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Sample records for oral trichlorfon solution

  1. 21 CFR 520.2520 - Trichlorfon oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon oral dosage forms. 520.2520 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520 Trichlorfon oral dosage forms....

  2. 21 CFR 520.1326 - Mebendazole and trichlorfon oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mebendazole and trichlorfon oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1326 Mebendazole and trichlorfon oral dosage forms....

  3. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  4. Neuropsychic Disorders in Trichlorfon Poisoning,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-21

    timidity and obsessive fears. Attention was drawn to the persistence of autonomic disorders in these patients. Complaints of impotence were not...I ADAO~g939 OREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSDN AFS 0DH F/G 6/20 E NUR OPSY(CHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHL ORFON POISONING,(U) IAUG 7 9 V I BAR A 3AS...SHEET DTIC OCT79 70A oc’r 7, ’K FTD-ID (RS)T-1179-79 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION NEUROPSYCHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHLORFON POISONING by 7,- I. Barabash

  5. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  6. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  7. Beneficial effect of pine honey on trichlorfon induced some biochemical alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Silici, Sibel; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2010-07-01

    Forty-eight male BALB/c mice, weighing 30-35 g, were used in the study, and were divided into groups of 12 each. The four groups established in the study included one control group and three experimental groups. The first group served as the control group, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered 1g/kg bw/day pine honey, 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon ( approximately 1/5LD(50)) and 1g/kg bw/day pine honey plus 180 mg/kg bw/day trichlorfon, respectively, by the oral route using a catheter for 21 days. At the end of 21 days post-administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, brain and heart) samples were collected. Serum levels/activities of total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, creatine, uric acid, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, total bilirubin, GGT, LDH, AST, ALT and ALP were determined. Furthermore, tissue MDA levels and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px activities were analyzed. According to the data obtained, when administered at the indicated dose and for the indicated time period, trichlorfon was determined to lead to negative alterations in most of the biochemical parameters investigated. The administration of pine honey was determined to alleviate this effect.

  8. 21 CFR 520.1326b - Mebendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do not... age, or mares in the last month of pregnancy. Trichlorfon is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Do...

  9. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. 180.198 Section 180.198 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific...

  10. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  11. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  20. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  1. In vitro study of the neuropathic potential of the organophosphorus compounds trichlorfon and acephate.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Laís S; Emerick, Guilherme L; dos Santos, Neife Aparecida G; de Paula, Eloísa Silva; Barbosa, Fernando; dos Santos, Antonio Cardozo

    2015-04-01

    Organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a central and peripheral distal axonopathy characterized by ataxia and paralysis. Trichlorfon and acephate are two organophosphorus compounds (OPs) used worldwide as insecticide and which cause serious effects to non-target species. Despite that, the neuropathic potential of these OPs remains unclear. The present study addressed the neurotoxic effects and the neuropathic potential of trichlorfon and acephate in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, by evaluating inhibition and aging of neuropathy target esterase (NTE), inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), neurite outgrowth, cytotoxicity and intracellular calcium. Additionally, the effects observed were compared to those of two well-studied OPs: mipafox (known as neuropathic) and paraoxon (known as non-neuropathic). Trichlorfon and mipafox presented the lowest percentage of reactivation of inhibited NTE and the lowest ratio IC50 NTE/IC50 AChE. Moreover, they caused inhibition and aging of at least 70% of the activity of NTE at sub-lethal concentrations. All these effects have been associated with induction of OPIDN. When assayed at these concentrations, trichlorfon and mipafox reduced neurite outgrowth and increased intracellular calcium, events implicated in the development of OPIDN. Acephate caused effects similar to those caused by paraoxon (non-neuropathic OP) and was only able to inhibit 70% of NTE activity at lethal concentrations. These findings suggest that trichlorfon is potentially neuropathic, whereas acephate is not.

  2. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  3. Metabolic effects of trichlorfon (Masoten®) on the neotropical freshwater fish pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    PubMed

    Venturini, Francine P; Moraes, Fernanda D; Cortella, Lucas R X; Rossi, Priscila A; Cruz, Claudinei; Moraes, Gilberto

    2015-02-01

    Fish parasites are among the crucial limiting factors in aquaculture. The organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon is widely used as an insecticide and against fish parasites worldwide. In this study, the effects of environmental trichlorfon on biochemical and physiological parameters were investigated in Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu), a widely farmed fish in South America, through sublethal exposure (8 µg L(-1), 10 % of the LC50; 96 h) and recovery. The activity of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was reduced after exposure (15.5 %) and remained decreased during the recovery (21.5 %). In white muscle, AChE activity decreased 31 % only after recovery. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities of the liver, muscle and plasma were steady during exposure. However, after the recovery period, ALP activity was increased in the liver and muscle and decreased in plasma, while ACP was increased in the liver and decreased in muscle. Intermediary metabolism was also affected by trichlorfon, depicting increase of energetic demand (hypoglycemia, neoglucogenesis and lipid catabolism), which remained even after recovery. These results indicate that P. mesopotamicus is adversely affected by sublethal concentrations of trichlorfon and are useful for assessing the impact as well as the pros and cons of its use in controlling fish parasites in aquaculture.

  4. The effect of trichlorfon and methylazoxymethanol on the development of guinea pig cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, Anna; Schanke, Tore M.; Torvik, Ansgar; Fonnum, Frode . E-mail: frode.fonnum@bio.uio.no

    2007-03-15

    The pesticide trichlorfon (125 mg/kg on days 42-44 in gestation) gives hypoplasia of Brain of the offspring without any significant reduction in their body weights. The hypoplasia may be caused by trichlorfon itself or by its metabolite dichlorvos. This period of development coincides with the growth spurt period of guinea pig brain. The largest changes occurred in the cerebellum. Electron microscopic examination of the cerebellar cortex showed increased apoptotic death of cells in the granule cell layer after trichlorfon treatment. A reduction in thickness of the external germinal layer of the cerebellar cortex and an elevated amount of pyknotic and karyorrhexic cells in the granule cell layer was found. There was a significant reduction in choline esterase, choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activities in the cerebellum. Methylazoxymethanol (15 mg/kg body weight, day 43) was examined for comparison and caused similar hypoplasia of the guinea pig cerebellum, but did also induce a reduction in body weight. Trichloroethanol, the main metabolite of trichlorfon, did not give brain hypoplasia.

  5. 76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... determined that ORLAAM (levomethadyl acetate hydrochloride (HCl)) oral solution, 10 milligrams (mg... solution, 10 mg/mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... HCl) oral solution, 10 mg/mL, is the subject of NDA 20-315, held by Roxane Laboratories, Inc....

  6. Oral bioavailability of pantoprazole suspended in sodium bicarbonate solution.

    PubMed

    Ferron, Geraldine M; Ku, Sherry; Abell, Madelyn; Unruh, Mary; Getsy, John; Mayer, Philip R; Paul, Jeffrey

    2003-07-01

    The bioavailability of pantoprazole when administered as a suspension in sodium bicarbonate solution and as the oral tablet was studied. In an open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study, healthy fasting subjects received either one enteric-coated 40-mg pantoprazole tablet by mouth with 240 mL of water or 20 mL of a suspension prepared from one crushed pantoprazole tablet and 840 mg of sodium bicarbonate solution and administered via a nasogastric tube. Treatments were separated by a 48-hour washout period. Blood samples were collected at intervals up to 24 hours after drug administration for measurement of pantoprazole concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and estimation of pharmacokinetic values. A separate study was conducted to determine pantoprazole's stability in the suspension for up to three months at 25, 5, and -20 degrees C; concentrations were measured by HPLC. Twelve subjects completed the study. The suspension yielded pantoprazole Cmax values similar to those of the tablet formulation, but the drug was 25% less bioavailable. There was no lag time for the suspension. The suspension was stable for up to two weeks at 5 degrees C and up to three months at -20 degrees C. A suspension of pantoprazole in sodium bicarbonate solution yielded a Cmax similar to that of the tablet formulation, and the drug was quickly absorbed. However, bio-availability was slightly lower with the suspension than with the tablet.

  7. Oral rehydration solutions in non-cholera diarrhea: a review.

    PubMed

    Atia, Antwan N; Buchman, Alan L

    2009-10-01

    The use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) has revolutionized the management of acute diarrhea. The implementation of the standard World Health Organization ORS (WHO-ORS) has resulted in decreased mortality associated with acute diarrheal illnesses in children, although in general stool volume and diarrhea durations are not reduced. Decreased morbidity and mortality have occurred because of improved hydration status. Decreased morbidity has also been described in adults who used this therapy. Various modifications to the standard ORS have been derived. These modifications have included hypo-osmolar or hyperosmolar solutions, use of rice-based ORS, zinc supplementation, and the use of amino acids, including glycine, alanine, and glutamine. Some of these variations have been successful, some have not, and others are still under investigation. ORS has been used for travelers' diarrhea and to decrease intravenous (IV) fluid requirements in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) who require parenteral nutrition (PN). This paper reviews the standard WHO-ORS and its mechanism of action, followed by more contemporary reduced osmolarity ORS and rice-based ORS in non-cholera diarrhea. Various modifications to improve ORS are also discussed.

