheses on the biological basis of special talents are discussed in relation to experimental data obtained from musical composers, instrumentalists, painters, and non-musicians, and from adolescent boys and girls with different levels of musical capacities. Both hypotheses assign an important influence to prenatal testosterone effects on the developing brain. Geschwind and Galaburda (1985) predict that subjects with special talents may have anomalous hemispheric dominance for verbal material. This was confirmed experimentally in adolescents and in adults using a dichotic listening task to assess functional lateralization. Hassler and Nieschlag (1989) expect musicians of both sexes to be psychologically androgynous and to have current testosterone levels that differ from sex-typed males and females. Salivary testosterone was measured in adults and in adolescents. Creative musical behavior was associated with very low testosterone values in males, and with high testosterone levels in females. Sexual activity level and motivation did not differ between males with testosterone levels less than or equal to 200 pmol/l and those with greater than 220 pmol/l. We tentatively suggest from our data that, among a complex interaction of biological and social factors, an optimal testosterone range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. Exceeding the range in the course of adolescence may be detrimental for musical creativity in boys.

  6. Monitoring testosterone levels in testosterone-treated men.

    PubMed

    Winters, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Dose adjustment with transdermal testosterone preparations should recognize the variability of serum total testosterone levels between applications and over the course of 24 h. Dose adjustments are also made difficult by between-laboratory assay variability. Low SHBG with obesity and diabetes lowers the total testosterone level, and free or bioavailable testosterone may prove to be a better choice for monitoring the progress and dosing of testosterone-treated men with adult onset hypogonadism.

  7. Testosterone replacement therapy does not promote priapism in hypogonadal men with sickle cell disease: 12-month safety report.

    PubMed

    Morrison, B F; Reid, M; Madden, W; Burnett, A L

    2013-07-01

    Hypogonadism, which is highly prevalent in men with sickle cell disease (SCD), affects quality of life and causes great morbidity. The safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in SCD in relation to priapism episodes is relatively unknown. Our aim was to monitor the safety of TRT in a cohort of seven hypogonadal men with SCD. Testosterone undecanoate (Nebido) 1 g was administered intramuscularly to adult men with homozygous SCD (Hb SS) having hypogonadism [serum total testosterone ≤12.0 nmol/L (346 ng/dL), reference range 12.5-38.1 nmol/L (360-1098 ng/dL)] for 12 months. Serum total testosterone, haemoglobin, haematocrit, renal and liver function tests, glucose and PSA measurements were done at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Trough serum total testosterone, haemoglobin and haematocrit were measured three monthly. Priapism events and adverse drug events were assessed every 3 months. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Androgen Deficiency in the Ageing Male (ADAM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires were administered at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Seven men with a mean age of 34.4 years were treated. Median total testosterone increased from 10.6 to 11.2 nmol/L (p = 0.46). Median serum lactate dehydrogenase levels decreased from 1445 to 1143.5 IU/L (p < 0.05), while all other laboratory indices remained stable. Injection site pain was the most frequently reported adverse event, with no increases in painful crises, hypersensitivity or oedema. After TRT, there was no significant increase in priapism frequency. Median questionnaire scores were increased for the IIEF (46-68, p = 0.018), reduced for ADAM (5.0-2.0, p = 0.016) and unchanged for WHOQOL (98-103, p = 0.086). TRT using testosterone undecanoate with eugonadal intent for hypogonadism appears to be safe in men with SCD. This treatment does not appear to promote priapism occurrences and rather it possibly improves sexual function. Future prospective

  8. Testosterone, thrombophilia, and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Richardson-Royer, Caitlin; Schultz, Reiker; Burger, Tim; Labitue, Fanta; Riaz, Muhammad K; Padda, Jagjit; Bowe, Dedrick; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    We describe thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) pulmonary embolism (PE; n = 9) and hip-knee osteonecrosis (n = 5) that developed after testosterone therapy (median 11 months) in 14 previously healthy patients (13 men and 1 woman; 13 Caucasian and 1 African American), with no antecedent thrombosis and previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. Of the 14 patients, 3 were found to be factor V Leiden heterozygotes, 3 had high factor VIII, 3 had plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 4G4G homozygosity, 2 had high factor XI, 2 had high homocysteine, 1 had low antithrombin III, 1 had the lupus anticoagulant, 1 had high anticardiolipin antibody Immunoglobulin G, and 1 had no clotting abnormalities. In 4 men with thrombophilia, DVT-PE recurred when testosterone was continued despite therapeutic international normalized ratio on warfarin. In 60 men on testosterone, 20 (33%) had high estradiol (E2 >42.6 pg/mL). When exogenous testosterone is aromatized to E2, and E2-induced thrombophilia is superimposed on thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, thrombosis occurs. The DVT-PE and osteonecrosis after starting testosterone are associated with previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. Thrombophilia should be ruled out before administration of exogenous testosterone.

  9. Compounded Testosterone Troches TO OPTIMIZE HEALTH AND THE TESTOSTERONE CONTROVERSY.

    PubMed

    Guth, Michael A S

    2015-01-01

    As men age, testosterone levels progressively fall and inflammatory biomarkers increase. The gradual decline in testosterone production with aging, known as andropause, is common and may have deleterious effects on men including decreased overall well-being, increased sarcopenia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, reduced sexual function, and bone loss. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that an increasing number of men worldwide have begun requesting testosterone replacement therapy from their physicians. Occasionally, physicians discourage male patients from getting testosterone replacement therapy based on a few recent studies indicating the therapy causes cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarctions. Yet, an extensive review of the testosterone replacement therapy literature reveals that the majority of clinical studies show that properly administered testosterone replacement therapy, in which estradiol and dihydrotestosterone levels are also controlled, has no adverse effects on myocardial infarction risk. The current state-of-the-art in testosterone replacement therapy comprises compounded testosterone troches; an aromatase inhibitor, such as generic Anastrazole, to control estradiol levels; and a 5α-reductase inhibitor, such as beneric Dutasteride or Finasteride, to control dihydrotestosterone. Compounded testosterone troches easily raise serum testosterone levels to the optimal range, are highly cost effective at $82 for a 180-day supply, and provide affordable access to testosterone replacement therapy to millions of men requesting it. Yet, the Blue Cross Blue Shield-associated firms have largely denied requests for coverage of compounded medications, including testosterone troches. Despite data demonstrating strong links between testosterone deficiency and significant comorbid conditions (including Type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndrome diseases) as well as the health benefits of testosterone replacement therapy, some physian have

  10. Testosterone and other anabolic steroids as cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Christiana, J; Frishman, W H

    1999-05-01

    There has been much interest in the effect of sex hormones on cardiovascular risk factors and as a therapeutic modality in both men and women. In this article, testosterone is considered as a possible therapy for cardiovascular disease. It has been shown that the level of serum testosterone decreases in men as they age. Healthy men with low testosterone levels have increased cardiovascular risk factors, including high fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apo A-I lipoprotein. Injections of testosterone to raise the levels to midnormal range have been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Testosterone affects the clotting system by increasing thromboxane A (2) receptor activity and platelet aggregability. Testosterone has also been shown to augment the fibrinolytic system and antithrombin III activity. In men, testosterone has been shown to have antianginal effects, and endogenous levels have an inverse relationship to systolic blood pressure. Testosterone can be given in oral, injectable, pellet, and transdermal patch forms. There may be a role in administering testosterone to return men to normal physiologic range who have low serum levels. This treatment increases the risk of prostatic cancer, benign prostatism, erythrocytosis, and edema. No long-term studies of the effects of long-term testosterone replacement have been undertaken, so it is difficult to recommend this treatment as yet, but it is being considered as a therapy for augmenting skeletal muscle strength in patients with congestive heart failure.

  11. Melamine negatively affects testosterone synthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiarui; Cao, Yinan; Zhang, Xinchen; Zhao, Qiling; Bao, Endong; Lv, Yingjun

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have found that melamine causes damage to the testes, epididymis and sperm. However, few studies have investigated the effect of melamine on the synthesis of testosterone, which plays an import role in testicular development and spermatogenesis. In present study, mice were orally administrated with 2, 10 or 50mg/kg of melamine for 28days. In these groups, various abnormalities were observed including disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, an increased necrotic germ cells and sperm abnormalities, and a reduced sperm count. Melamine exposure also decreased the level of serum testosterone and levels of testicular StAR, P450scc and 17β-HSD. In addition, melamine exposure reduced the number of Leydig cells. Taken together, these results indicate that melamine exposure reduces the level of testosterone through down-regulation of StAR and testosterone synthetic enzyme expression and also a decreased number of Leydig cells. This may further affect testicular development and lead to sperm damage.

  12. Testosterone treatment in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Srinivas-Shankar, U; Sharma, D

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone has been used in testicular and hypothalamo-pituitary diseases since the 1940s. There is growing interest in the use of testosterone in aging men, and this has stimulated research into the benefits of male hormone replacement. Testosterone treatment of men with hypogonadism might have beneficial effects on body composition, muscle strength, sexual function, and cognition. There are several modes of administration of the male hormone, with injectable testosterone esters and implanted testosterone pellets being the mainstay of treatment until recently. These preparations are increasingly being replaced by transdermal patches, gels, and long-acting parenteral preparations. Testosterone patches and gels are ideally for elderly men. Treatment with the male hormone is relatively safe, if patients are selected appropriately and monitored carefully. The most important adverse effects are on the prostate. In this review, we briefly discuss the indications, contraindications, and benefits of testosterone treatment. Further, we list the adverse effects, advantages, and disadvantages of various testosterone preparations in elderly men.

  13. Testosterone and Men's Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Among 4,462 former servicemen surveyed, testosterone levels were positively related to not marrying and marital instability, and negatively related to every aspect of marital quality examined. Findings are analyzed in relation to three sociological theories of marital success based on socioeconomic status (educational attainment, income, and…

  14. Effects of estrogen and testosterone treatment on serotonin transporter binding in the brain of surgically postmenopausal women--a PET study.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Halldin, Christer; Borg, Jacqueline; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Nordström, Anna-Lena

    2015-02-01

    Sex hormones and the serotonergic system interact in the regulation of mood, learning, memory and sexual behaviour. However, the mechanisms have not been fully explored. The serotonin transporter protein (5-HTT) regulates synaptic concentrations of serotonin and is a primary target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore how estrogen treatment alone or in combination with testosterone affects 5-HTT binding potentials measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in specific brain regions of postmenopausal women. Ten healthy surgically postmenopausal women (years since oophorectomy 7.5 ± 4.0, mean ± SD) underwent PET examinations at baseline, after three months of estrogen treatment (transdermal estradiol 100 μg/24 hours) and after another three months of combined estrogen and testosterone (testosterone undecanoate 40 mg daily) treatment using the radioligand [(11)C] MADAM developed for examination of the serotonin transporter. The 5-HTT binding potentials decreased significantly in several cortical regions, as well as in limbic and striatal regions after both estrogen treatment alone and combined estrogen/testosterone treatment in comparison to baseline. The observed decrease in 5-HTT could either be due to direct effects on serotonin transporter expression or be the result of indirect adaptation to estrogen and /or testosterone effects on synaptic serotonin levels. Although the mechanism still needs further exploration, the study supports the view that gonadal hormones play a role in serotonin regulated mood disorders.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of gestodene and ethinylestradiol in 14 women during three months of treatment with a new tri-step combination oral contraceptive: serum protein binding of gestodene and influence of treatment on free and total testosterone levels in the serum.

    PubMed

    Kuhnz, W; Baumann, A; Staks, T; Dibbelt, L; Knuppen, R; Jütting, G

    1993-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of gestodene (GEST) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in 14 healthy women (age 18 to 32 years) during a treatment period of three months with a new tri-step combination oral contraceptive (Milvane). Prior to this treatment period, the same women received a single administration of a coated tablet containing 0.1 mg GEST together with 0.03 mg EE2. There was a wash-out phase of one week between both treatments. Following single dose administration, a mean terminal half-life of 18 h was observed for GEST. The total clearance was 0.9 ml x min-1 x kg-1 and the volume of distribution was 84 l. During a treatment cycle, GEST levels in the serum accumulated by a factor of 8 as compared to single dose administration. Steady-state drug levels were reached during the second half of each cycle. As compared to single dose administration, the following changes were observed for GEST at the end of treatment cycles one and three: prolonged terminal half-life (20 to 22 h), reduced total (0.16 ml x min-1 x kg-1) and free clearance (ca. 27 ml x min-1 x kg-1), reduced volume of distribution (ca. 18 l). A concomitant EE2-induced increase in the SHBG concentrations by a factor of three as compared to pretreatment values was observed during a treatment cycle and appeared to be mainly responsible for the changes in the pharmacokinetics of GEST. Marked changes were also seen for the serum protein binding of GEST. After single dose administration, the free fraction of GEST was 1.3% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 69.4% and 29.3%, respectively. At the end of cycle one, the free fraction was only 0.6% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 81.4% and 18.0%, respectively. There was no difference in corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters and in the serum protein binding of GEST at the end of cycles one and three. On the last day of treatment cycles one and three, the AUC(0-4h) values of EE2 were 299.2 and 278.1 pg x ml-1 x h, respectively

  16. An Overview of Testosterone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, O Danny; Tillman, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Millions of men, as a result of the natural aging process, injury, illness, and medical therapies, experience a decline in testosterone levels that necessitate a need for testosterone supplementation therapy (TST). The signs and symptoms of testosterone decline may occur gradually, and low testosterone levels may be misdiagnosed as other medical conditions. Over the past two decades, there has been an increase in testing of testosterone levels and the use of TST. With so many men now on TST, it is essential for health care professionals to know the signs and symptoms, the causes of testosterone decline, how testosterone deficiency is diagnosed, what pathological changes are associated with testosterone decline, and the benefits and risks of TST. In addition, health care providers need to be aware of the various forms of testosterone available as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. This article provides a brief overview of testosterone deficiency, TST treatment options and guidelines, and the risks and benefits associated with of TST.

  17. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kathleen; Miner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV) health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term prospective studies to determine safety. Literature spanning over the past 30 years has suggested that not only is there a possible increased CV risk in men with low levels of testosterone, but the benefits from testosterone therapy may even lower this risk. We review here the recent studies that have garnered such intense scrutiny. This article is intended as a thorough review of testosterone levels and CV risk, providing the clinician with the facts needed to make informed clinical decisions in managing patients with clinical hypogonadism.

  18. Testosterone restoration using enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism: a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Wiehle, Ronald; Cunningham, Glenn R; Pitteloud, Nelly; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Fontenot, Gregory K; Rosner, Michele; Dwyer, Andrew; Podolski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the pharmacodynamic profile of serum total testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in men with secondary hypogonadism after initial and chronic daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate vs transdermal testosterone. To determine the effects of daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate in comparison with transdermal testosterone on other hormones and markers in men with secondary hypogonadism. Patients and Methods This was a randomized, single-blind, two-centre, phase II study to evaluate the effects of three different doses of enclomiphene citrate (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg) vs transdermal testosterone on 24-h LH and total testosterone in otherwise normal healthy men with secondary hypogonadism. Forty-eight men were enrolled in the trial (the intent-to-treat population), but four men had testosterone levels >350 ng/dL at baseline. Forty-four men completed the study per protocol. All subjects enrolled in this trial had serum total testosterone in the low range (<350 ng/dL) and had low to normal LH (<12 IU/L) on at least two occasions. Total testosterone and LH levels were assessed each hour for 24 h to examine the effects at each of three treatment doses of enclomiphene citrate vs a standard dose (5 g) of transdermal testosterone. In the initial profile, total testosterone and LH were determined in a naïve population after a single initial oral or transdermal treatment (day 1). This was contrasted to that seen after 6 weeks of continuous daily oral or transdermal treatment (day 42). The pharmacokinetics of enclomiphene citrate were assessed in a select subpopulation. Serum samples were obtained over the course of the study to determine the levels of various hormones and lipids. Results After 6 weeks of continuous use, the mean (sd) concentration of total testosterone at day 42 was 604 (160) ng/dL for men taking the highest dose of enclomiphene citrate (enclomiphene citrate, 25 mg daily) and 500 (278) ng in those men treated with transdermal

  19. Testosterone Therapy and Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Emily; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Changes in understanding regarding the relationship of androgens and prostate cancer have led to changes in the use of testosterone therapy. The evidence supports a finite ability of androgens to stimulate prostate cancer growth, with a maximum achieved at low testosterone concentrations, called the saturation model. The saturation point corresponds with maximal androgenic stimulation at 250 ng/dL. Evidence is reviewed herein regarding the relationship of testosterone to prostate cancer and the relatively new practice of offering testosterone therapy to men with a history of prostate cancer. Although no prospective controlled trials have been performed, results have been reassuring.

  20. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  1. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  2. A clinical update on female androgen insufficiency--testosterone testing and treatment in women presenting with low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne

    2006-05-01

    The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development.

  3. Dietary Adjuncts for Improving Testosterone Levels in Hypogonadal Males.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Pan, Michael; Arent, Shawn; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of men are being diagnosed with hypogonadism. While many benefit from testosterone supplementation therapy, others who do not meet the criteria for hormone supplementation have turned to dietary adjuncts as a way or gaining improvements in libido, energy, and physical performance. These oral adjunct medications include controlled substances such as androstenedione, androstenediol as well as other "over-the-counter" options like DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and herbal remedies like Tribulus terrestris This review will focus on the use of these adjunct medications in isolation, or in combination with testosterone supplementation therapy as well as the biochemical nature of the supplements, the results of scientific trials as well as the side effects that limit their use. At the end of this review, physicians will have an improved understanding of the popular testosterone adjuncts being used currently as well as the availability of these substances and how they are used.

  4. Effects of chrysin on urinary testosterone levels in human males.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Rossi, Ruggero; Sommavilla, Marco; Ferranti, Chiara; Rossi, Riccardo; Ciculi, Chiara; Gizzi, Stefania; Micheletti, Alessandra; Rufini, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    The equilibrium of sexual hormones in both sexes is controlled in vertebrates by the enzyme aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol, respectively. Flavonoids are diphenolic compounds present in whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables that are strongly implicated as protective in coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. One flavonoid, chrysin, found in high concentrations in honey and propolis, has been shown to be an inhibitor of aromatase enzyme activity. These foods are often used as supplements, particulary by sportsmen for their energetic and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to verify if daily treatment for 21 days with propolis and honey, containing chrysin, would modify urinary concentrations of testosterone in volunteer male subjects. In fact, aromatase inhibition by chrysin could block the conversion of androgens into estrogens with a consequent increase of testosterone, eventually measurable in urine samples. The obtained data did not show alterations of the levels of testosterone in the volunteers after 7, 14, and 21 days of treatment in comparison with baseline values and compared with measurements on the control subjects at the same time. In conclusion, the use of these foods for 21 days at the doses usually taken as oral supplementation does not have effects on the equilibrium of testosterone in human males.

  5. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  6. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  7. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  8. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  9. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments...

  10. Could you have low testosterone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism ... Some symptoms may be a normal part of aging. For example, it is normal to feel less ...

  11. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy withdrawal and re-treatment in hypogonadal elderly men upon obesity, voiding function and prostate safety parameters.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Aksam; Nettleship, Joanne E; Talib, Raidh A; Almehmadi, Yousef; Doros, Gheorge

    2016-01-01

    Whether testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a lifelong treatment for men with hypogonadism remains unknown. We investigated long-term TRT and TRT withdrawal on obesity and prostate-related parameters. Two hundred and sixty-two hypogonadal patients (mean age 59.5) received testosterone undecanoate in 12-week intervals for a maximum of 11 years. One hundred and forty-seven men had TRT interrupted for a mean of 16.9 months and resumed thereafter (Group A). The remaining 115 patients were treated continuously (Group B). Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, C-reactive protein (CRP), aging male symptoms (AMS), International Index of erectile function - erectile function (IIEF-EF) and International Prostate Symptoms Scores (IPSS) were measured over the study period with anthropometric parameters of obesity, including weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Prior to interruption, TRT resulted in improvements in residual voiding volume, bladder wall thickness, CRP, AMS, IIEF-EF, IPSS and obesity parameters while PSA and prostate volume increased. TRT interruption reduced total testosterone to hypogonadal levels in Group A and resulted in worsening of obesity parameters, AMS, IPSS, residual voiding volume and bladder wall thickness, IIEF-EF and PSA while CRP and prostate volume were unchanged until treatment resumed whereby these effects were reversed. TRT interruption results in worsening of symptoms. Hypogonadism may require lifelong TRT.

  12. Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Friedman, Joel; Hafeez, Ahsan; Hassan, Atif; Wang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    We assessed previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis in 11 testosterone (T)-taking men, five of whom developed deep venous thrombosis (DVT), four pulmonary embolism, one spinal cord infarction, and one osteonecrosis 3.5 months (median) after starting T gel (50-160 mg/day) or T intramuscular (50-250 mg/week). In the order of referral because of thrombosis after starting T, thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis was studied in 11 men, and, separately, in two control groups without thrombosis - 44 healthy normal male controls and 39 healthy men taking T. Nine men had DVT or DVT-pulmonary embolism after 3.5 months (median) on T, one spinal cord infarction after 5 days on T, and one had osteonecrosis (knee and then hip osteonecrosis after 6 and 18 months on T). Four of the 11 men (36%) had high factor VIII (≥150%) vs. one of 42 (2%) controls (P = 0.005), and vs. one of 25 (4%) T-controls, (P = 0.023). Of the 11 men, two (18%) had factor V Leiden heterozygosity vs. none of 44 controls, (P = 0.04) and vs. none of 39 T-controls(P = 0.045). Of the 11 men, three had 4G4G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 homozygosity, one prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity, one low protein S, and one high factor XI. When T was continued, second DVT-pulmonary embolism recurred in three of 11 men despite adequate anticoagulation. T interacts with thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis leading to thrombosis. Men sustaining DVT-pulmonary embolism-osteonecrosis on T should be studied for thrombophilia. Continuation of T in thrombophilic men appears to be contraindicated because of recurrent thrombosis despite adequate anticoagulation. Before starting T, to prevent T-associated thrombosis, we recommend measures of factor V Leiden, factor VIII, and the prothrombin gene.

  13. Effects of continuous long-term testosterone therapy (TTh) on anthropometric, endocrine and metabolic parameters for up to 10 years in 115 hypogonadal elderly men: real-life experience from an observational registry study.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A A; Nettleship, J; Almehmadi, Y; Salman, M; Saad, F

    2016-09-01

    Subnormal levels of testosterone are associated with significant negative health consequences, with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The numbers of studies reporting on the benefits of normalisation of testosterone is increasing but longer-term data on (elderly) men receiving testosterone treatment are almost nonexistent. In this single-centre, cumulative, prospective, registry study, 115 hypogonadal men (mean age 59.05 years) received injections with testosterone undecanoate in 12-week intervals for up to 10 years. Waist circumference, body weight and mean BMI dropped progressively with statistical significance versus previous year for 7 years and, respectively, 8 years for weight and body mass index. Similarly, fasting glucose displayed a significant decrease after the first year continuing to decrease thereafter. A decline in HbA1c , from 6.4% to 5.6% (mean <6%), was observed from year 2 on, together with a decrease in the ratio of triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, with an increase in HDL levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio and non-HDL cholesterol declined significantly. A decrease was also observed in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with a decrease in levels of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein. No major adverse cardiovascular events were observed throughout the study.

  14. Testosterone, thrombophilia, thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Joel; Glueck, Charles J; Prince, Marloe; Riaz, Rashid; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    We screened previously undiagnosed thrombophilia (V Leiden-prothrombin mutations, Factors VIII and XI, homocysteine, and antiphospholipid antibody [APL] syndrome) in 15 men and 2 women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) or osteonecrosis 7 months (median) after starting testosterone therapy (TT), gel (30-50 mg/d), intramuscular (100-400 mg/wk), or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (6000 IU/wk). Thrombophilia was studied in 2 healthy control groups without thrombosis (97 normal controls, 31 subjects on TT) and in a third control group (n = 22) with VTE, not on TT. Of the 17 cases, 76% had ≥1 thrombophilia vs 19% of 97 normal controls (P < 0.0001), vs 29% of 31 TT controls (P = 0.002). Cases differed from normal controls by Factor V Leiden (12% vs 0%, P = 0.021), by high Factor VIII (>150%) (24% vs 7%, P = 0.058), by high homocysteine (29% vs 5%, P = 0.007), and from both normal and TT controls for APL syndrome (18% vs 2%, P = 0.023, vs 0%, P = 0.04). Despite adequate anticoagulation with TT continued after the first deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus (DVT-PE), 1 man sustained 3 DVT-PEs 5, 8, and 11 months later and a second man had 2 DVT-PEs 1 and 2 months later. Of the 10 cases with serum T measured on TT, 6 (60%) had supranormal T (>800 ng/dL) and of 9 with estradiol measured on TT, 7 (78%) had supranormal levels (>42.6 pg/mL). TT interacts with thrombophilia leading to thrombosis. TT continuation in thrombophilic men is contraindicated because of recurrent thrombi despite anticoagulation. Screening for thrombophilia before starting TT should identify subjects at high risk for VTE with an adverse the risk to benefit ratio for TT.

  15. Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate health.

    PubMed

    Polackwich, A Scott; Ostrowski, Kevin A; Hedges, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    There is an emerging evolution in the understanding of the relationship between the prostate and testosterone. It has long been generally believed that with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), increasing serum testosterone levels led to prostatic growth and worsening of voiding dysfunction and associated complications. A new theory, the Saturation Model of Testosterone and its effect on the Prostate has gained attention. This theory suggests that the prostate's response to increasing levels of serum testosterone reaches a limit beyond which there is minimal effect. This model predicts that testosterone replacement therapy occurs above this saturation point, and replacing testosterone to eugonadal levels should not worsen prostate related benign disease. We evaluated the recent published data, with an emphasis on clinical studies done within the last 3 years, for the effects of testosterone supplementation on benign prostatic disease.

  16. Testosterone replacement in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Morley, J E

    2001-01-01

    This article examines in detail the present state of the art concerning androgen deficiency in aging males. There is increasing evidence that testosterone replacement in hypogonadal older males can result in an improvement in quality of life. The major effects of testosterone are on libido, muscles, bone, and cognition. Less information is available concerning the role of testosterone in postmenopausal women, but testosterone replacement may have a role to play in treating disorders of libido and the sarcopenia that occurs at menopause.

  17. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  18. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-07-02

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways.

  19. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  20. Effects of ciprofloxacin on testosterone and cortisol concentrations in healthy males.

    PubMed Central

    Waite, N M; Edwards, D J; Arnott, W S; Warbasse, L H

    1989-01-01

    Several inhibitors of oxidative drug metabolism inhibit the synthesis of endogenous compounds such as testosterone and cortisol. Since ciprofloxacin is a potent inhibitor of the metabolism of a number of drugs, we studied its effect on serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations in eight healthy male subjects. Blood samples were collected over a 12-h period under baseline conditions and following the first and final doses of ciprofloxacin (500 mg orally every 12 h for 4 days). No significant differences in concentrations or area under the concentration-time curve were found when baseline values were compared with those observed for either testosterone or cortisol after ciprofloxacin administration. These results suggest that ciprofloxacin is unlikely to have either antiandrogenic side effects or clinical utility in lowering testosterone or cortisol concentration. PMID:2610498

  1. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Stephen E; Mulligan, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and with poor cognitive performance. Testosterone replacement in older men has produced benefits, but not consistently so. The inconsistency may arise from differences in the dose and duration of testosterone treatment, as well as selection of the target population. Generally, studies reporting anabolic responses to testosterone have employed higher doses of testosterone for longer treatment periods and have targeted older men whose baseline circulating bioavailable testosterone levels were low. Most studies of testosterone replacement have reported anabolic that are modest compared to what can be achieved with resistance exercise training. However, several strategies currently under evaluation have the potential to produce greater anabolic effects and to do so in a safe manner. At this time, testosterone therapy can not be recommended for the general population of older men. Older men who are hypogonadal are at greater risk for the catabolic effects associated with a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. Future research is likely to reveal benefits of testosterone therapy for some of these special populations. Testosterone therapy produces a number of adverse effects, including worsening of sleep apnea, gynecomastia, polycythemia and elevation of PSA. Efficacy and adverse effects should be assessed frequently throughout the course of therapy. PMID:18225456

  2. Testosterone perturbs epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kao, J S; Garg, A; Mao-Qiang, M; Crumrine, D; Ghadially, R; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

    2001-03-01

    Although there are no known gender-related differences in permeability barrier function in adults, estrogens accelerate whereas testosterone retards barrier development in fetal skin, and male fetuses demonstrate slower barrier development than female littermates. Moreover, prenatal administration of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, equalizes developmental rates in male and female fetuses. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of changes in testosterone on barrier homeostasis in adult murine and human skin. Hypogonadal mice (whether by castration or by treatment with systemic flutamide) displayed significantly faster barrier recovery at 3, 6, and 12 h than did controls, and testosterone replacement slowed barrier recovery in castrated mice. Moreover, testosterone directly effects the skin, as topical flutamide also accelerated barrier recovery in normal male mice. These findings appear to be of physiologic significance, since prepubertal male mice (age 5 wk) displayed accelerated barrier recovery in comparison with adult postpubertal (11 wk) males. These studies also appear to be relevant for humans, as a hypopituitary human subject demonstrated repeated changes in barrier recovery in parallel with peaks and nadirs in serum testosterone levels during intermittent testosterone replacement. Mechanistic studies showed that differences in epidermal lipid synthesis do not account for the testosterone-induced functional alterations. Instead, epidermal lamellar body (LB) formation and secretion both decrease, resulting in decreased extracellular lamellar bilayers in testosterone-replete animals. These studies demonstrate that fluctuations in testosterone modulate barrier function, and that testosterone repletion can have negative consequences for permeability barrier homeostasis.

  3. Testosterone therapy and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Rodriguez, Katherine M.; Nguyen, Taylor M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of exogenous testosterone to treat hypogonadism in the men with a history of prostate cancer (CaP) remains controversial due to fears of cancer recurrence or progression. Due to the detrimental impact of hypogonadism on patient quality of life, recent work has examined the safety of testosterone therapy (TTh) in men with a history of CaP. In this review, we evaluate the literature with regards to the safety of TTh in men with a history of CaP. TTh results in improvements in quality of life with little evidence of biochemical recurrence or progression in men with a history of CaP, or de novo cancer in unaffected men. An insufficient amount of evidence is currently available to truly demonstrate the safe use of TTh in men with low risk CaP. In men with high-risk cancer, more limited data suggest that TTh may be safe, but these findings remain inconclusive. Despite the historic avoidance of TTh in men with a history of CaP, the existing body of evidence largely supports the safe and effective use of testosterone in these men, although additional study is needed before unequivocal safety can be demonstrated. PMID:28078223

  4. Fulfilling Desire: Evidence for negative feedback between men’s testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number

    PubMed Central

    Puts, David A.; Pope, Lauramarie E.; Hill, Alexander K.; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A.; Welling, Lisa L. M.; Wheatley, John R.; Breedlove, S. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men’s sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgen and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. PMID:25644313

  5. Metformin Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats: A Pharmacological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Hala H; Esmat, Ahmed; Atawia, Reem T; Shoieb, Sherif M; Mosli, Hisham A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2015-10-23

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is uncontrolled proliferation of prostate tissue. Metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic agent, possesses anticancer activity through induction of apoptotic signaling and cell cycle arrest. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of metformin against experimentally-induced BPH in rats. Treatment with 500 and 1000 mg/kg metformin orally for 14 days significantly inhibited testosterone-mediated increase in the prostate weight &prostate index (prostate weight/body weight [mg/g]) and attenuated the pathological alterations induced by testosterone. Mechanistically, metformin significantly protected against testosterone-induced elevation of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and decrease of estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression, with no significant effect of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase expression. It decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R and protein expression ratio of pAkt/total Akt induced by testosterone. Furthermore, it significantly ameliorated testosterone-induced reduction of mRNA expression Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, P21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and AMPK [PT-172] activity. In conclusion, these findings elucidate the effectiveness of metformin in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. These results could be attributed, at least partly, to its ability to enhance expression ratio of ER-β/ER-α, decrease IGF-1, IGF-1R and pAkt expressions, increase P21, PTEN, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and activate AMPK with a subsequent inhibition of prostate proliferation.

  6. Testosterone Regulates Bone Response to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, J. P.; Herrera, B. S.; Coimbra, L. S.; Stephens, D. N.; Rossa, C.; Spolidorio, L. C.; Kantarci, A.; Van Dyke, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the alveolar bone response to testosterone and the impact of Resolvin D2 (RvD2) on testosterone-induced osteoblast function. For the in vivo characterization, 60 male adult rats were used. Treatments established sub-physiologic (L), normal (N), or supra-physiologic (H) concentrations of testosterone. Forty rats were subjected to orchiectomy; 20 rats received periodical testosterone injections while 20 rats received testicular sham-operation. Four weeks after the surgeries, 10 rats in each group received a subgingival ligature around the lower first molars to induce experimental periodontal inflammation and bone loss. In parallel, osteoblasts were differentiated from neonatal mice calvariae and treated with various doses of testosterone for 48 h. Cell lysates and conditioned media were used for the determination of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. Micro-computed tomography linear analysis demonstrated that bone loss was significantly increased for both L and H groups compared to animals with normal levels of testosterone. Gingival IL-1β expression was increased in the L group (p < 0.05). Ten nM testosterone significantly decreased osteocalcin, RANKL, and OPG levels in osteoblasts; 100 nM significantly increased the RANKL:OPG ratio. RvD2 partially reversed the impact of 10 nM testosterone on osteocalcin, RANKL, and OPG. These findings suggest that both L and H testosterone levels increase inflammatory bone loss in male rats. While low testosterone predominantly increases the inflammatory response, high testosterone promotes a higher osteoblast-derived RANKL:OPG ratio. The proresolving mediator RvD2 ameliorates testosterone-derived downregulation of osteocalcin, RANKL, and OPG in primary murine osteoblasts suggesting a direct role of inflammation in osteoblast function. PMID:24526374

  7. Suppression of human spermatogenesis by testosterone implants.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Conway, A J; Boylan, L M

    1992-11-01

    Hormonally induced azoospermia is an effective, reversible form of male contraception; however, some men treated with weekly im testosterone enanthate (TE) injections fail to become azoospermic. As weekly injections cause widely fluctuating and supraphysiological testosterone levels, we tested the hypothesis that more stable, physiological testosterone levels would consistently produce azoospermia. Using a depot testosterone formulation which provides stable, physiological range testosterone levels for up to 6 months, we studied nine men before and after insertion of six 200 mg testosterone implants under the abdominal wall skin and compared the results with 38 men treated in a previous study with weekly im injections of 200 mg TE. Testosterone implants suppressed sperm output to near-azoospermia between the second to fourth postimplant months returning to normal by the sixth postimplant month. The fall in sperm output at the first month was greater after testosterone implants than TE injections (58% vs. 17%, P = 0.011) but similar proportions of men became azoospermic (5/9 vs. 25/38) or severely oligozoospermic (< 1 million/ml; 9/9 vs. 37/38). Plasma testosterone and estradiol levels remained mostly within the eugonadal range after implants but were markedly supraphysiological during TE injections. Both treatments suppressed immunoreactive LH and FSH to undetectable levels by ultrasensitive fluoroimmunoassay. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels were decreased and PRL levels increased by TE injections but neither was changed by testosterone implants. Prostate-specific antigen demonstrated a small rise of marginal significance (P = 0.065) after testosterone implants. Fewer men experienced acne after implants (0/9 vs. 25/38, p = 0.0004). Therefore a depot testosterone preparation with quasi-zero-order release demonstrates higher dose efficiency with similar (but not uniform) efficacy at inducing azoospermia but may cause fewer androgenic side-effects than weekly TE

  8. Delivering enhanced testosterone replacement therapy through nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Ferrati, Silvia; Nicolov, Eugenia; Bansal, Shyam; Zabre, Erika; Geninatti, Thomas; Ziemys, Arturas; Hudson, Lee; Ferrari, Mauro; Goodall, Randal; Khera, Mohit; Palapattu, Ganesh; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2015-02-18

    Primary or secondary hypogonadism results in a range of signs and symptoms that compromise quality of life and requires life-long testosterone replacement therapy. In this study, an implantable nanochannel system is investigated as an alternative delivery strategy for the long-term sustained and constant release of testosterone. In vitro release tests are performed using a dissolution set up, with testosterone and testosterone:2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TES:HPCD) 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratio complexes release from the implantable nanochannel system and quantify by HPLC. 1:2 TES:HPCD complex stably achieve 10-15 times higher testosterone solubility with 25-30 times higher in vitro release. Bioactivity of delivered testosterone is verified by LNCaP/LUC cell luminescence. In vivo evaluation of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and multiplex assay is performed in castrated Sprague-Dawley rats over 30 d. Animals are treated with the nanochannel implants or degradable testosterone pellets. The 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implant exhibits sustained and clinically relevant in vivo release kinetics and attains physiologically stable plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that by providing long-term steady release 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implants may represent a major breakthrough for the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  9. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  10. Effects of varicocelectomy on serum testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is most often surgically repaired due to male infertility, however, has recently been linked to low serum testosterone. This paper serves to review the current literature regarding varicocele and its subsequent repair on serum testosterone. Twenty-eight human studies were identified with fifteen showing improved serum testosterone after repair. The majority of the studies that demonstrated improvement had preoperative testosterone levels that were low or below normal. Additionally, multiple well-designed studies with control groups not undergoing surgical repair demonstrated significant difference between groups. This improvement was less observed in studies with normal preoperative serum testosterone. A majority of these patients studied were presenting for infertility. It remains to be determined if these findings can be reproduced in men without infertility. The findings suggest that microsurgical varicocele repair can improve serum testosterone in men with low levels preoperatively in appropriately counseled men. It remains to be seen whether varicocele repair can help prevent the development of low testosterone in the future or which patients are at risk of developing low testosterone due to varicocele. PMID:28078218

  11. Andropause. Testosterone replacement therapy for aging men.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the rationale for treating symptomatic aging men whose testosterone levels are mildly reduced or low-normal with testosterone replacement therapy. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Large-scale multicentre prospective studies on the value of treating andropausal men with hormone therapy do not exist because the whole area of hormone therapy is barely 10 years old. Evidence presented is based on physiologic studies, particularly studies in which treatment has been assessed. These were largely uncontrolled open studies. Studies to date report positive responses to testosterone treatment with very few serious side effects. MAIN MESSAGE: Physicians should consider hypoandrogenism if male patients complain of loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, weakness, fatigue, lethargy, loss of motivation, or mood swings. Less obvious associations with reduced levels of testosterone are anemia and osteoporosis. The main cause of reduced testosterone production is primary gonadal insufficiency, but secondary causes, such as hypothalamic-pituitary disease, should be considered. Evidence shows that most men treated with testosterone will feel better about themselves and their lives. CONCLUSION: Andropause is a term of convenience describing a complex of symptoms in aging men who have low testosterone levels. Physicians should be aware of its existence, should consider ordering tests for men who have symptoms, and should treat carefully selected patients whose serum testosterone levels are low. PMID:11212438

  12. Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... RL, Barnes RB, Ehrmann DA. Hyperandrogenism, hirsuitism, and polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser ... Hypopituitarism Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test Ovarian cancer Polycystic ovary syndrome Precocious puberty Prolactinoma Testicular cancer Testicular failure Review ...

  13. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  14. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters.

  15. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies.

  16. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  17. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N

    2016-09-08

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition.

  18. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  19. Testosterone replacement therapy and voiding dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Baas, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) represents an increasing popular treatment option for men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Because of unsubstantiated beliefs of testosterone’s effect on the prostate, the FDA has recently placed a warning on testosterone products, stating that TRT may worsen benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Within this review article we have demonstrated the current understanding of the physiology of testosterone and its relationship with prostatic and lower urinary tract physiology. The current evidence suggests that not only does TRT not worsen lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but that hypogonadism itself is an important risk factor for LUTS/BPH. PMID:28078221

  20. Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, P.J.; Bhasin, S.; Cunningham, G.R.; Matsumoto, A.M.; Stephens-Shields, A.J.; Cauley, J.A.; Gill, T.M.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Swerdloff, R.S.; Wang, C.; Ensrud, K.E.; Lewis, C.E.; Farrar, J.T.; Cella, D.; Rosen, R.C.; Pahor, M.; Crandall, J.P.; Molitch, M.E.; Cifelli, D.; Dougar, D.; Fluharty, L.; Resnick, S.M.; Storer, T.W.; Anton, S.; Basaria, S.; Diem, S.J.; Hou, X.; Mohler, E.R.; Parsons, J.K.; Wenger, N.K.; Zeldow, B.; Landis, J.R.; Ellenberg, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum testosterone concentrations decrease as men age, but benefits of raising testosterone levels in older men have not been established. METHODS We assigned 790 men 65 years of age or older with a serum testosterone concentration of less than 275 ng per deciliter and symptoms suggesting hypoandrogenism to receive either testosterone gel or placebo gel for 1 year. Each man participated in one or more of three trials — the Sexual Function Trial, the Physical Function Trial, and the Vitality Trial. The primary outcome of each of the individual trials was also evaluated in all participants. RESULTS Testosterone treatment increased serum testosterone levels to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age. The increase in testosterone levels was associated with significantly increased sexual activity, as assessed by the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire (P<0.001), as well as significantly increased sexual desire and erectile function. The percentage of men who had an increase of at least 50 m in the 6-minute walking distance did not differ significantly between the two study groups in the Physical Function Trial but did differ significantly when men in all three trials were included (20.5% of men who received testosterone vs. 12.6% of men who received placebo, P=0.003). Testosterone had no significant benefit with respect to vitality, as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue scale, but men who received testosterone reported slightly better mood and lower severity of depressive symptoms than those who received placebo. The rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic men 65 years of age or older, raising testosterone concentrations for 1 year from moderately low to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age had a moderate benefit with respect to sexual function and some benefit with respect to mood and depressive symptoms but no benefit with respect to vitality or

  1. Testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency: Are we beyond the point of no return?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency was introduced in the early 1940s, utilization of this effective treatment approach in hypogonadal men is met with considerable skepticism and resistance. Indeed, for decades, the fear that testosterone may cause prostate cancer has hampered clinical progress in this field. Nevertheless, even after considerable knowledge was acquired that this fear is unsubstantiated, many in the medical community remain hesitant to utilize this therapeutic approach to treat men with hypogonadism. As the fears concerning prostate cancer have subsided, a new controversy regarding use of testosterone therapy and increase in cardiovascular disease was introduced. Although the new controversy was based on one ill-fated clinical trial, one meta-analysis with studies that utilized unapproved formulation in men with liver cirrhosis, and two retrospective studies with suspect or nonvalidated statistical methodologies and database contaminations, the flames of such controversy were fanned by the lay press and academics alike. In this review we discuss the adverse effect of testosterone deficiency and highlight the numerous proven benefits of testosterone therapy on men's health and debunk the myth that testosterone therapy increases cardiovascular risk. Ultimately, we believe that there is considerable scientific and clinical evidence to suggest that testosterone therapy is safe and effective with restoration of physiological levels in men with testosterone deficiency, irrespective of its etiology. PMID:27847912

  2. TV Ads Help Drive Testosterone Supplement Sales

    MedlinePlus

    ... examined the ratings of these advertisements in 75 market areas across the United States, and compared them ... 2 million men with private insurance in those markets had themselves tested for low testosterone, while more ...

