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Sample records for oral tongue cancer

  1. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Philiponis, Genevieve; Malloy, Kelly M.; Kagan, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis — in keeping with the methodology of the main study — we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process “living in limbo.” This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself — “self-detected lesion,” “lack of concern,” “seeking help,” “not a straightforward diagnosis,” and “hearing the diagnosis.” Entry into treatment concludes “Living in Limbo” and is described by the theme “worry and trust.” Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, “living in limbo” suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed. PMID:27981120

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  3. Speaking legibly: Qualitative perceptions of altered voice among oral tongue cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Philiponis, Genevieve; Kagan, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treatment for oral tongue cancer poses unique challenges to restoring and maintaining personally acceptable, intelligible speech. Methods: We report how oral tongue cancer survivors describe their speech after treatment in a qualitative descriptive approach using constant comparative technique to complete a focal analysis of interview data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Interviews were completed with 16 tongue cancer survivors 3 months to 12 years postdiagnosis with stage I-IV disease and treated with surgery alone, surgery and radiotherapy, or chemo-radiation. All interview data from the main study were analyzed for themes describing perceptions of speech as oral tongue cancer survivors. Results: Actual speech impairments varied among survivors. None experienced severe impairments that inhibited their daily lives. However, all expressed some level of concern about speech. Concerns about altered speech began when survivors heard their treatment plans and continued through to survivorship without being fully resolved. The overarching theme, maintaining a pattern and character of speech acceptable to the survivor, was termed “speaking legibly” using one survivor's vivid in vivo statement. Speaking legibly integrate the sub-themes of “fears of sounding unusual”, “learning to talk again”, “problems and adjustments”, and “social impact”. Conclusions: Clinical and scientific efforts to further understand and address concerns about speech, personal presentation, and identity among those diagnosed with oral tongue are important to improving care processes and patient-centered experience. PMID:27981121

  4. Oral tongue cancer in public hospitals in Madrid, Spain (1990-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Sánchez, Alicia; Esparza-Gómez, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Background The cancer which appears in the mobile portion of the tongue is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to analyse oral tongue cancer epidemiology in a population of 610 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2008 and detailed in the Tumour Registry of the Madrid region. Material and Methods A retrospective analysis based on the following variables provided in the Tumour Registry was achieved: age, gender, histology, stage, location, treatment. Descriptive and analytic statistics with these variables, using Pearson’s Chi-square test to study the relationship between the qualitative variables. Results Patients’ mean age was 61.53±13.95 years, with a gender ratio of 2.09:1 (413 males vs 197 females). The lesion was mainly localized in the lateral border of tongue, with other sites (dorsal face, ventral face, lingual tonsil, contiguous sites, tongue NOS) represented at lower rates. Squamous cell carcinomas (94.9%) far outweighted other histologies (salivary gland tumours, soft tissue tumours, haematolymphoid tumours). 59% of the cases appeared in localized stages, versus 35.2% in regional and 4.8% in distant stages. Surgery was the most frequently used treatment, followed by surgery in combination with radiotherapy. Conclusions Oral tongue cancer is a disease of the elderly, with a male predominance. It mainly appears in its lateral border, localized squamous cell carcinomas representing the great majority of lingual neoplasms. Key words:Oral tongue cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, epidemiology, treatment. PMID:27694779

  5. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  7. Elective neck irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the oral tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, F.; Leborgne, J.H.; Barlocci, L.A.; Ortega, B.

    1987-08-01

    A total of 69 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue Stages T1-2-3 N0 were treated between 1952 and 1982 at one cancer center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Of 52 patients with the primary disease controlled, 2 had elective cervical lymph node dissection, and were therefore excluded from the study, 25 were treated with elective neck irradiation, and 25 were followed without irradiation to the neck. In the untreated group, 40% developed neck node metastases, while this was observed only in 20% of the group receiving elective neck irradiation, but only 4% recurred in the elective irradiated areas of the neck (p: 0.0028). The survival was the same for each group (5-year absolute survival with NED 67% for the neck irradiation group and 64% for the unirradiated group). From this retrospective study, we conclude that elective neck irradiation in carcinoma of the oral tongue decreases the incidence of neck metastases but an improvement in survival of these patients was not demonstrated.

  8. A New Accurate 3D Measurement Tool to Assess the Range of Motion of the Tongue in Oral Cancer Patients: A Standardized Model.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Simone; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Jacobi, Irene; Smeele, Ludwig E; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Balm, Alfons J M

    2016-02-01

    In oral cancer treatment, function loss such as speech and swallowing deterioration can be severe, mostly due to reduced lingual mobility. Until now, there is no standardized measurement tool for tongue mobility and pre-operative prediction of function loss is based on expert opinion instead of evidence based insight. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a triple-camera setup for the measurement of tongue range of motion (ROM) in healthy adults and its feasibility in patients with partial glossectomy. A triple-camera setup was used, and 3D coordinates of the tongue in five standardized tongue positions were achieved in 15 healthy volunteers. Maximum distances between the tip of the tongue and the maxillary midline were calculated. Each participant was recorded twice, and each movie was analysed three times by two separate raters. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability were the main outcome measures. Secondly, feasibility of the method was tested in ten patients treated for oral tongue carcinoma. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability all showed high correlation coefficients of >0.9 in both study groups. All healthy subjects showed perfect symmetrical tongue ROM. In patients, significant differences in lateral tongue movements were found, due to restricted tongue mobility after surgery. This triple-camera setup is a reliable measurement tool to assess three-dimensional information of tongue ROM. It constitutes an accurate tool for objective grading of reduced tongue mobility after partial glossectomy.

  9. Effects of exercise on swallowing and tongue strength in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated with primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, C L; Husaini, H; Falciglia, D; DeLacure, M; Branski, R C; Kraus, D; Lee, N; Ho, M; Ganz, C; Smith, B; Sanfilippo, N

    2014-05-01

    Tongue strength is reduced in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for oral/oropharyngeal cancer. Tongue strengthening protocols have resulted in improved lingual strength and swallowing in healthy individuals, as well as in patients following a neurological event. However, no studies have examined the efficacy of tongue strengthening exercises on tongue strength, swallowing, and quality of life (QOL; Head and Neck Cancer Inventory) in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. A randomized clinical trial examined the effects of a tongue strengthening programme paired with traditional exercises vs. traditional exercises alone. Dependent variables included tongue strength, swallowing, and QOL in a group of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer treated with primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Differences with regard to tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallow efficiency (OPSE) were not observed within or between groups. QOL in the eating and speech domains improved following treatment in both groups. However, the experimental group demonstrated greater impairment in QOL in the social disruption domain following treatment, whereas the control group demonstrated a slight improvement in functioning. Tongue strengthening did not yield a statistically significant improvement in either tongue strength or swallowing measures in this patient cohort. Patient compliance and treatment timing may be factors underlying these outcomes.

  10. miR-15b inhibits cancer-initiating cell phenotypes and chemoresistance of cisplatin by targeting TRIM14 in oral tongue squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Guo, Hongmei; Yao, Banjamin; Helms, Julia

    2017-03-27

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is one of the most lethal cancers within the oral cavity and its prognosis remains dismal due to the paucity of effective therapeutic targets. The formation of cancer-initiating cells (CICs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are pivotal events involved in the dismal prognosis. They have been shown to be related to the resistance to cisplatin treatment. In the present study, we showed that TRIM14 induced formation of cancer-initiating cells and EMT in TSCC SCC25 cells. Its overexpression promoted cisplatin resistance in the SCC25 cells. We found that overexpression of miR-15b suppressed TRIM14 and inhibited CIC phenotypes in the SCC25 cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-15b promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in the SCC25 cells and sensitized cisplatin-resistant SCC25 (SCC25-res) cells to cisplatin. Thus, we conclude that miR-15b inhibited cancer stem cell phenotypes and its restoration reversed the chemoresistance of cisplatin by targeting TRIM14 in TSCC. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of EMT and cancer stem cells in TSCC may further aid in the understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of the disease, and offer novel targets for the discovery of new drugs.

  11. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  12. Evaluation of Microscopic Disease in Oral Tongue Cancer Using Whole-Mount Histopathologic Techniques: Implications for the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sorcha; Poon, Ian; Markel, Dan; Vena, Dan; Higgins, Kevin; Enepekides, Dan; Rapheal, Simon; Wong, John; Allo, Ghassan; Morgen, Eric; Khaoum, Nader; Smith, Ben; Balogh, Judith; MacKenzie, Robert; Davidson, Jean; Wang, Dan; Yaffe, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To map the distribution of microscopic disease (MD) in head-and-neck cancer by analyzing digital images of whole-mounted serial sections of tongue cancer specimens. Methods and Materials: Ten T1-3 oral tongue cancer specimens were evaluated. The specimens were sliced into 3-mm blocks from which one or more 4-{mu}m slides were taken and digitized to create whole-mounted serial sections. Gross tumor and microscopic disease were digitally contoured on each slide. Lines perpendicular to the gross tumor volume (GTV) edge were created at 0.05-mm intervals and the distance between GTV and MD measured. Results: Of 88 slides assessed, 44 (50%) had evidence of MD. Of the 63,809 perpendicular lines drawn along the GTV edges, 2320 (3.6%) encountered microscopic disease along their path. The majority of MD abutted the GTV, and only 26.7% was noncontiguous with the GTV edge. The maximum distance from the border was 7.8 mm. Ninety-nine percent of all MD was within 4.75 mm and 95% was within 3.95 mm of the GTV. Conclusion: In this study we were able to assess the distribution of MD more accurately than has been possible with routine pathologic techniques. The results indicate that when the GTV is correctly identified, there is very little MD to be found outside this volume. This has implications for the volume of tissue resected at surgery and the volume included in the clinical target volume in conformal radiotherapy planning.

  13. Tongue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results Mean Abnormal results may mean: Amyloidosis Tongue (oral) cancer Viral ulcer Benign tumors Risks Risks for this ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21093621 . Read More Oral cancer Primary amyloidosis Review Date 2/9/2015 Updated ...

  14. Accuracy of MRI in Prediction of Tumour Thickness and Nodal Stage in Oral Tongue and Gingivobuccal Cancer With Clinical Correlation and Staging

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Pratap Singh; Parihar, Akhilesh; Goel, Ashok Kumar; Waghwani, Kapil; Gupta, Richa; Bhutekar, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma of lower gingivo-buccal complex and tongue are the most common cancer in the Indian sub-continent. The value of imaging in the staging of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is in judging operability, assessment of the prognostic characteristics and dimensions of the primary tumour, depth of tumour invasion, the presence of cervical metastasis and detection of bone infiltration. Aim This study evaluated squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (tongue and gingivo-buccal complex) on the basis of their appearance, soft tissue extent, depth of tumour invasion and staging. Further, this study assessed the accuracy of MRI in the detection of cervical lymph nodal metastasis on the basis of ADC values on diffusion weighted MR sequence. Materials and Methods T1- and T2-weighted MR, diffusion-weighted sequences and post contrast T1W sequences were performed in various planes on biopsy proven squamous cell carcinomas (61 cases) involving tongue and/or gingivo-buccal region. Depth of tumour invasion was calculated on axial images of post contrast T1W images. The Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) was measured by using two b factors (500 and 1000 s/mm2). MRI findings were compared clinically and histopathologically. Results Average depth of invasion calculated on MRI was 8.47mm and by histopathology was 6.85mm. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.988. Shrinkage factor was 0.8. A 71% of patients with depth of invasion greater than 9mm showed evidence of cervical lymph nodal metastasis at one or another levels. Cut-off value to discriminate between malignant and benign lymph nodes was 1.038 x10-3 mm2/s in the present study. Conclusion Depth of tumour invasion in oral malignancies can be measured reliably on MRI which helps in predicting cervical lymph node metastasis. Benign or malignant cervical lymph nodes can be differentiated on diffusion-weighted imaging of MRI on the basis of their ADC values. PMID:27504375

  15. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    HAN, SHUWEN; YANG, XI; QI, QUAN; PAN, YUEFEN; CHEN, YONGCHAO; SHEN, JUNJUN; LIAO, HAIHONG; JI, ZHAONING

    2016-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer. PMID:27035407

  16. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  17. Quality of life outcome measures using UW-QOL questionnaire v4 in early oral cancer/squamous cell cancer resections of the tongue and floor of mouth with reconstruction solely using local methods.

    PubMed

    Boyapati, Raghuram P; Shah, Ketan C; Flood, Valerie; Stassen, Leo F A

    2013-09-01

    Cancer treatment either by surgery alone or in a combination of surgery, radiotherapy±chemotherapy has significant consequences on the physical, mental, emotional and psychosocial wellbeing of the patient. Measurement of quality of life (QOL) is necessary to understand the patient's perception of their own treatment, as clinicians' views can be biased. Reconstruction of a cancerous defect with a free vascular flap is ideal in large, often composite defects, provided it is appropriate to the advanced stage and prognosis of the disease, medical condition of the patient, availability of surgical and financial resources and allows the prosthetic rehabilitation of the anatomic area. Using University of Washington Quality of life 4 questionnaire (UW-QOL4), we assessed the QOL of 38 patients, who underwent local surgical reconstructions after resection of T1/T2 tongue/floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma defects. Objective assessment of speech and swallow function was also carried out using therapy outcome measure (TOM) scores by the speech and language therapy team (SALT) aiming to see the differences in the scores obtained in patients who underwent post-operative radiotherapy. Our study, conducted 6months after completion of all oncologic treatment for the primary disease, showed satisfactory levels of quality of life parameters with good function showing that local reconstructive methods are successful and may have benefits in the management of early oral cancers involving the tongue and floor of mouth. They are beneficial by providing a good quality in terms of function, by reducing the operating time, the surgical morbidity, simplifying post-operative care and thereby becoming an efficient, effective and a cost effective method.

  18. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  19. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  20. Tongue twisters: feeding enrichment to reduce oral stereotypy in giraffe.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loraine Tarou; Bashaw, Meredith J; Sartor, Richard L; Bouwens, Nichole R; Maki, Todd S

    2008-05-01

    Stereotypic behavior has been well-studied and documented in a variety of animals including primates, carnivores, and domesticated ungulates. However, very little information is known about stereotypic behavior of captive exotic ungulates. Giraffe have been found to perform a wide range of stereotypic behaviors. According to a survey of zoological institutions, oral stereotypies, specifically the licking of nonfood objects are the most prevalent stereotypic behaviors observed in giraffe. Their performance appears to be related to feeding and rumination and may be a result of the inability of a highly motivated feeding behavior pattern, tongue manipulation, to be successfully completed. To test this hypothesis, the indoor and outdoor feeders for three giraffe housed at Zoo Atlanta were modified to require the giraffe to perform more naturalistic and complex foraging behaviors. Data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling in both exhibit and holding areas. Our results showed that, for the giraffe that engaged in the highest rates of oral stereotypic behavior in the baseline, more complex feeders that required tongue use to access grain or alfalfa had the greatest effect on behavior. For the giraffe that performed low baseline rates of oral stereotypic behavior, adding slatted tops to the alfalfa feeders indoors virtually eliminated the behavior. Although some changes in ruminating and feeding behavior were observed, the decreases in stereotypic behavior were not associated with the changes in ruminating or feeding behavior. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that oral stereotypy in herbivores can be reduced by encouraging giraffe to engage in more naturalistic foraging behavior.

  1. Distant metastasis from oral cancer: A review and molecular biologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been estimated to be the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The distant metastasis plays a critical role in the management and prognosis in oral cancer patients. Regarding the distant metastasis from the oral cancer, the hypopharynx is the most common primary site, followed by the base of tongue and anterior tongue. The present review article analyzes the characteristics of the distant metastases from the oral cavity from 1937 to 2015. PMID:27583211

  2. Tongue Pressure Modulation for Initial Gel Consistency in a Different Oral Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Sumiko; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tamine, Ken-ichi; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Funami, Takahiro; Ishihara, Sayaka; Ono, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Background In the recent hyper-aged societies of developed countries, the market for soft diets for patients with dysphagia has been growing and numerous jelly-type foods have become available. However, interrelationships between the biomechanics of oral strategies and jelly texture remain unclear. The present study investigated the influence of the initial consistency of jelly on tongue motor kinetics in different oral strategies by measuring tongue pressure against the hard palate. Methods Jellies created as a mixture of deacylated gellan gum and psyllium seed gum with different initial consistencies (hard, medium or soft) were prepared as test foods. Tongue pressure production while ingesting 5 ml of jelly using different oral strategies (Squeezing or Mastication) was recorded in eight healthy volunteers using an ultra-thin sensor sheet system. Maximal magnitude, duration and total integrated values (tongue work) of tongue pressure for size reduction and swallowing in each strategy were compared among initial consistencies of jelly, and between Squeezing and Mastication. Results In Squeezing, the tongue performed more work for size reduction with increasing initial consistency of jelly by modulating both the magnitude and duration of tongue pressure over a wide area of hard palate, but tongue work for swallowing increased at the posterior-median and circumferential parts by modulating only the magnitude of tongue pressure. Conversely, in Mastication, the tongue performed more work for size reduction with increasing initial consistency of jelly by modulating both magnitude and duration of tongue pressure mainly at the posterior part of the hard palate, but tongue work as well as other tongue pressure parameters for swallowing showed no differences by type of jelly. Conclusions These results reveal fine modulations in tongue-palate contact according to the initial consistency of jelly and oral strategies. PMID:24643054

  3. Comparison of quality-of-life in tongue cancer patients undergoing tongue reconstruction with lateral upper arm free flap and radial forearm free flap

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yujie; Cui, Yaqi; Liao, Guiqing

    2015-01-01

    Surgery entails radical resection, neck dissection and tongue reconstruction has been commonly used in treatment of T2 and T3 tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Although lateral upper arm free flap (LUFF) and radial forearm free flap (RFFF) are similar in texture and thickness, significant differences can be noticed in the donor-site function and surgical demands. In the treatment of T2 and T3 tongue cancer, the choice of either LUFF or RFFF is still not defined.We aim to investigatethe long-term QOL of patients with moderate tongue defect and reconstruction with LUFF or RFFF, based on which to provide clinical suggestion for tongue reconstructions.Sixty-five patients (T2 or T3 stage, 42 underwent tongue reconstruction with RFFF and 23 with LUFF) treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University from January 2005 to June 2009 were included. The QOL of each patient was determined using the questionnaire designed based on the University of Washington Quality-of-Life (UW-QOL, version 4). The questionnaire was accomplished by a qualified medical staff blinded to the study after telephone communication with each patient. Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference was noticed in the long-term QOL of patients with tongue cancer after tongue reconstruction using LUFF or RFFF, respectively, indicating that similar QOLs were obtained in the long-term follow-up of patients with tongue cancer (T2 or T3 stages) using LUFF and RFFF for reconstruction. PMID:26064380

  4. Mouse papillomavirus MmuPV1 infects oral mucosa and preferentially targets the base of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Cladel, Nancy M.; Budgeon, Lynn R; Balogh, Karla K.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Hu, Jiafen; Christensen, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a new mouse papillomavirus, MmuPV1, was discovered in a colony of NMRI- Foxn1nu /Foxn1nu athymic mice in India. This finding was significant because it was the first papillomavirus to be found in a laboratory mouse. In this paper we report successful infections of both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostral tongues of outbred athymic nude mice. We also report the observation that the base of the tongue, the area of the tongue often targeted by cancer-associated high-risk papillomavirus infections in humans, is especially susceptible to infection. A suitable animal model for the study of oral papillomavirus infections, co-infections, and cancers has long been sought. The work presented here suggests that such a model is now at hand. PMID:26609937

  5. Quantitative Diagnosis of Tongue Cancer from Histological Images in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer. PMID:27656036

  6. Quantitative diagnosis of tongue cancer from histological images in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer.

  7. Evaluation of neuropathic pain occurring after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of oral tongue

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ahuja, Chirag K.; Oinam, Arun S.; Ghoshal, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To recognize neuropathic pain as a complication of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy of oral tongue and to evaluate the possible causes of neuropathy. Material and methods Twenty one patients who underwent interstitial brachytherapy for early cancer of oral tongue were evaluated. The patients either underwent primary brachytherapy (42-48 Gy at 3-4 Gy/fraction) or a boost (18-24 Gy at 3 Gy/fraction) after external radiation to 40 Gy. Lingual nerve was the nerve concerned and the sublingual space (SLS) was contoured as its surrogate. Dosimetric parameters were correlated with onset of pain. Results Ten patients out of 21 (47.61%) developed painful neuropathy. Five patients of six (5/6) who underwent primary brachytherapy developed neuropathy. Five out of 15 (5/15) patients who underwent brachytherapy as a boost developed neuropathy. The patients who underwent primary brachytherapy were ten times more likely to develop neuropathy. Among the patients receiving boost treatment, the equivalent dose at 2 Gy/fraction (EQD2) to 2 cc of SLS was higher (39.25 Gy) in the patients who developed pain compared to those without pain (10.29 Gy). Conclusions This is the first report to recognize neuropathic pain as a complication of HDR brachytherapy of oral tongue. Patients undergoing primary brachytherapy were more likely to develop pain. Among other factors like dose to SLS, number of catheters, size of the primary tumor, and the dose rate, only dose to 2 cc of the SLS correlated with onset of pain. The SLS (containing the lingual nerve) may be considered an organ at risk to prevent the occurrence of this complication. PMID:26034495

  8. Collagenase-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-8) plays a protective role in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Korpi, J T; Kervinen, V; Mäklin, H; Väänänen, A; Lahtinen, M; Läärä, E; Ristimäki, A; Thomas, G; Ylipalosaari, M; Åström, P; Lopez-Otin, C; Sorsa, T; Kantola, S; Pirilä, E; Salo, T

    2008-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue is the most common cancer in the oral cavity and has a high mortality rate. A total of 90 mobile tongue SCC samples were analysed for Bryne's malignancy scores, microvascular density, and thickness of the SCC sections. In addition, the staining pattern of cyclooxygenase-2, αvβ6 integrin, the laminin-5 γ2-chain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -7, -8, -9, -20, and -28 were analysed. The expression of MMP-8 (collagenase-2) was positively associated with improved survival of the patients and the tendency was particularly prominent in females. No sufficient evidence for a correlation with the clinical outcome was found for any other immunohistological marker. To test the protective role of MMP-8 in tongue carcinogenesis, MMP-8 knockout mice were used. MMP-8 deficient female mice developed tongue SCCs at a significantly higher incidence than wild-type mice exposed to carcinogen 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide. Consistently, oestrogen-induced MMP-8 expression in cultured HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells, and MMP-8 cleaved oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β. According to these data, we propose that, contrary to the role of most proteases produced by human carcinomas, MMP-8 has a protective, probably oestrogen-related role in the growth of mobile tongue SCCs. PMID:18253113

  9. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  10. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  11. Extra-tongue oral granular cell tumor: Histological and immunohistochemical aspect

    PubMed Central

    Pigatti, Fernanda-Mombrini; Martins-Mussi, Maria-Carolina; Sedassari, Bruno-Tavares; Orsini-Machado de Sousa, Suzana-Cantanhede

    2017-01-01

    Background Granular cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon benign tumor founded in any part of the body but mainly in the tongue. Extra-tongue oral granular cell tumor (ETOGCT) is rare with few cases reported. Here we describe seven cases of oral GCT located in sites other then the tongue and discuss histopathological and immunohistochemical differences between differential diagnoses. Material and Methods We retrieved all cases diagnosed with oral granular cell tumor, from the Oral Pathology Service at the School of Dentistry/ University of São Paulo, and excluded the ones sited in the tongue. Immunohistochemical staining anti-S100 was also performed. Results The presented cases of Extra-tongue Oral Granular Cell Tumor (ETOGT) are composed by granular cells with intimately association with the adjacent tissue. Atypia and mitoses were not seen, and in most cases, the typical pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia was not observed. Conclusions The importance of an adequate attention is to avoid misdiagnoses, since ETOGT is rare and the tricking histopathological findings could induce to it. All the cases can be differentiated from the tumors that has a granular cell proliferation through a morphological analysis and when needed, immunohistochemistry stain. Key words:Abrikossoff`s tumor, granular cell tumor, oral cavity. PMID:27918739

  12. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies.

  13. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  14. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells.

  15. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. |; Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. |; Wang, H.-M. |; Cheng, A.-J. |; Chang, J.T.-C. ||. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

  16. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . See the following PDQ summaries for more information ...

  17. Vowel category dependence of the relationship between palate height, tongue height, and oral area.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala; Alwan, Abeer; Cha, Jul Setsu; Haker, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    This article evaluates intertalker variance of oral area, logarithm of the oral area, tongue height, and formant frequencies as a function of vowel category. The data consist of coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and acoustic recordings of 5 talkers, each producing 11 different vowels. Tongue height (left, right, and midsagittal), palate height, and oral area were measured in 3 coronal sections anterior to the oropharyngeal bend and were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, variance ratio analysis, and regression analysis. The primary finding of this article is that oral area (between palate and tongue) showed less intertalker variance during production of vowels with an oral place of articulation (palatal and velar vowels) than during production of vowels with a uvular or pharyngeal place of articulation. Although oral area variance is place dependent, percentage variance (log area variance) is not place dependent. Midsagittal tongue height in the molar region was positively correlated with palate height during production of palatal vowels, but not during production of nonpalatal vowels. Taken together, these results suggest that small oral areas are characterized by relatively talker-independent vowel targets and that meeting these talker-independent targets is important enough that each talker adjusts his or her own tongue height to compensate for talker-dependent differences in constriction anatomy. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate that these results may be explained by an acoustic control strategy: When talkers with very different anatomical characteristics try to match talker-independent formant targets, the resulting area variances are minimized near the primary vocal tract constriction.

  18. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  19. Radial free forearm flap versus pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in patients with tongue cancer: Assessment of quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peipei; Li, Rui; Liu, Yiming; Kan, Quancheng

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the quality of life of Chinese patients with tongue cancer who had undergone immediate flap reconstruction surgery. In addition, we compared 2 groups of patients: those who had received radial forearm free flap (RFFF) surgery and others who had received pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) surgery. Material and Methods Patients who received RFFF or PMMF reconstruction after primary tongue cancer treated with total and subtotal tongue resection were eligible for the current study. The patients’ demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores (14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires) were collected. Results A total of 41 of 63 questionnaires were returned (65.08%). There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the gender (p< .05). Patients reconstructed with RFFF performed better in the shoulder domains, in addition to worse appearance domains. Conclusions Using either RFFF or PMMF for reconstruction of defects after tongue cancer resection significantly influences a patient’s quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for tongue cancers. Key words:Quality of life, radial forearm free flaps, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, tongue cancer, oral function. PMID:27694786

  20. The Consequences of Tongue Piercing on Oral and Periodontal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sakellari, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    This paper is discussing the potential consequences that may arise by the implementation of piercing in the oral cavity and is also categorizing the consequences according to their extent and severity. Furthermore, this paper is reviewing some possible oral hygiene methods that can prove to be auxiliary in decreasing the potential complications arising from oral piercing. This literature review is based on articles published from 1985 to 2012. PMID:24616814

  1. Radiation dose to the tongue and velopharynx predicts acoustic-articulatory changes after chemo-IMRT treatment for advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Irene; Navran, Arash; van der Molen, Lisette; Heemsbergen, Wilma D; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent changes in speech after C-IMRT treatment are related to mean doses to the tongue and velopharynx (VP). In 34 patients with advanced hypopharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, or oropharyngeal cancer, changes in speech from pretreatment to 10 weeks and 1 year posttreatment were correlated with mean doses to the base of tongue (BOT), oral cavity (OC) and tonsillar fossa/soft palate (VP). Differences in anteroposterior tongue position, dorsoventral degree of tongue to palate or pharynx constriction, grooving, strength, nasality, and laryngeal rise, were assessed by acoustic changes in three speech sounds that depend on a (post-) alveolar closure or narrowing (/t/, /s/, /z/), three with a tongue to palate/pharyngeal narrowing (/l/, /r/, /u/), and in vowel /a/ at comfortable and highest pitch. Acoustically assessed changes in tongue positioning, shape, velopharyngeal constriction, and laryngeal elevation were significantly related to mean doses to the tongue and velopharynx. The mean dose to BOT predicted changes in anteroposterior tongue positioning from pre- to 10-weeks posttreatment. From pretreatment to 1-year, mean doses to BOT, OC, and VP were related to changes in grooving, strength, laryngeal height, nasality, palatalization, and degree of pharyngeal constriction. Changes in speech are related to mean doses to the base of tongue and velopharynx. The outcome indicates that strength, motility, and the balance between agonist and antagonist muscle forces change significantly after radiotherapy.

  2. Daily reduction of oral malodor with the use of a sonic tongue brush combined with an antibacterial tongue spray in a randomized cross-over clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Saad, S; Gomez-Pereira, P; Hewett, K; Horstman, P; Patel, J; Greenman, J

    2016-02-12

    The objective of this clinical investigation was to test the effectiveness on breath odor of a newly designed sonic tongue brush (TongueCare+, TC). It consists of a soft silicone brush optimally designed based on the tongue's anatomy to remove bacterial biofilm from the tongue's complex surface, and it is coupled with a sonic power toothbrush handle. TC was used in combination with an antibacterial tongue spray (BreathRx, BRx) containing 0.09% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.7% zinc gluconate. A total of 21 participants with oral malodor exceeding the threshold for recognition took part in this cross-over clinical investigation, which consisted of a single use of four treatment arms with one week washout period in between. The treatments consisted of: (1) TC  +  BRx, (2) TC  +  water, (3) BRx and (4) water. Malodor levels and bacterial density were monitored up to 6 h by organoleptic scoring and selective plating, respectively. The organoleptic score and bacterial density were significantly lower after using TC  +  BRx compared to all alternative treatments at all time points. A significant decrease in both parameters was detected after a single use of TC  +  BRx, from levels characteristic of high oral malodor, to barely noticeable levels after treatment and this was maintained up to 6 h. Moreover, we identified a significant positive correlation between bacterial density and organoleptic score, confirming that bacterial tongue biofilm is the root cause of oral malodor in these subjects. The results of this clinical investigation demonstrated that the combined treatment of a sonic tongue brush with the antibacterial tongue spray is able to deliver more than 6 h of fresh breath following a single use. The clinical investigation was registered at the ISRCTN registry under study identification number ISRCTN38199132.

  3. Assessing oral cancer knowledge in Romanian undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Ibric, S; Ibric-Cioranu, V

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the level of Romanian dental students' knowledge regarding the oral cancer risk and non-risk factors as well as oral cancer signs, symptoms, and diagnostic signs. A total of 192 first- to sixth-year undergraduate dental students (mean age 22.20 ± 2.94 years) who consented to participate in the study filled in a questionnaire enquiring about their knowledge of oral cancer. A score of the oral cancer knowledge was calculated for each participant based on their correct answers. Regarding the knowledge of oral cancer risk factors, the vast majority of the students correctly recognized tobacco (96.8 %), having a prior oral cancer lesion (85.1 %), the consumption of alcohol (77.7 %), and older age (64.2 %). Respectively, 87.7 and 54.3 % knew the tongue and the floor of mouth to be the most common oral cancer sites. Of the students, 71.3 % agreed that oral cancer examinations for those 20 years of age and older should be provided during regular periodic health examinations, 92.9 % considered that patients with suspicious oral lesions should be referred to specialists, and 84.6 % agreed that oral cancer examinations should be a routine part of a comprehensive oral examination. A significant association was found between the year of study in the dental school, age, and knowledge of the oral cancer knowledge scores. Although students' knowledge increased with academic year, there is a clear need to enhance the dental curricula in oral cancer clinical training in oral cancer prevention and examination for dental students.

  4. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma at Invasion Front

    PubMed Central

    Shimazu, Yoshihito; Yagishita, Hisao; Soeno, Yuuichi; Sato, Kaori; Taya, Yuji; Aoba, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    We conducted three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) using serial histological sections to visualize the architecture of invasive tumors. Fourteen OTSCC cases were collected from archival paraffin-embedded specimens. Based on a pathodiagnostic survey of whole cancer lesions, a core tissue specimen (3 mm in diameter) was dissected out from the deep invasion front using a paraffin tissue microarray. Serial sections (4 μm thick) were double immunostained with pan-cytokeratin and Ki67 antibodies and digitized images were acquired using virtual microscopy. For 3D reconstruction, image registration and RGB color segmentation were automated using ImageJ software to avoid operator-dependent subjective errors. Based on the 3D tumor architecture, we classified the mode of invasion into four types: pushing and bulky architecture; trabecular architecture; diffuse spreading; and special forms. Direct visualization and quantitative assessment of the parenchymal-stromal border provide a new dimension in our understanding of OTSCC architecture. These 3D morphometric analyses also ascertained that cell invasion (individually and collectively) occurs at the deep invasive front of the OTSCC. These results demonstrate the advantages of histology-based 3D reconstruction for evaluating tumor architecture and its potential for a wide range of applications. PMID:24228031

  5. Change in tongue pressure in patients with head and neck cancer after surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Sugahara, Kazuma; Fukuoka, Tatsuyuki; Saito, Shota; Sakuramoto, Ayumi; Horii, Nobuhide; Sano, Saori; Hasegawa, Kana; Nakao, Yuta; Nanto, Tomoki; Kadoi, Kanenori; Moridera, Kuniyasu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Domen, Kazuhisa; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-02-14

    Tongue pressure is reportedly associated with dysphagia. This study investigated relationships among characteristics of head and neck cancer, tongue pressure and dysphagia screening tests performed in patients with head and neck cancer during the acute phase after surgical resection. Fifty-seven patients (36 men, 21 women; age range 26-95 years) underwent surgical resection and dysphagia screening tests (Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test, Water Swallowing Test, Modified Water Swallowing Test and Food Test) and pre- and postoperative measurement of tongue pressure at 5 time points (preoperatively, and 1-2 weeks and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively). Progression of cancer (stage), tracheotomy, surgical reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and neck dissection were factors associated with postoperative tongue pressure. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-effect model, Spearman correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Tongue pressure was significantly reduced 1-2 weeks after surgery, and recovered over time. Changes in tongue pressure were significantly associated with stage, radiotherapy and reconstruction. All screening tests showed a significant relationship with tongue pressure. Analysis of ROC and area under the effect curve suggested that a tongue pressure of 15 kPa can be used as a cut-off value to detect dysphagia after surgery for head and neck cancer. Our results suggest that tongue pressure evaluation might offer a safe, useful and objective tool to assess dysphagia immediately postoperatively in patients with head and neck cancer.

  6. Oral foregut cyst in the ventral tongue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Eun-Jung; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Hyung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    An oral foregut cyst is a rare congenital choristoma lined by the respiratory and/or gastrointestinal epithelium. The exact etiology has not been fully identified, but it is thought to arise from misplaced primitive foregut. This lesion develops asymptomatically but sometimes causes difficulty in swallowing and pronunciation depending on its size. Thus, the first choice of treatment is surgical excision. Surgeons associated with head and neck pathology should include the oral foregut cyst in the differential diagnosis for ranula, dermoid cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst and lymphangioma in cases of pediatric head and neck lesions. PMID:25551098

  7. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Denise; Flint, Stephen R; Healy, Claire; Stassen, Leo F A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of 'field cancerisation'/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  8. Effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions in normal adults - Part 1 investigation of tongue pressure and labial closure strength.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, I; Koide, K; Takahashi, M; Mizuhashi, F

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the tongue rotation exercise training on the oral functions using the measurement of maximum tongue pressure (MTP) and labial closure strength (LCS) in normal adults. In experiment 1, the differences in MTP and LCS at the measurement point for both groups with and without tongue rotation exercise training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 2 months. We measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 1 and 2 months after the beginning of training. In experiment 2, the changes of MTP and LCS based on the sex differences and the measurement points in training were examined. We instructed subjects to perform the tongue rotation exercise for 3 months, and measured MTP and LCS at the point before training and at the points of 2 weeks and 1, 2 and 3 months after the beginning of training. The results of experiment 1 showed MTP and LCS increased with the progress of continuous training. The results of experiment 2 showed MTP and LCS were always higher in men than in women and increased significantly at 2 weeks of training in both sexes (P < 0.01). These results might be suggested that the tongue rotation exercise training was effective for the recovery of the activity of the stomatognathic system.

  9. Genomic instability in non-neoplastic oral mucosa cells can predict risk during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Fávero Salvadori, Daisy Maria; da Silva, Renata Nunes; Ribeiro Darros, Bruno; Alencar Marques, Mariangela Esther

    2004-10-01

    4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis is a useful model for studying oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of DNA damage induced by 4NQO in oral mucosa cells by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution by drinking water for 4, 12 or 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. Statistically significant increase of DNA damage was observed in non-neoplastic oral cells at four weeks of 4NQO administration when compared with control (P < 0.05). The level of DNA damage was directly associated with the severity of histological changes. The results suggest that histologically normal tissue is able to harbor genetically unstable cells contributing to the initiation of oral carcinogenesis. Genomic instability appears to be associated with the risk and progression of oral cancer.

  10. Small interfering RNA targeting ILK inhibits metastasis in human tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yu; Qi, Jin; Deng, Shixiong; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Junxia

    2013-08-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. Accumulating evidences suggest that ILK are involved in cell–matrix interactions, cell proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. EMT has been postulated as a prerequisite for metastasis. The reports have demonstrated that EMT was implicated in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, here we further postulate that ILK might participate in EMT of tongue cancer. We showed that ILK siRNA inhibited EMT with low N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as high E-cadherin expression in vivo and in vitro. We found that knockdown of ILK inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as changed cell morphology. We also demonstrated that ILK siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets Akt and GSK3β as well as reduced expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, we found that the tongue tumor with high metastasis capability showed higher ILK, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as lower E-cadherin expression in clinical specimens. Finally, ILK siRNA led to the suppression for tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest that ILK could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for tongue cancer. Highlights: • ILK siRNA influences cell morphology, cell cycle, migration and invasion. • ILK siRNA affects the expression of proteins associated with EMT. • ILK expression is related to EMT in clinical human tongue tumors. • ILK siRNA inhibits metastasis of the tongue cancer cells through suppressing EMT.

  11. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  12. Decreased expression of Beclin-1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin-1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin-1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin-1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin-1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin-1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non-cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin-1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour-node-metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin-1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin-1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin-1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  13. Black, Hairy Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... content of the mouth following antibiotic use Poor oral hygiene Dry mouth (xerostomia) Medications containing bismuth, such as ... as: Normal variations in tongue color (pigment) Poor oral hygiene Foods or medications that have stained the tongue ...

  14. Oral contraceptives and cancer.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A

    1991-01-01

    Concerns over the safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) have led to numerous empirical studies of the relationship of OC use to normal pregnancy outcomes, pituitary effects, cardiovascular accidents, and cancer. The article reviews some of the results of studies on the effects of OC use on ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancer and on hepatic cancer and melanomas. Reference is made to direct study results rather than to reviews of studies, although it is noted that the critical reviews of Goldzieher and Realini reflect appropriate critiques of the validity of the methods employed in the analysis of cancers as well as cardiovascular risks. Concern is raised for meta-analysis of pooled data. In spite of the 30 years of research on OCs there is no definitive answer to the question of cause and effect. The epidemiological articles reviewed do not meet the standards of critical editorial review boards of experimental journals; confirmation of findings is also lacking. Studies suggesting increased risks as well as those showing positive benefits are questionable. The conclusion reached is that OCs protect against ovarian and uterine cancers and do not cause mammary, cervical, or liver cancer or melanoma. This conclusion is based on inconclusive data. The conclusion on hepatic cancer is that the 3 retrospective case control studies and anecdotal reports are flawed in design, and little confidence can be placed on such a limited number of cases. Malignant melanoma conclusions are that the data are inconsistent and hover around a risk of one for long-term OC-users. There is no increased risk related to OC-use. Ovarian cancer risk seems to be decreased in about 40% of OC-users. Endometrial cancer risk seems to be decreased, except for the sequential contraceptive Oracon which is associated with increased risk. Decreased risk is related to length of usage and continues after stoppage. Cervical carcinoma results appear to confirm the finding that prolonged OC use slightly

  15. Molecular Portrait of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Shown by Integrative Meta-Analysis of Expression Profiles with Validations.

    PubMed

    Thangaraj, Soundara Viveka; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ganesan, Kumaresan; Muthuswami, Muthulakshmi; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral Tongue Squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), the most frequently affected oral cancer sub-site, is associated with a poor therapeutic outcome and survival despite aggressive multi- modality management. Till date, there are no established biomarkers to indicate prognosis and outcome in patients presenting with tongue cancer. There is an urgent need for reliable molecular prognostic factors to enable identification of patients with high risk of recurrence and treatment failure in OTSCC management. In the current study, we present the meta-analysis of OTSCC microarray based gene expression profiles, deriving a comprehensive molecular portrait of tongue cancer biology, showing the relevant genes and pathways which can be pursued further to derive novel, tailored therapeutics as well as for prognostication. We have studied 5 gene expression profiling data sets available on exclusively oral tongue subsite comprising of sample size; n = 190, consisting of 111 tumors and 79 normals. The meta- analysis results showed 2405 genes differentially regulated comparing OTSCC tumor and normal. The top up regulated genes were found to be involved in Extracellular matrix degradation (ECM) and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathways. The top down regulated genes were found to be involved in detoxication pathways. We validated the results in clinical samples (n = 206), comprising of histologically normals (n = 10), prospective (n = 29) and retrospective (n = 167) OTSCC by evaluating MMP9 and E-cadherin gene expression by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Consistent with meta-analysis results, MMP9 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in OTSCC primary tumors compared to normals. MMP9 protein over expression was found to be a significant predictor of poor prognosis, disease recurrence and poor Disease Free Survival (DFS) in OTSCC patients. Analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed patients with loss of E-cadherin expression in OTSCC

  16. Molecular Portrait of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Shown by Integrative Meta-Analysis of Expression Profiles with Validations

    PubMed Central

    Thangaraj, Soundara Viveka; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ganesan, Kumaresan; Muthuswami, Muthulakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral Tongue Squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), the most frequently affected oral cancer sub-site, is associated with a poor therapeutic outcome and survival despite aggressive multi- modality management. Till date, there are no established biomarkers to indicate prognosis and outcome in patients presenting with tongue cancer. There is an urgent need for reliable molecular prognostic factors to enable identification of patients with high risk of recurrence and treatment failure in OTSCC management. In the current study, we present the meta-analysis of OTSCC microarray based gene expression profiles, deriving a comprehensive molecular portrait of tongue cancer biology, showing the relevant genes and pathways which can be pursued further to derive novel, tailored therapeutics as well as for prognostication. We have studied 5 gene expression profiling data sets available on exclusively oral tongue subsite comprising of sample size; n = 190, consisting of 111 tumors and 79 normals. The meta- analysis results showed 2405 genes differentially regulated comparing OTSCC tumor and normal. The top up regulated genes were found to be involved in Extracellular matrix degradation (ECM) and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathways. The top down regulated genes were found to be involved in detoxication pathways. We validated the results in clinical samples (n = 206), comprising of histologically normals (n = 10), prospective (n = 29) and retrospective (n = 167) OTSCC by evaluating MMP9 and E-cadherin gene expression by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Consistent with meta-analysis results, MMP9 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in OTSCC primary tumors compared to normals. MMP9 protein over expression was found to be a significant predictor of poor prognosis, disease recurrence and poor Disease Free Survival (DFS) in OTSCC patients. Analysis by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed patients with loss of E-cadherin expression in OTSCC

  17. Geographic Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  18. Oral cancer in Myanmar: a preliminary survey based on hospital-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Oo, Htun Naing; Myint, Yi Yi; Maung, Chan Nyein; Oo, Phyu Sin; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Yagi, Minoru; Sawair, Faleh A; Saku, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of oral cancer is not clearly known in Myanmar, where betel quid chewing habits are widely spread. Since betel quid chewing has been considered to be one of the important causative factors for oral cancer, the circumstantial situation for oral cancer should be investigated in this country. We surveyed oral cancer cases as well as whole body cancers from two cancer registries from Yangon and Mandalay cities, both of which have representative referral hospitals in Myanmar, and we showed that oral cancer stood at the 6th position in males and 10th in females, contributing to 3.5% of whole body cancers. There was a male predominance with a ratio of 2.1:1. Their most frequent site was the tongue, followed by the palate, which was different from that in other countries with betel quid chewing habits. About 90% of male and 44% of female patients had habitual backgrounds of chewing and smoking for more than 15 years. The results revealed for the first time reliable oral cancer frequencies in Myanmar, suggesting that longstanding chewing and smoking habits are etiological backgrounds for oral cancer patients.

  19. Prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma of tongue in and around Davangere, Karnataka, India: A retrospective study over 13 years

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, M.; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Basandi, Praveen S.; Madhushankari, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the frequency and distribution of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) involving tongue among patients by studying biopsy specimens obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, during the past 13 years. Methodology: Data for the study were retrieved from the case records of patients. Analyzed clinical variables included age, sex, anatomical site, and histological diagnosis. Results: Of the 369 squamous cell carcinoma involving head and neck region, we found 52 biopsies reported exclusively involving tongue. Lateral border of the tongue was most commonly involved (43 cases, 82.7%), followed by base of tongue and posterior part of tongue. The patient were affected over a wide range of 27–80 years with mean age of 55.75 years and peak incidence was seen in the fourth and fifth decades of life, with the male: female ratio of 1.7:1. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of OSCC involving tongue showed a definite geographic variation when compared with a study done in other parts of the world. PMID:26538904

  20. Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M.; Larson, Charles; Mittal, Bharat B; Pierce, Marge; Zecker, Steven; Kennelty, Korey; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients treated with chemoradiation for head and neck cancer frequently develop dysphagia. Tissue damage to the oral tongue causing weakness and decreases in saliva production may contribute to dysphagia. Yet, effects of these variables on swallowing-related measures are unclear. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine effects of chemoradiation on tongue pressures, as a surrogate for strength, and salivary flow rates and (2) to elucidate relationships among tongue pressures, saliva production, and swallowing efficiency by bolus type. Methods and Materials 21 patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation were assessed before and after treatment and matched with 21 healthy control participants who did not receive chemoradiation. Each participant was given a questionnaire to rate dysphagia symptoms. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing was used to determine swallowing efficiency; the Saxon test measured salivary flow rate; and the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) was used for oral tongue maximum and endurance measures. Results Results revealed significantly lower tongue endurance measures for patients post-treatment as compared to controls (p=.012). Salivary flow rates also were lower compared to pre-treatment (p=.000) and controls (p=.000). Simple linear regression analyses showed that change in salivary flow rate was predictive of change in swallow efficiency measures from pre- to post-treatment for 1mL thin liquid (p=.017), 3mL nectar-thick liquid (p=.026), and 3mL standard barium pudding (p=.011) boluses. Conclusions Based on these findings, it appears that chemoradiation treatment affects tongue endurance and salivary flow rate and these changes may impact swallow efficiency. These factors should be considered when planning treatment for dysphagia. PMID:27492408

  1. BDNF signaling contributes to oral cancer pain in a preclinical orthotopic rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Chodroff, Leah; Bendele, Michelle; Valenzuela, Vanessa; Henry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with oral cancer report intense pain that is only partially managed by current analgesics. Thus, there is a strong need to study mechanisms as well as develop novel analgesics for oral cancer pain. Current study employed an orthotopic tongue cancer model with molecular and non-reflexive behavioral assays to determine possible mechanisms of oral cancer pain. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells line, HSC2, was injected into the tongue of male athymic mice and tumor growth was observed by day 6. Immunohistological analyses revealed a well-differentiated tumor with a localized immune response and pronounced sensory and sympathetic innervation and vascularization. The tumor expressed TMPRSS2, a protein previously reported with oral squamous cell carcinoma. ATF3 expression in trigeminal ganglia was not altered by tumor growth. Molecular characterization of the model demonstrated altered expression of several pain-related genes, out of which up-regulation of BDNF was most striking. Moreover, BDNF protein expression in trigeminal ganglia neurons was increased and inhibition of BDNF signaling with a tyrosine kinase B antagonist, ANA-12, reversed pain-like behaviors induced by the oral tumor. Oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth was also associated with a reduction in feeding, mechanical hypersensitivity in the face, as well as spontaneous pain behaviors as measured by the conditioned place preference test, all of which were reversed by analgesics. Interestingly, injection of HSC2 into the hindpaw did not reproduce this spectrum of pain behaviors; nor did injection of a colonic cancer cell line into the tongue. Taken together, this orthotopic oral cancer pain model reproduces the spectrum of pain reported by oral cancer patients, including higher order cognitive changes, and demonstrates that BDNF signaling constitutes a novel mechanism by which oral squamous cell carcinoma induces pain. Identification of the key role of tyrosine kinase B

  2. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control.