  8. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of dronabinol oral solution versus dronabinol capsules in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Oh, D Alexander; Parikh, Neha; Khurana, Varun; Cognata Smith, Christina; Vetticaden, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Dronabinol is a pharmaceutical tetrahydrocannabinol originally developed as an oral capsule. A dronabinol oral solution was recently approved, and the effects of food on absorption and bioavailability of the oral solution versus capsules were compared in an open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg (fed) or dronabinol capsule 5 mg (fed or fasted). Dosing was separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma pharmacokinetics were evaluated for dronabinol and its major metabolite, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-Δ9-THC). Pharmacokinetic data were available for analysis in 54 volunteers. In the fed state, initial dronabinol absorption was faster with oral solution versus capsule (mean time to the first measurable concentration, 0.15 vs 2.02 hours, respectively), with 100% and 15% of volunteers, respectively, having detectable plasma dronabinol levels 30 minutes postdose. There was less interindividual variability in plasma dronabinol concentration during early absorption with oral solution versus capsule. Compared with the fasted state, mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC0−t) increased by 2.1- and 2.4-fold for dronabinol oral solution and capsule, respectively, when taken with food. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration was similarly delayed for dronabinol oral solution with food (7.7 hours) and capsule with food (5.6 hours) versus capsule with fasting (1.7 hours). Under fed conditions, AUC0−t and area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to infinity were similar for the oral solution versus capsule based on 11-OH-Δ9-THC levels. An appreciable food effect was observed for dronabinol oral solution and capsules. Dronabinol oral solution may offer therapeutic benefit to patients, given its rapid and lower interindividual absorption variability versus dronabinol capsule

  9. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of dronabinol oral solution versus dronabinol capsules in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Oh, D Alexander; Parikh, Neha; Khurana, Varun; Cognata Smith, Christina; Vetticaden, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Dronabinol is a pharmaceutical tetrahydrocannabinol originally developed as an oral capsule. A dronabinol oral solution was recently approved, and the effects of food on absorption and bioavailability of the oral solution versus capsules were compared in an open-label, single-dose, 3-period crossover study. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg (fed) or dronabinol capsule 5 mg (fed or fasted). Dosing was separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma pharmacokinetics were evaluated for dronabinol and its major metabolite, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-Δ9-THC). Pharmacokinetic data were available for analysis in 54 volunteers. In the fed state, initial dronabinol absorption was faster with oral solution versus capsule (mean time to the first measurable concentration, 0.15 vs 2.02 hours, respectively), with 100% and 15% of volunteers, respectively, having detectable plasma dronabinol levels 30 minutes postdose. There was less interindividual variability in plasma dronabinol concentration during early absorption with oral solution versus capsule. Compared with the fasted state, mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t ) increased by 2.1- and 2.4-fold for dronabinol oral solution and capsule, respectively, when taken with food. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration was similarly delayed for dronabinol oral solution with food (7.7 hours) and capsule with food (5.6 hours) versus capsule with fasting (1.7 hours). Under fed conditions, AUC0-t and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity were similar for the oral solution versus capsule based on 11-OH-Δ9-THC levels. An appreciable food effect was observed for dronabinol oral solution and capsules. Dronabinol oral solution may offer therapeutic benefit to patients, given its rapid and lower interindividual absorption variability versus dronabinol capsule.

  10. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains 25 milligrams (40,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains 25 milligrams (40,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696c - Penicillin V potassium for oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. 520....1696c Penicillin V potassium for oral solution. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains 25 milligrams (40,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of...

  13. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  14. Bioavailability study of dronabinol oral solution versus dronabinol capsules in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Neha; Kramer, William G; Khurana, Varun; Cognata Smith, Christina; Vetticaden, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Background Dronabinol, a pharmaceutical Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was originally developed as an oral capsule. This study evaluated the bioavailability of a new formulation, dronabinol oral solution, versus a dronabinol capsule formulation. Methods In an open-label, four-period, single-dose, crossover study, healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences (T-R-T-R and R-T-R-T; T = dronabinol 4.25 mg oral solution and R = dronabinol 5 mg capsule) under fasted conditions, with a minimum 7-day washout period between doses. Analyses were performed on venous blood samples drawn 15 minutes to 48 hours postdose, and dronabinol concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Fifty-one of 52 individuals had pharmacokinetic data for analysis. The 90% confidence interval of the geometric mean ratio (oral solution/capsule) for dronabinol was within the 80%–125% bioequivalence range for area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0–t) and AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞). Maximum plasma concentration was also bioequivalent for the two dronabinol formulations. Intraindividual variability in AUC0–∞ was >60% lower for dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg versus dronabinol capsule 5 mg. Plasma dronabinol concentrations were detected within 15 minutes postdose in 100% of patients when receiving oral solution and in <25% of patients when receiving capsules. Conclusion Single-dose dronabinol oral solution 4.25 mg was bioequivalent to dronabinol capsule 5 mg under fasted conditions. Dronabinol oral solution formulation may provide an easy-to-swallow administration option with lower intraindividual variability as well as more rapid absorption versus dronabinol capsules. PMID:27785111

  15. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. Horses—(1) Amount. 8.8 milligrams of mebendazole and 40 milligrams of...) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. Horses—(1) Amount. 8.8 milligrams of mebendazole and 40 milligrams of...) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. Horses—(1) Amount. 8.8 milligrams of mebendazole and 40 milligrams of...) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. Horses—(1) Amount. 8.8 milligrams of mebendazole and 40 milligrams of...) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1326a - Mebendazole and trichlorfon powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. Horses—(1) Amount. 8.8 milligrams of mebendazole and 40 milligrams of...) Limitations. Administer orally as an individual dose by stomach tube or throughly mixed in the ground...

  20. A study on biomimetic immunoassay-capillary electrophoresis method based on molecularly imprinted polymer for determination of trace trichlorfon residue in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lu, Juxiu; Qiao, Xuguang; Xu, Zhixiang

    2017-04-15

    Pesticide residue in vegetables is a serious problem that has adverse effects on human health. In our study, we designed and synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer that can selectively recognize trichlorfon. Using the polymer material as biomimetic antibody, we developed a biomimetic immunoassay-capillary electrophoresis method with improved sensitivity for the detection of trichlorfon. We evaluated the competitive reactions between HRP labeled trichlorfon hapten and free trichlorfon with the biomimetic antibody. Factors that affected the sensitivity of our method were tested in detail. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD, IC15) and the sensitivity (IC50) of this method were 0.16mgL(-1) and 0.13μgL(-1) for trichlorfon. We used this method to determine the trichlorfon spiked in the kidney bean and cucumber samples with recoveries ranging from 78.8% to 103%. We also detected residual trichlorfons in the leek samples, and these results were verified by gas chromatography method.

  1. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan.

  2. Oral literacy demand of health care communication: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Roter, Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Literacy deficits are widespread; one-quarter of the U.S. population has below basic literacy skills and the health consequences of literacy deficits are well-known and significant. While the need to simplify written health education print material is widely recognized, there has been little attempt to describe or reduce the literacy demand of health care dialogue. Patients with limited literacy complain they are not given information about their problems in ways they can understand, leaving them uninformed, frustrated, and distrustful. The purpose of this article is to review a conceptual approach to describing oral literacy demand in health care dialogue, to review several key studies that support the predictive validity of the conceptual framework in regard to patient satisfaction and recall of information, and to propose several practical ways to diminish literacy demand and facilitate more effective health care exchanges with patients.

  3. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents. PMID:25568596

  4. Enteral resuscitation of burn shock using World Health Organization oral rehydration solution: a potential solution for mass casualty care.

    PubMed

    Michell, Michael W; Oliveira, Hermes M; Kinsky, Michael P; Vaid, Sumreen U; Herndon, David N; Kramer, George C

    2006-01-01

    Enteral resuscitation could provide a means to resuscitate burn shock when intravenous (IV) therapy is unavailable, such as in mass disasters. We evaluated the extent of intestinal absorption and resuscitative effects of World Health Organization Oral Rehydration Solution after a 40% TBSA burn in anesthetized swine compared with the IV infusion of lactated Ringer's infused by Parkland formula. Plasma volume (PV) was measured using indocyanine green dye dilution. Intestinal absorption was assessed using phenol red as a nonabsorbable marker. Changes in hematocrit, hemodynamics, and measured PV showed equivalent resuscitative effects of enteral and IV resuscitation. The duodenal fluid absorption rate started at 77 +/- 32 ml/hr per meter of intestine during the first hour and increased to 296 +/- 40 ml/hr during the fourth hour of resuscitation, with a total of 93 +/- 2% of World Health Organization Oral Rehydration Solution infused into the intestine being absorbed. Intestinal absorption rates after burn injury are sufficient to resuscitate a 40% TBSA burn.

  5. Multiple subcutaneous mycetomas caused by Pseudallescheria boydii: response to therapy with oral potassium iodide solution.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fida A; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Sarwari, Arif R

    2010-02-01

    We describe the case of a sixteen-year-old male who presented with multiple subcutaneous mycetomas proven on culture to be secondary to Pseudallescheria boydi., The lesions responded completely to oral potassium iodide solution. To our knowledge this has never been reported in humans.

  6. Oral treatment with etoposide in small cell lung cancer – dilemmas and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rezonja, Renata; Knez, Lea; Cufer, Tanja; Mrhar, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background Etoposide is a chemotherapeutic agent, widely used for the treatment of various malignancies, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Oral etoposide administration exhibits advantages for the quality of life of the patient as well as economic benefits. However, widespread use of oral etoposide is limited by incomplete and variable bioavailability. Variability in bioavailability was observed both within and between patients. This suggests that some patients may experience suboptimal tumor cytotoxicity, whereas other patients may be at risk for excess toxicity. Conclusions The article highlights dilemmas as well as solutions regarding oral treatment with etoposide by presenting and analyzing relevant literature data. Numerous studies have shown that bioavailability of etoposide is influenced by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. Several strategies were explored to improve bioavailability and to reduce pharmacokinetic variability of oral etoposide, including desired and undesired drug interactions (e.g. with ketoconazole), development of suitable drug delivery systems, use of more water-soluble prodrug of etoposide, and influence on gastric emptying. In addition to genotype-based dose administration, etoposide is suitable for pharmacokinetically guided dosing, which enables dose adjustments in individual patient. Further, it is established that oral and intravenous schedules of etoposide in SCLC patients do not result in significant differences in treatment outcome, while results of toxicity are inconclusive. To conclude, the main message of the article is that better prediction of the pharmacokinetics of oral etoposide may encourage its wider use in routine clinical practice. PMID:23450046

  7. Chelation Therapy with Oral Solution of Deferiprone in Transfusional Iron-Overloaded Children with Hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Makis, Alexandros; Chaliasos, Nikolaos; Alfantaki, Sapfo; Karagouni, Paraskevi; Siamopoulou, Antigone