  3. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety.

  4. Serum Testosterone Levels in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnani, Prem D.; Dwyer, Margretta

    1986-01-01

    Reports that with the increase in diagnosis of offenders across the nation, physicians and psychiatric personnel need to be aware of low testosterone as a possible indicator of hypo-sexuality and possible concurrent offending behavior. (Author/ABB)

  5. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency.

    PubMed

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD.

  6. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD. PMID:25532575

  7. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  8. Effect of low-dose testosterone treatment on androgen regulated proteins prostate specific antigen and sex hormone binding globulin in short prepubertal boys: lack of initiation of puberty.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M K; Brown, D C; Faiman, C; Kelnar, C J H; Wu, F C W

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of testosterone undecanoate (TU) treatment in constitutional delay of growth (CHD) is well recognized. We investigated its role in initiating puberty. Sera taken prior to, just after 6 months on and after 6 months off treatment with TU (20 mg daily) were analyzed from eight boys and compared to results from eight boys receiving placebo. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), sleep-entrained pulsatility and mean overnight luteinizing hormone (mLH), and morning testosterone (T) levels were measured. Free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Testicular volume (TV) and growth parameters were assessed. During treatment, there was a significant increase in height velocity in boys taking TU vs placebo (mean +/- SD: 5.7 +/- 2.0 vs 3.2 +/- 0.9 cm/year, p = 0.008) but no significant differences were observed in regard to LH pulsatility, mLH, T, SHBG, FAI, PSA and TV values. PSA was detectable in four patients (two each in the TU and placebo groups) at 6 months off treatment indicating pubertal progression. Among the hormones measured, only pretreatment mLH levels were significantly higher in the PSA-positive patients compared to 12 PSA-negative patients (mean +/- SEM: 1.5 +/- 0.39 vs 0.37 +/- 0.06 IU/l, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TU treatment shows no significant effect on initiation or advancement of puberty despite its resultant growth acceleration. Among the hormonal changes studied, mLH levels were the earliest indicator of pubertal initiation.

  9. Testosterone replacement therapy in obese males.

    PubMed

    Drewa, Tomasz; Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota; Chlosta, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Controversy surrounds testosterone replacement therapy in obese ageing due to no generally accepted lower limits of normal testosterone level and high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the ageing male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Late onset hypogonadism is a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age, often coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome. High fat and carbohydrates (fructose) consumption is responsible for development of obesity and metabolic syndrome which is one of risk factors for hypogonadism in older men. High fructose intake has been shown to cause dyslipidemia and to impair hepatic insulin sensitivity. Obesity and lack of physical activity negatively influence testosterone level. Low testosterone level should be regarded as an effect of obesity, but reverse relationship has not been proved yet. The management of late-onset hypogonadism symptoms has to be treated by a change of a life style and prevented with healthy nutrition and physical activity. The question related to rational indications for testosterone replacement therapy in obese males seems to be still actual.

  10. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  11. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  12. Effects of dutasteride on serum free-testosterone and clinical significance of testosterone changes.

    PubMed

    Enatsu, N; Miyake, H; Haraguchi, T; Chiba, K; Fujisawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-two patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were being treated with dutasteride participated in this study. Prostate volume, uroflowmetry, blood tests, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were determined before and 1, 3 and 12 months after the treatment with dutasteride. Patients were divided into two groups based on changes in serum testosterone after 1 month: Group A (>20% increase; n = 33) or Group B (<20% increase; n = 29). Serum free-testosterone levels were 20.4% higher after 1 month and remained constant thereafter. When Groups A and B were compared, baseline free-testosterone levels were significantly lower in Group A, IPSS QOL was significantly better in Group A at 3 and 12 months, and no significant differences were observed in uroflowmetry, prostate volume, IPSS or IIEF-5. A univariate analysis identified serum free-testosterone levels and the IPSS storage symptom subscore as significant factors influencing IPSS QOL at 12 months, and only the IPSS storage symptom subscore appeared to be independently related to IPSS QOL. These results indicate that dutasteride increases serum free-testosterone levels in BPH patients, particularly with low baseline free-testosterone levels, and the increase in free-testosterone may have further add-on impacts on their urinary tract symptoms.

  13. Annatto Tocotrienol Improves Indices of Bone Static Histomorphometry in Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Abdul-Majeed, Saif; Mohd. Fozi, Nur Farhana; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on indices of bone static histomorphometry in orchidectomized rats. Forty male rats were randomized into baseline (BL), sham (SH), orchidectomized (ORX), annatto tocotrienol-treated (AnTT) and testosterone enanthate-treated (TE) groups. The BL group was sacrificed upon receipt. All rats except the SH group underwent bilateral orchidectomy. Annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg body weight was administered orally daily to the AnTT group for eight weeks. Testosterone enanthate at 7 mg/kg body weight was administered intramuscularly once weekly for eight weeks to the TE group. The rat femurs were collected for static histomorphometric analysis upon necropsy. The results indicated that the ORX group had significantly higher osteoclast surface and eroded surface, and significantly lower osteoblast surface, osteoid surface and osteoid volume compared to the SH group (p < 0.05). Annatto tocotrienol and testosterone enanthate intervention prevented all these changes (p < 0.05). The efficacy of annatto tocotrienol was on par with testosterone enanthate. In conclusion, annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg can prevent the imbalance in bone remodeling caused by increased osteoclast and bone resorption, and decreased osteoblast and bone formation. This serves as a basis for the application of annatto tocotrienol in hypogonadal men as an antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:25389899

  14. Off label therapies for testosterone replacement

    PubMed Central

    DiGiorgio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of hypogonadism has been steadily increasing over the last few years. Exogenous testosterone has been the standard treatment for hypogonadal men, but is associated with suppression of spermatogenesis as well as other possible adverse effects. There are other medications, currently considered “off label” for androgen replenishment, that exert their effect through modulation of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis. These medications increase endogenous testosterone levels and offer a different therapeutic approach. This review will focus on these alternative (off-label) therapies for androgen replacement in men. PMID:28078215

  15. Skin permeation of testosterone and its ester derivatives in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lee, C H; Kim, D D

    2000-04-01

    To establish the optimum conditions for improving the transdermal delivery of testosterone, we studied the relationship between the lipophilicity of testosterone ester derivatives and the rat skin permeation rate of testosterone. We performed a rat skin permeation study of testosterone and its commercially available ester derivatives, testosterone hemisuccinate, testosterone propionate and testosterone-17beta-cypionate, using an ethanol/water co-solvent system. The aqueous solubility and rat skin permeation rate of each drug, saturated in various compositions of an ethanol/water system, was determined at 37 degrees C. The aqueous solubility of testosterone and its ester derivatives increased exponentially as the volume fraction of ethanol increased up to 100% (v/v). The stability of testosterone propionate in both the skin homogenate and the extract was investigated to observe the enzymatic degradation during the skin permeation process. Testosterone propionate was found to be stable in the isotonic buffer solution and in the epidermis-side extract for 10h at 37 degrees C. However, in the skin homogenate and the dermis-side extract testosterone propionate rapidly degraded producing testosterone, implying that testosterone propionate rapidly degraded to testosterone during the skin permeation process. The steady-state permeation rates of testosterone in the ethanol/water systems increased exponentially as the volume fraction of ethanol increased, reaching the maximum value (2.69+/-0.69 microg cm(-2)h(-1)) at 70% (v/v) ethanol in water, and then decreasing with further increases in the ethanol volume fraction. However, in the skin permeation study with testosterone esters saturated in 70% (v/v) ethanol in water system, testosterone esters were hardly detected in the receptor solution, probably due to the rapid degradation to testosterone during the skin permeation process. Moreover, a parabolic relationship was observed between the permeation rate of testosterone and

  16. Testosterone deficiency syndrome: benefits, risks, and realities associated with testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Jacob; Barkin, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome, which has sometimes been termed age-related or late-onset hypogonadism, is a syndrome characterized by both clinical manifestations as well as a biochemical deficiency of testosterone. This condition is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, accounting for billions of dollars in health care costs. There is some evidence that suggests that restoring testosterone levels in these individuals may help to manage or delay progression of the associated morbidities. Furthermore, despite controversies in the literature and media, testosterone replacement has proven to be quite safe in most men with minimal if any adverse effects when dosing to achieve the eugonadal range. It is nevertheless very important for clinicians to be aware of the possible risks and contraindications of treatment to ensure proper patient selection and appropriate monitoring.

  17. Pharmacology of testosterone replacement therapy preparations

    PubMed Central

    Shoskes, Jennifer J.; Wilson, Meghan K.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is to return serum testosterone levels to within physiologic range and improve symptoms in hypogonadal men. Some of the symptoms aimed to improve upon include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility, hot flashes, depressed mood, and loss of muscle mass or hair. Clinical use of testosterone for replacement therapy began approximately 70 years ago. Over the decades, numerous preparations and formulations have been developed primarily focusing on different routes of delivery and thus pharmacokinetics (PKs). Currently the routes of delivery approved for use by the United States Food and Drug Administration encompasses buccal, nasal, subdermal, transdermal, and intramuscular (IM). Many factors must be considered when a clinician is choosing the most correct formulation for a patient. As this decision depends highly on the patient, active patient participation is important for effective selection. The aim of this review is to describe and compare all testosterone preparations currently available and approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Areas of focus will include pharmacology, PKs, adverse effects, and specifics related to individual delivery routes. PMID:28078214

  18. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  19. Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BI-CHENG; JIN, LI-LI; YANG, YI-FANG; LI, KUN; PENG, DAN-MING

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment. PMID:24944593

  20. Metformin Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats: A Pharmacological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Hala H.; Esmat, Ahmed; Atawia, Reem T.; Shoieb, Sherif M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is uncontrolled proliferation of prostate tissue. Metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic agent, possesses anticancer activity through induction of apoptotic signaling and cell cycle arrest. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of metformin against experimentally-induced BPH in rats. Treatment with 500 and 1000 mg/kg metformin orally for 14 days significantly inhibited testosterone-mediated increase in the prostate weight & prostate index (prostate weight/body weight [mg/g]) and attenuated the pathological alterations induced by testosterone. Mechanistically, metformin significantly protected against testosterone-induced elevation of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and decrease of estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression, with no significant effect of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase expression. It decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R and protein expression ratio of pAkt/total Akt induced by testosterone. Furthermore, it significantly ameliorated testosterone–induced reduction of mRNA expression Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, P21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and AMPK [PT-172] activity. In conclusion, these findings elucidate the effectiveness of metformin in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. These results could be attributed, at least partly, to its ability to enhance expression ratio of ER-β/ER-α, decrease IGF-1, IGF-1R and pAkt expressions, increase P21, PTEN, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and activate AMPK with a subsequent inhibition of prostate proliferation. PMID:26492952

  1. Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.

    PubMed

    Ponzetto, Federico; Mehl, Florence; Boccard, Julien; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial; Nicoli, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. The validated methods were then used for the analyses of serum samples collected from 19 healthy male volunteers after oral and transdermal testosterone administration. Results from unsupervised multiway analysis allowed variations of target analytes to be assessed simultaneously over a 96-h time period. Except for alteration of concentration values due to the circadian rhythm, which concerns mainly corticosteroids, DHEA, and progesterone, significant variations linked to the oral and transdermal testosterone administration were observed for testosterone, DHT, and androstenedione. As a second step of analysis, the longitudinal monitoring of these biomarkers using intra-individual thresholds showed, in comparison to urine, significant improvements in the detection of testosterone administration, especially for volunteers with del/del genotype for phase II UGT2B17 enzyme, not sensitive to the main urinary marker, T/E ratio. A substantial extension of the detection window after transdermal testosterone administration was also observed in serum matrix. The longitudinal follow-up proposed in this study represents a first example of 'blood steroid profile' in doping control

  2. Transmucosal delivery of testosterone in rabbits using novel bi-layer mucoadhesive wax-film composite disks.

    PubMed

    Jay, Steven; Fountain, William; Cui, Zhengrong; Mumper, Russell J

    2002-09-01

    Testosterone exhibits very low oral bioavailability because of its low aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel bi-layer mucoadhesive wax-film composite (WFC), and to test the relative bioavailability of testosterone via the buccal route in rabbits. The release rate of testosterone from optimal WFCs (3/8-in. diameter) per unit surface area was 5.6 microg x cm(2) x mL(-1) x min(-1) and was zero-order. Bi-layer WFCs (average weight of 14 +/- 2.6 mg and thickness of 186 +/- 34 microns) containing 4 mg of testosterone were applied to the buccal pouch of anesthetized New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbits (n = 3) injected intravenously had C(max) and area under the curve values of 1200 +/- 46 ng/mL, and 48,227 +/- 12,995 ng x min/mL, respectively. Rabbits (n = 3) dosed via the buccal pouch had C(max), T(max), and area under the curve values of 127 +/- 13 ng/mL, 200 +/- 35 min, and 24,221 +/- 1543 ng x min/mL. The relative bioavailability for rabbits treated with the WFC was 50.2 +/- 3.2% with a coefficient of variation of 6.4%. It was concluded that these bi-layer mucoadhesive WFCs disks could deliver physiologically relevant amounts of insoluble drugs such as testosterone across the buccal mucosa.

  3. Testosterone levels and fecundity in the hermaphroditic aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to testosterone and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Lagadic, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Endocrine disruptors are known to alter endogenous free and esterified levels of androgenic and estrogenic steroid hormones in aquatic mollusks. The origin of steroids in these animals, however, remains controversial. In the present study, free and esterified testosterone concentrations were measured in the hermaphroditic aquatic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to molecules known for their androgenic (testosterone and tributyltin), anti-androgenic (cyproterone-acetate), and estrogenic (chlordecone) properties, by reference to their mode of action in vertebrates. In parallel, snail oviposition and fecundity were followed over a 21-d exposure period. Testosterone exposure resulted in increased esterified testosterone levels, whereas free testosterone concentrations remained stable. In contrast, cyproterone-acetate significantly increased the free form of testosterone with no changes in the esterified form, whereas chlordecone showed a tendency to reduce (though not significantly) esterified testosterone concentrations without changing free testosterone levels. Finally, tributyltin did not alter testosterone homeostasis. The production of egg clutches and eggs was significantly reduced only in the snails exposed to the highest concentrations of chlordecone (19.6 µg/L) and tributyltin (94.2 ng Sn/L). Overall, the present study demonstrates that uptake of testosterone from the exposure medium occurs in L. stagnalis. Moreover, it shows that cyproterone-acetate and, to a lesser extent, chlordecone can alter endogenous testosterone levels in this freshwater snail. However, the relationship between hormonal changes and snail reproduction has not been established. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1740-1745. © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea): identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; De Wasch, Katia; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2002-04-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [(14)C]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and metabolized administered testosterone extensively. At least 11 polar testosterone metabolites (R(f,metabolite) < R(f,testosterone)), androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone were produced in vivo by N. integer. A sex-specific testosterone metabolism was also observed, although this observation requires further confirmation. The anabolic steroid beta-boldenone was also identified for the first time in invertebrates. The metabolic pathway leading to the formation of beta-boldenone remains unknown, since the steroidal precursor androstadienedione could not be detected. These results reveal interesting similarities in enzyme systems in invertebrate and vertebrate species. Alterations in steroid hormone metabolism may be used as a new biomarker for the effects of endocrine disruptors in invertebrates.

  5. Adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin and testosterone therapy boosts erectile function in diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Giagulli, V A; Carbone, M D; Ramunni, M I; Licchelli, B; De Pergola, G; Sabbà, C; Guastamacchia, E; Triggiani, V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate whether adding liraglutide to lifestyle changes, metformin (Met) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), by means of improving weight and glycaemic control, could boost erectile function in type 2 diabetic obese men with overt hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED) in a 'real-life setting'. Forty-three obese, diabetic and hypogonadal men (aged 45-59 years) were evaluated because of complaining about the recent onset of ED. They were subdivided into two groups according to whether hypogonadism occurred after puberty (G1; n = 30: 25 with dysfunctional hypogonadism and 5 with acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or before puberty (G2; n = 13: 10 with Klinefelter's syndrome and 3 with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). Both G1 and G2 patients were given a combination of testosterone (T) [testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/every 12 weeks] and Met (2000-3000 mg/day) for 1 year. In the poor responders (N) to this therapy in terms of glycaemic target (G1N: n = 16; G2N: n = 10), liraglutide (L) (1.2 μg/day) was added for a second year, while the good responders (Y) to T + Met (G1Y: 14/30 and G2Y: 3/13) continued this two drugs regimen therapy for another year. All patients were asked to fill in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 15) questionnaire before starting TU plus Met (T1) and after 12 months (T2) and 24 months (T3) of treatment. Patients underwent a clinical examination and a determination of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at T1, T2 and T3. At T2, each patient obtained an improvement of ED (p < 0.01) and of the metabolic parameters without reaching, however, the glycaemic goals [HbA1c = >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)], while T turned out to be within the range of young men. L added to TU and Met regimen in G1N and G2N allowed these patients to reach not only the glycaemic target [HbA1c = <7.5% (<58 nmol

  6. Increased testosterone to cortisol ratio in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Andrea L.; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.; Gao, Yu; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies have examined hormones in psychopathy and results have been mixed. It has been suggested that since hormone systems are highly interconnected, it may be important to examine multiple systems simultaneously to gain a clearer picture of how hormones work together to predispose for a certain construct. In the present study, we attempt to clarify the role of the hormones cortisol and testosterone in psychopathy by examining both hormones in a community sample of 178 adults demonstrating a wide range of psychopathy scores. Results showed that psychopathy scores were associated with an increased ratio of testosterone (baseline) to cortisol responsivity to a stressor. Psychopathy was not associated with either of these measures independently, or with baseline cortisol levels. These findings suggest that these highly interconnected hormone systems may work in concert to predispose to psychopathy. PMID:21133509

  7. ALPK1 affects testosterone mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines production.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzer-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tu, Hung-Pin; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-protein kinase 1, also known as alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1), is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), myocardial infarction, gout and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to having an inductive effect on the proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic THP1 cells, ALPK1 is expressed abundantly in the mouse testes. Low testosterone levels are commonly associated with arthritis, CKD, type 2 DM, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. The testosterone's anti-inflammatory effect has been demonstrated to reduce proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. In this study, we found that ALPK1 transgenic mice showed lower levels of testosterone in both the testes and the serum. Decreasing endogenous ALPK1 enhanced testosterone levels and transcripts of testosterone-regulated genes (P450scc, 3beta-HSD, P450C17, 17beta-HSD, StAR, and INSL3) in TM3 Leydig cells. In contrast, increasing testosterone decreased ALPK1 in both TM3 and monocytic THP1 cells. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction of the proinflammatory cytokines. Increased ALPK1 levels attenuated the testosterone effects in THP1 cells. Finally, we also found that ALPK1 increased the release of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 in the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, while testosterone inhibited ALPK1 in the primary kidney cells. Taken together, this data suggests that the balance between ALPK1 and testosterone plays a critical role in the testosterone-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.

  8. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  9. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men

    PubMed Central

    van Anders, Sari M.; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to “sex differences” in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology. PMID:26504229

  10. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  11. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.

  12. Testosterone Replacement Therapy: The Emperor's New Clothes.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Lenzi, Andrea; Romanelli, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The mean age of the world population has steadily increased in the last decades, as a result of increased life expectancy and reduced birth rate. Global aging has led to a greater worldwide cost for healthcare: hormonal alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of several conditions and might cause a significant reduction in the perceived sense of well-being. Menopause is archetypal of hormonal alterations occurring during aging: in males, sex hormones do not decrease abruptly, yet testosterone levels decrease steadily and continuously during aging, ultimately resulting in late-onset hypogonadism. Treatment of this condition might mitigate most symptoms; however, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) should be prescribed only in selected patients and it should not be considered as an antiaging treatment. In recent years, different authors have questioned health risks associated with testosterone treatment; while position statements from many scientific societies seem to be reassuring, the Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning in regard to the possible side effects of this therapy. We aim to review recent controversies and discoveries in regard to TRT.

  13. Reflexive Testosterone Release: A Model System for Studying the Nongenomic Effects of Testosterone Upon Male Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nyby, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Male mammals of many species exhibit reflexive testosterone release in mating situations. In house mice (Mus musculus), the dramatic robustness of such release, occurring primarily in response to a novel female, suggests some function. The resulting testosterone elevations typically peak during copulatory behavior and may serve to activate transitory motivational and physiological responses that facilitate reproduction. However, such a function requires that testosterone be working through either nongenomic, or very quick genomic, mechanisms. The first part of the review describes reflexive sex hormone release in house mice. The second part summarizes research implicating testosterone’s fast actions in affecting anxiety, reward, learning, analgesia, and penile reflexes in rodents, all of which could optimize male mating success. The review concludes with a speculative model of how spontaneous and reflexive hormone release might interact to regulate reproductive behavior and why mice appear to be an ideal species for examining testosterone’s quick effects. PMID:17976710

  14. Brain imaging reveals that engagement of descending inhibitory pain pathways in healthy women in a low endogenous estradiol state varies with testosterone.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Katy; Warnaby, Catherine; Stagg, Charlotte J; Moore, Jane; Kennedy, Stephen; Tracey, Irene

    2013-04-01

    The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic pain conditions. Modern COCP formulations produce a low endogenous estradiol, low progesterone environment similar to the early follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle, with a variable effect on serum androgen levels. We used behavioural measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli in healthy women, in both a natural and COCP-induced low endogenous estradiol state, to investigate whether alterations in central pain processing may underlie these observations in COCP users. Although COCP users overall did not require lower temperatures to obtain a fixed pain intensity, alterations in the brain response to these stimuli were observed. In a subgroup of COCP users with significantly reduced serum testosterone, however, lower temperatures were required. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that within key regions of the descending pain inhibitory system, activity in response to noxious stimulation varied with serum testosterone levels in both groups of women. Of particular interest, in COCP users, activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla increased with increasing testosterone and in those women with low testosterone, was significantly reduced compared to controls. These findings suggest that, in a low endogenous estradiol state, testosterone may be a key factor in modulating pain sensitivity via descending pathways. Specifically, failure to engage descending inhibition at the level of the rostral ventromedial medulla may be responsible for the reduction in temperature required by COCP users with low circulating testosterone.

  15. Testosterone biases the amygdala toward social threat approach

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Sina; Volman, Inge; Mehta, Pranjal; van Son, Veerle; Enter, Dorien; Sanfey, Alan; Toni, Ivan; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone enhances amygdala reactions to social threat, but it remains unclear whether this neuroendocrine mechanism is relevant for understanding its dominance-enhancing properties; namely, whether testosterone biases the human amygdala toward threat approach. This pharmacological functional magnetic-resonance imaging study shows that testosterone administration increases amygdala responses in healthy women during threat approach and decreases it during threat avoidance. These findings support and extend motivational salience models by offering a neuroendocrine mechanism of motivation-specific amygdala tuning. PMID:26601187

  16. Testosterone Replacement Therapy on the Natural History of Prostate Disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aaron; Butcher, Michael J; Köhler, Tobias S

    2015-08-01

    The physiology of testosterone production and action are closely related to prostatic disease. An understanding of the natural history of testosterone and prostate growth and development is needed in order to understand this complex relationship. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, and sexual function are common disorders for which testosterone is thought to play a role. Proposed in this review are some theories as to how testosterone interacts to potentially ameliorate these conditions. Further research is needed, but we feel our proposed points are valid given the review of the literature.

  17. Mouse Spermatogenesis Requires Classical and Nonclassical Testosterone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Toocheck, Corey; Clister, Terri; Shupe, John; Crum, Chelsea; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V; Sukhwani, Meena; Orwig, Kyle E; Walker, William H

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone acts though the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells to support germ cell development (spermatogenesis) and male fertility, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which testosterone acts are not well understood. Previously, we found that in addition to acting through androgen receptor to directly regulate gene expression (classical testosterone signaling pathway), testosterone acts through a nonclassical pathway via the androgen receptor to rapidly activate kinases that are known to regulate spermatogenesis. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nonclassical testosterone signaling occurs in vivo as the MAP kinase cascade is rapidly activated in Sertoli cells within the testis by increasing testosterone levels in the rat. We find that either classical or nonclassical signaling regulates testosterone-mediated Rhox5 gene expression in Sertoli cells within testis explants. The selective activation of classical or nonclassical signaling pathways in Sertoli cells within testis explants also resulted in the differential activation of the Zbtb16 and c-Kit genes in adjacent spermatogonia germ cells. Delivery of an inhibitor of either pathway to Sertoli cells of mouse testes disrupted the blood-testis barrier that is essential for spermatogenesis. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nonclassical testosterone signaling blocked meiosis in pubertal mice and caused the loss of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in adult mouse testes. An inhibitor of the classical pathway caused the premature release of immature germ cells. Collectively, these observations indicate that classical and nonclassical testosterone signaling regulate overlapping and distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  18. Effects of human serum on transport of testosterone and estradiol into rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pardridge, W M; Mietus, L J; Frumar, A M; Davidson, B J; Judd, H L

    1980-07-01

    The effect in vivo of the plasma proteins in human serum on the transport of [3H]testosterone (T), [3H]-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and [3H]estradiol (E2) through the brain capillary wall, i.e., the blood-brain barrier, was studied in anesthetized rats using a tissue-sampling-single-injection technique, In the absence of plasma proteins, approximately 90% of plasma T, DHT, or E2 was transported into brain on a single pass after a bolus carotid injection of labeled hormone. Serum was obtained from 57 patients in seven different clinical conditions: pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, thin and obese postmenopausal, follicular phase female, hirsutism, and normal male; the level (mean +/- SD) of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) varied from 17 +/- 5 nM (hirsutism) to 323 +/- 83 nM (pregnancy). When the carotid injection solution was made 67% serum, the amount of T, DHT, or E2 transported into brain was inhibited in proportion to the concentration of SHBG. Among the patient groups, an overall linear inverse correlation between the mean SHBG level and the mean extraction of unidirectional influx of testosterone (r = 0.99) and estradiol (r = 0.98) was observed. These studies indicate that a) the undirectional clearance by brain of both testosterone and estradiol is inversely related to the SHBG level and b) the fraction of hormone transported into brain greatly exceeds the free (dialyzable) moiety and is essentially equal to the albumin-bound fraction of plasma testosterone or estradiol.

  19. Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Arruzazabala, María; Molina, Vivian; Más, Rosa; Carbajal, Daisy; Marrero, David; González, Víctor; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2007-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the benign uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland, leading to difficulty with urination. Saw palmetto lipid extracts (SPLE), used to treat BPH, have been shown to inhibit prostate 5a-reductase, and some major components, such as lauric, myristic and oleic acids also inhibit this enzyme. Coconut oil (CO) is also rich in fatty acids, mainly lauric and myristic acids. We investigated whether CO prevents testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia (PH) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were distributed into seven groups (10 rats each). A negative control group were injected with soya oil; six groups were injected with testosterone (3 mg kg(-1)) to induce PH: a positive control group, and five groups treated orally with SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)), CO or sunflower oil (SO) (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)). Treatments were given for 14 days. Rats were weighed before treatment and weekly thereafter. Rats were then killed and the prostates were removed and weighed. CO (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)), SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)) and SO at 800 mg kg(-1), but not at 400 mg kg(-1), significantly reduced the increase in prostate weight (PW) and PW:body weight (BW) ratio induced by testosterone (% inhibition 61.5%, 82.0%, 43.8% and 28.2%, respectively). Since CO and SPLE, but not SO, contain appreciable concentrations of lauric and myristic acids, these results could be attributed to this fact. In conclusion, this study shows that CO reduced the increase of both PW and PW:BW ratio, markers of testosterone-induced PH in rats.

  20. Testosterone replacement in the infertile man

    PubMed Central

    Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Hypogonadism is a common clinical condition affecting men of different age groups. In addition to its sexual consequences, it has several implications posing significant concerns for a man’s health and well-being. Recent advances in testosterone (T) supplementation have facilitated hypogonadism treatment. Despite that, patients complaining of infertility or seeking conception are still hindered by the unfavorable effects supplemental T has on testicular function. Consequently, alternative approaches that can stimulate endogenous T production are favored. Selective estrogen receptor modulators, gonadotropins and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) can be successful in restoring serum T levels, preserving fertility, and providing symptomatic relief. PMID:28078217

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  2. Testosterone and social and reproductive behaviour in Aphelocoma jays.

    PubMed

    Vleck; Brown

    1999-11-01

    When there is a direct relationship between testosterone level and payoff in reproductive success through aggression, testosterone levels should be elevated. Elevated testosterone, however, has fitness costs, particularly a decreased tendency to display parental care. Thus the pattern of testosterone secretion in males should vary with the social and mating system. Western scrub-jays, Aphelocoma californica woodhouseii, form monogamous pairs on territories during the breeding season. Mexican jays, A. ultramarina, live in large, stable groups and up to five females within a group attempt nesting each spring. In both species, testosterone levels rose rapidly in March and peak levels did not differ. Elevated testosterone levels were only observed for about 3 weeks in the monogamous western scrub-jay, but were observed into May in Mexican jays, a reflection of prolonged opportunity for males to mate with multiple females and continual interaction with other competing males. In Mexican jays, nonbreeding yearlings had lower testosterone levels than all other age groups. Testosterone in males owning nests did not differ from that in other adult males, many of whom engage in extrapair fertilizations. Testosterone was elevated throughout the incubation phase, but was significantly lower when chicks were present in any nest in the group. Nearly all birds in the group fed all chicks. These observations support the hypothesis that testosterone is elevated when male-male competition is frequent and mating opportunities depend on the outcome of that competition, and testosterone is decreased when the necessity for parental or alloparental care would make its effects deleterious. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Developmental programing: impact of testosterone on placental differentiation.

    PubMed

    Beckett, E M; Astapova, O; Steckler, T L; Veiga-Lopez, A; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-08-01

    Gestational testosterone treatment causes maternal hyperinsulinemia, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birth weight, and adult reproductive and metabolic dysfunctions. Sheep models of IUGR demonstrate placental insufficiency as an underlying cause of IUGR. Placental compromise is probably the cause of fetal growth retardation in gestational testosterone-treated sheep. This study tested whether testosterone excess compromises placental differentiation by its androgenic action and/or via altered insulin sensitivity. A comparative approach of studying gestational testosterone (aromatizable androgen) against dihydrotestosterone (non-aromatizable androgen) or testosterone plus androgen antagonist, flutamide, was used to determine whether the effects of testosterone on placental differentiation were programed by its androgenic actions. Co-treatment of testosterone with the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, was used to establish whether the effects of gestational testosterone on placentome differentiation involved compromised insulin sensitivity. Parallel cohorts of pregnant females were maintained for lambing and the birth weight of their offspring was recorded. Placental studies were conducted on days 65, 90, or 140 of gestation. Results indicated that i) gestational testosterone treatment advances placental differentiation, evident as early as day 65 of gestation, and culminates in low birth weight, ii) placental advancement is facilitated at least in part by androgenic actions of testosterone and is not a function of disrupted insulin homeostasis, and iii) placental advancement, while helping to increase placental efficiency, was insufficient to prevent IUGR and low-birth-weight female offspring. Findings from this study may be of relevance to women with polycystic ovary syndrome, whose reproductive and metabolic phenotype is captured by the gestational testosterone-treated offspring.

  4. Combined Effects of Eurycoma longifolia and Testosterone on Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis in a Male Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Saadiah Abdul Razak, Halimatun; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Naina Mohamed, Isa

    2012-01-01

    Androgen-deficient osteoporosis in men is treated with testosterone therapy, which is associated with side effects. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is known to possess androgenic properties and has been reported to protect bone from androgen-deficient osteoporosis in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combination therapy of EL and testosterone (T) in treating androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into: sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized-control (ORX), orchidectomized with testosterone (ORX + T), orchidectomized with EL (ORX + EL), and orchidectomized with combined T and EL therapy (ORX + T + EL). EL was administered via oral gavages daily at the dose of 15 mg/kg. T was injected intramuscularly at 8 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg for the ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups, respectively. Following 6 weeks of treatment, the osteocalcin levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than the SHAM group (P < 0.05). The posttreatment CTX levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than their pretreatment levels (P < 0.05). Biomechanically, the strain parameter of the ORX + T + EL group was significantly higher than the ORX group (P < 0.05). Thus, the combination therapy of EL and low-dose T has potential for treatment of androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The lower T dose is beneficial in reducing the sideeffects of testosterone therapy.

  5. Combined Effects of Eurycoma longifolia and Testosterone on Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis in a Male Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Saadiah Abdul Razak, Halimatun; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Naina Mohamed, Isa

    2012-01-01

    Androgen-deficient osteoporosis in men is treated with testosterone therapy, which is associated with side effects. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is known to possess androgenic properties and has been reported to protect bone from androgen-deficient osteoporosis in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combination therapy of EL and testosterone (T) in treating androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into: sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized-control (ORX), orchidectomized with testosterone (ORX + T), orchidectomized with EL (ORX + EL), and orchidectomized with combined T and EL therapy (ORX + T + EL). EL was administered via oral gavages daily at the dose of 15 mg/kg. T was injected intramuscularly at 8 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg for the ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups, respectively. Following 6 weeks of treatment, the osteocalcin levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than the SHAM group (P < 0.05). The posttreatment CTX levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than their pretreatment levels (P < 0.05). Biomechanically, the strain parameter of the ORX + T + EL group was significantly higher than the ORX group (P < 0.05). Thus, the combination therapy of EL and low-dose T has potential for treatment of androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The lower T dose is beneficial in reducing the sideeffects of testosterone therapy. PMID:22924057

  6. The protection of selenium on cadmium-induced inhibition of spermatogenesis via activating testosterone synthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang-mei; Wang, Gai-gai; Xu, Dong-qing; Luo, Kang; Liu, Yu-xin; Zhong, Yi-hong; Cai, Yun-qing

    2012-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trance element in testis. However, the potential protective effects of Se against cadmium (Cd)-induced reproductive toxicity remained to be elucidated. Male ICR mice were orally administered by gavage with Na2SeO3 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg BW) for 1h prior to CdCl2 (5 mg/kg BW) alone or in combination for 15, 25 or 35 days. Cd exposure caused a significant decrease in body weight, sperm concentration and motility as well as plasma testosterone level which was accompanied by decreased antioxidant enzymatic activity of SOD and GSH-Px and by increased lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA). Se pretreatment compensated deficits in the sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) induced by Cd. Se (0.4 mg/kg BW) treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by Cd (on 15th, 25th and 35th day) (P<0.01). Se treatment ameliorated Cd-induced reduction in testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activities. The present study suggest that the protective potential of Se against Cd-induced reprotoxicity might be due to up-regulation StAR and testosterone synthetic enzyme activity, which could be useful for increasing testosterone synthesis for achieving optimum protection in sperm quality and spermatogenesis.

  7. The long-term efficacy and safety of a testosterone mucoadhesive buccal tablet in testosterone-deficient men.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Wallace W; Wyllie, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Striant® SR is the only available buccal delivery system for testosterone replacement therapy. Previous pharmacokinetic studies have shown that Striant SR effectively produces physiological serum testosterone levels in hypogonadal men. Efficacy and safety data from previously unpublished studies over 2 years of continuous use indicate that Striant SR is effective long term in maintaining serum testosterone within a physiological range, is well tolerated and has a high level of patient acceptance. Striant® sustained-release (SR) is a mucoadhesive buccal tablet (30 mg testosterone, The Urology Company) that adheres to the gum surface in the mouth providing controlled- and sustained-release of testosterone over a 12-h dosing period, offering a unique and rational method of testosterone delivery. Striant SR is indicated for testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism when testosterone deficiency has been confirmed by clinical features and biochemical tests. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that testosterone is released from Striant SR in a manner similar to the normal daily rhythm of endogenous testosterone secretion, with serum levels rising rapidly after insertion and peak levels reached by the second 12-hourly dose with no accumulation over time. In clinical trials involving hypogonadal men receiving Striant SR for up to 2 years, mean serum testosterone levels have always remained within the normal range. Striant SR is well tolerated, with gum-related disorders (such as irritation, inflammation and gingivitis) and taste perversion being the most commonly reported adverse events, reported by 5.6-16.3% and 3.0-4.1% of patients, respectively. Once patients have become accustomed to it, Striant SR has a high level of patient acceptance. In a long-term study, 90% of patients rated the twice-daily dosing as acceptable, just under half preferred it to other forms of TRT that they have used and

  8. Testosterone release and social context: when it occurs and why.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Erin D; Fuxjager, Matthew J; Oyegbile, Temitayo O; Marler, Catherine A

    2009-10-01

    The functions of rapid increases in testosterone seem paradoxical because they can occur in response to different social contexts, such as male-male aggressive encounters and male-female sexual encounters. This suggests that context may impact the functional consequences of changes in testosterone, whether transient or long term. Many studies, including those with California mice (Peromyscus californicus), have addressed these issues using manipulations and species comparisons, but many areas remain to be investigated. We report a study here that suggests transient increases in testosterone after social competition influence future competitive behavior, but social experience alone may also be critical in determining future behavior. In other rodents, a comparable testosterone surge occurs in response to sexual stimulation, but the function is not entirely understood. In addition to competitive and sexual behavior, testosterone impacts other systems instrumental to social behaviors, including paternal behavior and degree of monogamy. Thus, mechanisms regulated by testosterone, such as the vasopressin and aromatase systems, may also be influenced by rapid surges of testosterone in aggressive or sexual contexts. We discuss how the functions of testosterone may overlap in some contexts.

  9. An improved ultrafiltration method for determining free testosterone in serum

    SciTech Connect

    Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.

    1982-11-01

    In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added (/sup 3/H)testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with (/sup 3/H)testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved.

  10. Roles of Testosterone Replacement in Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone is an anabolic steroid hormone, which is the major circulating androgen hormone in males. Testosterone levels decreasing below the normal physiological levels lead to a status known as androgen deficiency. Androgen deficiency has been shown to be a major risk factor in the development of several disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and ischemic heart disease. In the past decades, although several studies from animal models as well as clinical studies demonstrated that testosterone exerted cardioprotection, particularly during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, other preclinical and clinical studies have shown an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and cardioprotective effects. As a result, the effects of testosterone replacement on the heart remain controversial. In this review, reports regarding the roles of testosterone replacement in the heart following I/R injury are comprehensively summarized and discussed. At present, it may be concluded that chronic testosterone replacement at a physiological dose demonstrated cardioprotective effects, whereas acute testosterone replacement can cause adverse effects in the I/R heart.

  11. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  12. Does testosterone affect foraging behavior in male frogs?

    PubMed

    Desprat, Julia L; Mondy, Nathalie; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-02-19

    During the breeding season, males often produce costly and extravagant displays or physical ornaments to attract females. Numerous studies have established that testosterone could directly influence the expression of certain sexual signals. However, few of these studies have focused on the indirect role that testosterone could play in modulating prey detection and visual performance to improve the foraging ability of males and hence their acquisition of nutritional resource. In the present study, we experimentally modified the testosterone levels of European tree frog males (Hyla arborea), staying in the natural range previously measured in the field, and we investigated the effect of testosterone on the foraging ability of individuals. Foraging capacities were measured on males placed in an arena with a virtual cricket moving on a computer screen. Our results demonstrated a significant effect of testosterone on the hunting behavior of H. arborea. We observed that testosterone reduced the orientation latency to virtual prey for supplemented males compared to controls. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the attack promptness of male frogs. Finally, our experiment did not demonstrate any impact of testosterone on male attack success.

  13. A Mendelian randomization study of testosterone and cognition in men

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie V.; Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cherny, Stacey S.; Liu, Bin; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone replacement for older men is increasingly common, with some observations suggesting a protective effect on cognitive function. We examined the association of endogenous testosterone with cognitive function among older men in a Mendelian randomization study using a separate-sample instrumental variable (SSIV) analysis estimator to minimize confounding and reverse causality. A genetic score predicting testosterone was developed in 289 young Chinese men from Hong Kong, based on selected testosterone-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10046, rs1008805 and rs1256031). The association of genetically predicted testosterone with delayed 10-word recall score and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was assessed at baseline and follow-up using generalized estimating equation among 4,212 older Chinese men from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Predicted testosterone was not associated with delayed 10-word recall score (−0.02 per nmol/L testosterone, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.06–0.02) or MMSE score (0.06, 95% CI −0.002–0.12). These estimates were similar after additional adjustment for age, education, smoking, use of alcohol, body mass index and the Framingham score. Our findings do not corroborate observed protective effects of testosterone on cognitive function among older men. PMID:26864717

  14. Testosterone in men with hypogonadism and high cardiovascular risk, Pros.

    PubMed

    Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Vitale, Cristiana; Fini, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Although numerous randomized studies have shown that testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves intermediate outcomes in patients at risk and in those with proven cardiovascular disease (CVD), results derived mainly from registries and observational studies have suggested an increased cardiovascular risk in elderly men receiving often supra-therapeutic doses of testosterone. Recent meta-analyses have shown that when testosterone has been used in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions, the effect on the disease has been either beneficial or neutral. Similar results have been reported in hypo- and eugonadal men. Contrasting results have been reported by two trials of testosterone treatment in frail elderly men. Reports from poorly analyzed databases have reported an increased risk of cardiovascular events with testosterone use. More recently, a population-based study showed no increased cardiovascular risk of testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men. Available data from controlled clinical trials suggest that the use of testosterone in elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk nor the risk of events. Studies in men with CVD, angina, or heart failure report a benefit from testosterone replacement in men with or without hypogonadism. Therefore, at present, the cardiovascular benefits of TRT in elderly men outweigh the risks. This is particularly evident in those men with pre-existing CVD.