  3. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  4. Bmi1-positive cells in the lingual epithelium could serve as cancer stem cells in tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Atsumi, Naho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Imahashi, Yuki; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-12-22

    We recently reported that the polycomb complex protein Bmi1 is a marker for lingual epithelial stem cells (LESCs), which are involved in the long-term maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue in the physiological state. However, the precise role of LESCs in generating tongue tumors and Bmi1-positive cell lineage dynamics in tongue cancers are unclear. Here, using a mouse model of chemically (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide: 4-NQO) induced tongue cancer and the multicolor lineage tracing method, we found that each unit of the tumor was generated by a single cell and that the assembly of such cells formed a polyclonal tumor. Although many Bmi1-positive cells within the tongue cancer specimens failed to proliferate, some proliferated continuously and supplied tumor cells to the surrounding area. This process eventually led to the formation of areas derived from single cells after 1-3 months, as determined using the multicolor lineage tracing method, indicating that such cells could serve as cancer stem cells. These results indicate that LESCs could serve as the origin for tongue cancer and that cancer stem cells are present in tongue tumors.

  5. Bmi1-positive cells in the lingual epithelium could serve as cancer stem cells in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Atsumi, Naho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Imahashi, Yuki; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that the polycomb complex protein Bmi1 is a marker for lingual epithelial stem cells (LESCs), which are involved in the long-term maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue in the physiological state. However, the precise role of LESCs in generating tongue tumors and Bmi1-positive cell lineage dynamics in tongue cancers are unclear. Here, using a mouse model of chemically (4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide: 4-NQO) induced tongue cancer and the multicolor lineage tracing method, we found that each unit of the tumor was generated by a single cell and that the assembly of such cells formed a polyclonal tumor. Although many Bmi1-positive cells within the tongue cancer specimens failed to proliferate, some proliferated continuously and supplied tumor cells to the surrounding area. This process eventually led to the formation of areas derived from single cells after 1–3 months, as determined using the multicolor lineage tracing method, indicating that such cells could serve as cancer stem cells. These results indicate that LESCs could serve as the origin for tongue cancer and that cancer stem cells are present in tongue tumors. PMID:28004815

  6. Oral and gastrointestinal symptomatic metastases as initial presentation of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeba, Jenifer; Backianathan, Selvamani; Ishitha, Gunadala; Singh, Ashish

    2016-11-18

    Metastasis to the tongue, duodenum or pancreas from primary lung cancer is uncommon. Primary lung cancer presenting with symptoms related to metastases at these sites, at initial presentation is extremely rare. We report a 45-year-old man with disseminated lung malignancy who presented with dyspepsia, melena, symptoms due to anaemia and swelling in the tongue. Oral examination revealed a hard submucosal anterior tongue lesion. Biopsies from the tongue lesion and the duodenal ulcer seen on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were suggestive of metastasis from lung primary. CT revealed lung primary with disseminated metastasis to lung, liver, adrenals, kidneys, head and body of pancreas, duodenum and intra-abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with palliative chemotherapy. The unusual presentation and diagnostic details are discussed.

  7. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  8. [A Case of Advanced Esophageal Cancer and Tongue Cancer Treated with Induction DCF Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Surgery].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motomu; Koyanagi, Kazuo; Sugiura, Hitoshi; Kakefuda, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 60s was admitted for the treatment of advanced cervical esophageal cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes and advanced tongue cancer with metastasis to the lymph nodes. Esophageal cancer was suspected to have invaded the trachea. The tongue cancer was located on the left side and had invaded beyond the median line of the tongue. Both cancers were pathologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, it was determined that pharyngo-laryngo- esophagectomy and total glossectomy were required prior to the treatment. However, after 2 courses of docetaxel/cisplatin/ 5-FU combined induction chemotherapy, both cancers remarkably decreased; consequently, an esophagectomy to preserve laryngeal function and partial glossectomy could be performed simultaneously. The patient is well without recurrence 1 year post-surgery.

  9. Role of MRI in Evaluation of Malignant Lesions of Tongue and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amandeep; Thukral, Chuni Lal; Gupta, Kamlesh; Sood, Arvinder Singh; Singla, Hanish; Singh, Kunwarpal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of MRI in staging of malignant lesions of the oral cavity and to correlate MRI findings with clinical/surgical and anatomical-pathological findings, wherever possible. Material/Methods The study included 50 patients who presented with malignant lesions of the oral cavity and were referred to radiology departments for MRI. All patients included were subjected to a detailed physical examination following which MRI was carried out on Philips Gyroscan Achieva 1.5 Tesla unit. Results In the study, the highest number of patients were found to have tongue malignancy (82%) followed by buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus malignancy (18%). The highest number of patients was in the age group of 51–60 years (32%). The incidence was higher in males (96%). There was moderate agreement (k=0.537) for T stage between the clinical and MRI staging assessments. The agreement for N stage between clinical and MRI staging assessments was fair (k=0.328). The final diagnosis was made by histopathology in 22 patients. The agreement for T stage was good/substantial (k=0.790) and for N stage was moderate (k=0.458) between MRI and histopathology staging assessments. Conclusions MRI provides satisfactory accuracy for preoperative estimation of tumor thickness and predicting occult cervical nodal metastasis. MRI is the preferred modality in evaluation and staging of oral cavity malignancy which helps a clinician for planning of treatment. PMID:28289481

  10. Interaction between Chronic Inflammation and Oral HPV Infection in the Etiology of Head and Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tezal, Mine

    2012-01-01

    Incidences of oral tongue, base of the tongue, and tonsil cancers have been increasing steadily in many parts of the world in spite of declining rates of tobacco use over the last four decades. A better understanding of the etiology, interactions between risk factors, and new approaches to prevention and treatment are necessary to change this course. This paper will present evidence supporting a potential role of chronic inflammation in the etiologies of oral human papillomavirus infection and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and it will discuss the implications for prevention and treatment. PMID:22518158

  11. Integrating oral health throughout cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin

    2015-10-01

    Oral health is often not a priority during cancer treatment; however, patients with cancer are at increased risk for oral complications during and after treatment. This article focuses on the importance of oral health care before, during, and after cancer treatment using the head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach. AT A GLANCE: Oral health is linked to overall health, and healthcare providers must be cognizant of the oral-systemic connection with patients undergoing cancer treatment, which may cause acute and chronic oral health problems. 
Oral assessment, prevention, early recognition, and treatment of oral problems must be incorporated into cancer care, particularly with the aid of an interprofessional team to meet patients' oral care needs. 
The head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach integrates oral care into patients' history taking, physical examination, and plan of cancer care.
.

  12. Classification of oral cancers using Raman spectroscopy of serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Talathi, Sneha; Sawant, Sharada; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancers are the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with low 5-year disease free survival rates, attributable to late detection due to lack of reliable screening modalities. Our in vivo Raman spectroscopy studies have demonstrated classification of normal and tumor as well as cancer field effects (CFE), the earliest events in oral cancers. In view of limitations such as requirement of on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions of this approach, feasibility of classification of normal and cancer using serum was explored using 532 nm excitation. In this study, strong resonance features of β-carotenes, present differentially in normal and pathological conditions, were observed. In the present study, Raman spectra of sera of 36 buccal mucosa, 33 tongue cancers and 17 healthy subjects were recorded using Raman microprobe coupled with 40X objective using 785 nm excitation, a known source of excitation for biomedical applications. To eliminate heterogeneity, average of 3 spectra recorded from each sample was subjected to PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Findings indicate average classification efficiency of ~70% for normal and cancer. Buccal mucosa and tongue cancer serum could also be classified with an efficiency of ~68%. Of the two cancers, buccal mucosa cancer and normal could be classified with a higher efficiency. Findings of the study are quite comparable to that of our earlier study, which suggest that there exist significant differences, other than β- carotenes, between normal and cancerous samples which can be exploited for the classification. Prospectively, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  13. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression confers poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue: A tissue microarray study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Morales, Jose; Feng, Lei; Lee, J. Jack; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) exhibits high risk for recurrence and regional metastasis even after surgical resection. We assessed the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of a group of functionally related biomarkers. We used a tissue microarray consisting SCCOT from 32 patients for this study. These patients were treated at the UT- M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1995 to 2008. Biomarker expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry and graded semiquantitatively to determine their prognostic significance. CD147 and Tp63 expressions were significantly associated with a higher T-stage and Ki-67 labelling index as well as shorter overall survival (OS). Expression of Tp63 associated positively with poorly-differentiated histology. There was significant association of Tp63 with the expression levels of CD147 and Glut-1. Glut-1 overexpression was marginally associated with a higher T-stage. There was no prognostic significance of CD44v6 expression in SCCOT. SCCOT with CD147 overexpression in combination with high Ki-67 labelling index had poor OS. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression is associated with aggressive disease with poor prognosis in SCCOT. PMID:25747176

  14. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  15. Perforation of the small bowel due to metastasis from tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Keiji; Shimada, Ryu; Horiuchi, Atsushi; Shibuya, Hajime; Nakamura, Keisuke; Iinuma, Hisae; Hayama, Tamuro; Yamada, Hideki; Nozawa, Keijiro; Ishihara, Soichiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Distant small bowel metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are extremely rare, and tongue cancer metastasizing to the small bowel has not been previously reported. We describe a 40-year-old male patient who underwent subtotal gross laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in February 2007 and then presented in November 2008 with severe abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and X-rays revealed free air, suggesting intestinal perforation. Emergency surgery revealed a 10-mm perforation at the ileum and a palpable hard tumor at the perforation site. The ileum was resected, and pathologic findings showed squamous cell carcinoma at the perforation site, which was consistent with metastasis from tongue cancer.

  16. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis.

  17. Oral Cancer Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possible signs and symptoms One of the real dangers of this cancer, is that in its early ... particular tumor, viruses that only kill specific cancer cells, and techniques which would allow the replacement ... 723-4400 Subscribe to our mailing list ...

  18. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K H; Millard, P S

    1996-10-01

    The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a meta-analysis of data from 10 cohort and 44 case-control studies of the association between combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer. 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women with no breast cancer from 25 countries worldwide were studied. Current OC users faced a 24% increased risk of developing breast cancer (confidence interval = 1.15-1.33). This risk fell steadily after cessation and reached 0 at 10 years and thereafter. Use of OCs with higher doses were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer than medium or low-dose OCs. The number of excess cancers in women while using OCs and up to 10 years after OC cessation stood at 0.5/10,000 women 16-19 years old, 1.5/10,000 women 20-24 years old, and 4.7/10,000 women 25-29 years old. The elevated risk of developing breast cancer did not differ by country of origin, ethnic background, reproductive history, or family history of breast cancer. OC users had less clinically advanced breast cancer than never-users who had breast cancer. This finding plus the moderate reduced risk of breast cancer more than 10 years after OC cessation suggest that OCs may effect earlier diagnosis of existing breast cancer instead of causing new breast cancers. The findings of this meta-analysis along with a plausible biologic mechanism (estrogen stimulates breast cancer cells) suggest a causal relationship between OC use and breast cancer. They also indicate that the risk is small, decreases with time, and is lower among low-dose OC users. It is reassuring that the breast cancers found among OC users is less clinically advanced than those found in never-users.

  19. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  20. Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2000-01-01

    In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440

  1. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations Current Year Budget Annual Plan & Budget ...

  2. Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 interacts with miR-124 and modulates tongue cancer growth by targeting JAG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong-Han; Liang, Li-Zhong; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Wu, Ji-Nan; Su, Kui; Chen, Jue-Yao; Zheng, Qiao-Yi; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Liao, Gui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), was the earliest discovered to be correlated with cancer and contributes to the initiation and development of several types of tumors. Dysregulation of MALAT1 expression is frequently observed in many types of cancer such as gastric cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and glioma. To date, the role of MALAT1 and the underlying mechanisms in tongue cancer development remain unclear. In the present study, we studied the influence of MALAT1 on tongue cancer cell lines and clinical tongue cancer samples so as to detect its function and the underlying mechanism. In the present study, lncRNA-MALAT1 was specifically upregulated in tongue cancer cell lines and overexpression promoted tongue cancer cell growth by targeting miR-124. Knockdown of MALAT1 suppressed the growth and invasion of human tongue cancer cells and inhibited metastasis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, miR-124-dependent jagged1 (JAG1) regulation was required for MALAT1-induced tongue cancer cell growth. Our data revealed that MALAT1 inhibited tongue cancer cell growth and metastasis through miR-124-dependent JAG1 regulation. In conclusion, we revealed that MALAT1 may play an oncogenic role by increasing proliferation and metastasis of tongue cancer and is a potential therapeutic target in human tongue cancer.

  3. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  4. Ultrasound Imaging for Analyzing Lateral Tongue Movements during Mastication in Adults with Cerebral Palsy Compared with Adults without Oral Motor Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Remijn, Lianne; Weijers, Gert; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Groen, Brenda E; de Korte, Chris L

    2015-06-01

    Described here is an ultrasound technique used to study tongue movements, particularly lateral tongue movements, during mastication. A method to analyze spatial and temporal tongue movements was developed, and the feasibility of using this method was evaluated. Biplane ultrasound images of tongue movements of four adults without oral motor disability and two adults with oral motor disability as a result of cerebral palsy, were acquired. Tongue movements were analyzed in the coronal and sagittal planes using B-mode and M-mode ultrasonography. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement for manual tracing of tongue contours was good (ICC = 0.81 and 0.84, respectively). There were significant differences between the two adult groups in movement frequency in the horizontal direction in both coronal and sagittal planes. In the coronal plane, differences in movement frequency and range of vertical movement were detected. Data obtained from sagittal images, with the exception of vertical frequency, indicated no differences between the groups. The protocol developed in this study (using B-mode and M-mode) proved to be valid and reliable. By using this protocol with individuals with and without oral motor disability, we were able to illustrate the clinical application of our protocol to evaluation of differences in tongue movements during mastication.

  5. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  6. Oral health considerations in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mawardi, Hani H; Al-Mohaya, Maha A; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-05-01

    Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have helped in prolonging the survival rate for cancer patients. However, the patients who undergo treatment for cancer are potentially at high-risk for developing a number of oral complications, including oral mucositis, infections, hyposalivation, dental caries, and jaw osteonecrosis. Cancer survivors may remain at life-long risk of developing oral complications, and therefore require long-term dental follow-up, well after completion of cancer therapy. Patients should typically undergo thorough oral examination prior to initiation of therapy, during and after therapy to identify any active infection. In addition, and in order to maintain adequate oral health throughout treatment, patients should continue normal oral hygiene with tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning. The aim of this review is to discuss potential oral complications as a result of cancer therapy, and the certain precautions we should be aware of these patients.

  7. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  8. Susceptibility to oral cancers with CD95 and CD95L promoter SNPs may vary with the site and gender.

    PubMed

    Daripally, Sarika; Nallapalle, Sateesh Reddy; Katta, Saritha; Prasad, Vidudala V T S

    2015-09-01

    We investigated risk association of oral cancers (tongue and buccal mucosa cancers) with FAS (-1377G > A and FAS -670 A > G) and FASL (-844 T > C) SNPs, in males and females. A case-control study of 535 oral cancer and 525 control subjects was performed. SNPs were detected in the genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood using PCR-RFLP. We report FASL -844 T > C SNPs increased risk for buccal mucosa cancer in females but not in males. On the other hand, FAS genotypes did not alter the risk of the cancers in both females and males. However, co-occurrence of FAS -1377 GA and -670 GG, FAS -1377 AA and -670 GG genotypes, and combined genotypes of FAS and FASL (FAS -1377 AA + FAS -670 GG + FASL -844 CC) alter male susceptibility towards tongue cancer. In females, combined genotypes of FAS (-1377GA and -670 AA) were found to be a risk factor of buccal mucosa cancer (OR = 3.27, CI = 1.28-8.36; P ≤ 0.01). FASL variants (GA and AA) increased tongue cancer risk in females who were tobacco users compared to non-tobacco users. In conclusion, SNPs of the FAS and FASL might alter risk of tongue and buccal mucosa cancers differentially, in a gender-dependent manner.

  9. Anatomical coverage in elective irradiation of the neck for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Meoz, R.T.; Fletcher, G.H.; Lindberg, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    From January 1954 through December 1978, 146 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and clinically negative neck had their primary lesion conrolled with irradiation. Metastases to the neck developed later in: 27 of 76 patients (36%) treated by interstitial implantation; nine of 27 patients (33%) who received 2,000 rad in five fractions to the upper neck prior to the implant; eight of 19 (42%) patients who received 5,000 rad through an upper ipsilateral neck field prior to the implant; four of 24 patients (16.6%) who received 5,000 rad through bilateral portals to the upper neck with or without irradiation of the lower neck. In the 43 ipsilateral neck failures, 23 were in the upper jugular chain, (posterior subdigastric nodes), 12 in the mid-jugular, three in the lower jugular, and four in the more anterior part of the subdigastric area. There was one failure in the posterior cervical chain, and five contralateral neck failures. A review of the treatment charts showed that the patients who had an ipsilateral upper neck field only, had smaller portals because the irradiation was tailored to produce shrinkage of the primary tumor prior to needling. To include adequate coverage of the posterior subdigastric nodes (upper jugular), the bodies of the vertebrae must be seen on the simulator films. Also the junction of the subdigastric and the mid-jugular lymphatics must be covered. Although there were only three failures in the lower jugular nodes, it is technically easier to treat the upper mid-jugular nodes through an anterior appositional portal to the lower neck. A dose of 5,000 rad must be given since 2,000 rad, even if delivered in five fractions, gives a failure rate as if there had been no irradiation to the neck.

  10. Anatomical coverage in elective irradiation of the neck for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Meoz, R.T.; Fletcher, G.H.; Lindberg, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    From January 1954 through December 1978, 146 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and clinically negative neck had their primary lesion controlled with irradiation. Metastases to the neck developed later in: 27 of 76 patients (36%) treated by interstitial implantation: nine of 27 patients (33%) who received 2,000 rad in five fractions to the upper neck prior to the implant; eight of 19 (42%) patients who received 5,000 rad through an upper ipsilateral neck field prior to the implant; four of 24 patients (16.6%) who received 5,000 rad through bilateral portals to the upper neck with or without irradiation of the lower neck. In the 43 ipsilateral neck failures, 23 were in the upper jugular chain, (posterior subdigastric nodes), 12 in the mid-jugular, three in the lower jugular, and four in the more anterior part of the subdigastric area. There was one failure in the posterior cervical chain, and five contralateral neck failures. A review of the treatment charts showed that the patients who had ipsilateral upper neck field only, had smaller portals because the irradiation was tailored to produce shrinkage of the primary tumor prior to needling. To include adequate coverage of the posterior subdigastric nodes (upper jugular), the bodies of the vertebrae must be seen on the simulator films. Also the junction of the subdigastric and the mid-jugular lymphatics must be covered. Although there were only three failures in the lower jugular nodes, it is technically easier to treat the upper mid-jugular nodes through an anterior appositional portal to the lower neck. A dose of 5,000 rad must be given since 2,000 rad, even if delivered in five fractions, gives a failure rate as if there had been no irradition to the neck.

  11. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains.

  12. Innate tissue fluorescence of the oral mucosa of controls and head-and-neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Howard E.; Kolli, Venkateswara; Ansley, John; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y.; Alfano, Robert R.; Schantz, Stimson P.

    1995-04-01

    Base line spectral excitation and emission scans were defined for the oral mucosa in a population of 61 controls, 16 oral tongue cancer patients and 2 patients with tongue leukoplakia. A xenon-based fluorescence spectrophotometer (Mediscience Corp.) with a fiberoptic probe (Mediscience Corp.) was used to collect excitation and emission spectra. Two excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm; (lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm) and two emission scans ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm; (lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360-660 nm) were used to analyze the buccal mucosa (BM), hard palate (HP), floor of mouth (FOM) and dorsal tongue (DT) of 61 control individuals. In 41 controls the lateral tongue site (LT) was added. The same set of scans was performed on tumor lesions and contralateral normal tissues of 16 patients with lateral tongue tumors and on two individuals with leukoplakia of the tongue. Ratios of points on the individual scans were used to quantitate data. The excitation scan ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm) and the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm) were able to statistically discriminate the HP and DT from the BM and FOM. The ratios of intensities of neoplastic mucosa and contralateral sites were significantly different with the excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm, p < 0.001) and ((lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm, p < 0.01) and with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm, p < 0.001). Discrimination was significant with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360- 660 nm, p < 0.07). Innate tissue fluorescence has potential as a monitor of cancer patients and populations at risk for head and neck cancer.

  13. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma.

  14. Efficacy of topical antibiotic administration on the inhibition of perioperative oral bacterial growth in oral cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Funahara, M; Hayashida, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yanamoto, S; Kosai, K; Yanagihara, K; Umeda, M

    2015-10-01

    Parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis is the current standard of therapy in clean-contaminated oral cancer surgery. Nevertheless, the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in oral oncological surgery is relatively high, especially in major surgery with reconstruction and tracheotomy. The aims of this study were to investigate the perioperative condition related to microorganisms in the oral cavity and to examine the efficacy of the topical administration of tetracycline in reducing the number of bacteria in the oropharyngeal fluid during intubation. The number of oral bacteria was measured during intubation in patients undergoing major oral cancer surgery. The efficacy of the topical administration of tetracycline or povidone iodine gel in reducing the bacteria was then investigated. Bacteria in the oropharyngeal fluid grew from 10(6)CFU/ml to 10(8)CFU/ml during the 3h after intubation (CFU, colony-forming units). When tetracycline was applied to the dorsum of the tongue, oral bacteria decreased immediately to 10(5)CFU/ml, and the number of bacteria in the oropharyngeal fluid was maintained below 10(7)CFU/ml for 7h. The concentration of tetracycline in the oropharyngeal fluid was extremely high for several hours after topical administration. The topical administration of tetracycline could reduce oral bacteria in patients undergoing clean-contaminated oral cancer surgery. This method is expected to be effective in the prevention of SSI.

  15. A Longitudinal Acoustic Study of the Effects of the Radial Forearm Free Flap Reconstruction on Sibilants Produced by Tongue Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Rieger, Jana; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic properties of 980 tokens of sibilants /s, z, [approximately]/ produced by 17 Canadian English-speaking female and male tongue cancer patients were studied. The patients had undergone tongue resection and tongue reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap (RFFF). The spectral moments (mean, skewness) and frication duration were analysed…

  16. Fenofibrate Suppresses Oral Tumorigenesis via Reprogramming Metabolic Processes: Potential Drug Repurposing for Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Chia-Ing; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Chia Jen; Chang, Nai Wen

    2016-01-01

    One anticancer strategy suggests targeting mitochondrial metabolism to trigger cell death through slowing down energy production from the Warburg effect. Fenofibrate is a clinical lipid-lowering agent and an effective anticancer drug. In the present study, we demonstrate that fenofibrate provided novel mechanisms for delaying oral tumor development via the reprogramming of metabolic processes. Fenofibrate induced cytotoxicity by decreasing oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that was accompanied with increasing extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and reducing ATP content. Moreover, fenofibrate caused changes in the protein expressions of hexokinase II (HK II), pyruvate kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which are associated with the Warburg effect. In addition, fenofibrate reprogrammed the metabolic pathway by interrupting the binding of HK II to VDAC. In an oral cancer mouse model, fenofibrate exhibited both preventive and therapeutic efficacy on oral tumorigenesis. Fenofibrate administration suppressed the incidence rate of tongue lesions, reduced the tumor sizes, decreased the tumor multiplicity, and decreased the immunoreactivities of VDAC and mTOR. The molecular mechanisms involved in fenofibrate's ability to delay tumor development included the down-regulation of mTOR activity via TSC1/2-dependent signaling through activation of AMPK and inactivation of Akt, or via a TSC1/2-independent pathway through direct suppression of raptor. Our findings provide a molecular rationale whereby fenofibrate exerts anticancer and additional beneficial effects for the treatment of oral cancer patients. PMID:27313493

  17. Malignant Tumors of Tongue in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Bastani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of oral cancers varies from one country to another, which can be clarified by the difference in the distribution of the risk factors and the possible etiologies. Tongue is a main segment of oral cavity and malignant lesions of this region accounts for nearly 30% of all oral cancers. Objectives In the present study, we evaluated the pattern of tongue cancer in Iranian population and compared these findings with those previously reported in the other countries. Methods In this multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional study recorded cases of the malignant tongue tumors in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were extracted. The patient records and their microscopic reports were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic types were evaluated. It is to be noted that the CRC has been serving as a cancer registry center for major hospitals all over the country since the year of 2003. Thus, the obtained statistics are highly reliable. Results During the years 2003 to 2008, a total number of 952 new cases of the tongue cancer were recorded in the CRC. Most cases are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. 450 cases (47.2%) occurred in men and 489 cases (51.36%) in women. Four different types of malignant lesions (epithelial, salivary gland, hematopoietic and mesenchymal) were diagnosed. Epithelial tumors were the most prevalent malignancies (93%) of which squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) made up 87.39% of all lesions. Salivary gland tumors had the second place with 3.15% of the total lesions. Conclusions In Iranian population, squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent malignancy of tongue and it is notable that the ratio of female to male population was equal. These lesions were prevalent in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Thus screening examination of tongue by dentist especially in elderly patients is necessary for early detection of cancerous lesions. PMID:27761209

  18. TP53 gene expression in HPV-positive oral tongue SCC and its correlation with nodal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Seraj, Jalal Mehdizadeh; Yazdani, Nasrin; Ashtiani, Zahra Ousati; Seraj, Siamak Mehdizadeh; Hasheminasab, Sayed-Mohammad; Memar, Bahram; Mirashrafi, Fatemeh; Borghei, Hasti; Yazdani, Javad; Mostaan, Leila Vazifeh

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and TP53 expression in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and, subsequently, its significance in cervical lymph node metastases and tumor differentiation. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 94 histologically confirmed tongue SCC cases were investigated in this study. Immunohistochemistry was used to study TP53 expression, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the detection of high risk HPV types (16 and 18). The frequency of HPV-16 and HPV-18 infection was 10.6% and 16%, respectively. Overexpression of TP53 was observed in 70.2% of patients. Young patients (aged below 45 years) comprised 20% of all patients. There was no significant association between TP53, HPV-16, or HPV 18 presence and higher stages of the tumor, tumor differentiation, or presence of nodal metastasis. Although an association between head and neck SCC and HPV infection is being recognized and reported, our data implicate that HPV infection or TP53 expression does not play a significant role in oral tongue SCC pathogenesis, differentiation, or metastasis, as seen in our patients.

  19. Predictability of oral and laryngopharyngeal function for aspiration and limitation of oral intake in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Aere, Christina; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-08-01

    Swallowing disorders are common in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer. The clinical assessment of oral and laryngopharyngeal abilities is widely used as a dysphagia assessment tool in this patient group, despite a lack of research. The goal of this study was to assess the predictability of clinical parameters for aspiration and limitation of oral intake. A swallowing disorder with the need for further intervention was identified by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silently in 21%, and limited oral intake with tube dependency in 56% of studied patients. Four clinical parameters (dysglossia, wet voice, tongue motility, and tongue strength) correlated significantly with aspiration and limitation of oral intake. However, none of these clinical parameters was able to predict one of our two reference criteria, due to low positive likelihood ratios, mostly less than two. Clinical assessment is therefore inappropriate for early detection of swallowing disorders in such patients.

  20. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  1. Trends in oral cancer rates in Isfahan, Iran during 1991-2010

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Siadat, Sara; Rahbar, Pegah; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Shirani, Amir Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a variation in trends of oral cancers all over the world. Many investigations have reported evidence of an increasing incidence in oral cancers during recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate time trend and changes in demographic distribution of oral cancers incidence in Isfahan during 1991-2010. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective analytic study archive of Oral Pathology Department of School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 1991 to 2010 were reviewed. A total of 231 Pathology reports were analyzed. Age, sex, primary site, histologic type of cancer, and the referral year were recorded. Data were analyzed by using Jointpoint Regression Program 3 and SPSS 18. P value less than 0.05 consider as significant level. Results: Out of all malignancies, 55% were male and 45% were female. The most frequent cancer was squamous cell carcinoma. Comparing the two time intervals (1991-2000) and (2001-2010) showed that the ratio of carcinomas and salivary gland tumors had decreased while there was an increase in incidence of sarcomas and lymphomas. Among young persons, the occurrence of oral carcinomas (mostly SCC) is rare but sarcomas were more common in younger patients. Gingiva was the most frequently involved in oral cancers with (46%), followed by tongue with (18%). Conclusion : According to this study it revealed that some changes in trends of oral cancer have happened in Isfahan that calls for more study and evaluation of etiologies of these changes. PMID:23814568

  2. Decreased radiation doses to tongue with “stick-out” tongue position over neutral tongue position in head and neck cancer patients who refused or could not tolerate an intraoral device (bite-block, tongue blade, or mouthpiece) due to trismus, gag reflex, or discomfort during intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kil, Whoon Jong; Kulasekere, Christina; Derrwaldt, Ronald; Bugno, Jacob; Hatch, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess changes in oral cavity (OC) shapes and radiation doses to tongue with different tongue positions during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) but who refused or did not tolerate an intraoral device (IOD), such as bite block, tongue blade, or mouthpiece. Results Tongue volume outside of OC was 7.1 ± 3.8 cm3 (5.4 ± 2.6% of entire OC and 7.8 ± 3.1% of oral tongue) in IMRT-S. Dmean of OC was 34.9 ± 8.0 Gy and 31.4 ± 8.7 Gy with IMRT-N and IMRT-S, respectively (p < 0.001). OC volume receiving ≥ 36 Gy (V36) was 40.6 ± 16.9% with IMRT-N and 33.0 ± 17.0% with IMRT-S (p < 0.001). Dmean of tongue was 38.1 ± 7.9 Gy and 32.8 ± 8.8 Gy in IMRT-N and IMRT-S, respectively (p < 0.001). V15, V30, and V45 of tongue were significantly lower in IMRT-S (85.3 ± 15.0%, 50.6 ± 16.2%, 24.3 ± 16.0%, respectively) than IMRT-N (94.4 ± 10.6%, 64.7 ± 16.2%, 34.0 ± 18.6%, respectively) (all p < 0.001). Positional offsets of tongue during the course of IMRT-S was –0.1 ± 0.2 cm, 0.01 ± 0.1 cm, and –0.1 ± 0.2 cm (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral, respectively). Materials and Methods 13 patients with HNSCC underwent CT-simulations both with a neutral tongue position and a stick-out tongue for IMRT planning (IMRT-N and IMRT-S, respectively). Planning objectives were to deliver 70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 56 Gy in 35 fractions to 95% of PTVs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) recommended dose constraints were applied. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation and compared using the student t-test. Conclusions IMRT-S for patients with HNSCC who refused or could not tolerate an IOD has significant decreased radiation dose to the tongue than IMRT-N, which may potentially reduce RT related toxicity in tongue in selected patients. PMID:27447973

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  4. Co-occurrence of Dystonic and Dyskinetic Tongue Movements with Oral Apraxia in Post-regression Dysphagia in Classical Rett Syndrome Years of Life 1 Through 5.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Suzanne S; Taragin, Ben; Djukic, Alesandra

    2015-04-01

    We do not know the natural history of dysphagia in classical Rett syndrome (RTT) by stage or age. This study investigated swallowing physiology in 23 females ages 1:7 to 5:8 (years, months) with classical Rett syndrome to determine common and distinguishing features of dysphagia in post-regression early Pseudostationary Stage III. In-depth analysis of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) found dysmotility of oral stage events across subjects implicating oral apraxia. Impaired motility was further compromised by recurrent dystonic and dyskinetic movements that co-occurred with oral apraxia during oral ingestion in 78 % (n = 18) of the subjects with RTT. Of this group, 44 % displayed rocking and/or rolling lingual pattern, 56 % had recurrent oral tongue retroflexions, and/or elevated posturing of the tongue tip, and, 72 % displayed multi-wave oropharyngeal transfer pattern. The proportion of subjects whose swallowing motility was disrupted by aberrant involuntary tongue movements did not differ significantly between bolus types (liquid, puree, and solid) trialed. Liquid ingestion was significantly more efficient in subjects using bottles with nipples than their counterparts who used spouted or straw cups. Dystonic and dyskinetic tongue movements disrupted liquid ingestion in subjects using cups with spouts or straws significantly more than those using bottles. Analysis of food ingestion revealed that significantly more subjects were able to orally form, transport, and transfer a puree bolus into the pharynx than they were a solid bolus. A significantly larger number of subjects aspirated and penetrated liquid than they did puree or solid. No significant relationship was found between subjects with airway contamination and those with dystonic and dyskinetic tongue movements. Subjects' rocking and rolling lingual patterns were consistent with those evidenced in adults with Parkinson's disease. Subjects' tongue retroflexions were classified as provisionally

  5. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A; Almers, Lucy M; Cardwell, Chris R; Murray, Liam J; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-03-10

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder.

  6. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A.; Almers, Lucy M.; Cardwell, Chris R.; Murray, Liam J.; Abnet, Christian C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder. PMID:28281559

  7. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in epithelial cells in vivo: rare detection of EBV replication in tongue mucosa but not in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Frangou, Phroso; Buettner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2005-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted through saliva, but the cellular source is controversial. Putative reservoirs include oral epithelium and salivary glands. Tongue mucosal samples, salivary glands, and tongue carcinomas were studied, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, for evidence of EBV infection. EBV replication was seen in 1.3% of tongue mucosal samples. No latent infection was found at this site. EBV infection was detected neither in normal salivary glands nor in tongue carcinomas. Thus, EBV replication occurs infrequently in tongue epithelial cells, and salivary glands are unlikely to harbor EBV. EBV is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of tongue cancer.

  8. Cancer of the oral cavity - trends in Karachi South (1995-2002).

    PubMed

    Bhurgri, Yasmin

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to study the time trends in site-specific oral cancer incidence and to determine the age-and socio-economic profile over time in Karachi South. Oral cancer ranks second in this population, in both genders. The incidence is the highest reported worldwide. Incident oral cancer cases received at the Karachi Cancer Registry during 1(st) January 1995 to 30(th) June 2004 were reviewed. To ensure maximally complete data, cases registered between 1(st) January 1995 and 31(st) December 2002 were considered for the present study. Cases of lymphoma, leukemia and melanoma were not included. Trends were studied by grouping cases into two periods, 1995-1997 and 1998-2002. A total of 2253 cases of oral cancer were registered in Karachi South for the 8 year study period accounting for 8.8% of all cancer cases. Overall, the most common site was the mucosa cheek (55.9%), followed by the tongue (28.4%), palate (6.8%), gum (4.4%), lip (3.1%) and floor of the mouth (1.4%). About 30% of cases occurred in patients 40 years and younger and 23% occurred in patients 65 years and older. Sub-categories of oral cancer showed variation in trends, but an earlier onset of disease in period two was evident for all categories. The incidence of lip cancer in men decreased, the rates remained level in females. An increased incidence was observed for tongue, but a more dramatic increase in the cheek was evident in both sexes, despite no improvement during the past decade in detection of early, localized lesions. A strong socio-economic factor with a poorer, low literacy profile of oral cancer was apparent in the entire study period. The evidence that the largest increase in incidence has occurred in this population may unfavorably affect the mortality rates. Oral cancer trends are an interplay of prevalent risk factors, the level of prevalence, preventive education and intervention. Cost effective and efficient cancer control focused around the target populations would be beneficial

  9. How will I be after my operation for oral cancer?

    PubMed

    Kanatas, A; Singh, P; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

    2015-07-01

    Validated health-related quality of life measures for patients with oral cancer have been available for over a decade. We used the Liverpool head and neck cancer database to identify 1060 patients who had curative operations for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck at the regional maxillofacial unit between 1995 and 2010. We then produced one-page summary tables for subsites of oral cancer by stage and common treatments based on patient-reported outcomes from the University of Washington quality of life (UWQoL) head and neck cancer questionnaire. Data had been collected in a series of annual surveys. Sites included were buccal and retromolar (n=189), oral tongue (n=358), floor of the mouth (n=321), and other oral sites (n=192). A total of 633 patients completed at least one questionnaire (total 1931) between 9 and 60 months after treatment (71% of those alive at 9 months). Only questionnaires completed around 2 years from diagnosis or operation were analysed. Data include crude survival at 1, 2, and 5 years, the 12 UWQoL domains, which comprise the number of patients who chose the best 2 responses for each, overall health-related QoL, and the number who chose the worst responses (based on an algorithm). The data are sufficiently detailed to be used in discussions with patients about likely outcomes. They can help patients to make decisions about the type of treatment, provide a reference for realistic expectations, and enable them to be better informed when they give their consent.

  10. Feeding Arteries of Primary Tongue Cancers on Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Kawanami, Satoshi; Asayama, Yoshiki Matsuo, Yoshio Yonezawa, Masato Yamasaki, Yuzo; Nagao, Michinobu; Yamanouchi, Torahiko; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nakashima, Torahiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the frequency and the predictive factor of each feeding artery on intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) in primary tongue cancer.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 20 patients who received IAIC for primary tongue cancer. The main and accompanying feeding arteries were identified on super-selective angiography of the branches of the external carotid artery. Tumor diameter, and extension to the contralateral side, tongue extrinsic muscles (TEMs), and lateral mesopharyngeal wall were determined based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings.ResultsThe main feeding artery was the ipsilateral lingual artery (LA) in 15 of the 20 examined tumors and the contralateral LA in the other 5. Ten cancers had only one feeding artery, and multiple feeding arteries were detected in the remaining 10. Tumors >4 cm (n = 9), those with extension to the contralateral side (n = 13), and those with extension to TEMs (n = 15) were supplied by significantly larger numbers of feeding arteries compared to tumors without these features (P = 0.01, 0.049, and 0.02, respectively). The frequency of feeding from the contralateral LA was 64 % (9/14) and 17 % (1/6) in tumors with and without extension to the contralateral side, respectively. Feeding from a facial artery (FA) was not detected in tumors ≤4 cm, while 5 of the 9 (56 %) tumors >4 cm were supplied by a FA (P = 0.01).ConclusionA careful search for feeding arteries is required, especially in large tumors with extension to the contralateral side or to TEMs.

  11. Dissortativity and duplications in oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.

  12. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  13. PS2-37: Oral Cancer Information on the Web: Assessing the Quality and Content of English and Spanish Oral Cancer Websites

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jeannie Y; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Schleyer, Titus; Wali, Teena; Kerr, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: In the United States, about 8,000 people a year die from oral cancer and more than 30,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. A recent study showed that 80% of American adult Internet users have searched the Web for health information and 15% of those specifically searched for dental health information. Having high quality oral cancer information available via the Web is important given the significance of this health problem. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality and content of multiple English and Spanish oral cancer websites. Methods: We developed a search strategy using the keywords: oral cancer, mouth cancer, and tongue cancer to find oral cancer sites via Medline Plus, Google, and Yahoo. We then used the translations cancer oral, cancer de la boca, and cancer de la lengua to search Medline Plus en Español, Google Español, and Yahoo Telemundo. We added sites to the datasets based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two native speaking raters evaluated each site within their set for quality using the modified Information Quality Tool (IQT). We then developed a survey tool to asses the content of the sites. Two native speaking oral cancer experts evaluated each site within their set using this new tool. Results: Our search strategy produced 24 English language sites and 24 Spanish language sites for evaluation. English language websites had an average IQT score of 74.7 (out of 100) and average content score of 51.5 (out of 100). Spanish-language sites had an average IQT score of 48.8 and an average content score of 25.9. Conclusions: Despite higher scores for the English language websites, our analysis showed that there was a great variation in overall quality and content with room for improvement for both language types. English sites could make the biggest improvements by providing more information about their sponsors and who controls site content as well as updated and fixing links and author credentials. The Spanish sites should

  14. Applications of nanomedicine in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Virupakshappa, Banu

    2012-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes worldwide. The high mortality rate in cancer such as oral squamous cell carcinoma is commonly attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease at an early and treatable stage. New methods of nanoengineered materials that are being developed might be effective in detecting the disease at an early treatable stage and treating illnesses and diseases such as cancer. "Nanotechnology" refers to the handling and/or engineering of nano-objects on the scale of molecules. This review deals with some recent developments concerning cancer detection and treatment enabled by nanotechnologies.

  15. Mapping the tip of the tongue--deprivation, sensory sensitisation, and oral haptics.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Türk Pereira, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of food deprivation on oral and manual haptic size perception of food and non-food objects. From relevant theories (need-proportional perception, motivated perception, frustrative nonreward, perceptual defence, and sensory sensitisation) at least four completely different competing predictions can be derived. Testing these predictions, we found across four experiments that participants estimated the length of both non-food and food objects to be larger when hungry than when satiated, which was true only for oral haptic perception, while manual haptic perception was not influenced by hunger state. Subjectively reported hunger correlated positively with estimated object size in oral, but not in manual, haptic perception. The impact of food deprivation on oral perception vanished after oral stimulations even for hungry individuals. These results favour a sensory sensitisation account maintaining that hunger itself does not alter oral perception but the accompanying lack of sensory stimulation of the oral mucosa. Both oral and manual haptic perception tended to underestimate actual object size. Finally, an enhancing effect of domain-target matching was found, ie food objects were perceived larger by oral than by manual haptics, while non-food objects were perceived larger by manual than by oral haptics.

  16. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence. PMID:28053902

  17. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence.

  18. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  19. Expression of ER stress markers (GRP78/BiP and PERK) in patients with tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaira, K; Toyoda, M; Shimizu, A; Mori, K; Shino, M; Sakakura, K; Takayasu, Y; Takahashi, K; Oyama, T; Asao, T; Chikamatsu, K

    2016-01-01

    The glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/BiP) and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) plays a crucial role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. GRP78/BiP is highly elevated in various human cancers. Our study is to examine the clinicopathological significance of GRP78/BiP and PERK expression in patients with tongue cancer. A total of 85 tongue cancer patients were analyzed, and tumor specimens were stained by immunohistochemistry for GRP78/BiP, PERK, GLUT1, Ki-67 and microvessel density (MVD) determined by CD34.GRP78/BiP and PERK were highly expressed in 47% and 35% of all patients, respectively. GRP78/BiP disclosed a significant relationship with PERK expression, lymphatic permeation, vascular invasion, glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. The expression of GRP78/BiP was significantly higher in metastatic sites than in primary sites (79% vs. 47%, p=0.003). We found that the high expression of GRP78/BiP was proven to be an independent prognostic factor for predicting poor outcome in patients with tongue cancer. In the analysis of PFS, PERK was identified as an independent predictor. The increased GRP78/BiP expression was clarified as an independent prognostic marker for predicting worse outcome. Our study suggests that the expression of GRP78/BiP as ER stress marker is important in the pathogenesis and development of tongue cancer.

  20. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Malay; Nanavati, Ronak; Modi, Tapan G; Dobariya, Chintan

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.

  1. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  2. Molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment components suggests potential targets for new therapeutic approaches in mobile tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Dan; Salo, Tuula; Salo, Sirpa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Costea, Daniela Elena; Vered, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    We characterized tumor microenvironment (TME) components of mobile tongue (MT) cancer patients in terms of overall inflammatory infiltrate, focusing on the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes and on cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in order to determine their interrelations and associations with clinical outcomes. In addition, by culturing tongue carcinoma cells (HSC-3) on a three-dimensional myoma organotypic model that mimics TME, we attempted to investigate the possible existence of a molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Analysis of 64 cases of MT cancer patients revealed that the overall density of the inflammatory infiltrate was inversely correlated to the density of CAFs (P = 0.01), but that the cumulative density of the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes, including regulatory T cells (Tregs, Foxp3+), tumor-associated macrophages (TAM2, CD163+), and potentially Tregs-inducing immune cells (CD80+), was directly correlated with the density of CAFs (P = 0.01). The hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in a TME rich in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+ was 2.9 (95% CI 1.03–8.6, P = 0.043 compared with low in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+). The HR for recurrence in a TME rich in CAFs was 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–12.8, P = 0.012 compared with low in CAFs). In vitro studies showed cancer-derived exosomes, epithelial–mesenchymal transition process, fibroblast-to-CAF-like cell transdifferentiation, and reciprocal interrelations between different cytokines suggesting the presence of molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Collectively, these results highlighted the emerging need of new therapies targeting this crosstalk between the cancer cells and TME components in MT cancer. PMID:23342263

  3. Rational development of taste masked oral liquids guided by an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Woertz, Katharina; Tissen, Corinna; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2010-11-15

    Human taste testing is often associated with ethical concerns, organizational and validation issues. Electrochemical sensor array systems, so called electronic tongues, offer an alternative to assess the taste of multi-component liquid formulations. Therefore, it should be investigated how an electronic tongue can be implemented in the rational development of taste masked formulations. Taste masking of bitter tasting quinine hydrochloride (QH) in a liquid formulation was carried out by screening sweetening agents (sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol, sucralose, sodium saccharin, acesulfame potassium, and monoammonium glycyrrhizinate), strong and weak cation ion exchange (IE) resins (Amberlite™ IRP69, Amberlite™ IRP88, and Indion 234), and soluble complexing agents (α-, β-, hydroxypropyl-β-, sulfobutyl ether-β- and γ-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin). Amberlite™ IRP88 showed the best binding capacity for quinine (1.9 g quinine/1 g IE). The addition of sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) could significantly reduce the bitter taste of QH (79% reduction of free QH). The SBE-β-CD formulation was further improved by adding sodium saccharin as secondary taste masking agent. It could also be shown that presence of strawberry flavor and the preservative domiphen bromide does not affect evaluation of taste masking efficiency. The introduced stepwise approach was shown to be applicable to rationally develop novel taste masked formulations.