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload in hemoglobinopathies is secondary to blood transfusions, chronic hemolysis, and increased iron absorption and leads to tissue injury requiring the early use of chelating agents. The available agents are parenteral deferoxamine and oral deferiprone and deferasirox. There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of deferiprone at a very young age. The aim of our study was the presentation of data regarding the use of oral solution of deferiprone in 9 children (mean age 6.5, range 2–10) with transfusion dependent hemoglobinopathies (6 beta thalassemia major, 1 thalassemia intermedia, and 2 sickle cell beta thalassemia). The mean duration of treatment was 21.5 months (range 15–31). All children received the oral solution without any problems of compliance. Adverse reactions were temporary abdominal discomfort and diarrhea (1 child), mild neutropenia (1 child) that resolved with no need of discontinuation of treatment, and transient arthralgia (1 child) that resolved spontaneously. The mean ferritin levels were significantly reduced at the end of 12 months (initial 2440 versus final 1420 μg/L, P < 0.001). This small study shows that oral solution of deferiprone was well tolerated by young children and its use was not associated with major safety concerns. Furthermore, it was effective in decreasing serum ferritin. PMID:24294523

  8. Response of breeding birds to aerial sprays of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-Oil) in Montana forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Henny, C.J.; Floyd, R.L.; Bobal, K.A.; Schultz, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Breeding density, food, nesting success, and mortality of 20 bird species were monitored at Beaverhead National Forest, Montana, in 1975 in conjunction with experimental applications of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin-4-oil) to western budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis). Bird species on nine 350- to 550-ha forested plots (three controls and three treated with each pesticide) were studied before and for 14 days after the spraying of trichlorfon at 1.1 kg in?9.4 L of Panasol AN3 per ha (1 pound active ingredient in 1.0 gallon/acre) and of carbaryl at 1.1 kg in 4.7 L of diesel oil per ha (l pound active ingredient in 0.5 gallon/acre). No significant decrease in bird numbers was detected from breeding-pair estimates or live bird counts after the spraying. Of the breeding pairs present before spraying, 92% remained on control plots, 89% on trichlorfon plots, and 92% on carbaryl plots. Counts of live birds made before and after spraying in three types of habitat supported the. results of the breeding-pair estimates. Nests with eggs or with young at the time of spraying were 74 and 97% successful, respectively, in control plots, 83 and 100% in plots sprayed with trichlorfon, and 86 and 100% in plots sprayed with carbaryl. No sick or dead birds were found after the spraying, although budworms were found in bird stomachs, and tracer-dye from the pesticide occurred on the feathers or feet of 74% of the 202 birds collected. Species dwelling in the tree canopy encountered the dye (and thus the pesticide) at a slightly higher rate (80%) than did species below the treetops (71 %) or near the ground and in open areas (70%).

  9. Development of a novel physico-chemically and microbiologically stable oral solution of flecainide for pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Santoveña, Ana; Charola, Irma; Suárez-González, Javier; Teigell-Pérez, Nuria; García-van Nood, Susana; Soriano, Mabel; Fariña, José B

    2016-09-23

    There is as yet no commercialized preparation for oral administration of flecainide acetate (FA) to children. In such cases, manipulation of commercial tablets is the usual practice in pharmacy services of hospitals and compounding pharmacies, to provide a suitable dosage form for this vulnerable pediatric population group. In this study we have formulated FA as an oral solution, as an alternative to the suspension elaborated from commercial tablets. Due to this sensitivity of young patients, we have used the pure active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the lowest permitted levels of pediatric excipients. Despite being a highly soluble API, only one of the formulations appears as a transparent solution due to complete FA solubilization. The proposed formulation is physico-chemically and microbiologically stable and the mass and dose uniformity is appropriate for 30 days' storage at 25°C.

  10. [Sodium concentrations in solutions for oral rehydration in children with diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Mota-Hernández, F; Morales-Barradas, J A

    1990-04-01

    Using the appropriate treatment for dehydration due to diarrhea, over a million deaths a year in children under five are being prevented. After analyzing the information related to the concentration of sodium in solutions used for oral rehydration, the following conclusions can be made: 1. Solutions with high glucose content, as well as hyperosmolar foods, favor the development of hypernatremia. Not so, sodium concentrations of up to 90 mmol/L, with glucose under 2.5%. 2. There are other factors which correlate with the presence of hypernatremia: abundant watery diarrhea, a good state of nutrition, under six months of age and the administration of solute loads, orally (boiled milk) as well as intravenously. 3. The WHO oral rehydration solution which contains, in mmol/L: sodium 90, glucose 111 (2%), chloride 80, potassium 20 and citrate 10, with a total osmolarity of 311 or 331 mOsm/L, is the one which more closely resembles the ideal concentration and has shown to be effective, not only in the treatment of dehydration due to diarrhea, but has also been to be useful in the prevention and maintenance of rehydration, independently from the etiology, the patient's age or the state of nutrition. 4. The use of oral serum with a sodium concentration of 90 mmol/L, reduces the natremia more slowly, therefore protecting the patient with hypernatremic dehydration from developing convulsions during treatment. This sodium concentration is also the best for cases of hyponatremic dehydration. 5. Using the recommended norms in cases of children with diarrhea, including continuing regular feeding habits and the adding of complementary liquids, no cases of hypernatremia have been recorded.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Tolerability of Oral Xylitol Solution in Young Children: Implications for Otitis Media Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Vernacchio, Louis; Vezina, Richard M.; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Xylitol, given as two grams orally five times-a-day, significantly reduces the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. A less frequent dosing schedule, if tolerable and efficacious, would promote the more widespread use of this treatment. We sought to determine the tolerability and acceptability in young children of oral xylitol solution at doses of 5 grams three times-a-day (TID) and 7.5 grams once daily (QD). Methods. The study was a three-month randomized placebo-controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of oral xylitol solution in 120 children 6-36 months of age performed in the SCOR Network. Results. Study withdrawals and unscheduled medical visits for gastrointestinal complaints did not differ significantly among the study groups. The proportions of subjects in the xylitol TID group who experienced excessive gas or diarrhea at months one, two, and three were 22.7%, 10.0%, and 14.3%, respectively, and in the xylitol QD group were 27.3%, 17.4%, and 14.3%, respectively, and these did not differ from the placebo groups. The proportions who accepted the study solution easily or with only minor difficulty at one, two, and three months in the xylitol TID group were 77.3%, 90.0%, and 90.5% and in the xylitol QD group, 77.3%, 82.6%, and 90.5%, respectively. Conclusions. Oral xylitol solution at dosages of 5 grams TID and 7.5 grams QD is well-tolerated by young children. Given the potential for xylitol as a safe, inexpensive option for AOM prophylaxis, clinical trials using these dosages of xylitol can be conducted. PMID:17097152

  12. Expression characteristics of potential biomarker genes in Tra catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, exposed to trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vanparys, Caroline; De Boeck, Gudrun; Kestemont, Patrick; Wang, Neil; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Coen, Wim; Robbens, Johan

    2010-09-01

    Trichlorfon (TRC) is the most common organophosphorous insecticide used in aquaculture practices in Southeast Asian countries. Indiscriminate use of TRC can either damage or alter the enzymatic and hormonal activities in the living organisms. In this present study, therefore, toxicogenomic analyses using real time PCR was used to characterize expression levels of various genes in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus after exposure to three concentrations, the 96 h 1/100LC(50) (0.01 mg/L), the 96 h 110LC(50) (0.1 mg/L) and the 96 h 12LC(50) (0.5 mg/L) of TRC for 6 h, 24 h, 96 h, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 56 days respectively. The expression kinetics of stress and other cellular toxicity representative genes such as heat shock protein70 (HSP70), growth hormone, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), trypsinogen, cytochrome P4501B (CYP1B) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) were investigated in liver and gills. TRC at a level of 0.1 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L induced a time and dose-dependent increase in the expression of the HSP70, COI and CYPIB while the transcript level of AChE, growth hormone and trypsinogen were significantly down-regulated. These results could permit to develop a "molecular biomarker system" which can be applied as a first-tier method of identifying contaminant exposure before effects at population level occur.

  13. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  14. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial. Methods Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo) with oral diclofenac (ODiclo). Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs), recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation. Results AEs occurred in 312 (67.1%) patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5%) of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001). Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055) AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile. PMID:21811391

  15. Formulation and stability of an extemporaneously compounded oral solution of chlorpromazine HCl.

    PubMed

    Prohotsky, Daniel L; Juba, Katherine M; Zhao, Fang

    2014-12-01

    Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine antipsychotic which is often used in hospice and palliative care to treat hiccups, delirium, and nausea. With the discontinuation of the commercial oral solution concentrate, there is a need to prepare this product by extemporaneous compounding. This study was initiated to identify an easy-to-prepare formulation for the compounding pharmacist. A stability study was also conducted to select the proper storage conditions and establish the beyond-use date. Chlorpromazine HCl powder and the Ora-Sweet® syrup vehicle were used to prepare the 100 mg/mL solution. Once the feasibility was established, a batch of the solution was prepared and packaged in amber plastic prescription bottles for a stability study. These samples were stored at refrigeration (2-8°C) or room temperature (20-25°C) for up to 3 months. At each monthly time point, the samples were evaluated by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A separate forced stability study was conducted to confirm that the HPLC method was stability indicating. A clear and colorless solution of 100 mg/mL chlorpromazine HCl was obtained by dissolving the drug powder in Ora-Sweet® with moderate agitation. The stability study results indicated that this solution product remained unchanged in visual appearance or pH at both refrigeration and room temperature for up to 3 months. The HPLC results also confirmed that all stability samples retained 93.6-101.4% of initial drug concentration. Chlorpromazine HCl solution 100 mg/mL can be compounded extemporaneously by dissolving chlorpromazine HCl drug powder in Ora-Sweet®. The resulting product is stable for at least three months in amber plastic prescription bottles stored at either refrigeration or room temperature.