  15. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  16. Testosterone deficiency in the aging male

    PubMed Central

    McBride, J. Abram; Carson, Culley C.; Coward, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for hypogonadism is on the rise, particularly in the aging population. Yet treatment in this population represents a unique challenge to clinicians. The physiology of normal aging is complex and often shares the same, often vague, symptoms of hypogonadism. In older men, a highly prevalent burden of comorbid medical conditions and polypharmacy complicates the differentiation of signs and symptoms of hypogonadism from those of normal aging, yet this differentiation is essential to the diagnosis of hypogonadism. Even in older patients with unequivocally symptomatic hypogonadism, the clinician must navigate the potential benefits and risks of treatment that are not clearly defined in older men. More recently, a greater awareness of the potential risks associated with treatment in older men, particularly in regard to cardiovascular risk and mortality, have been appreciated with recent changes in the US Food and Drug Administration recommendations for use of testosterone in aging men. The aim of this review is to provide a framework for the clinician evaluating testosterone deficiency in older men in order to identify correctly and treat clinically significant hypogonadism in this unique population while minimizing treatment-associated harm. PMID:26834840

  17. Testosterone, estradiol, ACTH and musical, spatial and verbal performance.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M; Gupta, D; Wollmann, H

    1992-01-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and ACTH were determined in blood serum of 26 healthy males aged 19.16 and of 25 healthy females aged 18.77 years on average, and results were correlated with test scores of three spatial tests, a verbal fluency measure, and a test measuring general musical ability. In addition, hemispheric lateralization for verbal material and handedness was assessed. While testosterone and estradiol alone were not significantly related to any of the cognitive or musical tests, testosterone/estradiol ratio was significantly negatively correlated with spatial tests, and ACTH was significantly positively correlated with spatial and musical tests. Correlations were stronger in females than in males. The laterality index was significantly negatively correlated with testosterone in males indicating that right hemisphere involvement in verbal processing was associated with high testosterone levels.

  18. Understanding testosterone variation in a tropical lek-breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Thomas B; Horton, Brent M; Moore, Ignacio T

    2011-08-23

    Male reproductive coalitions, in which males cooperate to attract females, are a rare strategy among vertebrates. While some studies have investigated ultimate aspects of these relationships, little is known about the mechanistic role that hormones play in modulating cooperative behaviours. Here, we examined male testosterone variation in a tropical lekking bird, the wire-tailed manakin (Pipra filicauda), which exhibits cooperative male-male display coalitions. We found that testosterone levels in territorial males were comparable to those of temperate breeding birds, a surprising result given their environmental, social and reproductive dynamics. In addition, social status rather than plumage was a strong predictor of testosterone variation. Territorial males had significantly higher testosterone levels than did two other plumage classes of floater males, who do not hold territories. We hypothesize that testosterone variation plays an important role in the establishment of male dominance hierarchies (competition), while concurrently facilitating stable display partnerships (cooperation).

  19. Testosterone Therapy Can Interact With Thrombophilia, Leading to Osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Riaz, Rashid; Prince, Marloe; Freiberg, Richard A; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Although this effect is not widely recognized, testosterone therapy can interact with thrombophilia, causing osteonecrosis. In 12 men and 4 women who had idiopathic osteonecrosis a median of 6 months after the onset of testosterone therapy, the authors examined the interaction between testosterone therapy and previously undiagnosed thrombophilia. The authors hypothesized that patients who had osteonecrosis after starting testosterone therapy were more likely than 110 normal control subjects or 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy to have thrombophilia. Measures of thrombophilia included Factor V Leiden, prothrombin, PAI-1 gene mutations, Factor VIII, Factor XI, anticardiolipin antibody immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M, and homocysteine values. In 10 cases, osteonecrosis occurred 6 months or less after the onset of testosterone therapy, and in all 16 cases, it occurred after a median of 6 months of testosterone therapy. Of the 16 cases, 5 (31%) were Factor V Leiden heterozygotes vs 2 of 109 (2%) healthy control subjects (P=.0003) and 4 of 48 patients who had osteonecrosis and were not receiving testosterone therapy (P=.04). Of the 16 cases, 4 (25%) had high (>150%) Factor VIII levels vs 7 of 103 (7%) healthy control subjects (P=.04), and 3 (19%) had high (>150%) Factor XI levels vs 3 of 101 (3%) healthy control subjects (P=.03). Of the 16 patients with osteonecrosis, 14 (88%) had at least 1 abnormal procoagulant value (of the 8 measured) vs 47 of 110 (43%) healthy control subjects (P=.0009). Of the 5 men whose serum estradiol level was measured while they were receiving testosterone therapy, this level was high (≥42.6 pg/mL) in 4. When testosterone therapy is given to patients with thrombophilia, they are at increased risk for osteonecrosis.

  20. Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Older Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Urban, Randall J.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Raji, Mukaila A.; Du, Fei; Lin, Yu-li; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Testosterone therapy for older men has increased substantially over the past decade. Research on the effects of testosterone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes has yielded inconsistent results. Objective To examine the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based cohort of older men receiving intramuscular testosterone. Method Using a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified 6355 patients treated with at least 1 injection of testosterone between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2005. We matched this cohort to 19 065 testosterone nonusers at a 1:3 ratio based on a composite MI prognostic score. Patients were followed until December 31, 2005, or until they lost coverage from Medicare, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, experienced a MI, or died. Result In a Cox regression analysis adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, receipt of testosterone therapy was not associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.69–1.02). In this analysis, there was an interaction between receipt of testosterone and quartile of risk of MI (P = 0.023). For men in the highest quartile of the MI prognostic score, testosterone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of MI (HR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.53–0.92), whereas there was no difference in risk for the first (HR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.88–1.67), second (HR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.69–1.30), and third quartiles (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.59–1.01). Conclusion Older men who were treated with intramuscular testosterone did not appear to have an increased risk of MI. For men with high MI risk, testosterone use was modestly protective against MI. PMID:24989174

  1. Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability.

  2. Androgen replacement therapy: present and future.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J G; Bunck, Mathijs C M

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of androgen substitution is to replace testosterone at levels as close to physiological levels as is possible. For some androgen-dependent functions testosterone is a pro-hormone, peripherally converted to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), of which the levels preferably should be within normal physiological ranges. Furthermore, androgens should have a good safety profile without adverse effects on the prostate, serum lipids, liver or respiratory function, and they must be convenient to use and patient-friendly, with a relative independence from medical services. Natural testosterone is viewed as the best androgen for substitution in hypogonadal men. The reason behind the selection is that testosterone can be converted to DHT and E2, thus developing the full spectrum of testosterone activities in long-term substitution. The mainstays of testosterone substitution are parenteral testosterone esters (testosterone enantate and testosterone cipionate) administered every 2-3 weeks. A major disadvantage is the strongly fluctuating levels of plasma testosterone, which are not in the physiological range at least 50% of the time. Also, the generated plasma E2 is usually supraphysiological. A major improvement is parenteral testosterone undecanoate producing normal plasma levels of testosterone for 12 weeks, with normal plasma levels of DHT and E2 also. Subcutaneous testosterone implants provide the patient, depending on the dose of implants, with normal plasma testosterone for 3-6 months. However, their use is not widespread. Oral testosterone undecanoate dissolved in castor oil bypasses the liver via its lymphatic absorption. At a dosage of 80 mg twice daily, plasma testosterone levels are largely in the normal range, but plasma DHT tends to be elevated. For two decades transdermal testosterone preparations have been available and have an attractive pharmacokinetic profile. Scrotal testosterone patches generate supraphysiological

  3. Contemporary perspective and management of testosterone deficiency: Modifiable factors and variable management.

    PubMed

    Hisasue, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone deficiency can occur in males of all ages. In adult males, it is induced by endogenous testosterone decline through aging and other modifiable factors. Recent publications suggested the importance of the magnitude of longitudinal decline of testosterone from baseline. The baseline level and the longitudinal decline have individual variability influenced by individual factors including digit ratio, CAG repeat of the androgen receptor and sirtuin activity. Regarding treatment for testosterone deficiency, testosterone replacement therapy is the gold standard for the management of testosterone-deficient patients, and it improves three domains of testosterone deficiency symptoms, such as the physical, psychological and sexual domain. Recent reports suggested the importance of modifiable factors in the testosterone decline in addition to aging. Therefore, it might be responsible for the prevention of testosterone deficiency symptoms to maintain testosterone secretion taking account of the modifiable factors. The present article reviews the literature, and introduces contemporary perspectives and management of testosterone deficiency.

  4. Quantum Tunneling in Testosterone 6β-Hydroxylation by Cytochrome P450: Reaction Dynamics Calculations Employing Multiconfiguration Molecular-Mechanical Potential Energy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Lin, Hai

    2009-05-01

    Testosterone hydroxylation is a prototypical reaction of human cytochrome P450 3A4, which metabolizes about 50% of oral drugs on the market. Reaction dynamics calculations were carried out for the testosterone 6β-hydrogen abstraction and the 6β-d1-testosterone 6β-duterium abstraction employing a model that consists of the substrate and the active oxidant compound I. The calculations were performed at the level of canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling and were based on a semiglobal full-dimensional potential energy surface generated by the multiconfiguration molecular mechanics technique. The tunneling coefficients were found to be around 3, indicating substantial contributions by quantum tunneling. However, the tunneling made only modest contributions to the kinetic isotope effects. The kinetic isotope effects were computed to be about 2 in the doublet spin state and about 5 in the quartet spin state.

  5. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  6. Testosterone and temperament traits in men: Longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Määttänen, Ilmari; Jokela, Markus; Hintsa, Taina; Firtser, Sonja; Kähönen, Mika; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone is the main male hormone that has been associated with various behavioral traits in humans and other animals. We investigated whether levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin were associated with temperament traits in a population-based sample of Finnish men at two measurement times taken 6 years apart (n=686 in year 2001, n=727 in year 2007). Temperament was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory that consists of four temperament traits: novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence. Higher levels of total and free testosterone were associated with higher novelty seeking (standardized B=0.103, p<0.001). This association was also observed in a longitudinal within-person analysis (B=0.084, p=0.008), suggesting that the association is not confounded by stable between-individual differences in other characteristics. Within-individual variation in total testosterone was associated with higher reward dependence, and higher levels of free testosterone were marginally associated with higher reward dependence. Reward dependence reflects the importance of social rewards to an individual. These results provide additional evidence for the stable and time-varying associations between testosterone and temperament in humans.

  7. Lighting conditions affect testosterone feedback sensitivity in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Laakso, M L; Stenberg, D; Johansson, G; Peder, M

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown in the Syrian hamster that a short photoperiod sensitizes the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis of castrated animals to the negative feedback effect of testosterone. There is some evidence that even the reproductive system of the rat, which is generally considered not to be very sensitive to light, can respond to changes in illumination. Therefore, we found it of interest to examine whether alterations in lighting conditions produce changes of sensitivity in the negative feedback effect of testosterone in the rat. We kept intact, castrated, and castrated testosterone-treated animals either in periodic (L:D 12:12) or constant light for 7 days starting 4 weeks after castration. In all 3 testosterone-injected groups, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower in constant than in periodic light. Exogenous testosterone did not decrease the castration-induced elevations of pituitary LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). On the contrary, testosterone increased the pituitary contents of LH and FSH, especially in constant light. We conclude that, in constant light, the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis of the castrated rat becomes more sensitive to the negative feedback action of testosterone.

  8. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed.

  9. An exploration of testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wooderson, Sarah C.; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone influences well-being, mood and cognition and may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Aim To examine testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls. Method We examined baseline total testosterone levels and current depression scores in male and female patients with bipolar disorder and mild to moderate depression and healthy controls. Results A significant interaction between diagnosis and gender was observed (F(2,97)=9.791, P=0.002). Testosterone levels were significantly lower for male patients with bipolar disorder compared with male controls (P=0.001). Women with bipolar disorder had significantly higher testosterone levels than female controls (P=0.03). Conclusions Disturbances in testosterone levels may represent an important neurobiological abnormality in bipolar disorder and may differ by gender. If these findings are confirmed, the use of gender appropriate treatment strategies for the normalisation of testosterone levels in bipolar disorder depression should be further explored. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703738

  10. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  11. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. TESTOSTERONE AS A DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS IN MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.; Vertelkina, Nina V.; Antzoulatos, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are reinforcing in animals, as determined by conditioned place preference or self-administration. Most drugs of abuse produce subjective effects on mood and perception that initiate and maintain drug taking. Whether AAS have similar effects is not known. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9) were tested for their ability to discriminate an injection of testosterone from the β-cyclodextrin vehicle using a standard two-lever operant paradigm. In drug discrimination, animals use the subjective effects of drug or vehicle to select the appropriate lever to obtain food pellets under an FR10 schedule of reinforcement. All rats demonstrated vigorous responding for food (1415.1±76.1 responses/20 min) with 94.9% of responses on the active lever. For the first 30 days, rats received 1 mg/kg testosterone sc 30 min before testing. On Day 14, one rat achieved the discrimination criteria of 9/10 consecutive days with >90% responses on the active lever and ≤5 responses on the inactive lever before the first reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were tested with testosterone at different doses (2, 7.5, 15 mg/kg at 30 min before testing) and times (2 mg/kg at 30 or 60 min before testing), each for 20 days. One additional rat demonstrated successful discrimination at Day 54 with 2 mg/kg testosterone 60 min before testing. The remaining 7 rats failed to discriminate testosterone within 110 days. When analyzed according to less-stringent standards, 4 additional rats met criteria for testosterone discrimination. However, continued performance was not stable. Thus, testosterone was unable to consistently support drug discrimination. We conclude that testosterone does not produce rapid interoceptive effects. (NIH DA12843 to RIW) PMID:21893083

  13. Management of erectile dysfunction by combination therapy with testosterone and sildenafil in recipients of high-dose therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Kottaridis, P D; McGarrigle, H H; Linch, D C

    2002-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a well recognised complication of bone marrow transplantation, which affects quality of life in adult patients. Although the major contributory factors include hypogonadism and psychogenic factors, the best treatment still remains to be established due to the complex aetiopathology of the condition. Here, we report our preliminary results in eight patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy and sildenafil. We studied eight male recipients of BMT aged 22-58 years, presenting with clinical features of hypogonadism, ED, diminished libido and ejaculatory disorders. ED was assessed clinically and by colour flow Doppler studies of the cavernosal vessels. Testicular function was assessed by testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone (T) measurements. Erectile performance, libido and ejaculatory function were determined by a structured interview. Patients had severe primary hypogonadism as evidenced by low mean testicular volume, elevated gonadotrophins and low normal mean testosterone levels compared with controls. All had Leydig cell insufficiency (LCI) with or without frank serum testosterone insufficiency. All except one had cavernosal arterial insufficiency. All patients received intramuscular injections of testosterone cypionate (250 mg 4 weekly) for 6 months and 50-100 mg of sildenafil orally, one to two times per week. All patients responded favourably as substantiated from the NIH consensus criteria. Our preliminary results suggest that this combined therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic approach in recipients of high-dose therapy presenting with ED after transplant.

  14. Testosterone vs. aromatase inhibitor in older men with low testosterone: effects on cardiometabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Dias, J P; Shardell, M D; Carlson, O D; Melvin, D; Caturegli, G; Ferrucci, L; Chia, C W; Egan, J M; Basaria, S

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone (T) replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related decline in testosterone levels. The effects of long-term testosterone replacement and aromatase inhibition (AI) on glucose homeostasis and cardiometabolic markers were determine in older non-diabetic men with low testosterone levels. Men ≥65 years, mean age 71 ± 3 years with serum total T < 350 ng/dL were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, proof-of-concept trial evaluating the effects of 5 g transdermal testosterone gel (TT) (n = 10), 1 mg anastrozole (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9) daily for 12 months. Homeostatic Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR ) was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included OGIS in response to OGTT, fasting lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), adipokines, and abdominal and mid-thigh fat by computed tomography. All outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12 months. After 12 months, absolute changes in HOMAIR in both treatment arms (TT group: -0.05 ± 0.21); (AI group: 0.15 ± 0.10) were similar to placebo (-0.11 ± 0.26), as were CRP and fasting lipid levels. Adiponectin levels significantly decreased in the TT group (-1.8 ± 0.9 mg/L, p = 0.02) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (-60.34 ± 3.19 cm(2) , p = 0.003) and leptin levels (-1.5 ± 1.2 ng/mL, p = 0.04) were significantly lower with AI. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat was reduced in both treatment arms (TT group: -4.88 ± 1.24 cm(2) , p = 0.008); (AI group: -6.05 ± 0.87 cm(2) , p = 0.0002). In summary, in this proof-of-concept trial, changes in HOMAIR AI were similar in all three groups while the effects of intervention on subcutaneous fat distribution and adipokines were variable. Larger efficacy and safety trials are needed before AI pharmacotherapy can be considered as a treatment option for low T levels in older men.

  15. Synthesis of deuterium labeled 17-methyl-testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Y.; Baba, S.; Kasuya, Y.

    1984-09-01

    The synthesis of two forms of selectively deuterated 17-methyl-testosterone is described. 17-Methyl-d3-testosterone was prepared by the Grignard reaction of dehydroepiandrosterone with deuterium labeled methyl magnesium iodide followed by an Oppenauer oxidation. 17-Methyl-d3-testosterone-19,19,19-d3 was prepared by treating 3,3-ethylenedioxy-5,10-epoxy-5 alpha, 10 alpha-estran-17-one with deuterium labeled methyl magnesium bromide followed by hydrolysis and dehydration of the 5 alpha-hydroxyandrostane derivative.

  16. Late-Onset Hypogonadism and Testosterone Replacement in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rajib K; Bhattacharya, Shelley B

    2015-11-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism is an underdiagnosed and easily treated condition defined by low serum testosterone levels in men older than 65 years. When treated, a significant improvement in quality of life may be reached in this rapidly rising sector of the population. During the evaluation, laboratory tests and a full medication review should be performed to exclude other illnesses or adverse effects from medications. The major goal of treatment in this population is treating the symptoms related to hypogonadism. There has not been clear evidence supporting universally giving older men with low serum testosterone levels and hypogonadal symptoms testosterone replacement therapy.

  17. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  18. The endocrine pharmacology of testosterone therapy in men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettel, Michael

    The review starts off by outlining the history of the discovery of the male sex hormone testosterone and the historical background to the various, often dubious, approaches to the treatment of age-related endocrine disorders in older men. A discussion of congenital androgen deficiency in young men is followed by methods of diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Among therapeutic options, the alternatives to direct testosterone replacement are discussed, although none of them have proved to be particularly successful in clinical practice. For testosterone replacement itself, various routes of administration and pharmaceutical formulations are now available, facilitating good monitoring and individualized therapy.

  19. Testosterone treatment in the aging male: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Nigro, Nicole; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-03-19

    The definition of late onset hypogonadism in the aging male is controversially debated, and according to the latest literature consists of at least three especially sexual symptoms such as loss of morning erection, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction as well as a total testosterone <8-11 nmol/l. Testosterone replacement therapy in the aging male has been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle and fat mass as well as on bone mineral density, with more conflicting effects observed on muscle strength, sexual function, mood and quality of life. The prescriptions for testosterone products for the aging male increased by over 170% in the previous five years. Furthermore, there is a lot of epidemiological data showing an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, only few small randomised placebo-controlled studies have investigated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on insulin resistance and HbA1c levels, with controversial results. Importantly, so far the long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy has not been established. Although until now no clear evidence has been found that testosterone replacement therapy has a causative role in prostate cancer or indeed in changes of the biology of the prostate, in a recent meta-analysis a 4-fold increased risk of prostate-associated event rates in testosterone treated elderly men sounds a note of caution. Also the risk for cardiovascular events is still not clear and caution is warranted especially in elderly men with cardiovascular disease and limited mobility. In summary, the actual available evidence of long-term risks and outcome of testosterone replacement therapy is still very limited and carefully designed placebo-controlled trials of testosterone administration to assess the risks and benefits of such a therapy are required. Until then, testosterone treatment in elderly men

  20. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

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  4. A sex-specific dose-response curve for testosterone: could excessive testosterone limit sexual interaction in women?

    PubMed

    Krapf, Jill M; Simon, James A

    2017-04-01

    Testosterone treatment increases sexual desire and well-being in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder; however, many studies have shown only modest benefits limited to moderate doses. Unlike men, available data indicate women show a bell-shaped dose-response curve for testosterone, wherein a threshold dosage of testosterone leads to desirable sexual function effects, but exceeding this threshold results in a lack of further positive sexual effects or may have a negative impact. Emotional and physical side-effects of excess testosterone, including aggression and virilization, may counteract the modest benefits on sexual interaction, providing a possible explanation for a threshold dose of testosterone in women. In this commentary, we will review and critically analyze data supporting a curvilinear dose-response relationship between testosterone treatment and sexual activity in women with low libido, and also explore possible explanations for this observed relationship. Understanding optimal dosing of testosterone unique to women may bring us one step closer to overcoming regulatory barriers in treating female sexual dysfunction.

  5. Problematic chemical shifts of a fluorine-labeled surfactant and oil in some microemulsion systems. [Soap is potassium 11-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)undecanoate oil is 1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)hexane or a mixture of this material with heptane

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, N.

    1982-05-27

    Fluorine chemical shifts are reported for water/oil/soap/butanol microemulsions in which the soap is potassium 11-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)undecanoate and the oil is 1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)hexane or a mixture of this material with heptane. In many of the solutions the two fluorinated compounds appear to have identical microenvironments. This reinforces arguments presented recently by others to the effect that microemulsions do not always contain distinct oil-rich and water-rich domains separated by a well-defined interfacial layer.

  6. Testosterone Therapy May Be Linked to Serious Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... testosterone pills, gels or injections, hoping that the male hormone will boost their sex drive, stamina and strength. It's been known for a while that the estrogen in birth control pills increases a woman's risk of blood clots, ...

  7. A method for the estimation of urinary testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, A. A. A.; Harkness, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    1. A method has been developed for the estimation of testosterone in human urine by using acid hydrolysis followed by a quantitative form of a modified Girard reaction that separates a `conjugated-ketone' fraction from a urine extract; this is followed by column chromatography on alumina and paper chromatography. 2. Comparison of methods of estimation of testosterone in the final fraction shows that estimation by gas–liquid chromatography is more reproducible than by colorimetric methods applied to the same eluates from the paper chromatogram. 3. The mean recovery of testosterone by gas–liquid chromatography is 79·5%, and this method appears to be specific for testosterone. 4. The procedure is relatively rapid. Six determinations can be performed by one worker in 2 days. 5. Results of determinations on human urine are briefly presented. In general, they are similar to earlier estimates, but the maximal values are lower. PMID:5964968

  8. Testosterone Therapy May Have Benefits, but Risks Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... called "low T" (low testosterone levels), said Dr. Thomas Gill. He is a Yale University professor of ... but still not all questions are answered." SOURCES: Thomas Gill, M.D., professor, geriatrics, Yale University, New ...

  9. Long-acting contraceptive agents: testosterone esters of unsaturated acids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Gawronski, J; Hernández, R; Kielczewski, M; Salazar, J A; Savabi, F; Shafiee, A; Strekowski, L; Suárez, E

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of 13 new esters of testosterone is described, with the esterifying acids bearing acetylenic, olefinic, or polyunsaturated functions in the chain, for evaluation as long-acting androgens.

  10. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Celec, Peter; Ostatníková, Daniela; Hodosy, Július

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences. PMID:25741229

  11. Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Tan, R S; Salazar, J A

    2004-11-01

    Testosterone has been available to practitioners for several decades. However, testosterone prescriptions have increased in recent years partly because of the introduction of newer delivery systems that are topical and have good bioavailability. In the US alone, approximately 2 million prescriptions for testosterone were written in 2002. This represents a 30% increase from 2001 and a 170% increase from 1999. There has also been a 500% increase in prescription sales in the past 10 years. The rise in prescriptions may be in part due to the increasing recognition of hypogonadism in ageing males or andropause. Treatment relating to hypogonadism has relieved symptoms and improved the quality of life of many individuals. Epidemiological studies point toward an association with increased morbidity and mortality, with low testosterone states in ageing males. For example, there is a higher prevalence of depression, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, fracture rates, frailty and even dementia with low testosterone states. Recently, there have been some concerns raised regarding the long-term safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) from the Institute of Medicine. Current evidence suggests no causal relationship between prostate cancer and physiological dosing of testosterone, especially with careful selection and monitoring of patients. Cardiovascular risks have, overall, been neutral, although suggestions have been made that there are positive vasodilatory properties with testosterone. Mild eythrocytosis can be a common side effect of TRT, but thromboembolic events have rarely been reported in the literature. This paper addresses the evidence to date regarding the safety aspects of TRT. The medical-legal implications of TRT for men at this point in time is also discussed.

  12. The Effect of Testosterone on Men With Andropause

    PubMed Central

    Sofimajidpour, Heshmatollah; Teimoori, Taher; Gharibi, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Andropause is the gradual reduction of the male sex hormone (testosterone) with increasing age. Its symptoms are sexual dysfunction, weakness, fatigue, insomnia, loss of motivation, mood disorders and reduction of bone density. Treatment of andropause with testosterone has been recently considered. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone in the treatment of andropause in men. Patients and Methods: For men who met the inclusion criteria (50 years of age and older) laboratory tests and clinical examinations were conducted by an urologist in order to diagnose prostate cancer, prostate disease, urinary tract infection and active urinary retention. After obtaining consent, the patients were enrolled in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage, mean, standard deviation) and the paired t-test were used to compare levels of testosterone. To determine the correlation between age and testosterone levels, the Pearson correlation was used. Finally, to compare the treatment processes during the treatment period the repeated measures ANOVA was used. Results: The mean age of patients was 56.57 ± 3.21 years. A total of 31 patients (39%) were smokers, among them 30% smoked daily, 2.5% weekly and 6% smoked for fun. The mean testosterone level before treatment was 240.6 ± 125.4 and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment the level was raised, so that at the end of the sixth months it was 578.7 ± 141.7. The level of increase was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Treatment with testosterone in men over 50 years with andropause will increase testosterone levels and also quality of life, sexual desire, erection, energy levels, ability to exercise and feel the joy of life more than before. Depression was decreased and they had sleepy feelings after dinner. PMID:26756004

  13. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    PubMed

    Musicki, Biljana; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Haolin; Brown, Terry R; Zirkin, Barry R; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle) exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels compared with wild type (WT) mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol)- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi) exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  14. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Results: Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P < 0.018). Also, a positive correlation was observed between basal plasmatestosterone levels and criminal thinking traits (r = 0. 376, P < 0.05) and Millon compulsive (r = 0.386, P < 0.010) in both genders. In female participants, a positive correlation between basal plasmatestosterone levels and psychoticism (r = 0. 25, P < 0.019) and Cloninger AUTO TCI (r = 0.507, P < 0.004) was observed. In males participants positive correlation between baseline plasmatic Testosterone levels and Millon Antisocial trait (r = 0. 544, P < 0.19) and Millon Hypomania trait (r = 0. 485, P < 0.41) and Millon Drug Abuse trait (r = 0.632, P < 0.05) was reported. Conclusion: Our results suggest gender differences in clinical and personality variables related with basal plasma testosterone level. In men, high plasma testosterone levels were associated with clinical traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits. PMID:26664080

  15. Effects of Melandrium firmum methanolic extract on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Son, Jong-Keun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown aetiology characterized by prostatic enlargement coincident with distinct alterations in tissue histomorphology. Instead of therapeutic agents that can cause severe side effects, plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH. In this study, we investigated whether the Melandrium firmum methanolic extract (MFME) improves BPH, using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Castration was performed via the scrotal route under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. BPH in castrated rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of TP (3 mg kg(-1)) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. MFME was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) for 4 weeks, along with the TP injections. The control group received injections of corn oil subcutaneously. At the scheduled termination of the experiment, all rats were killed and their prostates weighed; the relative prostate weight (prostate/body weight ratio) was calculated, and histomorphological changes in the prostate were examined. Additionally, we measured the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and the prostate. Experimentally induced BPH led to marked decreases in the relative prostate weight and the DHT levels in the serum and the prostate. Histologically, BPH was evident in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and MFME treatment suppressed the severity of the lesions. These results indicate that MFME effectively inhibits the development of BPH induced by testosterone in a rat model. Further studies will be needed to identify the compound(s) responsibility for inducing the protective effect against BPH and determine its mechanism of action.

  16. Effects of Melandrium firmum methanolic extract on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Son, Jong-Keun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown aetiology characterized by prostatic enlargement coincident with distinct alterations in tissue histomorphology. Instead of therapeutic agents that can cause severe side effects, plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH. In this study, we investigated whether the Melandrium firmum methanolic extract (MFME) improves BPH, using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Castration was performed via the scrotal route under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. BPH in castrated rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of TP (3 mg kg−1) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. MFME was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg kg−1 for 4 weeks, along with the TP injections. The control group received injections of corn oil subcutaneously. At the scheduled termination of the experiment, all rats were killed and their prostates weighed; the relative prostate weight (prostate/body weight ratio) was calculated, and histomorphological changes in the prostate were examined. Additionally, we measured the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and the prostate. Experimentally induced BPH led to marked decreases in the relative prostate weight and the DHT levels in the serum and the prostate. Histologically, BPH was evident in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and MFME treatment suppressed the severity of the lesions. These results indicate that MFME effectively inhibits the development of BPH induced by testosterone in a rat model. Further studies will be needed to identify the compound(s) responsibility for inducing the protective effect against BPH and determine its mechanism of action. PMID:22231294

  17. Replacement therapy: arginine vasopressin (AVP), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, thyroxine, testosterone and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D H; Owens, B

    1996-06-01

    Replacement therapy is routinely used to treat hormone deficiencies of patients who have had surgery or radiation therapy that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Hormones commonly replaced include: arginine vasopressin (AVP), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, thyroxine (T4), testosterone and estrogen. AVP, synthesized in the hypothalamus, is stored in and released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. GH is synthesized and released by the anterior pituitary gland. The other hormones are produced and released by target glands each of which is stimulated by a specific anterior pituitary hormone, which in turn is controlled by release of a specific hypothalamic hormone. Feedback control by a high circulating concentration of the target gland's hormone regulates hypothalamic hormone release. Deficiency of AVP, important for water balance in the body, is restored with the synthetic analogue, 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP); it is given as a nasal spray or by injection. GH is required for normal growth in the developing child; recombinant GH, produced in bacteria, is injected subcutaneously. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) controls release of cortisol which is produced by the adrenal cortex and enables the body to cope with stress; cortisol is replaced with prednisolone given orally. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) controls release of the thyroid hormones, T4 and triiodothyronine (T3), which promote growth and development, and regulate energy metabolism; for replacement of T4, oral synthetic L-thyroxine is given. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) control release of testosterone, which promotes maturation of sperm and development of male sexual characteristics; replacement testosterone is administered intramuscularly. In females, FSH and LH control release of estrogens and progesterone which prepare the reproductive tract for release of the ovum, fertilization, implantation and development of the embryo

  18. Gonadotropin-induced testosterone response in peripubertal male alligators.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thea M; Gunderson, Mark P; Milnes, Matthew R; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-02-01

    Based on the response to three different gonadotropin challenges, we evaluated seasonal production of testosterone in a group of captive-raised four-year-old male alligators that varied in size. To stimulate gonadal steroidogenesis, we injected each alligator with ovine FSH (150 ng/ml plasma). Plasma testosterone concentrations were measured in repeated blood samples taken between 0 and 72 h after FSH injection. To determine if there was seasonal variation in response, we repeated the experiment on the same alligators three times during the breeding season (March, May, and July, 2000). All alligators responded to exogenous FSH by exhibiting increased plasma concentrations of testosterone (p < 0.0001 for all months). However, the degree of the response depended on body size. Thus, larger alligators produced more testosterone and were more affected by changes in season compared to smaller alligators. We have previously observed that juvenile male alligators display seasonal changes in plasma testosterone concentrations that mimic the cycle observed in adult males. Our present data suggest that seasonal changes in plasma testosterone appear to be associated not only with changes in gonadotropin release but in gonadal responsiveness as well. We propose, given these observations, that alligators experience an extended period of puberty, during which the gonads synthesize gradually increasing steroid hormone concentrations. These peripubertal animals are not juveniles but sub-adults capable of responding to the seasonal signals associated with reproductive timing in adults.

  19. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  20. Plasmonic sensors for the competitive detection of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Yockell-Lelièvre, H; Bukar, N; McKeating, K S; Arnaud, M; Cosin, P; Guo, Y; Dupret-Carruel, J; Mougin, B; Masson, J-F

    2015-08-07

    The ability to detect small molecules in a rapid and sensitive manner is of great importance in the field of clinical chemistry, and the advancement of novel biosensors is key to realising point-of-care analysis for essential targets. Testosterone is an example of such a small molecule, the detection of which is important in both clinical analysis, and in the sporting industry to prevent doping. As such, a portable, rapid and sensitive test for testosterone would be of great use across a variety of analytical fields. Here we report on a novel method of testosterone analysis, based on a competitive inhibition assay utilising functionalized gold nanoparticles. Two sensing platforms are directly compared for the detection of testosterone based on both classical SPR and LSPR. We provide an in-depth discussion on the optimum surface chemistries needed to create a stable detection conjugate before successfully detecting testosterone using our newly developed portable 4-channel SPR instrument. We provide the first detailed study into the comparison of SPR and LSPR for the analysis of a small molecule, and provide a simple and effective method of testosterone detection that could potentially be extended to a variety of different analytes.

  1. Testosterone production and spermatogenic damage induced by organophosphorate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Contreras, H R; Paredes, V; Urquieta, B; Del Valle, L; Bustos-Obregón, E

    2006-12-01

    Parathion is an organophosphorate pesticide amply used in agriculture. Many alterations induced by organophosphorate pesticides have been described, such as: cytogenetic alterations in germinal cells, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia in the mouse. The effect of Parathion, both pure (PP) and commercial (PC), on mouse interstitial cell testosterone production was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 1/3 LD50 of Parathion, both PP and PC. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 8 and 40 days post injection to evaluate the impact of disrupting testosterone production on spermatogonia, spermatocytes and elongated spermatids. The plasma testosterone was assayed by standard radioimmunoanalysis. The same method was used to assay testosterone in the culture medium of interstitial cells obtained from the control and Parathion treated animals at the same time intervals. Sperm count, sperm teratozoospermia and tubular blockage were analyzed for an appraisal of spermatogenesis. Increase in the teratozoospermia and tubular blockage was detected in the PP and PC group at 8 and 40 days post injection. Plasma testosterone levels drop significantly at 8 days and recovered slowly at 40 days only in PP animals as detected in vivo, implying interference of testicular steroidogenesis due to the toxicant. Recuperation of normality occurs at long time intervals. In conclusion, Parathion disturbs the synthesis of testosterone in mice affecting qualitatively the spermatogenesis

  2. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Nazem; Alkaade, Saad; Morley, John E

    2009-01-01

    Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT. PMID:19707253

  3. Testosterone therapy, thrombosis, thrombophilia, cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    There are similar time intervals between starting testosterone therapy (TT) and development of thrombotic (~4.5 months) or cardiovascular (CVD) events (~3 months) which may, speculatively, reflect a shared pathophysiology. We have described thrombotic events 5 months (median) after starting TT in 38 men and 4 women, including 27 with deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolism, 12 with osteonecrosis, 1 with central retinal vein thrombosis, 1 with amaurosis fugax, and 1 with spinal cord infarction. In 8 men whose TT was continued, second thrombotic events occurred despite adequate anticoagulation with Coumadin in 8 men, 3 of whom had a third thrombotic event. Of these 42 cases, 40 had measures of thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, and 39 were found to have previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. Before beginning TT, especially in men with previous history of thrombotic events, we suggest that, at a minimum, measurements be made for the Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin mutations, Factors VIII and XI, and homocysteine, to identify men who should not receive TT. We need prospective data focused on whether there should be pre-TT screening based on history of previous venous thromboembolism or for all subjects for major gene thrombophilias. To better resolve questions about TT and all cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and thrombosis, a long term, prospective, randomized, blinded study following the example of the Women's Health Initiative is needed. While we wait for prospective placebo-controlled TT outcome data, TT should be restricted to men with well-defined androgen deficiency syndromes.

  4. Effects of fetal testosterone on visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Ashwin, Emma; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether fetal testosterone (FT) measured from second trimester amniotic fluid was related to specific aspects of visuospatial ability, in children aged 7-10 years (35 boys, 29 girls). A series of tasks were used: the children's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) (a test of attention to detail), a ball targeting task (measuring hand-eye coordination), and a computerized mental rotation task (measuring rotational ability). FT was a significant predictor for EFT scores in both boys and girls, with boys also showing a clear advantage for this task. No significant sex differences were observed in targeting. Boys scored higher than girls on mental rotation. However, no significant relationships were observed between FT and targeting or mental rotation. Girls' performance on the mental rotation and targeting tasks was significantly related to age, indicating that these tasks may have been too difficult for the younger children. These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability.

  5. The Effect of Special Operations Training on Testosterone, Lean Body Mass, and Strength and the Potential for Therapeutic Testosterone Replacement: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Testosterone Therapy Exogenous testosterone therapy has shown modest benefits in anti-aging research as well as in combating type 2 diabetes and...Alzheimer’s disease. Males typically experience reductions in testosterone as a function of aging, resulting in low levels of LBM, while type 2 diabetics

  6. Effects of testosterone and resistance training in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Richard; Bhasin, Shalender; Cosentino, Louis; Porszasz, Janos; Somfay, Attila; Lewis, Michael I; Fournier, Mario; Storer, Thomas W

    2004-10-15

    Dysfunction of the muscles of ambulation contributes to exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Men with COPD have high prevalence of low testosterone levels, which may contribute to muscle weakness. We determined effects of testosterone supplementation (100 mg of testosterone enanthate injected weekly) with or without resistance training (45 minutes three times weekly) on body composition and muscle function in 47 men with COPD (mean FEV(1) = 40% predicted) and low testosterone levels (mean = 320 ng/dl). Subjects were randomized to 10 weeks of placebo injections + no training, testosterone injections + no training, placebo injections + resistance training, or testosterone injections + resistance training. Testosterone injections yielded a mean increase of 271 ng/dl in the nadir serum testosterone concentration (to the middle of the normal range for young men). The lean body mass (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increase averaged 2.3 kg with testosterone alone and 3.3 kg with combined testosterone and resistance training (p < 0.001). Increase in one-repetition maximum leg press strength averaged 17.2% with testosterone alone, 17.4% with resistance training alone, and 26.8% with testosterone + resistance training (p < 0.001). Interventions were well tolerated with no abnormalities in safety measures. Further studies are required to determine long-term benefits of adding testosterone supplementation and resistance training to rehabilitative programs for carefully screened men with COPD and low testosterone levels.

  7. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required.

  8. Time for international action on treating testosterone deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Aim Testosterone deficiency is having an increasing impact on men's health because of global aging, higher levels of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome and adverse environmental factors such as stress xenoestrogens and anti-androgens. The question addressed is to what extent the large body of evidence on the benefits and safety of testosterone therapy is applied in clinical practice. Methods Demographic data for men over the age of 50 from different regions of the world have been compared with the number of men in that age group estimated from sales figures to be receiving testosterone treatment. Results On the basis of estimate that 20% of men over 50 in the general population of each region could be expected to have testosterone deficiency symptoms, on average only these men (0.69%) in most European countries were receiving treatment. Proportion was higher in the UK (1.00%) and Germany (1.89%), but lower in France (0.49%), Italy (0.51%) and Russia (0.54%). Interestingly, Australia had higher figures (1.64%), in spite of tight state control measures on androgen use. The USA has the highest treatment rate (7.96%) and this is increasing rapidly. If the basis for the diagnosis was the more conventional combination of symptoms plus biochemical evidence of low total and free testosterone levels, androgen deficiency would be expected in at least 5% of men over 50, and percentage treatment rates therefore four times higher. However, even on that basis, only in the USA do these exceed 10%. Conclusions International action is urgently needed to raise awareness in the medical profession in the various countries of these remarkably low levels of testosterone treatment. Improvement in this requires education and motivation of doctors and those regulating the healthcare systems. A public awareness campaign is needed to educate men about the symptoms of testosterone deficiency and its impact on their health. PMID:19326293

  9. Predicting low testosterone in aging men: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Adam C.; Lau, Adrian N.C.; Tomlinson, George; Kraguljac, Alan; Simel, David L.; Detsky, Allan S.; Lipscombe, Lorraine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physicians diagnose and treat suspected hypogonadism in older men by extrapolating from the defined clinical entity of hypogonadism found in younger men. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the accuracy of clinical symptoms and signs for predicting low testosterone among aging men. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Embase databases (January 1966 to July 2014) for studies that compared clinical features with a measurement of serum testosterone in men. Three of the authors independently reviewed articles for inclusion, assessed quality and extracted data. Results: Among 6053 articles identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of low testosterone ranged between 2% and 77%. Threshold testosterone levels used for reference standards also varied substantially. The summary likelihood ratio associated with decreased libido was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.9), and the likelihood ratio for absence of this finding was 0.72 (95% CI 0.58–0.85). The likelihood ratio associated with the presence of erectile dysfunction was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.8) and with absence of erectile dysfunction was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76–0.91). Of the multiple-item instruments, the ANDROTEST showed both the most favourable positive likelihood ratio (range 1.9–2.2) and the most favourable negative likelihood ratio (range 0.37–0.49). Interpretation: We found weak correlation between signs, symptoms and testosterone levels, uncertainty about what threshold testosterone levels should be considered low for aging men and wide variation in estimated prevalence of the condition. It is therefore difficult to extrapolate the method of diagnosing pathologic hypogonadism in younger men to clinical decisions regarding age-related testosterone decline in aging men. PMID:27325129

  10. Male rats secrete luteinizing hormone and testosterone episodically.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G B; Desjardins, C

    1982-05-01

    We studied the temporal aspects of endocrine signaling between the pituitary gland and testes by measuring moment to moment changes in blood LH and testosterone levels in individual male rats. Each rat was fitted with an indwelling vascular cannula, and blood was withdrawn every 5 min for 8-12 h. Rats were maintained throughout the intensive blood-sampling period with an isotonic blood replacement mixture containing rat red blood cells and a human plasma protein preparation. LH and testosterone measurements were made in plasma volumes of 50 and 60 microliters. Most rats released LH in well defined pulses, characterized by a rapid increase in plasma LH within 5-10 min and a gradual decline lasting for the next 50-70 min. LH pulses occurred singly or in trains of two to four. Episodes of testosterone secretion spanned 3-6 h and were marked by a slowly graded rise and fall of plasma testosterone. In several instances, testosterone episodes were preceded (1-2 h) by a train of closely coupled LH pulses. Within a particular animal on different days, hormone episodes varied in number, amplitude, and timing. A particular hormone profile did not serve as a reliable hormone signature for an individual rat. Many rats displayed a characteristic sequence of 1) multiple LH pulses, 2) a sustained testosterone episode, and 3) a period of no LH pulses. This tripartite sequence of events is viewed as the essence of pituitary-testicular stimulation, and testicular negative feedback. Intermittent, short term fluctuations in peripheral levels of LH and testosterone represent the blood-borne, gland to gland signals controlling hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function in the normal rat.