  4. Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

  5. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  6. Improving Oral Cancer Survival: The Role of Dental Providers

    PubMed Central

    MESSADI, DIANA V.; WILDER-SMITH, PETRA; WOLINSKY, LAWRENCE

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 2 percent to 4 percent of all cancers diagnosed each year in the United States. In contrast to other cancers, the overall U.S. survival rate from oral cancer has not improved during the past 50 years, mostly due to late-stage diagnosis. Several noninvasive oral cancer detection techniques that emerged in the past decade will be discussed, with a brief overview of most common oral cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:19998655

  7. Oral cancer: current and future diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Bagan, José V; Hopper, Colin; Epstein, Joel B

    2008-08-01

    Oral cancer is among the 10 most common cancers worldwide, and is especially seen in disadvantaged elderly males. Early detection and prompt treatment offer the best chance for cure. As patient awareness regarding the danger of oral cancer increases, the demand for "screening" is expected to increase. The signs and symptoms of oral cancer often resemble less serious conditions more commonly found and similarly usually presenting as a lump, red or white patch or ulcer. If any such lesion does not heal within 3 weeks, a malignancy or some other serious disorder must be excluded and a biopsy may be indicated. Dental health care workers have a duty to detect benign and potentially malignant oral lesions such as oral cancer and are generally the best trained health care professionals in this field. Prompt referral to an appropriate specialist allows for the best management but, if this is not feasible, the dental practitioner should take the biopsy which should be sent to an oral/head and neck pathologist for histological evaluation.

  8. Edema worsens target coverage in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of mobile tongue cancer: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Akiyama, Hironori; Takenaka, Tadashi; Masui, Koji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Uesugi, Yasuo; Shimbo, Taiju; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yoshioka, Hiroto; Arika, Takumi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Narumi, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We report our study on two patients to highlight the risk of underdosage of the clinical target volume (CTV) due to edema during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) of mobile tongue cancer. Material and methods To treat the lateral side of the CTV, flexible applicator tubes were implanted on the mouth floor. Two-dimensional planning was performed using X-ray images for Case 1, and three-dimensional (3D) planning was performed using computed tomography (CT) for Case 2. Prescribed doses for both cases were 54 Gy in nine fractions. Case reports Case 1 was treated for cancer of the right lateral border of the tongue in 2005. Tongue edema occurred after implantation, and part of the lateral border of the tongue protruded between the applicator tubes. Acute mucosal reaction abated in the protruded area earlier than in the other parts of the CTV. In this case, the tumor recurred in this area 5 months after the treatment. Case 2 was treated for cancer of the left lateral border of the tongue. Because tongue edema occurred in this case also, plastic splints were inserted between the applicator tubes to push the edematous region into the irradiated area. The mucosal surface of the CTV was covered by the 70% isodose, and 100% isodose line for before and after splint insertion. Local control of the tumor was achieved 4 years after treatment. Discussion and conclusions To ensure sufficient target coverage, 3D image-based planning using CT should be performed, followed by re-planning using repeated CT as needed. Also, the development of devices to prevent protrusion of the edematous tissue outside the target area will help to ensure the full dosing of CTV. PMID:28344606

  9. Notch pathway activation is essential for maintenance of stem-like cells in early tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ekjot; Aich, Jyotirmoi; Dani, Prachi; Sethunath, Vidyalakshmi; Gardi, Nilesh; Chandrani, Pratik; Godbole, Mukul; Sonawane, Kavita; Prasad, Ratnam; Kannan, Sadhana; Agarwal, Beamon; Kane, Shubhada; Gupta, Sudeep; Dutt, Shilpee; Dutt, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background Notch pathway plays a complex role depending on cellular contexts: promotes stem cell maintenance or induces terminal differentiation in potential cancer-initiating cells; acts as an oncogene in lymphocytes and mammary tissue or plays a growth-suppressive role in leukemia, liver, skin, and head and neck cancer. Here, we present a novel clinical and functional significance of NOTCH1 alterations in early stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Patients and Methods We analyzed the Notch signaling pathway in 68 early stage TSCC primary tumor samples by whole exome and transcriptome sequencing, real-time PCR based copy number, expression, immuno-histochemical, followed by cell based biochemical and functional assays. Results We show, unlike TCGA HNSCC data set, NOTCH1 harbors significantly lower frequency of inactivating mutations (4%); is somatically amplified; and, overexpressed in 31% and 37% of early stage TSCC patients, respectively. HNSCC cell lines over expressing NOTCH1, when plated in the absence of attachment, are enriched in stem cell markers and form spheroids. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of NOTCH activation by gamma secretase inhibitor or shRNA mediated knockdown of NOTCH1 inhibits spheroid forming capacity, transformation, survival and migration of the HNSCC cells suggesting an oncogenic role of NOTCH1 in TSCC. Clinically, Notch pathway activation is higher in tumors of non-smokers compared to smokers (50% Vs 18%, respectively, P=0.026) and is also associated with greater nodal positivity compared to its non-activation (93% Vs 64%, respectively, P=0.029). Conclusion We anticipate that these results could form the basis for therapeutic targeting of NOTCH1 in tongue cancer. PMID:27391340

  10. Tongue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. You also use it to speak. Your tongue is made up of many muscles. The upper surface contains your taste buds. Problems with the tongue include Pain Swelling ...

  11. Interstitial HDR brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in early stage mobile tongue cancers in young patients – Gliwice experience

    PubMed Central

    Białas, Brygida; Fijałkowski, Marek; Składowski, Krzysztof; Szlag, Marta; Cholewka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In early stage mobile tongue cancer radical radiotherapy offers good local control and organ preservation, which is especially important in the group of young patients. In our department, for many years HDR-BT has been performed in mobile tongue cancers as a sole treatment or as a “boost” with EBRT. The aim of the study was to show our experience with HDR-BT in early stage mobile tongue cancers among young patients. Material and methods From 2001 to 2006 in Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, five patients under 45 years with mobile tongue cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy (T1N0M0 – 3/5 and T2N0M0 – 2/5); 4 with HDR brachytherapy “boost” and 1 as a sole treatment. One woman was previously treated with tumour resection, but because of positive surgical margins was referred for radiotherapy. All patients had clinically negative lymph nodes, without dissection. They were treated with interstitial HDR-BT (3-8 catheters). In 4 patients treated with HDR-BT as a “boost”, total doses ranged from 18 to 21 Gy given in 6-7 fractions (twice a day, 3 Gy per fraction). Total doses in EBRT (to local lymph nodes and tumour bed) ranged from 50 to 60 Gy (1.8-2 Gy per fraction 5 days/week). One patient, treated with radical HDR brachytherapy, received 45 Gy in 10 fractions and 50 Gy in EBRT to regional lymph nodes. Results We did not notice local recurrences or distant metastases in our group of patients. Median follow-up was 67 months (range 47-79 months). All patients preserved normal tongue function. A severe late complication occurred in 1 patient – fracture of the mandible. Conclusions In the analysed group of young patients with mobile tongue cancer interstitial HDR brachytherapy in combination with EBRT was an effective and well tolerated treatment modality which allowed preservation of the tongue and its function. PMID:27829846

  12. Clinical outcome of surgical treatment of T1-2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue with observation for the neck: Analysis of 176 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hakeem, Arsheed Hussain; Pradhan, Sultan Ahmed; Kannan, Rajan; Tubachi, Jagadish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze various demographic, clinical, and histopathologic factors in T1-2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue to define a high-risk group for regional recurrence that will benefit from elective neck dissection. Materials and Methods: Retrospective outcome analysis of a patient cohort without palpable or ultrasound (USG) detectable nodal metastases undergoing per oral wide glossectomy for T1-2 N0 SCC of oral tongue. Patients were followed up using palpation and serial USG neck and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Results: Of the 176 patients, 69 (39%) showed recurrence during follow-up. Fifty-eight cases developed regional neck node metastases, i.e., overall regional node recurrence rate of 33%. Fifty-three (91%) with regional neck node metastases were salvaged successfully with further treatment. In 110 cases with tumor thickness more than 5 mm, 39% cases developed regional neck node metastases. This association was significant with P = 0.0402. Among 44 cases with perineural invasion, 54% developed regional neck node metastases. Similarly in 39 cases with lymphovascular invasion, 61% developed regional neck node metastases. Association of both of these parameters with the development of regional neck node metastases was significant. Conclusion: We recommend prophylactic selective neck dissection in early stage SCC of oral tongue, especially with depth of invasion more than 5 mm, perineural and lymphovascular invasion. PMID:28299264

  13. Effects of different general anaesthetic techniques on immune responses in patients undergoing surgery for tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Fan, Y; Liu, K; Wang, Y

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different general anaesthesia techniques on immune responses in patients undergoing surgery for tongue cancer. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2 patients undergoing elective reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer were randomised to three groups. Group 1 received propofol induction and maintenance (TIVA), group 2 received propofol induction and sevoflurane maintenance (MIXED) and group 3 received sevoflurane induction and maintenance (SEVO). All patients received an infusion of remifentanil. Blood samples were obtained at eight time-points: 30 minutes before induction (T0); one hour (T1), three hours (T2) and five hours (T3) after induction; at the end of the operation (T4); and 24 hours (T5), 48 hours (T6) and 72 hours (T7) after operation. The T lymphocyte subsets (including CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and CD3(+)CD8(+)cells) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, natural killer cells and B lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry. All immunological indicators except CD3(+)CD8(+) cells were significantly decreased in all groups at T1~T5 compared to T0 (P <0.05). The percentages of CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and natural killer cells, and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios were significantly lower in the MIXED groups and SEVO groups but not the TIVA group at T6 as compared with T0 (P <0.05). There were minor but statistically significant differences in the percentages of CD3(+) cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and natural killer cells, and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios between the SEVO group and the TIVA group at T2approxT6 (P <0.05). These findings suggest that propofol has slightly less effect on cellular immune responses than sevoflurane.

  14. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory ... History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers ...

  15. Human papillomavirus infection and oral cancer: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pintos, Javier; Black, Martin J; Sadeghi, Nader; Ghadirian, Parviz; Zeitouni, Anthony G; Viscidi, Raphael P; Herrero, Rolando; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk of developing oral cancer. The investigation followed a hospital-based case-control design. Cases consisted of newly diagnosed patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Controls were frequency matched to cases on gender, age, and hospital. Subjects were interviewed to elicit information on putative risk factors. Oral exfoliated cells were tested for detection of HPV DNA by the PGMY09/11 polymerase chain reaction protocol. Serum antibodies against HPV 16, 18, and 31 viral capsids were detected using an immunoassay technique. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of oral cancer according to HPV exposure variables. HPV DNA was detected in 19% of cases (14 out of 72), and 5% of controls (six out of 129). Among tonsil-related cancers (palatine tonsil and base of tongue) viral DNA was detected in 43% of cases (nine out of 21). The OR for tonsil-related cancers for high-risk HPV types was 19.32 (95%CI: 2.3-159.5), after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. The equivalent OR for HPV 16 seropositivity was 31.51 (95%CI: 4.5-219.7). The ORs of non-tonsillar oral cancers for high risk HPV DNA in oral cells and for seropositivity were 2.14 (95%CI: 0.4-13.0) and 3.16 (95%CI: 0.8-13.0), respectively. These results provide evidence supporting a strong causal association between HPV infection and tonsil-related cancers. The evidence for an etiologic link is less clear for non-tonsillar oral cancers.

  16. In Vitro Adherence of Oral Bacteria to Different Types of Tongue Piercings

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Julia Medeiros; Alves, Caroline Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify in vitro adherence of E. corrodens and S. oralis to the surface of tongue piercings made of surgical steel, titanium, Bioplast, and Teflon. For this, 160 piercings were used for the count of Colony Forming Units (CFU) and 32 piercings for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Of these, 96 (24 of each type) were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth and 50 μL of inoculum at 37°C/24 h. The other 96 piercings formed the control group and were individually incubated in 5 mL of BHI broth at 37°C/24 h. Plates were incubated at 37°C/48 h for counting of CFU/mL and data were submitted to statistical analysis (p value <0.05). For E. corrodens, difference among types of material was observed (p < 0.001) and titanium and surgical steel showed lower bacterial adherence. The adherence of S. oralis differed among piercings, showing lower colonization (p < 0.007) in titanium and surgical steel piercings. The four types of piercings were susceptible to colonization by E. corrodens and S. oralis, and bacterial adhesion was more significant in those made of Bioplast and Teflon. The piercings presented bacterial colonies on their surface, being higher in plastic piercings probably due to their uneven and rough surface. PMID:27725949

  17. Oral cancer in Libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A review

    PubMed Central

    BenNasir, E.; El Mistiri, M.; McGowan, R.; Katz, R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this paper are three-fold: (1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; (2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, (3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people. PMID:26644751

  18. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  19. Compensatory Mechanisms in Patients After a Partial or Total Glossectomy due to Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Halczy-Kowalik, Ludmiła; Wiktor, Andrzej; Rzewuska, Anna; Kowalczyk, Robert; Wysocki, Rościsław; Posio, Violetta

    2015-12-01

    Excision of a part or the whole of tongue due to oral cancer disturbs swallowing and speech. Lower airways aspiration of the swallowed bolus in patients after such oral structures excision is a symptom of major swallowing disorder and may be the cause of aspiration pneumonia. Restoration of oral nutrition is possible after exclusion or reduction of aspiration threat in the patients. Video fluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing performed at the beginning of the swallowing rehabilitation in 95 patients after a total or partial glossectomy due to oral cancer, who assessed their saliva swallowing as efficient on the day of examination, showed disturbances of all of the swallowing stages. The most common disturbances involved the oral stage: limited mobility of the oral tongue, impaired glossopalatal seal, and weak glossopharyngeal seal. The most serious among them involved pharyngeal stage of swallowing, as leakage into the larynx and aspiration. The patients used their own methods during barium suspension swallowing to facilitate the swallowing act. They used such methods as: changing the position of the head to the body, additional swallows, engaging the adjacent structures into sealing the oral fissure. We assumed that the compensatory mechanisms (CM) worked out by the patients before the swallowing examination will enable them efficient barium suspension swallowing. The CM were applied by 71 of 95 patients; 51 of the patients used more than one compensatory mechanism. Swallowing in 61 of the compensating patients was at least functional; swallowing in 10 of the compensating patients was non-efficient and caused recurrent aspiration. The results of our research negate the validity of multiple swallows (more than three) without apnea elongation because it may lead to aspiration. Aspiration was also recorded in patients with weak airways closure and immovable epiglottis, who complemented the impaired oral transport with gravitational oral transport by moving chin

  20. Tongue-Palate Contact Pressure, Oral Air Pressure, and Acoustics of Clear Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searl, Jeff; Evitts, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared articulatory contact pressure (ACP), oral air pressure (Po), and speech acoustics for conversational versus clear speech. They also assessed the relationship of these measures to listener perception. Method: Twelve adults with normal speech produced monosyllables in a phrase using conversational and clear speech.…

  1. A prospective cohort study on poor oral hygiene and pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaqi; Roosaar, Ann; Axéll, Tony; Ye, Weimin

    2016-01-15

    Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. We aim to assess this hypothesis, using number of teeth, dental plaque and oral mucosal lesions examined at baseline as a proxy for oral hygiene. During 1973-74 a population-based prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions was carried out in Uppsala County in central Sweden. We followed the study population through linkages with the Swedish Cancer and Total Population registers. A total of 19,924 participants were included, and 126 pancreatic cancer cases were identified during an average of 28.7 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall, subjects with fewer teeth at baseline tended to have an increased risk for pancreatic cancer, although the estimates were not statistically significant. Among subjects with more than 10 teeth, those with unacceptable dental plaque had an HR of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.7), compared with those without dental plaque after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Individuals with Candida-related or denture-related oral mucosal lesions, or tongue lesions, compared with those without any of the three studied lesions, had a 70, 30 and 80% excess risk of developing pancreatic cancer, respectively. Presence of more than one type of studied lesions further increased the risk for pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that poor oral hygiene plays an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer.

  2. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  3. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  4. Indian Council of Medical Research consensus document for the management of tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Cruz, Anil K.; Sharma, Shilpi; Agarwal, Jaiprakash P.; Thakar, Alok; Teli, Ashraf; Arya, Supreeta; Desai, Chirag; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sebastian, Paul; Verghese, Bipin T.; Kane, Shubhada; Sucharita, V; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, D. K.; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The document is based on consensus among the experts and best available evidence pertaining to Indian population and is meant for practice in India.Early diagnosis is imperative in improving outcomes and preserving quality of life. High index of suspicion is to be maintained for leukoplakia (high risk site).Evaluation of a patient with newly diagnosed tongue cancer should include essential tests: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is investigative modality of choice when indicated. Computed tomography (CT) scan is an option when MRI is unavailable. In early lesions when imaging is not warranted ultrasound may help guide management of the neck.Early stage cancers (stage I & II) require single modality treatment – either surgery or radiotherapy. Surgery is preferred. Adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated for T3/T4 cancers, presence of high risk features [lymphovascular emboli (LVE), perineural invasion (PNI), poorly differentiated, node +, close margins). Adjuvant chemoradiation (CTRT) is indicated for positive margins and extranodal disease.Locally advanced operable cancers (stage III & IVA) require combined multimodality treatment - surgery + adjuvant treatment. Adjuvant treatment is indicated in all and in the presence of high risk features as described above.Locally advanced inoperable cancers (stage IVB) are treated with palliative chemo-radiotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or symptomatic treatment depending upon the performance status. Select cases may be considered for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical salvage.Metastatic disease (stage IVC) should be treated with a goal for palliation. Chemotherapy may be offered to patients with good performance status. Local treatment in the form of radiotherapy may be added for palliation of symptoms.Intense follow-up every 3 months is required for initial 2 years as most recurrences occur in the first 24 months. After 2nd year follow up is done at 4-6 months interval. At each follow up

  5. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  6. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  7. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers.

  8. Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  9. Ketorolac salt is a newly discovered DDX3 inhibitor to treat oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sabindra K.; Routray, Samapika; Veeramachaneni, Ganesh Kumar; Dash, Rupesh; Botlagunta, Mahendran

    2015-01-01

    DDX3 belongs to DEAD box RNA helicase family and is involved in the progression of several types of cancer. In this work, we employed a High Throughput Virtual screening approach to identify bioactive compounds against DDX3 from ZINC natural database. Ketorolac salt was selected based on its binding free energy less than or equals to −5 Kcal/mol with reference to existing synthetic DDX3 inhibitors and strong hydrogen bond interactions as similar to crystallized DDX3 protein (2I4I). The anti-cancer activity of Ketorolac salt against DDX3 was tested using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. This compound significantly down regulated the expression of DDX3 in human OSCC line (H357) and the half maximal growth inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Ketorolac salt in H357 cell line is 2.6 µM. Ketorolac salt also inhibited the ATP hydrolysis by directly interacting with DDX3. More importantly, we observed decreased number of neoplastic tongue lesions and reduced lesion severity in Ketorolac salt treated groups in a carcinogen induced tongue tumor mouse model. Taken together, our result demonstrates that Ketorolac salt is a newly discovered bioactive compound against DDX3 and this compound can be used as an ideal drug candidate to treat DDX3 associated oral cancer. PMID:25918862

  10. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Русский) Oral Cancer English Рак полости рта - Русский (Russian) ... not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  11. Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yakin, Muhammed; Gavidi, Ratu Osea; Cox, Brian; Rich, Alison

    2017-03-03

    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco. Given the high prevalence of these two risk factors and their synergistic effect, it is important for doctors and dentists to encourage smoking cessation in smokers and to recommend judicious alcohol intake. Research is needed to determine the prevalence of use of oral preparations of tobacco and water-pipe smoking in New Zealand, especially due to changing demography and increases in migrant populations. UV radiation is also an important risk factor. Further investigations are also needed to determine the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to oncogenic HPV infection.

  12. Propolis in Dentistry and Oral Cancer Management

    PubMed Central

    S., Vagish Kumar L.

    2014-01-01

    Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer. PMID:25006559

  13. Simulation for training in oral cancer biopsy: A surgical model and feedback from GDPs

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; Diz, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe a new bench model for oral precancer/cancer biopsy training and to assess its effectiveness in terms of trainees’ perception. Study design: Cross-sectional, descriptive, performed on 424 general dental practitioners (GDP) who undertook biopsies on a pig tongue. The participants were assessed by direct observation for 2.5 hours using specific check-lists and by means of a self-applied questionnaire. Results: The workshop was perceived as “very interesting” even by those with previous surgical experience (Xi - Xj = 0.07; 95%CI= -0.20-0.09). Most GDPs considered themselves able to undertake oral biopsies on real patients after the workshop. Those who had previously received theoretical continuous education courses on oral biopsy scored higher values within the group (Xi - Xj = 0.20; 95%CI= 0.04-0.37). Conclusions: There is a need for including clinical abilities workshops when instructing on oral biopsy techniques. More studies are needed to validate the procedure and to address cognitive and communication skills. Key words:Models, animal, education, dental, continuing, biopsy, oral cancer, oral surgical procedures. PMID:23385492

  14. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory.

  16. Galectin-3 accelerates the progression of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma via a Wnt/β-catenin-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ping; Chen, Shu-Wei; Zhuang, Shi-Min; Li, Huan; Song, Ming

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and mechanism of action of galectin-3 in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Here, the expression of galectin-3 was quantified in OTSCC (n = 68) and paired OTSCC and normal surrounding tissues (n = 10) using immunohistochemical staining. Tca8113 OTSCC cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing galectin-3 cDNA or siRNA against galectin-3. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were measured using the MTT assay, Matrigel-coated Transwell migration assay and wound healing assay. The effect of galectin-3 on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated using a plasmid expressing the Wnt antagonist dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and Western blotting. Galectin-3 was expressed at significantly higher levels in OTSCC than the normal adjacent tissues; galectin-3 expression correlated strongly with pathological stage, pathological grade and lymph node invasion in OTSCC. Overexpression of galectin-3 promoted Tca8113 cell proliferation, migration and invasion, upregulated Wnt protein expression, activated β-catenin and induced the EMT; knockdown of galectin-3 had the opposite effects. Co-transfection of Tca8113 cells overexpressing galectin-3 with the Wnt antagonist DKK1 reduced the ability of galectin-3 to increase cell proliferation, migration and invasion, reduced upregulation of Wnt, inhibited β-catenin activation and abrogated the EMT, demonstrating that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediated the effects of galectin-3. Galectin-3 plays an important role in the progression of OTSCC via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  17. Identification of genes associated with tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yin; Fu, Dongna; Xu, Chengbi; Yang, Jingpu; Wang, Zonggui

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify genes associated with tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use. Microarray dataset GSE42023, including 10 tissue samples of tongue cancer from patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use (habit group) and 11 tissue samples of non-habit-associated tongue cancer (non-habit group), were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the habit and non-habit groups were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data software package. The enrichment functions and pathways of these genes were subsequently predicted using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Transcription factors (TFs) and tumor-associated genes (TAGs) were selected from the DEGs using the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements database and the TAG database, respectively. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for DEGs were constructed using Cytoscape. In addition, functional module analysis was performed using BioNet. This analysis identified 642 DEGs between the habit and non-habit groups, including 200 upregulated and 442 downregulated genes. The majority of upregulated DEGs were functionally enriched in the regulation of apoptosis and the calcium signaling pathway. The majority of downregulated DEGs were functionally enriched in fat cell differentiation and the adipocytokine signaling pathway. In addition, 31 TFs and 42 TAGs were identified from the DEGs. Furthermore, this analysis demonstrated that certain DEGs, including AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), E1A binding protein p300 (EP300), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) and epiregulin (EREG), had high connectivity degrees in the PPI networks and/or functional modules. Overall, DEGs in a functional module, such as AKT1, EP300, ERBB2 and EREG, may serve important roles in the development of tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use. These DEGs are

  18. Tongue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The tongue is mainly composed of muscles. It is covered with a mucous membrane. Small nodules of tissue (papillae) cover the upper surface of the tongue. Between the papillae are the taste buds, which ...

  19. Mortality in tongue cancer patients treated by curative surgery: a retrospective cohort study from CGRD

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Lai, Chia-Hsuan; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Kang, Chung-Jan; Chang, Geng-He; Tsai, Yao-Te; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Chien, Chih-Yen; Young, Chi-Kuang; Fang, Ku-Hao; Liu, Chin-Jui; Yeh, Re-Ming A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to compare the outcomes of surgical treatment of tongue cancer patients in three different age groups. Methods From 2004 to 2013, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 1,712 patients who were treated in the four institutions constituting the Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals (CGMH). We divided and studied the patients in three age groups: Group 1, younger (<65 years); Group 2, young old (65 to <75); and Group 3, older old patients (≥75 years). Results Multivariate analyses determined the unfavorable, independent prognostic factors of overall survival to be male sex, older age, advanced stage, advanced T, N classifications, and surgery plus chemotherapy. No significant differences were found in adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of death in early-stage disease (stage I–II) among Group 1 (HR 1.0), Group 2 (HR 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.87–2.34], p = 0.158), and Group 3 (HR 1.22, 95% CI [0.49–3.03], p = 0.664) patients. However, amongst advanced-stage patients (stage (III–IV)), Group 3 (HR 2.53, 95% CI [1.46–4.38], p  = 0.001) showed significantly worse survival than the other two groups after other variables were adjusted for. Fourteen out of 21 older old, advanced-staged patients finally died, and most of the mortalities were non-cancerogenic (9/14, 64.3%), and mostly occurred within one year (12/14, 85%) after cancer diagnosis. These non-cancer cause of death included underlying diseases in combination with infection, pneumonia, poor nutrition status, and trauma. Conclusions Our study showed that advanced T classification (T3–4), positive nodal metastasis (N1–3) and poorly differentiated tumor predicted poor survival for all patients. Outcome of early-stage patients (stage I–II) among three age groups were not significantly different. However, for advanced-stage patients (stage III–IV), the older old patients (≥75) had significantly worse survival than the other two patient groups. Therefore, for early

  20. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  1. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  3. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...

  4. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Asia in the past decade--an update (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    Krishna Rao, Sree Vidya; Mejia, Gloria; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Logan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of oral cancers (OC) is high in Asian countries, especially in South and Southeast Asia. Asian distinct cultural practices such as betel-quid chewing, and varying patterns of tobacco and alcohol use are important risk factors that predispose to cancer of the oral cavity. The aim of this review is to provide an update on epidemiology of OC between 2000 and 2012. A literature search for this review was conducted on Medline for articles on OC from Asian countries. Some of the articles were also hand searched using Google. High incidence rates were reported from developing nations like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Taiwan and Sri Lanka. While an increasing trend has been observed in Pakistan, Taiwan and Thailand, a decreasing trend is seen in Philippines and Sri Lanka. The mean age of occurrence of cancer in different parts of oral cavity is usually between 51-55 years in most countries. The tongue is the leading site among oral cancers in India. The next most common sites in Asian countries include the buccal mucosa and gingiva. The 5 year survival rate has been low for OC, despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol are the main reasons for the increasing incidence rates. Low socioeconomic status and diet low in nutritional value lacking vegetables and fruits contribute towards the risk. In addition, viral infections, such as HPV and poor oral hygiene, are other important risk factors. Hence, it is important to control OC by screening for early diagnosis and controlling tobacco and alcohol use. It is also necessary to have cancer surveillance at the national-level to collect and utilise data for cancer prevention and control programs.

  5. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in the mouse oral cavity: a potential new model for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Guttenplan, Joseph B; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Kun-Ming; Aliaga, Cesar; DelTondo, Joseph; Cooper, Timothy; Sun, Yuan-Wan; Zhang, Shang-Min; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; Ahn, Kwangmi; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2012-06-15

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a serious disease, affecting about 30,000 individuals in US annually. There are several animal models of oral cancer, but each has certain disadvantages. As a new model, we investigated whether topical application of the tobacco smoke carcinogen, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is mutagenic and carcinogenic in the oral cavity of the B6C3F1 lacI and B6C3F1 mouse, respectively. B6C3F1 lacI mice received DB[a,l]P (0, 3, 6, 12 nmol) 3× per week. B6C3F1 mice received the same doses and also 24 nmol. At 38 weeks mutagenesis was measured in oral tissues in lacI mice. For the high dose group, the mutant fraction (MF) in upper mucosa and tongue increased about twofold relative to that in vehicle-alone. The increases were statistically significant. The mutational profile in the DB[a,l]P-induced mutants was compared with that induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oral tissue. BaP is mutagenic in many tissues when administered by gavage. The mutational profile for DB[a,l]P was more similar to that reported for p53 mutations in head and neck cancers than was that of BaP. At 47 weeks, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were found in 31% of the high-dose B6C3F1 group. Elevations of p53 and COX-2 protein were observed in tumor and dysplastic tissue. As DB[a,l]P induces mutations and tumors in the oral cavity, and has a mutational profile in oral tissue similar to that found in p53 in human OSCC, the treatment protocol described here may represent a new and relevant model for cancer of the oral cavity.

  6. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Genden, Eric M.; Silver, Carl E.; Takes, Robert P.; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P.; Haigentz, Missak; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Rapidis, Alexander D.; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Rinaldo, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction have evolved significantly. Because of the profound functional and cosmetic importance of the oral cavity, management of oral cavity cancers requires a thorough understanding of disease progression, approaches to management and options for reconstruction. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most current management options for oral cavity cancers. PMID:20155361

  7. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  8. Speech Outcome in Oral Cancer Patients – Pre- and Post-operative Evaluation: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Gomathi; Ranganathan, Venkatesan; Gandhi, Anitha; Jaya, V

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The tongue plays a major role in articulation. Speech outcome depends on the site of lesion, extent of resection, and flexibility of the remaining structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the speech outcome measures such as sounds that are misarticulated and speech intelligibility and its connection to tumor site before and after surgery. Methodology: Totally, 24 (12 pre- and 12 post-operative patients) patients who had buccal and tongue cancer underwent speech intelligibility rating and articulation screening. Result: The results show that the speech outcome is worse in postoperative patients when compared to preoperative patients. The articulation errors produced by tongue cancer patients were more than the errors produced in buccal cancer patients. The type of reconstruction also affects the speech outcome. Conclusion: The perceptual analysis of oral cancer patients showed specific articulation issues and reduced intelligibility of speech in regards to site of lesion and type of reconstruction surgery. To reduce the speech errors, effective rehabilitation is recommended. A comprehensive speech evaluation and analysis of error patterns would help us in planning the rehabilitative measures of speech which is the most important factor in re-establishing interpersonal communication and well-being of the individual. PMID:27803574

  9. Oral sex, cancer and death: sexually transmitted cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We briefly highlight the growing body of recent evidence linking unprotected oral sex with the development of some types of head and neck cancer in younger patients. These tumours appear to be increasing in incidence although the development of more sensitive methods of HPV detection may be a confounding factor. PMID:22673108

  10. Role of Dental Profession in Oral Cancer Prevention and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Q A; Awan, K H

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of oral cancer is increasing worldwide. Malignant neoplasms of the mouth and pharynx have been rated as the 10th most common cancer in men and 7th in women, though geographical variations exist.(1)Generally, in a society, oral cancer is not properly understood. The sign and symptoms are frequently overlooked in the initial stages when it is responsive to treat.

  11. Oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy: from cancer treatment to survivorship.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Joel B; Thariat, Juliette; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Barasch, Andrei; Murphy, Barbara A; Kolnick, Leanne; Popplewell, Leslie; Maghami, Ellie

    2012-01-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Oral complications resulting from cancer and cancer therapies cause acute and late toxicities that may be underreported, underrecognized, and undertreated. Recent advances in cancer treatment have led to changes in the incidence, nature, and severity of oral complications. As the number of survivors increases, it is becoming increasingly recognized that the aggressive management of oral toxicities is needed to ensure optimal long-term oral health and general well-being. Advances in care have had an impact on previously recognized oral complications and are leading to newly recognized adverse effects. Here, the authors briefly review advances in cancer therapy, including recent advances in surgery, oral care, radiation therapy, hematopoietic cell transplantation, and medical oncology; describe how these advances affect oral health; and discuss the frequent and/or severe oral health complications associated with cancer and cancer treatment and their effect upon long-term health. Although some of the acute oral toxicities of cancer therapies may be reduced, they remain essentially unavoidable. The significant impact of long-term complications requires increased awareness and recognition to promote prevention and appropriate intervention. It is therefore important for the primary oncologist to be aware of these complications so that appropriate measures can be implemented in a timely manner. Prevention and management is best provided via multidisciplinary health care teams, which must be integrated and communicate effectively in order to provide the best patient care in a coordinated manner at the appropriate time.

  12. Evaluation of the Correlation between CD44, Tumor Prognosis and the 5-Year Survival Rate in Patients with Oral Tongue SCC

    PubMed Central

    Kaboodkhani, Reza; Karimi, Ebrahim; Khorsandi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Kowkabi, Safoura; Firouzifar, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani, Farzad; Yazdani, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: 90% of the tumors in the head and neck are squamous-cell carcinomas (HNSCC), which have overall 5- year survival rate between 50% -60%. CD44 has been shown to be associated with the prognosis. Materials and Methods: Biopsy specimens of 51 patients with oral tongue SCC were evaluated by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the CD44 antibody. Results: There was no significant correlation between CD44 and survival (P=0.77), age (P=0.4), CD44 and lymph node metastasis (P=0.87), sex (P=0.947), smoking (P=0.287) and tumor size (P=0.813). However, there was significant correlation between smoking and survival. Conclusion: There are widespread discrepancies among the findings in the literature regarding the prognosis of CD44 expression in OCSCC. Our study shows that the expression of CD44 is not a marker of aggressive behavior in oral tongue SCC. Consequently, CD44 cannot be considered as handy tool to establish the tumor behavior, prognosis and 5- year survival rate of these tumors. PMID:28008391

  13. Infectious and dietary risk factors of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the classic risk factors of oral cancer, namely alcohol and tobacco, other factors both infectious and environmental are thought to be associated with the development of oral malignancy. Infections in the oral cavity may be an important preventable cause of cancer. Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, chronic candidiasis, human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpesvirus infections link statistically with cancer but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Infections may trigger cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, interfere with cellular signaling mechanisms and up-regulate tumor promoters. In addition, several oral micro-organisms metabolize alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde thus explaining the association between poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and carcinogenesis. With regards to dietary factors the Mediterranean-type fruit and vegetable rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of oral cancer but the evidence is weak, the effect of individual food components and trace elements on carcinogenesis remains unclear at present.

  14. Evaluation of swallowing by Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with primary surgery.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Raghav C; St Rose, Suzanne; Chisholm, Edward J; Georgalas, Christos; Bisase, Brian; Amen, Furrat; Kerawala, Cyrus J; Clarke, Peter M; Nutting, Christopher M; Rhys-Evans, Peter H; Harrington, Kevin J; Kazi, Rehan

    2012-12-01

    This work aimed at evaluating patients' swallowing functions by a newly validated swallow-specific questionnaire, the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ), in a cohort of oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Mean/median SSQ scores were calculated and compared with study variables using the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean composite SSQ scores (SD) for the base of tongue, oral tongue, and tonsillar cancer patients were 663.8 (382.8), 456.2 (407.6), and 283.0 (243.1), respectively (p = 0.005); for advanced vs. early T stage disease they were 918.1 (319.5) vs. 344.8 (292.1) (p ≤ 0.001); for patients <60 years vs. ≥60 years they were 549.3 (415.1) vs. 314.0 (247.3) (p = 0.02); and for patients with reconstruction vs. without reconstruction they were 676.5 (410.5) vs. 331.9 (286.5) (p = 0.002). SSQ is a useful tool for evaluation of swallowing in head and neck cancer patients. Site of cancer, T stage, patient's age, and reconstruction directly affect post-treatment swallow outcome.

  15. Oral Cancer Malnutrition Impacts Weight and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients’ strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy. PMID:25825828

  16. Ethanol Promotes Chemically Induced Oral Cancer in Mice through Activation of the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yizhu; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xinyan; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for oral cancer in humans. However, previous animal studies on the promoting effect of ethanol on oral carcinogenesis were inconclusive. It is necessary to develop an animal model with which the molecular mechanism of ethanol-related oral carcinogenesis may be elucidated in order to develop effective prevention strategies. In this study, mice were first treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 100μg/ml in drinking water) for 8 weeks, and then given water or ethanol (8%) as the sole drink for another 16 weeks. During the experiment, 8% ethanol was well tolerated by mice. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) increased from 20% (8/41) to 43% (17/40; p<0.05). Expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) was increased in dysplasia and SCC of 4NQO-treated tongues, and further enhanced by ethanol. Using this mouse model, we further demonstrated that fewer cancers were induced in Alox5−/− mice, as were cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis in the tongue, as compared with Alox5+/+ mice. Interestingly, Cox-2 expression was induced by ethanol in knockout mice, while 5-Lox and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) expression and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis were dramatically reduced. Moreover, ethanol enhanced expression and nuclear localization of 5-Lox and stimulated LTB4 biosynthesis in human tongue SCC cells (SCC-15 and SCC-4) in vitro. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrated that ethanol promoted 4NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis, at least in part, through further activation of the 5-Lox pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:21881027

  17. Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug.

  18. Successful tongue cancer surgery under general anesthesia in a 99-year-old patient in Okinawa, Japan: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tessho; Nakasone, Toshiyuki; Matayoshi, Akira; Arasaki, Akira

    2016-09-01

    As advances in the medical field have resulted in increased life expectancy, performing surgery under general anesthesia in elderly patients has become an important issue. A 99-year-old Okinawan female was admitted to the hospital presenting with pain in the tongue. Following physical examination, a clinical diagnosis of early stage tongue cancer (T2N0Mx) was confirmed. Early stage tongue cancer is particularly easy to access for surgical resection. By contrast, later stages of tongue cancer are associated with pain, dysphagia and throat obstruction. The patient and their family agreed to surgery due to the worsening pain associated with the tumor and gave informed consent for surgery. Following consultation with a cardiologist and an anesthesiologist, the tongue tumor was surgically resected under general anesthesia. Subsequent to surgery, the patient experienced pain relief and was discharged from the hospital on day 14 post-surgery. The patient was able to maintain the same quality of life, and lived for 5 years and 2 months longer without evidence of disease, surviving to the age of 104 years old. The present case demonstrates that surgery under general anesthesia may be appropriate in patients of an advanced age, with a treatment plan that should ideally be based on careful assessment of the wishes of the patient and their family, medical risks, and benefits and economic costs of alternative treatments, in addition to consideration of the patient's culture.

  19. Smoking and smokeless tobacco-associated human buccal cell mutations and their association with oral cancer--a review.

    PubMed

    Proia, Nicole K; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Nasca, Maureen A Sullivan; Franke, Gail E; Pauly, John L

    2006-06-01

    Reported herein are the results of a structured literature review that was undertaken to (a) determine if human buccal (mouth) cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless ("chewing") tobacco, (b) tabulate different buccal cell alterations that have been reported, (c) delineate buccal cell assays that have been used successfully, (d) determine whether buccal cell changes correlate with oral cancer as defined in clinicopathologic investigations, and (e) assess the feasibility of developing a high-throughput buccal cell assay for screening smokers for the early detection of oral cancer. The results of the studies reported herein have established that diverse buccal cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco. This review documents also that buccal cells have been collected in a noninvasive manner, and repetitively for serial studies, from different sites of the mouth (e.g., cheek, gum, and tongue) and from normal tissue, preneoplastic lesions (leukoplakia), and malignant tumors. Tobacco-associated genetic mutations and nongenetic changes have been reported; a partial listing includes (a) micronuclei, (b) bacterial adherence, (c) genetic mutations, (d) DNA polymorphisms, (d) carcinogen-DNA adducts, and (e) chromosomal abnormalities. Clinical studies have correlated buccal cell changes with malignant tumors, and some oral oncologists have reported that the buccal cell changes are practical biomarkers. Summarily, the literature has established that buccal cells are useful not only for characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying tobacco-associated oral cancers but also as exfoliative cells that express diverse changes that offer promise as candidate biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer.

  20. MFAP5 and TNNC1: Potential markers for predicting occult cervical lymphatic metastasis and prognosis in early stage tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Wu, Kailiu; Li, Siyi; Hu, Longwei; Han, Jing; Zhu, Dongwang; Tian, Xuerui; Liu, Wei; Tian, Zhen; Zhong, Laiping; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Chenping; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-10

    The purpose of this study is to identify candidate genes that could predict prognosis of early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its occult cervical lymphatic metastasis by large-scale gene expression profiling. Tumor tissue and matched normal mucosa samples were collected from patients with TSCC and analyzed with Affymetrix HTA2.0 high-density oligonucleotide array. Differentially expressed genes in TSCC with cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) were further analyzed with Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes for their functions and related pathways. A total of 107 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) were identified by microarray in TSCC samples with CLNM (n = 6) compared to those without CLNM (n = 6). Genes involved in the cell-matrix adherens junction and migration function including MFAP5, TNNC1, MGP, FBFBP1 and FBXO32 were selected and validated by RT-PCR in TSCC samples (n = 32). Of the five genes, MFAP5 and TNCC1 expressions were further validated by immohistochemistry (n = 61). The significant positive correlation between MFAP5 and TNNC1 expression (p<0.001) was observed. Notably, over-expression of MFAP5 and TNNC1 were correlated with CLNM, metastasis relapse-free survival and overall survival. Our findings indicated that MFAP5 and TNNC1 may be potential markers for predicting occult cervical lymphatic metastasis and prognosis of oral tongue carcinoma.

  1. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization of Head and Neck Tumours: Tumours of the Oral Cavity and Mobile Tongue.

    PubMed

    Müller, Susan

    2017-03-01

    There have been several additions and deletions in Chapter 4 on Tumours of the oral cavity and mobile tongue in the 2017 fourth edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Head and Neck. This chapter excludes the oropharynx, which now is a stand-alone chapter acknowledging the uniqueness of the oropharynx from the oral cavity. New entries in Chapter 4 include rhabdomyoma, haemangioma, schwannoma, neurofibroma and myofibroblastic sarcoma in the section titled Soft tissue and neural tumours. Discussion of salivary gland entities have been reduced and includes mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma as the other salivary gland types are discussed elsewhere. In the Haematolymphoid tumours section, like the salivary gland section, only tumors that commonly present in the oral cavity are discussed in Chapter 4. Excluded entities in the updated classification include papillary hyperplasia, median rhomboid glossitis, keratoacanthoma, focal oral mucinosis, and secondary tumors. This article will summarize the changes in the new classification since the 2005 edition focusing on selected entities that have had significant changes along with new entries.

  2. Relationship between squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and the position of dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki-Yong; Kim, Soung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue has a relatively high incidence of all oral cancers. Some studies have reported a relationship between intraoral dental prosthesis and SCC of the tongue; however, this relationship remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SCC of the tongue and the positional aspects of dental prosthesis using a retrospective analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 439 patients with SCC of the tongue were diagnosed and treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Seoul National University Dental Hospital. Patients were treated over a 12.5-year period ranging from January 1, 2001 to June 30, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed to examine potential differences between the groups. RESULTS The number of patients with a crown and/or a bridge (134, 63.5%) was significantly different than the number of patients without a prosthesis (77, 36.5%). Even after accounting for different types of prostheses such as crowns, bridges, and dentures, no significant differences were observed between the position of the prosthesis and the location of the SCC of the tongue, with significance defined as a P-value less than .05 by the Pearson-Chi square test. CONCLUSION Patients with crowns and/or bridges exhibited more frequent SCC of the tongue compared with patients without these prosthesis. These data support the hypothesis that mechanical trauma and galvanic phenomena play a role in the etiology of SCC of the tongue. PMID:25932311

  3. Assessing oral cancer knowledge among Saudi medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Azzegahiby, Saleh; Alenzi, Faris Q; Idrees, Majdy

    2013-12-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p = 0.23) or gender (p = 0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted.

  4. Common tongue conditions in primary care.

    PubMed

    Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

    2010-03-01

    Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology.

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R. Zhung, Joanne E.; Gomez, Jennifer; Chan, Kelvin; Wu, Abraham J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Wong, Richard J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2000 and December 2006, 35 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent surgery followed by postoperative IMRT. The sites included were buccal mucosa in 8, oral tongue in 11, floor of the mouth in 9, gingiva in 4, hard palate in 2, and retromolar trigone in 1. Most patients had Stage III-IV disease (80%). Ten patients (29%) also received concurrent postoperative chemotherapy with IMRT. The median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 28.1 months (range, 11.9-85.1). Treatment failure occurred in 11 cases as follows: local in 4, regional in 2, and distant metastases in 5. Of the 5 patients with distant metastases, 2 presented with dermal metastases. The 2- and 3-year estimates of locoregional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 84% and 77%, 85% and 85%, 70% and 64%, and 74% and 74%, respectively. Acute Grade 2 or greater dermatitis, mucositis, and esophageal reactions were experienced by 54%, 66%, and 40% of the patients, respectively. Documented late complications included trismus (17%) and osteoradionecrosis (5%). Conclusion: IMRT as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection for oral cavity tumors is feasible and effective, with promising results and acceptable toxicity.

  6. Differential susceptibility to hydrogen sulfide-induced apoptosis between PHLDA1-overexpressing oral cancer cell lines and oral keratinocytes: role of PHLDA1 as an apoptosis suppressor.

    PubMed

    Murata, Takatoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Kamoda, Takeshi; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Kumazawa, Yasuo; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel gasotransmitter that plays multiple biological roles in various body systems. In addition to its endogenous production, H2S is produced by bacteria colonizing digestive organs, including the oral cavity. H2S was previously shown to enhance pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cell lines, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. To properly assess the anti-cancer effects of H2S, however, investigations of apoptotic effects in normal cells are also necessary. The aims of this study were (1) to compare the susceptibility to H2S-induced apoptosis between the oral cancer cell line Ca9-22 and oral keratinocytes that were derived from healthy gingiva, and (2) to identify candidate genes involved in the induction of apoptosis by H2S. The susceptibility to H2S-induced apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells was significantly higher than that in keratinocytes. H2S exposure in Ca9-22 cells, but not keratinocytes, enhanced the expression of pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1), which was identified through a differential display method. In addition, PHLDA1 expression increased during actinomycin D-induced apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells. Knockdown of PHLDA1 expression by small interfering RNA in Ca9-22 cells led to expression of active caspase 3, thus indicating apoptosis induction. The tongue cancer cell line SCC-25, which expresses PHLDA1 at a high level, showed similar effects. Our data indicate that H2S is an anti-cancer compound that may contribute to the low incidence of oral cancer. Furthermore, we demonstrated the role of PHLDA1 as an apoptosis suppressor.