  16. [Oral hydratation with a low osmolality solution in dehydrated children with diarrheic diseases: controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Bernal, Carlos; Velásquez, Claudia; García, Guillermo; Uribe, Gustavo; Palacio, Carlos Mauricio

    2003-03-01

    A clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a low-osmolarity solution (245 mOsm/L), and a standard oral rehydration solution (ORS) recommended by WHO for children dehydrated by diarrhea. Group 1 (69 children) received WHO/ORS (311 mOsml/L) and group 2 (71 children) received a low-osmolarity solution (245 mOsm/L). Rehydration was successful in 88.4% in group 1 and 92.9% in group 2 (p = 0.35). Rehydration was completed in 5.2 h (SD +/- 1.8) in group 1 and 5.5 (SD +/- 1.7) in group 2 (p = 0.31). Stool output was 6.3 g/kg/h (SD +/- 5.0) in group 1 and 5.6 g/kg/h (SD +/- 5.1) in group 2 (p = 0.94). Sodium at rehydration-completion was 139.3 mEq/L (SD +/- 7.1) in group 1 and 136.7 mEq/L (SD +/- 4.3) in group 2 (p = 0.014). Group 1 was under observation for 21 hours (SD +/- 5.7) and group 2, for 22 hours (SD +/- 5.6). Stool output in group 1 was 5.2 g/kg/h (SD 4.1) and 4.2 gr./kg/h (SD +/- 4.1) in group 2 (p = 0.16). In group 1, 23.1% required intravenous solutions and 9.8% in group 2 (p = 0.03). In treating dehydrated children, the low-osmolarity solution diminished the need for intravenous solutions, corrected most plasmatic sodium disorders, and produced no-risk of developing hyponatremia.

  17. Preparation of ibuprofen-loaded chitosan films for oral mucosal drug delivery using supercritical solution impregnation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chuan; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing; Zhu, Zi-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    Drug-loaded chitosan films suitable for oral mucosal drug delivery were prepared using supercritical solution impregnation (SSI) technology. Firstly, chitosan films were obtained via casting method, and the film properties including water-uptake, erosion and mucoadhesive were characterized. SSI process was then employed to load the drug of ibuprofen onto the prepared chitosan films, and the effects of impregnation pressure and temperature on morphologies of the ibuprofen-loaded chitosan films and drug loading capacity (DLC) were studied. The SEM and X-ray diffraction patterns suggested that distinct ibuprofen shapes such as microparticles, flake, rod-like and needle-like occurred after impregnation at different pressures, and DLC varied from 7.9% to 130.4% during the SSI process. The ex vivo release profiles showed that ibuprofen-loaded chitosan films could deliver the drug across the rabbit buccal mucosa, and up to 70% of the ibuprofen was released from the matrix in 460 min. SSI process is a promising method to prepare drug-loaded film formulations for oral mucosal drug delivery, which provides the advantages of low solvent residual and sustained- and controlled- release behavior.

  18. Modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission induced by sublethal doses of the organophosphate trichlorfon in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Graziele Daiane; de Freitas, Thiago Carrazoni; Heberle, Marines de Avila; de Assis, Dênis Reis; Vinadé, Lúcia; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides have been used indiscriminately, based on their high dissipation rates and low residual levels in the environment. Despite the toxicity of OPs to beneficial insects is principally devoted to the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the physiological mechanisms underlying this activity remain poorly understood. Here we showed the pharmacological pathways that might be involved in severe alterations in the insect locomotion and grooming behaviors following sublethal administration of the OP Trichlorfon (Tn) (0.25, 0.5 and 1 µM) in Phoetalia pallida. Tn inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity (46±6, 38±3 and 24±6 nmol NADPH/min/mg protein, n=3, p<0.05), respectively. Tn (1 µM) also increased the walking maintenance of animals (46±5 s; n=27; p<0.05). Tn caused a high increase in the time spent for this behavior (344±18 s/30 min, 388±18 s/30 min and 228±12 s/30 min, n=29-30, p<0.05, respectively). The previous treatment of the animals with different cholinergic modulators showed that pirenzepine>atropine>oxotremorine>d-tubocurarine>tropicamide>methoctramine induced a decrease on Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase, respectively in order of potency. Metoclopramide (0.4 µM), a DA-D2 selective inhibitor decreased the Tn-induced grooming activity (158±12 s/30 min; n=29; p<0.05). Nevertheless, the effect of the selective DA-D1 receptor blocker SCH 23390 (1.85 µM) on the Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase was significative and more intense than that of metoclopramide (54±6 s/30 min; n=30; p<0.05). Taken together the results suggest that a cross-talking between cholinergic M1/M3 and dopaminergic D1 receptors at the insect nervous system may play a role in the OP-mediated behavioral alterations.

  19. A field trial of wheat-based oral rehydration solution among Afghan refugee children.

    PubMed

    Murphy, H H; Bari, A; Molla, A M; Zaidi, A; Hirschhorn, N

    1996-02-01

    A total of 326 Afghan children aged between 6 months and 5 years with uncomplicated nondysenteric diarrhea for the previous 24 h to 5 days were treated at home by their mothers with either wheat-salt solution (WSS) or World Health Organization recommended glucose-oral rehydration salts (G-ORS). For 7 consecutive days the children were examined in the household and the mothers interviewed to assess the progress, feeding practices, and perception of treatment efficacy. Children treated with WSS recovered significantly earlier; the mean duration on treatment was 4.0 days (SD 1.7 days) on WSS compared to 6.4 days (SD 1.7 days) on G-ORS. By the second day of treatment, significantly more mothers using WSS (56%) reported that their children had formed stools versus 11% of their G-ORS counterparts; the mean stool frequency after 2 days was also significantly reduced; 3 stools day-1 (SD 2.1) on WSS versus 5 (SD 2.9) on G-ORS. The cereal-based solution was not confused with normal food and led to better feeding patterns. By day 2, 74% of the mothers using WSS had resumed their normal feeding frequencies as opposed to 33% of G-ORS mothers. On recovery the WSS group had gained significantly more weight; the WSS group gained 169 g (SD 142 g) while the G-ORS group lost 150 g (SD 174g). This study suggests by subjective and objective measures that WSS could be considered as an effective home fluid for the first-line treatment of diarrhea.

  20. The effect of oral rehydration solution and recommended home fluids on diarrhoea mortality

    PubMed Central

    Munos, Melinda K.; Walker, Christa L Fischer; Black, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    Background Most diarrhoeal deaths can be prevented through the prevention and treatment of dehydration. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) and recommended home fluids (RHFs) have been recommended since 1970s and 1980s to prevent and treat diarrhoeal dehydration. We sought to estimate the effects of these interventions on diarrhoea mortality in children aged <5 years. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify studies evaluating the efficacy and effectiveness of ORS and RHFs and abstracted study characteristics and outcome measures into standardized tables. We categorized the evidence by intervention and outcome, conducted meta-analyses for all outcomes with two or more data points and graded the quality of the evidence supporting each outcome. The CHERG Rules for Evidence Review were used to estimate the effectiveness of ORS and RHFs against diarrhoea mortality. Results We identified 205 papers for abstraction, of which 157 were included in the meta-analyses of ORS outcomes and 12 were included in the meta-analyses of RHF outcomes. We estimated that ORS may prevent 93% of diarrhoea deaths. Conclusions ORS is effective against diarrhoea mortality in home, community and facility settings; however, there is insufficient evidence to estimate the effectiveness of RHFs against diarrhoea mortality. PMID:20348131

  1. Negative findings for use of coconut water as an oral rehydration solution in childhood diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Fagundes Neto, U; Franco, L; Tabacow, K; Machado, N L

    1993-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of coconut water during its maturation. Composition was measured at 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 months maturation. Concentrations of sodium and glucose, and the osmolality values showed great variation throughout maturation. The concentration of sodium remained constant between the 5th and 7th months (mean 2.9 mEq/l), but increased after the 8th month (mean 12.5 mEq/l). The concentration of glucose remained constant between the 5th and 8th months (mean 3392.4 mg%), but abruptly decreased after the 9th month (mean 820 mg%). Osmolality followed the variation of the glucose concentration averaging 377.3 mOsm/l up to the 8th month, then decreasing to 310.3 mOsm/l after the 9th month. This study showed great variability in coconut water composition during maturation of the fruit. In no instance did the coconut water contain sodium and glucose concentrations of potential value as an oral rehydration solution.

  2. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-06-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g(-1), respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g(-1), respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g(-1), respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g(-1) (range 10-3400 ng g(-1)) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g(-1) (range 230-1100 ng g(-1)) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g(-1) for plain milk-based, 37 ng g(-1) for low-iron, 128 ng g(-1) for iron supplemented, 462 ng g(-1) for lactose-free, 518 ng g(-1) for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g(-1) for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g(-1) more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g(-1) Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g(-1) Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  3. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  4. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brecken-Folse, J. A.; Mayer, F.L.; Pedigo, L.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon vanegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30ppt x 17, 22, 27°C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentradon, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of 14C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 μg/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 μg/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  5. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp. ) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Brecken-Folse, J.A. . Environmental Protection Agency) Mayer, F.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Pedigo, L.E. ); Marking, L.L. . National Fisheries Research Center)

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 ppt [times] 17, 22, 27 C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentration, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 [mu]g/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 [mu]g/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  6. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V.; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS) is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool. Methodology/Principal Findings We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetic studies of fast dissolving film and oral solution of ondansetron in rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dhagla R; Patel, Vishnu A; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Patel, Harsha V; Kundawala, Aliasgar J

    2013-12-01

    Ondansetron, selective serotonin (5-HT3) receptor blocker, is used in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Mouth dissolving films containing ondansetron were developed to have better onset and patient compliances. The drug content of prepared films was within 85%-115%. The films were found to be stable for 4 months when stored at 40 %°C and 75% RH. In-vitro dissolution studies suggested a rapid disintegration, in which most of ondansetron was released (91.5±3.4%) within 90 sec. Subsequently, Sprague-Dawley rats were used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of the formulated films with oral administration of pure drug solution. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between the two groups in which AUC0-t (ng h/ml), AUC0-∞ (ng h/ml), Cmax (ng/ml), Tmax (min), Kel (h(-1)) and t1/2 (h) of reference was 109.091±15.73, 130.32±18.56, 28.5±4.053, 60, 0.1860±0.0226, and 3.771±0.498 respectively; and for formulated film 113.663±16.64, 151.79±16.54, 30±3.51, 60, 0.1521±0.0310 and 4.755±0.653 respectively. These results suggest that the fast dissolving film containing ondansetron is likely to become one of the choices to treat chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting.