  11. Preventive effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits, on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in intact and castrated rodents.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Más, R; Molina, V; Rodríguez, E; González, V

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the noncancerous, uncontrolled growth of prostate gland cells and stroma that can cause difficulty urinating. Fruit lipid extracts from saw palmetto, a palm from the Arecaceae family, are used for BPH management. The Cuban royal palm, Roystonea regia, is also a member of the Arecaceae family and therefore it was appropriate to investigate the protective effects of Roystonea regia fruit lipid extracts on prostatic hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, prevented testosterone-induced PH in castrated and intact rodents. Two series of experiments were performed. The first one was conducted in castrated and intact rats, distributed into five groups of 10 rats per group. The negative control group was injected with soy oil and treated orally with vehicle, while the four testosterone-injected groups were treated with vehicle (positive control), D-004 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The other experiment was conducted in castrated and intact mice. These were distributed into four groups of 10 mice per group: a negative control group and three testosterone-injected groups, of which one was a positive control, while two received D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. At study completion, the rodents were sacrificed and prostates removed and weighed. D-004 at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently prevented prostate enlargement in intact and castrated rats and mice. The percentage inhibitions obtained in mice were greater: 77% and 84% for intact and castrated mice, respectively. D-004 therapy did not affect body weight. It is concluded that D-004 administered orally significantly prevented testosterone-induced prostate enlargement in both intact and castrated rodents, indicating that an endogenous supply of testosterone is not necessary to observe such an effect The results of the present investigation support further studies of D

  12. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  13. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E

    2016-02-19

    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse.

  14. Effect of testosterone therapy on the female voice

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, R.; York, A.; Dimitrakakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This prospective study was designed to investigate the effect of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implants, on the female voice. Methods Ten women who had opted for testosterone therapy were recruited for voice analysis. Voices were recorded prior to treatment and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months while on testosterone therapy. Acoustic samples were collected with subjects reading a sentence, reading a paragraph, and participating in a conversation. Significant changes in the voice over time were investigated using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with the fundamental frequency (F 0) as a response variable. Demographic variables associated with characteristics of the voice were assessed. Results There were no significant differences in average F 0 related to smoking history, menopausal status, weight, or body mass index. There was no difference in average fundamental speaking frequency (sentence, paragraph, conversation) between the pre-treatment group and any post-treatment group at 3 and 12 months. There was an increase in sentence speech F 0 at 6 months. Two of three patients with lower than expected F 0 at baseline improved on testosterone therapy. Conclusion Therapeutic levels of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implant, had no adverse affect on the female voice including lowering or deepening of the voice. PMID:26857354

  15. Testosterone regulates metabolism of plasma chylomicrons in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Staprans, I.; Rapp, J.H.; Pan, X.M.; Ong, D.L.; Feingold, K.R. )

    1990-07-01

    Previously we demonstrated a marked sex difference in the metabolism of chylomicrons in adult rats. In males, radiolabeled chylomicrons displayed a longer dwell time on endothelial surfaces, which resulted in a decreased chylomicron uptake by the liver. The increased rate of chylomicron metabolism in females was associated with increased postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of physiological doses of sex steroid hormones on the metabolism of chylomicrons and postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity. No sex differences were found in prepubertal animals. We also found no difference in chylomicron metabolism in control female, castrated female, estrogen-treated female, castrated male, and estrogen-treated male rats. However, control male, testosterone-treated male, and testosterone-treated female rats showed increased endothelial binding of chylomicrons and decreased chylomicron uptake by the liver. Postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity also was decreased by testosterone administration. In parallel with the alterations in chylomicron metabolism, serum high density lipoprotein levels in male rats decreased with testosterone administration. These results indicate that the differences in chylomicron metabolism, postheparin lipoprotein lipase activities, and serum high density lipoprotein levels observed between male and female rats are due to testosterone.

  16. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play.

    PubMed

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-04

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans, thus testosterone's primal motives are concealed. We critically addressed this issue by performing a placebo-controlled single-dose testosterone administration in young women, who played a game of bluff poker wherein concerns for status and resources collide. The profit-maximizing strategy in this game is to mislead the other players by bluffing randomly (independent of strength of the hand), thus also when holding very poor cards (cold bluffing). The profit-maximizing strategy also dictates the players in this poker game to never call the other players' bluffs. For reputable-status seeking these materialistic strategies are disadvantageous; firstly, being caught cold bluffing damages one's reputation by revealing deceptive intent, and secondly, not calling the other players' bluffs signals submission in blindly tolerating deception. Here we show that testosterone administration in this game of bluff poker significantly reduces random bluffing, as well as cold bluffing, while significantly increasing calling. Our data suggest that testosterone in humans primarily motivates for reputable-status seeking, even when this elicits behaviors that are economically disadvantageous.

  17. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin–GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. PMID:26833836

  18. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  19. Recent topics related to testosterone deficiency syndrome in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Androgens, the levels of which decrease with ageing, play many physiological roles in various organs. Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) has received widespread attention in the last several years. First-line treatment for TDS should be testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), which is reported to improve several TDS symptoms. Recently, a clinical practice manual for TDS was written and published by a collaborative team from the Japanese Urological Association and the Japanese Society for the Study of the Aging Male to recommend standard procedures for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and monitoring of adverse reactions to TRT and for post-treatment assessment. In this manual, intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate or human chorionic gonadotropin and the testosterone gel ‘Glowmin' were recommended as TRT. Currently, two topics related to TDS are being focused on in Japan: the relationship between TDS and metabolic syndrome and treatment options for eugonadal patients with TDS symptoms. In this review, the possibility of TRT for metabolic syndrome as well as the relationship between testosterone and adiponectin, which is a key molecule in metabolic syndrome, is discussed. Finally, the possibility of herbal medicines as a treatment option for patients with TDS is addressed, especially for eugonadal patients, because eugonadal men with TDS symptoms account for approximately 30% of the general population. The increase in the levels of several cytokines, such as IL-8, IL-13, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, after herbal medicine treatment may be the reason for this efficacy. PMID:21460860

  20. [Testosterone deficit syndrome in fertile or subfertile men].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Navarro, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    Spermatogenesis is a well defined, complex,long and very orderlyprocess of cellular division and differentiation that is under regulation by endocrine signals (GnRH, LH, Inhibin and FSH ): paracrine signals, derived from the interrelation of the various types of cells in the tubules and interstitium (even in a juxtacrine way), and autocrine signals of self communication of the cell with itself. Testosterone plays an essential role in this process. In the testicular tubules, testosterone reaches concentrations 100 times higher than circulating testosterone in the blood stream. From a reproduction point of view, we can find two completely different scenarios in relation to testosterone deficit syndrome with a similar final clinical result: The difficulties of the male to have children. On one side the presence of hypogonadism, which requires a different management depending of the clinical priority and wishes of parenthood of the patient an his partner. On the other side, the opposite situation, the patient who requires or is already under testosterone therapy. In patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, when patient's clinical priority is fertility, the treatment to restore normal spermatogenesis requires external administration of gonadotropins. Treatment must be prolonged, at least 12-18 months. 95% of the cases will have a favorable response, meaning the finding of spermatozoids in ejaculation sperm as a consequence of spermatogenesis restoration.

  1. Testosterone, cortisol and anxiety in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Jiménez, Manuel; Alvero-Cruz, José R

    2013-07-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol after victory and defeat in male field hockey players during an important tournament. In the beginning of the game series, the players were ranked very closely to achieve (for the first time) the championship rising to The Honor Division-A, the highest status national category. The first game resulted in a 7-4 victory, the second game resulted in a 6-1 victory, and the third game resulted in a 1-2 defeat. As expected, there were changes in testosterone levels after the competition, dropping in the game which ended in defeat, and rising slightly in the two games which ended in victory; there were also changes in cortisol levels, rising in the game which ended in defeat, and showing no variations in the games which ended in victory; correlational analyses congruently showed that defeat led to rises in cortisol whereas victory led to rises in testosterone; anticipatory somatic anxiety was related to cortisol levels prior to games, and physical exertion during competition was related to the change in testosterone levels (suggesting an inhibitory effect) but not to the change in cortisol levels. Hence, this pattern of hormonal responses to a real-life dominance challenge complied with Mazur's (1985) [16] biosocial model of status and dominance motivation, by showing that testosterone and cortisol are linked to victory and defeat in a theoretically predictable fashion.

  2. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  3. Oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T

    2001-04-01

    Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.

  4. Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in the treatment of male hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Kishore M; Basaria, Shehzad

    2009-01-01

    Transdermal testosterone gels were first introduced in the US in 2000. Since then, they have emerged as a favorable mode of testosterone substitution. Serum testosterone levels reach a steady-state in the first 24 hours of application and remain in the normal range for the duration of the application. This pharmacokinetic profile is comparable to that of testosterone patch but superior to injectable testosterone esters that are associated with peaks and troughs with each dose. Testosterone gels are as efficacious as patches and injectable forms in their effects on sexual function and mood. Anticipated increases in prostate-specific antigen with testosterone therapy are not significantly different with testosterone gels, and the risk of polycythemia is lower than injectable modalities. Application site reactions, a major drawback of testosterone patches, occur less frequently with testosterone gels. However, inter-personal transfer is a concern if appropriate precautions are not taken. Superior tolerability and dose flexibility make testosterone gel highly desirable over other modalities of testosterone replacement. Androgel and Testim, the two currently available testosterone gel products in the US, have certain brand-specific properties that clinicians may consider prior to prescribing. PMID:19966909

  5. The role of testosterone in trichloroethylene penetration in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, K.; Abdel-Rahman, M.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Sex differences are known to exist in the metabolism and bioavailability of trichloroethylene (TCE). This study revealed that dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE in vitro was twofold greater in untreated female than in untreated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Since testosterone has been shown to mediate a wide variety of sex differences, its role in dermal penetration of ({sup 14}C)TCE was investigated. Penetration was measured by using an in vitro evaporation-penetration cell with a 10-hour collection period. Depriving male rats of testosterone (by castration) resulted in increased values for total penetration, area under the curve (AUC), and penetration slopes compared to those found in the female control group. Administration of testosterone to female animals produced values for total penetration, AUC, and penetration slopes significantly lower than those of the female control group.

  6. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  7. Changes in saliva testosterone after psychological stimulation in men.

    PubMed

    Hellhammer, D H; Hubert, W; Schürmeyer, T

    1985-01-01

    Saliva testosterone (ST) concentration was measured in 20 young adult and healthy men before, during and after the presentation of five different films. The films were selected to provoke erotic, sexual, aggressive, stressful and neutral stimulation, respectively. An increase in ST was found 15 min after the onset of both the erotic and the sexual stimulation, while a decline of ST levels was observed during the stressful movie showing dental surgery. No changes were found for either the neutral or the aggressive stimulant. Furthermore, no differences were found between ST levels before and after the showing of any of the films. Thus, saliva testosterone responds quickly to psychological stimulation, and may provide a practical alternative to testosterone measurements in serum under psychological test situations.

  8. Increase of the transdermal penetration of testosterone by miconazole nitrate.

    PubMed

    Baert, Bram; Roche, Nathalie; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2012-12-01

    Miconazole nitrate is an imidazole derivative used to treat skin disorders caused by fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate in a systematic way whether miconazole nitrate can have skin penetration enhancing properties. Using Franz diffusion cells, three representative model compounds (caffeine, testosterone and ibuprofen) were applied to human skin as 10 mM aqueous-ethanolic solutions with or without 1 mM of miconazole nitrate. The apparent permeability coefficient K(p) for each of the model compounds was determined with and without miconazole nitrate. While a statistically significant penetration enhancement effect of 33% was found for testosterone, no overall statistically significant effect could be demonstrated for caffeine and ibuprofen. The increase in skin permeability of testosterone is mainly due to an improved partitioning from the dose solution into the skin, thereby resulting in a higher delivery through the human skin. Our results indicate that miconazole can act as a penetration enhancer.

  9. Effects of aromatase inhibition vs. testosterone in older men with low testosterone: randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, J P; Melvin, D; Simonsick, E M; Carlson, O; Shardell, M D; Ferrucci, L; Chia, C W; Basaria, S; Egan, J M

    2016-01-01

    Aging in men is associated with loss of bone mass, impaired physical function and altered body composition. The objective of this proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial was to determine the relative effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)) on bone mineral density, body composition, and physical performance in older men. The primary outcome was lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), and secondary outcomes were body composition, muscle strength, gait speed, and sex hormone concentrations. Forty three men (age range, 65-82 years; mean age 71 years) with low total T levels <350 ng/dL were randomized to one of three groups: 5 g transdermal testosterone gel (TT) (N = 16), anastrozole (AI) 1 mg (N = 14) or placebo daily (N = 13) for 12 months. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Both TT and AI increased serum TT levels (>500 ng/dL, p < 0.05) compared to baseline; T values remained stable throughout the duration of the trial. At 12 months, TT improved the primary outcome of lumbar spine BMD (p < 0.01).Both interventions improved knee strength at 12 months compared to baseline (p < 0.05) while lean body mass significantly increased only in the AI group at 6 and 12 months (1.49 ± 0.38 kg, p < 0.01; 1.24 ± 0.39 kg, p < 0.05, respectively) compared to baseline. Interestingly, TT improved fast gait speed at 3 and 12 months (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, this proof-of-concept study confirms that aromatization of T is required for maintaining BMD in older men with low-T levels. The trial also uncovered the novel finding that aromatization of T is required for improvement in fast gait speed, an observation that needs to be verified in future studies.

  10. Injection of testosterone may be safer and more effective than transdermal administration for combating loss of muscle and bone in older men.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2015-06-15

    The value of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older men is currently a topic of intense debate. While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the past decade (9), debate continues over the risks and benefits of TRT. TRT is currently prescribed for older men with either low serum testosterone (T) or low T plus accompanying symptoms of hypogonadism. The normal range for serum testosterone is 300 to 1,000 ng/dl. Serum T ≤ 300 ng/dl is considered to be low, and T ≤ 250 is considered to be frank hypogonadism. Most experts support TRT for older men with frank hypogonadism and symptoms. Treatment for men who simply have low T remains somewhat controversial. TRT is most frequently administered by intramuscular (im) injection of long-acting T esters or transdermally via patch or gel preparations and infrequently via oral administration. TRT produces a number of established benefits in hypogonadal men, including increased muscle mass and strength, decreased fat mass, increased bone mineral density, and improved sexual function, and in some cases those benefits are dose dependent. For example, doses of TRT administered by im injection are typically higher than those administered transdermally, which results in greater musculoskeletal benefits. TRT also produces known risks including development of polycythemia (Hct > 50) in 6% of those treated, decrease in HDL, breast tenderness and enlargement, prostate enlargement, increases in serum PSA, and prostate-related events and may cause suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Importantly, TRT does not increase the risk of prostate cancer. Putative risks include edema and worsening of sleep apnea. Several recent reports have also indicated that TRT may produce cardiovascular (CV) risks, while others report no risk or even benefit. To address the potential CV risks of TRT, we have recently reported via meta-analysis that oral TRT increases CV risk and suggested that the CV risk profile for im TRT

  11. Transdermal testosterone delivery: comparison between scrotal and nonscrotal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Xing, Q F; Chien, Y W

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the bioequivalence of two testosterone transdermal delivery systems (T-TDSs). Testoderm, designed to deliver testosterone through scrotal skin, and Androderm, designed for nonscrotal permeation. In vitro permeation and release kinetics as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics in the castrated Yucatan miniature swine (minipigs) model of both T-TDSs were studied side by side under the same experimental conditions. In vitro skin permeation kinetics studies demonstrated that testosterone permeates through minipig dorsal skin at zero-order kinetics from both T-TDSs. The nonscrotal T-TDS, however, has a permeation rate which is approximately 13 times higher than that for the scrotal T-TDS. The release of testosterone from the nonscrotal T-TDS showed a biphasic release profile between cumulative amount released and time, whereas a monophasic release profile between cumulative amount released and square root of time was observed for the scrotal T-TDS. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma testosterone profiles in minipigs indicated a significant difference (p < 0.001) in daily dose of testosterone delivered (1.20 versus 4.83 mg/day), maximum concentration (Cmax) (54.2 versus 218.0 ng/dl), and area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-28)[665 versus 3208 (ng/dl) x hr] between these T-TDSs. However, there is no difference in time to reach Cmax mean residence time, and daily-delivered-dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0-28. The difference in pharmacokinetic profiles resulted from the difference in daily doses delivered, which could be attributed remarkably to the difference in permeation rate (approximately 13-fold) between the nonscrotal and scrotal T-TDSs.

  12. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  13. Modulation of pain sensation by stress-related testosterone and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Choi, J C; Chung, M I; Lee, Y D

    2012-10-01

    Stress increases cortisol and decreases testosterone. It is not known whether pain is affected by stress-related testosterone. Therefore, we investigated whether stress can affect pain perception by decreasing testosterone and increasing cortisol. Pain thresholds, pain and anxiety ratings and salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were measured in 46 healthy men during resting and stressful conditions. Pain was induced by electrical stimulation. Stress was induced by having participants perform a medical test. Stress significantly increased anxiety ratings and salivary cortisol levels, but decreased salivary testosterone levels. Stress also increased pain ratings and decreased pain thresholds. During stress, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with pain thresholds and testosterone levels were positively correlated with pain thresholds. Results indicated that testosterone can decrease and cortisol can increase pain induced by electrical stimulation, suggesting that acute clinical pain may be relieved by controlling stress and managing consequent stress-related testosterone and cortisol.

  14. Effects of testosterone therapy on bipolar disorder with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuhiro; Jono, Tadashi; Nishi, Yoshitomo; Ushijima, Hirokage; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is widely associated with cognitive impairment and language problems. KS patients may also exhibit psychiatric symptoms. We present the case of an 18-year-old man with KS who experienced rapidly repeating relapses of manic episodes. He was unresponsive to the usual pharmacotherapies for bipolar disorders such as mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics. Mood was eventually improved with testosterone therapy in addition to pharmacotherapy, with no relapse of manic episodes for 3 years after discharge. Testosterone therapy may prevent relapsing manic episodes of bipolar disorder in patients with KS.

  15. Testosterone and pupillary response to auditory sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, J M

    1997-10-01

    Low-, medium-, and high-testosterone subjects listened to four 30-s recorded stimuli while a computer system continuously measured their pupil size. The stimuli dealt with sex, aggression, and two neutral topics. Subjects dilated more to sex than to the other topics. Male and female subjects responded similarly, although low-testosterone males did not dilate as long as other subjects to the sexual stimulus. Auditory stimuli avoid a brightness artifact associated with visual stimuli. Auditory stimuli can be used in a variety of pupillometry studies, including studies of ongoing conversation and social interaction.

  16. Testosterone uptake by prostatic tissue from young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanadian, R; Fotherby, K

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of [3H]-testosterone in vitro by the ventral lobe of the prostate of rats more than 11 months old was significantly less than that of rats 4-5 weeks old. There were significant decreases between young and old rats in the RNA and DNA content of the prostate but not in the activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases. Alkaline phosphatase activity was higher than that of acid phosphatase. Testosterone uptake by the prostate was higher in culture medium TC199 than in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution.

  17. 13C/12C isotope ratio MS analysis of testosterone, in chemicals and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, X; González, J C; Pichini, S; Pascual, J A; Segura, J

    2001-02-01

    The 13C/12C ratio can be used to detect testosterone misuse in sport because (semi)-synthetic testosterone is supposed to have a 13C abundance different from that of endogenous natural human testosterone. In this study, gas chromatography/combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) analysis for the measurement of the delta 13C/1000 value of testosterone from esterified forms of 13 pharmaceutical preparations, six reagent grade chemicals and three bulk materials (raw materials used in pharmaceutical proarations) obtained world-wide was investigated after applying a strong acidic solvolytic procedure. Mean delta 13C/1000 values of non esterified (free) testosterone from chemicals and bulk materials of several testosterone esters were in the range: -25.91/-32.82/1000 while the value obtained for a (semi)-synthetic, reagent grade, free testosterone was -27.36/1000. The delta 13C/1000 results obtained for testosterone from the pharmaceuticals investigated containing testosterone esters were quite homogeneous (mean and S.D. of delta 13C/1000 values of free testosterone: 27.43 +/- 0.76/1000), being the range between -26.18 and -30.04/1000. Values described above were clearly different from those reported by several authors for endogenous natural human testosterone and its main metabolites excreted into the urine in non-consumers of testosterone (delta 13C/1000 range: from -21.3 to -24.4/1000), while they were similar to those of urinary testosterone and metabolites from individuals treated with testosterone esters and testosterone precursors. This finding justifies the fact that administration of these pharmaceutical formulations led to a statistical decrease of carbon isotope ratio of urinary testosterone and its main metabolites in treated subjects.

  18. Testosterone and Child and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Parent-Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of families with 6- to 18-year-olds, this study found that sons' and daughters' testosterone levels showed little direct connection to risk behavior or depressive symptoms. As parent-child relationship quality increased, testosterone-related adjustment problems were less evident. When relationship quality decreased, testosterone-linked…

  19. Testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy: relation to method of conception in an infertile population.

    PubMed

    Lathi, Ruth B; Moayeri, Sharon E; Reddy, Charitha D; Gebhardt, Janice; Behr, Barry; Westphal, Lynn M

    2012-03-01

    This prospective cohort study of infertility patients compared testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy in infertility patients who conceived naturally or after treatment. Although all groups demonstrated some increase in pregnancy testosterone from baseline concentrations, subjects who conceived following ovulation induction showed a significantly increased rise in testosterone as compared with controls (P<0.01).

  20. Separating behavioral and physiological mechanisms in testosterone-mediated trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, François; Redpath, Stephen M; Piertney, Stuart B; Hudson, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Testosterone often mediates trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history traits, which are usually investigated using testosterone implants. However, this approach does not distinguish between the physiological and behavioral effects of testosterone. We studied a wild game bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, and took a new approach to investigate mechanisms linking elevated testosterone to increased parasite intensity. We caught males in autumn, removed their parasites, implanted them with the antiandrogen flutamide in combination with an aromatase inhibitor (FA males) or with empty implants (control males), and challenged them with parasites. The FA treatment increased testosterone concentration and physiological stress, but without enhancing testosterone-dependent behaviors, because testosterone receptors were blocked. FA males ended up with more parasites than the control males the following autumn, an effect similar to that of a testosterone treatment reported elsewhere. However, and unlike the testosterone treatment, the FA treatment did not affect home range, pairing, or breeding success. The results supported a physiological mechanism (increased susceptibility) linking elevated testosterone and increased parasite intensity. The FA treatment provided a new way of investigating testosterone-mediated trade-offs whereby testosterone concentration was increased while the effects on behavior were blocked, resulting in physiological costs without phenotypic benefits.

  1. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Emily S; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T; Thune, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes.

  2. Has testosterone passed the test in premenopausal women with low libido? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Beverly G; Bou Nemer, Laurice; Carr, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited evaluation and treatment options for low libido in premenopausal women. This review sought to evaluate the available evidence supporting the evaluation of testosterone serum levels and testosterone treatment of premenopausal women with low libido. Methods MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for articles that referenced the evaluation of testosterone serum level and/or testosterone treatment on premenopausal women with low libido from 1995 to 2015. Additional references were obtained from the reference sections of other papers and from peer review. Studies that included only postmenopausal women were excluded. A total of 13 studies were reviewed in detail. Nine studies examined the relationship between testosterone serum levels and sexuality, an additional three studies examined the effect of testosterone treatment on premenopausal women with low libido, and one study examined both the topics. Results Six of the ten testosterone serum evaluation studies failed to show a significant association between testosterone serum level and libido. Only one out of four studies examining testosterone treatment in premenopausal women was able to show any clear improvement in libido; however, the effect was limited to only the intermediate dose of testosterone, with the low and high doses of testosterone not producing any effect. Conclusion The currently available evidence does not support testosterone serum evaluation or treatment in premenopausal women with low libido. Hence, further studies are warranted. PMID:27785108

  3. Effects of morphine on testosterone levels in rat C6 glioma cells: modulation by anastrozole.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Ilaria; Rossi, Antonella; Maddalena, Melinda; Weber, Elisabetta; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2009-10-01

    Rat C6 glioma cells are commonly used to investigate the functions of glial cells. To evaluate the presence of testosterone and its metabolism in rat C6 glioma cells, we cultured them in media with or without the addition of testosterone propionate and anastrozole, a blocker of aromatase, the enzyme needed to transform testosterone into estradiol. The same procedure was repeated with morphine (10 and 100 microM), known to decrease testosterone levels in the brain (in rats) and plasma (in rats and humans). Confluent cells were exposed to the test media for 48 h and then collected. Cell pellets were used to determine testosterone by radioimmunoassay. The C6 cells contained detectable levels of testosterone and the levels increased with the addition of testosterone to the medium. Aromatase blockage by anastrozole increased cellular levels of testosterone regardless of the addition of exogenous testosterone. Both concentrations of morphine dose-dependently decreased testosterone levels in the C6 cells; this effect was also present with the contemporary administration of anastrozole. Our findings show that testosterone is present in rat C6 glioma cells and can be metabolized by aromatase. Moreover, the presence of morphine in the culture medium strongly decreased testosterone, demonstrating that the glia would be a target of the morphine-induced hypogonadal effect.

  4. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    PubMed Central

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans, thus testosterone’s primal motives are concealed. We critically addressed this issue by performing a placebo-controlled single-dose testosterone administration in young women, who played a game of bluff poker wherein concerns for status and resources collide. The profit-maximizing strategy in this game is to mislead the other players by bluffing randomly (independent of strength of the hand), thus also when holding very poor cards (cold bluffing). The profit-maximizing strategy also dictates the players in this poker game to never call the other players’ bluffs. For reputable-status seeking these materialistic strategies are disadvantageous; firstly, being caught cold bluffing damages one’s reputation by revealing deceptive intent, and secondly, not calling the other players’ bluffs signals submission in blindly tolerating deception. Here we show that testosterone administration in this game of bluff poker significantly reduces random bluffing, as well as cold bluffing, while significantly increasing calling. Our data suggest that testosterone in humans primarily motivates for reputable-status seeking, even when this elicits behaviors that are economically disadvantageous. PMID:26727636

  5. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production

    Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr.
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC

    Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

  6. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  7. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  8. Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

  9. Foetal Testosterone, Social Relationships, and Restricted Interests in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Raggatt, Peter; Taylor, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sex-differences exist in some areas of human social behaviour. In animals, foetal testosterone (fT) plays a central role in organising the brain and in later social behaviour. fT has also been implicated in language development, eye-contact, and spatial ability in humans. Methods: Fifty-eight children (35 male and 23 female), whose fT…

  10. Low testosterone correlates with delayed development in male orangutans.

    PubMed

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Zhou, Amy; Knott, Cheryl D

    2012-01-01

    Male orangutans (Pongo spp.) display an unusual characteristic for mammals in that some adult males advance quickly to full secondary sexual development while others can remain in an adolescent-like form for a decade or more past the age of sexual maturity. Remarkably little is understood about how and why differences in developmental timing occur. While fully-developed males are known to produce higher androgen levels than arrested males, the longer-term role of steroid hormones in male life history variation has not been examined. We examined variation in testosterone and cortisol production among 18 fully-developed ("flanged") male orangutans in U.S. captive facilities. Our study revealed that while testosterone levels did not vary significantly according to current age, housing condition, and species origin, males that had undergone precocious development had higher testosterone levels than males that had experienced developmental arrest. While androgen variation had previously been viewed as a state-dependent characteristic of male developmental status, our study reveals that differences in the physiology of early and late developing males are detectable long past the developmental transition and may instead be trait-level characteristics associated with a male's life history strategy. Further studies are needed to determine how early in life differences in testosterone levels emerge and what consequences this variation may have for male behavioral strategies.

  11. Low Testosterone Correlates with Delayed Development in Male Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Zhou, Amy; Knott, Cheryl D.

    2012-01-01

    Male orangutans (Pongo spp.) display an unusual characteristic for mammals in that some adult males advance quickly to full secondary sexual development while others can remain in an adolescent-like form for a decade or more past the age of sexual maturity. Remarkably little is understood about how and why differences in developmental timing occur. While fully-developed males are known to produce higher androgen levels than arrested males, the longer-term role of steroid hormones in male life history variation has not been examined. We examined variation in testosterone and cortisol production among 18 fully-developed (“flanged”) male orangutans in U.S. captive facilities. Our study revealed that while testosterone levels did not vary significantly according to current age, housing condition, and species origin, males that had undergone precocious development had higher testosterone levels than males that had experienced developmental arrest. While androgen variation had previously been viewed as a state-dependent characteristic of male developmental status, our study reveals that differences in the physiology of early and late developing males are detectable long past the developmental transition and may instead be trait-level characteristics associated with a male’s life history strategy. Further studies are needed to determine how early in life differences in testosterone levels emerge and what consequences this variation may have for male behavioral strategies. PMID:23077585

  12. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  13. Effects of Nandrolone Stimulation on Testosterone Biosynthesis in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Rosario; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Barone, Fulvio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Locorotondo, Nicola; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Salerno, Monica; Maglietta, Francesca; Sarni, Antonio Luciano; Di Felice, Valentina; Cappello, Francesco; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are among the drugs most used by athletes for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. A number of papers have showed the side effects of AAS in different organs and tissues. For example, AAS are known to suppress gonadotropin‐releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle‐stimulating hormone. This study investigates the effects of nandrolone on testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells using various methods, including mass spectrometry, western blotting, confocal microscopy and quantitative real‐time PCR. The results obtained show that testosterone levels increase at a 3.9 μM concentration of nandrolone and return to the basal level a 15.6 μM dose of nandrolone. Nandrolone‐induced testosterone increment was associated with upregulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and downregulation of 17a‐hydroxylase/17, 20 lyase (CYP17A1). Instead, a 15.6 µM dose of nandrolone induced a down‐regulation of CYP17A1. Further in vivo studies based on these data are needed to better understand the relationship between disturbed testosterone homeostasis and reproductive system impairment in male subjects. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1385–1391, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26626779

  14. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section 522.842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  20. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section 522.842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  1. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section 522.842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  2. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section 522.842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  3. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section 522.842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  4. No effect of testosterone on behavior in aged Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Borbélyová, Veronika; Domonkos, Emese; Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Bosý, Martin; Hodosy, Július; Celec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In men, aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in androgen secretion. Studies suggest beneficial effects of endogenous and exogenous testosterone on affective behavior and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral and cognitive sex differences and to analyze the effects of long-term androgen deficiency in aged male rats. Thirty-months old rats divided into three groups (males, females and males gonadectomized as young adults) underwent a battery of behavioral tests assessing locomotor activity, anxiety, memory, anhedonia, sociability and depression-like behavior. No major effect of gonadectomy was found in any of the analyzed behavioral measures in male rats. The only consistent sex difference was confirmed in depression-like behavior with longer immobility time observed in males. In an interventional experiment, a single dose of testosterone had no effect on gonadectomized male and female rats in the forced swim test. In contrast to previous studies this comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of aged rats revealed no major role of endogenous testosterone. Based on our results long-term hypogonadism does not alter the behavior of aged male rats, neither does acute testosterone treatment. Whether these findings have any consequences on androgen replacement therapy in aged men remains to be elucidated. PMID:27852981

  5. Pituitary and testis responsiveness of young male sheep exposed to testosterone excess during fetal development.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Mónica P; Rojas-Garcia, Pedro P; Einspanier, Ralf; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces reproductive disturbances in both female and male sheep. In females, it alters the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. In males, prenatal testosterone excess reduces sperm count and motility. Focusing on males, this study tested whether pituitary LH responsiveness to GNRH is increased in prenatal testosterone-exposed males and whether testicular function is compromised in the testosterone-exposed males. Control males (n=6) and males born to ewes exposed to twice weekly injections of 30  mg testosterone propionate from days 30 to 90 and of 40  mg testosterone propionate from days 90 to 120 of gestation (n=6) were studied at 20 and 30 weeks of age. Pituitary and testicular responsiveness was tested by administering a GNRH analog (leuprolide acetate). To complement the analyses, the mRNA expression of LH receptor (LHR) and that of steroidogenic enzymes were determined in testicular tissue. Basal LH and testosterone concentrations were higher in the testosterone-exposed-males. While LH response to the GNRH analog was higher in the testosterone-exposed males than in the control males, testosterone responses did not differ between the treatment groups. The testosterone:LH ratio was higher in the control males than in the testosterone-exposed males of 30 weeks of age, suggestive of reduced Leydig cell sensitivity to LH in the testosterone-exposed males. The expression of LHR mRNA was lower in the testosterone-exposed males, but the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes did not differ between the groups. These findings indicate that prenatal testosterone excess has opposing effects at the pituitary and testicular levels, namely increased pituitary sensitivity to GNRH at the level of pituitary and decreased sensitivity of the testes to LH.

  6. Testosterone replacement attenuates cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived lean rats, but not in obese rats, by mitigating brain oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Testosterone replacement improves metabolic parameters and cognitive function in hypogonadism. However, the effects of testosterone therapy on cognition in obese condition with testosterone deprivation have not been investigated. We hypothesized that testosterone replacement improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats had either a bilateral orchiectomy (ORX: O, n = 24) or a sham operation (S, n = 6). ORX rats were further divided into two groups fed with either a normal diet (NDO) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) and were given either castor oil or testosterone (2 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 4 weeks. At the end of this protocol, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and brain mitochondrial function were determined. We found that testosterone replacement increased peripheral insulin sensitivity, decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, and attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production in HFO rats. However, testosterone failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in HFO rats. In contrast, in NDO rats, testosterone decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production, and restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function. These findings suggest that testosterone replacement improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and decreased oxidative stress levels, but failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats. However, it provided beneficial effects in reversing cognitive impairment in testosterone-deprived non-obese rats.

  7. Measuring fecal testosterone metabolites in spotted hyenas: Choosing the wrong assay may lead to erroneous results.

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Dehnhard, Martin

    2016-11-17

    Enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) that detect fecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) are powerful tools to monitor gonadal activity non-invasively. However, a challenge with testosterone EIAs might be their potential for cross-reactivities with structurally similar glucocorticoid metabolites. Therefore, we aimed to verify the capability of four different testosterone EIAs to monitor fTM without reflecting changes in adrenocortical activity in spotted hyenas by analyzing fecal samples following testosterone and ACTH challenge tests. We demonstrated that none of the testosterone EIAs is appropriate to measure fTM as all of them showed substantial cross-reactivities to unknown metabolites. Our study underlines the importance of validating androgen EIAs.

  8. [The importance of testosterone in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in men].

    PubMed

    Kempisty-Zdebik, Ewa; Zdebik, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome is being seen in increasing percentage of men with middle and old age. Besides the typical deterioration of sexual function there is predisposition to metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The similarity of the effects of testosterone substitution and the dietary treatment led the authors to a retrospective analysis of patient data treated for testosterone deficiency syndrome. Data on 341 patients aged over 45 years with metabolic syndrome and diabetes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency syndrome were divided into 5 groups: T--testosterone substitution without additional diet, T-Low-Carb--testosterone and low carbohydrate diet, T-Fat-Low--testosterone and low fat diet, Carb-Low--only low carbohydrate diet, Fat-Low--only low fat diet. We analyzed change in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbAlc, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels within 6 months from the start of observation. The best results of all investigated parameters were obtained in patients treated with testosterone and low-carbohydrate diet and in the group treated with testosterone and low-fat diet. Slightly worse results in the group received the same diets and the worst in the group treated only with testosterone. The improvement obtained in the total testosterone therapy and diet was much greater than the simple sum of the effects of both methods witch suggests the existence of synergies.

  9. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Modifies Testosterone Action and Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Huika; Pham, Thy; McWhinney, Brett C; Ungerer, Jacobus P; Pretorius, Carel J; Richard, Derek J; Mortimer, Robin H; d'Emden, Michael C; Richard, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is the major serum carrier of sex hormones. However, growing evidence suggests that SHBG is internalised and plays a role in regulating intracellular hormone action. This study was to determine whether SHBG plays a role in testosterone uptake, metabolism, and action in the androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Internalisation of SHBG and testosterone, the effects of SHBG on testosterone uptake, metabolism, regulation of androgen responsive genes, and cell growth were assessed. LNCaP cells internalised SHBG by a testosterone independent process. Testosterone was rapidly taken up and effluxed as testosterone-glucuronide; however this effect was reduced by the presence of SHBG. Addition of SHBG, rather than reducing testosterone bioavailability, further increased testosterone-induced expression of prostate specific antigen and enhanced testosterone-induced reduction of androgen receptor mRNA expression. Following 38 hours of testosterone treatment cell morphology changed and growth declined; however, cotreatment with SHBG abrogated these inhibitory effects. These findings clearly demonstrate that internalised SHBG plays an important regulatory and intracellular role in modifying testosterone action and this has important implications for the role of SHBG in health and disease.

  10. Salivary testosterone levels in men at a U.S. sex club.

    PubMed

    Escasa, Michelle J; Casey, Jacqueline F; Gray, Peter B

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate males commonly experience elevations in testosterone levels in response to sexual stimuli, such as presentation of a novel mating partner. Some previous human studies have shown that watching erotic movies increases testosterone levels in males although studies measuring testosterone changes during actual sexual intercourse or masturbation have yielded mixed results. Small sample sizes, "unnatural" lab-based settings, and invasive techniques may help account for mixed human findings. Here, we investigated salivary testosterone levels in men watching (n = 26) versus participating (n = 18) in sexual activity at a large U.S. sex club. The present study entailed minimally invasive sample collection (measuring testosterone in saliva), a naturalistic setting, and a larger number of subjects than previous work to test three hypotheses related to men's testosterone responses to sexual stimuli. Subjects averaged 40 years of age and participated between 11:00 pm and 2:10 am. Consistent with expectations, results revealed that testosterone levels increased 36% among men during a visit to the sex club, with the magnitude of testosterone change significantly greater among participants (72%) compared with observers (11%). Contrary to expectation, men's testosterone changes were unrelated to their age. These findings were generally consistent with vertebrate studies indicating elevated male testosterone in response to sexual stimuli, but also point out the importance of study context since participation in sexual behavior had a stronger effect on testosterone increases in this study but unlike some previous human lab-based studies.

  11. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Modifies Testosterone Action and Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huika; Ungerer, Jacobus P.; Pretorius, Carel J.; Mortimer, Robin H.; d'Emden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is the major serum carrier of sex hormones. However, growing evidence suggests that SHBG is internalised and plays a role in regulating intracellular hormone action. This study was to determine whether SHBG plays a role in testosterone uptake, metabolism, and action in the androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Internalisation of SHBG and testosterone, the effects of SHBG on testosterone uptake, metabolism, regulation of androgen responsive genes, and cell growth were assessed. LNCaP cells internalised SHBG by a testosterone independent process. Testosterone was rapidly taken up and effluxed as testosterone-glucuronide; however this effect was reduced by the presence of SHBG. Addition of SHBG, rather than reducing testosterone bioavailability, further increased testosterone-induced expression of prostate specific antigen and enhanced testosterone-induced reduction of androgen receptor mRNA expression. Following 38 hours of testosterone treatment cell morphology changed and growth declined; however, cotreatment with SHBG abrogated these inhibitory effects. These findings clearly demonstrate that internalised SHBG plays an important regulatory and intracellular role in modifying testosterone action and this has important implications for the role of SHBG in health and disease. PMID:27990161

  12. Testosterone, anastrozole, factor V Leiden heterozygosity and osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Ramesh S; Glueck, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Our specific aim is to describe the development of thrombotic osteonecrosis of the jaws after testosterone-anastrozole therapy in a 55-year-old white man subsequently found to have previously undiagnosed factor V Leiden heterozygosity. Before the diagnosis of V Leiden heterozygosity, he was given testosterone gel, 50 mg/day, and on testosterone, serum testosterone (963 ng/dl) and estradiol were high (50 pg/ml). Anastrozole was started, and testosterone was continued. Six months later, osteonecrosis of the jaws was diagnosed. Exogenous testosterone is aromatized to estradiol and estradiol-induced thrombophilia, when superimposed on underlying familial thrombophilia, as in this case, may lead to thrombosis and osteonecrosis. We recommend that before giving testosterone, at a minimum, screening for the factor V Leiden and G20210A mutations, and factor VIII and XI activity be carried out, to avoid unanticipated thrombosis.

  13. The role of testosterone therapy in cardiovascular mortality: culprit or innocent bystander?

    PubMed

    Tanna, Monique S; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Berger, Jeffery S; Alukal, Joseph; Weintraub, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Testosterone therapy is recommended for men with symptomatic androgen deficiency and unequivocally low testosterone levels. Although the prevalence of hypogonadism seems relatively constant, studies of prescribing patterns in both the United States and the United Kingdom show a dramatic increase in testosterone prescription in recent years, possibly due to increased marketing and inappropriate therapy. Concurrent with this, there has been growing concern regarding the potential adverse effects of testosterone therapy, particularly its cardiovascular risks. In this review, we present our current understanding of the implications of testosterone deficiency, as well as the conflicting evidence surrounding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone replacement therapy. Although there is a lack of adequate data, based on the current evidence, we conclude that testosterone therapy can be safely considered in men with appropriately diagnosed clinical androgen deficiency and increased cardiovascular risk after a thorough discussion of potential risks and with guideline recommended safety monitoring.