  7. Differential spheroid formation by oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carlin; Lee, Casey; Atakilit, Amha; Siu, Amanda; Ramos, Daniel M

    2014-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) make up 96% of all oral cancers. Most laboratory SCC studies grow cells as a monolayer, which does not accurately represent the disease in vivo. We used a more relevant multicellular spheroid (MCS) model to study this disease. The SCC9β6KDFyn cell line, which expresses full-length β6 and a kinase dead Fyn formed the largest MCS. Cell adhesive properties are dynamic and N-cadherin was increased in the largest MCS. c-Raf mediates the survival of tumor cells and was consistently expressed both in monolayers and in the MCS by SCC9β6D1 cells which lack the β6 cytoplasmic tail and, do not activate Fyn. SCC9β6KDFyn cells also express high levels of c-Raf when grown as spheroids in which Fyn suppression stimulates MCS formation. Tumor microenvironment and growth patterns modulate cell behavior and suppression of Fyn kinase may promote MCS growth.

  8. Integrated analysis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma identifies key variants and pathways linked to risk habits, HPV, clinical parameters and tumor recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Neeraja; Gupta, Saurabh; Palve, Vinayak; Varghese, Linu; Pattnaik, Swetansu; Jain, Prach; Khyriem, Costerwell; Hariharan, Arun; Dhas, Kunal; Nair, Jayalakshmi; Pareek, Manisha; Prasad, Venkatesh; Siddappa, Gangotri; Suresh, Amritha; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni; Panda, Binay

    2015-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC) are a homogeneous group of tumors characterized by aggressive behavior, early spread to lymph nodes and a higher rate of regional failure. Additionally, the incidence of OTSCC among younger population (<50yrs) is on the rise; many of whom lack the typical associated risk factors of alcohol and/or tobacco exposure. We present data on single nucleotide variations (SNVs), indels, regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and copy number variations (CNVs) from fifty-paired oral tongue primary tumors and link the significant somatic variants with clinical parameters, epidemiological factors including human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and tumor recurrence. Apart from the frequent somatic variants harbored in TP53, CASP8, RASA1, NOTCH and CDKN2A genes, significant amplifications and/or deletions were detected in chromosomes 6-9, and 11 in the tumors. Variants in CASP8 and CDKN2A were mutually exclusive. CDKN2A, PIK3CA, RASA1 and DMD variants were exclusively linked to smoking, chewing, HPV infection and tumor stage. We also performed a whole-genome gene expression study that identified matrix metalloproteases to be highly expressed in tumors and linked pathways involving arachidonic acid and NF-k-B to habits and distant metastasis, respectively. Functional knockdown studies in cell lines demonstrated the role of CASP8 in a HPV-negative OTSCC cell line. Finally, we identified a 38-gene minimal signature that predicts tumor recurrence using an ensemble machine-learning method. Taken together, this study links molecular signatures to various clinical and epidemiological factors in a homogeneous tumor population with a relatively high HPV prevalence. PMID:26834999

  9. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizen, S. )

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  10. Effects of Tongue Strength Training and Detraining on Tongue Pressures in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong-Chi

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effect of tongue strengthening training and long-term detraining on tongue tip pressure, tongue base pressure, and tongue pressure during effortful swallowing. Ten young healthy volunteers (21-35 years) were participated in this study. Participants received 8-week tongue strengthening exercise 3 days a week with each session lasting 30 min. Measurement of tongue pressure and tongue strengthening exercise were administrated using Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Training intensity was applied at 60 and 80% of maximal tongue pressure for the first week and the remainder, respectively. Following completion of 8-week training, 28 weeks of detraining period was continued. Training increased tongue tip pressure, tongue base pressure, and tongue pressure during effortful swallowing above pre-training values (p < 0.05). After 28-week detraining, all tongue variables were significantly lower than after 8-week training (p < 0.05) but remained significantly higher than pre-training levels (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that high-intensity tongue strengthening exercise can improve tongue pressures. However, training effects were diminished gradually during detraining period. Thus, maintenance programs after strengthening exercise would be required for prolonging training effects.

  11. Significance of DNMT3b in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen; Lin, Paul-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore specific molecular markers that could lead to new insights into the identification of innovative treatments. The role of DNMT3b and its predictive power in the prognosis of oral cancer were identified. Human oral cancer cell lines including SCC4 and SCC25 were selected for cellular experiments. Changes in tumor growth, aggressiveness and the responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, 125 oral cancer tissue specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarray slides, and correlations calculated between the level of DNMT3b and the clinical outcome of patients. Our data revealed that inhibition of DNMT3b resulted in slower tumor growth, attenuated tumor invasion ability and epithelial mesenchymal transition, as determined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Activated IL-6 signaling might be responsible to the induction of DNMT3b overexpression on oral cancer. Regarding clinical data, the incidence of DNMT3b immunoreactivity in oral cancer specimens was significantly higher than in non-malignant epithelium, and positively linked to expression of IL-6. Furthermore, expression of DNMT3b was significantly linked with the risk of lymph node involvement, disease recurrence and shorter survival in patients with pathological stage III-IV oral cancer. In conclusion, IL-6 -DNMT3b axis could be used to predict the prognosis of oral cancer in clinics, and targeting DNMT3b could represent a promising treatment strategy.

  12. Predicting Scheduling and Attending for an Oral Cancer Examination

    PubMed Central

    Shepperd, James A.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and pharyngeal cancer is highly treatable if diagnosed early, yet late diagnosis is commonplace apparently because of delays in undergoing an oral cancer examination. Purpose We explored predictors of scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination among a sample of Black and White men who were at high risk for oral cancer because they smoked. Methods During an in-person interview, participants (N = 315) from rural Florida learned about oral and pharyngeal cancer, completed survey measures, and were offered a free examination in the next week. Later, participants received a follow-up phone call to explore why they did or did not attend their examination. Results Consistent with the notion that scheduling and attending an oral cancer exam represent distinct decisions, we found that the two outcomes had different predictors. Defensive avoidance and exam efficacy predicted scheduling an examination; exam efficacy and having coping resources, time, and transportation predicted attending the examination. Open-ended responses revealed that the dominant reasons participants offered for missing a scheduled examination was conflicting obligations, forgetting, and confusion or misunderstanding about the examination. Conclusions The results suggest interventions to increase scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination. PMID:26152644

  13. Your Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... taste buds , so you can taste everything from apples to zucchini! People are born with about 10, ... onion slice under your nose while eating an apple. What do you taste? Your tongue also gets ...

  14. Tongue problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple) tongue: Folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency Pellagra Pernicious anemia Plummer-Vinson syndrome Sprue Possible causes ... micrognathia Down syndrome Hypothyroidism Infection Leukemia ... Pernicious anemia Strep infection Tumor of the pituitary ...

  15. Tongue tie

    MedlinePlus

    ... this band is overly short and thick. The exact cause of tongue tie is not known. Your ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  16. Geographic tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a long time. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if the symptoms last longer than 10 days. Seek immediate medical help if: You have breathing problems. Your tongue ...

  17. Optical screening of oral cancer: technology for emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Naik, Sarif Kumar; Gupta, Lalit; Mittal, Chetan; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Rath, Satish Prasad; Santhosh, C; Pai, Keerthilatha M

    2007-01-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. It is one of the most prevalent cancers in the developing countries of South Asia accounting for one third of the world burden. Sixty percent of the cancers are advanced by the time they are detected. Two methods of optical spectroscopy for detection of oral cancer have been discussed here. These methods are simple, easy to handle and non-invasive. The evaluation of the data is done automatically using pattern recognition techniques, making the screening subjective.

  18. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  19. [Evaluation of a combination chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-FU for oral cancers].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, G; Shimada, T; Nishida, T; Ishida, Y; Iba, T; Nakata, T; Ohtsuki, T; Takigami, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshitake, K; Tanaka, A; Tsuda, Y

    2001-08-01

    Nedaplatin (cis-diammine-glycolato platinum: CDGP) is a platinum compound with a molecular weight of 303.18 that was recently developed in Japan. There have been reports of the antineoplastic effects of Nedaplatin on cancers in the cranio-cervical region, lung, esophagus, urinary bladder, testis, ovary, and uterus. In this study, we performed combined therapy of CDGP and fluorouracil (5-FU) for 8 patients with oral cancers, and evaluated the results to elucidate the clinical effect and adverse side effects. The subjects were 8 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (5 males and 3 females aged 33-65 years). The primary carcinoma regions were the tongue in 5 patients, oral floor in 2 patients, and mandibular gingiva in 1 patient. The T-classification was T2 in 6 patients and T4 in 2 patients, and the clinical staging was Stage II in 5 patients, Stage III in 1 patient and Stage IV in 2 patients. We first administered 700 mg/m2 5-FU per day from day 1 to day 5 (total dose 3,500 mg/m2), then 90 mg/m2 CDGP on day 5. The clinical effect was evaluated as a partial response in all cases, showing a 100% success rate. The histopathological findings of resected tumors were evaluated by Ohboshi and Shimozato's classification. One patient was Grade IIA, 5 patients Grade IIB, and 2 patients Grade III. The adverse side effects were slight myelotoxicity, gagging, nausea, alopecia, and stomatitis less than Grade II. Although the oral cancers in this study were extroverted superficial ulcerative cancers, and the number of patients was low at 8, this combined therapy is considered useful and worth evaluating in further accumulated cases.

  20. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  1. Preoperative oral health care reduces postoperative inflammation and complications in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111

  2. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Sunitha, J.; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the “role” that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology. PMID:26538877

  3. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    PubMed

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue.

  4. [Study on the oral hygiene of patients with oral cavity cancer].

    PubMed

    Bratoĭcheva, M St; Kondeva, V K

    2008-01-01

    Many authors consider oral hygiene an important factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of oral cavity cancer. The aim of the present study was to establish the role of poor oral hygiene in the development of malignant lesions in the oral cavity. One hundred and three patients were interviewed. Questions, regarding oral hygiene were included in the interview. Results showed that 53,80% of urban residents brush their teeth twice daily whereas 65,52% of rural residents brush their teeth irregularly - p<0,001 (chi(2)=23,67). 46,88% of women clean their teeth twice daily. 46,94% of men do not maintain adequate oral hygiene - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 9,21). Regarding the brush, it was found out that 56,00% of females use a hard bristle toothbrush, the same refers to 28,04% of men - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 4,15). Hard bristle toothbrush was used by 48,88% of urban residents and 9,09% of rural residents - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 5,78). People up to 30 years of age use hard bristle toothbrush most often -39,13% - p<0,01 (chi(2)=12,26). The accumulated evidence provides further explanation why oral cavity cancer is more frequent in men, rural residents and in the elderly. Oral hygiene is a factor in the development of oral cavity cancer.

  5. Oral cancer, HPV infection and evidence of sexual transmission

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hernández, Juan G.; Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; del Romero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and oral cancer is growing worldwide, both in young non-smokers and in young non-drinkers (smoking and drinking are considered the main risk factors). Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong association between the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 and 18 (high oncological risk) which have already demonstrated their etiological role in anal tumours as well as in cervix cancer. There is clear epidemiologic evidence that both types of tumours relate to changes in sexual behaviour and that both are linked to sexual transmission of HPV. The number of oral and oropharyngeal cancer cases is rising nowadays, especially among young individuals with no typical toxic habits, such as tobacco and/or alcohol. In this review we set out to update the aspects related to the onset of oral cancer, its relationship with HPV infection and whether this association may be due to the sexual transmission of the virus. Key words:Human papillomavirus, oral sex, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:23524417

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in Nonsmoking Women: A New and Unusual Complication of Chemotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Dominic W.; Hirsch, David; Delacure, Mark; Downey, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R.; Bannan, Michael; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Safra, Tamar; Muggia, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe occurrences of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients who had received long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods. In our cohort of patients on maintenance PLD for ovarian and related mullerian epithelial malignancies, we encountered two patients with invasive SCC of the oral cavity (one of them multifocal) and one with high-grade squamous dysplasia. Review of patients at our institution receiving PLD for recurrent ovarian cancer identified three additional patients. The duration of treatment, cumulative PLD dose, human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity, BRCA status, stage at diagnosis, outcome, and other characteristics are reviewed. Results. All five cases were nonsmokers with no known risk factors for HPV and four were negative for p16 expression. Four of the patients had known BRCA mutations whereas one tested negative. Cumulative doses of PLD were >1,600 mg/m2 given over 30–132 months. Three had SCCs staged as T1N0 oral tongue, alveolar ridge (gingival), and multifocal oral mucosa; one had a T2N0 oral tongue; and one had dysplasia. After excision, two were given radiation but recurred shortly thereafter; the others remain well and have had no further exposure to cytotoxic drugs, including PLD. Conclusion. Awareness of this possible long-term complication during PLD treatment should enhance the likelihood of early detection of oral lesions in these patients. Decisions to continue maintenance PLD after complete response of the original cancer should perhaps consider the benefits of delaying ovarian cancer recurrence versus the possible risk for a secondary cancer. PMID:22622148

  7. Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit migration and invasion in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells through the inhibition of gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Weng, Shu-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-05-01

    Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein are major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), used in Chinese herbal medicine, and found to have antitumor properties including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous studies also showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. However, the detail regarding emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein affecting migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are not clear. In the present study, we investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibited migration and invasion of SCC-4 cells. Herein, we demonstrate that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit the protein levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) but did not affect gene expression of MMP-2, however, they inhibited the gene expression of MMP-9 and all also inhibited the migration and invasion of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. MMP-9 (gelatinase-B) plays an important role and is the most associated with tumor migration, invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. Results from zymography and Western blotting showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein treatment decrease the levels of MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of inhibition of associated protein levels and gene expression of migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are emodin >aloe-emodin >rhein. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit tongue cancers. In conclusion, these findings suggest that molecular targeting of MMP-9 mRNA expression by emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein might be a useful strategy for chemo-prevention and/or chemo-therapeutics of tongue cancers.

  8. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726–0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  9. Tyrrhena Tongue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    23 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a tongue of debris at the base of the wall of a large crater in Terra Tyrrhena. The tongue is the combined product of landsliding and emplacement of crater ejecta-a 3 km (1.9 mi) wide impact crater formed on the rim of the larger crater and, when it did, it caused the movement which created the tongue. About one third of the crater that caused this can be seen near the southwest (lower left) corner of the image.

    Location near: 21.1oS, 270.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    PubMed

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  11. New method for evaluation of tongue-coating status.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Ueda, T; Sakurai, K

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Tongue Coating Index, which is a new method for evaluating tongue-coating status. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of our new evaluation criteria (Score 0: Tongue coating not visible; Score 1: Tongue coating thin, papillae of tongue visible; Score 2: Tongue coating very thick, papillae of tongue not visible), 10 observers evaluated 20 photographs of tongues. Each tongue surface was divided into nine sections. Observers evaluated each section according to our new criteria and each score for tongue-coating status was recorded in the pertinent section of the Tongue Coating Record form. They repeated the same evaluation 2 weeks after the first evaluation. The relationship between the scores obtained and number of oral microorganisms was investigated in 50 edentulous patients. Tongue coating was collected from the tongue surface after evaluation of tongue-coating status. The total number of anaerobic bacteria and the number of Candida species were counted from the specimens collected. Interobserver agreement and intraobserver agreement were 0.66 and 0.80 by Cohen's kappa, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the number of Candida species among the three scores. The number of total anaerobic bacteria, however, was significantly different among the scores (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that our method for evaluating tongue-coating status offers new criteria that are superior in reliability and reproducibility, and that also reflect the total number of anaerobic bacteria present on the dorsum of the tongue.

  12. Oral cavity cancer risk in relation to tobacco chewing and bidi smoking among men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India: Karunagappally cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Gangadharan, Paleth; Akiba, Suminori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Nair, Raghu Ram K

    2011-02-01

    The Karunagapally cohort in Kerala, India was established in the 1990s. The present study examined oral cancer risk among 66,277 men aged 30-84 years in the cohort, using Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, stratified on attained age, calendar time, education, and family income. By the end of 2005, 160 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagapally Cancer Registry. Tobacco chewing increased oral cancer risk (P < 0.001). Particularly increased was the risk of cancers of the gum and mouth (relative risk [RR] = 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8-7.9), which increased with higher daily frequencies (P < 0.001) and longer duration (P < 0.001) of tobacco chewing. Alcohol drinking was not significantly related to oral cancer risk regardless of tobacco chewing. Bidi smoking significantly increased oral cancer risk (RR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.4-4.9) only among men without tobacco chewing habits. The risk increased with higher daily consumption (P < 0.001), longer duration (P = 0.001), and younger age at start of bidi smoking (P = 0.007). In location-specific analysis, bidi smoking was significantly associated with cancer of the gum and mouth (RR = 3.6; 95%CI = 1.1-12.1), and its risk significantly increased with larger daily consumption of bidis (P = 0.013) and younger age at the start of smoking (P = 0.044). Tongue cancer risk was significantly increased among men who smoked bidis for 30 years or longer, and men started bidi smoking at 18 years old or younger. The present study is the first cohort study showing that tobacco chewing increases cancers of the gum and mouth among men keeping chewing tobacco in the cheek, and that bidi smoking strongly increased oral cancer risk among men without a tobacco chewing habit.

  13. Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Catherine Hy; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

    2010-01-01

    Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig's angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk.

  14. Oral cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Zheng, Rongshou; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To descript the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer among Chinese population in 2011, and provide valuable data for oral cancer prevention and research. Methods Data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributed in 28 provinces were accepted for this study after evaluation based on quality control criteria, covering a total of 175,310,169 populations and accounting for 13.01% of the overall national population in 2011. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area, gender and age groups. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. The Chinese population in 2000 and World Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates. Results The estimate of new cases diagnosed with oral cancer was 39,450 including 26,160 males and 13,290 females. The overall crude incidence rate for oral cancer was 2.93/100,000. The age-standardized rates by China (ASRCN) population and by World population (ASRwld) were 2.22/100,000 and 2.17/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative incidence rate was 0.25%. The estimated number of oral cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 16,933, including 11,794 males and 5,139 females. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.26/100,000, accounting for 0.80% of all cancer deaths. The ASRCN and ASRwld for mortality were 0.90/100,000 and 0.89/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 0.10%. The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer were much higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. In addition, the incidence and mortality rates were increased by the raising of ages. Conclusions Results in the study may have important roles for oral cancer prevention and research. Although oral cancer burden of China is not high, we must pay attention to this malignancy as well. In addition, further researches need to be done for

  15. Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products.

    PubMed

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9), of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0) and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4), and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7) and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8) indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer.

  16. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Stefano

    2009-01-30

    The World Health Organization has clearly identified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increase our ability to differentiate between benign abnormalities and dysplastic/malignant changes as well as to identify areas of dysplasia/early OSCC that are not visible to naked eye. These include the use of toluidine blue, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. The present paper reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of the aforementioned techniques in improving the identification of dysplastic/malignant changes of the oral mucosa. We conclude that available studies have shown promising results, but strong evidence to support the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids is still lacking. Further research with clear objectives, well-defined population cohorts, and sound methodology is strongly required.

  17. Speech after Radial Forearm Free Flap Reconstruction of the Tongue: A Longitudinal Acoustic Study of Vowel and Diphthong Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Rieger, Jana; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use acoustic analyses to describe speech outcomes over the course of 1 year after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction of the tongue. Eighteen Canadian English-speaking females and males with reconstruction for oral cancer had speech samples recorded (pre-operative, and 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year…

  18. [Superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil for head and neck cancer--for tongue cancer patients in comparison patients with other therapies].

    PubMed

    Furusaka, Tohru

    2006-09-01

    In order to cure head and neck cancer without resection, chemotherapy (superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy with DCF) was conducted by anterograde, superselective intra-arterial infusion of 50-60 mg/m(2) of DOC and 50-60 mg/m(2) of CDDP via the femoral artery on day 1 followed by continuous intravenous instillation of 600-750 mg/m(2)/day of 5-FU for 5 days from day 2. A total of 70 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the head and neck have been treated since April 2000. With the median follow-up duration of 1,017 days, the survival rate was 92.7% and the organ preservation rate was 90.1%. Almost no complications associated with this therapy were observed. Due to space limitations, here we report only cases of tongue cancer. Histological CR was obtained from all 19 patients with squamous cell cancer of the tongue. With the median follow-up duration of 1,371 days (45.7 months: 471-2, 133 days), the survival rate was 94.74% and the organ preservation rate was 88.42% by the Kaplan-Meier method. For both the survival rate and organ preservation rate, extremely good results were obtained by the superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy with DCF compared to the intravenous infusion therapy using a combination of CDDP and 5-FU (five-year survival rate: 20%) as well as the superselective intra-arterial infusion of CDDP alone followed by continuous intravenous infusion of 5-FU (five year survival rate: 28.5%) that had been conducted before. Major adverse effects observed were leukopenia and alopecia. Although patients who underwent concurrent radiation therapy developed mucositis and dermatitis, both were reversible changes.

  19. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a diagnostic and treatment quandary.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, L A

    1999-04-01

    The tongue is an important oral structure that affects speech, the position of teeth, periodontal tissue, nutrition, swallowing, nursing, and certain social activities. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) limits the range of motion of the tongue, impairing its ability to fulfill its functions. In this article, diagnostic criteria needed to evaluate and treat ankyloglossia are suggested, and a method for classifying ankyloglossia is proposed.

  20. Preventing Complications from High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy when Treating Mobile Tongue Cancer via the Application of a Modular Lead-Lined Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shumei; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Kakimoto, Naoya; Sumida, Iori; Fujiwara, Masateru; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Souhei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To point out the advantages and drawbacks of high-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of mobile tongue cancer and indicate the clinical importance of modular lead-lined spacers when applying this technique to patients. Methods First, all basic steps to construct the modular spacer are shown. Second, we simulate and evaluate the dose rate reduction for a wide range of spacer configurations. Results With increasing distance to the source absorbed doses dropped considerably. Significantly more shielding was obtained when lead was added to the spacer and this effect was most pronounced on shorter (i.e. more clinically relevant) distances to the source. Conclusions The modular spacer represents an important addition to the planning and treatment stages of mobile tongue cancer using HDR-ISBT. PMID:27128434

  1. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. Method GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. Result The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Discussion Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis. PMID:27688975

  2. Does elective neck dissection in T1/T2 carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of the mouth influence recurrence and survival rates?

    PubMed

    Kelner, Natalie; Vartanian, José Guilherme; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Coutinho-Camillo, Cláudia Malheiros; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of elective neck dissection compared with observation (control group) in selected cases of early carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of the mouth. It was a retrospective analysis of 222 patients who had the tumour resected (161 also had elective neck dissection). Occult lymph node metastases were detected in 33/161 (21%), and neck recurrences were diagnosed in 10 of the 61 patients in the control group (16%). Occult lymph node metastases reduced the 5-year disease-specific survival from 90% to 65% (p=0.001) and it was 96% among the controls. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 85% in the group treated by neck dissection and 96% in the observation group (p=0.09). Rigorous follow-up of selected low risk patients is associated with high rates of salvage, and overall survival was similar to the observed survival in patients treated by elective neck dissection. Observation is a reasonable option in the treatment of selected patients.

  3. Results of brachytherapy for cancer of the tongue with special emphasis on local prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, J.; Okuyama, T.; Shibuya, H.; Takeda, M.

    1982-05-01

    One hundred and sixty-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were treated with radiation. Treatment modalities were mainly interstitial implant with or without external beam irradiation, except for early lesions, which were treated with intraoral electron beam therapy. Analysis was made on the local prognosis of the lesion to clarify the indications for interstitial therapy, especially the combined program with external beam therapy, and the time-dose relationship of the brachytherapy. Local recurrence-free rates (two years) were 94% in T1, 77% in T2 and 32% in T3 lesions, respectively. For T1 and surperficial or exophytic T2 lesions, the local recurrence-free rate was excellent with the interstitial therapy alone using either permanent implants of gold grain or radium implants. Therefore, prior external beam therapy seemed to be unnecessary for these lesions. When the treated area was less than 10 cm/sup 2/, subsequent complications were not likely even if the TDF (time-dose factor) value was high. Most of the patients who received combined external beam and interstitial therapy showed infiltrative T2 and a majority of the T3 lesions. In these patients, it was apparent that most of the total dose should be given from the interstitial implant after a small prior dose with external irradiation, because these lesions could not be cured even if the external dose was increased.

  4. Detection and delineation of oral cancer with a PARP1 targeted optical imaging agent

    PubMed Central

    Kossatz, Susanne; Brand, Christian; Gutiontov, Stanley; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Lee, Nancy Y.; Gönen, Mithat; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Reiner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Earlier and more accurate detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is essential to improve the prognosis of patients and to reduce the morbidity of surgical therapy. Here, we demonstrate that the nuclear enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a promising target for optical imaging of OSCC with the fluorescent dye PARPi-FL. In patient-derived OSCC specimens, PARP1 expression was increased 7.8 ± 2.6-fold when compared to normal tissue. Intravenous injection of PARPi-FL allowed for high contrast in vivo imaging of human OSCC models in mice with a surgical fluorescence stereoscope and high-resolution imaging systems. The emitted signal was specific for PARP1 expression and, most importantly, PARPi-FL can be used as a topical imaging agent, spatially resolving the orthotopic tongue tumors in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that PARP1 imaging with PARPi-FL can enhance the detection of oral cancer, serve as a screening tool and help to guide surgical resections. PMID:26900125

  5. Risk factors for oral cancer in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Loyha, Kulchaya; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Promthet, Supannee; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is a common site of head and neck cancer, and is relatively frequent in Northeast Thailand. The objective of this hospital-based, case-control study was to determine associations with risk factors. A total of 104 oral cancer cases diagnosed between July 2010 and April 2011 in 3 hospitals were matched with control subjects by age, sex and hospital. Data were collected by personal interview. There were significant associations between oral cancer and tobacco smoking (OR=4.47; 95%CI=2.00 to 9.99), alcohol use among women (OR=4.16; 95%CI=1.70 to 10.69), and betel chewing (OR=9.01; 95%CI=3.83 to 21.22), and all three showed dose-response effects. Smoking is rare among Thai women (none of the control women were smokers), but betel chewing, especially among older women, is relatively common. We did not find any association between practicing oral sex and oral cancer.

  6. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D W; Hutchison, G B; Welch, W R; Scully, R E; Knapp, R C

    1982-10-21

    We investigated the relation between epithelial ovarian cancer and the use of oral contraceptives in a case-control study of 144 white women under the age of 60 who had ovarian cancer and 139 white women under 60 who were selected from the general population. We observed a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives in subjects 40 through 59 years of age at the time of the study. The relative risk, adjusted for parity, was 0.11, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.04 to 0.33. In contrast to the findings in older women, a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use was not found in women under 40. In this group, the adjusted relative risk associated with any use of oral contraceptives was 1.98, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.74 to 5.27. The lowest risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives was observed in older parous subjects and in women who had discontinued use more than 10 years previously.

  7. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1-2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time.

  8. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1–2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  9. Oral micro-organisms in the etiology of cancer.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H; Uittamo, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel concept on carcinogenesis mediated by oral microbiota. Oral micro-organisms are capable of metabolizing alcohol to acetaldehyde. This finding casts light on the observed association between poor oral hygiene and oral cancer. Ethanol, as such, is not carcinogenic, but its first metabolite acetaldehyde is indisputably carcinogenic. Several gastro-intestinal microbial species possess the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is also the enzyme responsible for alcohol metabolism in the liver. In oral microbiota, we observed that species such as the ubiquitous viridans streptococci and Candida also possess ADH. Ethanol can be detected in the mouth hours after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Patients with poor oral health status have shown higher salivary acetaldehyde concentrations than those with better oral health. It is thus understandable that ADH-containing micro-organisms in the mouth present a risk for carcinogenic acetaldehyde production, with subsequent potential for the development of oral cancer, particularly among heavy drinkers. In this article, we briefly review this area of investigation and conclude by highlighting some future possibilities for the control of carcinogenesis.

  10. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  11. Simplified Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient after Oral Cancer Removal

    PubMed Central

    Džakula, Nikola; Vojvodić, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of patients with oral cancer is complex: a multidisciplinary approach needs to be taken and maxillofacial and oral surgeons, an oncologist, a prosthodontist should be included, and a psychologist is often needed. This case report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient after surgical removal of oral cancer with obturator prosthesis. Resection cavity was located in central part of the hard palate and the condition belonged to Aramany class 3 maxillary defects. The two-step impression technique of denture bearing area was used and the resection of cavity was performed. A primary impression-the impression of denture bearing area was made using irreversible hydrocolloid material, while the second impression – the impression of resection cavity was made using condensation silicone material and obturator prosthesis framework. The obturator prosthesis replaced lost teeth, improved oral function and esthetics at minimal costs. PMID:27847400

  12. Oral cancer: exploring the stories in United Kingdom newspaper articles.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C M; Johnson, I G; Morgan, M Z

    2016-09-09

    Objective Reports suggest that patients with oral cancer delay seeking help because they are unaware of the symptoms. The majority of adults (95%) engage with news reports and 40% read newspapers. Newspaper oral cancer stories may influence awareness and health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore how oral cancer is portrayed in UK newspaper print media.Design Qualitative content analysis of articles from ten newspapers with the widest UK print circulation. All articles using the terms 'mouth cancer' and 'oral cancer' over a three year period were retrieved. Duplicates, non-cancer and non-human articles were excluded.Results 239 articles were analysed. Common topics included 'recent research', 'survivor stories', 'health information' and 'celebrity linkage'. Articles were often emotive, featuring smoking, alcohol, sex and celebrity. Articles lacked a proper evidence base and often failed to provide accurate information about signs and symptoms, information about prevention and signposting to treatment.Conclusions Opportunities to save lives are being missed. Further work to improve social responsibility in the media and develop guidance to enhance the quality of information, health reporting and signposting to help are indicated.

  13. Oral cavity and lip cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kerawala, C; Roques, T; Jeannon, J-P; Bisase, B

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. It provides recommendations on the assessment and management of patients with cancer of the oral cavity and the lip. Recommendations • Surgery remains the mainstay of management for oral cavity tumours. (R) • Tumour resection should be performed with a clinical clearance of 1 cm vital structures permitting. (R) • Elective neck treatment should be offered for all oral cavity tumours. (R) • Adjuvant radiochemotherapy in the presence of advanced neck disease or positive margins improves control rates. (R) • Early stage lip cancer can be treated equally well by surgery or radiation therapy. (R).

  14. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of oral cavity cancer by subsite: results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Cyr, Diane; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Guida, Florence; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Carton, Matthieu; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Delafosse, Patricia; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-05-01

    The objective was to examine the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the incidence of oral cavity cancer by subsite in France, a high-incidence area. We analysed detailed data on lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking from 772 oral cavity cancer cases and 3555 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Tobacco smoking increased the risk of oral cavity cancer even for the smaller quantities and durations, whereas alcohol drinking increased this risk only in heavy drinkers who were also ever smokers. The combined effect of smoking and drinking was greater than multiplicative. The floor of the mouth was the subsite that was the most affected by the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, whereas the gums were less susceptible. The risk associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption did not differ between intraoral cavity and subsites usually included in the oropharynx (soft palate and base of the tongue). Population-attributable risks for oral cavity cancer were 78.6% for tobacco smoking, 7.3% for alcohol drinking and 80.7% for tobacco and/or alcohol consumption. These results indicate that regular oral check-ups should be targeted at smokers and heavy drinkers, and that prevention efforts should be focused on smoking cessation.

  15. Effects of tongue cleaning on bacterial flora in tongue coating and dental plaque: a crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of tongue cleaning on reconstruction of bacterial flora in dental plaque and tongue coating itself are obscure. We assessed changes in the amounts of total bacteria as well as Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue coating and dental plaque specimens obtained with and without tongue cleaning. Methods We conducted a randomized examiner-blind crossover study using 30 volunteers (average 23.7 ± 3.2 years old) without periodontitis. After dividing randomly into 2 groups, 1 group was instructed to clean the tongue, while the other did not. On days 1 (baseline), 3, and 10, tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected after recording tongue coating score (Winkel tongue coating index: WTCI). After a washout period of 3 weeks, the same examinations were performed with the subjects allocated to the alternate group. Genomic DNA was purified from the samples and applied to SYBR® Green-based real-time PCR to quantify the amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum. Results After 3 days, the WTCI score recovered to baseline, though the amount of total bacteria in tongue coating was significantly lower as compared to the baseline. In plaque samples, the bacterial amounts on day 3 and 10 were significantly lower than the baseline with and without tongue cleaning. Principal component analysis showed that variations of bacterial amounts in the tongue coating and dental plaque samples were independent from each other. Furthermore, we found a strong association between amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum in specimens both. Conclusions Tongue cleaning reduced the amount of bacteria in tongue coating. However, the cleaning had no obvious contribution to inhibit dental plaque formation. Furthermore, recovery of the total bacterial amount induced an increase in F. nucleatum in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Thus, it is recommended that tongue cleaning and tooth brushing should both be performed for promoting oral health. PMID:24423407

  16. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  17. Assessment of quality of life in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Infante-Cossío, Pedro; Hernández-Guisado, José María; Hens-Aumente, Elena; Gutierrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2008-11-01

    Quality of life (QL) in oral cancer patients has become one of the most important parameters to consider in the diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up. The purpose of this article has been to review the papers published that study the QL in oral cancer patients, the different QL questionnaires used, the clinical results obtained, and the systematic revisions available in the indexed literature for the last 10 years. The term QL appears as a keyword in an increasing number of articles throughout the past 10 years; however, few studies focus on oral cancer. Most of them assess all head and neck cancers, which conform to a heterogeneous group with several different features depending on location (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx and salivary glands). Most studies evaluate QL in short periods of time, normally within the first year after the diagnosis. Series do not discern between different therapeutic options, and they generally center on Northern European or Northern American populations. There are few instruments translated and validated into Spanish that measure QL, a fundamental characteristic to link QL to own patients' socio-cultural parameters. Data related with QL are mostly related to patient (age, sex, co-morbidity), tumour (location, size), and treatment (surgical treatment, radiotherapy association, reconstruction, cervical dissection, and/or feeding tube). Nowadays QL's assessment is considered an essential component of an oral cancer patient as well as the survival, morbidity and years free of disease. Although many aspects related to QL in oral cancer patients have been published throughout the past 10 years, more systematic research is needed to be able to apply it on a daily basis.

  18. Oral health resources for cancer patients in Texas.

    PubMed

    Bitouni, Anneta; Urankar, Yashashri

    2012-05-01

    Over 1.4 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year, and many of these patients will, by necessity, be treated in private practice, including dental practice. Dental professionals play a key role in helping patients understand that good oral care can prevent or reduce oral complications. Treatment of oral cancers and other malignancies cause oral sequelae that can compromise patients' quality of life and dictate reduction or discontinuation of optimal therapeutic regimens, which in turn reduces the odds of long-term survival. This can be prevented or better managed if dental and medical health care providers work together. The purpose of this article is to identify the cancer centers associated with dental clinics and the dental practitioners in the state of Texas, including maxillofacial prosthodontists, with training and/or a special interest in providing oral care to cancer patients. To be included on the list, which will be available on the Dental Oncology Education Program (DOEP) Web site (doep.org), please contact Grady Basler at the DOEP office (grady@doep.org), or the Department of Public Health Sciences (214-828-8350).

  19. MYCN-mediated miR-21 overexpression enhances chemo-resistance via targeting CADM1 in tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guopei; Li, Nan; Jia, Xiaoting; Peng, Cong; Luo, Liyun; Deng, Yingen; Yin, Jiang; Song, Ying; Liu, Hao; Lu, Minying; Zhang, Zhijie; Gu, Yixue; He, Zhimin

    2016-10-01

    Chemo-resistance is still a major obstacle in successful cancer treatment. Previously, we found that miR-21 (miR-21-5p) was upregulated in drug-resistant tongue cancer (TC) cell line Tca8113/PYM. However, the mechanisms for miR-21 upregulation and its role in chemo-resistance in TC remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that functional inhibition of miR-21 sensitized TC cells to chemotherapy. In agreement, overexpressed miR-21 enhanced chemo-resistance in TC cells. We found that miR-21 directly targeted CADM1 expression, which was downregulated in drug-resistant TC cells. Restored CADM1 expression sensitized TC cells to chemotherapy, but CADM1 knockdown induced chemo-resistance. Mechanically, CADM1 interacted with BMI1 to inhibit its nuclear translocation. Moreover, MYCN which was overexpressed in drug-resistant TC cells directly bound to the miR-21 promoter to upregulated miR-21 expression in TC cells. Importantly, the expression levels of miR-21 and CADM1 negatively correlated, but MYCN and miR-21 positively correlated in TC tissues. High levels of miR-21 and MYCN and low level of CADM1 were associated with poor prognosis in TC patients. In conclusion, our study suggests an important role of the MYCN/miR-21/CADM1 axis in chemo-resistance in TC patients and may lead to promising prognostic biomarkers and novel treatment strategies to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy for TC patients.

  20. [Current Status and Effectiveness of Perioperative Oral Health Care Management for Lung Cancer and Esophageal Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Nishino, Takeshi; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Takahiro; Inui, Tomohiro; Takasugi, Haruka; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Kawakita, Naoya; Inoue, Seiya; Sakiyama, Shoji; Tangoku, Akira; Azuma, Masayuki; Yamamura, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of perioperative oral health care management to decrease the risk of postoperative pneumonia have been reported lately. Since 2014, we introduced perioperative oral health care management for lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients. We report current status and effectiveness of perioperative oral health care management for lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients. Every 100 cases of lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients treated by surgery were classified 2 group with or without perioperative oral health care management and compared about postoperative complications retrospectively. In the lung cancer patients, the group with oral health care management could prevent postoperative pneumonia significantly and had shorter length of hospital stay than the group without oral health care management. In the esophageal cancer patients, there was little occurrence of postoperative pneumonia without significant difference between both group with or without oral health care management. A large number of esophageal cancer patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and some patients developed oral mucositis and received oral care treatment before surgery. Treatment for oral mucositis probably improved oral environment and affected prevention of postoperative pneumonia. Perioperative oral health care management can prevent postoperative pneumonia of lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients by improvement of oral hygiene.

  1. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  2. Prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kaoru; Ohara, Masaru; Kojima, Taro; Nishimura, Rumi; Ogawa, Tetsuji; Hino, Takamune; Okada, Mitsugi; Toratani, Shigeaki; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Sugai, Motoyuki; Sugiyama, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Drug-resistant opportunistic infections may cause health problems in immunocompromised hosts. Representative microorganisms in opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in elderly adults receiving follow-up examinations after primary treatment of oral cancer. Oral microorganisms were collected from patients satisfactorily treated for oral cancer (defined as good outcomes to date) and a group of healthy adults (controls). After identification of microorganisms, the prevalence of drug-resistant microorganisms was studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were also performed for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the prevalences of the three microorganisms between the groups. Surprisingly, 69.2% of S aureus isolates showed oxacillin resistance, suggesting that MRSA colonization is increasing among older Japanese. These MRSA isolates possessed SCCmec types II and IV but no representative toxin genes. Our results indicate that a basic infection control strategy, including standard precautions against MRSA, is important for elderly adults, particularly after treatment for oral cancer.

  3. Oral cancer in southern India: the influence of smoking, drinking, paan-chewing and oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Balaram, Prabha; Sridhar, Hema; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Herrero, Rolando; Nandakumar, Ambakumar; Ravichandran, Kandaswamy; Ramdas, Kunnambath; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Gajalakshmi, Vendhan; Muñoz, Nubia; Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-03-20

    Between 1996 and 1999 we carried out a case-control study in 3 areas in Southern India (Bangalore, Madras and Trivandrum) including 591 incident cases of cancer of the oral cavity (282 women) and 582 hospital controls (290 women), frequency-matched with cases by age and gender. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, gender, center, education, chewing habit and (men only) smoking and drinking habits. Low educational attainment, occupation as a farmer or manual worker and various indicators of poor oral hygiene were associated with significantly increased risk. An OR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4-4.4) was found in men for smoking > or = 20 bidi or equivalents versus 0/day. The OR for alcohol drinking was 2.2 (95% CI 1.4-3.3). The OR for paan chewing was more elevated among women (OR 42; 95% CI 24-76) than among men (OR 5.1; 95% CI 3.4-7.8). A similar OR was found among chewers of paan with (OR 6.1 in men and 46 in women) and without tobacco (OR 4.2 in men and 16.4 in women). Among men, 35% of oral cancer is attributable to the combination of smoking and alcohol drinking and 49% to pan-tobacco chewing. Among women, chewing and poor oral hygiene explained 95% of oral cancer.

  4. Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…

  5. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  6. Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults' oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections.

  7. Postoperative radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers: Impact of anatomic subsite on treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, M.J.; Harrison, L.B.; Fass, D.E.; Armstrong, J.; Spiro, R.H.; Shah, J.P.; Strong, E.W. )

    1990-11-01

    We have retrospectively reviewed the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for advanced oral cavity cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of anatomic subsite on the results of treatment. Between 1975 and 1985, 51 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (OT = 29 patients) and floor of mouth (FOM = 22 patients) were treated with combined surgery plus RT. All had an indication(s) for RT including advanced primary disease (T3 or T4) (29 patients), close or positive margins (34 patients), and multiple positive neck nodes and/or extracapsular extension (41 patients). With a median follow-up of 6 years, the 5-year actuarial local control rate was 74% and the rate of distant metastasis (DM) was 34%. Despite the similar T stage, margin status and median RT dose, the 5-year actuarial local failure rate was 38% for OT vs. 11% for FOM (p = 0.03). Furthermore, the median survival after recurrence was 9 months for OT and 40 months for FOM (p = 0.02). At 5 years the determinate survival for both sites was (55%), and the likelihood of developing a second malignancy was 31%. The likelihood of developing DM was 50% for FOM (N0-N1 = 3 of 12, N2-N3 = 8 of 10) and 21% for OT (N0-N1 = 4 of 21, N2-N3 = 1 of 8). This study highlights significant differences between FOM and OT cancers in response to combined surgery and RT. Future strategies should be directed at the enhancement of local control for OT and better systemic therapy for those with advanced N-stage FOM.

  8. Cortico-muscular synchronization by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles during isometric tongue protrusion.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Hitoshi; Mima, Tatsuya; Yazawa, Shogo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Funahashi, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Tongue movements contribute to oral functions including swallowing, vocalizing, and breathing. Fine tongue movements are regulated through efferent and afferent connections between the cortex and tongue. It has been demonstrated that cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) is reflected at two frequency bands during isometric tongue protrusions: the beta (β) band at 15-35Hz and the low-frequency band at 2-10Hz. The CMC at the β band (β-CMC) reflects motor commands from the primary motor cortex (M1) to the tongue muscles through hypoglossal motoneuron pools. However, the generator mechanism of the CMC at the low-frequency band (low-CMC) remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of low-CMC during isometric tongue protrusion using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) were also recorded following electrical tongue stimulation. Significant low-CMC and β-CMC were observed over both hemispheres for each side of the tongue. Time-domain analysis showed that the MEG signal followed the electromyography signal for low-CMC, which was contrary to the finding that the MEG signal preceded the electromyography signal for β-CMC. The mean conduction time from the tongue to the cortex was not significantly different between the low-CMC (mean, 80.9ms) and SEFs (mean, 71.1ms). The cortical sources of low-CMC were located significantly posterior (mean, 10.1mm) to the sources of β-CMC in M1, but were in the same area as tongue SEFs in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). These results reveal that the low-CMC may be driven by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles to S1, and that the oscillatory interaction was derived from each side of the tongue to both hemispheres. Oscillatory proprioceptive feedback from the tongue muscles may aid in the coordination of sophisticated tongue movements in humans.

  9. Prevalence of tongue lesions in the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan; Doni, Bharati

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tongue lesions are a health concern for the dental practitioners and the patients as they constitute a significant proportion of oral mucosal lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of various tongue lesions in the Indian population. Material and methods: 4926 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were examined for the presence of various tongue lesions during the period from October, 2010 to September, 2012. The age of the patients ranged from 12-80 years with a mean age of 36.51 years. Results: The prevalence of tongue lesions was 12.07%. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated tongue affecting 28.0% of the subjects, followed by geographic tongue (16.4%), fissured tongue (14.9%) and depapillated tongue (11.5%). Males were more frequently affected than females. The most common systemic condition observed in the patients with tongue lesions was anaemia (189), followed by hypertension (47) and diabetes mellitus (38). Conclusion: The high prevalence necessitates adequate awareness of the various tongue lesions in the general population. The dental clinicians should also be knowledgeable about the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions. Key words:Tongue lesions, prevalence, Indian population, coated tongue. PMID:24455067

  10. Oral cancer, fever of unknown origin, and listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Morritt, A N; Mclean, N R; Snow, M H

    2002-10-01

    Listeriosis is a rare cause of fever of unknown origin in patients with oral cancer. We report two patients who, because of pain and discomfort, ate large quantities of soft cheeses; this caused listeriosis and fever. Both cases responded to high doses of amoxycillin.

  11. [Foci of infection and oral supportive care in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Stokman, M A; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2008-04-01

    Radiation therapy in the head and neck area and treatment with high dose chemotherapy entail damage to healthy tissue in the mouth. In order to reduce to a minimum the chances of these side effects of cancer treatment developing, it is necessary to carry out oral foci tests prior to oncological therapy. In addition supplementary oral and dental care measures seem to be important in order to limit the side effects of oncological therapy on the teeth, salivary glands and jaw as much as possible. This supportive oral care is not only necessary during, but also for years after the oncology treatment. Therefore not only dental professionals affiliated to oncology teams will have to take care of cancer patients, but also family dentists and dental hygienists.