  8. Food-based solutions are a viable alternative to glucose-electrolyte solutions for oral hydration in acute diarrhoea--studies in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rolston, D D; Mathew, P; Mathan, V I

    1990-01-01

    A survey of acute diarrhoea and its treatment, in 3 groups of villages in south India, revealed that use of the World Health Organization oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS) was poor or virtually non-existent and that several liquid foods were given to children during acute diarrhoea. The effects of the most commonly used, boiled and cooled supernatants of these liquid foods [rice (Oryza sativa)-water, ragi (Eleusine coracana)-water, arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)-water], and tender coconut-water, and of the bicarbonate- and citrate-WHO-ORS on intestinal water transport were evaluated using a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. All solutions either decreased cholera toxin-induced net water secretion (arrowroot-water) or reversed it to net absorption. Ragi-water produced maximum net water absorption, significantly greater than the WHO oral rehydration solutions. WHO-ORS utilization is poor in some developing countries, and locally used food-based solutions could be used for maintaining hydration or correcting the dehydration due to acute diarrhoea once their effectiveness has been proved by clinical trials.

  9. Acute Diarrhoea in Children: Determination of Duration Using a Combined Bismuth Hydroxide Gel and Oral Rehydration Solution Therapy vs. Oral Rehydration Solution

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, Adriana; Díaz, Mirna; Valenzuela, María Laura; Vidal, Victoria; Racca, Liliana; Bottai, Hebe; Priore, Graciela; Peluffo, Graciela; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Cabral, Graciela; Toca, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Oral rehydration salt (ORS) treatment in young children with acute diarrhoea (AD) has contributed to decrease mortality associated with dehydration although effective strategies to reduce morbidity associated with this disease are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diarrhoea duration when using combined colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel (CBHG) and oral rehydration salt treatment compared with ORS therapy in children with AD. We designed a double-blind, randomised prospective study with treatment and control groups. Patients aged one to 12 years, with no prior pathology and with AD of less than 48 h were included. The Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used, as well as the Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Patients were randomised into an ORS and CBHG treatment group and a control group for ORS plus placebo. (Average age: 3.2 years). The result of the post-treatment evaluation with respect to the average duration of AD was 25.5 h for the treated group vs. 41.5 h for the control group (p = 0.015). The average number of stools was 4.8 in the treated group and 8.2 in the control group (p = 0.032). We conclude that the use of CBHG plus ORS significantly reduced the duration of AD, the number of stools and the percentage of children with persistent AD after 24 h of treatment compared to the control group. AD remitted almost twice as fast in patients treated with CBHG and ORS compared to those who received ORS plus placebo. PMID:28009823

  10. Acute Diarrhoea in Children: Determination of Duration Using a Combined Bismuth Hydroxide Gel and Oral Rehydration Solution Therapy vs. Oral Rehydration Solution.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Adriana; Díaz, Mirna; Valenzuela, María Laura; Vidal, Victoria; Racca, Liliana; Bottai, Hebe; Priore, Graciela; Peluffo, Graciela; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Cabral, Graciela; Toca, María Del Carmen

    2016-12-21

    Oral rehydration salt (ORS) treatment in young children with acute diarrhoea (AD) has contributed to decrease mortality associated with dehydration although effective strategies to reduce morbidity associated with this disease are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diarrhoea duration when using combined colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel (CBHG) and oral rehydration salt treatment compared with ORS therapy in children with AD. We designed a double-blind, randomised prospective study with treatment and control groups. Patients aged one to 12 years, with no prior pathology and with AD of less than 48 h were included. The Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used, as well as the Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Patients were randomised into an ORS and CBHG treatment group and a control group for ORS plus placebo. (Average age: 3.2 years). The result of the post-treatment evaluation with respect to the average duration of AD was 25.5 h for the treated group vs. 41.5 h for the control group (p = 0.015). The average number of stools was 4.8 in the treated group and 8.2 in the control group (p = 0.032). We conclude that the use of CBHG plus ORS significantly reduced the duration of AD, the number of stools and the percentage of children with persistent AD after 24 h of treatment compared to the control group. AD remitted almost twice as fast in patients treated with CBHG and ORS compared to those who received ORS plus placebo.

  11. The Effect of Bamboo Leaf Extract Solution and Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Solution on Growth and Volatile Sulfur Compounds Production of Oral Malodor Associated Some Anaerobic Periodontal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Majbauddin, Abir; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Bamboo leaf extract solution (BLES) and sodium copper chlorophyllin solution (SCCS) are known for their anti-oxidant activities. Oral malodor is often related with periodontal pathogens. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-bacterial effect of both BLES and SCCS on anaerobic periodontal bacteria producing oral malodorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Methods Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 (PG), Prevotella intermidai TDC19B (PI), Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC25586 (FN) and Prevotella nigrescence ATCC33563 (PN) were investigated as oral isolated bacteria. VSC production ability of the oral strains was investigated by gas chromatography. With serial dilution of BLES or SCCS, the strains PG, PI, FN or PN were cultured anaerobically with AnaeroPack at 37 ℃ for 3 days. For the determination of anti-bacterial action of BLES or SCCS, the inoculum was cultured with original concentrations of BLES 0.16% (w/v) or SCCS 0.25% (w/v). Results Gas chromatography exhibited that all strains, PG, PI, FN and PN were responsible for producing a high range of H2S and a moderate range of CH3SH. Anti-bacterial effect of BLES or SCCS on the strains was observed. Inhibition of BLES or SCCS on the strains was revealed as concentration dependent. BLES or SCCS inhibited bacterial proliferation at higher concentrations (PG; 0.04% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, PI; 0.002% BLES or 0.03% SCCS, FN; 0.005% BLES or 0.01% SCCS, PN; 0.01% BLES or 0.015% SCCS). No viable bacterial colony observed at original concentration of BLES 0.16% or SCCS 0.25%. Strain growth was eliminated from inhibition at lower concentrations (PG; 0.02% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, PI; 0.001% BLES or 0.015% SCCS, FN; 0.002% BLES or 0.007% SCCS, PN; 0.005% BLES or 0.007% SCCS). Conclusion High concentrations of both BLES (0.16%) and SCCS (0.25%) show superior inhibiting capability on all four oral malodor associated periodontal anaerobes during testing, suggesting that these compounds might have a beneficial effect

  12. In vitro susceptibility of oral Candida albicans strains to different pH levels and calcium hydroxide saturated aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; Carnietto, Cristiane; Weckwerth, Ana Carolina Villas Boas; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is present in the oral cavity and in the whole digestive tract of humans and other animals, being frequently related to endodontic treatment failure. The present study determined the incidence of C. albicans in the oral cavity and the susceptibility of isolates to different pH values and saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution at pH 12.5. Sixty-five patients attending the Endodontic Clinic at the Sagrado Coração University participated in the study. The collected samples were cultivated in selective media for C. albicans and the isolates were tested in terms of resistance to both alkaline pH and saturated aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. In relation to time variables, yeast viability was assessed by the Sabouraud's agar culture and fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide fluorescent staining method. Results from the different pHs and experimental times, including those from different techniques measuring fungal viability, were compared using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (α=0.05). The yeasts became completely inviable after 48 h of contact with the calcium hydroxide solution. On the other hand, when exposed to the alkaline culture broth, the yeasts were found to be viable at pHs 9.5 and 10.5 for up to 7 days. In conclusion, C. albicans can only be completely inhibited by direct contact with saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution after 48 h of exposure.

  13. Chronic invasive sinus and intracerebral aspergillosis controlled by combination therapy with micafungin and a daily dose of 400 mg itraconazole oral solution.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Taku; Matsumoto, Kana; Tsujimoto, Kazunori; Hishiya, Naokuni; Yamada, Yutaka; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Maeda, Koichi; Nario, Kazuhiko; Mikasa, Keiichi; Morita, Kunihiko

    2015-02-01

    Chronic invasive aspergillosis of the sinus is frequently fatal in the absence of early surgical and chemotherapeutic intervention because of its invasion of vascular tissue. We attempted to control a case of inoperable invasive aspergillosis of the sinus with micafungin and itraconazole oral solution. We prescribed a daily oral dose of 400 mg of itraconazole, which is twice the usual dose, and monitored the serum concentration of the drug. Finally, we were able to control the spread of the lesion. This case indicates that combination therapy with micafungin and a daily dose of 400 mg itraconazole oral solution is an alternative treatment strategy for inoperable invasive aspergillosis of the sinus.