  14. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on histological changes of prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Noa, M; Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Más, R; Molina, V

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostate gland cells and stroma leading to difficulty in urinating. Lipid extracts from Saw palmetto (Arecaceae) fruits are used to treat BPH. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) is a member of this family and D-004, a lipid extract from its fruits, prevents prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone, as opposed to dihydrotestosterone, in rodents. This study investigated whether D-004 could prevent the histological features of testosterone-induced PH in rats. Rats were distributed into six groups (10 rats per group): A negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of soy oil and treated with vehicle, and five groups injected subcutaneously with testosterone and treated with the vehicle (positive control), D-004 (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) or Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and processed for light microscopy. The histopathological findings of PH were assessed according to a score-chart protocol. D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg, but not 100 mg/kg, significantly and moderately in a dose-dependent manner prevented prostate enlargement and the testosterone-induced histological changes. Compared with positive controls, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited prostate size increases and the histological score up to 56.1% and 60.7%, respectively, while Saw palmetto 400 mg/kg reduced such variables by 45.8% and 49.0%, respectively. The effects of D-004 400 mg/kg on the histological changes, not on prostate size, were greater (p < 0.05) than those of Saw palmetto. D-004 and Saw palmetto did not affect body weight values. In conclusion, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days prevented the increase of prostate size and the testosterone-induced histological changes in rats, its effects being comparable or mildly better than those of Saw palmetto. These results extend previous data showing preventive

  15. Sex and testosterone effects on growth, immunity and melanin coloration of nestling Eurasian kestrels.

    PubMed

    Fargallo, Juan A; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Dávila, José A

    2007-01-01

    1. Sex differences in testosterone levels and sex-biased sensitivity to testosterone are the basis of some ideas postulated to account for sex-linked environmental vulnerability during early life. However, sex variation in circulating testosterone levels has been scarcely explored and never manipulated at post-natal stages of birds in the wild. 2. We measured and experimentally increased circulating testosterone levels in nestling Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus. We investigated, possible sexual differences in testosterone levels and the effect of this hormone on growth (body mass and tarsus length) and cell-mediated immunity in males and females. We also explored testosterone effects on rump coloration, a highly variable melanin-based trait in male nestlings. We analysed data on circulating testosterone levels of nestlings in 15 additional bird species. 3. Increased levels of testosterone tended to negatively affect body condition, reduced cell-mediated immune responses in male and female nestlings and also diminished the expression of grey rump coloration in male nestlings. No sex differences were observed in testosterone levels in either control or increased testosterone group nestlings, and no interactions were found between sex and treatment. However, male nestlings showed a lower cell-mediated immune response than females in both groups. 4. Our results indicate first, that a high level of testosterone in all nestlings in a brood entails costs, at least in terms of immunity, coloration and probably growth. Secondly, sex differences in post-natal cell-mediated immunity, and consequently in the capacity to prevent diseases, cannot be explained by sex differences in circulating testosterone levels. Finally, by comparing published data at an interspecific level, contradictory sex patterns in circulating testosterone levels have been found, supporting the idea that circulating testosterone might not be a proximate factor causing sex-dependent vulnerability in

  16. Testosterone as Potential Effective Therapy in Treatment of Obesity in Men with Testosterone Deficiency: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Farid; Aversa, Antonio; Isidori, Andrea M; Gooren, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Obesity negatively affects human health. Limiting food intake, while producing some weight loss, results in reduction of lean body mass. Combined with moderate exercise it produces significant weight loss, maintains lean body mass and improves insulin sensitivity, but appears difficult to adhere to. Bariatric surgery is clinically effective for severely obese individuals compared with non-surgical interventions, but has limitations. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have implicated a role for testosterone (T) in the patho-physiology of obesity. Methods: Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: A literature search in PubMed on the role of T in counteracting obesity and its complications. Results: Obesity per se impairs testicular T biosynthesis. Furthermore, lower-than-normal T levels increase accumulation of fat depots, particularly abdominal (visceral) fat. This fat distribution is associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its sequels, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). T treatment reverses fat accumulation with significant improvement in lean body mass, insulin sensitivity and biochemical profiles of cardiovascular risk. The contribution of T to combating obesity in hypogonadal men remains largely unknown to medical professionals managing patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Many physicians associate T treatment in men with risks for prostate malignancy and CVD. These beliefs are not supported by recent insights. Conclusion: While overall treatment of obesity is unsuccessful, T treatment of hypogonadal men may be effective, also because it improves mood, energy, reduces fatigue and may motivate men to adhere to diet and exercise regimens designed to combat obesity. PMID:22268394

  17. Testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency: are the benefits and cardiovascular risks real or imagined?

    PubMed

    Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2016-09-01

    In the adult male, testosterone (T) deficiency (TD) also known as male hypogonadism, is a well-established medical condition, which has been recognized for more than a century. T therapy in men with TD was introduced as early as 1940s and was reported to improve overall health with no concomitant serious adverse effects. A wealth of recent studies demonstrated that T therapy in men with TD is associated with increased lean body mass, reduced fat mass and waist circumference, improvement in glycemic control, and reduced obesity. T therapy is also associated with improvements in lipid profiles, amelioration of metabolic syndrome (Met S) components, reduced inflammatory biomarkers, reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and improvements in sexual function. More importantly, T therapy is associated with amelioration of diabetes and reduced mortality. However, few studies, marred with serious methodological and analytical flaws reported between 2010 and 2014, suggested that T therapy is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. As summarized in this review, a thorough and critical analysis of these studies showed that the risks purported are unsubstantiated and such studies lacked credible scientific and clinical evidence. Moreover, recent observational, registry studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses, all revealed no increase in CV risks in men receiving T therapy. In this review, the benefits of T therapy in adult men with TD and the lack of credible evidence suggesting that T therapy is linked to increased CV risks are discussed. It should be noted that the literature is replete with studies demonstrating beneficial effects of T therapy on CV and overall health.

  18. Atomic softness-based QSAR study of testosterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, H. K.; Pasha, F. A.; Singh, P. P.

    Ionization potential of an atom in a molecule, electron affinity of an atom in a molecule, and quantum chemical descriptor atomic softness values En‡-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of testosterone derivatives have been done with the help of PM3 calculations on WinMOPAC 7.21 software. The 3D modeling and geometry optimization of all the compounds have been done with the help of PCMODEL software. The biological activities of testosterone derivatives have been taken from literature. The predicted values of biological activity with the help of multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is very close to observed biological activity. The cross-validation coefficient and correlation coefficient also indicate that the QSAR model is valuable. Regression analysis shows a very good relationship with biological activity and En‡ values. With the help of these values, prediction of the biological activity of any unknown compound is possible.

  19. Testosterone replacement therapy and the risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Daniel; Hobaugh, Christopher; Wang, Grace; Lin, Haocheng; Wang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in the development and progression of prostate cancer is an important concept in treating patients with symptoms of hypogonadism. This article revealed a small number of mostly retrospective, observational studies describing the use of TRT in the general population, in men with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in men with a history of treated prostate cancer, and in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. The current literature does not report a statistically significant increase in the development or progression of prostate cancer in men receiving testosterone replacement for symptomatic hypogonadism, and the prostate saturation theory provides a model explaining the basis for these results. The use of TRT in men with a history of prostate cancer is considered experimental, but future results from randomized controlled trials could lead to a change in our current treatment approach.

  20. Male osteoporosis and androgenic therapy: from testosterone to SARMs

    PubMed Central

    Cilotti, Antonio; Falchetti, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    As in the women, male osteoporosis represents an important social problem, amplified by the increasing life expectance. Differently from women, 50% of male osteoporosis is secondary to treatments and/or diseases that make mandatory their search through an accurate clinical investigations in every newly diagnosed osteoporotic men. Male osteoporosis is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated, and too often it is revealed only after the occurrence of a fragility fracture. Androgens may prevent the loss of cancellous bone and stimulate periosteal cortical bone apposition. The anabolic effect of testosterone on both bone and muscle, is limited by the high incidence of androgenic side effects. Hypogonadism is the only situation where the benefits of the use of testosterone formulations exceed the side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators can dissociate androgenic and anabolic effect on different tissues with various strategies. Many compounds have been studied with positive results in vivo and in clinical trials. PMID:22461251

  1. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-11-05

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of <2.4 ng/mL. The tumor volume was calculated based on the pre- and post-operative magnetic resonance images. We prescribed testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement.

  2. Effect of testosterone and cortisol administration on the reproductive tract of male Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    McAllan, B M

    1998-03-01

    The life history of Antechinus stuartii, a marsupial, is highly synchronized and culminates in a brief mating period that is followed by complete male mortality. The accessory reproductive tracts of male A. stuartii enlarge in association with testosterone and cortisol hormone concentrations, but this appears to be unrelated to the spermatogenic cycle. The present study examined the effects of testosterone and cortisol on the male reproductive tract. Four groups of adult males from May (when plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations are low) were given depot injections of testosterone esters or synthetic cortisol in doses that mimic concentrations found in males in the breeding period (August). Males were given either saline, testosterone only, cortisol only, or testosterone plus cortisol. Experimental groups did not differ in the seminiferous tubule morphology. However, the cells from the caudal end of the epididymides of both testosterone groups were considerably hypertrophied compared with males treated with saline or cortisol only. Testosterone treatment significantly increased prostate and bulbourethral gland mass, although addition of cortisol to the testosterone administration diminished this effect. The morphology of the accessory reproductive tract of males treated with either saline or cortisol only was similar to that of untreated males at the same time of year, and the morphology of the accessory reproductive tract of males treated with testosterone plus cortisol was similar to that of untreated males in the breeding season. Like some other marsupials, the spermatogenic cycle in A. stuartii is apparently not correlated with androgen activity, while the accessory reproductive tract is affected by androgens.

  3. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Fernandez, Carmen; Conover, Christine F; Ye, Fan; Meuleman, John R; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor), in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies are warranted to determine if testosterone replacement may improve cognition in other domains. PMID:25143719

  4. Bill color, not badge size, indicates testosterone-related information in house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Kempenaers, Bart; Dale, James

    2010-01-01

    The honesty of ornamental signals of quality is often argued to be enforced via costs associated with testosterone. It is still poorly understood, however, how seasonal variation of testosterone within individuals is related to the timing and extent of ornament development. Here, we studied inter- and intra-individual variability of plasma testosterone levels in a population of 150 captive male house sparrows (Passer domesticus) through the course of a full year. We further analyzed the relationship between plasma testosterone levels and two sexually dimorphic ornaments: badge size and bill coloration. Also, because of a known negative relation between molt and circulating testosterone levels, we analyzed the relationship between ornamentation and molt status during the fall. We found that testosterone levels increased towards the breeding season and decreased before the onset of annual molt. However, within individuals, relative testosterone titers demonstrated low repeatability between seasons. Plasma testosterone levels were not correlated with badge size in any season but were correlated strongly with bill coloration during all periods, except the breeding season when variation in bill color was low. Finally, we found that bill coloration strongly correlated with molt status during fall. Our results indicate that bill coloration, not badge size, is the best ornamental indicator of a “running average” of male testosterone in house sparrows and therefore the best potential indicator of qualities and/or behavioral strategies associated with testosterone. PMID:20730125

  5. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Fernandez, Carmen; Conover, Christine F; Ye, Fan; Meuleman, John R; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor), in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥ 60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤ 300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤ 70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies are warranted to determine if testosterone replacement may improve cognition in other domains.

  6. Testosterone replacement therapy and the heart: friend, foe or bystander?

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Steven; Wang, Run

    2016-01-01

    The role of testosterone therapy (TTh) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is still controversial, and it seems will remain inconclusive for the moment. An extensive body of literature has investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events including several meta-analyses. In some instances, a number of studies reported beneficial effects of TTh on CVD events and in other instances the body of literature reported detrimental effects or no effects at all. Yet, no review article has scrutinized this body of literature using the magnitude of associations and statistical significance reported from this relationship. We critically reviewed the previous and emerging body of literature that investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events (only fatal and nonfatal). These studies were divided into three groups, “beneficial (friendly use)”, “detrimental (foe)” and “no effects at all (bystander)”, based on their magnitude of associations and statistical significance from original research studies and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies and of randomized controlled trials (RCT’s). In this review article, the studies reporting a significant association of high levels of testosterone with a reduced risk of CVD events in original prospective studies and meta-analyses of cross-sectional and prospective studies seems to be more consistent. However, the number of meta-analyses of RCT’s does not provide a clear picture after we divided it into the beneficial, detrimental or no effects all groups using their magnitudes of association and statistical significance. From this review, we suggest that we need a study or number of studies that have the adequate power, epidemiological, and clinical data to provide a definitive conclusion on whether the effect of TTh on the natural history of CVD is real or not. PMID:28078222

  7. Outcomes of long-term testosterone replacement in older hypogonadal males: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, R R; Kaiser, F E; Morley, J E

    1997-11-01

    To determine the complications, toxicities, and compliance of long term testosterone replacement in hypogonadal males, we retrospectively assessed 45 elderly hypogonadal men receiving testosterone replacement therapy and 27 hypogonadal men taking testosterone. Hypogonadism was defined as a bioavailable testosterone serum concentration of 72 ng/dL or less. Both groups received baseline physical examinations and blood tests. The testosterone-treated group received 200 mg testosterone enanthate or cypionate im every 2 weeks, and follow-up examinations and blood samplings were performed every 3 months. The control group had a single follow-up blood test and physical examination. There was no significant difference in the initial blood tests in the two groups. At 2 yr follow-up, only the hematocrit showed a statistically significant increase in the testosterone-treated group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). A decrease in the urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio and an increase in the prostate-specific antigen concentration was not statistically significant. Eleven (24%) of the testosterone-treated subjects developed polycythemia sufficient to require phlebotomy or the temporary withholding of testosterone, one third of which occurred less than 1 yr after starting testosterone treatment. There was no significant difference in the incidence of new illness in the two groups during the 2-yr follow-up. Although self-assessment of libido was dramatically improved in the testosterone-treated group (P < 0.0001), approximately one third of the subjects discontinued therapy. In conclusion, testosterone replacement therapy appears to be well tolerated by over 84% of the subjects. Long term testosterone replacement to date appears to be a safe and effective means of treating hypogonadal elderly males, provided that frequent follow-up blood tests and examinations are performed.

  8. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  9. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Smith, Eric A; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2014-02-07

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18-82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by 'showing off' was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters.

  10. The effects of prenatal testosterone on wages: Evidence from Russia.

    PubMed

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Kochergina, Ekaterina; Orel, Ekaterina; Polyachenko, Sergiy; Yudkevich, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women.

  11. Transporting testosterone and its dimers by serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Vesper, A R; Bekale, L; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-12-01

    A substantial part of steroids is bound to serum proteins in vivo. We report the association of testosterone and it aliphatic dimer (alip) and aromatic dimer (arom) with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Multiple spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular modeling were used to characterize steroid-protein binding and protein aggregation process. Spectroscopic analysis showed that steroids bind protein via hydrophobic, hydrophilic and H-bonding interactions. HSA forms more stable complexes than BSA. The binding affinity of steroid-protein adducts is testosterone>dimer-aromatic>dimer-aliphatic. Transmission electron microscopy showed major changes in protein morphology as steroid-protein complexation occurred with increase in the diameter of the protein aggregate indicating encapsulation of steroids by serum proteins. Modeling showed the presence of H-bonding stabilized testosterone-protein complexes with the free binding energy of -12.95 for HSA and -11.55 kcal/mol for BSA, indicating that the interaction process is spontaneous at room temperature. Steroid complexation induced more perturbations of BSA conformation than HSA.

  12. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  13. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  14. Oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Tan, J K; Degreef, H

    2001-02-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can reduce acne by lowering the production of adrenal and ovarian androgens, by inhibiting 5-alpha-reductase, which in turn, reduces the levels of dihydrotestosterone, and by stimulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thus reducing the levels of free testosterone. In newer OCs, such as Tricyclen and Diane-35, the progestin component is minimally androgenic and anti-androgenic respectively, thereby enhancing the favorable profile of these products in the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders, including acne. The efficacy of these agents and their long-term safety profile supports their use in various grades of acne in females: * As adjunctive therapy to topical agents for women with mild non-scarring acne desiring oral contraception * As primary therapy for patients with moderate non-scarring acne in combination with topical therapy and systemic antibiotics * As one of two preferred methods of contraception in patients with scarring and severe inflammatory acne being treated with systemic isotretinoin.

  15. Testosterone levels in healthy men are related to amygdala reactivity and memory performance.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Sandra; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; Gschwind, Leo; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone thought to influence both emotional and cognitive functions. It is unknown, however, if testosterone also affects the interaction between these two domains, such as the emotional arousal-induced enhancement of memory. Healthy subjects (N=234) encoded pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent a free recall test 10 min after memory encoding. We show that higher endogenous testosterone levels at encoding were associated with higher arousal ratings of neutral pictures in men. fMRI analysis revealed that higher testosterone levels were related to increased brain activation in the amygdala during encoding of neutral pictures. Moreover, endogenous testosterone levels were positively correlated with the number of freely recalled neutral pictures. No such relations were found in women. These findings point to a male-specific role for testosterone in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information.

  16. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears.

  17. Testosterone, alcohol, and civil and rough conflict resolution strategies in lesbian couples.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lauren A; Pearcey, Sharon M; Dabbs, James M

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among testosterone level, acute alcohol consumption, and the use of violent (Rough) or non-violent (Civil) conflict resolution strategies in lesbian couples. The participants were 54 lesbian campers at a women's campground or spectators at a gay pride celebration who each provided a saliva sample for testosterone assay and completed a questionnaire. On the questionnaire, participants indicated whether they used Civil or Rough tactics to deal with domestic discord, and whether or not their use of these tactics varied with their use of alcohol. High testosterone women used Rough tactics equally when drinking as when not drinking, while low testosterone women used Rough tactics far more often when drinking than when not drinking. Alcohol appears to release violent tenden- cies in low testosterone women, who are characteristically restrained under sober conditions, but has little effect on high testosterone women.

  18. Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males.

  19. Patterns of testosterone in three Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbirds during spring passage.

    PubMed

    Covino, Kristen M; Morris, Sara R; Moore, Frank R

    2015-12-01

    Preparation for breeding may overlap extensively with vernal migration in long-distance migratory songbirds. Testosterone plays a central role in mediating this transition into breeding condition by facilitating changes to physiology and behavior. While changes in testosterone levels are well studied in captive migrants, these changes are less well known in free-living birds. We examined testosterone levels in free-living Nearctic-Neotropical migrants of three species during their vernal migration. Testosterone levels increased during the migratory period in males of all three species but significantly so in only two. Testosterone levels in females remained the same throughout their migration. Our results support the extensive overlap between vernal migration and breeding preparation in male songbirds. The pattern of testosterone changes during vernal migration is far from clear in females.

  20. Neither testosterone levels nor aggression decrease when the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) displays paternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Juana, Luis; Bárbara, Vázquez-Gaytán; Martín, Martínez-Torres; Agustín, Carmona; Guillermo, Ramos-Blancas; Guadalupe, Ortíz

    2010-03-01

    The first studies that correlated mammalian paternal behavior and testosterone levels indicated that the concentration of this steroid hormone decreases when males exhibit paternal care. However, recent studies have also shown that testosterone levels do not decrease when males display paternal behavior. In this study, we measured testosterone levels in plasma throughout the reproductive cycle of the Mongolian gerbil. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with paternal care as well as aggression. We also examined whether there is a trade-off between paternal behavior and aggression in this mammal. Our results show that Mongolian gerbil testosterone levels do not decrease when the males give paternal care. Likewise, male Mongolian gerbils exhibit high levels of aggression while displaying paternal behavior, indicating that there is no trade-off between aggression and paternal behavior. More studies are needed to determine whether testosterone is involved in the regulation of paternal behavior in this rodent.

  1. Maternal personality and reproductive ambition in women is associated with salivary testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Deady, D K; Smith, M J Law; Sharp, M A; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has linked testosterone levels with sex-specific personality traits within women. The present study investigates the relation between salivary testosterone levels and specifically maternal personality traits in healthy adult women. Twenty-seven young women completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Additional questions were asked about maternal personality (importance of having children, self-rated maternal/broodiness), reproductive ambition (ideal number of children, ideal own age at first child) and career orientation (importance of having career). Higher circulating testosterone levels were associated with lower scores on measures of maternal personality and reproductive ambition. There was no relation of career orientation with testosterone. A median split on BSRI masculinity revealed high scorers had higher testosterone levels than low scorers. There was no relation of BSRI femininity with testosterone. Results suggest maternal tendencies may be partly androgen driven.

  2. Watching a previous victory produces an increase in testosterone among elite hockey players.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Putnam, Susan K

    2010-04-01

    Previous research indicates that testosterone concentrations are highly responsive to human competitive interactions and that winners have elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losers. Also, there is some evidence that simply observing others compete can have a similar effect on the endocrine system. Here, in two studies, we examined the extent to which elite male hockey players would demonstrate an increase in testosterone concentrations after watching themselves engaged in a previous successful competitive interaction. Results indicated that watching a previous victory produced a significant increase in testosterone concentrations (42-44% increase), whereas watching a previous defeat or a neutral video did not produce a significant change in testosterone (17% and 6%, respectively). Given that natural fluctuations in testosterone have been shown to influence future competitive and aggressive behaviours, the current studies may have important practical implications for individuals involved in competitive sports.

  3. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  4. Can Serum Testosterone Be Used as a Marker of Overall Health?

    PubMed Central

    Mederos, Michael A; Bernie, Aaron M; Scovell, Jason M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    Low serum testosterone has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Individuals with these comorbidities are at increased risk of premature death and other adverse health effects. Clinical data portend low testosterone as a risk factor for developing these conditions which are supported by the hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine hypothesis. The authors support comprehensive evaluation for these comorbid conditions in men found to have low serum testosterone. PMID:26839520

  5. The Effects of Testosterone Supplementation on Cognitive Functioning in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Wahjoepramono, Eka J; Asih, Prita R; Aniwiyanti, Vilia; Taddei, Kevin; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Fuller, Stephanie J; Foster, Jonathan; Carruthers, Malcolm; Verdile, Giuseppe; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-01-01

    Reduction in testosterone levels in men during aging is associated with cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Animal studies have shown benefits for testosterone supplementation in improving cognition and reducing Alzheimer's disease pathology. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of men with subjective memory complaint and low testosterone levels, we investigated whether testosterone treatment significantly improved performance on various measures of cognitive functioning. Forty-four men were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to establish the baseline prior to being randomly divided into two groups. The first group (Group A) received 24 weeks of testosterone treatment (T treatment) followed by 4 weeks washout, and then 24 weeks of placebo (P); the second group (Group B) received the same treatments, in reverse order (Placebo, washout, and then T treatment). In group A (TèP), compared to baseline, there was a modest (1 point) but significant improvement in general cognitive functioning as measured by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) following testosterone treatment. This improvement from baseline was sustained following the washout period and crossover to placebo treatment. Similar Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were observed when comparing testosterone treatment with placebo. In group B (PèT) a significant increase was observed from baseline following testosterone treatment and a trend towards an increase when compared to placebo treatment. Improvements in baseline depression scores (assessed by Geriatric Depression Scale) were observed following testosterone/placebo treatment in both groups, and no difference was observed when comparing testosterone with placebo treatment. Our findings indicate a modest improvement on global cognition with testosterone treatment. Larger clinical trials with a longer follow- up and with the inclusion of blood and brain imaging markers are now needed to conclusively

  6. Effectiveness of Panax ginseng on Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Was Abolished by Flutamide via Endogenous Testosterone-Mediated Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Pei, Luo; Shaozhen, Hou; Gengting, Dong; Tingbo, Chen; Liang, Liu; Hua, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms for Panax ginseng's cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury involve the estrogen-mediated pathway, but little is known about the role of androgen. A standardized Panax ginseng extract (RSE) was orally given with or without flutamide in a left anterior descending coronary artery ligation rat model. Infarct size, CK and LDH activities were measured. Time-related changes of NO, PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling, and testosterone concentration were also investigated. RSE (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited myocardial infarction and CK and LDH activities, while coadministration of flutamide abolished this effect of RSE. NO was increased by RSE and reached a peak after 15 min of ischemia; however, flutamide cotreatment suppressed this elevation. Western blot analysis showed that RSE significantly reversed the decreases of expression and activation of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS evoked by ischemia, whereas flutamide attenuated the effects of these protective mechanisms induced by RSE. RSE completely reversed the dropping of endogenous testosterone level induced by I/R injury. Flutamide plus RSE treatment not only abolished RSE's effect but also produced a dramatic change on endogenous testosterone level after pretreatment and ischemia. Our results for the first time indicate that blocking androgen receptor abolishes the ability of Panax ginseng to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury.

  7. Social modulation of testosterone levels in male black howlers (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Dias, Pedro A D; Chavira, Roberto; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    The influence of social factors on the modulation of male testosterone levels has been demonstrated among several vertebrate species. In addition to sexual activity, parental care and reproductive competition affect testosterone secretion. We examined variations in testosterone levels among male black howlers (Alouatta pigra) in various social contexts. Fecal samples were collected from nine males living in five different groups in the Mexican state of Campeche. The potential for intragroup and extragroup competition varied among the groups. The number of resident males living in the groups was the only variable that significantly explained variations in testosterone levels. Males living in unimale groups had higher testosterone levels; the highest testosterone levels were recorded for males that had experienced a shift from multimale to unimale group compositions. In this species, the probability of being challenged by extragroup males and evicted from the group during immigration events increases when males live in unimale groups. Therefore, our results suggest that male black howlers respond to competition for group membership by increasing their testosterone levels. In this context, testosterone secretion represents an anticipatory response to reproductive conflicts. Therefore, although males living in unimale groups have exclusive access to females, they face higher physiological costs associated with sustaining high testosterone levels for extended time periods.

  8. Testosterone and sexual risk among transmen: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dadasovich, Rand; Auerswald, Coco; Minnis, Alexandra M; Raymond, H Fisher; McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-02-01

    Little research has explored the link between the behavioural effects of testosterone use among transmen and HIV risk. We conducted a mixed methods study to explore testosterone use among transmen and the behavioural effects on HIV risk. A sample of 122 transmen from San Francisco participated in a cross-sectional quantitative survey and 14 transmen participated in 2 focus group discussions. Most participants (81.9%) were currently taking hormones. Participants attributed testosterone use to new sexual behaviours among 69% of transmen, changes in sexual attraction (49%), and increased frequency of sexual activity (72%). Among current testosterone users, 3.3% had cisgender men as partners before starting testosterone, whereas after starting testosterone, 25.4% did. Similarly, 4.1% had a transgender woman as a sexual partner before starting testosterone and 13.9% after starting testosterone. Findings suggest that testosterone's side effects were associated with transmen's desires for sex with cisgender men who have sex with men. The reported increase in attraction to and sex with partners from populations with a high HIV prevalence may have important implications for HIV risk among transmen, especially as the availability of transgender health services may draw transmen to a context in which HIV prevalence is high.

  9. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia on Testosterone Level and Bone Structure in an Aged Orchidectomised Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Tajul Ariff, Abdul Shukor; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Pramanik, J; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone replacement is the choice of treatment in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. However, long-term use of testosterone is potentially carcinogenic. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been reported to enhance testosterone level and prevent bone calcium loss but there is a paucity of research regarding its effect on the bone structural parameters. This study was conducted to explore the bone structural changes following EL treatment in normal and androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 months were divided into normal control, normal rat supplemented with EL, sham-operated, orchidectomised-control, orchidectomised with testosterone replacement, and orchidectomised with EL supplementation groups. Testosterone serum was measured both before and after the completion of the treatment. After 6 weeks of the treatment, the femora were processed for bone histomorphometry. Testosterone replacement was able to raise the testosterone level and restore the bone volume of orchidectomised rats. EL supplementation failed to emulate both these testosterone actions. The inability of EL to do so may be related to the absence of testes in the androgen deficient osteoporosis model for EL to stimulate testosterone production.

  10. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia on Testosterone Level and Bone Structure in an Aged Orchidectomised Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tajul Ariff, Abdul Shukor; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Pramanik, J.; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone replacement is the choice of treatment in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. However, long-term use of testosterone is potentially carcinogenic. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been reported to enhance testosterone level and prevent bone calcium loss but there is a paucity of research regarding its effect on the bone structural parameters. This study was conducted to explore the bone structural changes following EL treatment in normal and androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 months were divided into normal control, normal rat supplemented with EL, sham-operated, orchidectomised-control, orchidectomised with testosterone replacement, and orchidectomised with EL supplementation groups. Testosterone serum was measured both before and after the completion of the treatment. After 6 weeks of the treatment, the femora were processed for bone histomorphometry. Testosterone replacement was able to raise the testosterone level and restore the bone volume of orchidectomised rats. EL supplementation failed to emulate both these testosterone actions. The inability of EL to do so may be related to the absence of testes in the androgen deficient osteoporosis model for EL to stimulate testosterone production. PMID:22966245

  11. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-03-25

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs.

  12. Management of Hypogonadism in Cardiovascular Patients: What Are the Implications of Testosterone Therapy on Cardiovascular Morbidity?

    PubMed

    Tanna, Monique S; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Berger, Jeffery S; Underberg, James; Gianos, Eugenia; Weintraub, Howard S

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is recommended for men with clinical androgen deficiency with decades of evidence supporting its use for treatment of sexual, physical, and psychological consequences of male hypogonadism. In this updated review, the authors discuss the implications of testosterone deficiency and conflicting evidence regarding testosterone replacement therapy and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Based on mounting evidence, the authors conclude that testosterone therapy can be safely considered in men with appropriately diagnosed clinical androgen deficiency and concurrent cardiovascular risk factors and even manifest cardiovascular disease after a thorough discussion of potential risks and with guideline-recommended safety monitoring.

  13. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity.

  14. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    PubMed Central

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  15. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially dominant gaze behavior. Therefore we tested as a proof of principle whether single dose testosterone administration can reduce gaze avoidance in SAD. In a double-blind, within-subject design, 18 medication-free female participants with SAD and 19 female healthy control participants received a single dose of 0.5mg testosterone and a matched placebo, at two separate days. On each day, their spontaneous gaze behavior was recorded using eye-tracking, while they looked at angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. Testosterone enhanced the percentage of first fixations to the eye-region in participants with SAD compared to healthy controls. In addition, SAD patients' initial gaze avoidance in the placebo condition was associated with more severe social anxiety symptoms and this relation was no longer present after testosterone administration. These findings indicate that single dose testosterone administration can alleviate gaze avoidance in SAD. They support theories on the dominance enhancing effects of testosterone and extend those by showing that effects are particularly strong in individuals featured by socially submissive behavior. The finding that this core characteristic of SAD can be directly influenced by single dose testosterone administration calls for future inquiry into the clinical utility of testosterone in the treatment of SAD.

  16. Correlation between serum testosterone level and concentrations of copper and zinc in hair tissue.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung Soo; Choi, Jong Bo; Kim, Hae Jin; Park, Sat Byul

    2011-12-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with late-onset hypogonadism. Micronutrients including copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) influence testosterone synthesis. The association between micronutrient concentrations in hair tissue and serum testosterone was studied in Korean men. The subjects were 88 men 40-60 years of age who visited the health promotion center and an outpatient clinic of family medicine at a university hospital from March 2006 to February 2008. Population sociological features of the subjects were acquired by self-administered surveys and interview, height and weight were measured, serum total testosterone was determined in the morning, and Cu and Zn were quantified from hair tissue collected in the morning. Subjects with normal testosterone group had a significantly higher Zn level compared to low testosterone group (P = 0.003). Significant negative correlations were evident between total testosterone and Cu level (r = -0.252, P = 0.022), and the Cu/Zn ratio (r = -0.288, P = 0.008). Normal testosterone is associated with a higher Zn level. Decreased serum testosterone is significantly associated with a high level of Cu and elevated Cu/Zn ratio in hair tissue.

  17. Influence of testosterone gel treatment on spermatogenesis in men with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    George, Mskhalaya; Yulia, Tishova; Svetlana, Kalinchenko

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of androgen deficiency in reproductive-aged men is increasing and needs new approach to long-term hypogonadism treatment that can preserve fertility. An open non-controlled pilot study included 18 men with eugonadotropic hypogonadism, who received transdermal testosterone gel treatment for 3 months. Sperm analysis was made before treatment and after 3 month of testosterone therapy. Testosterone level was normalized in all patients, but no negative effect was observed on spermatogenesis. Testosterone gel therapy may be a therapy of choice in hypogonadal men of reproductive age but further studies are needed.

  18. Testosterone, Plumage Colouration and Extra-Pair Paternity in Male North-American Barn Swallows

    PubMed Central

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length), and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively), but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. PMID:21853105

  19. Context matters: female aggression and testosterone in a year-round territorial neotropical songbird (Thryothorus leucotis).

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharon A; Alfson, Elizabeth D; Hau, Michaela

    2007-09-07

    Testosterone promotes aggressive behaviour in male vertebrates during the breeding season, but the importance of testosterone in female aggression remains unclear. Testosterone has both beneficial and detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology, prompting the hypothesis that selection favours an association between aggression and testosterone only in certain contexts in which intense or persistent aggression may be beneficial. We tested this hypothesis in a year-round territorial female buff-breasted wrens (Thryothorus leucotis), by exposing free-living females to experimental intrusions in different social (either single female or male, or paired decoys) and seasonal (pre-breeding or breeding) contexts. Females responded more aggressively to intrusions by females and pairs than to males. However, female intrusions elicited stronger responses during pre-breeding, whereas responses to pair intrusions were more intense during breeding. Territorial females had elevated testosterone levels after female intrusions and intermediate levels after pair intrusions during pre-breeding, but the levels of testosterone remained low after these intrusions during breeding. These results demonstrate seasonal differences in circulating testosterone following territorial aggression in female buff-breasted wrens and are suggestive of differences according to social context as well. Context-dependent elevation of testosterone implies that selection acts directly on female vertebrates to shape patterns of testosterone secretion.

  20. Guns, testosterone, and aggression: an experimental test of a mediational hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Klinesmith, Jennifer; Kasser, Tim; McAndrew, Francis T

    2006-07-01

    We tested whether interacting with a gun increased testosterone levels and later aggressive behavior. Thirty male college students provided a saliva sample (for testosterone assay), interacted with either a gun or a children's toy for 15 min, and then provided another saliva sample. Next, subjects added as much hot sauce as they wanted to a cup of water they believed another subject would have to drink. Males who interacted with the gun showed significantly greater increases in testosterone and added more hot sauce to the water than did those who interacted with the children's toy. Moreover, increases in testosterone partially mediated the effects of interacting with the gun on this aggressive behavior.

  1. The effects of castration followed testosterone supplementation in prostatic complex of Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-06-01

    The prostatic complex (ventral and dorsal regions) of Artibeus planirostris exhibits seasonal variations throughout the year. Circulating testosterone was correlated with prostate weight, showing an increase from autumn to summer, with the highest peak in summer corresponding to the largest breeding season. This indicates that the level of serum testosterone influences variations in both testicular and prostatic weights. Serum testosterone levels seem to be closely related to the different responses of these glands throughout the year. The castration (consequent suppression of testosterone) and subsequent hormone supplementation may elucidate the relationship of these two glandular types with testosterone. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of castration and the testosterone supplementation in the male prostatic complex of A. planirostris. The results indicated that both prostatic regions were affected by the ablation of testosterone, presenting a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the prostate was responsive to hormonal supplementation, having a recovery of the active morphophysiological pattern with testosterone supplementation. However, data have shown that the ventral region was more sensitive to changes in testosterone than the dorsal, presenting greater cell renewal.

  2. Testosterone and social evaluative stress: the moderating role of basal cortisol.

    PubMed

    Bedgood, Deidra; Boggiano, Mary M; Turan, Bulent

    2014-09-01

    Research has suggested that stressful situations lead to a decrease in testosterone, whereas concern with one's social status increases testosterone. However, results from studies examining testosterone reactivity in stressful situations that involve evaluation by others (hence status concerns) are inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of research examining individual differences in testosterone responses in such situations. In this study 85 male participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, which includes performing speech and arithmetic tasks in front of two critical evaluators) and practiced solving puzzles. Testosterone and cortisol levels were assessed from saliva. Across participants, testosterone increased from baseline to peak levels following the stressor tasks. Importantly, the increase in testosterone was larger for participants with lower basal cortisol. Hence, lower basal cortisol (which is known to be associated with low social fearfulness) may help one to mobilize a larger testosterone response in situations that involve social-evaluative stress. Given the hypothesized adaptive role of a larger testosterone response in social competition situations, the results suggest that there may be long-term benefits in learning to lower one's social fearfulness in situations involving potential for negative evaluation by others.

  3. Structural insights into steroid hormone binding: the crystal structure of a recombinant anti-testosterone Fab fragment in free and testosterone-bound forms.

    PubMed

    Valjakka, Jarkko; Takkinenz, Kristiina; Teerinen, Tuija; Söderlund, Hans; Rouvinen, Juha

    2002-02-08

    The monoclonal anti-testosterone antibody (3-C(4)F(5)) has a relatively high affinity (3 x 10(8) m(-1)) with an overall good specificity profile. However, the earlier characterized binding properties have shown that both the affinity and specificity of this antibody must be improved if it is intended for use in clinical immunoassays. In this paper, the crystal structures of the recombinant anti-testosterone (3-C(4)F(5)) Fab fragment have been determined in the testosterone-bound and free form at resolutions of 2.60 and 2.72 A, respectively. The high affinity binding of the (3-C(4)F(5)) Fab is mainly determined by shape complementarity between the protein and testosterone. Only one direct hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxyl group of the testosterone D-ring and the main-chain oxygen of Gly100(J)H. The testosterone is deeply bound in a hydrophobic pocket, and the close shape complementarity is mainly formed by the third complementarity-determining regions (CDR) of the heavy and light chain. Comparison of the bound structure with the free structure indicates conformational changes in the protein upon testosterone binding. The conformational changes of the side chains of two residues Glu95H and Tyr99H in the CDR-H3 are particularly essential for the binding. Interesting similarities in the binding of different steroids were also observed upon comparison of the available structures of anti-steroid antibodies.

  4. The hidden dimensions of the competition effect: basal cortisol and basal testosterone jointly predict changes in salivary testosterone after social victory in men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2012-11-01

    Dominance struggles appear to affect hormone concentrations in many mammalian species, such that higher concentrations of testosterone are seen in winners of competitions, compared to losers. This so-called, "competition effect" has received inconsistent empirical support, suggesting that additional psychological (e.g., mood), situational (i.e., nature of the competition) and physiological (e.g., cortisol) variables might intervene in modulating testosterone fluctuations after social contests. We investigated possible interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in predicting transient changes in testosterone after social victory or defeat on a familiar competitive task. In particular, the present study examined the dual-hormone hypothesis - proposing that baseline cortisol potently modulates the competition effect (Mehta and Josephs, 2010) - in a sample of healthy young men engaged in head-to-head competition on a widely played commercial videogame, Tetris. We found a significant interaction between HPG and HPA axes status and the competition effect on testosterone in the randomly assigned videogame winners, such that winners with a pre-competition combination of high baseline testosterone and low baseline cortisol exhibited significantly greater post-competition testosterone concentrations. The randomly assigned videogame losers showed significantly decreased post-competition levels of testosterone. Possible biological and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed.

  5. Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E.; Allen, S.D.

    1992-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer of monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Testosterone replacement effectively inhibits the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis in rats: evidence for a direct role of testosterone on regulatory T cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Fijak, Monika; Schneider, Eva; Klug, Jörg; Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Hackstein, Holger; Schuler, Gerhard; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Gromoll, Jörg; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Despite the immune-privileged status of the male genital tract, infection and inflammation of the male genital tract are important etiological factors in male infertility. A common observation in clinical and experimental orchitis as well as in systemic infection and inflammation are decreased levels of testosterone. Emerging data point to an immunosuppressive role of testosterone. In our study, we substituted testosterone levels in experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in rat by s.c. testosterone implants. EAO development was reduced to 17% when animals were treated with low-dose testosterone implants (3 cm long, EAO+T3) and to 33% when rats were supplied with high-dose testosterone implants (24 cm, EAO+T24) compared with 80% of animals developing disease in the EAO control group. In the testis, testosterone replacement in EAO animals prevented the accumulation of macrophages and significantly reduced the number of CD4(+) T cells with a strong concomitant increase in the number of regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)) compared with EAO control. In vitro testosterone treatment of naive T cells led to an expansion of the regulatory T cell subset with suppressive activity and ameliorated MCP-1-stimulated chemotaxis of T lymphocytes in a Transwell assay. Moreover, expression of proinflammatory mediators such as MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the testis and secretion of Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-2 by mononuclear cells isolated from testicular draining lymph nodes were decreased in the EAO+T3 and EAO+T24 groups. Thus, our study shows an immunomodulatory and protective effect of testosterone substitution in the pathogenesis of EAO and suggests androgens as a new factor in the differentiation of regulatory T cells.

  7. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Mortality in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Hackett, G I

    2016-02-01

    While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the last decade with lower trends in Europe, debate continues over the risks, benefits and appropriate use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Several authors blame advertising and the availability of more convenient formulations, whilst others have pointed out that the routine testing of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) (a significant marker of cardiovascular risk) and those with diabetes would inevitably increase the diagnosis of hypogonadism and lead to an increase in totally appropriate prescribing. They commented that this was merely an appropriate correction of previous under-diagnosis and under-treatment in line with evidence based guidelines. It is unlikely that persuasive advertising or convenient formulations could grow a market over such a sustained period if the treatment was not effective. Urologists and primary care physicians are the most frequent initiators of TRT usually for ED. Benefits are clearly established for sexual function, increase in lean muscle mass and strength, mood and cognitive function, with a possible reduction in frailty and osteoporosis. There remains no evidence that TRT is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, yet the decision to initiate and continue therapy is often decided by urologists. The cardiovascular issues associated with TRT have been clarified by recent studies showing that therapy associated with clear increases in serum testosterone levels to the normal range is associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Studies reporting to show increased risk have been subject to flawed designs with inadequate baseline diagnosis and follow-up testing. Effectively, they have compared non-treated patients with under-treated or non-compliant subjects involving a range of different therapy regimes. Recent evidence suggests long-acting injections may be associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, but the

  8. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study): a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women) and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI), a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96]), but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]). In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89]), but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes. PMID:23066943

  9. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shou-Qiang; Chen, Zan-Xiong; Kong, Min-Li; Xie, Yan-Qi; Zhou, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Di; Paul, Gunther; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day) during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4) was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049) and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227) and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351). In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females. PMID:27626407

  10. Normal Oral Flora and the Oral Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H

    2017-04-01

    The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.