  12. The role of miR-21 in proliferation and invasion capacity of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Pin; Li, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers, which has the highest incidence in oral maxillofacial malignant tumors. MiR-21 may promote tumorigeness by down-regulating tumor suppressing genes and/or controlling the genes for cell differentiation and apoptosis, and it has been identified as the most expressive and unusual in a number of profiling experiments. The study shows there are high expressions of miR-21 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines), especially in high metastatic lines. miR-21 silencing could suppress the capacity of proliferation, migration and invasion, arrest the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines). All the results indicate that miR-21 will probably open a new path to the gene therapy for oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26191145

  13. The Salivary Microbiome and Oral Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Furquim, C P; Soares, G M S; Ribeiro, L L; Azcarate-Peril, M A; Butz, N; Roach, J; Moss, K; Bonfim, C; Torres-Pereira, C C; Teles, F R F

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosomal instability and impaired DNA damage repair. FA patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) earlier and more frequently than the general population, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although evidence of an etiological role of the local microbiome and carcinogenesis has been mounting, no information exists regarding the oral microbiome of FA patients. The aim of this study was to explore the salivary microbiome of 61 FA patients regarding their oral health status and OSCC risk factors. After answering a questionnaire and receiving clinical examination, saliva samples were collected and analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region. The microbial profiles associated with medical and clinical parameters were analyzed using general linear models. Patients were young (mean age, 22 y) and most had received HSCT ( n = 53). The most abundant phyla were Firmicutes [mean relative abundance (SD), 42.1% (10.1%)] and Bacteroidetes [(25.4% (11.4%)]. A history of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ( n = 27) was associated with higher proportions of Firmicutes (43.8% × 38.5%, P = 0.05). High levels of gingival bleeding were associated with the genera Prevotella (22.25% × 20%), Streptococcus (19.83% × 17.61%), Porphyromonas (3.63% × 1.42%, P = 0.03), Treponema (1.02% × 0.28%, P = 0.009), Parvimonas (0.28% × 0.07%, P = 0.02) and Dialister (0.27% × 0.10%, P = 0.04). Finally, participants transplanted over 11 y ago showed the highest levels of Streptococcus (18.4%), Haemophilus (12.7%) and Neisseria (6.8%). In conclusion, FA patients that showed poor oral hygiene harbored higher proportions of the genera of bacteria compatible with gingival disease. Specific microbial differences were associated with a history of oral GVHD and a history of oral mucositis.

  14. Integrated microRNA-mRNA analysis revealing the potential roles of microRNAs in tongue squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Li; Wu, Jun-Hua; Wang, Xin-Juan; Guo, Fu-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a rare and aggressive type of cancer, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Identification of patients at high risk of TSCC tumorigenesis may provide information for the early detection of metastases, and for potential treatment strategies. MicroRNA (miRNA; miR) and mRNA expression profiling of TSCC tissue samples and normal control tissue samples were obtained from three Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data series. Bioinformatics analyses, including the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were used to identify genes and pathways specifically associated with miRNA-associated TSCC oncology. A total of 25 miRNAs and 769 mRNAs were differentially expressed in the two groups assessed, and all the differentially expressed miRNA and mRNA target interactions were analyzed. The miRNA target genes were predominantly associated with 38 GO terms and 13 pathways. Of the genes differentially expressed between the two groups, and confirmed in another GEO series, miRNA-494, miRNA-96, miRNA-183, runt-related transcription factor 1, programmed cell death protein 4 and membrane-associated guanylate kinase were the most significantly altered, and may be central in the regulation of TSCC. Bioinformatics may be used to analyze large quantities of data in microarrays through rigorous experimental planning, statistical analysis and the collection of complete data on TSCC. In the present study, a novel differential miRNA-mRNA expression network was constructed, and further investigation may provide novel targets for the diagnosis of TSCC.

  15. Microbiota, oral microbiome, and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Izard, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Only 30% of patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer survive 1 year after the diagnosis. Progress in understanding the causes of pancreatic cancer has been made, including solidifying the associations with obesity and diabetes, and a proportion of cases should be preventable through lifestyle modifications. Unfortunately, identifying reliable biomarkers of early pancreatic cancer has been extremely challenging, and no effective screening modality is currently available for this devastating form of cancer. Recent data suggest that the microbiota may play a role in the disease process, but many questions remain. Future studies focusing on the human microbiome, both etiologically and as a marker of disease susceptibility, should shed light on how to better tackle prevention, early detection, and treatment of this highly fatal disease.

  16. Cancer Salivary Biomarkers for Tumours Distant to the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Rapado-González, Óscar; Majem, Blanca; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; López-López, Rafa; Suarez-Cunqueiro, María Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of saliva as a diagnostic approach for systemic diseases was proposed just two decades ago, but recently great interest in the field has emerged because of its revolutionary potential as a liquid biopsy and its usefulness as a non-invasive sampling method. Multiple molecules isolated in saliva have been proposed as cancer biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, drug monitoring and pharmacogenetic studies. In this review, we focus on the current status of the salivary diagnostic biomarkers for different cancers distant to the oral cavity, noting their potential use in the clinic and their applicability in personalising cancer therapies. PMID:27626410

  17. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Management of mucositis during therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaskowski, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the purposes of an oral care protocol, the major components of an oral care regimen, and oral care protocols and studies done to date. Many questions remain in the area of optimal oral care for the patient experiencing mucositis as a sequela of cancer treatment. Research is needed on types and use of mouth rinses, effective, harmless, and pleasant lip lubricants, appropriate analgesic and anti-inflammatory combinations, and the effectiveness of a variety of devices for oral cleansing, to name a few areas. As outpatient oncology services grow, oral care protocols must be developed to meet the needs of ambulatory patient populations. Oral care regimens must be safe, easy to use, and economical as well as effective to ensure patient and staff compliance. Research on the management of mucositis must be conducted in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Finally, in order to obtain sufficient sample sizes and optimize data collection, these studies will need to be conducted by multidisciplinary teams (including dentists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and nurses) across multiple sites. Not until large-scale clinical trials are done on the treatment of mucositis will we be able to optimize the therapeutic regimen for the patient. 43 references.

  18. Tongue abscess induced by embedded remnant fishbone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pai-L; Chiang, C-W; Shiao, C-C

    2015-12-01

    The authors reported a 56-year-old man with progressive pain over left bottom of oral cavity involving tongue for 3 days. He had a puncture history of tongue by fishbone, which was immediately removed 3 weeks ago. The subsequent contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of neck disclosed an abscess formation with a faint linear radiopaque material inside, consisting with remnant fishbone retention. The patient was treated conservatively with intravenous antibiotics, followed by an uneventful course during subsequent follow-up for more than 9 months until now. Tongue abscess is a rare but potentially life threatening clinical entity. Foreign body puncture-related tongue abscess should be listed as a differential diagnosis in cases with acute tongue swelling.

  19. Tongue abscess induced by embedded remnant fishbone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pai-Lien; Chiang, Ching-Wen; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2015-07-22

    The authors reported a 56-year-old man with progressive pain over left bottom of oral cavity involving tongue for 3 days. He had a puncture history of tongue by fishbone, which was immediately removed 3 weeks ago. The subsequent contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of neck disclosed an abscess formation with a faint linear radiopaque material inside, consisting with remnant fishbone retention. The patient was treated conservatively with intravenous antibiotics, followed by an uneventful course during subsequent follow-up for more than 9 months until now. Tongue abscess is a rare but potentially life threatening clinical entity. Foreign body puncture-related tongue abscess should be listed as a differential diagnosis in cases with acute tongue swelling.

  20. Autophagy: A boon or bane in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Adhauliya, Namrata; Kalappanavar, Anupama N; Ali, I M; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G

    2016-10-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involving cellular recycling and is believed to play a distinct role in cell survival especially when exposed to stressors, rendering it comparable to the elixir sustaining life. It plays a significant role in various conditions like cancers, neuropathies, heart diseases, auto-immune diseases, etc. Its role in tumorigenesis and cancer therapeutics is worth exploring. Autophagy is believed to help in survival and longevity of cancer cells by buffering metabolic stress. Inhibition of autophagy in an environment of nutrient deprivation leads to cell death. Autophagy is also seen to facilitate metastasizing tumor cells in surviving the conditions of metabolic deprivation and in recovery when conditions turn favorable. Many current cancer therapies tend to inflict metabolic stress, thus autophagy inhibitors may be useful in cancer treatment. As per the adage, "excess of anything is bad", the autophagy promoters can also be exploited as beneficial tools in the fight against cancer. Another method for tumor-cell elimination can be by inducing autophagic cell death through over-stimulation. Oral cancers are becoming a leading cause of deaths worldwide. Much remains to be explored about the role autophagy plays in progression of head and neck cancers, so as to harness it in the therapeutics of these cancers. Research on autophagy is still in its infancy. There are knowledge gaps in understanding this complex process. But there is no doubt that understanding exact mechanism behind autophagy will open up new avenues in cancer therapeutics and even prevention.

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-associated Oral Cancers and Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Sathish, N; Wang, X; Yuan, Y

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be associated with several types of human cancer, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and head-and-neck cancers. Among these cancers, HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers, inclusive of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC), have recently risen dramatically in men under 50 years old. Within 20 years, the percentage of HPV-positive OSCC in total OSCC went from less than 20% to more than 70% in the United States and some European countries. This article reviews the incidence trend and pathogenesis of HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers as well as current treatment modalities for the disease.

  2. Aloe-emodin induces cell death through S-phase arrest and caspase-dependent pathways in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Lai, Wan-Wen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Wu, Ping-Ping; Ma, Chia-Yu; Yeh, Chin-Chung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Wood, W Gibson; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2009-11-01

    Aloe-emodin, one of the anthraquinones, has been shown to have anticancer activity in different kinds of human cancer cell lines. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of aloe-emodin on human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The results indicated that aloe-emodin induced cell death through S-phase arrest and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with 30 microM of aloe-emodin led to S-phase arrest through promoted p53, p21 and p27, but inhibited cyclin A, E, thymidylate synthase and Cdc25A levels. Aloe-emodin promoted the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (Endo G), pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome c from the mitochondria via a loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) which was associated with a increase in the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax)/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) and activation of caspase-9 and -3. The free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and caspase inhibitors markedly blocked aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis. Aloe-emodin thus induced apoptosis in the SCC-4 cells through the Fas/death-receptor, mitochondria and caspase cascade. Aloe-emodin could be a novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human tongue squamous cancer in the future.

  3. Effect on Quality of Life in Oral Cancer Patients after Radiation and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Quratul Ann; Awan, Kamran Habib

    2016-02-01

    Almost 10% of the tumors that affect the human body are sited in the mouth. Oral cancer has the 6th highest occurrence rate among the diverse forms of malignancies. Excluding skin cancer, oral cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting the head and neck region.(1).

  4. A Genomic Microchip for Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Maniyar, Nikunj; Patil, Shankargouda

    2017-03-01

    A series of genetic mutations in somatic cell results in cancer. The cells of malignant tumor have the ability to acclimate to the microenvironmental changes. This can be attributed to the nature of tumor cell biology, i.e., based on effectual molecular signaling events.

  5. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Damghani, Mohammad Ali; Safari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.  Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma. Conclusion: Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy. PMID:25938089

  6. Oral mucosal precancer and cancer: A helpful discriminating clinical tool

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Crispian; Bagan, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    The authors have collaborated with many colleagues in several countries in formulating a useful and practical clinical tool for evaluating oral mucosal findings on routine examination. Consideration of several factors including history, evolution of positive findings and clinical information allows placement of examination results into one of three categories which are graded by a color scheme along a spectrum of concerns (green to red, or no concern to serious concern). Afforded to the clinician is a straightforward grading system as a starting point for office end clinic use for all patients. Key words:Oral, precancer, cancer, clinical tool. PMID:26241449

  7. miR-203 inhibits cell proliferation and promotes cisplatin induced cell death in tongue squamous cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiong; Lin, Yao; Fan, Li; Kuang, Wei; Zheng, Liwei; Wu, Jiahua; Shang, Peng; Wang, Qiaofeng; Tan, Jiali

    2016-04-29

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of the head and neck cancer. Chemo resistance of OSCC has been identified as a substantial therapeutic hurdle. In this study, we analyzed the role of miR-203 in the OSCC and its effects on cisplatin-induced cell death in an OSCC cell line, Tca8113. There was a significant decrease of miR-203 expression in OSCC samples, compared with the adjacent normal, non-cancerous tissue. After 3 days cisplatin treatment, the survived Tca8113 cells had a lower expression of miR-203 than that in the untreated control group. In contrast, PIK3CA showed an inverse expression in cancer and cisplatin survived Tca8113 cells. Transfection of Tca8113 cells with miR-203 mimics greatly reduced PIK3CA expression and Akt activation. Furthermore, miR-203 repressed PIK3CA expression through targeting the 3'UTR. Restoration of miR-203 not only suppressed cell proliferation, but also sensitized cells to cisplatin induced cell apoptosis. This effect was absent in cells that were simultaneously treated with PIK3CA RNAi. In summary, these findings suggest miR-203 plays an important role in cisplatin resistance in OSCC, and furthermore delivery of miR-203 analogs may serve as an adjuvant therapy for OSCC.

  8. Outcomes of oral cancer early detection and prevention statewide model in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Maybury, Catherine; Horowitz, Alice M; Goodman, Harold S

    2012-01-01

    A high oral cancer mortality rate and a moderately high oral cancer incidence rate prompted Maryland to develop a statewide approach to oral cancer early detection and prevention. This approach can serve as a model for other states. Key lessons learned include the need to: develop a comprehensive plan that focuses on actions to increase awareness, education and training for the public, dental and non-dental providers and policy makers; include oral cancer in the state's comprehensive cancer control plan to keep attention focused on this disease; and maintain high vigilance among stakeholders to keep oral cancer prevention and early detection a high priority within the state. Future efforts will focus on: requiring all dental and dental hygiene students to perform a set number of supervised oral cancer examinations for licensure to ensure a dental workforce that is competent and predisposed to providing routine oral cancer examinations; training health care providers such as doctors, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants to perform oral cancer examinations as part of a comprehensive cancer screening exam to expand the number of individuals that receive oral cancer examinations; and continuing to educate the public about oral cancer risk factors, its symptoms, and ways to prevent it.

  9. Fissured Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Vision Leadership Executive Committee Board of Trustees Governance Past Presidents Staff/Contact History Awards Our Partners ... symptoms. No treatment is necessary except to encourage good oral hygiene including brushing the top surface of ...

  10. What Are the Key Statistics about Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers? The American ... increase the risk for these second cancers. For statistics related to survival, see the section Survival Rates ...

  11. Tongue thrust and its influence in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Cary

    2006-01-01

    The oral myofunctional disorder of tongue thrust has been described in various ways, such as 'deviate swallow' 'infantile swallow, and 'abnormal swallow' to name a few. The term 'tongue thrust' has been adopted, mainly because of its greater usage among authors, and since it gives a more accurate description of the lingual behavior about to be discussed. 'Tongue thrust' and 'tongue thrusting' are used in preference to 'tongue thrust swallow' or 'tongue thrust swallowing' because this behavior is generally thought to be less associated with the act of swallowing and more with the resting posture of the tongue. 'Thrust' is still an inappropriate word since the tongue is not really 'thrusting' during rest. However, it must be remembered that 'thrusting' in this instance is still a mild but continuous lingual pressure factor. The significance lies in whether or not this 'thrust, either during swallowing and other functional behaviors, or during rest, is responsible for, contributes to, or is a consequence of the development of a malocclusion.

  12. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ying-Yu; Jim, Wai-Tim; Su, Liang-Cheng; Chung, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ching-Yu; Huo, Chieh; Tseng, Jen-Chih; Huang, Shih-Han; Lai, Chih-Jen; Chen, Bo-Chih; Wang, Bi-Juan; Chan, Tzu-Min; Lin, Hui-Ping; Chang, Wun-Shaing Wayne; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancers, which affect 650,000 people and cause 350,000 deaths per year, is the sixth leading cancer by cancer incidence and eighth by cancer-related death worldwide. Oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The overall five-year survival rate of OSCC patients is approximately 63%, which is due to the low response rate to current therapeutic drugs. In this review we discuss the possibility of using caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) as an alternative treatment for oral cancer. CAPE is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells. CAPE treatment inhibits Akt signaling, cell cycle regulatory proteins, NF-κB function, as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Therefore, CAPE treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. According to the evidence that aberrations in the EGFR/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling, NF-κB function, COX-2 activity, and MMPs activity are frequently found in oral cancers, and that the phosphorylation of Akt, EGFR, and COX-2 correlates to oral cancer patient survival and clinical progression, we believe that CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients. PMID:25984601

  13. Oral and dental health care of oral cancer patients: hyposalivation, caries and infections.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H; Grönroos, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Oral cancer and its treatment can cause a variety of problems to patients, also as regards maintaining their daily oral hygiene. Surgery mutilates tissues which may hamper cleaning the teeth and mucosal surfaces. The patient may have complicated reconstructive structures that also need continuous attention. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation further complicates the situation and decreases the quality of life. Consequently, dental caries, mucosal diseases such as candidosis and sialadenitis become problematic to treat. Hence every effort should be focused on prevention. In caries prevention intensified fluoride therapy together with dietary counseling is needed. Oral cancer patients also need to be frequently referred to dental hygienists for professional cleaning. Drinking enough daily and moisturizing mucosal surfaces with commercial dry-mouth products, vegetable oils, milk products and respective topical agents need to be individually recommended. In addition, patients with severe dry mouth cases may also benefit from the prescription of pilocarpine tablets. In oral candidosis, the microbiological diagnosis must be confirmed before administration of antifungal drugs in order to avoid the selection pressure to resistant strains.

  14. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  15. Recent advances in oral anticancer agents for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Raj Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To provide therapeutic alternatives to intravenous colon chemotherapy major recent research is focusing on the development of oral chemotherapeutic agents with the intention to improve the quality of life of patients. Initially 5-fluorouracil was most commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer but currently oxaliplatin and irinotecan are also available. The majority of these new drugs are pyrimidines and their analogs. The rationale for using oral anticancer agents is discussed and new drugs, such as farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor S-1, rubitecan, ZD9331, MMI-166, eflornithine, sulindac, and oral camptothecin analogs, among others, are presented with the results of their preclinical and clinical developments. This article focuses on the advancement of clinical development and also discusses the relative merits and demerits of these agents. The accelerated approval of these agents by regulatory authorities is supported by survival benefit, response rate and time to progression.

  16. Prognostic factors, predictive markers and cancer biology: the triad for successful oral cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Monteiro de Oliveira Novaes, Jose Augusto; William, William N

    2016-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent a significant cancer burden worldwide. Unfortunately, chemoprevention strategies investigated to date have failed to produce an agent considered standard of care to prevent oral cancers. Nonetheless, recent advances in clinical trial design may streamline drug development in this setting. In this manuscript, we review some of these improvements, including risk prediction tools based on molecular markers that help select patients most suitable for chemoprevention. We also discuss the opportunities that novel preclinical models and modern molecular profiling techniques will bring to the prevention field in the near future, and propose a clinical trials framework that incorporates molecular prognostic factors, predictive markers and cancer biology as a roadmap to improve chemoprevention strategies for oral cancers.

  17. Monascus purpureus-fermented products and oral cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption have been reported as major factors for the development of oral cancer. Edible fungi of the Monascus species have been used as traditional Chinese medicine in eastern Asia for several centuries. Monascus-fermented products have many functional secondary metabolites, including monacolin K, citrinin, ankaflavin, and monascin. In several recent studies performed in our laboratory, these secondary metabolites have shown anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor activities. Many published studies have shown the efficacy of Monascus-fermented products in the prevention of numerous types of cancer. The current article discusses and provides evidence to support that Monascus-fermented metabolites may be developed as painting drugs for the mouth to prevent or cure oral carcinogenesis. This is a novel therapeutic approach focusing on tumor growth attenuation to improve patient survival and quality of life.

  18. Applications of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Freitas, Márcio; García-García, Abel; Crespo-Abelleira, Antonio; Martins-Carneiro, José Luis; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a simple non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and that is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypias and especially squamous cell carcinoma. However, traditional exfoliative cytology methods show low sensitivity (i.e. a high proportion of false negatives) in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This low sensitivity is attributable to various factors, including inadequate sampling, procedural errors, and the need for subjective interpretation of the findings. More recently, the continuing development of automated cytomorphometric methods, DNA content determination, tumour marker detection, and diverse molecular-level analyses has contributed to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology procedures for the diagnosis of oral cancer. The present study briefly reviews developments in these areas.

  19. Rehabilitation and nutritional support for sarcopenic dysphagia and tongue atrophy after glossectomy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hashida, Nao; Shamoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Fujii, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is related to long-term weight loss and reduced body mass index in patients with head and neck cancer. We describe a 76-y-old woman who had severe sarcopenic dysphagia and atrophy of the reconstructed tongue for 17 mo after subtotal glossectomy due to tongue cancer and lost 14 kg during that period. Upon admission, the patient received diagnoses of malnutrition in the context of social or environmental circumstances with insufficient energy intake, loss of muscle mass, localized fluid accumulation, weight loss, and sarcopenia due to reduced skeletal muscle mass (skeletal muscle index <3.95 cm(2)/m(2)) and low walking speed (<0.8 m/s). She was not able to eat anything and had a functional oral intake scale level of 1 and penetration-aspiration scale score of 7 points on video fluorography. We increased the nutritional intake to 1900 kcal/d and protein intake to 70.3 g/d by supplying sufficient excess energy, and provided physical therapy and dysphagia rehabilitation to improve sarcopenia, atrophy of the reconstructed tongue, and dysphagia. After 20 mo of treatment, she was considered to be no longer malnourished (11 kg weight gain) and without sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index 4.01 cm(2)/m(2)), and the volume of the reconstructed tongue was increased. Sarcopenia and atrophy of the reconstructed tongue may cause dysphagia after glossectomy due to tongue cancer. Additionally, nutritional support and rehabilitation could improve such dysphagia.

  20. Oral contraceptives and gynecologic cancer: an update for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1992-10-01

    The most recent statistical evidence confirms a protective effect of oral contraceptive use against ovarian and endometrial cancers. Studies of the association between oral contraceptive use and cervical cancer continue to be hampered by confounding factors; however, results suggest that the overall risk of invasive cervical neoplasia is not increased. Although the association between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer remains controversial, existing data strongly suggest that overall risk of breast cancer is not increased by the use of oral contraceptives. In most candidates for oral contraceptive use, the benefits greatly outweigh the risks.

  1. Biologic Mechanisms of Oral Cancer Pain and Implications for Clinical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Viet, C.T.; Schmidt, B.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer pain is an ever-present public health concern. With innovations in treatment, cancer patients are surviving longer, but uncontrollable pain creates a poor quality of life for these patients. Oral cancer is unique in that it causes intense pain at the primary site and significantly impairs speech, swallowing, and masticatory functions. We propose that oral cancer pain has underlying biologic mechanisms that are generated within the cancer microenvironment. A comprehensive understanding of key mediators that control cross-talk between the cancer and peripheral nervous system, and possible interventions, underlies effective cancer pain management. The purpose of this review is to explore the current studies on oral cancer pain and their implications in clinical management for cancer pain in general. Furthermore, we will explore the endogenous opioid systems and novel cancer pain therapeutics that target these systems, which could solve the issue of opiate tolerance and improve quality of life in oral cancer patients. PMID:21972258

  2. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  3. A Novel Peptide for Simultaneously Enhanced Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer and Mitigation of Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peili; Mancini, Maria; Sonis, Stephen T.; Fernandez-Martinez, Juan; Liu, Jing; Cohen, Ezra E. W.; Toback, F. Gary

    2016-01-01

    We have characterized a novel 21 amino acid-peptide derived from Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18 that mediates growth promotion of cultured normal epithelial cells and mitigates radiation-induced oral mucositis in animal models, while suppressing in vitro function of cancer cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate these dual potential therapeutic effects of AMP peptide in a clinically relevant animal model of head and neck cancer (HNC) by simultaneously assessing its effect on tumor growth and radiation-induced oral mucositis in an orthotopic model of HNC. Bioluminescent SCC-25 HNC cells were injected into the anterior tongue and tumors that formed were then subjected to focal radiation treatment. Tumor size was assessed using an in vivo imaging system, and the extent of oral mucositis was compared between animals treated with AMP peptide or vehicle (controls). Synergism between AMP peptide and radiation therapy was suggested by the finding that tumors in the AMP peptide/radiation therapy cohort demonstrated inhibited growth vs. radiation therapy-only treated tumors, while AMP peptide-treatment delayed the onset and reduced the severity of radiation therapy-induced oral mucositis. A differential effect on apoptosis appears to be one mechanism by which AMP-18 can stimulate growth and repair of injured mucosal epithelial cells while inhibiting proliferation of HNC cells. RNA microarray analysis identified pathways that are differentially targeted by AMP-18 in HNC vs. nontransformed cells. These observations confirm the notion that normal cells and tumor cells may respond differently to common biological stimuli, and that leveraging this finding in the case of AMP-18 may provide a clinically relevant opportunity. PMID:27049860

  4. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  5. MMP-13 is involved in oral cancer cell metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shun-Hong; Law, Ching-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Hu, Ren-Yu; Yang, Ching-Chieh; Chung, Ting-Wen; Li, Ji-Min; Lin, Li-Hsun; Liu, Yi-Chung; Liao, En-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wei, Yu-Shan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chien-Wen; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Wang, Lu-Hai; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chan, Hong-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    The oral cancer cell line OC3-I5 with a highly invasive ability was selected and derived from an established OSCC line OC3. In this study, we demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases protein MMP-13 was up-regulated in OC3-I5 than in OC3 cells. We also observed that expression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including Twist, p-Src, Snail1, SIP1, JAM-A, and vinculin were increased in OC3-I5 compared to OC3 cells, whereas E-cadherin expression was decreased in the OC3-I5 cells. Using siMMP-13 knockdown techniques, we showed that siMMP-13 not only reduced the invasion and migration, but also the adhesion abilities of oral cancer cells. In support of the role of MMP-13 in metastasis, we used MMP-13 expressing plasmid-transfected 293T cells to enhance MMP-13 expression in the OC3 cells, transplanting the MMP-13 over expressing OC3 cells into nude mice led to enhanced lung metastasis. In summary, our findings show that MMP-13 promotes invasion and metastasis in oral cancer cells, suggesting altered expression of MMP-13 may be utilized to impede the process of metastasis. PMID:26958809

  6. Tongue base exposure during TORS without the use of a mouth prop.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew C

    2016-12-01

    This study describes a novel exposure technique for base of tongue trans-oral robotic surgery (BOT TORS) and early experience with it. The technique discussed involves placement of a suture through the mobile tongue with distraction and suspension of the tongue to the operating table. TORS is then performed per previously described techniques. In our series, 13 patients with either benign or malignant mass lesions involving the tongue base were treated with TORS at a tertiary academic medical center. We reviewed the rates of adequate exposure, console time, adequacy of resection (in malignant cases), complication rates, and costs associated with this technique. In our series, adequate exposure was achieved in 92.3 % of patients. Mean console time was 36 min. Negative surgical margins were achieved in all cancer resections. Five minor complications (tongue lacerations) were observed. Per-case cost attributable to this technique is $3.81. We conclude that BOT TORS is feasible without the use of a mouth prop. Operative times are consistent with those reported by centers that routinely use mouth props for BOT TORS. This technique does not appear to compromise margin adequacy during oncologic resections. Its use may result in a significant cost savings when compared to the FK and other similar retractors.

  7. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, smoking habit, metastasis and oral cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tsou, Yung-An; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with smoking habits and oral cancer in Taiwan. Two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed in association with oral cancer risk, and their joint effects with individual smoking habits on oral cancer risk are discussed. In total, 620 oral cancer patients and 620 non-cancer controls in central Taiwan were recruited and genotyped. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between the oral cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was significantly more frequently found in controls than in oral cancer patients. Joint effects of smoking and MTHFR C677T genotype significantly affected oral cancer susceptibility. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred lower odds ratios of 0.66 and 0.54 (95% confidence interval=0.49-0.82 and 0.39-0.86), respectively. Those patients with MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes also had a lower risk of oral cancer metastasis. MTHFR C677T genotype may have joint effects with smoking on oral carcinogenesis, and may be a useful biomarker for prediction and prognosis of oral cancer.

  9. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.

  10. Reproducibility and validity of oral visual inspection by trained health workers in the detection of oral precancer and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, B.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Sunilkumar, K. B.; Kuruvila, B.; Pisani, P.; Nair, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized intervention trial is in progress in Kerala, India, to evaluate the effectiveness of oral visual inspection by trained health workers (HWs) in the prevention of oral cancer. Fourteen health workers with college graduation as the basic qualification were trained in oral visual inspection to identify oral cancers and precancers among the participants of the screening trial and to refer them for further confirmation and management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the screening test provided by the health worker against the reference oral visual findings of three physicians. A total of 2069 subjects who had already been examined were re-examined by the health workers and physicians. The sensitivity and the specificity of the oral visual inspection were 94.3% and 99.3% respectively. There was moderate agreement between the findings of the initial and the repeat mouth examinations carried out by the health workers, which were on average 6 months apart. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.85) between the findings of the health workers and the physicians in identifying the different types of oral precancerous lesions. The findings of our study indicate that it is possible to train resource persons to perform the oral cancer screening test as accurately as doctors, although experience appears to be a crucial component of health workers' accuracy. The efficacy of such an approach to reduce the incidence of and mortality from oral cancer, however, remains to be proven. PMID:9252209

  11. Locoregional recurrences after post-operative volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in oral cavity cancers in a resource constrained setting: experience and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Patil, V M; Babu, S; Muttath, G; Thiagarajan, S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The conformal nature of dose distribution produced by volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) increases the risk of geographic miss. Data regarding patterns of failure after VMAT in oral cavity cancers in resource-constrained settings are scarce. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the patterns of failure in patients receiving adjuvant VMAT intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oral cavity cancer in Malabar Cancer Center, Kerala, India. Methods: Data of patients with oral cavity cancer receiving adjuvant VMAT IMRT between April 2012 and March 2014 were collected. Recurrent volumes were delineated on the treatment planning images and classified as defined by Dawson et al (Dawson LA, Anzai Y, Marsh L, Martel MK, Paulino A, Ship JA, et al. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46: 1117–26). Results: 75 patients with a median follow-up of 24 months were analysed. 41 (55%) patients had oral tongue cancers and 52 (69%) of the patients had Stage IVA cancers. The 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival and overall survival were 88.9%, 82.1% and 80.5%, respectively. With a median time to failure of 6.5 months, five infield and three outfield failures were identified. Conclusion: A relatively low rate of outfield failure and lack of marginal failure attests to the efficacy of VMAT in such patients. Modifications to our existing target delineation policy have been proposed. Advances in knowledge: The use of standardized target delineation methods allows safe use of VMAT IMRT even in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25645107

  12. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj; AL Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil; Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim; Merza, Randa Fouad; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P < 0.016)) and 4.3 (0.93- 20.2), P <0.06)), respectively, in the two sites. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for occurrence of cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer.

  13. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  14. NOTCH3 Is Induced in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Promotes Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kayamori, Kou; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Sakamoto, Kei; Ohyama, Yoshio; Hirai, Hideaki; Yukimori, Akane; Ohata, Yae; Akashi, Takumi; Saitoh, Masao; Harada, Kiyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Notch signaling is involved in many types of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). However, the role of Notch signaling in the tumor microenvironment is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of NOTCH3 signaling in cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in OSCCs. Immunohistochemical study of 93 human tongue OSCC cases indicated that about one third of OSCCs showed NOTCH3 expression in CAFs, and that this expression significantly correlated with tumor-size. In vitro study showed that OSCC cell lines, especially HO1-N-1 cells stimulated NOTCH3 expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) through direct cell-to-cell contact. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis using human OSCC samples demonstrated that NOTCH3 expression in CAFs significantly correlated with micro-vessel density in cancer stroma. In vitro angiogenesis assays involving co-culture of NHDFs with HO1-N-1 and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), and NOTCH3 knockdown in NHDFs using siRNA, demonstrated that HO1-N-1 cells significantly promoted tube formation dependent on NOTCH3-expression in NHDFs. Moreover, NOTCH3 expression in CAFs was related to poor prognosis of the OSCC patients. This work provides a new insight into the role of Notch signaling in CAFs associated with tumor angiogenesis and the possibility of NOTCH3-targeted molecular therapy in OSCCs. PMID:27124156

  15. Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012). The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene. PMID:23414605

  16. Impact of microRNA dynamics on cancer hallmarks: An oral cancer scenario.

    PubMed

    Manasa, V G; Kannan, S

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. The discovery of microRNAs has identified a new layer of gene regulation mechanisms, which play a pivotal role in development as well as in various cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, cell growth, and cell death. Deregulated microRNA expression favors acquisition of cancer hallmark traits as well as transforms the tumor microenvironment, leading to tumor development and progression. Many recent studies have revealed altered expression of microRNAs in oral carcinoma with several microRNAs shown to have key biological role in tumorigenesis functioning either as tumor suppressors or as tumor promoters. MicroRNA expression levels correlate with clinicopathological variables and have a diagnostic and prognostic value in oral carcinoma. For these reasons, microRNA has been a hot topic in oral cancer research for the last few years. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present understanding of microRNA deregulation in oral carcinoma, their role in acquiring cancer hallmarks, and their potential diagnostic and prognostic value for oral cancer management.

  17. In vivo Raman spectroscopy for oral cancers diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is sixth among the major malignancies worldwide. Tobacco habits are known as major causative factor in tumor carcinogenesis in oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods, including Raman, are being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. In the present study we have recorded in vivo spectra from contralateral normal and diseased sites of 50 subjects with pathologically confirmed lesions of buccal mucosa using fiber-optic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectra were recorded on similar points as per teeth positions with an average acquisition time of 8 seconds. A total of 215 and 225 spectra from normal and tumor sites, respectively, were recorded. Finger print region (1200-1800 cm-1) was utilized for classification using LDA. Standard-model was developed using 125 normal and 139 tumor spectra from 27 subjects. Two separate clusters with an efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Cross-validation with leave-one-out yielded ~90% efficiency. Remaining 90 normal and 86 tumor spectra were used as test data and predication efficiency of model was evaluated. Findings of the study indicate that Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool can be used for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis.

  18. Cancer patients with oral mucositis: challenges for nursing care1

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Sarah Nilkece Mesquita; Luz, Maria Helena Barros Araújo; da Silva, Grazielle Roberta Freitas; Andrade, Elaine Maria Leite Rangel; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; Moura, Renata Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze nursing care provided to cancer patients with oral mucositis based on the Nursing Process (NP). METHOD: this exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted with 213 patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in two cancer facilities: one philanthropic and one private service. RESULTS: the participants were mainly female, aged 45.8 years old on average, with up to 11 years of schooling and income of up to one times the minimum wage. Severe mucositis was related to chemotherapy associated with radiotherapy. Only 25.3% of the patients reported having received guidance from nurses during their treatment concerning self-care. The perceptions of patients regarding quality of care did not significantly differ between the private and public facilities. The basic human needs mainly affected were comfort, eating, and hygiene. Based on this finding, one NP was established listing the diagnoses, interventions and expected results to establish an ideal, though individualized, standard of nursing care to be provided to these patients. CONCLUSION: to understand oral mucositis is crucial to establish nursing care that includes prevention based on the implementation of an oral care plan. PMID:26039297

  19. Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Tang, Nou-Ying; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-03-01

    In our primary studies, we have shown that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced cytotoxic effects, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells. However, details regarding their effects on DNA damage and repair gene expression in SCC-4 cells are not clear. We investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 cells. Comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) indicated that incubation of SCC-4 cells with 0, 20, 30 and 40 microM of emodin, 0, 25, 50 and 100 microM of aloe-emodin or rhein led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail). This means that all examined agents induced DNA damage in SCC-4 cells and these effects are dose-dependent but emodin is stronger than that of aloe-emodin or rhein. The results from real-time PCR assay demonstrated that 30 microM of emodin or aloe-emodin used for 24 and 48 h treatment in SCC-4 cells significantly inhibited expression of genes associated with DNA damage and repair [ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM); ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR); 14-3-3sigma (14-3-3sigma); breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1); and DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNA-PK)]; only rhein suppressed the expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA with 48 h treatment, but had no effect on ATM expression. On 24 h treatment, only aloe-emodin significantly affected ATM expression. These effects may be the vital factors for emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induction of DNA damage in vitro. In conclusion, these agents induced DNA damage followed by the inhibition of DNA repair-associated gene expressions, including ATM, ATR, 14-3-3sigma, BRCA1, DNA-PK and MGMT in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells.

  20. Atypical tongue-tie due to congenital tongue-palate fusion.

    PubMed

    Din, Saif Ud

    2003-08-01

    We are presenting a case report of a male neonate brought in an emergency room with feeding inability and signs of respiratory difficulty due to oral passage blockade - a developmental anomaly caused by tongue-palate fusion. Surgical correction instantly relieved respiratory distress and established the normal oral feeding mechanism.

  1. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral cancer present with advanced disease. There are several ways of trying to diagnose oral cancer in a lower tumor stage, being 1) mass screening or screening in selected patients, 2) reduction of patients’ delay, and 3) reduction of doctors’ delay. Oral cancer population-based screening (“mass screening”) programs do not meet the guidelines for a successful outcome. There may be some benefit when focusing on high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers and heavy drinkers. Reported reasons for patients’ delay range from fear of a diagnosis of cancer, limited accessibility of primary health care, to unawareness of the possibility of malignant oral diseases. Apparently, information campaigns in news programs and TV have little effect on patients’ delay. Mouth self-examination may have some value in reducing patients’ delay. Doctors’ delay includes dentists’ delay and diagnostic delay caused by other medical and dental health care professionals. Doctors’ delay may vary from almost zero days up to more than six months. Usually, morbidity of cancer treatment is measured by quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. In the past decades this topic has drawn a lot of attention worldwide. It is a challenge to decrease the morbidity that is associated with the various treatment modalities that are used in oral cancer without substantially compromising the survival rate. Smoking cessation contributes to reducing the risk of oral cancers, with a 50% reduction in risk within five years. Indeed, risk factor reduction seems to be the most effective tool in an attempt to decrease the morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, quality of life

  2. Mutations in circulating mitochondrial DNA: Cassandra of oral cancer?

    PubMed

    Kandel, Eugene S

    2012-07-01

    Cell-free circulating nucleic acids in human blood are increasing being researched as a source of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for clinical oncology. High copy number per cell and frequent mutations in various malignancies make mitochondrial genome an attractive target for such an investigation, but practical development and validation of biomarkers based on cell-free mitochondrial DNA has been lagging. Uzawa and colleagues report in the July issue of Oncotarget that in a retrospective study of patients with oral cancer the load of mutant mitochondrial DNA in patient's serum was a strong indicator of postoperative recurrence. Based on these observations, the predictive value of circulating mutant mitochondrial DNA merits further evaluation in patients with oral and other malignancies.

  3. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  4. Anti-cancer activity of bromelain nanoparticles by oral administration.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Patnaik, Soma; Srivastava, Amit K; Mudiam, Mohan K R; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya K; Pant, Aditya B; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2014-12-01

    Oral administration of anti-cancer drugs is an effective alternative to improve their efficacy and reduce undesired toxicity. Bromelain (BL) is known as an effective anti-cancer phyto-therapeutic agent, however, its activity is reduced upon oral administration. In addressing the issue, BL was encapsulated in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to formulate nanoparticles (NPs). Further, the NPs were coated with Eudragit L30D polymer to introduce stability against the gastric acidic conditions. The resultant coated NPs were characterized for BL entrapment, proteolytic activity and mean particle size. The stability and release pattern of NPs were evaluated under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH conditions. Cytotoxicity studies carried out in human cell lines of diverse origin have shown significant dose advantage (-7-10 folds) with NPs in reducing the IC50 values compared with free BL. The cellular uptake of NPs in MCF-7, HeLa and Caco-2 cells monolayer was significantly enhanced several folds as compared to free BL. Altered expression of marker proteins associated with apoptosis and cell death (P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax) also confirmed the enhanced anti-carcinogenic potential of formulated NPs. Oral administration of NPs reduced the tumor burden of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and also increased their life-span (160.0 ± 5.8%) when compared with free BL (24 ± 3.2%). The generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential in EAC cells treated with NPs confirmed the suitability of Eudragit coated BL-NPs as a promising candidate for oral chemotherapy.

  5. Posttraumatic growth: a novel concept in oral cavity cancer care?

    PubMed

    Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Jenewein, Josef; McGrath, Colman Patrick Joseph; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2010-11-01

    Recently the importance of posttraumatic growth (PTG), a phenomenon of positive psychological growth beyond baseline values, has been discovered in the field of oncology. An evidence based review of the literature regarding PTG was performed, both to support its understanding and to consider its application within the research field of oral cavity (OC) cancer. A Pubmed, Medline, PsycINFO search from the earliest date until April 2010 was carried out. Full articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed. The search yielded 852 papers, 91 'potentially relevant papers' and 29 'effective papers', the latter of which formed the basis of this review. PTG was assessed in twenty-eight studies with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and in only one study with the Perceived Benefits Scale (PBS). PTG in cancer patients has been reported in five main domains (i) appreciation of life, (ii) relating to others, (iii) increased personal sense, (iv) sense of new possibilities and (v) positive spiritual change. Socio-demographic factors, stressor characteristics and coping strategies influence and predict the development PTG. In the past decade an increasing interest in the concept of PTG in the field of oncology has emerged. This evidence based review presents PTG to the research community in the field of OC cancer, appraises its modification capacity of the treatment outcome in other cancer research fields and hypothesizes its eventual benefit in the field of OC cancer research.

  6. Oxygen metabolism in oral cancer: HIF and GLUTs (Review)

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, KARUZA MARIA ALVES; CHAVES, FILIPE NOBRE; VIANA, THALES SALLES ANGELIM; CARVALHO, FRANCISCO SAMUEL RODRIGUES; COSTA, FÁBIO WILDSON GURGEL; ALVES, ANA PAULA NEGREIROS NUNES; SOUSA, FABRÍCIO BITU

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and has a poor prognosis. This has encouraged additional studies into factors that may affect the development of this disease. The biological behavior of malignant neoplasms is complex. Studies have investigated the energy metabolism of tumor cells, in an endeavor to elucidate the tumor biology. The identification of molecular signatures and mechanisms, in order to understand tumor progression, may facilitate the identification of novel predictive and prognostic markers. Pathways that influence tumor progression, such as those involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins, have been the targets of recent studies. PMID:24137322

  7. Expression of CK19 is an independent predictor of negative outcome for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Apel, Barbara; Schumann, Desiree M.; Huber, Gerhard; Studer, Gabriela; Rordorf, Tamara; Riesterer, Oliver; Rössle, Matthias; Korol, Dimitri; Bredell, Marius G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prognostic role of CK19 expression in squamous cell carcinomas within a well-defined cohort of oral tongue cancer patients. Methods In our retrospective study, we investigated 129 patients with tongue cancer that had suitable material for inclusion in a tissue microarray (TMA). Where possible, samples were taken from central and peripheral regions of the tumor to generate a representative sample of the tumor. The expression level of CK19 was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Results Expression of CK19 in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was identified as a negative predictor for overall survival (OS; p<0.000) and disease specific survival (DSS; p=0.001). No significant difference could be shown for disease free survival (DFS) between patients with positive and negative CK19 staining (p=.094). Conclusion This is the first description of the highly significant role of CK19 in a selective, organ specific head and neck cancer cohort. Our results are of special importance against the background that CK19 positive carcinomas revealed a significantly poorer prognosis and therefore emphasize its prognostic and possible diagnostic role in tongue cancer. PMID:27764819

  8. Association of Smokeless Tobacco with Oral Cancer - Evidence From the South Asian Studies: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-09-01

    Smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with many heath hazards including oral cancer. Its use is more common in South Asian countries. The current paper aims to systematically review the South Asian studies to assess the association of SLT and oral cancer. Detailed automated literature searches of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science from January 1980 to July 2015 were conducted using the key words "oral cancer", "oral precancer", "oral premalignant lesions", "oral squamous cell carcinoma", "smokeless tobacco", "betel quid", "areca nut", "Gutkha" in various combinations. Letters to the editor, review articles, and case-reports were excluded. Atotal of 21 studies were included. Three studies were of cohort design while the remaining were of case-control design. Nine studies reported betel quid as a risk factor for oral cancer, while fifteen studies reported data on other types of chewing tobacco. The odds ratio (OR) for betel quid and risk of oral cancer varied from 3.1 to 15.7 (11.0-22.1); and for chewable tobacco and risk of oral cancer varied from 1.2 (1.0-1.4) to 12.9 (7.5-22.3). Astrong association between different types of SLTand oral cancer was observed. Well-structured programmes should be employed in South Asian region, both in terms of educating the general public about the health hazards of SLTas well as providing cessation assistance.

  9. Occupation and oral cancer among women in the South

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, D.M.; Blot, W.J.; Shy, C.M.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A case-control interview study among 232 North Carolina women with oral or pharyngeal cancer and 410 matched controls evaluated the contribution of occupation to the high risk of this cancer among females in the South. Review of detailed occupational histories found no overall elevated odds ratios for employment in the textile, apparel, or hosiery industry, the major employer of women in the area. Risks also did not increase with years worked in the industry. The findings thus fail to confirm an association reported in surveys in the United States and Great Britain. A new clue to occupational factors was suggested by the excess risk associated with the electronics industry in coastal North Carolina, independent of the participants' tobacco habits.

  10. The joint effect of smoking and hOGG1 genotype on oral cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tsou, Yung-An; Shih, Liang-Chun; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Chang, Wen-Shin; Ho, Chien-Yi; Lee, Hong-Zin; Bau, Da-Tian

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the association and interaction among human 8-oxoguanine DNA N-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) genotypic polymorphism, smoking status and oral cancer risk in Taiwan. For this purpose, the well-known polymorphic variants of hOGG1, codon 326, was analyzed for its association with oral cancer susceptibility, and its joint effect with individual smoking habits on oral cancer susceptibility. In total, 620 patients with oral cancer and 620 healthy controls were recruited from the China Medical Hospital and genotyped. The results showed that the hOGG1 codon 326 genotypes were differently distributed between the oral cancer and control groups (p=0.0266), with the C allele of hOGG1 codon 326 being significantly (p=0.0046) more frequently found in cancer patients than in controls. We further analyzed the genetic-smoking joint effects on oral cancer risk and found an interaction between hOGG1 codon 326 genotypes and smoking status. The hOGG1 codon 326 CC genotype was associated with oral cancer risk only in the smoker group (p=0.0198), but not in the non-chewer group (p=0.8357). Our results provide evidence that the C allele of hOGG1 codon 326 may have a joint effect with smoking on the development of oral cancer.

  11. Huge congenital haemangioma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Ulku; Pala, Emel Ebru; Bayol, Umit; Cakir, Ebru; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Gumussoy, Murat

    2014-12-01

    Haemangiomas, the most common type of benign vascular tumours, are rare in the oral cavity. Some of these lesions are congenital and show symptoms in late childhood or early adult life. A 32-years-old woman presented with a huge lesion on her tongue which caused dysphagia and dysphasia. She had first noticed the lesion when she was 6. Her obstructive symptoms started when she was 28 and, despite various medical treatments, the size of the lesion gradually increased. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 7 x 5 x 3 cm mass on the right side of the tongue. Because of severe functional and cosmetic problems, the lesion was excised with partial haemiglossectomy. Histopathological examination was consistent with intramuscular haemangioma. Haemangiomas are benign tumours with a benign course and are rarely seen on the tongue. They have clinical importance when localised in the oral cavity. Different treatment modalities exist, but in cases of large tumours, surgery may be the mainstay treatment.