  14. Oral Glycerol Solutions as a Deterrent to Dehydration during Heat Exposure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Glycerol oxidation in the animal organism Acta Physiol. Scand. 7:69-79. Larsen , Jens Anker . 1963. Elimination of glycerol as a measure of the...Following a single pharmacological oral dose the glycerol is distributed throughout 56 to 85% of the body mass (Shafrir and Gorin 1963, Larsen 1963, Holst

  15. Performance of trichlorfon degradation by a novel Bacillus tequilensis strain PA F-3 and its proposed biodegradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Yu, Chenlei; Xue, Yingwen; Zhao, Ruixue; Wang, Jing; Chen, Lanzhou

    2016-11-01

    The novel trichlorfon (TCF)-degrading bacterium PA F-3, identified as Bacillus tequilensis, was isolated from pesticide-polluted soils by using an effective screening and domesticating procedure. The TCF biodegradation pathways of PA F-3 were also systematically elucidated. As revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography, the TCF residues in the mineral salt medium demonstrated that PA F-3 can utilize TCF as its sole carbon source and reach the highest degradation of 71.1 % at an initial TCF concentration of 200 mg/L within 5 days. The TCF degradation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology as follows: temperature, 28 °C; inoculum amount, 4 %; and initial TCF concentration, 125 mg/L. Biodegradation treatments supplemented with exogenous carbon sources and yeast extract markedly increased the microbial dry weights and TCF-degrading performance of PA F-3, respectively. Meanwhile, five metabolic products of TCF were identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and a biodegradation pathway was proposed. Results indicated that deoxidation and dehydration (including the cleavage of the P-C phosphonate bond and the C-O bond) were the preferred metabolic reactions of TCF in this TCF-degrading bacterium.

  16. Effectiveness of vital staining with iodine solution in reducing local recurrence after resection of dysplastic or malignant oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Kamata, Takahiro; Li, Xiangjun; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Shimane, Tetsu; Koike, Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of vital staining with iodine solution in reducing local recurrence after resection of dysplastic or malignant oral mucosa. The historical control group had dysplastic or malignant mucosal lesions resected solely on the evidence of direct inspection and palpation. In the vital staining group tissue was resected only after vital staining with iodine solution. Seven of 25 patients in the conventional group developed recurrent dysplastic or cancerous oral mucosa around the primary site, while no patient among 23 reported recurrence in the vital staining group (p<0.01). Kaplan-Meier assessment showed that the 5-year primary control rate was 100% in the vital staining group and 75% in the conventional group. Although this retrospective study has some limitations, the results suggest that vital staining with iodine may be useful in reducing the incidence of recurrence of dysplastic or cancerous epithelium at a primary site. Further well-controlled study is essential.

  17. [Effect of a new amino acid solution in the oral hydration of nursing infants with acute diarrhea. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Jones, L; Mota-Hernández, F

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-two one- to 12-month-old male infants with diarrheal dehydration treated with either the oral rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), or the same solution modified by the addition of glycerine (60 mmol/L) and glycil-glycine (30 mmol/L), with a total osmolality of 379 mOsm/kg. The patients belonging to the latter group exhibited greater stool losses (10.3 +/- 8.3 vs 8.0 +/- 6.4 mL/kg/hour) and a greater urine volume (10.4 +/- 14.2 vs 4.6 +/- 4.0 mL/kg/6 hours), during the first four to six hours of the rehydration period. The results of this study show, that in contrast with those of other series, the addition of glycine and glycil-glycine to the WHO solution, at the concentrations used in the study, produces greater fecal water losses in children with dehydration due to acute diarrhea.

  18. Comparative bacterial study of oral rehydration solution (ORS) prepared in plain unboiled and boiled drinking water of Kathmandu valley.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, R K; Rai, S K; Pokhrel, B M; Khadka, J B

    1989-01-01

    Result of bacterial study on Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) prepared in plain unboiled and boiled drinking water of Kathmandu valley is reported. Of the total 100 water samples collected from different sources and area all the samples, as a base line study, were subjected for the examination of bacterial presence. Eighty eight percent of the water samples studied were found to be unsatisfactory for drinking. Thirty five percent of the ORS prepared in unboiled water and kept for 24 hours at room temperature showed increased bacterial count whereas none of the ORS prepared in 5 minute boiled water and kept for 24 hour at room temperature showed any bacterial growth. Decreased bacterial count was not found in any of the ORS prepared in unboiled water. Typical coliform bacilli were found grown in 57.0% of the ORS prepared in unboiled water samples.

  19. Study of the acceptability of antibiotic syrups, suspensions, and oral solutions prescribed to pediatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; de La Rocque, France; Lécuyer, Aurélie; Wollner, Claudie; Bodin, Marie Josée; Wollner, Alain

    2009-07-01

    This observational study was designed to evaluate the acceptability of oral antibiotics (including generics) commonly prescribed to children by community practitioners in France. Between February and July 2006, the parents of 953 children enrolled by 46 pediatricians completed a questionnaire, including a taste assessment based on representations of five facial expressions. The proportions of "satisfactory" taste judgments showed a significant difference between amoxicillin-clavulanate reference product and its generics (77.9% vs. 65%, p = 0.01). The amoxicillin-clavulanate generics were more likely than the reference product to be spat out at least once (28.7% vs. 19%, p = 0.05). The full treatment course was taken by 91.7% and 82.3% of children prescribed the amoxicillin-clavulanate reference product and its generics, respectively (p = 0.02). The proportions of "satisfactory" taste judgments showed no significant difference between amoxicillin reference product and generics (64.3% vs. 72.5%, p = 0.3). The amoxicillin generics were not different from the reference product to be spat out at least once (8.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.2). The full treatment course was taken by 90.7% and 94.6% of children prescribed the amoxicillin reference product and its generics, respectively (p = 0.3). This study suggests the role of the active substance in the taste, and calls for the evaluation of palatability of future drugs (generics and references) before granting of the marketing authorization, particularly for active substances of poor taste; this palatability plays a significant role in the compliance of the treatment, notably in children. Poor compliance increases the risk of therapeutic failures and the emergence of resistance.

  20. Dosimetric consideration for patients with dental filling materials undergoing irradiation of oral cavity using RapidArc: challenges and solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mail, Noor; Albarakati, Y.; Khan, M. Ahmad; Saeedi, F.; Safadi, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Saoudi, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of dental filling materials (DFM) on RapidArcTM treatment plans and delivery in a patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment. The presence of DFM creates uncertainties in CT number and causes long streaking artifacts in the reconstructed images which greatly affect the dose distribution inside the oral cavity. The influence of extensive dental filling artifacts on dose distribution was performed using a geometrically well defined head and neck IMRT verification phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) together with inserts from DFM (Amalgam, 11.3 g/cm3). The phantom was scanned using Siemens SOMATOM Sensation CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany) under standard head and neck imaging protocol (120 kV, 120 mAs, voxel size 1×1×2 mm3). Three RapidArcTM plans were created in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning System (TPS) to treat oral cavity using the same CT dataset including; 1) raw CT image, 2) streaking artifacts replaced with a mask of 10 HU and 3) 2 cm thick 6000 HU virtual filter (a volume around the teeth in TPS to mimic extra attenuation). The virtual filter thickness optimization was purely based on measured PDD data acquired with DFM and the calculation in Eclipse Planning System using direct beam. The dose delivery and distribution for the three plans was verified using Gafchromic EBT2 (International Specialty Product, Wayne, NJ, USA) film measurements. The artifact mask and virtual filter around the teeth in the planning was found very useful to reduce the discrepancies between the dose plan and delivery. From clinical point of view, these results can be helpful to understand the increase of mucositis in patient having DFM, and further investigation is underway for clinical solution.

  1. The Comparison of Chlorhexidine Solution and Swab With Toothbrush and Toothpaste Effect on Preventing Oral Lesions in Hospitalized Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Estaji, Zahra; Alinejad, Mohammad; Rakhshani, Mohammad Hassan; Rad, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining of oral hygiene has been known as one of the basic tasks of nurses working at intensive care unit. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of chlorhexidine solution with toothbrush in prevention of oral lesions or ulcers in the different parts of the mouth. Methods: In this clinical trial study, research Society included patients hospitalized with endotracheal tube since the arrival time in intensive care unit. In this study, 30 patients were selected with target-based approach and equally divided into two groups through the permutation blocking method for oral care toothbrush and toothpaste and using chlorhexidine and swab. The modified form of Beck Oral Assessment Scale (BOAS) and MPS were used to obtain needed information. Data were analyzed by means of R software (version 3.0.2) and also multiple logistic regressions in the confidence level of 95%. Results: This study indicated an association between using toothbrush and the oral health level (OR: 1.52). In different parts of the mouth, there was no difference between two groups in prevention of lesions in gums, lips and tongue while, this was significant in relation to plaque, mucus and teeth with an odd ratio of 3.94 for teeth and 2.75 for mucus. In comparison, there was an association between implying chlorhexidine and saliva health level. (OR: 2.046). Conclusion: This survey showed that using toothbrush has a noticeable impact on declining oral lesions in varied parts of the mouth. PMID:26652098

  2. A heuristic model to quantify the impact of excess cyclodextrin on oral drug absorption from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2016-05-01

    The intestinal drug solubilising capacity (Dtot(SC)) of a drug formulated as an aqueous cyclodextrin solution is a recently proposed quantity to predict the cyclodextrin concentration needed to fully solubilise the drug in the intestinal lumen. According to this concept, the cyclodextrin concentration in the drug product must be higher than the amount needed to solubilise the compound, due to the displacement of the drug from the cyclodextrin cavity by bile salts in the intestinal lumen. On the other hand, dosing cyclodextrin at >Dtot(SC) is expected to result in decreased free intestinal drug concentrations and thus potentially a lower fraction absorbed. In this study, data from three previous in vivo studies in rats with fixed concentrations of three compounds (danazol, cinnarizine and benzo[A]pyrene) and various cyclodextrin concentrations >Dtot(SC) were analysed. The model was developed for danazol and applied to the two other compounds. Absorption, as quantified from the area under the plasma concentration-time profile, was predicted by the model to decrease at elevated concentrations of co-administered cyclodextrin in accordance with the in vivo data. In addition, at high cyclodextrin concentrations a delay in Tmax and a decrease in Cmax were predicted, again in accordance with the experimental observations. These observations were rationalised in terms of the free intestinal drug concentration by a chemical equilibrium model for Dtot(SC). This model depends on the quantity termed the dimensionless dose concentration, Dtot(∗)=Do/Pn, given as the fraction of the permeation number (Pn) and dose number (Do). The model provides the formulation scientist with a critical quality attribute for assessing the implication of having excess cyclodextrin in an oral solution.