  11. Intensive exercise training suppresses testosterone during bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Stanford, K. I.; Stein, T. P.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Spaceflight and prolonged bed rest (BR) alter plasma hormone levels inconsistently. This may be due, in part, to prescription of heavy exercise as a countermeasure for ameliorating the adverse effects of disuse. The initial project was to assess exercise programs to maintain aerobic performance and leg strength during BR. The present study evaluates the effect of BR and the performance of the prescribed exercise countermeasures on plasma steroid levels. In a 30-day BR study of male subjects, the efficacy of isotonic (ITE, n = 7) or isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training was evaluated in contrast to no exercise (n = 5). These exercise countermeasures protected aerobic performance and leg strength successfully. BR alone (no-exercise group) did not change steroidogenesis, as assessed by the plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, aldosterone, and free (FT) and total testosterone (TT). In the exercise groups, both FT and TT were decreased (P < 0.05): FT during IKE from 24 +/- 1.7 to 18 +/- 2.0 pg/ml and during ITE from 21 +/- 1.5 to 18 +/- 1 pg/ml, and TT during IKE from 748 +/- 68 to 534 +/- 46 ng/dl and during ITE from 565 +/- 36 to 496 +/- 38 ng/dl. The effect of intensive exercise countermeasures on plasma testosterone was not associated with indexes of overtraining. The reduction in plasma testosterone associated with both the IKE and ITE countermeasures during BR supports our hypothesis that intensive exercise countermeasures may, in part, contribute to changes in plasma steroid concentrations during spaceflight.

  12. Oral myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438

  13. Update on Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kevin Matthew Yen Bing; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Carrier, Serge

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset male hypogonadism has long been recognized as a treatable medical condition; however, misconceptions about the use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) have often led urologists away from its more mainstream use. This paper aims to bring the reader up-to-date on the current understanding of TRT, starting with when and who to treat. Various formulations of TRT, each with its own risks and benefits, are also detailed. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the current literature's views into the various controversies of TRT including its impact on prostate health, sexual health, cardiovascular health, frailty, and mood is discussed.

  14. Improvement of endothelial function following initiation of testosterone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tucky, Barbara; Polackwich, Allan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Isolated recent studies have suggested an increased risk of heart attack as early as 3 months following testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Such a rapid risk increase would likely require rapid deterioration of arterial endothelial function. Our goal was to assess arterial endothelial function in hypogonadal men prior to and at least 3 months after initiation of TRT. Methods Adult men were consented if they had symptoms of hypogonadism, a total testosterone <350 ng/dL, and planned to begin TRT. Endothelial function was non-invasively assessed using the EndoPAT-2000 machine. We measured the augmentation index (AI) (normal <3%), a measure of arterial stiffness and reactive hyperemia index (RHI), a measure of endothelial vasodilation (normal >1.69). Prior studies suggest that a 10% level of day-to-day test variability is expected. Endothelial function was reassessed at the next clinic visit, between 3 and 6 months if the patients were compliant with therapy. Changes in continuous variables were assessed with the paired t test. Results Twenty-three patients were consented with a mean age of 52.7 years (range, 34–68 years) and starting testosterone 196.9 ng/dL (range, 35–339 ng/dL). There was a history of diabetes in four, hypertension in ten and coronary artery disease in five. Mean RHI was 1.67±0.37 (70% were abnormal) and mean AI was 2.57%±14.0% (39% were abnormal). There were no cardiac events. At follow-up 20 patients were compliant with therapy and retested. Mean testosterone increased from 203 to 511 (P<0.0001). Mean RHI improved from 1.70 to 2.14 (P=0.01). Mean AI improved from 2.9% to −1.75% (P=0.01). In four men RHI worsened but in each case less than the 10% error of the test. No man had worsened AI. Conclusions Men with symptomatic hypogonadism often have abnormal arterial endothelial function. Following TRT, endothelial function either remains unchanged or improves. PMID:28078212

  15. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  16. Examining factors that may influence accurate measurement of testosterone in sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Graham, Katherine M; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Burns, Charlene M; Bettinger, Tammie L; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reported testosterone concentrations in male sea turtle blood samples are common in the veterinary literature, but may be accounted for by differences in sample handling and processing prior to assay. Therefore, our study was performed to determine best practices for testosterone analysis in male sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas). Blood samples were collected into 5 collection tube types, and assay validation and measured testosterone concentrations were compared across different sample storage (fresh, refrigerated 1 week, or frozen), extraction (unextracted or ether-extracted), and processing treatment (untreated, homogenized, or dissociation reagent) conditions. Ether-extracted and dissociation reagent-treated samples validated in all conditions tested and are recommended for use, as unextracted samples validated only if assayed fresh. Dissociation reagent treatment was simpler to perform than ether extraction and resulted in total testosterone concentrations ~2.7-3.5 times greater than free testosterone measured in ether-extracted samples. Sample homogenization did not affect measured testosterone concentrations, and could be used to increase volume in gelled samples. An annual seasonal testosterone increase was observed in both species when ether extraction or dissociation reagent treatment was used. Annual deslorelin implant treatments in a Chelonia mydas male resulted in suppression of seasonal testosterone following the fourth treatment. Seasonal testosterone patterns resumed following discontinuation of deslorelin. Comparison of in-house and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits revealed similar patterns of seasonal testosterone increases and deslorelin-induced suppression. Our study highlights the importance of methodological validation and provides laboratorians with best practices for testosterone enzyme immunoassay in sea turtles.

  17. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  18. Sex-specific associations of testosterone with prefrontal-hippocampal development and executive function.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Lew, Jimin; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Ducharme, Simon; McCracken, James T

    2017-02-01

    Testosterone is thought to play a crucial role in mediating sexual differentiation of brain structures. Examinations of the cognitive effects of testosterone have also shown beneficial and potentially sex-specific effects on executive function and mnemonic processes. Yet these findings remain limited by an incomplete understanding of the critical timing and brain regions most affected by testosterone, the lack of documented links between testosterone-related structural brain changes and cognition, and the difficulty in distinguishing the effects of testosterone from those of related sex steroids such as of estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here we examined associations between testosterone, cortico-hippocampal structural covariance, executive function (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) and verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version), in a longitudinal sample of typically developing children and adolescents 6-22 yo, controlling for the effects of estradiol, DHEA, pubertal stage, collection time, age, handedness, and total brain volume. We found prefrontal-hippocampal covariance to vary as a function of testosterone levels, but only in boys. Boys also showed a specific association between positive prefrontal-hippocampal covariance (as seen at higher testosterone levels) and lower performance on specific components of executive function (monitoring the action process and flexibly shifting between actions). We also found the association between testosterone and a specific aspect of executive function (monitoring) to be significantly mediated by prefrontal-hippocampal structural covariance. There were no significant associations between testosterone-related cortico-hippocampal covariance and verbal memory. Taken together, these findings highlight the developmental importance of testosterone in supporting sexual differentiation of the brain and sex-specific executive function.

  19. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  20. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  1. Lipophilic Prodrugs of SN38: Synthesis and in Vitro Characterization toward Oral Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bala, Vaskor; Rao, Shasha; Li, Peng; Wang, Shudong; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-04

    SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy camptothecin) is a potent anticancer agent belonging to the camptothecin family; however, its oral delivery is extensively restricted by poor solubility in pharmaceutically acceptable excipients and low transmucosal permeability. Lipid-based carriers are well-known for their ability to improve oral absorption and bioavailability of lipid soluble and highly permeable compounds. Thus, this study has focused on improving solubility in lipid excipients, controlling stability, and enhancing transmucosal permeability of SN38 by specific chemical modification. To achieve these aims, a series of lipophilic prodrugs were designed and synthesized by esterification at the C10 and/or C20 positon(s) of SN38 with dietary fatty acids of diverse hydrocarbon chain lengths. The solubility of these novel prodrugs in long-chain triglycerides was increased up to 444-fold, and cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in comparison to SN38. The prodrugs were stable in simulated gastric fluids but exhibited different rates of hydrolysis (t1/2 < 5 min to t1/2 > 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids (in the presence of enzymes) depending on the alkyl chain length and the position modified. A predictable reconversion of prodrugs to SN38 in plasma was also confirmed. On the basis of these studies, SN38-undecanoate (C20) was identified as the optimal prodrug. Finally, in vitro permeability and uptake studies in rat intestinal mucosal membrane using an Ussing chamber showed significant improvement in transepithelial drug transport and cellular uptake. Together, these results indicate that well designed lipophilic prodrugs have potential for the efficacious and safe oral delivery of SN38.

  2. A simple method for estimating equilibrium constants for serum testosterone binding resulting in an optimal free testosterone index for use in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Ross, H Alec; Meuleman, Eric J; Sweep, Fred C G J

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to evaluate equilibrium constants for testosterone (Te) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or albumin from serum free testosterone (FTe) measurements performed in a panel of 30 healthy elderly men by means of a near-reference method, i.e., symmetric dialysis (affinity constants: SHBG-Te, 1.13 x 10(9) L/mol; albumin-Te, 4.4 x 10(4) L/mol). Using these estimates, a free testosterone index (FTeI) was calculated from total Te and SHBG concentrations in a further 35 elderly men. This FTeI perfectly matches with actually measured free testosterone concentrations by symmetric dialysis in this second group, with a mean ratio index/measurement of 0.998+/-0.016 (SEM). The efficacy of the algorithm, which represents a simple alternative to previous cumbersome methods for estimation of equilibrium constants, is thereby demonstrated.

  3. Possible role of elevated serum testosterone in pathogenesis of renal stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kapil; Gill, Gurpreet Singh; Mahajan, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urolithiasis or renal stone formation occurs with three times higher frequency in males and decreases with age in parallel with the serum testosterone levels, suggesting a role played by male sex hormones. Androgens appear a promotion action and estrogens an inhibitory action on kidney stone formation in several animal models suggesting a study to be carried out to deduce the role played by serum testosterone in the formation of renal stones. Aim: The aim of this study is to define the involvement of serum total testosterone, free testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis in males by comparing the results with healthy males with no present or past history of urolithiasis as controls. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was undertaken with 108 participants: 78 males diagnosed with urolithiasis and 30 age-matched healthy males. Results: The difference between mean age and body mass index of patients and controls were found to be nonsignificant. The total serum testosterone levels, serum dihydrotestosterone levels, were found to be higher in patients when compared to controls, and the difference was found to be significant. The levels of free testosterone and serum estradiol were also found to be higher in urolithiatic patients. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that elevated levels of serum testosterone and serum dihydrotestosterone might be involved in increased incidences of stone formation. The higher levels of estradiol do not seem to be a protective factor in males with urolithiasis with higher serum testosterone levels. PMID:27857889

  4. Testosterone and Haemosporidian Parasites Along a Tropical Elevational Gradient in Rufous-Collared Sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis).

    PubMed

    Escallón, Camilo; Weinstein, Nicole M; Tallant, James A; Wojtenek, Winfried; Rodríguez-Saltos, Carlos A; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Moore, Ignacio T

    2016-10-01

    Elevation has been proposed as a dominant ecological variable shaping life history traits and subsequently their underlying hormonal mechanisms. In an earlier meta-analysis of tropical birds, elevation was positively related to testosterone levels. Furthermore, parasitism by avian haemosporidians should vary with elevation as environmental conditions affect vector abundance, and while testosterone is needed for breeding, it is hypothesized to be immunosuppressive and thus could exacerbate haemosporidian infection. Our objective in this study was to examine the relationships between elevation, testosterone levels, and parasitism by avian haemosporidians. We surveyed breeding male rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) across a wide elevational range along the equator. We measured baseline testosterone levels, haemosporidian infection at four elevations spanning the species' natural range in the Ecuadorian Andes (600, 1500, 2100, 3300 m). Testosterone levels from breeding males were not related to elevation, but there was high intrapopulation variability. Testosterone levels were not related to the probability of parasitism, but our results from one population suggested that the likelihood of being infected by haemosporidian parasites was greater when in breeding condition. In conclusion, even though there is variation in life history strategies among the studied populations, wider divergence in seasonality and life history traits would probably be needed to detect an effect of elevation on testosterone if one exists. Additionally, our results show that variation in testosterone is not related to infection risk of haemosporidians, thus other factors that take a toll on energetic resources, such as reproduction, should be looked at more closely.

  5. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  6. Is Testosterone Deficiency A Possible Risk Factor For Priapism Associated With Sickle Cell Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Belinda F.; Anele, Uzoma A.; Reid, Marvin E.; Madden, Wendy A.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the association of testosterone deficiency and priapism in adult men with SCD. Methods A cross-sectional study of 50 adult men with homozygous S SCD was performed. All patients had early morning blood taken for total and free testosterone, FSH, LH, prolactin, lipid levels, LDH and hematological indices. Patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding priapism frequency, duration, and treatment. Testosterone deficiency was defined as a serum total testosterone < 12 nmol/L (346 ng/dl). Results The mean age of the study population was 34.2 ± 8.9 years. Priapism was noted in 24 (48%) patients and was most frequently seen in men between ages 18–25 years. Testosterone deficiency was observed in 11 of 50 (22 %) of all patients, and particularly in 6 of 24 (25%) patients with histories of priapism. There was no difference in mean total testosterone levels in patients with and without a history of priapism (16.7± 4.9 nmol/L and 15.4±5.9 nmol/L, respectively) (p=0.43). Similarly, there was no difference in serum LH and FSH levels based on history of priapism. Conclusion Testosterone deficiency is prevalent in patients with SCD; however, we did not identify an association based on a history of priapism. Larger, prospectively gathered data is needed to define the priapism profile of SCD patients with testosterone deficiency. PMID:25371242

  7. Testosterone during Pregnancy and Gender Role Behavior of Preschool Children: A Longitudinal, Population Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J.; Golding, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Related blood levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in pregnant women to gender role behavior among 342 male and 337 female offspring at 3.5 years. Found that testosterone levels related linearly to girls' gender role behavior. Neither hormone related to boys' gender role behavior. Other factors, including older brothers or…

  8. Sex-Specific Associations between Umbilical Cord Blood Testosterone Levels and Language Delay in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Jacoby, Peter; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that prenatal testosterone exposure may be associated with language delay. However, no study has examined a large sample of children at multiple time-points. Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained at 861 births and analysed for bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations. When…

  9. Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of rat testosterone production by excretory-secretory product of the cultured metacestode.

    PubMed

    Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C; Fukaya, T

    1985-06-01

    In 3- to 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats infected with the hepatic metacestode, Taenia taeniaeformis, the serum testosterone level was significantly lower than in comparable uninfected controls. By transmission electron microscopy, testicular Leydig cells of infected rats had less smooth endoplasmic reticulum than control Leydig cells. Cultured metacestodes isolated from the hepatic cysts secreted or excreted substances into the incubation medium. The effect of the excretory-secretory product on testosterone concentration in the sera and testes of 15-day-old rats was examined. Subcutaneous injection of 50-200 micrograms of excretory-secretory product/0.1 ml saline/rat for 2 days significantly reduced human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated serum and testicular testosterone concentrations. Furthermore, the effect of the excretory-secretory product on isolated rat Leydig cell testosterone production was examined. Rat Leydig cells produced testosterone in vitro and, in the presence of 50 IU human chorionic gonadotropin/ml incubation medium, they responded with approximately 100% increase in testosterone production. Addition of 2-10 micrograms excretory-secretory product protein/ml of culture medium significantly reduced the testosterone production by rat Leydig cells in vitro. These results indicate that excretory-secretory product of cultured T. taeniaeformis metacestodes has a direct inhibitory effect on Leydig cell testosterone production under stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin.

  10. Effects of testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone on luteal lifespan in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Silvia, W J; Jacobs, A L; Hayes, S H

    1989-11-01

    Endogenous concentrations of testosterone increase approximately 7 d prior to estrus in cattle and goats. Inhibition of testosterone synthesis results in a delay of luteal regression in both species. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if treatment with testosterone or 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 2 to 6 d prior to the endogenous rise in testosterone, would result in premature luteal regression. Sixteen heifers were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1) Control (n = 6); 2) testosterone (100 mug, n = 5); or 3) DHT (100 mug, n = 5). Each heifer received a single injection of the appropriate steriod on Day 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 post estrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at frequent intervals for 24 h to quantify testosterone, and then daily for 14 d to quantify progesterone. Concentrations of testosterone increased within 15 min of injection of testosterone, and reached a maximum at 30 min. Concentrations were maintained at > 2 ng/ml throughout the first 24 h after injection. Based on concentrations of progesterone, neither androgen had any effect on the lifespan of the corpus luteum or the level of luteal function.

  11. Testosterone induces cell proliferation and cell cycle gene overexpression in human visceral preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Desongles, Anna; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael; Selva, David M

    2013-08-01

    Evidence from the literature suggests that testosterone plays an important role in visceral fat accumulation since both men and women with hyperandrogenism accumulate more adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity than healthy women. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. To shed light on this issue, we have used an in vitro approach to examine the effect of testosterone on human visceral preadipocyte proliferation. Our results showed that testosterone treatment significantly increased proliferation of human visceral preadipocytes in proliferation assays using flow cytometric analysis. We next performed a microarray gene expression analysis of human visceral preadipocytes treated with testosterone or vehicle to identify which genes were involved in the testosterone-induced increase in preadipocyte proliferation. The results showed a total of 140 genes differentially expressed between testosterone vs. vehicle. Among the top 10 upregulated genes, 5 were involved in cellular cycle and proliferation, and 3 (APOBEC3b, CCNA2, and PRC1) were significantly overexpressed by testosterone treatment when analyzed by real-time PCR. We conclude that testosterone exerts a proliferative effect on preadipocytes that may participate in the sex differences in fat distribution and that it may explain visceral fat accumulation in women with hyperandrogenism.

  12. Aging US males with multiple sources of emotional social support have low testosterone.

    PubMed

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-02-01

    Among species expressing bi-parental care, males' testosterone is often low when they cooperate with females to raise offspring. In humans, low testosterone men might have an advantage as nurturant partners and parents because they are less prone to anger and reactive aggression and are more empathetic. However, humans engage in cooperative, supportive relationships beyond the nuclear family, and these prosocial capacities were likely critical to our evolutionary success. Despite the diversity of human prosociality, no prior study has tested whether men's testosterone is also reduced when they participate in emotionally supportive relationships, beyond partnering and parenting. Here, we draw on testosterone and emotional social support data that were collected from older men (n=371; mean: 61.2years of age) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US nationally-representative study. Men who reported receiving emotional support from two or more sources had lower testosterone than men reporting zero support (all p<0.01). Males with the most support (4+ sources) also had lower testosterone than those with one source of support (p<0.01). Men who reported emotional support from diverse (kin+non-kin or multiple kin) sources had lower testosterone than those with no support (p<0.05). Expanding on research on partnering and parenting, our findings are consistent with the notion that low testosterone is downstream of and/or facilitates an array of supportive social relationships. Our results contribute novel insights on the intersections between health, social support, and physiology.

  13. Effect of testosterone and its aliphatic and aromatic dimers on DNA morphology.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Agudelo, D; Vesper, A R; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-02-01

    Conjugation of DNA with testosterone and it aliphatic dimer (alip) and aromatic dimer (arom) was investigated in aqueous solution at pH 7.4. Multiple spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular modeling were used to characterize steroid-DNA binding and DNA morphology. Spectroscopic analysis showed that testosterone binds DNA via A7, A16, A17, T8, T15 and T18 nucleobases with overall binding constants Ktest-DNA=1.8 (±0.4)×10(4)M(-1), Ktest-dimeralip-DNA=5.7 (±0.7)×10(4)M(-1) and Ktest-dimer-arom-DNA=7.3 (±0.9)×10(4)M(-1). The binding affinity increases in this order: testosterone dimer-aromatic>testosterone dimer-aliphatic>testosterone. The steroid loading efficacy was 40-50%. Transmission electron microscopy showed major changes in DNA morphology as testosterone-DNA interaction occurred with increase in the diameter of the DNA aggregate, indicating encapsulation of testosterone by DNA. Modeling showed the presence of several nucleobases attached to testosterone with the free binding energy of -4.93Kcal/mol.

  14. Effects of Testosterone Therapy on Cognitive Function in Aging: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jeremy T; Hildreth, Kerry L; Pelak, Victoria S

    2016-09-01

    Endogenous testosterone in the aging man has been scrutinized extensively in regard to its effects on performance in many cognitive domains, especially verbal fluency, visuospatial and visuoperceptual abilities, memory, and executive function. Studies of testosterone supplementation have sought to identify potential cognitive improvements in men with and without baseline cognitive impairment, and have had a wide range of results. The variability in outcomes is likely related, in part, to the lack of consensus on methods for testosterone measurement and supplementation and, in part, to the disparate measures of cognitive function used in randomized controlled studies. Despite the limitations imposed by such inconsistent methods, promising associations have been found between cognition and testosterone supplementation in both eugonadal men and men with low testosterone levels, with and without baseline cognitive dysfunction. This systematic review highlights the cognitive measures used in and the outcomes of existing studies of testosterone and cognition in aging men. The review suggests that larger studies and a more standardized approach to assessment will be needed before we can fully understand and realize sustained benefits from testosterone supplementation in the elderly male population, particularly given the substantial increase in testosterone supplementation in clinical practice.

  15. Experimental increase of testosterone increases boldness and decreases anxiety in male African striped mouse helpers.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Julien; Schradin, Carsten

    2014-04-22

    Males of many species can adjust their behaviors to environmental conditions by changing reproductive tactics. Testosterone surges in adult breeding males typically inhibit the expression of paternal care while facilitating the expression of aggression during environmental changes. Similarly, in non-breeding philopatric males of cooperatively breeding species, up-regulation of testosterone may inhibit alloparental care while facilitating dispersal, i.e. males might become bolder and more explorative. We tested this hypothesis in philopatric male African striped mice, Rhabdomys pumilio. Striped mouse males can either remain in their natal groups providing alloparental care or they can disperse seeking mating opportunities. Compared to philopatric males, dispersed males typically show higher testosterone levels and lower corticosterone levels, and more aggression toward pups and same sex conspecifics. We experimentally increased the testosterone levels of the philopatric males kept in their family groups when pups were present. Testosterone-treated males did not differ significantly from control males in alloparental care and in aggression toward same-sex conspecifics. Compared to the control males, testosterone treated males were bolder, more active, and less anxious; they also showed lower corticosterone levels. The philopatric males were sensitive to our testosterone treatment for dispersal- and anxiety-like behavior but insensitive for social behaviors. Our results suggest a role of testosterone in dispersal.

  16. Aggressive behavior and change in salivary testosterone concentrations predict willingness to engage in a competitive task.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-08-01

    The current study investigated relationships among aggressive behavior, change in salivary testosterone concentrations, and willingness to engage in a competitive task. Thirty-eight male participants provided saliva samples before and after performing the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (a laboratory measure that provides opportunity for aggressive and defensive behavior while working for reward; all three involve pressing specific response keys). Baseline testosterone concentrations were not associated with aggressive responding. However, aggressive responding (but not point reward or point protection responding) predicted the pre- to post-PSAP change in testosterone: Those with the highest aggressive responding had the largest percent increase in testosterone concentrations. Together, aggressive responding and change in testosterone predicted willingness to compete following the PSAP. Controlling for aggression, men who showed a rise in testosterone were more likely to choose to compete again (p=0.03) and controlling for testosterone change, men who showed the highest level of aggressive responding were more likely to choose the non-competitive task (p=0.02). These results indicate that situation-specific aggressive behavior and testosterone responsiveness are functionally relevant predictors of future social behavior.

  17. A concise review of testosterone and bone health

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Nur-Vaizura; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Chin, Kok-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population worldwide. Age-related testosterone deficiency is the most important factor of bone loss in elderly men. Androgen can influence bone health by binding to androgen receptors directly or to estrogen receptors (ERs) indirectly via aromatization to estrogen. This review summarized the direct and indirect effects of androgens on bone derived from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Cellular studies showed that androgen stimulated the proliferation of preosteoblasts and differentiation of osteoblasts. The converted estrogen suppressed osteoclast formation and resorption activity by blocking the receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligand pathway. In animal studies, activation of androgen and ERα, but not ERβ, was shown to be important in acquisition and maintenance of bone mass. Human epidemiological studies demonstrated a significant relationship between estrogen and testosterone in bone mineral density and fracture risk, but the relative significance between the two remained debatable. Human experimental studies showed that estrogen was needed in suppressing bone resorption, but both androgen and estrogen were indispensable for bone formation. As a conclusion, maintaining optimal level of androgen is essential in preventing osteoporosis and its complications in elderly men. PMID:27703340

  18. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony.

  19. Experimental elevation of wildlife testosterone using silastic tube implants.

    PubMed

    Koresh, Efrat; Matas, Devorah; Koren, Lee

    2016-10-01

    Testosterone (T) is a key androgen that mediates vertebrate molecular, cellular, and behavioral processes. Its manipulation is therefore of interest to a vast number of researchers studying animal behavior and reproduction, among others. Here, the usage of silastic implants across wildlife species is reviewed, and a method to manipulate rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) testosterone levels using silastic implants is presented. Using a series of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, the secretion patterns of silastic tubes and silastic glue were tested and were surprisingly found to be similar. In addition, we studied endogenous T levels in wild-captured rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), and using T implants succeeded in elevating T to the maximal physiological concentrations recorded during the mating period. The number of implants that were inserted was the only predictor of T levels, and seven 20mm implants were found to be the optimal dose. Implants induced sexual behaviors in the non-reproductive period. The duration of time that the implants were in the hyrax was the only significant factor that influenced the amount of T left over in the implant once it was removed. All together we affirm that T implants may offer a versatile tool for wildlife behavioral research by elevating T levels in the non-breeding period to maximal breeding levels.

  20. Endocrine control of spermatogenesis: Role of FSH and LH/ testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Suresh; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of testicular functions (production of sperm and androgens) is an important aspect of preclinical safety assessment and testicular toxicity is comparatively far more common than ovarian toxicity. This chapter focuses (1) on the histological sequelae of disturbed reproductive endocrinology in rat, dog and nonhuman primates and (2) provides a review of our current understanding of the roles of gonadotropins and androgens. The response of the rodent testis to endocrine disturbances is clearly different from that of dog and primates with different germ cell types and spermatogenic stages being affected initially and also that the end-stage spermatogenic involution is more pronounced in dog and primates compared to rodents. Luteinizing hormone (LH)/testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are the pivotal endocrine factors controlling testicular functions. The relative importance of either hormone is somewhat different between rodents and primates. Generally, however, both LH/testosterone and FSH are necessary for quantitatively normal spermatogenesis, at least in non-seasonal species. PMID:26413400

  1. Baseline cortisol moderates testosterone reactivity to women's intercollegiate athletic competition.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2015-04-01

    Recent research suggests that cortisol (C) level moderates testosterone (T) reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in men. The extent to which C moderates T reactivity in other circumstances and in women is not known. In this retrospective study, before- and after-competition salivary levels of C and T from 97 intercollegiate women athletes competing in one of four different sports (soccer, volleyball, softball, tennis) were used to evaluate the influence of before-competition C level on T reactivity in women's athletic competition. Athletic competition was associated with a substantial increase in salivary levels of C and T in the vast majority of athletes. Before-competition level of C significantly moderated testosterone reactivity to athletic competition - women with relatively low levels of C showed larger increases in T to competition than women with higher levels of C. Clearly, the moderating effect of C on T reactivity is not limited to laboratory settings intended to increase social stress, but is also seen in (as we show here) the context of athletic competition.

  2. Impact of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Death in Men With Low Testosterone Concentrations in an Integrated Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey L; May, Heidi T; Lappé, Donald L; Bair, Tami; Le, Viet; Carlquist, John F; Muhlestein, Joseph B

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cardiovascular outcomes. Men (January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2011) with a low initial total testosterone concentration, a subsequent testosterone level, and >3 years of follow-up were studied. Levels were correlated with testosterone supplement use. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke at 3 years. Multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing groups of persistent low (<212 ng/dl, n = 801), normal (212 to 742 ng/dl, n = 2,241), and high (>742 ng/dl, n = 1,694) achieved testosterone were calculated by Cox hazard regression. A total of 4,736 men were studied. Three-year rates of MACE and death were 6.6% and 4.3%, respectively. Subjects supplemented to normal testosterone had reduced 3-year MACE (HR 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 0.98, p = 0.04) compared to persistently low testosterone, driven primarily by death (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.90). HRs for MI and stroke were 0.73 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.34), p = 0.32, and 1.11 (95% CI 0.54 to 2.28), p = 0.78, respectively. MACE was noninferior but not superior for high achieved testosterone with no benefit on MI and a trend to greater stroke risk. In conclusion, in a large general health care population, TRT to normal levels was associated with reduced MACE and death over 3 years but a stroke signal with high achieved levels suggests a conservative approach to TRT.

  3. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  4. Parents’ Testosterone and Children’s Perception of Parent-Child Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Alan; Hibel, Jacob; Granger, Douglas A.; Johnson, David

    2011-01-01

    We examine the link between parental testosterone and children’s perceptions of their relationship with their mother and father. Using data from 352 predominantly white working and middle class families, we find no direct link between mother’s and father’s testosterone and parent-child closeness. However, the association between mothers’ testosterone and mother-child closeness appears to be influenced by the quality of two other family relationships. When father’s marital satisfaction is low, mothers with high testosterone have a poorer relationship with their children. And, when fathers report low levels of intimacy with their children, high testosterone women have a poorer relationship with their children. No comparable associations were observed among fathers. PMID:21843525

  5. Women's Preference for Attractive Makeup Tracks Changes in Their Salivary Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Claire I; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that women's motivation to appear attractive is increased around the time of ovulation. However, the specific hormonal correlates of within-woman changes in motivation to appear attractive have not been investigated. To address this issue, we used a longitudinal design and a data-driven visual preference task. We found that women's preference for attractive makeup increases when their salivary testosterone levels are high. The relationship between testosterone level and preference for attractive makeup was independent of estradiol level, progesterone level, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. These results suggest that testosterone may contribute to changes in women's motivation to wear attractive makeup and, potentially, their motivation to appear attractive in general. Our results are also consistent with recent models of the role of testosterone in social behavior, according to which testosterone increases the probability of behaviors that could function to support the acquisition of mates and competition for resources.

  6. Testosterone levels in healthy men and the relation to behavioural and physical characteristics: facts and constructs.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, M; Nieschlag, E

    2001-03-01

    This review summarises the correlations between testosterone levels and male physical appearance and behaviour. Methodological shortcomings concerning the measurement of testosterone could limit the value of these findings. In addition, testosterone measured in body fluids represents only one step in the cascade of action from production to biological effect, and could therefore provide only a limited view of the complexity of physiological events. Testosterone levels are influenced by conditions that are partly controlled or initiated by the hormone itself, but also by circumstances beyond hormonal or individual control. Different kinds of behaviour are not only subject to influence by environment, but also androgens can reinforce the particular kind of conduct and the behavioural impact can wield negative or positive feedback on testosterone secretion. Therefore, both generalisation and individualisation of study results will lead to doubtful conclusions and prejudices. Results of such studies must be viewed with caution, and over-simplification as well as over-interpretation should be avoided.

  7. Status, testosterone, and human intellectual performance: stereotype threat as status concern.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Robert A; Newman, Mathew L; Brown, Ryan P; Beer, Jeremy M

    2003-03-01

    Results from two experiments suggest that stereotype-threat effects are special cases of a more general process involving the need to maintain or enhance status. We hypothesized that situations capable of confirming a performance stereotype might represent either a threat to status or an opportunity for enhancement of status, depending on the nature of the stereotype. The positive relationship between baseline testosterone and status sensitivity led us to hypothesize that high testosterone levels in males and females would amplify existing performance expectations when gender-based math-performance stereotypes were activated. In Study 1, high-testosterone females performed poorly on a math test when a negative performance stereotype was primed. In Study 2, high-testosterone males excelled on a math test when a positive performance stereotype was primed. The moderating effect of testosterone on performance suggests that a stereotype-relevant situation is capable of conferring either a loss or a gain of status on targets of the stereotype.

  8. The association between perinatal testosterone concentration and early vocabulary development: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hollier, Lauren P; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2013-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to testosterone is known to affect fetal brain maturation and later neurocognitive function. However, research on the effects of prenatal testosterone exposure has been limited by indirect measures of testosterone and small unrepresentative samples. This study investigated whether bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations in umbilical cord blood are associated with expressive vocabulary development, in a large birth cohort. Cord blood samples were taken immediately after delivery and expressive vocabulary was measured at two years of age using the language development survey (LDS). BioT concentration significantly predicted vocabulary size in males (n=197), such that higher concentrations were associated with lower LDS scores, indicating smaller vocabulary. This relationship between BioT concentrations and vocabulary at aged 2 years was not observed in girls (n=176). Higher circulating prenatal testosterone concentrations at birth may be associated with reduced vocabulary in early childhood among boys.

  9. The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol on Bone Biomechanical Strength and Bone Calcium Content in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Gengatharan, Dhivakaran; Mohd Nasru, Fadlin Sakina; Khairussam, Rehan Amalia; Ern, Sherlyn Lai Hui; Aminuddin, Siti Aina Wahidah; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC) group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM) received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol) orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone) intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2) daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05) but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05). In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength. PMID:27983628

  10. Effects of testosterone on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Daviau, Emily D.; Coneeny, Meagan K.; Engelman, Shannon M.; Prince, W. Tyler; Rodriguez-Wisdom, Karlye N.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage over females for spatial tasks has been well documented in both humans and rodents, but it remains unclear how the activational effects of testosterone influence spatial ability in males. In a series of experiments, we tested how injections of testosterone influenced the spatial working and reference memory of castrated male rats. In the eight-arm radial maze, testosterone injections (0.500 mg/rat) reduced the number of working memory errors during the early blocks of testing but had no effect on the number of reference memory errors relative to the castrated control group. In a reference memory version of the Morris water maze, injections of a wide range of testosterone doses (0.0625-1.000 mg/rat) reduced path lengths to the hidden platform, indicative of improved spatial learning. This improved learning was independent of testosterone dose, with all treatment groups showing better performance than the castrated control males. Furthermore, this effect was only observed when rats were given testosterone injections starting seven days prior to water maze testing and not when injections were given only on the testing days. We also observed that certain doses of testosterone (0.250 and 1.000 mg/rat) increased perseverative behavior in a reversal-learning task. Finally, testosterone did not have a clear effect on spatial working memory in the Morris water maze, although intermediate doses seemed to optimize performance. Overall, the results indicate that testosterone can have positive activational effects on spatial learning and memory, but the duration of testosterone replacement and the nature of the spatial task modify these effects. PMID:21295035

  11. Testosterone reduces AGTR1 expression to prevent β-cell and islet apoptosis from glucotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kooptiwut, Suwattanee; Hanchang, Wanthanee; Semprasert, Namoiy; Junking, Mutita; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2015-03-01

    Hypogonadism in men is associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with testosterone has been shown to protect pancreatic β-cell against apoptosis due to toxic substances including streptozotocin and high glucose. One of the pathological mechanisms of glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is the induction of the local rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The role of testosterone in regulation of the pancreatic RAAS is still unknown. This study aims to investigate the protective action of testosterone against glucotoxicity-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via alteration of the pancreatic RAAS pathway. Rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1) cells or isolated male mouse islets were cultured in basal and high-glucose media in the presence or absence of testosterone, losartan, and angiotensin II (Ang II), then cell apoptosis, cleaved caspase 3 expression, oxidative stress, and expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and p47(phox) mRNA and protein were measured. Testosterone and losartan showed similar effects in reducing pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Testosterone significantly reduced expression of AGTR1 protein in INS-1 cells cultured in high-glucose medium or high-glucose medium with Ang II. Testosterone decreased the expression of AGTR1 and p47(phox) mRNA and protein in comparison with levels in cells cultured in high-glucose medium alone. Furthermore, testosterone attenuated superoxide production when co-cultured with high-glucose medium. In contrast, when cultured in basal glucose, supplementation of testosterone did not have any effect on cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and expression of AGT1R and p47(phox). In addition, high-glucose medium did not increase cleaved caspase 3 in AGTR1 knockdown experiments. Thus, our results indicated that testosterone prevents pancreatic β-cell apoptosis due to glucotoxicity through reduction of the expression of ATGR1 and its signaling pathway.

  12. Testosterone across successive competitions: evidence for a 'winner effect' in humans?

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2014-09-01

    In many species testosterone fluctuates in concert with outcome-dependent changes in social status, such that winning a competition leads to an increase in circulating testosterone (i.e., competition effect). Although this phenomenon has been well studied in humans, the cumulative endocrine impact of multiple successive competitions is poorly understood. Moreover, although changes in testosterone after a competition seem to predict immediate aggressive behavior, competitive motivation, risk-taking, and affiliation, whether this endocrine response also has long-term behavioral effects, as suggested by studies in non-human animals, has not been examined. In this study, salivary testosterone was collected from pairs of male participants engaging, on two consecutive days, in head-to-head competitions on a previously validated laboratory task. We found that testosterone reactivity on the first day, which was congruent with the competition effect (i.e., net testosterone increase in randomly assigned winners), predicted the task performance on the second day. Further, when looking at testosterone reactivity on the second day, those individuals that lost both competitions experienced the steepest decline in testosterone compared to those individuals who lost on the second day but won on the first day. Testosterone fluctuations on the second day were also analyzed considering the type of status hierarchy (stable vs. unstable) that emerged as a result of the combined outcomes of the two competitions. In accordance with the challenge hypothesis, men in unstable hierarchies (first day winners/second day losers and first day losers/second day winners) experienced an increase in testosterone compared to men in the stable hierarchies (double winners and double losers). Results are discussed within a comparative perspective, drawing parallels with the winner effect and the challenge hypothesis observed in non-human animals.

  13. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism. PMID

  14. Testosterone stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation through LKB1/AMPK signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takuya; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kitawaki, Jo; Katsuyama, Masato; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Decreases in serum testosterone concentrations in aging men are associated with metabolic disorders. Testosterone has been reported to increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. However, studies on glucose uptake occurring in response to testosterone stimulation in adipocytes are currently not available. This study was designed to determine the effects of testosterone on glucose uptake in adipocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed with 2-[(3)H] deoxyglucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was evaluated in plasma membrane (PM) sheets and PM fractions by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Activation of GLUT4 translocation-related protein kinases, including Akt, AMPK, LKB1, CaMKI, CaMKII, and Cbl was followed by immunoblotting. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and AR translocation to the PM were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that both high-dose (100 nM) testosterone and testosterone-BSA increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the PM, independently of the intracellular AR. Testosterone and testosterone-BSA stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK, LKB1, and CaMKII. The knockdown of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated testosterone- and testosterone-BSA-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. These results indicate that high-dose testosterone and testosterone-BSA increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inducing the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway.

  15. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  16. GSK-3β/NFAT Signaling Is Involved in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Duran, Javier; Oyarce, Cesar; Pavez, Mario; Valladares, Denisse; Basualto-Alarcon, Carla; Lagos, Daniel; Barrientos, Genaro; Troncoso, Mayarling Francisca; Ibarra, Cristian; Estrada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone induces cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves a concerted crosstalk between cytosolic and nuclear signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is associated with the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is considered to function as a negative regulator, mainly by modulating NFAT activity. However, the role played by calcineurin-NFAT and GSK-3β signaling in testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy has remained unknown. Here, we determined that testosterone stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy through NFAT activation and GSK-3β inhibition. Testosterone increased the activity of NFAT-luciferase (NFAT-Luc) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the activity peaking after 24 h of stimulation with 100 nM testosterone. NFAT-Luc activity induced by testosterone was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A and by 11R-VIVIT, a specific peptide inhibitor of NFAT. Conversely, testosterone inhibited GSK-3β activity as determined by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 and β-catenin protein accumulation, and also by reduction in β-catenin phosphorylation at residues Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41. GSK-3β inhibition with 1-azakenpaullone or a GSK-3β-targeting siRNA increased NFAT-Luc activity, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3βS9A) inhibited NFAT-Luc activation mediated by testosterone. Testosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was established by increased cardiac myocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation (as a measurement of cellular protein synthesis). Calcineurin-NFAT inhibition abolished and GSK-3β inhibition promoted the hypertrophy stimulated by testosterone. GSK-3β activation by GSK-3βS9A blocked the increase of hypertrophic markers induced by testosterone. Moreover, inhibition of intracellular androgen receptor prevented testosterone-induced NFAT-Luc activation. Collectively, these results suggest that

  17. GSK-3β/NFAT Signaling Is Involved in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Javier; Oyarce, Cesar; Pavez, Mario; Valladares, Denisse; Basualto-Alarcon, Carla; Lagos, Daniel; Barrientos, Genaro; Troncoso, Mayarling Francisca; Ibarra, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone induces cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves a concerted crosstalk between cytosolic and nuclear signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is associated with the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is considered to function as a negative regulator, mainly by modulating NFAT activity. However, the role played by calcineurin-NFAT and GSK-3β signaling in testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy has remained unknown. Here, we determined that testosterone stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy through NFAT activation and GSK-3β inhibition. Testosterone increased the activity of NFAT-luciferase (NFAT-Luc) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the activity peaking after 24 h of stimulation with 100 nM testosterone. NFAT-Luc activity induced by testosterone was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A and by 11R-VIVIT, a specific peptide inhibitor of NFAT. Conversely, testosterone inhibited GSK-3β activity as determined by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 and β-catenin protein accumulation, and also by reduction in β-catenin phosphorylation at residues Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41. GSK-3β inhibition with 1-azakenpaullone or a GSK-3β-targeting siRNA increased NFAT-Luc activity, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3βS9A) inhibited NFAT-Luc activation mediated by testosterone. Testosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was established by increased cardiac myocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation (as a measurement of cellular protein synthesis). Calcineurin-NFAT inhibition abolished and GSK-3β inhibition promoted the hypertrophy stimulated by testosterone. GSK-3β activation by GSK-3βS9A blocked the increase of hypertrophic markers induced by testosterone. Moreover, inhibition of intracellular androgen receptor prevented testosterone-induced NFAT-Luc activation. Collectively, these results suggest that

  18. Urinary marker of oral pregnenolone administration.

    PubMed

    Saudan, Christophe; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2005-03-01

    Pregnenolone (PREG) can potentially be abused by athletes to maintain an equilibration of the steroidal environment after sex steroids administrations. Five men volunteers orally ingested 50 mg PREG to determine optimal urinary markers for detection of this steroid. Our findings show that ingestion of PREG has no significant effects on the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) and testosterone/luteinizing hormone (T/LH) ratios, whereas variable changes on the carbon isotopic values of three T metabolites: androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5beta-androstanediol) together with 16(5alpha)-androsten-3alpha-ol (androstenol) and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol (pregnanediol) have been observed. The difference between the carbon isotopic values (delta13C-values) of androstenol and pregnanediol is potentially the most reliable marker of exogenous PREG administration in males. For all subjects, the differences differ by 3.0 per thousand or more over a period of about 10 h and for both of them the detection window for positivity is extended over 40 h.