  12. The oral cavity microbiota: between health, oral disease and cancers of the aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, Pierre; Metamoros, Sebastien; Montassier, Emmanuel; Le Vacon, Françoise; Potel, Gilles; Soueidan, Assem; Jordana, Fabienne; De La Cochétière, Marie-France

    2017-03-03

    Many studies show that the human microbiome plays a critical role in the chronic pathologies of obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. More recently, the interaction between cancer and the microbiome has been highlighted. Most studies have focused on the gut microbiota because it represents the most extensive bacterial community, and the body of evidence correlating it with gut syndromes is increasing. However, in the strict sense, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the oral cavity, and special attention should be paid to the specific flora of this cavity. This study reviewed the current knowledge about the various microbial ecosystems of the upper part of the GI tract and discussed their potential link to carcinogenesis. The overall composition of the microbial communities, as well as the presence or absence of 'key species' in relation to carcinogenesis, is addressed. Alterations in the oral microbiota can potentially be used to predict the risk of cancer. Molecular advances and the further monitoring of the microbiota will increase our understanding of the role of the microbiota in carcinogenesis and open new perspectives for future therapeutic and prophylactic modalities.

  13. Tongue movement kinematics in long and short Japanese consonants

    PubMed Central

    Löfqvist, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines tongue movements in stop and fricative consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction for the consonant is varied for linguistic purposes. Native speakers of Japanese served as subjects. The linguistic material consisted of Japanese word pairs that only differed in the duration of the lingual consonant, which was either long or short. Recordings were made of tongue movements using a magnetometer system. Results show a robust difference in closure duration between the long and short consonants. Overall, the path of the tongue movement during the consonant was longer for the long than for the short consonant. All speakers decreased the speed of the tongue movement during the long consonant. These adjustments in tongue movements were most likely made to maintain the contact between the tongue and the palate for the closure and constriction. PMID:17614508

  14. Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pancholi, Mayank; Sharma, Sanjay; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Methods: This was a study of the patients presenting with recurrent oral cavity cancer after exhausted ipsilateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (PMMC) in whom we used contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (Crossed PMMC Flap) for reconstruction between October 2013 to June 2016. Results: Five patients with recurrence underwent reconstruction with contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap. In all the flap was successfully used to reconstruct defects involving the entire buccal mucosa and in one patient the flap could be used to reconstruct full thickness resection defect(crossed bipedal PMMC Flap) with ease. Conclusion: Crossed Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap can be used safely and reliably for reconstruction of the buccal mucosal defect and in selected patients even for full thickness cheek defect as folded bipaddle Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

  15. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Rural Latino Migrant Workers.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Virginia J; Schenck, David P; Chaney, Elizabeth H; Padhya, Tapan

    2016-06-01

    Latino migrant farm workers suffer significant health disparities, including poor oral health. The purpose of this research was to assess Latino migrant farm workers' OC awareness, including knowledge and care-seeking behaviors. A 42-item survey was developed. Trained, bilingual researchers verbally administered the survey to migrant farm workers in Hillsborough County, Florida. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were generated to report baseline data. The sample consisted of 53.7 % female respondents. The mean age for males and females respectively was 38.7 and 39.2. Most respondents had attended grade school; 6.7 % never attended school. Perceptions of cancer susceptibility were present; knowledge of OC risk factors, signs and symptoms was low. Participants were unlikely to seek preventive care. The results contribute to the limited studies regarding Latino migrant farm workers and oral cancer risk factor awareness and knowledge. Findings highlight factors influencing motivation and care-seeking behaviors, as well as provide guidance for development of educational materials.

  16. The application of data mining techniques to oral cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Ting; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Roan, Jinsheng; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2015-05-01

    This study adopted an integrated procedure that combines the clustering and classification features of data mining technology to determine the differences between the symptoms shown in past cases where patients died from or survived oral cancer. Two data mining tools, namely decision tree and artificial neural network, were used to analyze the historical cases of oral cancer, and their performance was compared with that of logistic regression, the popular statistical analysis tool. Both decision tree and artificial neural network models showed superiority to the traditional statistical model. However, as to clinician, the trees created by the decision tree models are relatively easier to interpret compared to that of the artificial neural network models. Cluster analysis also discovers that those stage 4 patients whose also possess the following four characteristics are having an extremely low survival rate: pN is N2b, level of RLNM is level I-III, AJCC-T is T4, and cells mutate situation (G) is moderate.

  17. Knowledge of Future Dental Practitioners towards Oral Cancer: Exploratory Findings from a Public University in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bin Zakaria, Nazrin; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess knowledge and awareness of oral cancer in the early identification of risk factors among undergraduate dental students. Methods. A total of 162 undergraduate (third, fourth, and fifth year) dental students at International Islamic University, Malaysia, were approached to participate in the study, and those who agreed were administered. A 9-item pretested questionnaire contains questions on oral examination, oral cancer risk factors, and requests for further information. Descriptive statistics were conducted using chi-square testing. Results. The response rate of the study was 70.3% (114/162), with 26 (22.8%) males and 88 (77.2%) females. All undergraduate dental students were familiar with examining the oral mucosa of their patients and most were likely to advise patients about the risk factors for developing oral cancer (98.2%). Nearly one-third (32.4%) of students reported examining patients with oral lesions as early signs for oral cancer (P < 0.001) and nearly 70% agreed that they did not have sufficient knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer (P < 0.001). In addition, more than 95.6% agreed that there is a need for additional information/teaching regarding oral cancer. Further, 61.3% and 14.1% identified tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol as major risk factors for developing oral cancer. Conclusion. This study demonstrated lack of awareness about risk factors among undergraduate dental students regarding oral cancer. Reinforcing awareness and enhancing the benefits of early detection on prevention of oral cancer should be done through training and/or educational intervention. PMID:26839548

  18. Psoriasis of the dorsal surface of the tongue.

    PubMed

    De Biase, A; Guerra, F; Polimeni, A; Ottolenghi, L; Pezza, M; Richetta, A G

    2005-09-01

    Psoriasis is primarily an inherited inflammatory skin disease, it is characterized by erythemato-squamous lesions that usually involve elbows, knees and the scalp. Oral manifestations are rare in psoriasis, infact, oral psoriasis involves 2% of psoriatic patients and usually it is observed with the onset of cutaneous lesions and progresses with them. Differential diagnosis should be done for Reiter's syndrome, leukoplakia and geographic tongue. The authors describe a case of tongue psoriasis without cutaneous lesions.

  19. The association of smoking, alcoholic consumption, betel quid chewing and oral cavity cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Tin; Lin, Whe-Dar; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Liu, Shih-An

    2008-11-01

    We aimed to analyze the relationship between smoking, alcoholic consumption and betel quid chewing with oral cavity cancer. All male patients age > or =18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosal inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 8,356 patients were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 382 patients (4.6%). Two hundred and ninety-seven patients received biopsy and 191 patients were proven to have oral cavity cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that those who smoked, consumed alcohol and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to contract oral cancer (odds ratio: 39.66, 95% confidence interval: 26.04-60.38). Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cavity cancer and should receive oral mucosal screening regularly so potential oral cavity cancer can be detected as early as possible, which may result in better and improved survival of oral cancer patients.

  20. Upregulation of PTEN suppresses invasion in Tca8113 tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Xie, Siming; Lu, Zhiyuan; Lin, Yanzhu; Shen, Lijia; Yin, Cao

    2016-05-01

    We previously discovered that the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was downregulated in the majority patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTEN overexpression in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the tongue squamous carcinoma cell line Tca8113 as well as explore the underlying mechanism. GV230 (containing the PTEN gene) and empty vectors were transfected into Tca8113 cells. After stable transfection, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of PTEN were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The growth and cell cycle were analyzed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry, respectively. The invasion ability was measured with a transwell assay. The effects of PTEN overexpression on EMT and Hedgehog signaling were assessed by comparing Tca8113-PTEN cells with control and negative control cell groups. We found that PTEN expression was significantly upregulated after transfection. Meanwhile, upregulated PTEN inhibited the proliferation and invasion of Tca8113 cells. In addition, we observed changes in the EMT- and Hedgehog-associated proteins. These data demonstrated that PTEN upregulation could reduce invasion by inhibiting the process of EMT in Tca8113 cells, which might be related to the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  1. Detecting oral cancer: a new technique and case reports.

    PubMed

    Kois, John C; Truelove, Edmond

    2006-10-01

    The VELscope is an important aid in patient assessment, and when added to a well-thought out clinical assessment process that takes into consideration the age of the patient and risk factors that include tobacco, alcohol, and immunologic status, it increases the clinician's ability to detect oral changes that may represent premalignant or malignant cellular transformation. False positive findings are possible in the presence of highly inflamed lesions, and it is possible that use of the scope alone may result in failure to detect regions of dysplasia, but it has been our experience that use of the VELscope improves clinical decision making about the nature of oral lesions and aids in decisions to biopsy regions of concern. Where tissue changes are generalized or cover significant areas of the mouth, use of the scope has allowed us to identify the best region for biopsy. As with all clinical diagnostic activities, no single system or process is enough, and all clinicians are advised to use good clinical practice to assess patients and to recall and biopsy lesions that do not resolve within a predetermined time frame. Lesions that are VELscope-positive and absorb light need to be followed with particular caution, and if they do not resolve within a 2-week period, then further assessment and biopsy are generally advised. It is much better to occasionally sample tissue that turns out to be benign than to fail to diagnose dysplastic or malignant lesions. In our fight to protect patients from cancer, the VELscope improves our odds for early detection, hopefully resulting in fewer deaths from oral cancer.

  2. Overexpression of artemin in the tongue increases expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal afferents and causes oral sensitivity to capsaicin and mustard oil.

    PubMed

    Elitt, Christopher M; Malin, Sacha A; Koerber, H Richard; Davis, Brian M; Albers, Kathryn M

    2008-09-16

    Artemin, a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, supports a subpopulation of trigeminal sensory neurons through activation of the Ret/GFRalpha3 receptor tyrosine kinase complex. In a previous study we showed that artemin is increased in inflamed skin of wildtype mice and that transgenic overexpression of artemin in skin increases TRPV1 and TRPA1 expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons. In this study we examined how transgenic overexpression of artemin in tongue epithelium affects the anatomy, gene expression and calcium handling properties of trigeminal sensory afferents. At the RNA level, trigeminal ganglia of artemin overexpresser mice (ART-OEs) had an 81% increase in GFRalpha3, a 190% increase in TRPV1 and a 403% increase in TRPA1 compared to wildtype (WT) controls. Myelinated and unmyelinated fibers of the lingual nerve were increased in diameter, as was the density of GFRalpha3 and TRPV1-positive innervation to the dorsal anterior tongue and fungiform papilla. Retrograde labeling of trigeminal afferents by WGA injection into the tip of the tongue showed an increased percentage of GFRalpha3, TRPV1 and isolectin B4 afferents in ART-OE mice. ART-OE afferents had larger calcium transients in response to ligands of TRPV1 (capsaicin) and TRPA1 (mustard oil). Behavioral sensitivity was also exhibited by ART-OE mice to capsaicin and mustard oil, measured using a two-choice drinking test. These results suggest a potential role for artemin-responsive GFRalpha3/TRPV1/TRPA1 sensory afferents in mediating sensitivity associated with tissue injury, chemical sensitivity or disease states such as burning mouth syndrome.

  3. Role of radium implants in cancer of the oral cavity and oral pharynx. [Control and survival rates and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Fayos, J.V.

    1980-04-01

    Eighty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity tonsillar region or base of the tongue received a radium implant. Implants were done as a supplement to external irradiation except in three patients in whom it was the sole form of treatment. The median dose was 8500 rad given in about 8 weeks, 6000 to 6500 rad given by opposing lateral fields using /sup 60/Co radiation; 25% of the patients received doses higher than 8600 rad. The implant boosted the dose to the primary. Most of the patients who had radium implants had advanced disease. The overall control rate of the primary was 45.9%, the highest control achieved with smaller lesions. Surgery was performed in 26 patients for recurrence at the primary; five developed osteonecrosis of the jaw bone. The survival at 4 and 5 years was approximately equal for Stages I and II (80%); it was 40% for Stages III and IV.

  4. Latino Youths' Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Use of Tobacco and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Goodman, Harold S.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Duran-Medina, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Latino youths completed surveys about their knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer and tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, trained youths attempted to purchase cigarettes from local stores. Respondents were ill-informed about oral cancer. Over half knew risk factors for smoking and alcohol use. Over half of the stores would have sold…

  5. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity.

  6. Oral hygiene in patients with oral cancer undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy after prosthesis rehabilitation: protocol proposal

    PubMed Central

    RAPONE, B.; NARDI, G.M.; DI VENERE, D.; PETTINI, F.; GRASSI, F.R.; CORSALINI, M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose This study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness and the importance of an oral hygiene (OH) protocol in patients undergoing radiation therapy and chemotherapy after prosthesis rehabilitation, in order to reduce or minimize oral complications. Materials and methods This study was carried out at the Department of Dental Science, at the University of Bari-Italy from December 2012 to December 2015 on 34 selected patients with primary oral cancer undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy after prosthesis rehabilitation. They were divided into 2 groups according to their age, sex and cancer therapy. Seventeen patients were assigned to the control group and seventeen in the experimental one. In the experimental group (Table 1), patients underwent an oral hygiene protocol whereas in the control group (Table 2) patients received the usual care provided within the clinical setting. All the patients gave written informed consent. It has been asked and obtained the authorisation from the Ethics Committee of the Dental Science and Surgery Department. Results Results show that in patients undergoing the oral hygiene protocol, the complications and the risks of infection and permanent dental problems have been minimized. Indeed, of the seventeen patients undergoing the OH protocol, 70% obtained positive results and were satisfied with the program outcome. Conclusions The role of the health care providers is essential to educate patients to adhere to the prescribed treatments and reinforce their motivation in oral hygiene. The oral hygiene procedures prevent and ameliorate oral complications due to the radiation therapy and chemotherapy. PMID:28280537

  7. Early diagnosis of tongue malignancy using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Unnikrishnan V., K.; Ongole, Ravikiran; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-07-01

    Oral cancer together with pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with high mortality ratio among all malignancies [1]. Worldwide 450,000 new cases are estimated in 2014[2]. About 90% are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC of the tongue is the most common oral malignancy accounting for approximately 40% of all oral carcinomas. One of the important factors for successful therapy of any malignancy is early diagnosis. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, lack of reliable diagnostic methods for early detection leading to delay in therapy is an important factor responsible for the increase in the mortality rate in various types of cancers. Spectroscopy techniques are extremely sensitive for the analysis of biochemical changes in cellular systems. These techniques can provide a valuable information on alterations that occur during the development of cancer. This is especially important in oral cancer, where "tumor detection is complicated by a tendency towards field cancerization, leading to multi-centric lesions" and "current techniques detect malignant change too late" [3], and "biopsies are not representative of the whole premalignant lesion". [4

  8. Design of a smartphone-camera-based fluorescence imaging system for the detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthoff, Ross

    Shown is the design of the Smartphone Oral Cancer Detection System (SOCeeDS). The SOCeeDS attaches to a smartphone and utilizes its embedded imaging optics and sensors to capture images of the oral cavity to detect oral cancer. Violet illumination sources excite the oral tissues to induce fluorescence. Images are captured with the smartphone's onboard camera. Areas where the tissues of the oral cavity are darkened signify an absence of fluorescence signal, indicating breakdown in tissue structure brought by precancerous or cancerous conditions. With this data the patient can seek further testing and diagnosis as needed. Proliferation of this device will allow communities with limited access to healthcare professionals a tool to detect cancer in its early stages, increasing the likelihood of cancer reversal.

  9. Role of p16/MTS1, cyclin D1 and RB in primary oral cancer and oral cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, M; Steingrimsdottir, H; Elamin, F; Gäken, J; Warnakulasuriya, S; Partridge, M; Thakker, N; Johnson, N W; Tavassoli, M

    1999-01-01

    One of the most important components of G1 checkpoint is the retinoblastoma protein (pRB110). The activity of pRB is regulated by its phosphorylation, which is mediated by genes such as cyclin D1 and p16/MTS1. All three genes have been shown to be commonly altered in human malignancies. We have screened a panel of 26 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), nine premalignant and three normal oral tissue samples as well as eight established OSCC cell lines for mutations in the p16/MTS1 gene. The expression of p16/MTS1, cyclin D1 and pRB110 was also studied in the same panel. We have found p16/MTS1 gene alterations in 5/26 (19%) primary tumours and 6/8 (75%) cell lines. Two primary tumours and five OSCC cell lines had p16/MTS1 point mutations and another three primary and one OSCC cell line contained partial gene deletions. Six of seven p16/MTS1 point mutations resulted in termination codons and the remaining mutation caused a frameshift. Western blot analysis showed absence of p16/MTS1 expression in 18/26 (69%) OSCC, 7/9 (78%) premalignant lesions and 8/8 cell lines. One cell line, H314, contained a frameshift mutation possibly resulting in a truncated p16/MTS1 protein. pRB was detected in 14/25 (56%) of OSCC but only 11/14 (78%) of these contained all or some hypophosphorylated (active) pRB. In premalignant samples, 6/8 (75%) displayed pRB, and all three normal samples and eight cell lines analysed contained RB protein. p16/MTS1 protein was undetectable in 10/11 (91%) OSCCs with positive pRB. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was observed in 9/22 (41%) OSCC, 3/9 (33%) premalignant and 8/8 (100%) of OSCC cell lines. Our data suggest p16/MTS1 mutations and loss of expression to be very common in oral cancer cell lines and less frequent in primary OSCC tumours. A different pattern of p16/MTS1 mutations was observed in OSCC compared to other cancers with all the detected p16/MTS1 mutations resulting in premature termination codons or a frameshift. The RB protein was expressed

  10. Cat tongue Velcro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  11. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  12. Comparative analysis of volumetric-modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for base of tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nithya, L.; Raj, N. Arunai Nambi; Kumar, Arulraj; Rathinamuthu, Sasikumar; Pandey, Manish Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the various dosimetric parameters of dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for base of tongue cases. All plans were done in Monaco planning system for Elekta synergy linear accelerator with 80 MLC. IMRT plans were planned with nine stationary beams, and VMAT plans were done for 360° arc with single arc or dual arc. The dose to the planning target volumes (PTV) for 70, 63, and 56 Gy was compared. The dose to 95, 98, and 50% volume of PTV were analyzed. The homogeneity index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) of the PTV70 were also analyzed. IMRT and VMAT plan showed similar dose coverage, HI, and CI. Maximum dose and dose to 1-cc volume of spinal cord, planning risk volume (PRV) cord, and brain stem were compared. IMRT plan and VMAT plan showed similar results except for the 1 cc of PRV cord that received slightly higher dose in VMAT plan. Mean dose and dose to 50% volume of right and left parotid glands were analyzed. VMAT plan gave better sparing of parotid glands than IMRT. In normal tissue dose analyses VMAT was better than IMRT. The number of monitor units (MU) required for delivering the good quality of the plan and the time required to deliver the plan for IMRT and VMAT were compared. The number of MUs for VMAT was higher than that of IMRT plans. However, the delivery time was reduced by a factor of two for VMAT compared with IMRT. VMAT plans yielded good quality of the plan compared with IMRT, resulting in reduced treatment time and improved efficiency for base of tongue cases. PMID:24872611

  13. An Overview of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Status in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, José Henrique; Silva, Patrícia Manuela; Reis, Rita Margarida; Moura, Inês Moranguinho; Marques, Sandra; Fonseca, Joana; Monteiro, Luís Silva; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal chromosome number, or aneuploidy, is a common feature of human solid tumors, including oral cancer. Deregulated spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is thought as one of the mechanisms that drive aneuploidy. In normal cells, SAC prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes are correctly aligned at the metaphase plate thereby ensuring genomic stability. Significantly, the activity of this checkpoint is compromised in many cancers. While mutations are rather rare, many tumors show altered expression levels of SAC components. Genomic alterations such as aneuploidy indicate a high risk of oral cancer and cancer-related mortality, and the molecular basis of these alterations is largely unknown. Yet, our knowledge on the status of SAC components in oral cancer remains sparse. In this review, we address the state of our knowledge regarding the SAC defects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in oral cancer, and discuss their therapeutic relevance, focusing our analysis on the core components of SAC and its target Cdc20. PMID:24995269

  14. LED induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager with eight multi-filters for oral cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. The simple oral visual screening by clinician can reduce 37,000 oral cancer deaths annually worldwide. However, the conventional oral examination with the visual inspection and the palpation of oral lesions is not an objective and reliable approach for oral cancer diagnosis, and it may cause the delayed hospital treatment for the patients of oral cancer or leads to the oral cancer out of control in the late stage. Therefore, a device for oral cancer detection are developed for early diagnosis and treatment. A portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager is developed by our group. It contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and the rotary filter ring of eight channels to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. The advantages of LIAF imager compared to other devices for oral cancer diagnosis are that LIAF imager has a probe of L shape for fixing the object distance, protecting the effect of ambient light, and observing the blind spot in the deep port between the gumsgingiva and the lining of the mouth. Besides, the multiple excitation of LED light source can induce multiple autofluorescence, and LIAF imager with the rotary filter ring of eight channels can detect the spectral images of multiple narrow bands. The prototype of a portable LIAF imager is applied in the clinical trials for some cases in Taiwan, and the images of the clinical trial with the specific excitation show the significant differences between normal tissue and oral tissue under these cases.

  15. Geographic tongue and tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Marinho, Rui Tato; Velosa, José; Costa, João Borges

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B was started on tenofovir. One month after initiating the new medication, he developed severe symptomatology with odynophagia and a very painful tongue. The physical examination reveals multiple erythematous patches on his tongue and a biopsy was performed. It allowed the diagnosis of benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue. The patient was kept on tenofovir, but had to start topical corticoid therapy. Geographic tongue is a common condition that may be caused by drug idiosyncrasy, but has never before been associated to tenofovir. It is usually asymptomatic, but sometimes it causes severe symptoms, being an important impairment of quality of life. PMID:23598934

  16. Visualization techniques for tongue analysis in traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Binh L.; Cai, Yang

    2004-05-01

    Visual inspection of the tongue has been an important diagnostic method of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Clinic data have shown significant connections between various viscera cancers and abnormalities in the tongue and the tongue coating. Visual inspection of the tongue is simple and inexpensive, but the current practice in TCM is mainly experience-based and the quality of the visual inspection varies between individuals. The computerized inspection method provides quantitative models to evaluate color, texture and surface features on the tongue. In this paper, we investigate visualization techniques and processes to allow interactive data analysis with the aim to merge computerized measurements with human expert's diagnostic variables based on five-scale diagnostic conditions: Healthy (H), History Cancers (HC), History of Polyps (HP), Polyps (P) and Colon Cancer (C).

  17. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Keya; Kaur, Gurbani; Marwah, Muneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim To conduct a systematic review on the role of myofibroblasts in progression of oral cancer. The myofibroblast is essential for the integrity of the mammalian body by virtue of its role in wound healing, but it also plays a negative role due to their role in promoting tumor development. Settings and design Systematic review. Materials and methods Bibliographic searches were conducted in several electronic databases using all publications in PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, CancerLit, Google scholar, and Cochrane CCTR between 1990 and June 2015. Results The search of all publications from various electronic databases revealed 1,371 citations. The total number of studies considered for systematic review was 43. The total number of patients included in the studies was 990. Conclusion Myofibroblasts are a significant component in stroma of oral cancer cases, though not identified in all cases. This systematic review shows that clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemistry tests have correlated the presence of high myofibroblast count in oral cancer cell stroma. Key Messages Myofibroblasts play a significant role in oral cancer invasion and progression. Various studies have demonstrated their association with oral cancer. This review tends to highlight their role in the pathogenesis of oral cancer over the decade. How to cite this article Sekhon HK, Sircar K, Kaur G, Marwah M. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):233-239. PMID:27843256

  18. Surgical Margins and Its Evaluation in Oral Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Annavajjula, Saileela

    2014-01-01

    The main surgical goal while treating cancer is to remove all local malignant disease with no residual malignant cells left. Overall benefits of achieving negative resection margins in terms of disease free local recurrence and overall survival has been discussed in many studies. The quantity of normal tissue to be removed during surgical procedure has not been standardised. Local recurrence can also occur among tumours with extensive histological demonstration of adequate resection margins. Oral cavity, submandibular region, tonsil and pharynx are the sites which have high chances of recurrence, even after showing negative margins. Therefore, the current approaches for histological risk assessment and various methods of evaluation of the surgical margins with their limitations are briefed in the present article. PMID:25386547

  19. Love Acoustic Wave-Based Devices and Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers as Versatile Sensors for Electronic Nose or Tongue for Cancer Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Dejous, Corinne; Hallil, Hamida; Raimbault, Vincent; Lachaud, Jean-Luc; Plano, Bernard; Delépée, Raphaël; Favetta, Patrick; Agrofoglio, Luigi; Rebière, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and actual analytical techniques are restrictive in detecting it. Thus, there is still a challenge, as well as a need, for the development of quantitative non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of cancers and the follow-up care of patients. We introduce first the overall interest of electronic nose or tongue for such application of microsensors arrays with data processing in complex media, either gas (e.g., Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs as biomarkers in breath) or liquid (e.g., modified nucleosides as urinary biomarkers). Then this is illustrated with a versatile acoustic wave transducer, functionalized with molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIP) synthesized for adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) as a model for nucleosides. The device including the thin film coating is described, then static measurements with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical characterization after each step of the sensitive MIP process (deposit, removal of AMP template, capture of AMP target) demonstrate the thin film functionality. Dynamic measurements with a microfluidic setup and four targets are presented afterwards. They show a sensitivity of 5 Hz·ppm−1 of the non-optimized microsensor for AMP detection, with a specificity of three times compared to PMPA, and almost nil sensitivity to 3′AMP and CMP, in accordance with previously published results on bulk MIP. PMID:27331814

  20. Selaginellatamariscina Attenuates Metastasis via Akt Pathways in Oral Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Chung-Han; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Background Crude extracts of Selaginellatamariscina, an oriental medicinal herb, have been evidenced to treat several human diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms by which Selaginellatamariscina inhibits the invasiveness of human oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) HSC-3 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina attenuated HSC-3 cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-metastatic activities of Selaginellatamariscina occurred at least partially because of the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activity and the down-regulation of protein expression. The expression and function of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were regulated by Selaginellatamariscina at a transcriptional level, as shown by quantitative real-time PCR and reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data further indicated that binding of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein and activating protein-1 (AP-1) to the MMP-2 promoter diminished at the highest dosage level of Selaginellatamariscina. The DNA-binding activity of specificity protein 1 (SP-1) to the MMP-9 promoter was also suppressed at the same concentration. Selaginellatamariscina did not affect the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, but did inhibit the effects of gelatinase by reducing the activation of serine–threonine kinase Akt. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina may be a potent adjuvant therapeutic agent in the prevention of oral cancer. PMID:23799155

  1. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  2. Galvanic skin response of oral cancer patients during speech.

    PubMed

    Nishigawa, G; Natsuaki, N; Maruo, Y; Okamoto, M; Minagi, S

    2003-05-01

    Severe speech difficulty is often caused after surgery of an oral cancer. Prosthetic treatment with a removable obturator prosthesis is generally provided for such patients. Although some speech ability is recovered with prosthetic treatment, patients sometimes complain of continued dissatisfaction with their speech. However, it is difficult to evaluate the dissatisfaction. Therefore, a new method for evaluation is desirable. In this study, such a new method using the galvanic skin response as the index for the dissatisfaction of the patient was developed, and its objectivity was investigated. Eleven patients with maxillary bone defects were selected. Prior to the evaluation, improvement of speech with the removable prosthesis was confirmed using the speech intelligibility test and the visual analogue scale. The electrical resistant value at pronunciation was measured with the measuring system composed with the apparatus (galvanic skin response (GSR) measuring apparatus), the personal computer program. The changes for the electrical resistant value after pronunciation were evaluated by calculating the decrease ratio at pronunciation [(the mean electrical resistance before pronunciation - the mean electrical resistance after pronunciation)/the mean electrical resistance before pronunciation]. This decrease ratio at pronunciation was defined as the index of the speech dissatisfaction of the subject. The mean values for the decrease ratio with prosthesis were significantly smaller than the values without prosthesis (P < 0.05). From the results of this study, it is suggested that the measurement of the electrical resistance change of the skin during speech could be a new method for evaluating the speech dissatisfaction of the post-oral-cancer patient.

  3. ER maleate is a novel anticancer agent in oral cancer: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Guodong; Somasundaram, Raj Thani; Jessa, Fatima; Srivastava, Gunjan; MacMillan, Christina; Witterick, Ian; Walfish, Paul G.; Ralhan, Ranju

    2016-01-01

    ER maleate [10-(3-Aminopropyl)-3, 4-dimethyl-9(10H)-acridinone maleate] identified in a kinome screen was investigated as a novel anticancer agent for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our aim was to demonstrate its anticancer effects, identify putative molecular targets and determine their clinical relevance and investigate its chemosensitization potential for platinum drugs to aid in OSCC management. Biologic effects of ER maleate were determined using oral cancer cell lines in vitro and oral tumor xenografts in vivo. mRNA profiling, real time PCR and western blot revealed ER maleate modulated the expression of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Their clinical significance was determined in oral SCC patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated with prognosis by Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate Cox regression analyses. ER maleate induced cell apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in oral cancer cells. Imagestream analysis revealed cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and increased polyploidy, unravelling deregulation of cell division and cell death. Mechanistically, ER maleate decreased expression of PLK1 and Syk, induced cleavage of PARP, caspase9 and caspase3, and increased chemosensitivity to carboplatin; significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased antitumor activity of carboplatin in tumor xenografts. ER maleate treated tumor xenografts showed reduced PLK1 and Syk expression. Clinical investigations revealed overexpression of PLK1 and Syk in oral SCC patients that correlated with disease prognosis. Our in vitro and in vivo findings provide a strong rationale for pre-clinical efficacy of ER maleate as a novel anticancer agent and chemosensitizer of platinum drugs for OSCC. PMID:26934445

  4. Cell cycle-regulatory cyclins and their deregulation in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajakishore

    2013-06-01

    Oral cancer is a growth-related disorder, and cyclins are the prime regulators of cell division. Cyclins are associated with the pathogenesis of oral cancer and are considered valuable biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. These important molecules are regulated in many ways to achieve a gain in function and are involved in promoting neoplastic growth. While the causes of most cyclin overexpression are varied, these cyclins may be induced by buccal mucosal insult mainly with carcinogens that alter various pathways propelling oral cancer. Substantial experimental evidences support a link between oncogenic signaling pathways and the deregulation of cyclins in oral cancer. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which cyclins are regulated and promote oral oncogenesis.

  5. Relationship between oral cancer and implants: clinical cases and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    López-López, José; Roselló-Llabrés, Xavier; Rodríguez-Argueta, Oscar-Francisco; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of implants for oral rehabilitation of edentulous spaces has recently been on the increase, which has also led to an increase in complications such as peri-implant inflammation or periimplantitis. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Objectives: To review the literature of cases that associate implant placement with the development of oral cancer. Study design: We present two clinical cases and a systematic review of literature published on the relationship between oral cancer and implants. Results: We found 13 articles published between the years 1996 and 2009, referencing 18 cases in which the osseointegrated implants are associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Of those, 6 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 18 cases reported, only 7 cases did not present a previous history of oral cancer or cancer in other parts of the body. Conclusions: Based on the review of these cases, a clear cause-effect relationship cannot be established, although it can be deduced that there is a possibility that implant treatment may constitute an irritant and/or inflammatory cofactor which contributes to the formation and/or development of OSCC. Key words: Cancer, oral cancer, dental implants, oral squamous cell carcinoma, dental implants complications. PMID:21743414

  6. English and Spanish oral cancer information on the Internet: a pilot surface quality and content evaluation of oral cancer Web sites

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jeannie Y.; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Spallek, Heiko; Wali, Teena; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Schleyer, Titus

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oral and pharyngeal cancers are responsible for over 7,600 deaths each year in the United States. Given the significance of the disease and the fact that many individuals increasingly rely on health information on the Internet, it is important that patients and others can access clear and accurate oral cancer information on the Web. The objective of this study was threefold: a) develop an initial method to evaluate surface and content quality of selected English- and Spanish-language oral cancer Web sites; b) conduct a pilot evaluation; and c) discuss implications of our findings for dental public health. Methods We developed a search strategy to find oral cancer sites frequented by the public using Medline Plus, Google, and Yahoo in English and Spanish. We adapted the Information Quality Tool (IQT) to perform a surface evaluation and developed a novel tool to evaluate site content for 24 sites each in English and Spanish. Results English-language sites had an average IQT score of 76.6 (out of 100) and an average content score of 52.1 (out of 100). Spanish-language sites had an average IQT score of 50.3 and an average content score of 25.6. Conclusions The study produced a quality assessment of oral cancer Web sites useful for clinicians and patients. Sites provided more information on clinical presentation, and etiology, and risk factors, than other aspects of oral cancer. The surface and quality of Spanish-language sites was low, possibly putting Hispanic populations at a disadvantage regarding oral cancer information on the Web. PMID:21774133

  7. Eugenol and carvacrol induce temporally desensitizing patterns of oral irritation and enhance innocuous warmth and noxious heat sensation on the tongue.

    PubMed

    Klein, Amanda H; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, Earl

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol and carvacrol, from the spices clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of TRPV3, which is implicated in transduction of warmth and possibly heat pain. We investigated the temporal dynamics of lingual irritation elicited by these agents, and their effects on innocuous warmth and heat pain, using a half-tongue method in human subjects. The irritant sensation elicited by both eugenol and carvacrol decreased across repeated applications at a 1-minute interstimulus interval (self-desensitization) which persisted for at least 10 minutes. Both agents also cross-desensitized capsaicin-evoked irritation. Eugenol and carvacrol significantly increased the magnitude of perceived innocuous warmth (44 °C) for >10 minutes, and briefly (<5 minutes) enhanced heat pain elicited by a 49 °C stimulus. Similar albeit weaker effects were observed when thermal stimuli were applied after the tongue had been desensitized by repeated application of eugenol or carvacrol, indicating that the effect is not due solely to summation of chemoirritant and thermal sensations. Neither chemical affected sensations of innocuous cool or cold pain. A separate group of subjects was asked to subdivide eugenol and carvacrol irritancy into subqualities, the most frequently reported being numbing and warmth, with brief burning, stinging/pricking, and tingle, confirming an earlier study. Eugenol, but not carvacrol, reduced detection of low-threshold mechanical stimuli. Eugenol and carvacrol enhancement of innocuous warmth may involve sensitization of thermal gating of TRPV3 expressed in peripheral warm fibers. The brief heat hyperalgesia following eugenol may involve a TRPV3-mediated enhancement of thermal gating of TRPV1 expressed in lingual polymodal nociceptors.

  8. Eugenol and carvacrol induce temporally desensitizing patterns of oral irritation and enhance innocuous warmth and noxious heat sensation on the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Amanda H.; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol and carvacrol, from the spices clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of TRPV3 which is implicated in transduction of warmth and possibly heat pain. We presently investigated the temporal dynamics of lingual irritation elicited by these agents, and their effects on innocuous warmth and heat pain, using a half-tongue method in human subjects. The irritant sensation elicited by both eugenol and carvacrol decreased across repeated applications at a 1-min interstimulus interval (self-desensitization) which persisted for at least 10 min. Both agents also cross-desensitized capsaicin-evoked irritation. Eugenol and carvacrol significantly increased the magnitude of perceived innocuous warmth (44°C) for >10 min, and briefly (<5 min) enhanced heat pain elicited by a 49°C stimulus. Similar albeit weaker effects were observed when thermal stimuli were applied after the tongue had been desensitized by repeated application of eugenol or carvacrol, indicating that the effect is not due solely to summation of chemoirritant and thermal sensations. Neither chemical affected sensations of innocuous cool or cold pain. A separate group of subjects were asked to subdivide eugenol and carvacrol irritancy into subqualities, the most frequently-reported being numbing and warmth, with brief burning, stinging/pricking and tingle, confirming an earlier study. Eugenol, but not carvacrol, reduced detection of low-threshold mechanical stimuli. Eugenol and carvacrol enhancement of innocuous warmth may involve sensitization of thermal gating of TRPV3 expressed in peripheral warm fibers. The brief heat hyperalgesia following eugenol may involve a TRPV3-mediated enhancement of thermal gating of TRPV1 expressed in lingual polymodal nociceptors. PMID:23791894

  9. A systematic review of patient acceptance of screening for oral cancer outside of dental care settings.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Flohr, Francesca D; Llewellyn, Carrie D

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review summarised the literature on patient acceptability of screening for oral cancer outside dental care settings. A comprehensive search of relevant literature was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHAL, psycINFO, CANCERLIT and BNI to identify relevant articles published between 1975 and Dec 2013. Studies reporting acceptability of oral cancer screening to undiagnosed individuals attending non-dental settings were eligible for inclusion. A total of 2935 references were initially identified from the computerised search but 2217 were excluded after screening the titles. From the abstracts of the remaining 178 articles, 47 full text articles were retrieved for further scrutiny, and 12 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. In these studies, knowledge about oral cancer, anxiety related to the screening process, preference for care provision, and financial cost were influencing factors for the acceptance of screening. Written information provided to patients in primary care was reported to boost immediate knowledge levels of oral cancer, lessen anxiety, and increase intentions for screening. The majority of screening methods were entirely acceptable to patients; lack of acceptability from the patients' viewpoint was not a significant barrier to carrying out opportunistic screening of high-risk populations. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that acceptance of, and satisfaction with oral cancer screening is high, particularly where patients have previously been educated about oral cancer. Further research focusing on patient's preferences would enable streamlining of the approach to oral cancer screening taken by any national programme.

  10. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions.

  11. Geographic Tongue and Associated Risk Factors among Iranian Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    HONARMAND, Marieh; FARHAD MOLLASHAHI, Leila; SHIRZAIY, Masomeh; SEHHATPOUR, Marziye

    2013-01-01

    Background Geographic Tongue is a benign disorder involving the dorsal surface of the tongue characterized by depapillated areas with leading and folded edges in yellowish or grayish white color and sometimes with unclear borders. Many studies have reported a relationship between such condition and different risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate and the risk factors of geographic tongue in the patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine of Zahedan Dental School, in 2012. Methods: Using Poisson regression model, 2000 patients referred to the Department were selected for this cross-sectional study. Data collection method included an investigation into the medical history as well as doing intraoral examinations. Using SPSS 17 software and Chi-square statistical test, the collected data were analyzed. Result: Among the 2000 patients selected, 7.8% (156 persons) suffered from geographic tongue. The results of our study show that there is a significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and a history of allergy and fissured tongue (P<0.001). There was no significant statistical relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and gender, smoking and medication. Conclusion: The geographic tongue is more frequently in the patients suffering from atopy or allergy as well as the patients with fissured tongue. PMID:23515238

  12. Available web-based teaching resources for health care professionals on screening for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Insua, Angel; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Rapidis, Alexander; Diz, Pedro; Seoane, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify websites with adequate information on oral cancer screening for healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to assess both their quality and contents. Study Design: Websites were identified using Google and HON medical professional search engines using the terms “screening for oral cancer”. The first 100 sites retrieved by each engine were analysed using the DISCERN questionnaire (reliability), the V instrument (contents on oral cancer) and further by the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Grade Level and the Flesch Reading Ease (readability). Results: The overall rating showed minimal shortcomings in the quality of the information in the websites. The coverage and correctness of information on “visual examination” was rated as fair/good, whereas updating of contents resulted very variable (eg: 81% for visual examination and 18.2% for molecular biomarkers). These results permitted to rank the websites housing relevant information for oral cancer. Top ranking websites were affiliated to the Oral Cancer Foundation (USA), WHO Collaborating Centre for oral cancer (UK) whose webpage is entitled “Oral Cancer Education and Research”, and the Clinical Guidelines maintained by the British Columbia Cancer Agency (Canada) and the British Dental Association (UK) respectively. Conclusions: There are web-based, HCP-addressed, resources on screening for oral cancer housing heterogeneous information both in quality and contents. The use of specific evaluation tools permits the selection of reliable websites on this topic with a potential to improve the existing educational gaps among HCPs. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, screening, secondary prevention, internet, teaching resources, continuous education. PMID:25475775

  13. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for treatment of oral cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Calixto, Giovana; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer (oral cavity and oropharynx) is a common and aggressive cancer that invades local tissue, can cause metastasis, and has a high mortality rate. Conventional treatment strategies, such as surgery and chemoradiotherapy, have improved over the past few decades; however, they remain far from optimal. Currently, cancer research is focused on improving cancer diagnosis and treatment methods (oral cavity and oropharynx) nanotechnology, which involves the design, characterization, production, and application of nanoscale drug delivery systems. In medicine, nanotechnologies, such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, gold nanoparticles, hydrogels, cyclodextrin complexes, and liquid crystals, are promising tools for diagnostic probes and therapeutic devices. The objective of this study is to present a systematic review of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for oral cancers. PMID:25143724

  14. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  15. CE: Human Papillomavirus-Related Oral Cancers: The Nurse's Role in Mitigating Stigma and Dispelling Myths.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2017-01-01

    : The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancers has been rising, the cancers occurring in adults at a younger age than HPV-negative oral cancers typically do and in men more often than women. Patients who are diagnosed often don't understand the disease's etiology. Because HPV is sexually transmitted, diagnosis with an HPV-related oral cancer may prompt feelings of shame, embarrassment, and guilt. There are currently three vaccines for HPV. It's essential for nurses to educate patients on HPV transmission and HPV-related oral cancer, thus helping to mitigate the stigma and dispel myths, and to promote vaccination in at-risk populations, including children and young adults.

  16. Impact of self-tongue brushing on taste perception in Thai older adults: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Madiloggovit, Jirakate; Chotechuang, Nattida; Trachootham, Dunyaporn

    2016-01-01

    Oral hygiene influences taste, affecting appetite and nutrition in older adults. However, the impact of self-administered tongue brushing on their taste perceptions was unclear. This pilot study (N = 44) was aimed to observe the changes in taste thresholds using Filter Paper Disc after tongue brushing in Thai older adults. Based on the results, continuous tongue brushing for 3 months reduced tongue coat (p < 0.01) and improved subjective taste in 74% of participants. Sweet and salty recognition thresholds were reduced in both anterior and posterior tongue, while sour and bitter thresholds were reduced only in posterior tongue. No changes in umami (savory) were observed. Daily brushing was more effective than weekly brushing in improving the sweet and bitter tastes. The data suggested that tongue brushing could improve perception of multiple tastes and daily tongue brushing was recommended as routine personal care for older adults. This study supports further investigation in a randomized-controlled setting.

  17. Assesment of Correlation of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 with Oral Cancer and Precancer- A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most common malignant neoplasm in the oral cavity is squamous cell carcinoma. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) may enhance the development of oral carcinoma in individuals who are already at increased risk of the disease because of tobacco consumption and cigarette smoking and so must be considered as a possible etiologic agent in oral cancer and precancer. Aim To assess and compare the correlation of HSV-1 in oral cancer and precancerous lesions/conditions with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods The study comprised of 150 subjects who were divided into three groups as oral cancer, precancer and control group. Their blood samples were collected and were tested for HSV-1 IgG antibody level, using ‘Herpe Select-1’ ELISA kit. Results There was statistically insignificant difference between the HSV-1 IgG level in cancer and precancer but statistically significant difference was found between the HSV-1 IgG level among control group and cancer/precancer. Conclusion The present study clearly indicates that quantitative estimation of IgG antibody against HSV-1 in cancer/precancer patients will give the clue in the etiology of cancer or precancer. However, further studies with a large sample size should be carried out to determine the role of HSV-1 in etiology of oral cancer and precancer. PMID:27656555

  18. Cancer stem cells and field cancerization of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Simple, M; Suresh, Amritha; Das, Debashish; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2015-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high propensity for local failure, which is attributed to recurrence at the primary site or the development of second primary tumors (SPT). Field cancerization that refers to the existence of transformed cells in areas adjacent to the primary tumor, has been attributed to be one of the probable reasons underlying disease relapse. The carcinogenic process necessitates multiple molecular events for the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. This implies that only the long-time residents of the epithelium, such as the stem cells, might be the candidates capable of accumulating these genetic hits. These transformed stem cells- the 'Cancer stem cells' (CSCs), are further known to be equipped with the properties of tumor initiation and migration, both of which are essential for orchestrating field cancerization. The concept that the CSCs might be responsible for field cancerization in OSCC has not been explored extensively. If the role of CSCs as the primary units of field cancerization process is established, their presence in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor may be an indicator for local recurrence and/or development of second primary tumors. In this review, we examine the available evidence in literature exploring the possibilities of CSCs driving the process of field cancerization and thereby being the underlying mechanism for disease recurrence and development of SPT.

  19. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-07

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection.

  20. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  1. The detection of oral cancer using differential pathlength spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Kanick, S.; de Visscher, S.; Witjes, M.; Amelink, A.

    2010-02-01

    The development of optical techniques for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer is an ongoing challenge to biomedical optics. For head and neck cancer we see two main fields of potential application 1) Screening for second primaries in patients with a history of oral cancer. This requires imaging techniques or an approach where a larger area can be scanned quickly. 2) Distinguishing potentially malignant visible primary lesions from benign ones. Here fiberoptic point measurements can be used as the location of the lesion is known. This presentation will focus on point measurement techniques. Various techniques for point measurements have been developed and investigated clinically for different applications. Differential Pathlength Spectroscopy is a recently developed fiberoptic point measurement technique that measures scattered light in a broad spectrum. Due to the specific fiberoptic geometry we measure only scattered photons that have travelled a predetermined pathlength. This allows us to analyse the spectrum mathematically and translate the measured curve into a set of parameters that are related to the microvasculature and to the intracellular morphology. DPS has been extensively evaluated on optical phantoms and tested clinically in various clinical applications. The first measurements in biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma showed significant changes in both vascular and morphological parameters. Measurements on thick keratinized lesions however failed to generate any vascular signatures. This is related to the sampling depth of the standard optical fibers used. Recently we developed a fiberoptic probe with a ~1 mm sampling depth. Measurements on several leukoplakias showed that with this new probe we sample just below the keratin layer and can obtain vascular signatures. The results of a first set of clinical measurements will be presented and the significance for clinical diagnostics will be discussed.