  3. Cholinesterase activity in the tissues of bivalves Noah's ark shell (Arca noae) and warty venus (Venus verrucosa): characterisation and in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon.

    PubMed

    Perić, Lorena; Ribarić, Luka; Nerlović, Vedrana

    2013-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was investigated in gills and adductor muscle of two bivalve species: Arca noae and Venus verrucosa. The properties of ChEs were investigated using acetylcholine iodide (ASCh), butyrylcholine iodide (BSCh) and propionylcholine iodide (PrSCh) as substrates and eserine, BW254c51 and iso-OMPA as specific inhibitors. The highest level of ChE activity in crude tissue extracts was detected with PrSCh followed by ASCh, while values obtained with BSCh were apparently low, except in A. noae adductor muscle. The enzyme activity in A. noae gills and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle was significantly inhibited by BW254c51, but not with iso-OMPA. ChE activity in adductor muscle of A. noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The highest sensitivity of ChE to trichlorfon was observed in A. noae gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.6×10(-7)M and 1.1×10(-7)M, respectively), followed by M. galloprovincialis gills (IC50 1.0×10(-6)M) and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.7×10(-5)M and 0.9×10(-5)M, respectively). The results of this study suggest the potential of ChE activity measurement in the tissues of A. noae as effective biomarker of OP exposure in marine environment.

  4. Comparative pharmacokinetics of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after oral administration of Radix Saposhnikoviae extract, cimifugin monomer solution and prim-O-glucosylcimifugin monomer solution to rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueyue; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Jia, Jing; Lv, Lei; Zhou, Guichen; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Guoqing

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of cimifugin and prim-O-glucosylcimifugin in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Saposhnikoviae (RS) extract, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin monomer solution and cimifugin monomer solution. Plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing the internal standards puerarin and daidzein. LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C(18) column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol by isocratic elution. The detection was carried out in select-ion-monitoring mode with a positive electrospray ionization interface. The fully validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in rats. A bimodal phenomenon appeared in the concentration-time curve of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin after oral administration of RS extract. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin mainly transformed to cimifugin when it was absorbed into blood. Both absorption and elimination of cimifugin after oral administration of RS were longer than after administration of single cimifugin. The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-t) , AUC(0-∞) and t(1/2) ) of prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and cimifugin by giving cimifugin monomer solution, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin monomer solution and RS extract had significant differences (P < 0.05).

  5. Caregiver perceptions and utilization of oral rehydration solution and other treatments for diarrhea among young children in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Digre, Peder; Simpson, Evan; Cali, Shannon; Lartey, Belinda; Moodley, Melissa; Diop, Ndack

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 500 000 young children die from dehydration caused by severe diarrhea each year, globally. Although routine use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) could prevent almost all of these deaths, ORS utilization remains low in many low–income countries. Previous research has suggested that misperceptions among caregivers may be an obstacle to wider use of ORS. Methods To better understand the extent of ORS utilization and the reasons for use or non–use in low–resource settings, the project team conducted a semi–structured, quantitative survey of 400 caregivers in Burkina Faso in 2014. All caregivers had a child below the age of five who had diarrhea lasting 2 days or more in the previous 2 months. Results Although more than 80% of caregivers were aware of ORS, less than half reported using it to treat their child’s diarrhea. Replacing fluids lost due to diarrhea was considered a low priority by most caregivers, and many said they considered antibiotics more effective for treating diarrhea. Users and non–users of ORS held substantially different perceptions of the product, though all caregivers tended to follow recommendations of health care workers. A significant proportion of users reported difficulty in getting a child to drink ORS. Costs and access to ORS were not found to be significant barriers to use. Conclusions Misperceptions among caregivers and health workers contribute to low utilization of ORS. Better caregiver understanding of diarrheal disease and the importance of rehydration, as well as increased recommendation by health workers, will help to increase ORS utilization. Improving product presentation and taste will also help to increase use. PMID:27699000

  6. Scaling up access to oral rehydration solution for diarrhea: Learning from historical experience in low– and high–performing countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shelby E.; Morris, Saul S.; Gilbert, Sarah Skye; Mosites, Emily; Hackleman, Rob; Weum, Kristoffer L.M.; Pintye, Jillian; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This paper aims to identify factors that systematically predict why some countries that have tried to scale up oral rehydration solution (ORS) have succeeded, and others have not. Methods We examined ORS coverage over time, across countries, and through case studies. We conducted expert interviews and literature and data searches to better understand the history of ORS scale–up efforts and why they failed or succeeded in nine countries. We used qualitative, pairwise (or three–country) comparisons of geographically or otherwise similar countries that had different outcomes in terms of ORS scale–up. An algorithm was developed which scored country performance across key supply, demand and financing activities to quantitatively assess the scale–up efforts in each country. Results The vast majority of countries have neither particularly low nor encouragingly high ORS use rates. We observed three clearly identifiable contrasts between countries that achieved and sustained high ORS coverage and those that did not. Key partners across sectors have critical roles to play to effectively address supply– and demand–side barriers. Efforts must synchronize demand generation, private provider outreach and public sector work. Many donor funds are either suspended or redirected in the event of political instability, exacerbating the health challenges faced by countries in these contexts. We found little information on the cost of scale–up efforts. Conclusions We identified a number of characteristics of successful ORS scale–up programs, including involvement of a broad range of key players, addressing supply and demand generation together, and working with both public and private sectors. Dedicated efforts are needed to launch and sustain success, including monitoring and evaluation plans to track program costs and impacts. These case studies were designed to inform programmatic decision–making; thus, rigorous academic methods to qualitatively and

  7. An amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS) enhanced intestinal epithelial proliferation in mice exposed to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liangjie; Gupta, Reshu; Vaught, Lauren; Grosche, Astrid; Okunieff, Paul; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan

    2016-01-01

    Destruction of clonogenic cells in the crypt following irradiation are thought to cause altered gastrointestinal function. Previously, we found that an amino acid-based oral rehydration solution (AA-ORS) improved gastrointestinal function in irradiated mice. However, the exact mechanisms were unknown. Electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and Western blot analysis were used to determine that AA-ORS increased proliferation, maturation, and differentiation and improved electrolyte and nutrient absorption in irradiated mice. A single-hit, multi-target crypt survival curve showed a significant increase in crypt progenitors in irradiated mice treated with AA-ORS for six days (8.8 ± 0.4) compared to the saline-treated group (6.1 ± 0.3; P < 0.001) without a change in D0 (4.8 ± 0.1 Gy). The Dq values increased from 8.8 ± 0.4 Gy to 10.5 ± 0.5 Gy with AA-ORS treatment (P < 0.01), indicating an increased radiation tolerance of 1.7 Gy. We also found that AA-ORS treatment (1) increased Lgr5+, without altering Bmi1 positive cells; (2) increased levels of proliferation markers (Ki-67, p-Erk, p-Akt and PCNA); (3) decreased apoptosis markers, such as cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2; and (4) increased expression and protein levels of NHE3 and SGLT1 in the brush border membrane. This study shows that AA-ORS increased villus height and improved electrolyte and nutrient absorption. PMID:27876791

  8. L-isoleucine-supplemented oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alam, N H; Raqib, R; Ashraf, H; Qadri, F; Ahmed, S; Zasloff, M; Agerberth, B; Salam, M A; Gyr, N; Meier, R

    2011-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides represent an important component of the innate immune defenses of living organisms, including humans. They are broad-spectrum surface-acting agents secreted by the epithelial cells of the body in response to infection. Recently, L-isoleucine and its analogues have been found to induce antimicrobial peptides. The objectives of the study were to examine if addition of L-isoleucine to oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution would reduce stool output and/or duration of acute diarrhoea in children and induce antimicrobial peptides in intestine. This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B. Fifty male children, aged 6-36 months, with acute diarrhoea and some dehydration, attending the hospital, were included in the study. Twenty-five children received L-isoleucine (2 g/L)-added ORS (study), and 25 received ORS without L-isoleucine (control). Stool weight, ORS intake, and duration of diarrhoea were the primary outcomes. There was a trend in reduction in mean +/- standard deviation (SD) daily stool output (g) of children in the L-isoleucine group from day 2 but it was significant on day 3 (388 +/- 261 vs. 653 +/- 446; the difference between mean [95% confidence interval (CI) (-)265 (-509, -20); p = 0.035]. Although the cumulative stool output from day 1 to day 3 reduced by 26% in the isoleucine group, it was not significant. Also, there was a trend in reduction in the mean +/- SD intake of ORS solution (mL) in the L-isoleucine group but it was significant only on day 1 (410 +/- 169 vs. 564 +/- 301), the difference between mean (95% CI) (-)154 (-288, -18); p = 0.04. The duration (hours) of diarrhoea was similar in both the groups. A gradual increase in stool concentrations of beta-defensin 2 and 3 was noted but they were not significantly different between the groups. L-isoleucine-supplemented ORS might be beneficial in reducing stool output and ORS intake in children with acute watery diarrhoea. A further

  9. Safety and efficacy of glycopyrrolate oral solution for management of pathologic drooling in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and other neurologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Robert S; Davidson, Jennifer; Lee, Hak-Myung; Cavanaugh, Paul F

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of oral glycopyrrolate solution 1 mg/5 mL for 24 weeks in pediatric patients with chronic moderate-to- severe drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic conditions. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, 24-week study, males and females aged 3–18 years weighing at least 27 lb received oral glycopyrrolate solution, starting at 0.02 mg/kg three times daily and titrated in increments of 0.02 mg/kg every 5–7 days for 4 weeks to an optimal maintenance dose or a maximum dose of 0.1 mg/kg, but not exceeding 3 mg three times daily. Safety was assessed by description and tabulation of all adverse events. The primary efficacy endpoint was response, defined as at least a three-point change from baseline to week 24 on the modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale. Results Of 137 intent-to-treat participants, 10 (7.3%) received the maximum dose of 0.1 mg/kg three times daily; 122 (89%) had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event, 47% related to oral glycopyrrolate solution, with most being mild-to-moderate in intensity. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were constipation (20.4%), vomiting (17.5%), diarrhea (17.5%), pyrexia (14.6%), dry mouth (10.9%), flushing (10.9%), and nasal congestion (10.9%). Nineteen patients (13.9%) discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, but no adverse event was specifically associated with discontinuation. Two patients had clinically significant toxicity grade shifts, one each in platelet count and calcium concentration. No deaths occurred on treatment; deaths of three patients (multisystem organ failure, anoxic encephalopathy, and aspiration pneumonia) within 30 days of their last dose were not considered to be treatment-related. At 24 weeks, 52.3% (95% confidence interval 43.7–60.9) of patients were responders, with at least a three-point decrease in modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale from baseline, with 83.5% of