  19. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  20. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  1. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of testosterone cypionate (deposteron(®)).

    PubMed

    Meireles, José Roberto C; Oliveira, Susie V; Costa-Neto, Antônio O; Cerqueira, Eneida M M

    2013-05-15

    The indiscriminate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has motivated researchers to investigate the mutagenic action of these substances. The present study, using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, evaluates the genotoxic potential of testosterone cypionate (deposteron). Male Swiss mice received intramuscular injections of deposteron at three doses. The animals were sacrificed 24, 48, or 72h after treatment and bone marrow was removed immediately, followed by scoring to count the micronuclei in 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE). Two hundred erythrocytes/animal were analyzed to determine the PCE-NCE (normochromatic erythrocyte) relationship and to determine the cytotoxic effects. The animals treated with deposteron at the highest dose presented greater numbers of micronuclei. The highest dose caused a decrease in the PCE/NCE relationship, indicating a cytotoxic effect. We conclude that deposteron is genotoxic and cytotoxic in mice.

  2. Marriage, parenting, and testosterone variation among Kenyan Swahili men.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2003-11-01

    Male variation in testosterone (T) levels may, in part, reflect a differential behavioral allocation to mating and parenting effort. This research tests whether demographic indicators of pair bonding and parenting were associated with salivary T levels among Kenyan Swahili men. Men in the sample were either unmarried (N = 17), monogamously married (N = 57), or polygynously married (N = 14), and between ages 29-52. In contrast with earlier findings among North American men, monogamously married men did not have lower T levels than unmarried men. However, among all married men, men with younger genetic children tended to have marginally lower T levels. Polygynously married men, all of whom had two wives, had higher T levels than all other Swahili men. Possible explanations of higher T levels among polygynously married men are explored.

  3. Testosterone modulation of striatal dopamine output in orchidectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Shemisa, Kamal; Kunnathur, Vidhya; Liu, Bin; Salvaterra, Ty J; Dluzen, Dean E

    2006-10-01

    Three experiments are presented in which dopamine (DA) responses from superfused striatal tissue of orchidectomized (ORCH) mice treated or not with testosterone (T) are compared. In experiment 1, potassium-stimulated DA output was significantly greater in ORCH vs. ORCH+T mice. This profile was reversed when reserpine was infused in experiment 2, with DA output being significantly greater in ORCH+T vs. ORCH mice. In experiment 3, the amount of DA recovered following infusion of DA indicated no statistically significant differences in DA recoveries between ORCH and ORCH+T mice as tested in this paradigm. The findings that both potassium- and reserpine-induced DA responses are altered significantly by T suggests that one potential site of T action might involve the storage/uptake of DA within the vesicles of these neurons. Such results have important implications with regard to understanding the sex differences that are present in nigrostriatal dopaminergic function within health and diseased states.

  4. Developmental programming: impact of testosterone on placental differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, EM; Astapova, O; Steckler, TL; Veiga-Lopez, A; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Gestational testosterone (T) treatment causes maternal hyperinsulinemia, intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birth weight, and adult reproductive and metabolic dysfunctions. Sheep models of IUGR demonstrate placental insufficiency as an underlying cause of IUGR. Placental compromise is likely the cause of fetal growth retardation in gestational T-treated sheep. This study tested if T excess compromises placental differentiation by its androgenic action and/or via altered insulin sensitivity. A comparative approach of studying gestational T (aromatizable androgen) against dihydrotestosterone (DHT; non-aromatizable androgen) or T plus androgen antagonist, flutamide, was used to determine whether the effects of T in placental differentiation were programmed by its androgenic actions. Co-treatment of testosterone with the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, was used to establish whether the effects of gestational T on placentome differentiation involved compromised insulin sensitivity. Parallel cohorts of pregnant females were maintained for lambing and the birth weight of their offspring was recorded. Placental studies were conducted on days 65, 90, or 140 of gestation. Results indicated that 1) gestational T treatment advances placental differentiation, evident as early as day 65 of gestation, and culminates in low birth weight, 2) placental advancement is facilitated at least in part by androgenic actions of T and is not a function of disrupted insulin homeostasis, and 3) placental advancement, while helping to increase placental efficiency, was insufficient to prevent IUGR and low birth weight female offspring. Findings from this study may be of relevance to women with PCOS, whose reproductive and metabolic phenotype is captured by the gestational T-treated offspring. PMID:24840528

  5. Brain testosterone metabolism in thyroidectomized and thyroxine-treated chickens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Lucini, V; Harvey, S

    1984-10-01

    The metabolism of testosterone to reduced derivatives was studied in the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the hyperstriatum dorsale of thyroidectomized, sham-operated, and thyroxine (T4)-injected immature cockerels. The levels of plasma thyroid hormones were markedly reduced (P less than 0.001) in thyroidectomized cockerels whereas thyroidectomized or sham-operated birds injected daily with 100 micrograms/kg thyroxine had significantly elevated (P less than 0.001) levels in comparison with sham-operated control birds. Each tissue was found to produce significant amounts of 5 beta-androstane-17 beta-ol-3-one (5 beta-DHT), 5 beta-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 beta-3 alpha-diol), and androstenedione. Irrespective of thyroid state 5 beta-DHT and 5 beta-3 alpha-diol were produced to the greatest extent by the hyperstriatum dorsale whereas androstenedione was maximally produced in the pituitary gland. In comparison with the hyperstriatum dorsale and the hypothalamus only small quantities of 5 beta-DHT were produced in the pituitary gland. In the hyperstriatum dorsale of thyroidectomized birds both 5 beta-DHT (P less than 0.05) and 5 beta-3 alpha-diol (P less than 0.1) were formed to a greater extent than in sham-operated birds. This effect was reversed by administration of T4 to the operated birds which reduced the levels to those measured in the sham-operated controls. Similarly, injection of T4 into sham-operated birds decreased (P less than 0.05) the production of 5 beta-DHT in the hypothalamus while in the pituitary gland injection of T4 into thyroidectomized birds reduced the production of androstenedione (P less than 0.05). It was concluded that in the cockerel thyroid hormone is likely to play a role in the metabolism of testosterone. The physiological significance of 5 beta-reductase activity in the neuroendocrine tissues is discussed.

  6. Seasonal variation of salivary testosterone in men, normally cycling women, and women using hormonal contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Steven J.; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Humans’ endogenous testosterone concentrations vary over a number of temporal scales, with little known about variation longer than monthly cycles. Past studies of seasonal or circannual variation have principally used male participants and have produced inconsistent results. Thus, little is known about how testosterone concentrations fluctuate throughout the year, whether such variation differs between men and women, and whether there are influences of hormonal contraceptive use. The present study collected saliva samples from a large sample (N=718) of men and women, each collected at one time point within a relatively uniform distribution over a full calendar year. Both men and normally-cycling women displayed seasonal variation in salivary testosterone concentrations, such that testosterone concentrations are maximal in the fall and minimal in the summer. Notably, normally-cycling women had testosterone concentrations that were over 100% greater at their maximum in fall compared to their minimum in summer. Women using hormonal contraceptives not only had consistently lower endogenous testosterone concentrations, but also showed a flatter seasonal testosterone profile. The implications for studies of psychology and human behavioral endocrinology are discussed. PMID:21802437

  7. Endogenous Testosterone and Exogenous Oxytocin Modulate Attentional Processing of Infant Faces

    PubMed Central

    Holtfrerich, Sarah K. C.; Schwarz, Katharina A.; Sprenger, Christian; Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women. Higher endogenous testosterone was expected to decrease selective attention to child portraits in a face-in-the-crowd-paradigm, while oxytocin was expected to counteract this effect. As predicted, women with higher salivary testosterone were slower in orienting attention to infant targets in the context of adult distractors. Interestingly, reaction times to infant and adult stimuli decreased after oxytocin administration, but only in women with high endogenous testosterone. These results suggest that oxytocin may counteract the adverse effects of testosterone on a central aspect of social behavior and maternal caretaking. PMID:27861588

  8. Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    Luis, Juana; Ramírez, Lorena; Carmona, Agustín; Ortiz, Guadalupe; Delgado, Jesús; Cárdenas, René

    2009-01-01

    Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae). Although initially it was thought that testosterone inhibited the display of paternal behavior in males of rodents, it has been shown that in some species high testosterone levels are needed for exhibition of paternal care. In captivity, males of Volcano Mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) provide pups the same care provided by the mother, with the exception of suckling. Here we measured plasmatic testosterone concentrations 10 days after mating, five and 20 days postpartum, and 10 days after males were isolated from their families in order to determine possible changes in this hormone, associated to the presence and age of pups. Males of Volcano Mouse exhibited paternal behavior when their testosterone levels were relatively high. Although levels of this hormone did not change with the presence or pups age, males that invested more time in huddling showed higher testosterone levels. It is possible that in the Volcano Mouse testosterone modulates paternal behavior indirectly, as in the California mouse.

  9. Testosterone in human studies: Modest associations between plasma and salivary measurements.

    PubMed

    de Wit, A E; Bosker, F J; Giltay, E J; de Kloet, C S; Roelofs, K; van Pelt, J; Penninx, B W J H; Schoevers, R A

    2017-03-07

    Testosterone is involved in many processes like aggression and mood disorders. As it may easily diffuse from blood into saliva, salivary testosterone is thought to reflect plasma free testosterone level. If so, it would provide a welcome noninvasive and less stressful alternative to blood sampling. Past research did not reveal consensus regarding the strength of the association, but sample sizes were small. This study aimed to analyse the association in a large cohort. In total, 2,048 participants (age range 18-65 years; 696 males and 1,352 females) were included and saliva (using cotton Salivettes) and plasma were collected for testosterone measurements. Levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay respectively. Free testosterone was calculated by the Vermeulen algorithm. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. Plasma total and free testosterone showed a significant association with salivary testosterone in men (adjusted β = .09, p = .01; and β = .15, p < .001, respectively) and in women (adjusted β = .08, p = .004; and crude β = .09, p = .002 respectively). The modest associations indicate that there are many influencing factors of both technical and biological origin.

  10. Flutamide Enhances Neuroprotective Effects of Testosterone during Experimental Cerebral Ischemia in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fanaei, Hamed; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Hassanzade, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been shown to worsen histological and neurological impairment during cerebral ischemia in animal models. Cell culture studies revealed that testosterone is implicated in protecting neural and glial cells against insults, and they started to elucidate testosterone pathways that underlie these protective effects. These studies support the hypothesis that testosterone can be neuroprotective throughout an episode of cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying the shift between testosterone protective and deleterious effects via block testosterone aromatization and androgen receptors in rats subjected to 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: gonadally intact male; castrated male; intact male + flutamide; intact male + letrozole; intact male + combination flutamide and letrozole. Our results indicated that castration has the ability to reduce histological damage and to improve neurological score 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Moreover, flutamide improved histologic and neurological impairment better than castration. Letrozole induced increases in striatal infarct volume and seizures in gonadally intact rats. Combination of flutamide and letrozole showed that letrozole can reverse beneficial effects of flutamide. In conclusion, it seems that the beneficial effects of flutamide are the prevention of the deleterious effects and enhancement of neuroprotective effects of testosterone during cerebral ischemia. PMID:23401794

  11. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  12. Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations in 15 dogs with perineal hernia.

    PubMed

    Mann, F A; Boothe, H W; Amoss, M S; Tangner, C H; Puglisi, T A; Hobson, H P

    1989-06-01

    Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations, and serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio were evaluated in 15 dogs (greater than or equal to 5 years old) with perineal hernia (9 sexually intact males and 6 castrated males) and in 9 clinically normal sexually intact male dogs greater than or equal to 5 years old. There was no significant difference in serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio between sexually intact male dogs with perineal hernia and clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. In castrated dogs with perineal hernia, serum testosterone concentration and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower, compared with those values in sexually intact dogs with perineal hernia and in clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. There was no significant difference in serum estradiol 17-beta concentration among sexually intact male dogs with perineal hernia, castrated dogs with perineal hernia, and clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations in dogs with perineal hernia did not differ from those values in clinically normal male dogs of the same age. Castration cannot be recommended for the treatment of perineal hernia unless a castration-responsive contributing factor such as prostatomegaly is identified, unless the pelvic diaphragm of dogs with perineal hernia has high sensitivity to normal or low serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations, or unless there is documentation that other androgens and/or estrogens are involved.

  13. High levels of testosterone inhibit ovarian follicle development by repressing the FSH signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Cui, Yu-qian; Zhao, Han; Liu, Hong-bin; Zhao, Shi-dou; Gao, Yuan; Mu, Xiao-li; Gao, Fei; Chen, Zi-jiang

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high concentrations of testosterone on ovarian follicle development was investigated. Primary follicles and granulosa cells were cultured in vitro in media supplemented with a testosterone concentration gradient. The combined effects of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on follicular growth and granulosa cell gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression were also investigated. Follicle growth in the presence of high testosterone concentrations was promoted at early stages (days 1-7), but inhibited at later stage (days 7-14) of in vitro culture. Interestingly, testosterone-induced follicle development arrest was rescued by treatment with high concentrations of FSH (400 mIU/mL). In addition, in cultured granulosa cells, high testosterone concentrations induced cell proliferation, and increased the mRNA expression level of FSH receptor (FSHR), and luteinized hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. It was concluded that high concentrations of testosterone inhibited follicle development, most likely through regulation of the FSH signaling pathway, although independently from FSHR downregulation. These findings are an important step in further understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  14. Drug Insight: testosterone and selective androgen receptor modulators as anabolic therapies for chronic illness and aging

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shalender; Calof, Olga M; Storer, Thomas W; Lee, Martin L; Mazer, Norman A; Jasuja, Ravi; Montori, Victor M; Gao, Wenqing; Dalton, James T

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Several regulatory concerns have hindered development of androgens as anabolic therapies, despite unequivocal evidence that testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in men; it induces hypertrophy of type I and II muscle fibers, and increases myonuclear and satellite cell number. Androgens promote differentiation of mesenchymal multipotent cells into the myogenic lineage and inhibit their adipogenic differentiation, by facilitating association of androgen receptors with β-catenin and activating T-cell factor 4. Meta-analyses indicate that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass and muscle strength in HIV-positive men with weight loss, glucocorticoid-treated men, and older men with low or low-normal testosterone levels. The effects of testosterone on physical function and outcomes important to patients have not, however, been studied. In older men, increased hematocrit and increased risk of prostate biopsy and detection of prostate events are the most frequent, testosterone-related adverse events. Concerns about long-term risks have restrained enthusiasm for testosterone use as anabolic therapy. Selective androgen-receptor modulators that are preferentially anabolic and that spare the prostate hold promise as anabolic therapies. We need more studies to determine whether testosterone or selective androgen-receptor modulators can induce meaningful improvements in physical function and patient-important outcomes in patients with physical dysfunction associated with chronic illness or aging. PMID:16932274

  15. Treatment of pain in fibromyalgia patients with testosterone gel: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response.

    PubMed

    White, Hillary D; Brown, Lin A J; Gyurik, Robert J; Manganiello, Paul D; Robinson, Thomas D; Hallock, Linda S; Lewis, Lionel D; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2015-08-01

    To test our hypothesis that testosterone deficiency plays an important role in chronic pain, a Phase I/II pilot study was initiated with 12 fibromyalgia patients to verify that a daily dose for 28days with transdermal testosterone gel would 1) significantly and safely increase mean serum testosterone concentrations from low baseline levels to mid/high-normal levels, and 2) effectively treat the pain and fatigue symptoms of fibromyalgia. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that serum free testosterone concentrations were raised significantly above baseline levels, by assessment of maximum hormone concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters: free testosterone Cmax was significantly raised from a mean of 2.64pg/mL to 3.91pg/mL (p<0.05), and 24hour free testosterone AUC was significantly raised from a mean of 35.0pg-hr/mL to 53.89pg-hr/mL. Assessment of the typical symptoms of fibromyalgia by patient questionnaire and tender point exam demonstrated significant change in: decreased muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue, and increased libido during study treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesized ability of testosterone to relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptoms not tightly related to fibromyalgia were not improved.

  16. Social factors increase fecal testosterone levels in wild male gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena).

    PubMed

    Arlet, Małgorzata E; Kaasik, Ants; Molleman, Freerk; Isbell, Lynne; Carey, James R; Mänd, Raivo

    2011-04-01

    Testosterone can be expected to play a significant role in mediating behavior and life history in social animals, but the number of species with data from the wild is still too small to make generalizations. We investigated the influence of social factors (social status, aggression, and reproductive females) and environmental variation (rainfall and temperature) on fecal testosterone concentrations in wild male gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) living in five groups in Kibale National Park, Uganda. This species is phylogenetically closely related to baboons, but is arboreal, with multi-male, multi-female groups rarely exceeding 20 individuals. We analyzed 358 fecal samples from 21 adult males. We found that the highest-ranking males had the highest testosterone concentrations while immigrant males had the lowest testosterone concentrations. Aggression was not correlated with testosterone levels. The presence of females with sexual swellings at their most tumescent stage increased testosterone concentrations in all males. Finally, individuals tended to have lower testosterone when the temperature was higher.

  17. Encapsulation of testosterone and its aliphatic and aromatic dimers by milk beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Vesper, A R; Bekale, L; Bérubé, G; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-05-01

    The encapsulation of testosterone and it aliphatic dimer (alip) and aromatic dimer (arom) with milk β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) was studied in aqueous solution at pH 7.4. Multiple spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular modeling were used to characterize testosterone-β-LG binding and protein aggregation process. Spectroscopic analysis showed that steroids bind β-LG via hydrophobic and H-bonding interactions with overall binding constants K test-β-LG = 5.6 (± 0.6) × 10(4)M(-1), K test-dimeralip-β-LG = 4.8 (± 0.5) × 10(3)M(-1) and K test-dimer-arom-β-LG = 2.9 (± 0.4) × 10(4)M(-1). The binding affinity was testosterone > testosterone dimer-aromatic > testosterone dimer-aliphatic. Transmission electron microscopy showed major changes in protein morphology as testosterone-protein complexation occurred with increase in the diameter of the protein aggregate indicating encapsulation of steroids by β-LG. Modeling showed the presence of H-bonding stabilized testosterone-β-LG complexes with the free binding energy of -9.82 Kcal/mol indicating that the interaction process is spontaneous at room temperature.

  18. Application of stable carbon isotope analysis to the detection of testosterone administration to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hebestreit, Moritz; Flenker, Ulrich; Buisson, Corinne; Andre, Francois; Le Bizec, Bruno; Fry, Hildburg; Lang, Melanie; Weigert, Angelika Preiss; Heinrich, Katharina; Hird, Simon; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2006-04-19

    The use of anabolic substances is prohibited in food-producing animals throughout the European Union. No method is available to reliably detect the misuse of natural hormones in cattle. A method was developed to detect the abuse of testosterone in cattle fattening. Synthesized testosterone is rather depleted in the (13)C/(12)C ratio. Hence, the method is based on gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) analysis of urine. To select testosterone metabolites and endogenous reference compounds (ERC), the concentration of urinary steroids of cattle was investigated. Dehydroepiandrosterone and androst-5ene-3beta,17alpha-diol were chosen as ERCs to show endogenous (13)C/(12)C ratios. Etiocholanolone and 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17alpha-diol were chosen as the most important testosterone metabolites. Other metabolites known from literature like epitestosterone were less promising. In principle, GC/C/IRMS is a nonspecific method because finally carbon dioxide is analyzed. Therefore, a dedicated cleanup procedure for the selected steroids was developed. By means of proposed confidence intervals in the isotopic composition of ERCs and metabolites, the administration of testosterone to cattle could be detected reliably. Differences of up to 11 per thousand on the delta-scale between ERC and testosterone metabolites were found after testosterone administration, whereas endogenous differences did not exceed 2 per thousand.

  19. Testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio is associated with female facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Probst, Fabian; Bobst, Cora; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between facial shape and attractiveness has been extensively studied, yet few studies have investigated the underlying biological factors of an attractive face. Many researchers have proposed a link between female attractiveness and sex hormones, but there is little empirical evidence in support of this assumption. In the present study we investigated the relationship between circulating sex hormones and attractiveness. We created prototypes by separately averaging photographs of 15 women with high and low levels of testosterone, oestradiol, and testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio levels, respectively. An independent set of facial images was then shape transformed toward these prototypes. We paired the resulting images in such a way that one face depicted a female with high hormone level and the other one with a low hormone level. Fifty participants were asked to choose the more attractive face of each pair. We found that low testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio and low testosterone were positively associated with female facial attractiveness. There was no preference for faces with high oestradiol levels. In an additional experiment with 36 participants we confirmed that a low testosterone-to-oestradiol ratio plays a larger role than low testosterone alone. These results provide empirical evidence that an attractive female face is shaped by interacting effects of testosterone and oestradiol.

  20. Elevated Testosterone Reduces Uterine Blood Flow, Spiral Artery Elongation, and Placental Oxygenation in Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Mishra, Jay S; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Vincent, Kathleen L; Patrikeev, Igor; Motamedi, Massoud; Saade, George R; Hankins, Gary D; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2016-03-01

    Elevated maternal testosterone levels are shown to cause fetal growth restriction, eventually culminating in sex-specific adult-onset hypertension that is more pronounced in males than in females. In this study, we tested whether uteroplacental and fetoplacental disturbances underlie fetal growth restriction and if these changes vary in male and female placentas. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=16) or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation day 15-19; n=16). On gestation day 20, we quantified uterine artery blood flow using microultrasound, visualized placental arterial network using x-ray microcomputed tomography, determined fetoplacental hypoxia using pimonidazole and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and used Affymetrix array to determine changes in placental expression of genes involved in vascular development. Plasma testosterone levels increased 2-fold in testosterone-injected rats. Placental and fetal weights were lower in rats with elevated testosterone. Uterine artery blood flow was lower, and resistance index was higher in the testosterone group. Radial and spiral artery diameter and length, the number of fetoplacental arterial branches, and umbilical artery diameter were reduced in the testosterone group. In addition, markers of hypoxia in the placentas and fetuses were elevated in the testosterone group. The magnitude of changes in placental vasculature and hypoxia was greater in males than in females and was associated with sex-specific alteration of unique sets of genes involved in angiogenesis and blood vessel morphogenesis. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces a decrease in uterine arterial blood flow and fetal sex-related uteroplacental vascular changes, which may set the stage for subsequent sex differences in adult-onset diseases.

  1. Mendelian randomization suggests non-causal associations of testosterone with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality.

    PubMed

    Haring, R; Teumer, A; Völker, U; Dörr, M; Nauck, M; Biffar, R; Völzke, H; Baumeister, S E; Wallaschofski, H

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies showed that low serum testosterone concentrations are associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality. However, the causal nature of these associations is controversial. We studied 1 882 men aged 20-79 years with serum testosterone concentrations and genotyping data from the longitudinal population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. Testosterone concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, including anthropometric, lipid, blood pressure and glycaemic parameters; and prospectively with all-cause mortality (277 deaths, 14.7%) during the 10-year follow-up. To overcome problems of residual confounding, reverse causation, or regression dilution bias in the investigated testosterone-outcome associations, we used two-stage least square regression models with previously identified polymorphisms at the SHBG gene (rs12150660) and X chromosome (rs5934505) as multiple genetic instruments in an instrumental variable (IV) approach, also known as Mendelian randomization. In standard regression analyses, testosterone was robustly associated with a wide range of cardiometabolic risk factors. In subsequent IV analyses, no such significant associations were observed. Similarly, prospective analyses showed a consistent association of low testosterone concentrations with increased all-cause mortality risk, which was not apparent in subsequent IV analyses. The present Mendelian randomization analyses did not detect any evidence for causal associations of testosterone concentrations with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality, suggesting that previously reported associations might largely result from residual confounding or reverse causation. Although testosterone assessment might improve risk prediction, implementation of testosterone replacement therapy requires further evidence of a direct effect on cardiometabolic outcomes from double-blinded randomized controlled trials and large-scale Mendelian

  2. Effects of testosterone replacement in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad; Travison, Thomas G; Alford, Daniel; Knapp, Philip E; Teeter, Kjersten; Cahalan, Christine; Eder, Richard; Lakshman, Kishore; Bachman, Eric; Mensing, George; Martel, Marc O; Le, Dillon; Stroh, Helene; Bhasin, Shalender; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Symptomatic androgen deficiency is common in patients taking opioid analgesics, as these drugs potently suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, the efficacy of testosterone replacement in this setting remains unclear. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of testosterone replacement on pain perception and other androgen-dependent outcomes in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled trial at an outpatient academic research center. Participants were men aged 18 to 64 years on opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain, and total testosterone levels were <350 ng/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of daily transdermal gel that contained 5 g of testosterone or placebo. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported clinical pain and objectively assessed pain sensitivity. Sexual function, quality of life, and body composition were also assessed. The mean age was 49 years. The median total and free testosterone levels at baseline were 243 ng/dL and 47 pg/mL and 251 ng/dL and 43 pg/mL in the testosterone and placebo arm, respectively. Of the 84 randomized participants, 65 had follow-up data on efficacy outcomes. Compared with men assigned to the placebo arm, those assigned to testosterone replacement experienced greater improvements in pressure and mechanical hyperalgesia, sexual desire, and role limitation due to emotional problems. Testosterone administration was also associated with an improvement in body composition. There were no between-group differences in changes in self-reported pain. In conclusion, in men with opioid-induced androgen deficiency, testosterone administration improved pain sensitivity, sexual desire, body composition, and aspects of quality of life.

  3. Are rapid changes in gonadal testosterone release involved in the fast modulation of brain estrogen effects?

    PubMed Central

    Cornil, Charlotte A.; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2009-01-01

    Estradiol facilitates the expression of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail within a few minutes. These rapid behavioral effects of estradiol could result from rapid changes in its local production in the preoptic area by aromatase, the enzyme converting testosterone into estradiol. Alternatively, aromatase activity may remain constant but fluctuations of local estradiol production could arise from rapid changes in the concentration of the enzymatic substrate, namely testosterone. Rapid increases of circulating testosterone levels have been observed in males of various species following social encounters. Surprisingly, in quail, the interaction with a female seems to result in a decrease in circulating testosterone levels. However, in that study conducted in quail, the samples were collected at intervals longer than the recently observed rapid effects of estradiol on sexual behavior. In the present study we investigated whether plasma testosterone concentrations fluctuate on a shorter time-frame. Eleven male were tested 5 min before and 5, 15 or 30 min after being allowed to have visual access to a female or to copulate with a female for 5 min. Both types of interactions resulted in a significant decline in circulating testosterone levels at latencies as short as 5 min. These data demonstrate that the decrease in testosterone levels is initiated shortly after sexual encounters. Because visual interactions with a female did not result in a rapid increase in testosterone concentrations, these findings rule out the possibility that a rapid rise in circulating testosterone levels participates in the rapid increase in brain estrogen synthesis and its facilitatory effects on copulatory behavior. PMID:19416729

  4. Increased Testosterone Decreases Medial Cortical Volume and Neurogenesis in Territorial Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana)

    PubMed Central

    LaDage, Lara D.; Roth, Timothy C.; Downs, Cynthia J.; Sinervo, Barry; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in an animal's spatial environment can induce variation in the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial cognitive processing. Specifically, increased spatial area use is correlated with increased hippocampal attributes, such as volume and neurogenesis. In the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), males demonstrate alternative reproductive tactics and are either territorial—defending large, clearly defined spatial boundaries—or non-territorial—traversing home ranges that are smaller than the territorial males' territories. Our previous work demonstrated cortical volume (reptilian hippocampal homolog) correlates with these spatial niches. We found that territorial holders have larger medial cortices than non-territory holders, yet these differences in the neural architecture demonstrated some degree of plasticity as well. Although we have demonstrated a link among territoriality, spatial use, and brain plasticity, the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are unclear. Previous studies found that higher testosterone levels can induce increased use of the spatial area and can cause an upregulation in hippocampal attributes. Thus, testosterone may be the mechanistic link between spatial area use and the brain. What remains unclear, however, is if testosterone can affect the cortices independent of spatial experiences and whether testosterone differentially interacts with territorial status to produce the resultant cortical phenotype. In this study, we compared neurogenesis as measured by the total number of doublecortin-positive cells and cortical volume between territorial and non-territorial males supplemented with testosterone. We found no significant differences in the number of doublecortin-positive cells or cortical volume among control territorial, control non-territorial, and testosterone-supplemented non-territorial males, while testosterone-supplemented territorial males had smaller medial cortices containing fewer

  5. Increased Testosterone Decreases Medial Cortical Volume and Neurogenesis in Territorial Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana).

    PubMed

    LaDage, Lara D; Roth, Timothy C; Downs, Cynthia J; Sinervo, Barry; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2017-01-01

    Variation in an animal's spatial environment can induce variation in the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in spatial cognitive processing. Specifically, increased spatial area use is correlated with increased hippocampal attributes, such as volume and neurogenesis. In the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), males demonstrate alternative reproductive tactics and are either territorial-defending large, clearly defined spatial boundaries-or non-territorial-traversing home ranges that are smaller than the territorial males' territories. Our previous work demonstrated cortical volume (reptilian hippocampal homolog) correlates with these spatial niches. We found that territorial holders have larger medial cortices than non-territory holders, yet these differences in the neural architecture demonstrated some degree of plasticity as well. Although we have demonstrated a link among territoriality, spatial use, and brain plasticity, the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are unclear. Previous studies found that higher testosterone levels can induce increased use of the spatial area and can cause an upregulation in hippocampal attributes. Thus, testosterone may be the mechanistic link between spatial area use and the brain. What remains unclear, however, is if testosterone can affect the cortices independent of spatial experiences and whether testosterone differentially interacts with territorial status to produce the resultant cortical phenotype. In this study, we compared neurogenesis as measured by the total number of doublecortin-positive cells and cortical volume between territorial and non-territorial males supplemented with testosterone. We found no significant differences in the number of doublecortin-positive cells or cortical volume among control territorial, control non-territorial, and testosterone-supplemented non-territorial males, while testosterone-supplemented territorial males had smaller medial cortices containing fewer doublecortin

  6. Investigating the binding behaviour of two avidin-based testosterone binders using molecular recognition force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rangl, Martina; Leitner, Michael; Riihimäki, Tiina; Lehtonen, Soili; Hytönen, Vesa P; Gruber, Hermann J; Kulomaa, Markku; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ebner, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Molecular recognition force spectroscopy, a biosensing atomic force microscopy technique allows to characterise the dissociation of ligand-receptor complexes at the molecular level. Here, we used molecular recognition force spectroscopy to study the binding capability of recently developed testosterone binders. The two avidin-based proteins called sbAvd-1 and sbAvd-2 are expected to bind both testosterone and biotin but differ in their binding behaviour towards these ligands. To explore the ligand binding and dissociation energy landscape of these proteins, we tethered biotin or testosterone to the atomic force microscopy probe while the testosterone-binding protein was immobilized on the surface. Repeated formation and rupture of the ligand-receptor complex at different pulling velocities allowed determination of the loading rate dependence of the complex-rupturing force. In this way, we obtained the molecular dissociation rate (k(off)) and energy landscape distances (x(β)) of the four possible complexes: sbAvd-1-biotin, sbAvd-1-testosterone, sbAvd-2-biotin and sbAvd-2-testosterone. It was found that the kinetic off-rates for both proteins and both ligands are similar. In contrast, the x(β) values, as well as the probability of complex formations, varied considerably. In addition, competitive binding experiments with biotin and testosterone in solution differ significantly for the two testosterone-binding proteins, implying a decreased cross-reactivity of sbAvd-2. Unravelling the binding behaviour of the investigated testosterone-binding proteins is expected to improve their usability for possible sensing applications.

  7. ELEVATED TESTOSTERONE REDUCES UTERINE BLOOD FLOW, SPIRAL ARTERY ELONGATION AND PLACENTAL OXYGENATION IN PREGNANT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Mishra, Jay S.; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Patrikeev, Igor; Motamedi, Massoud; Saade, George R.; Hankins, Gary D.; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2016-01-01

    Elevated maternal testosterone levels are shown to cause fetal growth restriction, eventually culminating in sex-specific adult-onset hypertension that is more pronounced in males than females. In this study, we tested whether utero- and feto-placental disturbances underlie fetal growth restriction and if these changes vary in male and female placentas. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=16) or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/Kg/day from gestation day 15–19; n=16). On gestation day 20, we quantified uterine artery blood flow using microultrasound, visualized placental arterial network using x-ray microcomputed tomography, determined fetoplacental hypoxia using pimonidazole and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and used Affymetrix array to determine changes in placental expression of genes involved in vascular development. Plasma testosterone levels increased 2-fold in testosterone-injected rats. Placental and fetal weights were lower in rats with elevated testosterone. Uterine artery blood flow was lower and resistance index was higher in testosterone group. Radial and spiral artery diameter and length, number of fetoplacental arterial branches, and umbilical artery diameter were reduced in the testosterone group. In addition, markers of hypoxia in the placentas and fetuses were elevated in the testosterone group. The magnitude of changes in placental vasculature and hypoxia were greater in males than females and were associated with sex-specific alteration of unique sets of genes involved in angiogenesis and blood vessel morphogenesis. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces a decrease in uterine arterial blood flow and fetal sex-related uteroplacental vascular changes, which may set the stage for subsequent sex differences in adult-onset diseases. PMID:26781277

  8. Age Differences in Prenatal Testosterone's Protective Effects on Disordered Eating Symptoms: Developmental Windows of Expression?

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, Kristen M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present series of studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: 1) lower finger-length ratios [index (2D)/ring (4D) finger] (Study 1), and 2) lower disordered eating in females from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples. PMID:25621790

  9. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti Svartberg, Johan; Carlsen, Erik; Dueland, Svein; Haug, Egil; Skovlund, Eva; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

  10. Fluoxetine induces changes in the testicle and testosterone in adult male rats exposed via placenta and lactation.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Filho, Waldo Oliveira; de Torres, Sandra Maria; Amorim, Marleyne José Afonso Accioly Lins; Andrade, Anderson Joel Martino; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-10-01

    Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression in pregnant and nursing women. However, recent studies have shown adverse effects in the male reproductive system after fluoxetine treatment. Aiming to analyze the extent of damage caused by fluoxetine in the testicle and safe doses for treatment during the perinatal period, the present study analyzed the effects of in utero exposure and exposure during lactation to fluoxetine in spermatogenesis of male rat offspring in adulthood. Wistar rat dams were orally treated with fluoxetine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) from 13 days of gestation to lactation day 21 and their offspring were analyzed at 90 days old. Results showed a reduction in the weight of testes (16%), epididymis (28%), and seminal glands (18%) in animals exposed to fluoxetine 20 mg/kg compared to the control. Seminal gland weight was also reduced 25% and 30% in animals exposed to 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg fluoxetine, respectively. Body weight of animals exposed to 20 mg/kg fluoxetine was reduced from post-natal day 9 to 36 compared to controls but from the post-natal day 9 to 36 there was no statistical difference. The volume of seminiferous epithelium reduced 17% and the total volume of Leydig cells reduced 30% in the group exposed to fluoxetine at 20 mg/kg. Furthermore, Leydig cells volume reduced 29% in the 5 mg/kg group. The length of the seminiferous tubules reduced 17% and daily sperm production per testicle also reduced 18% in animals exposed to the highest dose of fluoxetine compared to controls. The individual area of Leydig cells increased 7% and plasma testosterone increased 49% in animals exposed to fluoxetine at 20 mg/kg. In conclusion, exposure to 20 mg/kg fluoxetine via the placenta and during lactation may change testosterone and testicular parameters important for sperm production and male fertility in adulthood.

  11. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  12. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  13. Testosterone has antidepressant-like efficacy and facilitates imipramine-induced neuroplasticity in male rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Steven R; Workman, Joanna L; Tehrani, Amir; Hamson, Dwayne K; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-03-01

    Hypogonadal men are more likely to develop depression, while testosterone supplementation shows antidepressant-like effects in hypogonadal men and facilitates antidepressant efficacy. Depression is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and testosterone exerts suppressive effects on the HPA axis. The hippocampus also plays a role in the feedback regulation of the HPA axis, and depressed patients show reduced hippocampal neuroplasticity. We assessed the antidepressant-like effects of testosterone with, or without, imipramine on behavioral and neural endophenotypes of depression in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model of depression. A 21-day CUS protocol was used on gonadectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with vehicle, 1mg of testosterone propionate, 10mg/kg of imipramine, or testosterone and imipramine in tandem. Testosterone treatment reduced novelty-induced hypophagia following CUS exposure, but not under non-stress conditions, representing state-dependent effects. Further, testosterone increased the latency to immobility in the forced swim test (FST), reduced basal corticosterone, and reduced adrenal mass in CUS-exposed rats. Testosterone also facilitated the effects of imipramine by reducing the latency to immobility in the FST and increasing sucrose preference. Testosterone treatment had no significant effect on neurogenesis, though the combination of testosterone and imipramine increased PSA-NCAM expression in the ventral dentate gyrus. These findings demonstrate the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of testosterone within a CUS model of depression, and provide insight into the mechanism of action, which appears to be independent of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis.

  14. Basal serum testosterone levels correlate with ovarian reserve and ovarian response in cycling women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shan; Li, Yubin; Long, Lingli; Luo, Canqiao; Mai, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between basal serum testosterone levels and in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters in cycling women. A retrospective cohort study was performed at a clinical IVF center, and 495 women with regular menstruation were enrolled. Serum testosterone levels were measured before the start of IVF treatment cycle. We found that basal serum testosterone levels were negatively associated with female age and FSH/LH ratios. In contrast, we found a positive correlation between serum testosterone levels and the number of oocytes and available embryos. However, there was no significant association between testosterone levels and pregnancy outcome. Our results suggest that basal serum testosterone levels were significantly related to certain classic indicators of ovarian reserve, such as age and FSH/LH ratios. Increased testosterone levels improved ovarian response in cycling women, but they fail to predict pregnancy and miscarriage rate.

  15. The biocide tributyltin reduces the accumulation of testosterone as fatty acid esters in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta).

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Meredith P; Wilson, Vickie S; Folmar, Leroy C; Marcovich, Dragoslav T; LeBlanc, Gerald A

    2003-01-01

    Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated with TBT, and direct exposure to testosterone has been shown to cause imposex. We discovered previously that the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta)biotransforms and retains excess testosterone primarily as fatty acid esters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TBT interferes with the esterification of testosterone, resulting in the elevated free (unesterified) testosterone levels associated with imposex. Exposure of snails to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (> or = 1.0 ng/L as tin) significantly increased the incidence of imposex. Total (free + esterified) testosterone levels in snails were not altered by TBT; however, free testosterone levels increased with increasing exposure concentration of TBT. TBT-exposed snails were given [14C

  16. Androgen deficiency in older men: indications, advantages, and pitfalls of testosterone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    McGill, John J; Shoskes, Daniel A; Sabanegh, Edmund S

    2012-11-01

    The decline in testosterone with age has been associated with specific physical changes that affect quality of life and life expectancy, although a cause-and-effect relationship is yet to be established. While female menopause is rapid and well described, "male menopause" or androgen decline in older men is gradual and marked by nonspecific symptoms. This makes diagnosis of true testosterone deficiency and prediction of response to testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) challenging. This article reviews androgen decline in men, focusing on those over age 40, and covers symptoms, indications, contraindications,diagnosis, treatments, and the risks and benefits of treatment [corrected].

  17. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and BPH/LUTS. What is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Baas, Wesley; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-06-01

    Contrary to the previous dogma that prostatic growth is directly proportional to testosterone levels, emerging research has suggested a lack of testosterone may be a risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Within this review article, we have demonstrated the current understanding of the physiology of hypogonadism and its interplay with prostatic and lower urinary tract physiology. The current evidence suggests that not only does testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) not worsen LUTS, but that hypogonadism itself is an important risk factor for LUTS/BPH.

  18. Erectile dysfunction: oral pharmacotherapy options.

    PubMed

    Vitezic, D; Pelcic, J Mrsic

    2002-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) (impotence) is a widespread, age-related problem, which affects 52% of men between 40 and 70 years of age. It is classified as psychogenic, organic, or mixed psychogenic and organic. ED is not a problem only of men, because the relationship between partners can also be disturbed. Therefore, adequate treatment of ED is needed and the most convenient and simplest way is oral drug therapy. Sildenafil, phosphodiesterase-(PDE)-5-selective inhibitor has been the drug of choice for patients with ED since it has been launched in March 1998. The results of various studies have confirmed the efficacy of the drug in men with ED of various etiologies, as well as the positive effect of sildenafil on the quality of a partnership. The most frequent adverse effects documented with sildenafil usage are headache, flushes, dyspepsia, visual disturbances and nasal congestion/rhinitis. These adverse effects are dose-related, usually transient and mild, with low withdrawal rate. Several studies performed recently have shown that sildenafil is a safe and effective treatment of ED in patients with cardiovascular disease, who do not take nitrates or nitrate donors concomitantly. Other oral medications for ED include apomorphine, phentolamine, yohimbine, trazodone, testosterone and new PDE-5 inhibitors in Phase III clinical trials, such as vardenafil and tadalafil. It is obvious, according to recent data, that the concept of PDE-5 inhibition has a central position in oral pharmacotherapy of ED. However, larger clinical studies of efficacy and safety should be carried out using most of the other above-mentioned oral agents and these may also gain a place in the therapy of ED. There are no studies directly comparing sildenafil and other treatments of ED or assessing its role in combination with other therapies. According to the present knowledge, the quality of life, not only of patients but also of their sexual partners, will be improved significantly with

  19. Microvesicles Correlated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Lowered Testosterone Levels But Were Unaltered by Testosterone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Velling Magnussen, Line; Nielsen, Morten Hjuler; Nielsen, Tine Bo; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Handberg, Aase

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To investigate how circulating microvesicle phenotypes correlate with insulin sensitivity, body composition, plasma lipids, and hepatic fat accumulation. We hypothesized that changes elicited by testosterone replacement therapy are reflected in levels of microvesicles. Methods. Thirty-nine type 2 diabetic males with lowered testosterone levels were assigned to either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo and evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Microvesicles were analysed by flow cytometry and defined as lactadherin-binding particles within the 0.1–1.0 μm gate. Microvesicles of platelet, monocyte, and endothelial cell origin were identified by cell-specific markers and their expression of CD36 was investigated. Results. Triglycerides correlated positively with all investigated microvesicle phenotypes in this study (p < 0.05), and indicators of hepatic fat accumulation, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase correlated with platelet and endothelial microvesicles and CD36-expressing microvesicles from platelets and monocytes (p < 0.05). BMI, waist circumference, and fat percentage correlated with CD36-expressing monocyte microvesicles (p < 0.05), while insulin sensitivity did not correlate with any microvesicle phenotypes. Microvesicle levels were unaffected by testosterone therapy. Conclusions. Metabolic syndrome components and hepatic fat accumulation correlated with microvesicle phenotypes, supporting the involvement of especially CD36 on monocytes in metabolic syndrome pathogenesis. Although testosterone therapy improved body composition measures, microvesicle phenotype levels were unaffected. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01560546). PMID:28168203

  20. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats.