  2. Association between general and oral health-related quality of life in patients treated for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsakos, Georgios; Gil-Montoya, José-Antonio; Montero, Javier; Bravo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Less is known about the association between general health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral HRQoL (OHRQoL) among patients with specific diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the association between patient-centered outcome measurements (HRQoL and OHRQoL) of oral cancer patients at least 6 months after treatment. Material and Methods HRQoL was measured with the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12); OHRQoL was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP). Results Higher OHRQoL scores were associated with lower SF-12 domains scores. The OHIP-14 explained 16.5 % of the total variance of SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the OIDP explained 16.1 %. In the SF-12 Mental Component Summary (MCS), the total variance explained was 23.9 % by the OHIP-14 and 21.8 % by the OIDP. Conclusions There was a significant association between long-term OHRQoL and HRQoL in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. These results may help to carry out new interventions aiming to improve patient´s life overall. Key words:Mouth neoplasms, quality of life, health status, oral health. PMID:26449436

  3. Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Lingen, Mark W; Kalmar, John R; Karrison, Theodore; Speight, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    Historically, the screening of patients for signs of oral cancer and precancerous lesions has relied upon the conventional oral examination. A variety of commercial diagnostic aids and adjunctive techniques are available to potentially assist in the screening of healthy patients for evidence of otherwise occult cancerous change or to assess the biologic potential of clinically abnormal mucosal lesions. This manuscript systematically and critically examines the literature associated with current oral cancer screening and case-finding aids or adjuncts such as toluidine blue, brush cytology, tissue reflectance and autofluorescence. The characteristics of an ideal screening test are outlined and the authors pose several questions for clinicians and scientists to consider in the evaluation of current and future studies of oral cancer detection and diagnosis. Although the increased public awareness of oral cancer made possible by the marketing of recently-introduced screening adjuncts is commendable, the tantalizing implication that such technologies may improve detection of oral cancers and precancers beyond conventional oral examination alone has yet to be rigorously confirmed.

  4. Coffee, tea, and fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in a large prospective US cohort.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Gaudet, Mia M; Chen, Amy Y; Hayes, Richard B; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer. The authors examined associations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake with fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a prospective US cohort study begun in 1982 by the American Cancer Society. Among 968,432 men and women who were cancer free at enrollment, 868 deaths due to oral/pharyngeal cancer occurred during 26 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risk. Intake of >4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with a 49% lower risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer death relative to no/occasional coffee intake (relative risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.64) (1 cup/day = 237 ml). A dose-related decline in relative risk was observed with each single cup/day consumed (P(trend) < 0.001). The association was not modified by sex, smoking status, or alcohol use. An inverse association for >2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee intake was suggested (relative risk = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.37, 1.01). No association was found for tea drinking. In this large prospective study, caffeinated coffee intake was inversely associated with oral/pharyngeal cancer mortality. Research is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms whereby coffee might help to protect against these often fatal cancers.

  5. Annular Plaques on the Tongue: What Is Your Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Tuba Çelebĺ; Bĺlaç, Cemal; Bĺlaç, Dilek Bayraktar; Ecemĺş, Talat

    2011-01-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory disorder of the tongue characterized by asymptomatic erythematous patches with serpiginous borders. Candidiasis of the tongue may be confused with geographic tongue. A 63-year-old male patient with painful white annular lesions localized to the left side of his tongue is presented. He applied topical corticosteroid and antiinflammatory agents, but his lesions did not respond to those therapies. Using direct mycologic examination and culture, the patient was diagnosed with candidiasis. After systemic and topical antifungal therapy, clinical improvement was observed. With this case, the clinical forms of oral candidiasis were discussed, and it was suggested that the clinical presentation of mucosal candidiasis may vary according to the stage of infection and individual immunity. PMID:22148032

  6. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

    2005-03-01

    Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

  7. Bioengineered Colorectal Cancer Drugs: Orally Delivered Anti-Inflammatory Agents.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Zhang, Xiaoying; Prakash, Satya

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal inflammation is one of the major factors that increase colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence worldwide. Inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract is directly linked to tumor development at the early stages of the disease, thus a key issue toward the prevention and the treatment of colonic neoplasia. Thus, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs has emerged first as a strategy to reduce chronic inflammation in case of many inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but it has proven its efficacy by reducing the risk of colonic neoplasia. This comprehensive review highlights the role of chronic inflammation, mainly in IBD, in the development of CRC including molecular and immune mechanisms that have tumorigenic effects. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that several bioactive and phytochemical compounds used as anti-inflammatory drugs have also antitumoral attributes. The uses of orally delivered cytokines and small molecules, as well as key dietary supplementation as anti-inflammatory therapeutics are discussed. In addition, comprehensive knowledge about CRC and intestinal inflammation, and the importance of the intestinal mucosal wall as a mucosal immunological barrier that comes into play during interactions with gut microbiota (pathogens and commensal), luminal secretions (bile acids, and bacterial and epithelial metabolites), and ingested chemicals (food components, high fat content, heterocyclic amines, and low intake of dietary fiber) are underscored. The multifunctionality of several anti-inflammatory drugs opens a line for their application in the treatment and prevention not only in IBD but also in CRC. Current bioengineering approaches for oral delivery of anti-inflammatory agents including cytokines, genetically modified bacteria, or small molecule inhibitors of inflammation directly contribute to the early management of CRC. Limitations of the current therapeutics, which stem from the lack of complete understanding of the complex molecular interactions

  8. Extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of cytocidal potency of zoledronic acid in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sayaka; Arai, Naoya; Tomihara, Kei; Takashina, Michinori; Hattori, Yuichi; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-08-15

    Direct antitumor effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) have been demonstrated in various cancer cells in vitro. However, the effective concentrations of BPs are typically much higher than their clinically relevant concentrations. Oral cancers frequently invade jawbone and may lead to the release of Ca(2+) in primary lesions. We investigated the effects of the combined application of zoledronic acid (ZA) and Ca(2+) on proliferation and apoptosis of oral cancer cells. Human oral cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells were treated with ZA at a wide range of concentrations in different Ca(2+) concentration environments. Under a standard Ca(2+) concentration (0.6mM), micromolar concentrations of ZA were required to inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations greatly enhanced the potency of the ZA cytocidal effect. The ability of Ca(2+) to enhance the cytocidal effects of ZA was negated by the Ca(2+)-selective chelator EGTA. In contrast, the cytocidal effect of ZA was less pronounced in breast and colon cancer cells regardless of whether extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated. In oral cancer cells incubated with 1.6mM Ca(2+), ZA up-regulated mitochondrial Bax expression and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c. We suggest that ZA can specifically produce potent cytocidal activity in oral cancer cells in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner, implying that BPs may be useful for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with jawbone invasion leading to the hypercalcemic state.

  9. [Circulating biomarkers association in the follow-up of patients with oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Colella, G; Cozzolino, A; Santagata, M; Vicidomini, A; Itro, A

    2001-05-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the importance of circulating biomarkers association in the management of patients affected by oral cancer. In this study a survey is made of the international experience from 1980 to 1990 based on the presence of CEA, LASA, SCC Ag, TPA, ferritina, CA-50 and others in patients affected by oral cancer and the sensitivity and specificity of these circulating biomarkers association are assessed. In patients with active disease, the results obtained at the time of diagnosis of oral cancer are not satisfactory due to poor specificity of these circulating biomarkers association. The conclusions is drawn that the circulating biomarkers association (especially CEA, SCC Ag, LASA, ferritin, TPA and CA-50) appears to be useful in the prognosis and staging of oral cancer, while their presence is not significative for the diagnosis.

  10. Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer by Primary Health-Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Shahin, A; Maayta, W; Sawair, F

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine early detection practices performed by primary healthcare professionals, to compare medical and dental sub-groups, and to identify factors that influence the ability of medical and dental practitioners to recognize precancerous changes and clinical signs of oral cancer. A 28-item survey instrument was used to interview a total of 330 Jordanian primary health-care professionals (165 dental and 165 medical). An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge. An early detection practice scale (0 to 24) was generated from the reported usage and frequency of procedures in oral cancer examination. Also, a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Only 17.8 % of the participants reported that they routinely performed oral cancer screening in practices. Their oral cancer knowledge scores ranged from 3 to 31 with a mean of 15.6. The early detection practice scores ranged from 2 to 21 with a mean of 11.6. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge scores and early detection practice scores (r = 0.22; p < 0.001). The diagnostic ability scores ranged from 11.5 to 96 with a mean of 43.6. The diagnostic ability score was significantly correlated with knowledge scores (r = 0.39; p < 0.001), but not with early detection practice scores (r = 0.01; p = 0.92). Few significant differences were found between medical and dental primary care professionals. Continuous education courses on early diagnosis of oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions are needed for primary health-care professionals.

  11. Potential implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy for the oral health of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Havens, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Current adjuvant treatment modalities for breast cancer that express the estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor include adjuvant anti-estrogen therapies, and tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Bone, including the jaw, is an endocrine-sensitive organ, as are other oral structures. This review examines the potential links between adjuvant anti-estrogen treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer and oral health. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Knowledge was conducted using combinations of key terms “breast,” “cancer,” “neoplasm,” “Tamoxifen,” “Aromatase Inhibitor,” “chemotherapy,” “hormone therapy,” “alveolar bone loss,” “postmenopausal bone loss,” “estrogen,” “SERM,” “hormone replacement therapy,” and “quality of life.” We selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English. The authors found no studies reporting on periodontal diseases, alveolar bone loss, oral health, or oral health-related quality of life in association with anti-estrogen breast cancer treatments in postmenopausal women. Periodontal diseases, alveolar bone density, tooth loss, and conditions of the soft tissues of the mouth have all been associated with menopausal status supporting the hypothesis that the soft tissues and bone of the oral cavity could be negatively affected by anti-estrogen therapy. As a conclusion, the impact of adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy on the oral health of postmenopausal women is undefined. The structures of the oral cavity are influenced by estrogen; therefore, anti-estrogen therapies may carry the risk of oral toxicities. Oral health care for breast cancer patients is an important but understudied aspect of cancer survivorship. PMID:22986813

  12. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  13. Relation Between Psoriasis and Geographic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Umair, Ayesha; Babaker, Zynab; SN, Azzeghaiby; Gazal, Giath; Sarraj, Faysal

    2014-01-01

    The aim this article is to investigate the link between geographic tongue and psoriasis skin disease. Our review paper of the literature will handle strict study about the relation between geographic tongue and psoriasis. Our search has identified only limited studies available in English written literature starting from 2006-2013 using pubMed – indexed for MEDLINE. The result of this review suggests that geographic tongue may be an oral manifestation of psoriasis.There is no clear evidence in literature about association with gender and aetiology except one study which shows that benign migratory glossitis is more prevalent in young, nonsmoker and atopic or allergic individuals. Treatment for oral lesions is not standardized. A geographic tongue is significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients but only a limited data is available to date to strongly validate the association between these two entities.We recommend the general practitioner to have a good understanding about the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this lesion. Psoriatic patients should be encouraged to undergo routine dental checkups. PMID:25584342

  14. Impact of tongue biofilm removal on mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943 PMID:23887759

  15. Combinations of SERPINB5 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors are associated with oral cancer risks

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Su, Shih-Chi; Miao, Nae-Fang; Yang, Shun-Fa; Huang, Hui-Chuan; Lai, Fu-Chih; Liu, Yu-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Background We identified rs17071138 T/C, rs3744941 C/T, and rs8089104 T/C gene polymorphisms of SERPINB5 (mammary serine protease inhibitor) that are specific to patients with oral cancer susceptibility and their clinicopathological status. Methodology/Principal findings In total, 1342 participants, including 601 healthy controls and 741 patients with oral cancer, were recruited for this study. Allelic discrimination of rs17071138 T/C, rs3744941 C/T, and rs8089104 T/C of the SERPINB5 gene was assessed by a real-time PCR with a TaqMan assay. We found that individuals carrying the polymorphic rs17071138 and rs8089104 are more susceptible to oral cancer (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07~2.31 and OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.04~2.39, respectively). Among oral cancer-related risk factor exposures, the individuals carrying the polymorphic rs17071138 had 4.26- (95% CI: 1.65~11.01; p = 0.002), 2.34- (95% CI: 1.19~4.61; p = 0.01), and 2.34-fold (95% CI: 1.38~3.96; p = 0.001) higher risks of developing oral cancer. Conclusions Heterozygous TC of the SERPINB5 rs17071138 polymorphism may be a factor that increases susceptibility to oral cancer. Interactions of gene-to-gene and gene-to-oral cancer-related environmental risk factors have a synergetic effect that can further enhance oral cancer development. PMID:28339463

  16. Induction chemotherapy for oral cavity cancer patients: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Marta, Gustavo Nader; William, William N; Feher, Olavo; Carvalho, André Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of data from phase III randomized studies to support an ideal approach for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients. In general, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are valid treatment options, and combined approach is usually indicated given poor clinical outcomes with single modality therapy. The aim of this study is to review the current status and future perspectives of induction chemotherapy for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients.

  17. Assessing Oral Cancer Knowledge Among Undergraduate Dental Students in Kuwait University.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bobby K; Sundaram, Devipriya B; Ellepola, Arjuna N B

    2015-09-01

    Lack of general dental practitioner oral cancer knowledge has been shown to be a major factor to delays in referral and treatment. Dentists' competence and confidence in detecting oral cancer may be strongly influenced by their dental school training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dental student's awareness and knowledge of prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Through the use of questionnaires, the students' knowledge of oral cancer risk factors, diagnostic concepts, and clinical care of patients was assessed. An excellent response rate (97.3 %) was observed in this study. Overall, the students' knowledge of diagnostic items was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001) than their knowledge of risk factors. A high percentage of students identified tobacco (98.6 %) and alcohol (76.7 %) as the principal risk factors and would offer advice regarding modification of these habits (75.3 %). Also, their knowledge of non-risk factors was significantly lower than their knowledge of proven risk factors (p ≤ 0.001). Only one fifth of the students regarded visual inspection to be an effective screening method. Only 32.9 % stated that all suspicious lesions should be biopsied, and as low as 2.7 % had assisted in taking a biopsy. This study highlights the need for a more structured teaching program with greater emphasis on the early signs and risk factors of oral cancer, performing routine oral examination, referral for biopsy, and appropriate early management of suspicious oral lesions.

  18. The use of acrylic resin oral prosthesis in radiation therapy of oral cavity and paranasal sinus cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, V.S.T.; Oral, K.; Aramamy, M.A.

    1982-07-01

    In radiation therapy of cancer of the oral cavity and the paranasal sinuses, the extent to which the tissues of the oral cavity are included in the radiation treatment portals will determine the severity of the oral discomfort during treatment. This will affect the nutritional status of the patients, and may eventually affect the total dose of radiation which the patients can receive for treatment of their cancers. In cooperation with the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Department, an acrylic resin oral prosthesis was developed. This prosthesis is easy to use and can be made for each individual patient within 24 hours. It allows for maximum sparing of the normal tissues in the oral cavity and can be modified for shielding of backscattered electrons from heavy metals in the teeth. We have also found that acrylic resin extensions can be built onto the posterior edge of post-maxillectomy obturators; this extension can be used as a carrier for radioactive sources to deliver radiation to deep seated tumor modules in the paranasal sinuses.

  19. Everolimus, Erlotinib Hydrochloride, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer Previously Treated With Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Cancer

  20. Pentafid tongue: A new entity

    PubMed Central

    Senan, Manesh; Menon, Varun P

    2015-01-01

    Tongue plays a pivotal role in both physiological and functional life of human beings. Structural and developmental abnormalities of the tongue in various forms have been reported in isolation or in combination with various syndromes. Though cases of bifid tongues have been mentioned in literature, no reports of pentafid tongue have been reported till date. Here we describe a unique case of congenital pentafid tongue along with bilateral polydactyly and its surgical management. PMID:26933286

  1. An animal model for the rapid induction of tongue neoplasms in human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide: its potential use for preclinical chemoprevention studies.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Rikako; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Suzui, Masumi; Yoshimi, Naoki; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Tanaka, Takuji

    2006-03-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common human neoplasms, and prevention of this malignancy requires a better understanding of its carcinogenesis process. To this end, we tried to establish an animal model using the human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene-carrying transgenic (Tg) rats and the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). 4-NQO (20 p.p.m.) was administered to Tg and non-Tg rats for 8 weeks in their drinking water, and then the occurrence of tongue carcinogenesis was compared during the experimental period of 22 weeks. In addition, we determined the DNA ploidy in tongue lesions and examined the immunohistochemical expression of five biomarkers such as cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase placental form, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and beta-catenin. Next, the cancer chemopreventive effects of nimesulide, pioglitazone and a synthetic geranylated derivative, which have been reported to be inhibitors of tongue carcinogenesis, were examined in Tg rats treated with 4-NQO. Either during or after treatment with 4-NQO in the drinking water, tongue dysplasia and tumors were observed on the tongues of both Tg and non-Tg rats, with a greater incidence and multiplicity in Tg rats. Histopathologically, squamous cell dysplasia, papilloma and carcinoma with or without invasion were present in the tongue. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression levels against five biomarkers increase with disease progression, and the changes correlated with those of the DNA ploidy pattern. Interestingly, a strong expression of COX-2, iNOS and beta-catenin was observed on the invasive front of squamous cell carcinomas. A subsequent chemoprevention study using Tg rats showed that the chemicals tested suppressed the occurrence of tongue carcinomas when they were administered after 4-NQO-exposure. These results may thus indicate that our 4-NQO-induced Tg rat tongue carcinogenesis model simulates many aspects of human oral carcinogenesis and it

  2. Gender differences in prognostic factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Honorato, J; Rebelo, M S; Dias, F L; Camisasca, D R; Faria, P A; Azevedo e Silva, G; Lourenço, S Q C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in prognostic factors among patients treated surgically for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The medical records of 477 eligible patients (345 males, 132 females) obtained from the Brazilian Cancer Institute were reviewed. Survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for males and females. Multivariate analysis showed that past tobacco use (aHR 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-0.7) and regional metastasis (aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5) in males, and regional metastasis (aHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.3), distant metastasis (aHR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-32.7), and hard palate tumours (aHR 11.8, 95% CI 3.3-47.7) in females, were associated with a higher risk of death. There were no differences in survival between males and females. Regional metastasis was found to be a negative prognostic factor in OSCC for both genders. Past tobacco use was an independent prognostic factor for worse survival among males, while distant metastasis and hard palate tumours were independent prognostic factors for worse survival among females. Further studies are necessary to corroborate the relationships found in this study.

  3. Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices: A Survey of Undergraduate Medical Students in Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5th year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. Conclusion It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers. PMID:26436029

  4. DJ-1 Is Upregulated in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Promotes Oral Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuaimei; Ma, Dandan; Zhuang, Rui; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Ying; Wen, Jun; Cui, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a multistep process that involves in both genetic alterations and epigenetic modifications. DJ-1, a negative regulator of tumor suppressor PTEN, functions as an oncogene in many types of cancers. However, its role in OSCC is poorly known. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting were performed to evaluate the expression level of DJ-1 in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and OSCC tissues respectively. Then lentiviral mediated DJ-1 shRNA was constructed and used to infect the OSCC cell lines (Tca8113 and CAL-27). MTT, cell counting, and Matrigel invasion assay were utilized to examine the effects of DJ-1 down-regulation on proliferation and invasion capacity of oral cancer cells. Results: The immunoreactivity and expression level of DJ-1 protein was significantly increased in OLK and OSCC tissues compared with the controls. Lentiviral-delivered shRNA targeting DJ-1 could effectively knock down DJ-1 at mRNA and protein level (P<0.01). The proliferative and invasion ability of OSCC cell lines was significantly suppressed following DJ-1 inhibition (P<0.01). Conclusions: Our study indicated that DJ-1 is over-expressed in both oral precancer and cancer tissues and shRNA inhibition of DJ-1 expression led to decreased proliferation and invasion capability of oral cancer cells. These findings suggest that DJ-1 might be actively involved in the development of OSCC. Future studies will investigate the potential of DJ-1 as a biomarker for early detection of OSCC. PMID:27313793

  5. Classic tongue lipoma: a common tumour at a rare site

    PubMed Central

    Magadum, Dilip; Sanadi, Appasab; Agrawal, Jiwanasha Manish; Agrawal, Manish Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Lipoma is the commonest benign tumour occurring at any anatomical site where fat is present, but occurrence in the oral cavity is rare. Tongue which is totally devoid of fat cells is a rare site for lipoma. This is one such rare case of the universal tumour, presenting at the lateral margin of the tongue, for which complete tumour excision was done. Macroscopically the mass had a hard consistency and measured 3.0×2.0 cm. From microscopic examination, diagnosis of lipoma was made. Recurrence of tongue lipoma is rare. PMID:23370950

  6. Geographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Domingos, Tábata Alves; Teixeira-Souza, Thays; dos Santos, Vanessa de Carla Batista; Gonzaga, Heron Fernando de Sousa; Cardoso-Oliveira, Juliana; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral psoriasis is the fact that not all patients with geographic tongue present psoriasis. Some authors believe that the prevalence of geographic tongue would be much greater if psoriatic patients underwent thorough oral examination. This study aimed to develop a literature review performed between 1980 and 2014, in which consultation of theses, dissertations and selected scientific articles were conducted through search in Scielo and Bireme databases, from Medline and Lilacs sources, relating the common characteristics between geographic tongue and psoriasis. We observed that the frequency of oral lesions is relatively common, but to establish a correct diagnosis of oral psoriasis, immunohistochemical and genetic histopathological analyzes are necessary, thus highlighting the importance of oral examination in psoriatic patients and cutaneous examination in patients with geographic tongue. PMID:27579734

  7. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  8. Risk factors and costs of oral cancer in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Vijay Kumar; Nair, Kesavan Sreekantan; Raj, Sherin

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted with 100 oral cancer patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Delhi demonstrated that stage III cancer was associated with longer use of tobacco and poor oral hygiene. There was also statistically significant association (p<.05) between consumption of tobacco and alcohol. More than 60% treatment expenditure was on surgery followed by accommodation (9%) and investigations (8%). The effect of tobacco was well known among patients as 76% of the patients knew that common cancer in tobacco chewer is 'oral cancer', 22% of the patients however responded that they did not know which cancer is common in tobacco chewers. 58% said that they learnt about ill effects of tobacco from media while 24% said they learnt from family and friends. Out of 78 tobacco users, 60 (77%) said that they never received help to quit tobacco while 18(23%) have received help to quit.

  9. miR-486-3p, miR-139-5p, and miR-21 as Biomarkers for the Detection of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zujian; Yu, Tianwei; Cabay, Robert J.; Jin, Yi; Mahjabeen, Ishrat; Luan, Xianghong; Huang, Lei; Dai, Yang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a complex disease with extensive genetic and epigenetic defects, including microRNA deregulation. The aims of the present study were to test the feasibility of performing the microRNA profiling analysis on archived TSCC specimens and to assess the potential diagnostic utility of the identified microRNA biomarkers for the detection of TSCC. TaqMan array-based microRNA profiling analysis was performed on 10 archived TSCC samples and their matching normal tissues. A panel of 12 differentially expressed microRNAs was identified. Eight of these differentially expressed microRNAs were validated in an independent sample set. A random forest (RF) classification model was built with miR-486-3p, miR-139-5p, and miR-21, and it was able to detect TSCC with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 86.7% (overall error rate = 6.7%). As such, this study demonstrated the utility of the archived clinical specimens for microRNA biomarker discovery. The feasibility of using microRNA biomarkers (miR-486-3p, miR-139-5p, and miR-21) for the detection of TSCC was confirmed. PMID:28096697

  10. Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in some individuals. When Is Tongue-tie a Problem That Needs Treatment? In Infants Feeding – A new baby with a too tight frenulum can have trouble sucking and may have poor weight gain. Such feeding ...

  11. Mandible and Tongue Development

    PubMed Central

    Parada, Carolina; Chai, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The tongue and mandible have common origins. They arise simultaneously from the mandibular arch and are coordinated in their development and growth, which is evident from several clinical conditions such as Pierre Robin sequence. Here, we review in detail the molecular networks controlling both mandible and tongue development. We also discuss their mechanical relationship and evolution as well as the potential for stem cell-based therapies for disorders affecting these organs. PMID:26589920

  12. Meta-analysis of two computer-assisted screening methods for diagnosing oral precancer and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yaqin; Chen, Guanying; Zhou, Gang

    2015-11-01

    The early diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer is crucial and could have the highest impact on improving survival rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the accuracy between the OralCDx brush biopsy and DNA-image cytometry in diagnosing both conditions. Bibliographic databases were systematically searched for original relevant studies on the early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer. Study characteristics were evaluated to determine the accuracy of the two screening strategies. Thirteen studies (eight of OralCDx brush biopsy and five of DNA-image cytometry) were identified as having reported on 1981 oral mucosa lesions. The meta-analysis found that the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves of the OralCDx brush biopsy and DNA-image cytometry were 0.8879 and 0.9885, respectively. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of the OralCDx brush biopsy were 86% (95% CI 81-90), 81% (95% CI 78-85), and 20.36 (95% CI 2.72-152.67), respectively, while these modalities of DNA-image cytometry were 89% (95% CI 83-94), 99% (95% CI 97-100), and 446.08 (95% CI 73.36-2712.43), respectively. Results of a pairwise comparison between each modality demonstrated that specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Q(∗) index of DNA-image cytometry was significantly higher than that of the OralCDx brush biopsy (Z=2.821, p<0.05; Z=1.711, p<0.05; Z=1.727, p<0.05), but no significant difference in sensitivity was found (Z=1.520, p>0.05). In conclusion, the meta-analysis of the published studies indicated that DNA-image cytometry is more accurate than the OralCDx brush biopsy in diagnosing oral precancer and oral cancer.

  13. Cancer incidence attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Grevers, Xin; Grundy, Anne; Poirier, Abbey E.; Khandwala, Farah; Feldman, Matthew; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies are classified as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We sought to estimate the proportion and total number of cancers attributable to the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta in 2012. Methods: Population attributable risks were used to estimate the proportion of attributable cases for each associated cancer site. Relative risk estimates were obtained from the most relevant and recent epidemiologic literature. Prevalences of the use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy in Alberta were collected from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Specific cancer incidence data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry for the year 2012. Results: Overall, 6.3% of breast cancers (n = 135) diagnosed in Alberta in 2012 were estimated to be attributable to the use of oral contraceptives, and the exposure potentially prevented about 57.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 276) and 29.1% of ovarian cancers (n = 52). About 15.5% of breast cancers (n = 258) and 8.9% of ovarian cancers (n = 13) were estimated to be attributable to the use of hormone therapy, whereas 11.3% of endometrial cancers (n = 48) were possibly prevented by the exposure. Interpretation: Based on our estimates, oral contraceptive use resulted in a net protective effect among the cancer sites studied, thus reducing the cancer burden in Alberta in 2012. The use of hormone therapy was estimated to increase the cancer burden in the province, therefore the risk and benefit of hormone therapy should be carefully considered before use. PMID:28018891

  14. [Efficacy of oral cavity care in preventing stomatitis (mucositis) in cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Koshino, Miki; Sakai, Chie; Ogura, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Akiko; Fukuzato, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    Stomatitis is a common side effect during cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that careful oral cavity care using patient guidance and cleanliness index prevents stomatitis in cancer chemotherapy. We introduced oral care patient guidance including teaching good brushing methods, O'Leary's Plaque Control Record(PCR)as a cleanliness index, and Eilers' Oral Assessment Guide(OAG)as an overall index after April 2006. We evaluated the incidence of stomatitis in 20 patients(10 patients between April 2004 to May 2006 and 10 patients after April 2006)with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy including 5-FU and CDDP. Patients receiving brushing training after 2006 were evaluated regarding cleanliness of their oral cavities using PCR index and OAG index. The rates of stomatitis were 60%(6/10)and 40%(4/10)before and after the introduction of oral care patient guidance. The average of PCR index decreased from 82% to 46% after teaching good brushing method to the patients. The average of OAG index after brushing training was 9.14 which was better score compared with previous reports. Introduction of oral care patient guidance decreased the incidence of stomatitis. Both PCR and OAG indexes were useful in evaluating the objective condition of the oral cavity and in sharing patients' information among a medical team. These indexes encouraged the patients to clean their oral cavities.

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of microdissected oral epithelium for cancer biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hua; Langerman, Alexander; Zhang, Yan; Khalid, Omar; Hu, Shen; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Lingen, Mark W; Wong, David T W

    2015-11-01

    Specific biomarkers are urgently needed for the detection and progression of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to discover cancer biomarkers from oral epithelium through utilizing high throughput quantitative proteomics approaches. Morphologically malignant, epithelial dysplasia, and adjacent normal epithelial tissues were laser capture microdissected (LCM) from 19 patients and used for proteomics analysis. Total proteins from each group were extracted, digested and then labelled with corresponding isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). Labelled peptides from each sample were combined and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for protein identification and quantification. In total, 500 proteins were identified and 425 of them were quantified. When compared with adjacent normal oral epithelium, 17 and 15 proteins were consistently up-regulated or down-regulated in malignant and epithelial dysplasia, respectively. Half of these candidate biomarkers were discovered for oral cancer for the first time. Cornulin was initially confirmed in tissue protein extracts and was further validated in tissue microarray. Its presence in the saliva of oral cancer patients was also explored. Myoglobin and S100A8 were pre-validated by tissue microarray. These data demonstrated that the proteomic biomarkers discovered through this strategy are potential targets for oral cancer detection and salivary diagnostics.

  16. Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Remmert, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    For selected cases, reconstruction of the tongue may be required after tumor removal. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a simplified concept of tongue reconstruction with emphasis on infrahyoid myofascial flaps (IMF). The defects of the tongue were classified in 23 patients according to the extent of tumor growth, functional and surgical aspects. The oral tongue (OT; n = 1), base of tongue (BT; n = 12) or both areas (OT and BT; n = 10) were involved, with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) infiltration of adjacent tissues. Minor defects (extent (1/4) or less) required no reconstructive procedure at any area. Major defect closure (extent (1/2)-3/4) was accomplished with a combination of IMF covered by a radial forearm flap (RFF). A complete reconstruction of the OT was achieved with a combination of a bilateral IMF covered by a RFF. Whenever the complete BT has to be removed, interposition of a vein graft to establish a sufficient arterial blood supply to the remaining OT is mandatory. Moreover, a larynx lift to prevent aspiration is recommendable. Resection of adjacent soft tissues requires a larger RFF (OT; BT) or flaps from the shoulder-back region (BT and OT). Whenever the integrity of the mandible has to be sacrificed, a free fibula graft serves as an excellent tool for reconstruction. IMF serves as a reliable tool for minor or major reconstructive procedures of the tongue. Reliability and versatility of IMF may contribute to a reduced time required for surgery since harvesting is performed in the neck area immediately after neck dissection. Moreover, harvesting of the IMF does not result in an increased postoperative morbidity. Hence, functional restoration can be achieved with a more cost-effective procedure.

  17. Oral contraceptives, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tsilidis, K K; Allen, N E; Key, T J; Bakken, K; Lund, E; Berrino, F; Fournier, A; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Byrnes, G; Chajes, V; Rinaldi, S; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Boeing, H; Koumantaki, Y; Stasinopoulou, G; Trichopoulou, A; Palli, D; Tagliabue, G; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Duijnhoven, F J B; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H M; Rodríguez, L; González, C A; Sánchez, M-J; Chirlaque, M-D; Barricarte, A; Dorronsoro, M; Borgquist, S; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Hallmans, G; Rodwell, S A; Khaw, K-T; Norat, T; Romaguera, D; Riboli, E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors may initiate long-term changes to the hormonal milieu and thereby, possibly influence colorectal cancer risk. Methods: We examined the association of hormonal and reproductive factors with risk of colorectal cancer among 337 802 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, of whom 1878 developed colorectal cancer. Results: After stratification for center and age, and adjustment for body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical activity and alcohol consumption, ever use of oral contraceptives was marginally inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–1.02), although this association was stronger among post-menopausal women (HR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74–0.95). Duration of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, age at menopause, type of menopause, ever having an abortion, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy and breastfeeding, were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusion: Our findings provide limited support for a potential inverse association between oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:21045829

  18. Expression of Beclin Family Proteins Is Associated with Tumor Progression in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Chen, Fen-Fen; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Lung, Jrhau; Lo, Cheng-Hsing; Lee, Fang-Hui; Lu, Ying-Chou; Hung, Chien-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Beclin 1 and Beclin 2 are autophagy-related proteins that show similar amino acid sequences and domain structures. Beclin 1 established the first connection between autophagy and cancer. However, the role of Beclin 2 in cancer is unclear. The aims of this study were to analyze Beclin 1 and Beclin 2 expressions in oral cancer tissues and in cell lines, and to evaluate their possible roles in cancer progression. Methods We investigated Beclin 1 and Beclin 2 expressions by immunohistochemistry in 195 cases of oral cancer. The prognostic roles of Beclin 1 and Beclin 2 were analyzed statistically. In vitro, overexpression and knockdown of Beclin proteins were performed on an oral cancer cell line, SAS. The immunofluorescence and autophagy flux assays confirmed that Beclin proteins were involved in autophagy. The impacts of Beclin 1 and Beclin 2 on autophagy and tumor growth were evaluated by conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and by clonogenic assays, respectively. Results Oral cancer tissues exhibited aberrant expressions of Beclin 1 and Beclin 2. The cytoplasmic Beclin 1 and Beclin 2 expressions were unrelated in oral cancer tissues. In survival analyses, high cytoplasmic Beclin 1 expression was associated with low disease specific survival, and negative nuclear Beclin 1 expression was associated with high recurrent free survival. Patients with either high or low cytoplasmic Beclin 2 expression had significantly lower overall survival and disease specific survival rates than those with moderate expression. In oral cancer cells, overexpression of either Beclin 1 or Beclin 2 led to autophagy activation and increased clonogenic survival; knockdown of Beclin 2 impaired autophagy and increased clonogenic survival. Conclusions Our results indicated that distinct patterns of Beclin 1 and Beclin 2 were associated with aggressive clinical outcomes. Beclin 1 overexpression, as well as Beclin 2 overexpression and depletion, contributed to tumor growth. These findings

  19. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  20. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on a Gaussian process classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chijun; Chen, He; Luo, Yusheng; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jia, Jun; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2013-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The incidence rate accounts for 80% of total oral cancer and shows an upward trend in recent years. It has a high degree of malignancy and is difficult to detect in terms of differential diagnosis, as a consequence of which the timing of treatment is always delayed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was adopted to differentially diagnose oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral gland carcinoma. In total, 852 entries of raw spectral data which consisted of 631 items from 36 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 87 items from four oral gland carcinoma patients and 134 items from five normal people were collected by utilizing an optical method on oral tissues. The probability distribution of the datasets corresponding to the spectral peaks of the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue was analyzed and the experimental result showed that the data obeyed a normal distribution. Moreover, the distribution characteristic of the noise was also in compliance with a Gaussian distribution. A Gaussian process (GP) classification method was utilized to distinguish the normal people and the oral gland carcinoma patients from the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The experimental results showed that all the normal people could be recognized. 83.33% of the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients could be correctly diagnosed and the remaining ones would be diagnosed as having oral gland carcinoma. For the classification process of oral gland carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, the correct ratio was 66.67% and the erroneously diagnosed percentage was 33.33%. The total sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 100% with the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) set to 0.447 213 595. Considering the numerical results above, the application prospects and clinical value of this technique are significantly impressive.

  1. A review of risk factors for oral cavity cancer: the importance of a standardized case definition.

    PubMed

    Radoï, Loredana; Luce, Danièle

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to review the literature on risk factors of oral cavity cancer with a special attention to the definition of the cases, in order to highlight special features of these cancers and of their subsites. PubMed database was systematically searched to access relevant articles published between 1980 and 2010. Reference lists of selected papers were examined to identify further articles. One hundred and two studies met the inclusion criteria. Their results were difficult to compare because of the lack of uniformity in defining oral cavity. In addition, few studies examined risk factors other than alcohol and tobacco, and studies differentiating between subsites were rare. Despite these limitations, some characteristics of oral cavity cancers may be emphasized: smoked tobacco seems to be a stronger risk factor for oral cavity cancer than alcohol, and the floor of the mouth seems to be more sensitive to the harmful effects of alcohol and smoked tobacco. Studies limited strictly to oral cavity cancers and distinguishing between subsites are needed to better understand the aetiology of these cancers, and better define risk groups to target prevention efforts and screening.

  2. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soo Jeong; Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun; Chi, Je Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures. PMID:26471340

  3. Double positivity for HPV DNA/p16 in tonsillar and base of tongue cancer improves prognostication: Insights from a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Garnaes, Emilie; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Franzmann, Maria B; Specht, Lena; Andersen, Elo; Norrild, Bodil; Kjaer, Susanne K; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to explore the overall survival (OS) for palatine tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), subdivided, according to certainty of tonsillar tumour origin, into specified tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (STSCCs) and nonspecified tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (NSTSCCs), and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) when stratifying for HPV DNA status, p16 expression and combined HPV/p16 status. We included all patients (n = 797) diagnosed with TSCCs and BSCCs in Eastern Denmark as registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) database and the Danish Pathology Databank, 2000-2010. Patients were treated according to national guidelines (radiotherapy +/- concomitant cisplatin). All specimens were analysed using HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was retrieved from the DAHANCA database and the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on vital status was obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. We observed improved OS for HPV+/p16+ BSCCs compared to HPV-/p16- (hazard ratio for death [HR], 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09-0.24). Among STSCCs, HPV+/p16+ showed the lowest HR (0.19, 95% CI, 0.13-0.29); whereas, HPV-/p16+ showed an intermediate HR (0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.70). For NSTSCCs, HPV+/p16+ and HPV-/p16+ showed similar OS (HRs, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.26-0.59; and 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.95, respectively). Combined HPV+/p16+ was a significantly better prognostic marker in BSCCs and STSCCs than HPV DNA and p16, alone (all p-values < 0.05). Whereas, combined testing in NSTSCC was not better than p16 (p = 0.53), alone. In conclusion, double positivity for HPV/p16 in conjunction with the certainty of tumour site improved prognosis.

  4. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions.

  5. Role of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: a nested case-control design using incident cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Muwonge, Richard; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Sankila, Risto; Thara, Somanathan; Thomas, Gigi; Vinoda, Jissa; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2008-05-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with two-thirds of the cases occurring in developing countries. While cohort and nested case-control study designs offer various methodological strengths, the role of tobacco and alcohol consumption in the etiology of oral cancer has been assessed mainly in case-control studies. The role of tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking patterns on the risk of cancer of the oral cavity was evaluated using a nested case-control design on data from a randomized control trial conducted between 1996 and 2004 in Trivandrum, India. Data from 282 incident oral cancer cases and 1410 matched controls were analyzed using multivariate conditional logistic regression models. Tobacco chewing was the strongest risk factor associated with oral cancer. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for chewers were 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.1-4.6) for men and 11.0 (95%CI=5.8-20.7) for women. Effects of chewing pan with or without tobacco on oral cancer risk were elevated for both sexes. Bidi smoking increased the risk of oral cancer in men (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.1-3.2). Dose-response relations were observed for the frequency and duration of chewing and alcohol drinking, as well as in duration of bidi smoking. Given the relatively poor survival rates of oral cancer patients, cessation of tobacco and moderation of alcohol use remain the key elements in oral cancer prevention and control.

  6. Temporary tongue thrust: failure during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Piyapattamin, Thosapol; Soma, Kunimichi; Hisano, Masataka

    2002-03-01

    This report presents the case of a 25-year-old male patient who sought orthodontic treatment. Oral examination revealed an Angle Class I relation, with a bimaxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, evidence of anterior crowding, and a large overbite and overjet. Radiographic examination revealed a skeletal Class I occlusion. During the distal movement of the canines, occlusal interferences between the canines occurred and the commencement of a tongue thrust was observed. After correction of the applied forces, the canine movement was completed and the habit was no longer detectable. The incident indicates that an unusual oral habit suspiciously occurring during treatment should lead to an immediate reconsideration of the orthodontic treatment strategy.

  7. ABO blood groups in oral cancer: a first case-control study in a defined group of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Hajian, Shima; Fadavi, Elnaz; Sabour, Siamak; Baharvand, Maryam; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    The ABO blood group has been recently proposed to influence development of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the type of ABO blood group and oral cancer. In a case-control study, 104 patients with oral cancer were compared with 90 blood donors without cancer as controls. Data regarding the patient demographics, blood groups, Rh status, cancer characteristics and oral habits were also compared between two subgroups of squamous and non-squamous oral cancers. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, t-student Test and Logistic Regression were used to analyze the relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer. The frequency of blood group B was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than controls (32% vs 13%) (p value=0.01), but Rh factor did not show significant difference between cases and controls. According to Logistic Regression, people with blood group B and those older than 50 had 3.5 and 19.4 times elevated risk of developing oral cancer, respectively. The frequency of squamous cell cancer was also significantly higher in men and people older than 50. On the other hand, females, people under 50, and those with blood group B were at 5.6, 2.9 and 4.3 times higher risk of developing non-squamous cell oral cancer,respectively. People with blood group B are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer, and female patients under 50 years of age with blood group B have the highest risk to develop non-squamous cell oral cancer.

  8. Prevalence of oral cancer and pre-cancerous lesions and the association with numerous risk factors in North India: A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini; Singh, Rajender; Gupta, O. P.; Tripathi, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most common life-threatening diseases all over the world. Developing countries face several challenges to identify and remove potential risk factors. Chewing tobacco/pan masala is considered to be the most potent risk factor for oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relative occurrence of different oral pre-cancerous lesions and oral cancer in North India and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted and 471 subjects were recruited in the study. The subjects comprised patients with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 85), oral submucous fibrosis (n = 240), leukoplakia (n = 32), lichen planus (n = 15), and controls (n = 99). Statistical analysis of the data was done using Chi-square and regression analysis. Results: A strong correlation was observed between the presence of the chewing habit in all the oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Duration of the habit and intensity of habit ware also strongly correlated with the risk of oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Other factors such as alcohol and smoking were found to be less important in concern with oral cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:25937723

  9. Cell migration is regulated by AGE-RAGE interaction in human oral cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ko, Shun-Yao; Ko, Hshin-An; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chen, Hong-I; Chang, Shu-Shing; Lin, I-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced in an irreversible non-enzymatic reaction of carbohydrates and proteins. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to have elevated AGE levels, which is viewed as a risk factor of diabetes-related complications. In a clinical setting, it has been shown that patients with oral cancer in conjunction with DM have a higher likelihood of cancer metastasis and lower cancer survival rates. AGE-RAGE (a receptor of AGEs) is also correlated with metastasis and angiogenesis. Recent studies have suggested that the malignancy of cancer may be enhanced by glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study examined the apparently close correlation between AGE-RAGE and the malignancy of SAS oral cancer cell line. In this study, AGEs increased ERK phosphorylation, enhanced cell migration, and promoted the expression of RAGE, MMP2, and MMP9. Using PD98059, RAGE antibody, and RAGE RNAi to block RAGE pathway resulted in the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Cell migration, MMP2 and MMP9 expression were also reduced by this treatment. Our findings demonstrate the importance of AGE-RAGE with regard to the malignancy of oral cancer, and help to explain the poor prognosis of DM subjects with oral cancer.

  10. Leukoplakia, Oral Cavity Cancer Risk, and Cancer Survival in the U.S. Elderly.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Katki, Hormuzd A; Silverberg, Michael J; Manos, M Michele; Engels, Eric A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    Screening for oral leukoplakia, an oral cavity cancer (OCC) precursor, could lead to earlier detection of OCC. However, the progression rate from leukoplakia to OCC and the benefits of leukoplakia screening for improving OCC outcomes are currently unclear. We conducted a case-cohort study of U.S. adults ages ≥65 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linkage. We identified leukoplakia diagnoses through Medicare claims, and OCC diagnoses through SEER cancer registries. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate leukoplakia associations with OCC incidence, and the absolute OCC risk following leukoplakia diagnosis was calculated. Among OCC cases, we compared OCC stage and OCC survival between cases with a prior leukoplakia diagnosis versus those without prior leukoplakia. Among 470,266 individuals in the SEER-Medicare subcohort, 1,526 (0.3%) had a leukoplakia diagnosis. Among people with leukoplakia, the cumulative OCC incidence was 0.7% at 3 months and 2.5% at 5 years. OCC risk was most increased <3 months after leukoplakia diagnosis (HR, 115), likely representing the diagnosis of prevalent cancers. Nonetheless, risk remained substantially increased in subsequent follow-up [HR ≥ 3 months, 24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-27; HR ≥ 12 months, 22, 95% CI, 20-25]. Among OCC cases (N = 8,927), those with prior leukoplakia were less likely to be diagnosed at regional/distant stage (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.30-0.43), and had lower mortality (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84) when compared with OCC cases without a prior leukoplakia. Individuals with leukoplakia have substantially elevated risk of OCC. Lower stage and better survival after OCC diagnosis suggest that leukoplakia identification can lead to earlier OCC detection and reduced mortality.

  11. A review of betel quid chewing, oral cancer and precancer in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Reichart, Peter A

    2007-05-01

    On the Chinese mainland, betel quid (BQ) chewing is common in the Hunan and Hainan provinces. The BQ chewing habit in Hunan consists of dried husks and betel nuts, which are sold as industrially packaged, areca nut-based products. In Hainan, the fresh nut is chewed. Tobacco is not added. Reported prevalence of BQ chewing in Hunan province is high (64.5-82.7%). Oral diseases associated with BQ chewing are oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral cancer. Reported prevalence of OSF among BQ chewers ranges from 0.9% to 4.7%. People most commonly affected are between the ages of 30 and 39 years, and 40 and 49 years. The reported prevalence of OL in Hainan ranges from 2.1% to 2.5%. In BQ chewers who also smoke, the reported prevalence is 20.3%. The prevalence of OL in Hunan province ranges from 0.1% to 0.5%. The prevalence of oral cancer among BQ chewers is low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.05%. In cases of OSF, reported prevalence is 2.6% and 1.2%. Presently, data on prevalence of BQ chewing in southern provinces of Mainland China is limited. BQ chewing habits, however, seem to differ between geographic areas. Future case-control studies are necessary to evaluate the risk for oral cancer and other associated oral mucosal diseases resulting from variations in BQ chewing habits.