  1. Testosterone administration does not affect men's rejections of low ultimatum game offers or aggressive mood.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom J; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Correlative evidence suggests that testosterone promotes dominance and aggression. However, causal evidence is scarce and offers mixed results. To investigate this relationship, we administered testosterone for 48h to 41 healthy young adult men in a within-subjects, double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. Subjects played the role of responders in an ultimatum game, where rejecting a low offer is costly, but serves to destroy the proposer's profit. Such action can hence be interpreted as non-physical aggression in response to social provocation. In addition, subjects completed a self-assessed mood questionnaire. As expected, self-reported aggressiveness was a key predictor of ultimatum game rejections. However, while testosterone affected subjective ratings of feeling energetic and interested, our evidence strongly suggests that testosterone had no effect on ultimatum game rejections or on aggressive mood. Our findings illustrate the importance of using causal interventions to assess correlative evidence.

  2. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael M; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-04-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required.

  3. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  4. [Low-dose desmopressin (DDAVP) and blood levels of FSH, LH and testosterone in men].

    PubMed

    García-Pascual, I J; Rozán Flores, M A

    1996-03-01

    The effect of desmopressin (DDAVP) administration (2.5 micrograms/12 hours) on serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone was studied in six men. No significant changes were observed in serum concentrations of FSH and LH after 9 days with DDAVP therapy. Nevertheless, serum concentrations of testosterone after 12 hours of DDAVP administration were significantly higher than basal concentrations. Three hours after the administration of DDAVP, serum testosterone concentrations decreased significantly. The conclusion reached was that low doses of desmopressin do not change serum concentrations of FSH and LH, but serum concentration of testosterone is decreased within three hours after the administration, although an increase is observed 12 hours later possibly due to a "rebound effect". Desmopressin would therefore directly act upon human testicle.

  5. [Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate cancer: the downfall of a paradigm?].

    PubMed

    Castillo, Octavio A; López-Fontana, Gastón; Vidal-Mora, Ivar; López Laur, José Daniel

    2015-04-06

    For six decades, it has been a part of the conventional medical wisdom that higher levels of testosterone increase the risk of prostate cancer. This belief is mostly derived from the well-documented regression of prostate cancer after surgical or pharmacological castration. However, there is an absence of scientific data supporting the concept that higher testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Moreover, men with hypogonadism have substantial rates of prostate cancer in prostatic biopsies, suggesting that low testosterone has no protective effect against the development of prostate cancer. Moreover, prostate cancer rate is higher in elderly patients when hormonal levels are low. These results argue against an increased risk of prostate cancer with testosterone replacement therapy.

  6. Determination of testosterone esters and estradiol esters in bovine and porcine blood serum.

    PubMed

    Rejtharová, Martina; Rejthar, Libor; Čačková, Katarína

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring of steroid esters in blood serum is desirable in order to detect the possible illegal use of natural hormones as growth promoters. A method for the determination of testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone decanoate and estradiol benzoate in bovine and porcine blood serum was developed. The procedure consists of protein precipitation and removal of phospholipids using a HybridSPE®-Phospholipid column followed by clean-up on a hydrophilic modified styrene polymer Supel(TM)-Select HLB column and LC-MS/MS measurement. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Decision limits for all analytes were observed in the range 5-30 pg ml(-)(1). The method was shown to be robust for bovine and porcine serum analyses and can be applied for both screening and confirmatory determination in routine residue monitoring.

  7. Plasma cortisol and testosterone following 19-km and 42-km kayak races.

    PubMed

    Lutoslawska, G; Obminski, Z; Krogulski, A; Sendecki, W

    1991-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five, elite, male kayakers before and after 19-km and 42-km kayak races. Both races resulted in significant elevation in plasma cortisol and observed increase is likely to depend on race duration, being much more pronounced after 42-km race compared to 19-km. It should be stressed that observed elevation in cortisol level after 42-km race was higher than reported previously after a marathon run. This finding is in line with reports on hormonal changes in response to arms exercise. Both contests caused a decrease in plasma testosterone level, but the difference between races was not significant. Testosterone/cortisol ratio dropped significantly immediately after the races and the observed decrease was more dominant after the 42-km distance. On the next day, 18 h after the races plasma cortisol, testosterone levels and T/C ratio returned to basal level indicating recuperation from post exercise changes.

  8. Beyond testosterone cypionate: evidence behind the use of nandrolone in male health and wellness

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by low serum testosterone levels and diverse symptoms, male hypogonadism is a common condition. Current medical treatment focuses on testosterone supplementation using multiple modalities such as injections, gels and pellets. Interestingly, while testosterone is considered an anabolic androgenic steroid, it has not been saddled with the social stigma that other, similar medications have. The goal of this review is to highlight an anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone (i.e., nandrolone, deca-durabolin) and illustrate prospective therapeutic applications for male health. Containing a chemical structure similar to testosterone, nandrolone has a higher myotrophic: androgenic ratio resulting in improved effects on muscle mass. Animal models have suggested application in the improvement of joint healing following rotator cuff repair. Minimal literature exists regarding the use of nandrolone and, as such, further human studies are required. PMID:27141449

  9. ALTERATIONS IN SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TESTOSTERONE IN JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine whether hepatic biotransformation of testosterone is normally sexually dimorphic in juvenile alligators and whether living in a contaminated environment affects hepatic dimorphism. Lake Woodruff served as our reference site. Moonshine Bay, ...

  10. Motivational and situational factors and the relationship between testosterone dynamics and human aggression during competition.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Morrissey, Mark D; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2010-05-01

    Men engage in aggression at a cost to extrinsic reward, and this behaviour is associated with a rise in testosterone. To characterize the factors underlying aggression, men were assigned to one of the four experimental conditions of a computer game in which they were provoked (points were stolen from them or not) and/or received reward for aggression (received points for aggression or not). Men who were provoked but did not receive reward for aggression enjoyed the task the most, demonstrated an increase in salivary testosterone, and were more likely to choose a competitive versus non-competitive task than men in the other experimental conditions. Moreover, individual differences in aggressive behaviour among these men were positively correlated with the extent to which they enjoyed the task and with testosterone fluctuations. These results indicate that costly aggressive behaviour is intrinsically rewarding, perhaps to regulate future interactions, and that testosterone may be a physiological marker of such reward value.

  11. Do Sex Offenders Have Higher Levels of Testosterone? Results From a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennifer S; Gravel, Jason

    2016-03-21

    The purpose of the current study is to review the available scientific evidence on the relationship between testosterone and sexual aggression. A systematic search for all primary studies comparing basal testosterone levels in sex offenders and non-sex offenders was undertaken across 20 electronic databases using an explicit search strategy and inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of seven studies were identified and 11 effect sizes were computed; effects were pooled using both fixed and random effects meta-analysis models. Although individual study findings present a mix of results wherein sex offenders have higher or lower baseline levels of testosterone than non-sex offenders, pooled results indicate no overall difference between groups. Moderators of the analyses suggest possibly lower rates of testosterone in child molesters than controls; however, results are dependent on study weighting. Limitations, policy implications with respect to chemical castration laws, and future directions for research are discussed.

  12. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  13. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  14. Effects of transdermal testosterone in poor responders undergoing IVF: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Comadran, Mireia; Durán, Montserrat; Solà, Ivan; Fábregues, Francisco; Carreras, Ramón; Checa, Miguel A

    2012-11-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of transdermal testosterone preceding ovarian stimulation in women with poor ovarian response undergoing IVF. Studies comparing pretreatment with transdermal testosterone versus standard ovarian stimulation among poor responders were included. The main outcome assessed was live birth. Three trials were included (113 women in the testosterone group, 112 in the control group). Testosterone-treated women achieved significantly higher live birth rate (risk ratio, RR, 1.91, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.63), clinical pregnancy rate (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.78) and required significantly lower doses of FSH (RR -461.96, 95% CI -611.82 to -312.09). However, differences observed in clinical pregnancy per embryo transferred were not statistically significant (RR 1.72, 95% CI 0.91 to 3.26). No differences were observed regarding number and quality of the oocytes retrieved. In conclusion, transdermal testosterone significantly increases live birth and reduces the doses of FSH required. These findings support the theoretical synergistic role of androgens and FSH on folliculogenesis. The present data should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of trials and clinical heterogeneity. The identification of poor responders that could especially benefit from testosterone treatment should be addressed in further studies. The poor response to ovarian stimulation among women undergoing IVF is of great concern in reproductive medicine. Certain modalities have been tested to improve this response to gonadotrophin stimulation, although results from some studies have shown conflicting results. Hence, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of transdermal testosterone prior to ovarian stimulation among these women with poor ovarian response. The main outcome assessed was live birth rate. In all, three trials were included, which comprehended 113 women in the

  15. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  16. Transport of manure-borne testosterone in soils affected by artificial rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong; Zhang, Tian C

    2016-04-15

    Information is very limited on fate and transport of steroidal hormones in soils. In this study, the rainfall simulation tests were conducted with a soil slab reactor to investigate the transport of manure-borne testosterone in a silty-clay loam soil under six controllable operation conditions (i.e., three rainfall intensities and two tillage practices). The properties [e.g., rainwater volume, particle size distribution (PSD)] of the slurry samples collected in runoff and leachate at different time intervals were measured; their correlation with the distribution of testosterone among runoff, leachate and soil matrix was analyzed. The results indicated that more than 88% of the testosterone was held by the applied manure and/or soil matrix even under the rainfall intensity of 100-year return frequency. The runoff facilitated testosterone transport through both dissolved and particle-associated phases, with the corresponding mass ratio being ∼7 to 3. Soil particles collected through runoff were mainly silt-sized aggregates (STA) and clays, indicating the necessity of using partially-dispersed soil particles as testing materials to conduct batch tests (e.g., sorption/desorption). No testosterone was detected at the soil depth >20 cm or in the leachate samples, indicating that transport of testosterone through the soil is very slow when there is no preferential flow. Tillage practice could impede the transport of testosterone in runoff. For the first time, results and the methodologies of this study allow one to quantify the hormone distribution among runoff, leachate and soil matrix at the same time and to obtain a comprehensive picture of the F/T of manure-borne testosterone in soil-water environments.

  17. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg−1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  18. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Covariation Between DHEA and Testosterone in Adolescent Twins.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Carol A; Moore, Mollie N; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2015-05-01

    Although several studies have shown that pubertal tempo and timing are shaped by genetic and environmental factors, few studies consider to what extent endocrine triggers of puberty are shaped by genetic and environmental factors. Doing so moves the field from examining correlated developmentally-sensitive biomarkers toward understanding what drives those associations. Two puberty related hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone, were assayed from salivary samples in 118 MZ (62 % female), 111 same sex DZ (46 % female) and 103 opposite-sex DZ twin pairs, aged 12-16 years (M = 13.1, SD = 1.3). Pubertal status was assessed with a composite of mother- and self-reports. We used biometric models to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on the variance and covariance in testosterone and DHEA, with and without controlling for their association with puberty, and to test for sex differences. In males, the variance in testosterone and pubertal status was due to shared and non-shared environmental factors; variation in DHEA was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors. In females, variance in testosterone was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors; genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental factors contributed equally to variation in DHEA. In males, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was primarily due to shared environmental factors that overlapped with puberty as well as shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA. In females, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was due to genetic factors overlapping with pubertal status, and shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA.

  19. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger), and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61), including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A) those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016) and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040) scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B) those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels) were more highly ranked (p = 0.007) in the orchestra, C) female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082) towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D) female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003) than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  20. REDD1 Is a Major Target of Testosterone Action in Preventing Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Zhao, Weidong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Yuanfei; Qin, Weiping; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A.; Blitzer, Robert D.; Cardozo, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a well-recognized and common cause of muscle atrophy that can be prevented by testosterone. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such protection have not been described. Thus, the global effects of testosterone on dexamethasone-induced changes in gene expression were evaluated in rat gastrocnemius muscle using DNA microarrays. Gene expression was analyzed after 7-d administration of dexamethasone, dexamethasone plus testosterone, or vehicle. Dexamethasone changed expression of 876 probe sets by at least 2-fold. Among these, 474 probe sets were changed by at least 2-fold in the opposite direction in the dexamethasone plus testosterone group (genes in opposition). Major biological themes represented by genes in opposition included IGF-I signaling, myogenesis and muscle development, and cell cycle progression. Testosterone completely prevented the 22-fold increase in expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1), and attenuated dexamethasone induced increased expression of eIF4E binding protein 1, Forkhead box O1, and the p85 regulatory subunit of the IGF-I receptor but prevented decreased expression of IRS-1. Testosterone attenuated increases in REDD1 protein in skeletal muscle and L6 myoblasts and prevented dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase at the mTOR-dependent site Thr389 in L6 myoblast cells. Effects of testosterone on REDD1 mRNA levels occurred within 1 h, required the androgen receptor, were blocked by bicalutamide, and were due to inhibition of transcriptional activation of REDD1 by dexamethasone. These data suggest that testosterone blocks dexamethasone-induced changes in expression of REDD1 and other genes that collectively would otherwise down-regulate mTOR activity and hence also down-regulate protein synthesis. PMID:20032058

  1. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hadeed, Nabeel Najib Fadhil; Thanoon, Imad Abdul-Jabar; Al-Mukhtar, Samir Burhanaldin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile dysfunction may improve their

  2. Lack of sexual activity from erectile dysfunction is associated with a reversible reduction in serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Jannini, E A; Screponi, E; Carosa, E; Pepe, M; Lo Giudice, F; Trimarchi, F; Benvenga, S

    1999-12-01

    The role of androgenic hormones in human sexuality, in the mechanism of erection and in the pathogenesis of impotence is under debate. While the use of testosterone is common in the clinical therapy of male erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism is a rare cause of impotence. We evaluated serum testosterone levels in men with erectile dysfunction resulting either from organic or non-organic causes before and after non-hormonal impotence therapy. Eighty-three consecutive cases of impotence (70% organic, 30% non-organic, vascular aetiology being the most frequent) were subjected to hormonal screening before and after various psychological, medical (prostaglandin E1, yohimbine) or mechanical therapies (vascular surgery, penile prostheses, vacuum devices). Thirty age-matched healthy men served as a control group. Compared to controls, patients with impotence resulting from both organic and non-organic causes showed reduced serum levels of both total testosterone (11.1 +/- 2.4 vs. 17.7 +/- 5.5 nmol/L) and free testosterone (56.2 +/- 22.9 vs. 79.4 +/- 27.0 pmol/L) (both p < 0.001). Irrespective of the different aetiologies and of the various impotence therapies, a dramatic increase in serum total and free testosterone levels (15.6 +/- 4.2 nmol/L and 73.8 +/- 22.5 pmol/L, respectively) was observed in patients who achieved normal sexual activity 3 months after commencing therapy (p < 0.001). On the contrary, serum testosterone levels did not change in patients in whom therapies were ineffective. Since the pre-therapy low testosterone levels were independent of the aetiology of impotence, we hypothesize that this hormonal pattern is related to the loss of sexual activity, as demonstrated by its normalization with the resumption of coital activity after different therapies. The corollary is that sexual activity may feed itself throughout the increase in testosterone levels.

  3. Relationships among Musical Aptitude, Digit Ratio and Testosterone in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Borniger, Jeremy C.; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger), and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61), including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A) those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016) and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040) scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B) those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels) were more highly ranked (p = 0.007) in the orchestra, C) female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082) towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D) female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003) than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males. PMID:23520475

  4. Testosterone not associated with violent dreams or REM sleep behavior disorder in men with Parkinson's.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kelvin L; Moro-De-Casillas, Maria L; Amick, Melissa M; Borek, Leora L; Friedman, Joseph H

    2007-02-15

    We examined the relationship between testosterone levels, violent dreams, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in 31 men with Parkinson's disease (PD): 12 with clinical RBD and 19 without. All PD patients with clinical RBD experienced violent dreams, but none of the 19 non-RBD patients reported violent dreams. While dream content appears to be more aggressive in PD patients with clinical RBD, the presence of violent dreams or clinical RBD is not associated with testosterone levels in men with PD.

  5. Testosterone suppresses circadian responsiveness to social cues in the diurnal rodent Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Jechura, Tammy J; Walsh, Jacquelynn M; Lee, Theresa M

    2003-02-01

    The diurnal, social rodent Octodon degus displays a robust sex difference in the ability to use social cues to facilitate reentrainment following a phase advance of the light cycle. Adult females housed with a female social cue donor reentrained 25% to 40% faster than did females reentraining alone. However, reentrainment rates of males were unaffected by exposure to female social cues during reentrainment. The authors hypothesized that males were less sensitive to the reentrainment-enhancing effects of social cues and that their higher threshold to the stimuli could be overcome if the social cues were either increased in strength or salience. Housing a male with two females significantly shortened the time to reentrain following a 9-h phase advance (p = 0.002). Housing with a sister had no effect on reentrainment. Therefore, male degus are able to respond to social cues but require the stimulus to be stronger than that for females. The effect of testosterone was tested by comparing reentrainment rates of castrated males before and after testosterone replacement both with and without a female social cue donor. Castrated males responded to a single female social cue donor, reentraining 35% faster than when housed alone (p = 0.006), whereas the time to reentrainment of intact males and males with testosterone capsule implants did not differ. Intact females were also implanted with testosterone and phase shifted with and without donors. Testosterone treatment eliminated the increase in reentrainment rates in the presence of social cues. The authors conclude that the rate of recovery from odor-enhanced phase shifts is modulated by activational effects of testosterone in male degus. Testosterone is also effective in suppressing social cue responsiveness in females, suggesting that testosterone's effects on responsiveness are not sexually dimorphic. This hormonal effect likely occurs by altering sensory system functions or CNS response to sensory information.

  6. Modeling Testosterone Circadian Rhythm in Hypogonadal Males: Effect of Age and Circannual Variations.

    PubMed

    González-Sales, Mario; Barrière, Olivier; Tremblay, Pierre-Olivier; Nekka, Fahima; Desrochers, Julie; Tanguay, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the baseline circadian rhythm of testosterone levels in hypogonadal men. A total of 859 baseline profiles of testosterone from hypogonadal men were included in this analysis. The circadian rhythm of the testosterone was described by a stretched cosine function. Model parameters were estimated using NONMEM(®) 7.3. The effect of different covariates on the testosterone levels was investigated. Model evaluation was performed using non-parametric bootstrap and predictive checks. A stretched cosine function deeply improved the data goodness of fit compared to the standard trigonometric function (p < 0.001; ΔOFV = -204). The effect of the age and the semester, defined as winter and spring versus summer and fall, were significantly associated with the baseline levels of testosterone (p < 0.001, ΔOFV = -15.6, and p < 0.001, ΔOFV = -47.0). Model evaluation procedures such as diagnostic plots, visual predictive check, and non-parametric bootstrap evidenced that the proposed stretched cosine function was able to model the time course of the diurnal testosterone levels in hypogonadal males with accuracy and precision. The circadian rhythm of the testosterone levels was better predicted by the proposed stretched cosine function than a standard cosine function. Testosterone levels decreased by 5.74 ng/dL (2.4%) every 10 years and were 19.3 ng/dL (8.1%) higher during winter and spring compared to summer and fall.

  7. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo.

  8. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R.; van Honk, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the interdependency of testosterone with the social environment. Nonetheless, recent testosterone administration studies in humans repeatedly show that a proxy for individuals’ prenatal testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, second-to-fourth digit-ratio (2D:4D ratio), influences effects of testosterone administration on human social behaviour. Here, we systematically vary the characteristics of the social environment and show that, depending on prenatal sex hormone priming, testosterone administration in women moderates the effect of the social environment on trust. We use the economic trust game and compare one-shot games modelling trust problems in relations between strangers with repeated games modelling trust problems in ongoing relations between partners. As expected, subjects are more trustful in repeated than in one-shot games. In subjects prenatally relatively highly primed by testosterone, however, this effect disappears after testosterone administration. We argue that impairments in cognitive empathy may reduce the repeated game effect on trust after testosterone administration in subjects with relatively high prenatal testosterone exposure and propose a neurobiological explanation for this effect. PMID:27282952

  9. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio.

    PubMed

    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack

    2016-06-10

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the interdependency of testosterone with the social environment. Nonetheless, recent testosterone administration studies in humans repeatedly show that a proxy for individuals' prenatal testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, second-to-fourth digit-ratio (2D:4D ratio), influences effects of testosterone administration on human social behaviour. Here, we systematically vary the characteristics of the social environment and show that, depending on prenatal sex hormone priming, testosterone administration in women moderates the effect of the social environment on trust. We use the economic trust game and compare one-shot games modelling trust problems in relations between strangers with repeated games modelling trust problems in ongoing relations between partners. As expected, subjects are more trustful in repeated than in one-shot games. In subjects prenatally relatively highly primed by testosterone, however, this effect disappears after testosterone administration. We argue that impairments in cognitive empathy may reduce the repeated game effect on trust after testosterone administration in subjects with relatively high prenatal testosterone exposure and propose a neurobiological explanation for this effect.

  10. Fathers have lower salivary testosterone levels than unmarried men and married non-fathers in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter B; Jeffrey Yang, Chi-Fu; Pope, Harrison G

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of evidence, almost entirely from North America, has found that male testosterone levels are positively associated with mating effort (male–male competition and mate-seeking behaviour), while lower testosterone levels have been associated with affiliative pair bonding and paternal care. To expand the cross-cultural scope of this research, here we investigate variation in salivary testosterone levels among Chinese men in relation to marital and parenting variables. One hundred and twenty-six men drawn from a Beijing university setting between the ages of 21 and 38 completed a questionnaire and provided both morning and late afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone levels were measured. The 66 unmarried men had slightly higher levels of testosterone than the 30 married non-fathers, but this difference was not statistically significant. However, the 30 fathers exhibited significantly lower testosterone levels than both unmarried men and married non-fathers. Among married non-fathers, marital relationship quality was not significantly related to testosterone levels. Among married fathers, men with children aged less than 4 years of age did not have lower testosterone levels than men with older children. These data are the first outside of North America to show lower testosterone levels among fathers, and lend support to the theoretical view that male testosterone levels differ according to mating and parenting effort. PMID:16543176

  11. Serum total testosterone: immunoassay compared with negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R L; Herold, D A

    1996-05-01

    We have developed an electron capture negative chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure to quantify serum testosterone in the clinically relevant range 0.69-69.3 nmol/L and used this procedure to assess Ciba Corning Diagnostics ACS:180 testosterone immunoassay. The GC-MS method involves liquid-liquid extraction of serum samples and synthesis of a pentafluorobenzyloxime/silyl ether derivative of testosterone with excellent chromatographic and electron capturing properties. The ACS testosterone assay is the first fully automated nonradioactive testosterone immunoassay approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Patients' specimens (101, 57 males, 44 females) were analyzed by both techniques. A plot of the GC-MS (x) vs ACS (y) testosterone concentrations for men was linear (y = 1.07x + 0.19 nmol/L), showing excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between the two assays. Agreement of the two assays for female specimens was poor (y = 0.72x + 1.2 nmol/L), with a poor correlation (r2 = 0.31).

  12. Testosterone-induced responsiveness to androgen in Shionogi mouse carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jung-Testas, I.; Baulieu, E.E. )

    1987-05-01

    Primary cell cultures from an androgen-dependent mouse mammary carcinoma, the Shionogi-SC 115 tumor, were cultured in the presence or absence of testosterone (50 nM). Characteristic changes in cellular morphology and cell growth were observed according to the presence or absence of the androgen. The testosterone-dependent changes were observed in culture as long as cells were maintained in androgen-containing medium. Cellular proteins were analyzed after culture in the presence or absence of testosterone. After ({sup 35}S)methionine labeling of cells and SDS-PAGE of the cytosol, several proteins were specifically synthesized in the presence of testosterone, predominantly a 45 kD protein, which was not seen in the absence of the androgen. Conversely, a protein of 35 kD present in absence of the hormone disappeared in the presence of testosterone. The anti-androgen cyproterone acetate inhibited the characteristic cellular morphology, cell proliferation and protein synthesis observed in the presence of the androgen. The anti-progestin and anti-glucocorticosteroid RU 486 also showed limited anti-androgen activity. The concentration of specific androgen receptor-binding sites did not change significantly after 3 months of culture with or without testosterone, i.e., in responsive and unresponsive cells.

  13. Testosterone reduces cumulative burying in female Wistar rats with minimal participation of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana I; Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Jacome-Jacome, Emma

    2009-10-01

    Testosterone exerts anxiolytic effects, but the participation of its aromatase metabolic product estradiol is controversial. Therefore, we used the defensive burying paradigm in female Wistar rats to explore testosterone's (1.0 mg/rat, s.c.) interactions with picrotoxin (a noncompetitive gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor [GABA(A)] antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), formestane (an aromatase inhibitor; 3.0 mg/rat, s.c.), and tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor-beta antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.). Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were determined in the same rats. Burying latency and locomotion did not significantly change. Systemic testosterone administration enhanced serum testosterone and estradiol levels and reduced defensive burying. This reduction in total burying was blocked by pretreatment with picrotoxin and tamoxifen, but not formestane. We conclude that testosterone produced anxiolytic-like effects in female rats that were mediated by actions at the GABA(A) receptor, with participation of the estradiol receptor-beta, rather than estradiol aromatization.

  14. Morphine Attenuates Testosterone Response to Central Injection of Kisspeptin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Fariba; Khazali, Homayoun; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    Background Kisspeptin and naloxone stimulate the reproductive axis while morphine inhibits its function. We have investigated the effect of central injection of kisspeptin-10 on mean plasma testosterone concentration in morphine or naloxone pretreated rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 male Wistar rats that were divid- ed into 12 groups (n=5 per group) received saline, kisspeptin (1 nmol, ICV), naloxone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously), morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg, sc) or co-administrations of kisspeptin, morphine and naloxone at 09:00 - 09:30. In the co-administrated groups, kisspeptin was injected 15 minutes following morphine or naloxone injections. Blood samples were collected 60 minutes following injections via the tail vein. Plasma testosterone concentration was measured by a rat testosterone ELISA kit. Results Central injection of kisspeptin or subcutaneous injection of naloxone significantly increased the mean plasma testosterone concentration compared to saline while subcutaneous injections of different doses of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone compared to saline. The results revealed that morphine significantly attenuated the testosterone increase after kisspeptin injection compared to kisspeptin while a stimulatory additive effect was observed in the kisspeptin/naloxone group compared to either naloxone or kisspeptin. Conclusion Morphine and kisspeptin systems may interact with each other to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. PMID:25083187

  15. Plasma testosterone in male patients with Huntington's disease: relations to severity of illness and dementia.

    PubMed

    Markianos, Manolis; Panas, Marios; Kalfakis, Nikos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-04-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms and by a progressive loss among other, of dopaminergic receptors in striatum, cortex, and hypothalamus. Central dopaminergic activity has been implicated in the regulation of sex hormones. Several features of testosterone deficiency, such as reduced muscle mass, depressive mood, and cognitive impairment, are often present in HD patients, but data on their testosterone levels are lacking. We assessed plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH in 42 male patients with HD, confirmed by molecular genetic analysis, and searched for differences from age-matched healthy male subjects and for relations to CAG repeat number, age, age range, 26 to 76 (mean, 50.7 +/- 12.3) years; duration of illness range, 1 to 23 (mean, 6.7 +/- 6.3) years; and CAG repeat numbers from 40 to 65 (45.1 +/- 3.8). Disease symptomatology was assessed using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. Testosterone and LH levels of the patients were significantly lower compared to the levels of 44 age-matched (mean age, 48.9 +/- 13.0, range, 26-76 years) healthy men. Severity of illness was negatively related to plasma testosterone levels. Further, low testosterone levels were associated with dementia but not with depression or psychotic features. Clinical studies with selected HD patients are needed to evaluate possible beneficial effects of androgen substitution therapy on cognitive functions, depression, muscle mass and strength, general well-being, and, eventually, neuroprotective effects.

  16. Testosterone replacement attenuates mitochondrial damage in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyue; Yang, Jing; Sun, Junfeng; Dong, Yanli; Zhao, Hong; Shi, Hui; Fu, Lu

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone can affect cardiovascular disease, but its effects on mitochondrial dynamics in the post-infarct myocardium remain unclear. To observe the effects of testosterone replacement, a rat model of castration-myocardial infarction (MI) was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery 2 weeks after castration with or without testosterone treatment. Expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins was detected by western blot and immunofluorescence 14 days after MI. Cardiac function, myocardial inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial microstructure, and ATP levels were also assessed. Compared with MI rats, castrated rats showed aggravated mitochondrial and myocardial insults, including mitochondrial swelling and disordered arrangement; loss of cristae, reduced mitochondrial length; decreased ATP levels; cardiomyocyte apoptosis; and impaired cardiac function. Results of western blotting analyses indicated that castration downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1A) and mitofusin 2, but upregulated dynamin-related protein 1. The results were also supported by results obtained using immunofluorescence. However, these detrimental effects were reversed by testosterone supplementation, which also elevated the upstream AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation of PGC1A. Thus, testosterone can protect mitochondria in the post-infarct myocardium, partly via the AMPK-PGC1A pathway, thereby decreasing mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The effects of testosterone were confirmed by the results of ELISA analyses.

  17. Testosterone Administration Related Differences in Brain Activation during the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Kopsida, Eleni; Berrebi, Jonathan; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of studies on the Ultimatum Game have shown that responders forfeit the rule of profit maximization and punish unfair proposers, by rejecting their offers. This behavior has been linked to increased amygdala, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. Studies have suggested a potential role of testosterone in the Ultimatum Game albeit with inconsistent findings. In the present study, we sought to further investigate the role of amygdala and testosterone in the Ultimatum Game, by conducting a double-blinded, single-administration study. Sixty milligram of Tostrex was administered to male and female healthy volunteers, 3 h prior to undergoing an fMRI session, during which they played a standard version of the Ultimatum Game. The behavioral analysis revealed a statistical trend, as participants in the testosterone group tended to accept a greater number of unfair offers than participants in the placebo group, irrespectively of gender. In terms of fMRI results, for the main contrast unfair>fair offers, the testosterone group displayed a greater activation in the right dlPFC compared to the placebo group. Increased testosterone levels were related to greater caudate activity. Our findings suggest a complex role of testosterone in social behavior and decision-making. PMID:26973448

  18. Activity Exerted by a Testosterone Derivative on Myocardial Injury Using an Ischemia/Reperfusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Betty, Sarabia-Alcocer; Monica, Velázquez-Sarabia Betty

    2014-01-01

    Some reports indicate that several steroid derivatives have activity at cardiovascular level; nevertheless, there is scarce information about the activity exerted by the testosterone derivatives on cardiac injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Analyzing these data, in this study, a new testosterone derivative was synthetized with the objective of evaluating its effect on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model. In addition, perfusion pressure and coronary resistance were evaluated in isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Additionally, molecular mechanism involved in the activity exerted by the testosterone derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance was evaluated by measuring left ventricular pressure in the absence or presence of the following compounds: flutamide, prazosin, metoprolol, nifedipine, indomethacin, and PINANE TXA2. The results showed that the testosterone derivative significantly increases (P = 0.05) the perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated heart. Other data indicate that the testosterone derivative increases left ventricular pressure in a dose-dependent manner (0.001–100 nM); however, this phenomenon was significantly inhibited (P = 0.06) by indomethacin and PINANE-TXA2  (P = 0.05) at a dose of 1 nM. In conclusion, these data suggest that testosterone derivative induces changes in the left ventricular pressure levels through thromboxane receptor activation. PMID:24839599

  19. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  20. Testosterone and Cortisol Release among Spanish Soccer Fans Watching the 2010 World Cup Final

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; IJzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A. M.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem. PMID:22529940

  1. Lack of evidence for meteorological effects on infradian dynamics of testosterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celec, Peter; Smreková, Lucia; Ostatníková, Daniela; Čabajová, Zlata; Hodosy, Július; Kúdela, Matúš

    2009-09-01

    Climatic factors are known to influence the endocrine system. Previous studies have shown that circannual seasonal variations of testosterone might be partly explained by changes in air temperature. Whether infradian variations are affected by meteorological factors is unknown. To analyze possible effects of meteorological parameters on infradian variations of salivary testosterone levels in both sexes, daily salivary testosterone levels were measured during 1 month in 14 men and 17 women. A correlation analysis between hormonal levels and selected meteorological parameters was performed. The results indicate that high testosterone levels are loosely associated with cold, sunny and dry weather in both sexes. However, only the correlations between testosterone and air temperature (men) and actual cloudiness (women) were statistically significant ( p < 0,05). Although some correlations reached the level of statistical significance, the effects of selected meteorological parameters on salivary testosterone levels remain unclear. Further longer-term studies concentrating on air temperature, cloudiness and average relative humidity in relation to the sex hormone axis are needed.

  2. Effects of orchidectomy and testosterone replacement on mouse pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2004-03-01

    Pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase, also known as pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase, removes pyroglutamyl terminal residues from biologically active peptides such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of orchidectomy and testosterone replacement on soluble (pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I) and membrane-bound (pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type II) activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Forty male mice (Balb/C) were distributed into five groups: sham-operated controls, orchidectomized, and orchidectomized treated with increasing doses of testosterone in each group (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg). In the hypothalamus, orchidectomy increased pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I, whereas the highest dose of testosterone returned this activity to control levels. In the pituitary, neither pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I nor type II activities changed after orchidectomy, although both activities increased after administration of testosterone in both cases. On the other hand, orchidectomy increased pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I and type II activities in adrenal glands, while testosterone replacement returned it to control levels. These results suggest that testosterone differentially modulates pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I and type II activities, and therefore also their endogenous substrate regulation. Thus, the influence of sex hormones in the physiology of the HPA axis through the modulation of the Pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase type I and type II activities is of great importance on stress and neuropathology associated with HPA dysfunction

  3. Serum testosterone levels and excessive erythrocytosis during the process of adaptation to high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    Populations living at high altitudes (HAs), particularly in the Peruvian Andes, are characterized by a mixture of subjects with erythrocytosis (16 g dl−121 g dl−1). Elevated haemoglobin values (EE) are associated with chronic mountain sickness, a condition reflecting the lack of adaptation to HA. According to current data, native men from regions of HA are not adequately adapted to live at such altitudes if they have elevated serum testosterone levels. This seems to be due to an increased conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) to testosterone. Men with erythrocytosis at HAs show higher serum androstenedione levels and a lower testosterone/androstenedione ratio than men with EE, suggesting reduced 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) activity. Lower 17beta-HSD activity via Δ4-steroid production in men with erythrocytosis at HA may protect against elevated serum testosterone levels, thus preventing EE. The higher conversion of DHEAS to testosterone in subjects with EE indicates increased 17beta-HSD activity via the Δ5-pathway. Currently, there are various situations in which people live (human biodiversity) with low or high haemoglobin levels at HA. Antiquity could be an important adaptation component for life at HA, and testosterone seems to participate in this process. PMID:23524530

  4. Enclomiphene, an estrogen receptor antagonist for the treatment of testosterone deficiency in men.

    PubMed

    Hill, Simon; Arutchelvam, Vijayaraman; Quinton, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Enclomiphene (Androxal), in development by Repros Therapeutics Inc, is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor antagonist that promotes gonadotropin-dependent testosterone secretion by the testes. Enclomiphene constitutes the trans-stereoisomer of clomiphene citrate, a drug that has been widely prescribed for several decades for the treatment of female ovulatory dysfunction. Because of the antagonistic effects of enclomiphene, the drug has the potential to increase serum testosterone levels in men with secondary hypogonadism by restoring physiological endogenous testosterone secretion while maintaining testicular volume and, potentially, spermatogenesis. In clinical trials conducted to date, enclomiphene demonstrated significant efficacy in the physiological restoration of testosterone levels in males with secondary hypogonadism. The compound also exhibited an unanticipated favorable effect on fasting plasma glucose; this result has been accompanied by rapidly accumulating evidence from other researchers for a bidirectional relationship between low serum testosterone and obesity/metabolic syndrome (syndrome X) in men. Short-term clinical safety data for enclomiphene have been satisfactory and equivalent to safety data for testosterone gels and placebo. Enclomiphene demonstrates promise in the management of secondary hypogonadism associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and, possibly, infertility, and should undergo placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials for these indications.

  5. The putative effects of D-Aspartic acid on blood testosterone levels: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Roshanzamir, Farzad; Safavi, Seyyed Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Background: D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) is in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues, where it carries out important physiological functions. Recently, it has been reported that D-Asp is involved in the synthesis and release of testosterone and is assumed can be used as a testosterone booster for infertile men, and by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence related to the effects of D-Asp on serum testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all type studies, which evaluated the effect of the D-Asp on blood testosterone including published papers until October 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest and Scopus database. Results: With 396 retrieved records, 23 animal studies and 4 human studies were included. In vivo and in vitro animal studies revealed the effect of D-Asp depending on species, sex and organ-specific. Our results showed that exogenous D-Asp enhances testosterone levels in male animal’s studies, whereas studies in human yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association in man is still sparse, mostly because of limited number and poor quality studies. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for more and well-designed human clinical trials with larger sample sizes and longer duration to investigate putative effects of D-Asp on testosterone concentrations. PMID:28280794

  6. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Marie A; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu; Keevil, Brian; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hansen, Åse M

    2014-08-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

  7. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.

  8. Influence of Altered Mass Loading on Testosterone Levels and Testicular Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tommy J.; Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Effects of altered load on testosterone levels and testicular mass in mammals are not well defined. Two separate studies (loading;centrifuged; +2G(sub z) and unloading;hindlimb suspension;HLS) were conducted to provide a better understanding of the effects of mass loading on testosterone levels and testicular mass. Daily urine samples were collected, and testicular mass measured at the end of the study. +2G(sub z): Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were centrifuged for 12 days at +2G(sub z): 8 centrifuged (EC) and 8 off centrifuge controls (OCC). EC had lower body mass, however relative testicular mass was greater. EC exhibited an increase in excreted testosterone levels between days 2 (T2) and 6 (T6), and returned to baseline at T9. HLS: To assess the effects of unloading Sprague-Dawley rats (125-150 g) were studied for 12 days: 10 suspended (Exp) and 10 ambulatory (Ctl). Exp had lower body mass during the study, with reduced absolute and relative testicular mass. Exp demonstrated lower excreted testosterone levels from T5-T12. Conclusions: Loading appears to stimulate anabolism, as opposed to unloading, as indicated by greater relative testicular mass and excreted testosterone levels. Reported changes in muscle mass during loading and unloading coincide with similar changes in excreted testosterone levels.

  9. Testosterone Protects Mitochondrial Function and Regulates Neuroglobin Expression in Astrocytic Cells Exposed to Glucose Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Urrego, Nicolas; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone is a hormone that has been shown to confer neuroprotection from different insults affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Testosterone induces this protection by different mechanisms that include the activation of anti-apoptotic pathways that are directly implicated in neuronal survival. However, little attention has been devoted to its actions on glial cells. In the present study, we have assessed whether testosterone exerts protection in a human astrocyte cell model, the T98G cells. Our results indicate that testosterone improves cell survival and mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces nuclear fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These effects were accompanied by a positive regulation of neuroglobin, an oxygen-binding and sensor protein, which may serve as a regulator of ROS and nitrogen reactive species (NOS), and these protective effects of testosterone may be at least in part mediated by estradiol and DHT. In conclusion, these findings suggest that astroglia may mediate some of the protective actions of testosterone in the brain upon pathological conditions. PMID:27445795

  10. Testosterone and cortisol release among Spanish soccer fans watching the 2010 World Cup final.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Ijzerman, Hans; van Lange, Paul A M; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This field study investigated the release of testosterone and cortisol of a vicarious winning experience in Spanish fans watching the finals between Spain and the Netherlands in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Soccer. Spanish fans (n = 50) watched the match with friends or family in a public place or at home and also participated in a control condition. Consistent with hypotheses, results revealed that testosterone and cortisol levels were higher when watching the match than on a control day. However, neither testosterone nor cortisol levels increased after the victory of the Spanish team. Moreover, the increase in testosterone secretion was not related to participants' sex, age or soccer fandom, but the increase in total cortisol secretion during the match was higher among men than among women and among fans that were younger. Also, increases in cortisol secretion were greater to the degree that people were a stronger fan of soccer. Level of fandom further appeared to account for the sex effect, but not for the age effect. Generally, the testosterone data from this study are in line with the challenge hypothesis, as testosterone levels of watchers increased to prepare their organism to defend or enhance their social status. The cortisol data from this study are in line with social self-preservation theory, as higher cortisol secretion among young and greater soccer fans suggests that especially they perceived that a negative outcome of the match would threaten their own social esteem.

  11. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5α-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein.

  12. Activity exerted by a testosterone derivative on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Betty, Sarabia-Alcocer; Monica, Velázquez-Sarabia Betty

    2014-01-01

    Some reports indicate that several steroid derivatives have activity at cardiovascular level; nevertheless, there is scarce information about the activity exerted by the testosterone derivatives on cardiac injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Analyzing these data, in this study, a new testosterone derivative was synthetized with the objective of evaluating its effect on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model. In addition, perfusion pressure and c