  12. Selection of topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for oral cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sandeep; Shiff, Steven J; Yang, Chung S; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2005-07-01

    Topical delivery of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through the oral mucosa has been used for oral cancer chemoprevention. Local permeation of these agents has been one of the major concerns. Here we propose an approach to predict the permeability of topically applied agents for oral cancer chemoprevention. In theory, the total flux through the oral mucosa (Jmax) can be estimated by adding the transcellular flux (JTC) and the paracellular flux (JPC). To target the Cox-2 enzyme in oral epithelial cells, it is desirable to maximize the theoretical activity index, the ratio of JTC and IC50 of a Cox-2 inhibitor (JTC/IC50-Cox-2). Among the 12 commonly used NSAIDs, celecoxib, nimesulide and ibuprofen had the highest values and may be the agents of choice to target Cox-2 in oral epithelial cells through topical application. Based on these calculations, a long-term chemopreventive experiment using celecoxib (3% or 6%) through topical application was performed in a DMBA induced hamster oral cancer model. Both 3% and 6% reduced the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma at the post-initiation stage.

  13. Elevated expression of JMJD6 is associated with oral carcinogenesis and maintains cancer stemness properties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Ryul; Lee, Sung Hee; Rigas, Nicole Kristina; Kim, Reuben H.; Kang, Mo K.; Park, No-Hee; Shin, Ki-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a small subpopulation of cancer cells within a tumor and responsible for initiation and maintenance of tumor growth. Thus, understanding of molecular regulators of CSCs is of paramount importance for the development of effective cancer therapies. Here, we identified jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) as a novel molecular regulator of oral CSCs. JMJD6 is highly expressed in CSC-enriched populations of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed significantly high level of JMJD6 in OSCC tissues compared to normal human oral epithelia, suggesting that expression of JMJD6 positively correlates with oral carcinogenesis. Subsequent functional analysis showed that knockdown of endogenous JMJD6 in OSCC strongly suppressed self-renewal capacity, a key characteristic of CSCs, and anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, ectopic expression of JMJD6 enhanced CSC characteristics including self-renewal, ALDH1 activity, migration/invasion and drug resistance. Expression of CSC-related genes was also markedly affected by modulating JMJD6 expression. Mechanistically, JMJD6 induces interleukin 4 (IL4) transcription by binding to its promoter region. IL4 rescues self-renewal capacity in JMJD6- knocked down OSCC cells, suggesting the importance of JMJD6-IL4 axis in oral CSCs. Our studies identify JMJD6 as a molecular determinant of CSC phenotype, suggesting that inhibition of JMJD6 may offer an effective therapeutic modality against oral cancer. PMID:26645717

  14. NEDD 4 binding protein 2-like 1 promotes cancer cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kurihara, Miyako; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kirita, Tadaaki; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated with that of N4BP2L1 (P = 0.0019). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified N4BP2L1 expression as an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.0349). Our results suggest that N4BP2L1 plays an important role in tumor cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies on expression of N4BP2L1 may provide new insight into its function and clarify its potential as biomarker in human oral cancer.

  15. Functional Polymorphisms in COX-2 Gene Are Correlated with the Risk of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Hao, Shu-Hong; Sun, Yan; Hu, Chun-Mei; Ma, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Zhi Ming; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hong Bo; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Yu Fei; Yang, Dong Sheng; Shi, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background. This meta-analysis investigated the association between functional COX-2 gene polymorphisms and the risk of oral cancer. Methods. Several electronic databases were searched for published studies using combinations of keywords related to COX-2 gene polymorphisms and oral cancer. After selection of relevant studies, following strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, data was performed using STATA 12.0 software. Results. We retrieved 83 studies from database search using specific search terms. After multiple rounds of selection and elimination, 7 studies were finally identified as suitable to be included in our present meta-analysis, based on their relevance and data integrity. These 7 studies contained a combined total of 2,296 oral cancer patients and 3,647 healthy controls. Our findings demonstrated that +837 T > C (rs5275) polymorphism in COX-2 showed statistically significant differences in gene frequencies in case and control groups in allele model and dominant model. Similar results were obtained with COX-2 gene polymorphism 765 G > C (rs20417). On the other hand, 1195 A > G (rs689466) polymorphism in COX-2 did not confer susceptibility to oral cancers. Conclusion. Based on our results, COX-2 gene polymorphisms, +837 T > C (rs5275) and −765G > C (rs20417), showed clear links with oral cancer susceptibility, and the 1195A > G (rs689466) polymorphism did not show such a correlation. PMID:25977924

  16. [The clinical aspects of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx].

    PubMed

    Dvoryaninova, O Yu; Chainzonov, E L; Litvyakov, N V

    2016-01-01

    This review was designed to focus on the prevalence and the magnitude of infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) among healthy subjects and patients presenting with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We compare the data on the relative frequency of HPV-positive and HPV-negative cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx in different populations, peculiarities of the clinical course of this pathology, and methods of its treatment. Much emphasis is placed on the specific clinical and morphological features of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The general and relapse-free survival rates are considered with special reference to the outcome and prognosis of this disease. The currently accepted approaches to the treatment of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx are discussed. It is concluded that HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx should be regarded as an autonomous pathological condition requiring specific approaches to its management, such as the application of adequate treatment schemes and algorithms.

  17. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN) for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  18. Glycoprotein B7-H3 overexpression and aberrant glycosylation in oral cancer and immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jung-Tsu; Chen, Chein-Hung; Ku, Ko-Li; Hsiao, Michael; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Hsu, Tsui-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of oral cancer continue to rise, partly due to the lack of effective early diagnosis and increasing environmental exposure to cancer-causing agents. To identify new markers for oral cancer, we used a sialylation probe to investigate the glycoproteins differentially expressed on oral cancer cells. Of the glycoproteins identified, B7 Homolog 3 (B7-H3) was significantly overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and its overexpression correlated with larger tumor size, advanced clinical stage, and low survival rate in OSCC patients. In addition, knockdown of B7-H3 suppressed tumor cell proliferation, and restoration of B7-H3 expression enhanced tumor growth. It was also found that the N-glycans of B7-H3 from Ca9-22 oral cancer cells contain the terminal α-galactose and are more diverse with higher fucosylation and better interaction with DC-SIGN [DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)–grabbing nonintegrin] and Langerin on immune cells than that from normal cells, suggesting that the glycans on B7-H3 may also play an important role in the disease. PMID:26438868

  19. Tongue-coating as risk indicator for aspiration pneumonia in edentate elderly.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shu; Ishihara, Kazuyuki; Adachi, Mieko; Okuda, Katsuji

    2008-01-01

    Silent aspiration of oral microorganisms is a major cause of aspiration pneumonia. To establish oral hygiene criteria for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia in edentulous elderly persons, we investigated the relationship between presence of tongue-coating and number of oral bacteria in saliva and episodes of pneumonia. A total of 71 edentulous Japanese people aged 65 years or older living in nursing homes were enrolled in the study. A tongue plaque index (TPI) was used to evaluate quantity of tongue-coating, with TPI0 signifying no tongue-coating and TPI1 signifying presence of tongue-coating. Edentate elderly with TPI1 demonstrated significantly higher salivary bacterial counts than those with TPI0 (p<0.05). The number of elderly patients developing aspiration pneumonia was larger (p<0.005) in patients with TPI-based poor scores (average TPI>0.5) than in those with TPI-based good scores. The relative risk of developing pneumonia in the good tongue hygiene group compared with in the poor tongue hygiene group was 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-0.9. The results demonstrate that tongue-coating is associated with number of viable salivary bacterial cells and development of aspiration pneumonia, suggesting that tongue-coating is a risk indicator of aspiration pneumonia in edentate subjects.

  20. Relationship between mucositis and changes in oral microflora during cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Napeñas, Joel J; Brennan, Michael T; Bahrani-Mougeot, Farah K; Fox, Philip C; Lockhart, Peter B

    2007-01-01

    It is thought that the incidence and severity of cancer chemotherapy-associated mucositis is caused in part by changes in the oral bacterial microflora. This systematic review examined the role of oral bacterial microflora changes in the development of oral mucositis during chemotherapy. Thirteen prospective clinical trials were identified, involving 300 patients with 13 different cancer diagnoses. There was great variability in patient populations, bacterial sample collection methodology, and oral sample sites. No clear pattern regarding qualitative and quantitative oral flora changes emerged among these studies. The most frequent Gram-negative species isolated during chemotherapy were from the Enterobacteriaceae family, Pseudomonas sp. and E. coli. The most common Gram-positive species isolated were Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Five studies assessed the role of oral flora changes in the genesis of oral mucosal changes, with no consensus among them. More detailed studies are required to understand the relationship between chemotherapy, alterations in the nature and magnitude of the oral microflora, and the presence of mucositis.

  1. Current Trends in the Management of Oral Mucositis Related to Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Biswa Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common toxicities observed during radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for cancers. Mucositis results in sore mouth, altered taste sensation, pain and dysphagia leading to malnutrition. Left untreated, oral mucositis leads to ulceration, orodental infection, bleeding and discontinuation of effective radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Frequent hospitalization, enteral or parenteral nutrition, increased demand for analgesics ultimately account for increased cost of healthcare. Quantification of oral mucositis using standardized grading system is important for appropriate evaluation, reporting and management. In the recent past there is a paradigm shift in the pathobiology of cancer therapy related mucositis. Clear understanding of its pathogenesis is essential for the formulation of effective mucositis care. Numerous drug therapies, radiation techniques and oral care protocols have been tried in the past to reduce oral mucositis, None have proven to be consistently effective. Current trends for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis is multi-targeted treatment supplemented by aggressive oral hygiene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, growth factors and use of specific topical agents to improve treatment of oral mucositis in future. PMID:22570584

  2. Nucleolar organizer regions in a chronic stress and oral cancer model

    PubMed Central

    RUZ, IVONNE ANDREA MUÑOZ; OSSA, DANIEL ANDRÉS DROGUETT; TORRES, WENDY KARINA DONOSO; KEMMERLING, ULRIKE; ROJAS, BERNARDO ARTURO VENEGAS; MARTÍNEZ, CÉSAR ANDRÉS RIVERA

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of chronic restraint stress (RS) on oral squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) in CF-1 mouse tongues, measured by the expression of argyrophilic staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR). Thirty one samples of lingual epithelial tissue of CF-1 mice with a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC) were assigned to two experimental groups: the RS/4-NQO group, where animals received RS and induction of oral chemical carcinogenesis (n=17); and the 4-NQO group, where animals received induction of chemical carcinogenesis without restraint stress (n=14). The mean number and distribution pattern of AgNOR were recorded. The mean AgNOR number per cell was found to be slightly higher in the 4-NQO group. AgNOR in the RS/4-NQO group revealed a higher tendency to be arranged in a clumped distribution compared to the 4-NQO group. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups. In conclusion, the induction of chronic restraint stress in CF-1 mice does not increase the number or affect the distribution pattern of AgNORs in OSSC induced by 4-NQO. PMID:22740947

  3. Timing of oral contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Singer, Christian F; Eng, Charis; Neuhausen, Susan L; Karlan, Beth; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; McCuaig, Jeanna; Senter, Leigha; Tung, Nadine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Eisen, Andrea; Gilchrist, Dawna; Blum, Joanne L; Zakalik, Dana; Pal, Tuya; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2014-02-01

    It is not clear if early oral contraceptive use increases the risk of breast cancer among young women with a breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) mutation. Given the benefit of oral contraceptives for the prevention of ovarian cancer, estimating age-specific risk ratios for oral contraceptive use and breast cancer is important. We conducted a case-control study of 2,492 matched pairs of women with a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. Breast cancer cases and unaffected controls were matched on year of birth and country of residence. Detailed information about oral contraceptive use was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between oral contraceptive and breast cancer, by age at first use and by age at diagnosis. Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, oral contraceptive use was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for women who started the pill prior to age 20 (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.20-1.75; P = 0.0001) and possibly between ages 20 and 25 as well (OR 1.19; 95 % CI 0.99-1.42; P = 0.06). The effect was limited to breast cancers diagnosed before age 40 (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14-1.70; P = 0.001); the risk of early-onset breast cancer increased by 11 % with each additional year of pill use when initiated prior to age 20 (OR 1.11; 95 % CI 1.03-1.20; P = 0.008). There was no observed increase for women diagnosed at or after the age of 40 (OR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.79-1.20; P = 0.81). Oral contraceptive use before age 25 increases the risk of early-onset breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 mutation and the risk increases with duration of use. Caution should be taken when advising women with a BRCA1 mutation to take an oral contraceptive prior to age 25.

  4. Interaction of Exo1 genotypes and smoking habit in oral cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Chang, Chia-Lin; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Tsou, Yung-An; Wang, Rou-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Wang, Hwei-Chung; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Bau, Da-Tian

    2009-09-01

    Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) is an important nuclease involved in the mismatch repair system that helps to maintain genomic stability, to modulate DNA recombination, and to mediate cell cycle arrest. Potential polymorphisms in Exo1 may alter cancer risks by influencing the repair activity of Exo1. Therefore, we hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in Exo1 were associated with the risk of oral cancer. In this hospital-based study, the associations of Exo1 A-1419G (rs3754093), C-908G (rs10802996), A238G (rs1776177), C498T (rs1635517), K589E (rs1047840), G670E (rs1776148), C723R (rs1635498), L757P (rs9350) and C3114T (rs851797) polymorphisms with oral cancer risk in a central Taiwan population were investigated. In total, 680 patients with oral cancer and 680 age- and gender-matched healthy controls recruited from the China Medical University Hospital were genotyped. A significantly different distribution is found in the frequency of the Exo1 K589E genotype, but not the other genotypes, between the oral cancer and control groups. The A allele Exo1 K589E conferred a significant (P=6.18E-8) increased risk of oral cancer. Gene-environment interactions with smoking were significant for Exo1 K589E polymorphism (OR=2.509, 95% CI=1.914-3.287). Our results provide evidence that the A allele of the Exo1 K589E may be associated with the development of oral cancer.

  5. Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-11-12

    The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis.

  6. The potential role of microbes in oncogenesis with particular emphasis on oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Faden, Asmaa A.

    2016-01-01

    For over a century, non-virus microorganisms, notably bacteria have been implicated as causal agents of cancers, a relatively small number of researchers have provided evidence to support the so-called “cancer germ” hypothesis. With the exception of the link between Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer, other supposed links have been ignored. A wide range of bacteria and other non-virus microbes, including fungi, have been implicated over the years in oncogenesis, as well as the ability to induce inflammation, which may cause cancer. It seems that there is no single “cancer germ,” as most bacteria can apparently induce cancer. Here, the role of bacteria and other non-virus microorganisms and oral cancers will be discussed. By ignoring bacteria as a causal agent of cancer, we set back our understanding of this crucially important disease and, as a result, have hindered the development of potential cures. PMID:27279505

  7. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, T.; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated. PMID:28123263

  8. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Radhika, T; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  9. Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, L Fernandez; Herrero, R; Reyes, R M Ortiz; Vaccarella, S; Anta, J Lence; Ferbeye, L; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2001-01-01

    In terms of worldwide levels, Cuba has an intermediate incidence of cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx. We studied 200 cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, of whom 57 women (median age = 64) and 200 hospital controls, frequency matched with cases by age and sex, in relation to smoking and drinking history, intake of 25 foods or food groups, indicators of oral hygiene and sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from unconditional multiple logistic regressions and adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, and smoking and drinking habits. In the multivariate model, high educational level and white-collar occupation, but not white race, were associated with halving of oral cancer risk. Smoking ≥30 cigarettes per day showed an OR of 20.8 (95% CI: 8.9–48.3), similar to smoking ≥4 cigars daily (OR = 20.5). Drinking ≥ 70 alcoholic drinks per week showed an OR of 5.7 (95% CI: 1.8–18.5). Hard liquors were by far the largest source of alcohol. Increased risk was associated with the highest tertile of intake for maize (OR = 1.9), meat (OR = 2.2) and ham and salami (OR = 2.0), whereas high fruit intake was associated with significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.4). Among indicators of dental care, number of missing teeth and poor general oral condition at oral inspection showed ORs of 2.7 and 2.6, respectively. Number of sexual partners, marriages or contacts with prostitutes, practice of oral sex and history of various sexually transmitted diseases, including genital warts, were not associated with oral cancer risk. 82% of oral cancer cases in Cuba were attributable to tobacco smoking, 19% to smoking cigars or pipe only. The fractions attributable to alcohol drinking (7%) and low fruit intake (11%) were more modest. Thus, decreases in cigarette and cigar smoking are at present the key to oral cancer prevention in Cuba. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

  10. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in rat oral cancers and prevention of oral carcinogenesis in rats by selective and nonselective COX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David L; Phillips, Jonathan M; Horn, Thomas L; Johnson, William D; Steele, Vernon E; Lubet, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas induced in rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO) show substantial overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) when compared with adjacent phenotypically normal oral tissues. By contrast, neither 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) nor 12-LOX is overexpressed in rat oral cancers. Two chemoprevention studies were done to test the resulting hypothesis that COX-2 is a useful target for oral cancer chemoprevention in the rat. In both studies, male F344 rats received drinking water exposure to NQO (20 ppm) for 10 weeks, followed by administration of chemopreventive agents from week 10 until study termination at week 26. In the first study, groups of rats were fed basal diet (control), or basal diet supplemented with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (500 or 1,500 mg/kg diet), the nonselective COX inhibitor piroxicam (50 or 150 mg/kg diet), or the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton (2,000 mg/kg diet). In the second study, rats were fed basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with nitric oxide-naproxen (180 or 90 mg/kg diet), a nonselective COX inhibitor that shows reduced gastrointestinal toxicity. When compared with dietary controls, celecoxib decreased oral cancer incidence, cancer invasion score, and cancer-related mortality. Piroxicam decreased cancer-related mortality and cancer invasion score, whereas nitric oxide-naproxen decreased oral cancer incidence and cancer invasion score. By contrast, zileuton showed no chemopreventive activity by any parameter assessed. These data show that both selective and nonselective inhibitors of COX-2 can prevent NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis in rats. The chemopreventive activity of COX inhibitors may be linked to overexpression of their enzymatic target in incipient oral neoplasms.

  11. Significant mercury deposits in internal organs following the removal of dental amalgam, & development of pre-cancer on the gingiva and the sides of the tongue and their represented organs as a result of inadvertent exposure to strong curing light (used to solidify synthetic dental filling material) & effective treatment: a clinical case report, along with organ representation areas for each tooth.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y; Shimotsuura, Y; Fukuoka, A; Fukuoka, H; Nomoto, T

    1996-01-01

    contribute to intractable infections or pre-cancer. However, these mercury deposits, which commonly occur in such cases, were successfully eliminated by the oral intake of 100 mg tablet of Chinese parsley (Cilantro) 4 times a day (for average weight adults) with a number of drug-uptake enhancement methods developed by the 1st author, including different stimulation methods on the accurate organ representation areas of the hands (which have been mapped using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test), without injections of chelating agents. Ingestion of Chinese parsley, accompanied by drug-uptake enhancement methods, was initiated before the amalgam removal procedure and continued for about 2 to 3 weeks afterwards, and ECGs became almost normal. During the use of strong bluish curing light to create a photo-polymerization reaction to solidify the synthetic filling material, the adjacent gingiva and the side of the tongue were inadvertently exposed. This exposure to the strong bluish light was found to produce pre-cancerous conditions in the gingiva, the exposed areas of the tongue, as well as in the corresponding organs represented on those areas of the tongue, and abnormally increased enzyme levels in the liver. These abnormalities were also successfully reversed by the oral intake of a mixture of EPA with DHA and Chinese parsley, augmented by one of the non-invasive drug-uptake enhancement methods previously described by the 1st author, repeated 4 times each day for 2 weeks.

  12. Mandibular Canal Widening and Bell's Palsy: Sequelae of Perineural Invasion in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Gopinath Thilak Parepady; Sherigar, Vishwanath; Satya, Shree; Gohil, Sourabh M.

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion is an underrecognized route of metastatic spread along the nerve bundles within the nerve sheath into the surrounding tissues. It hinders the ability to establish local control as tumour cells can traverse along nerve tracts well beyond the extent of any local invasion rendering them inoperable and unresectable. Perineural invasion is a marker of poor prognosis. Oral submucous fibrosis with oral cancer constitutes a clinicopathologically distinct disease. Our case highlights an enigmatic presentation of oral submucous fibrosis and its coexistence with oral cancer presenting with unusual neurological disturbance of the inferior alveolar nerve and facial nerve and diffuse widening of the mandibular canal. The objective of this case report is to enumerate the significance of perineural invasion in determining the course of the disease and necessitate the need for future studies that can shed light on molecular mediators and pathogenesis of perineural spread. PMID:28025626

  13. Mandibular Canal Widening and Bell's Palsy: Sequelae of Perineural Invasion in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Gopinath Thilak Parepady; Sherigar, Vishwanath; Shetty, Sameep S; Satya, Shree; Gohil, Sourabh M

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion is an underrecognized route of metastatic spread along the nerve bundles within the nerve sheath into the surrounding tissues. It hinders the ability to establish local control as tumour cells can traverse along nerve tracts well beyond the extent of any local invasion rendering them inoperable and unresectable. Perineural invasion is a marker of poor prognosis. Oral submucous fibrosis with oral cancer constitutes a clinicopathologically distinct disease. Our case highlights an enigmatic presentation of oral submucous fibrosis and its coexistence with oral cancer presenting with unusual neurological disturbance of the inferior alveolar nerve and facial nerve and diffuse widening of the mandibular canal. The objective of this case report is to enumerate the significance of perineural invasion in determining the course of the disease and necessitate the need for future studies that can shed light on molecular mediators and pathogenesis of perineural spread.

  14. Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image-guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNichols, Roger J.; Gowda, Ashok; Bell, Brent A.; Johnigan, Richard M.; Calhoun, Karen H.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2001-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a disease which progresses through a number of well-defined morphological and biochemical changes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly-evolving, non-invasive imaging modality which allows detailed probing of subsurface tissue structures with resolution on the order of microns. While this technique offers tremendous potential as a diagnostic tool for detection and characterization of oral cancer, OCT imaging is presently associated with a field of view on the order of millimeters, and acquisition time on the order of seconds. Thus, OCT's utility as a rapid cancer screening technique is presently limited. On the other hand, imaging of tissue autofluorescence provides a very rapid, high-throughput method for cancer screening. However, while autofluorescence measures may be sensitive to cancer, they are often non- specific and lead to a large number of false positives. In the present work, we have developed a fluorescence image guided optical coherence tomographic (FIG-OCT) probe in which tissue autofluorescence images are simultaneously used to guide OCT image acquisition of suspicious regions in real time. We have begun pre-clinical pilot studies with this instrument in a DMBA-induced model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. Initial results indicate that the FIG- OCT approach shows promise as a rapid and effective tool for screening of oral cancer.

  15. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  16. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, potentially malignant disorders, chemiluminescence, tissue autofluorescence, VELscope, ViziLite plus. PMID:26946209

  17. Differences in the expression of five senescence markers in oral cancer, oral leukoplakia and control samples in humans

    PubMed Central

    BASCONES-MARTÍNEZ, ANTONIO; LÓPEZ-DURÁN, MERCEDES; CANO-SÁNCHEZ, JORGE; SÁNCHEZ-VERDE, LYDIA; DÍEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, ANA; AGUIRRE-ECHEBARRÍA, PABLO; ÁLVAREZ-FERNÁNDEZ, EMILIO; GONZÁLEZ-MOLES, MIGUEL ANGEL; BASCONES-ILUNDAIN, JAIME; MUZIO, LORENZO LO; CAMPO-TRAPERO, JULIÁN

    2012-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) may be a response to oncogenic activation, acting as a natural barrier against carcinogenesis at a premalignant stage. Thus, numerous cells in premalignant lesions enter senescence, but none or few in malignant tumours. This event could be due to the loss of senescence pathway effectors, including p16 (INK4a)-pRb or ARF-p53. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the expression of certain senescent markers between oral precancer and cancer tissue samples. The expression of cyclin D1, Rb, maspin, p53 and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) was analyzed in 20 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of normal oral mucosa (NOM), 14 samples of oral leukoplakia without dysplasia (OLD−), 11 samples of leukoplakia with dysplasia (OLD+) and 15 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays. The expression of p16-pRb pathway markers, cyclin D1, maspin and Rb, was more frequent in OLD+ samples than in OSCC samples, although a statistical significance was only observed for maspin (P=0.036). Cyclin D1 expression was also significantly more frequent in OLD− samples vs. NOM samples. For the ARF-p53 pathway, the expression of p53 and MDM2 was significantly more frequent in the OLD− samples compared to in the NOM ones. These findings may indicate a role for cellular senescence in oral carcinogenesis, considering maspin as a reliable senescence marker and prognostic factor in oral premalignant lesions. PMID:22783442

  18. Clinical evaluation of Lugol's iodine staining in the treatment of stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Umeda, M; Shigeta, T; Takahashi, H; Minamikawa, T; Komatsubara, H; Oguni, A; Shibuya, Y; Komori, T

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often surrounded by epithelial dysplasia; leaving it unresected can result in local recurrence. Staining with Lugol's iodine solution detects epithelial dysplasia in oral mucosa, but whether it decreases local recurrence after OSCC surgery is unknown. This study investigated local recurrence rates in patients with early tongue cancer who underwent surgery using Lugol's staining. 93 patients with T1-2N0 tongue SCC underwent partial glossectomy using Lugol's staining during surgery. Resection was performed at least 5mm from the margin of the unstained area. Patients were investigated retrospectively for local recurrence status. Postoperative histology revealed negative surgical margins for SCC or epithelial dysplasia in 81 patients, close margins for SCC in 5, positive margins for mild epithelial dysplasia in 6, and a positive margin for SCC in one. Those with a positive or a close margin for SCC underwent additional resection 2-4 weeks after surgery; one was proved histologically to have residual SCC. No patients developed local recurrence, but 2 died of neck metastasis and 2 of distant metastasis. The 5-year disease specific survival rate was 93.8%. Lugol's staining during surgery can reduce local recurrence and improve survival in patients with early tongue SCC.

  19. Oral Health-Related Complications of Breast Cancer Treatment: Assessing Dental Hygienists’ Knowledge and Professional Practice

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Gomez, Grace; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2014-01-01

    Objective Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. every year. These patients commonly suffer from oral complications of their cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists’ knowledge and professional practice related to providing care for breast cancer patients. Methods A pre-tested 43-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 10% of all licensed dental hygienists in the State of Michigan (N=962). The survey assessed the respondents’ knowledge of potential oral complications of breast cancer treatments as well as their professional practices when treating patients with breast cancer. After two mailings, the response rate was 37% (N=331). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Many dental hygienists were unaware of the recommended clinical guidelines for treating breast cancer patients and lacked specific knowledge pertaining to the commonly prescribed anti-estrogen medications for pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Over 70% of the respondents indicated they were unfamiliar with the AI class of medications. Only 13% of dental hygienists correctly identified the mechanism of action of anti-estrogen therapy. Dental hygienists reported increased gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, xerostomia and burning tissues in patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies. Less than 10% believed that their knowledge of breast cancer treatments and the oral side effects is up to date. Conclusions Results indicate a need for more education about the potential oral effects of breast cancer therapies and about providing the best possible care for patients undergoing breast cancer treatment. PMID:24771774

  20. Congenital Midline Tongue Base Mass in An Infant: Lingual Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Mawaddah; See, Goh Bee

    2016-01-01

    Lingual hamartoma is a rare finding of congenital midline posterior tongue mass. The lesion may be seen as a single anomaly or maybe associated with syndrome especially the Oral Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS). Here, we report an otherwise normal and healthy two-month-old boy with a congenital midline base of tongue mass presented with snoring and episodic vomiting since the age of 1 month. Tumour excision from the area of foramen of caecum recovered a pinkish pedunculated tumour. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyomatous lingual hamartoma. Differential diagnosis, especially for midline tongue mass and other paediatric tongue lesions are discussed. We also discuss the epidemiology, histopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of lingual hamartoma based on the literature review. PMID:27790477

  1. Intraoral prostheses in external beam radiation of oral and perioral cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.B.; Stafehl, D.M.; Stevenson-Moore, P.

    1985-07-01

    An intraoral prosthesis can be used to position and immobilize tissues in beam-directed radiation therapy for cancer. The prosthesis stabilizes oral structures within the treatment field to permit improve control of field size and thus spare tissues that do not require treatment. The use of an oral prosthesis diminishes both early and late complications of radiation treatment. The prostheses can be used to advantage in conjunction with free-hand and precision methods for the orientation of patients.

  2. ADAMTS14 Gene Polymorphism and Environmental Risk in the Development of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shih-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Yu-Fan; Chou, Ying-Erh; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is a common malignancy that is shown to be causally associated with hereditary and acquired factors. ADAMTS14 is a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs) metalloproteinase family that plays an important role in extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly and degradation. Elevation or deficiency of certain ADAMTS proteinases has been known to be implicated in a wide range of pathological processes including atherosclerosis, arthritis, and cancer. The present study aimed to explore the impact of ADAMTS14 gene polymorphisms, combined with environmental risks on the susceptibility to oral tumorigenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADAMTS14 gene, including rs10823607, rs12774070, rs4747096, and rs61573157 were evaluated from 1200 normal controls and 850 patients with oral cancer. We failed to detect a significant association of four individual SNPs with oral cancer between case and control group. However, while considering behavioral exposure of environmental carcinogens, the presence of four ADAMTS14 SNPs, combined with betel nut chewing and/or smoking, profoundly leveraged the risk of oral cancer. Moreover, we observed a significant association of rs12774070, which is predicted to alter the expression and function of ADAMTS14 by in silico and bioinformatics analyses, with poor tumor cell differentiation (AOR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38–0.92; p = 0.02) in patients who chewed betel nuts. Conclusions These results implicate the interaction between ADAMTS14 gene polymorphisms and environmental mutagens as a risk factor of oral tumorigenesis and suggest a correlation of rs12774070 with the degree of oral tumor cell differentiation. PMID:27463966

  3. A novel multimodal optical imaging system for early detection of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Wright, John M.; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several imaging techniques have been advocated as clinical adjuncts to improve identification of suspicious oral lesions. However, these have not yet shown superior sensitivity or specificity over conventional oral examination techniques. We developed a multimodal, multi-scale optical imaging system that combines macroscopic biochemical imaging of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with subcellular morphologic imaging of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for early detection of oral cancer. We tested our system on excised human oral tissues. Study Design A total of four tissue specimen were imaged. These specimens were diagnosed as one each: clinically normal, oral lichen planus, gingival hyperplasia, and superficially-invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The optical and fluorescence lifetime properties of each specimen were recorded. Results Both quantitative and qualitative differences between normal, benign and SCC lesions can be resolved with FLIM-RCM imaging. The results demonstrate that an integrated approach based on these two methods can potentially enable rapid screening and evaluation of large areas of oral epithelial tissue. Conclusions Early results from ongoing studies of imaging human oral cavity illustrate the synergistic combination of the two modalities. An adjunct device based on such optical characterization of oral mucosa can potentially be used to detect oral carcinogenesis in early stages. PMID:26725720

  4. Prevention and Treatment of Oral Mucositis in Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Misty M.; Donald, David V.; Hagemann, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucositis affects more than three-fourths of patients undergoing chemotherapy and represents a significant burden to patients and caregivers. Lesions develop as a result of chemotherapeutic agents attacking the rapidly dividing cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Severity can range from mild, painless tissue changes to bleeding ulcerations that prevent oral intake and require narcotic pain relievers. Oral mucositis also leads to an increased risk of infection and can often delay further chemotherapy treatment. A number of assessment scales have been developed to better qualify the symptoms associated with this condition. Few pharmacologic agents have been approved to either prevent the development or alleviate the symptoms of oral mucositis. Current options include the use of antimicrobial mouthwashes, amino acid rinses, and topical healing agents. Palifermin, a keratinocyte growth factor, may be a future option after its use in children is explored. With achievements in other areas of supportive care in patients undergoing chemotherapy, oral mucositis should represent the forefront of new research. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of available options for children who have oral mucositis. PMID:23413048

  5. A survey of current practice with regard to oral care for children being treated for cancer.

    PubMed

    Glenny, A M; Gibson, F; Auld, E; Coulson, S; Clarkson, J E; Craig, J V; Eden, O B; Worthington, H V; Pizer, B

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the study was to establish current UK oral care practice for children with cancer. A telephone survey of all 22 United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) centres was undertaken. Nineteen (86%) of the centres reported using guidelines/protocols for mouth care. The use of routine preventive oral care therapies showed the greatest variation between centres. Four centres (18%) did not use any prophylactic oral care therapy other than basic oral hygiene, whereas seven (32%) routinely used a combination of three or more agents. Chlorhexidine was the most frequently administered prophylactic therapy (17/22 centres, 77%), followed by nystatin (11/22 centres, 50%). There was little variation in advice given to parents/patients on basic oral hygiene. Regarding dental check-ups, 9/22 centres (41%) recommended children to attend a hospital-linked dental clinic. Only at 8/22 centres (36%) did children undergo a dental check-up before commencing cancer treatment. The survey identified significant variation in preventive oral care therapies and dental check-ups at the UKCCSG centres. Attention needs to be given to establishing evidence based, effective strategies.

  6. Chromosomal instability, aneuploidy and routine high-resolution DNA content analysis in oral cancer risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giaretti, Walter; Pentenero, Monica; Gandolfo, Sergio; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2012-10-01

    Carcinogen exposure of the oral cavity is thought to create an extensive 'field cancerization'. According to this model, a very early precursor of oral cancer is a patch of normal-appearing mucosa in which stem cells share genetic/genomic aberrations. These precancerous fields then become clinically visible as white and red lesions (leuko- and erythro-plakias), which represent the vast majority of the oral potentially malignant disorders. This review focuses on aneuploidy (where it is from) and on biomarkers associated with DNA aneuploidy in oral mucosa and oral potentially malignant disorders, as detected by DNA image and flow cytometry. Data from the literature strongly support the association of DNA ploidy with dysplasia. However, work is still needed to prove the clinical value of DNA ploidy in large-scale prospective studies. Using high-resolution DNA flow cytometry with fresh/frozen material and the degree of DNA aneuploidy (DNA Index) might improve the prediction of risk of oral cancer development.

  7. Bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for simultaneous reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to simultaneously reconstruct bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis. In this study, we report two cases where bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were used to resurface two separate buccal defects. PMID:27619322

  8. Oral and pharyngeal cancer: practices and opinions of dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Poel, Dale H

    2002-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are associated with high mortality rates, a situation usually attributed to late-stage diagnosis. Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia were surveyed regarding their practices and opinions related to oral and pharyngeal cancer. In February 1998 a pretested, 41-item survey was mailed to a random sample of dentists in British Columbia (n = 817) and the population of dentists in Nova Scotia (N = 423). A reminder postcard and one additional mailing were sent to nonrespondents. Of the 670 dentists supplying usable responses (response rate 55.2%), only 56.7% agreed that their knowledge of the subject was current. Of 8 health history items, dentists assessed 5 on average, with most (88.0%) asking about the patients' current use of tobacco. A total of 72.7% of the responding dentists performed an oral cancer examination for all edentulous patients at every appointment, but 10.9% never did so. Similarly, 70.7% of the dentists always provided an oral cancer examination at the initial appointment for patients 40 years of age and older, but 9.8% never did so. Undergraduate training related to oral cancer examination was reported as good by only 52.2% of the dentists. About three-quarters of all dentists (77.0%) were interested in taking continuing education courses on this subject. Differences between the 2 provinces were not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Dentists in British Columbia and Nova Scotia could benefit from undergraduate and continuing education courses to increase their knowledge of health history assessment, examination for oral and pharyngeal cancers, and risk reduction strategies, such as counselling about tobacco cessation.

  9. Effects of CRM197, a specific inhibitor of HB-EGF, in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Dateoka, Suguru; Ohnishi, Yuichi; Kakudo, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    CRM197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, is a specific inhibitor of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF), which belongs to the EGF family that has been implicated in the increased progression, proliferation, and metastasis of oral cancer. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effects of CRM197, which represent possible chemotherapeutic agents for oral cancer. In the experiment, we used the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines HSC3 and SAS. Cells treated with CRM197 were analyzed based on cell viability, MTT assay, invasion assay, Western blot, and zymography. HSC3 cells were injected subcutaneously into female BALB/c nu/nu mice at 5 weeks of age. CRM197 and/or CDDP were injected intraperitoneally into tumor-bearing mice, and tumor volume was measured over time. HB-EGF expression in HSC3 and SAS cells treated with CRM197 was significantly reduced and cell proliferation was inhibited. The invasiveness of CRM197-treated cells was relatively low. MMP-9 and VEGF were suppressed in HSC3 treated with CRM197 on zymography and Western blot. Further, tumor growth in xenografted mice was suppressed by CRM197 or CDDP at 1 mg/kg/day. Also, the coadministration of CDDP and CRM197 at 1 mg/kg/day completely inhibited tumor formation. These results suggest that HB-EGF is a target for oral cancer and that CRM197 is effective in oral cancer therapy.

  10. Non-invasive visual tools for diagnosis of oral cancer and dysplasia: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Giovannacci, Ilaria; Vescovi, Paolo; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Gold standard for the diagnosis of oral dysplasia (OD) oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and malignant lesions is the histological examination. Several adjunctive diagnostic techniques have been proposed in order to increase the sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of conventional oral examination and to improve the diagnostic first level accuracy. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review on non-invasive tools for diagnosis of OD and early OSCC. Material and Methods Medline, Scopus, Web of Knowledge databases were searched, using as entry terms “oral dysplasia AND diagnosis” / ”oral cancer AND diagnosis”. Data extracted from each study included number of lesions evaluated, histopathological diagnosis, SE, SP, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), diagnostic accuracy (DA) and the main conclusions. Results After title and abstract scanning of 11.080 records, we selected 35 articles for full text evaluation. Most evaluated tools were autofluorescence (AF), chemiluminescence (CL), toluidine blu (TL) and chemiluminescence associated with toluidine blue (CLTB). Conclusions There is a great inhomogeneity of the reported values and there is no significant evidence of superiority of one tool over the other. Further clinical trials with a higher level of evidence are necessary in order to assess the real usefulness visual diagnostic tools. Key words:Oral dysplasia, oral cancer, diagnosis, visual diagnostic tool, systematic review. PMID:26946204

  11. CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Oue, Erika; Lee, Ji-Won; Sakamoto, Kei; Iimura, Tadahiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kayamori, Kou; Michi, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Masashi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral cancer cells synthesize CXCL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2 synthesized by oral cancer is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CXCL2-neutralizing antibody inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by oral cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We first report the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction. -- Abstract: To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first

  12. Color-based tumor tissue segmentation for the automated estimation of oral cancer parameters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yung-Nien; Wang, Yi-Ying; Chang, Shao-Chien; Wu, Li-Wha; Tsai, Sen-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an automatic color-based feature extraction system for parameter estimation of oral cancer from optical microscopic images. The system first reduces image-to-image variations by means of color normalization. We then construct a database which consists of typical cancer images. The color parameters extracted from this database are then used in automated online sampling from oral cancer images. Principal component analysis is subsequently used to divide the color features into four tissue types. Each pixel in the cancer image is then classified into the corresponding tissue types based on the Mahalanobis distance. The aforementioned procedures are all fully automated; in particular, the automated sampling step greatly reduces the need for intensive labor in manual sampling and training. Experiments reveal high levels of consistency among the results achieved using the manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic methods. Parameter comparisons between the four cancer stages are conducted, and only the mean parameters between early and late cancer stages are statistically different. In summary, the proposed system provides a useful and convenient tool for automatic segmentation and evaluation for stained biopsy samples of oral cancer. This tool can also be modified and applied to other tissue images with similar staining conditions.

  13. The Tongue and Quill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    CEPME/EDC/6-4309/ dcm /18 Aug 04 – 211 – The Tongue and Quill ER 1-inch top and bottom m argins -inch top and bottom m argins APER background...reports. The Chicago Manual of Style The Phantom of the Opera AFM 33-326, Preparing Official Communications Star Trek The Montgomery Advertiser

  14. Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tsilidis, K K; Allen, N E; Key, T J; Dossus, L; Lukanova, A; Bakken, K; Lund, E; Fournier, A; Overvad, K; Hansen, L; Tjønneland, A; Fedirko, V; Rinaldi, S; Romieu, I; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Engel, P; Kaaks, R; Schütze, M; Steffen, A; Bamia, C; Trichopoulou, A; Zylis, D; Masala, G; Pala, V; Galasso, R; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Duijnhoven, F J B; Braem, M G M; Onland-Moret, N C; Gram, I T; Rodríguez, L; Travier, N; Sánchez, M-J; Huerta, J M; Ardanaz, E; Larrañaga, N; Jirström, K; Manjer, J; Idahl, A; Ohlson, N; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Mouw, T; Norat, T; Riboli, E

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is well established that parity and use of oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the associations with other reproductive variables are less clear. Methods: We examined the associations of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors with ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 327 396 eligible women, 878 developed ovarian cancer over an average of 9 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models stratified by centre and age, and adjusted for smoking status, body mass index, unilateral ovariectomy, simple hysterectomy, menopausal hormone therapy, and mutually adjusted for age at menarche, age at menopause, number of full-term pregnancies and duration of oral contraceptive use. Results: Women who used oral contraceptives for 10 or more years had a significant 45% (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41–0.75) lower risk compared with users of 1 year or less (P-trend, <0.01). Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had a 29% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59–0.87) lower risk, with an 8% reduction in risk for each additional pregnancy. A high age at menopause was associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer (>52 vs ⩽45 years: HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.06–1.99; P-trend, 0.02). Age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, incomplete pregnancies and breastfeeding were not associated with risk. Conclusion: This study shows a strong protective association of oral contraceptives and parity with ovarian cancer risk, a higher risk with a late age at menopause, and no association with other reproductive factors. PMID:21915124

  15. Carcinoma cuniculatum arising in the tongue.

    PubMed

    Thavaraj, Selvam; Cobb, Alistair; Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Beale, Timothy; Walker, Donald Murray; Jay, Amrita

    2012-03-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum (CC) is a rare, distinct clinico-pathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that is defined histologically by the characteristic infiltrative pattern of a deep, broad, and complex proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium with keratin cores and keratin-filled crypts. Herein, we present a case report of CC of the oral tongue and discuss its diagnosis, management, and outcome, as well as briefly review the world literature. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of CC of the tongue to be reported in the English literature. We draw attention to its clinico-pathological features and highlight that awareness of this entity as a distinct variant of SCC facilitates its correct management.

  16. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation and Carboplatin Followed By Chemoradiation in Treating Patients With Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-09

    Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Cancer

  17. Inhibitory effects of Leucaena leucocephala on the metastasis and invasion of human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chang, Yu-Chao; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chia-Chieh; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2017-02-09

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and metastasis is recognized as a major factor causing its low survival rate. The inhibition of metastasis progress and the improvement of the survival rate for oral cancer are critical research objectives. Leucaena leucocephala from the mimosa branch Leucaena genus is native to Central and South America and has been used as a traditional remedy for treating various disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer properties of L. leucocephala plant materials. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer effect induced by L. leucocephala remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of L. leucocephala extract (LLE) on SCC-9 and SAS oral cancer cells and examined the potential inhibitory mechanisms involved. The results indicated that LLE attenuated the migration and invasion abilities of both SCC-9 and SAS cells by reducing the activity and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Regarding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect in the presence of LLE. The application of ERK inhibitor and p38 inhibitor confirmed that both signalling transduction pathways were involved in the inhibition of cell metastasis. These data indicate that L. leucocephala could be a potent therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer and a prominent plant source for anticancer research in the future.

  18. Cancer chemopreventive properties of orally bioavailable flavonoids--methylated versus unmethylated flavones.

    PubMed

    Walle, Thomas; Ta, Nga; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wen, Xia; Tsuji, Petra A; Walle, U Kristina

    2007-05-01

    Poor oral bioavailability has been a major limitation for the successful use of dietary flavonoids as cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, we examined fully methylated flavones as promising improved agents. In the human oral SCC-9 cancer cells, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone and 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone were both 10 times more potent inhibitors of cell proliferation (IC(50) values 5-8 microM) than the corresponding unmethylated analogs chrysin and apigenin. Flow cytometry indicated that both methylated flavones arrested the SCC-9 cells in the G1 phase with a concomitant decrease in the S phase, dramatically different from the unmethylated analogs, which promoted G2/M phase arrest. Both methylated compounds inhibited the proliferation of two other cancer cell lines with very little effect on two immortalized normal cell lines. Examination of additional flavone structures indicated that methylated flavones in general have antiproliferative properties. Finally, we demonstrated that 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, in contrast to its unmethylated analog chrysin, was well absorbed and had high oral bioavailability as well as tissue accumulation in vivo in the rat. Thus, fully methylated flavones appear to have great potential as cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents, in particular in oral cancer.

  19. Relation between acute and late irradiation impairment of four basic tastes and irradiated tongue volume in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hideomi . E-mail: yamachan07291973@yahoo.co.jp; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Nakamura, Naoki; Abe, Keiko; Asakage, Takahiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hosoi, Yoshio; Sasano, Nakashi; Yamakawa, Sen; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: Taste loss is a major cause of morbidity in patients undergoing head-and-neck irradiation. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied in both acute and late phases. Methods and Materials: Taste ability was measured by the taste threshold for the four basic tastes using a filter paper disc method in patients before, during, and after radiotherapy. The subjects were divided into two groups. In Group A, Radiation fields included most of the tongue (n = 100), and in Group B Radiation fields did not include the tip of the tongue (n = 18). Results: In Group A, there was a significant impairment of the threshold of all four basic tastes at 3 weeks after starting radiotherapy (RT), and this impairment remained at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). This was not seen in Group B. In Group A, there was no significant difference in the patterns of taste sensitivity change between the high-dose (>20 Gy) and low-dose ({<=}20 Gy) groups. In the late phase, recovery of taste loss was seen in both groups since 4 months after completing RT. Conclusions: Unless the anterior part of the tongue was irradiated, taste loss was not observed during RT. When the anterior part of the tongue was irradiated, a difference by radiation dose was not observed in the taste loss pattern. Additionally, radiation-induced taste dysfunction appears to be a temporal effect.

  20. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine

    PubMed Central

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds were screened for the possible anti-cancer activity by custom build SVM classifier. The molecular targets of the predicted anti-cancer compounds were mined from reliable sources like experimental bioassays studies associated with the compound, and from protein-compound interaction databases. Therapeutic compounds from DrugBank, and a list of natural anti-cancer compounds derived from literature mining of published studies, were used for building partial least squares regression model. The regression model thus built, was used for the estimation of oral cancer specific weights based on the molecular targets. These weights were used to compute scores for screening the predicted anti-cancer compounds for their potential to treat oral cancer. The list of potential compounds was annotated with corresponding physicochemical properties, cancer specific bioactivity evidences, and literature evidences. In all, 288 compounds with the potential to treat oral cancer were identified in the current study. The majority of the compounds in this list are natural products, which are well-tolerated and have minimal side-effects compared to the synthetic counterparts. Some of the potential therapeutic compounds identified in the current study are resveratrol, nimbolide, lovastatin, bortezomib, vorinostat, berberine, pterostilbene, deguelin, andrographolide, and colchicine. PMID:26536350