  10. Comparison of the inhibitory effect against copper ion-induced oxidation in rat plasma after oral administration of salvianolic acid B and its decocted solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Jae; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-03-01

    The effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) decoction on antioxidative activities were evaluated. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating activity, reducing power, and total phenolic content of the Sal B-decocted solutions did not change significantly after decoction in an aqueous solution. However, the formation of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide (CE-OOH) in rat blood plasma containing the Sal B-decocted solutions was more effectively inhibited than that of plasma containing the Sal B solution, regardless of the decoction time. In addition, the accumulation of CE-OOH in rat plasma after oral administration of the Sal B-decocted solutions was more effectively suppressed than when the Sal B solution was administered, considering the lag time. It is likely that the decoction was partly responsible for the increased antioxidant activity in blood plasma. Therefore, the Sal B-decocted solution may contribute more to antioxidant defense in blood than a Sal B solution that is not decocted.

  11. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three different storage media, coconut water, propolis, and oral rehydration solution, in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Tulsi; Shah, Nimisha; Parekh, Vaishali; Singbal, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two of the most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth after replantation are extra oral dry time and the storage medium in which the tooth is placed before treatment is rendered. However, the ability of a storage/transport medium to support cell viability can be more important than the extra oral time to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption. Aim: Purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of efficacy of a new storage medium, oral rehydration solution (ORS) with coconut water, and propolis in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by using a collagenase-dispase assay. Materials and Methods: 40 teeth were selected with intact crown which were advised for Orthodontic extraction having healthy PDL. Teeth were then randomly divided into three experimental storage solution groups. Other 10 were divided into positive and negative control groups (5 each). Statistical Analysis and Result: The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance and multiple range by using post hoc tests. The results of the prevailing study indicated that coconut water group demonstrated a significantly higher number of viable PDL cells than propolis 50%, and ORS. There was no significant difference between coconut water and propolis 50% groups. PMID:23349581

  12. Effects of basswood honey, honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution, and oral glucose tolerance test solution on serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide concentrations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Münstedt, Karsten; Sheybani, Babak; Hauenschild, Annette; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Bretzel, Reinhard G; Winter, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Studies suggest that honey has less influence on serum glucose concentrations than monosaccharides and disaccharides. This study aimed to confirm these findings conclusively by comparing directly the effects of honey, an identical sugar solution, and oral glucose tolerance (OGT) test solution on serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide values in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy men with a mean age of 27.7 years, a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2), and no history of metabolic disorders participated in the study. Subjects underwent OGT testing to establish values and exclude preclinical diabetes. One week later they were randomly assigned to basswood honey or a glucose-fructose solution (honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution). The following week subjects were given the other solution. All solutions contained 75 g of glucose. Serum glucose was measured before drinking test solutions and every 10 minutes for 120 minutes afterwards. C-peptide and insulin were measured at 60 and 120 minutes. Serum insulin and C-peptide values at 60 minutes were significantly lower for honey. The mean serum glucose concentration was also lower for honey, but direct comparisons at the various times showed no statistically significant differences between solutions. However, the area under the concentration-time profile for glucose response was lower for the honey than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Honey had less effect on serum glucose, C-peptide, and insulin values than the honey-comparable glucose-fructose solution. Further study to elucidate underlying mechanisms may be worthwhile, as may investigation of the implications of these findings for diabetic patients.

  13. Polyethylene glycol plus an oral sulfate solution as a bowel cleansing regimen for colon capsule endoscopy: a prospective, single-arm study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Ravit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: As with colonoscopy, adequate bowel cleansing is essential prior to colon capsule endoscopy (CCE). Because CCE requires that the capsule traverse the entire gastrointestinal tract during the examination, laxative ‘boosters’ are used. The objective of this prospective, single-center, single-arm study was to evaluate the safety of a bowel preparation consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus an oral sulfate solution. Methods: Subjects were healthy volunteers aged 50–75 years old with normal baseline serum chemistry. The bowel preparation consisted of 4 Senna tablets, 4 liters of PEG (split dose), 10 mg metoclopramide, 2 oral sulfate solution boosters (6 oz. and 3 oz.), and 10 mg bisacodyl. Serum chemistry was performed at baseline, following PEG intake, 24 hours after bisacodyl administration, and at 7 days post procedure (in subjects with abnormal 24 hour results). The primary endpoints were the percentage of subjects with a clinically significant change in serum chemistry at the last test and the adverse event (AE) rate. Results: A total of 25 subjects were enrolled. The serum chemistry was normal in all subjects at the final evaluation. One subject showed a slight elevation in creatinine (1.08 mg/dl 7 days post procedure from 0.84 mg/dl at baseline), deemed not clinically significant. Another subject had a transient elevation in serum creatinine (from 1.01 mg/dl at baseline to 1.45 mg/dl at 24 hours after the bowel preparation); values returned to near baseline at 7 days post procedure (1.06 mg/dl). There were no serious AEs, three moderate AEs related to the bowel preparation (nausea, headache, elevated creatinine) and two mild unrelated AEs (chills, abdominal cramping). Conclusions: A bowel cleansing regimen of PEG plus an oral sulfate solution can be used in healthy volunteers. These data provide support for the continued study of this regimen in future CCE clinical trials and in medical practice. PMID:26327914

  14. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4- dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J.; Mayer, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 degree C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4- nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  15. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J. . National Fisheries Research Center); Mayer, F.L. Jr. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  16. Oral passive IgY-based immunotherapeutics: a novel solution for prevention and treatment of alimentary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shofiqur; Van Nguyen, Sa; Icatlo, Faustino C; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu

    2013-05-01

    This commentary summarizes the laboratory investigations and clinical trials published recently involving per-oral application of IgY supplemented food for specific orogastrointestinal disease prevention and control purposes. The prolonged use and misuse of conventional antibacterial drugs has spawned antibiotic resistant microbes prompting scientists to search for other germ-killing options. In particular, the use of IgY as a novel mode of immunotherapy using oral chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) to confer passive immunity has gained much interest as an inexpensive non-antibiotic alternative for the prophylaxis and treatment of a wide variety of infectious diseases. The stability of IgY in the orogastrointestinal tract and its safety profile has been well-documented. IgY has been used in the treatment or prevention of dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer, oral thrush and infant rotavirus diarrhea. The recent clinical trials on IgY with encouraging results has catapulted into the market novel nutraceutical or health supplements for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention based on the consumption of mono-specific or mixed IgY formulations. With recent trends in consumer preference for natural materials to alleviate health concerns, the increasing healthcare costs and the recent advances in drug delivery systems, IgY is likely to shift from its mainly functional food status toward pharmaceuticalization in the foreseeable future.

  17. Efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed in Neonatal Central Diabetes Insipidus with transition to Oral Desmopressin in early infancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of central diabetes insipidus (DI) with desmopressin in the neonatal period is challenging because of the significant risk of hyponatremia with this agent. The fixed anti-diuresis action of desmopressin and the obligate high fluid intake with milk feeds lead to considerable risk of water intoxication and hyponatremia. To reduce this risk, thiazide diuretics, part of the treatment of nephrogenic DI, were used in conjunction with low renal solute feed and were effective in a single case series of neonatal central DI. Aim We evaluated the efficacy of early treatment of neonatal central DI with hydrochlorothiazide with low solute feed and investigated the clinical indicators for transition to desmopressin during infancy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted at Princess Margaret Hospital, Perth of neonates diagnosed with central DI and treated with hydrochlorothiazide, between 2007 and 2013. Four newborns were identified. Mean sNa and mean change in sNa with desmopressin and hydrochlorothiazide treatment were recorded along with episodes of hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Length and weight trajectories during the first 12 months were assessed. Results The mean change in sNa per day with hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed was 2.5 - 3 mmol/L; on desmopressin treatment, the mean change in sNa was 6.8-7.9 mmol/L. There was one episode of symptomatic hyponatremia with intranasal desmopressin with no episodes of hyponatremia or hypernatremia during treatment with hydrochlorothiazide or following transition to oral desmopressin. Transition to oral desmopressin between 3 to 12 months of age was associated with good control of DI. Following introduction of solids, sNa remained stable but weight gain was slow. This improved following transition to desmopressin in one infant. Conclusions Hydrochlorothiazide with low renal solute feed is a safe and effective treatment option in neonatal central DI. However, transition to

  18. Evolution of a detailed physiological model to simulate the gastrointestinal transit and absorption process in humans, part 1: oral solutions.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Kirstin; Coboeken, Katrin; Willmann, Stefan; Burghaus, Rolf; Dressman, Jennifer B; Lippert, Jörg

    2011-12-01

    To enable more precise prediction of oral drug absorption, an existing physiologically based absorption model was revised. The revised model reflects detailed knowledge of human gastrointestinal (GI) physiology including fluid secretion and absorption, and comprises an elaborate representation of the intestinal mucosa. The alimentary canal from the stomach to the rectum was divided into 12 compartments. A mucosal compartment was added to each luminal segment of the intestine. A training set of 111 passively absorbed drugs with reported fractions of dose absorbed was used to optimize the semiempirical equation, which calculates intestinal permeability coefficients. The model was subsequently integrated into an established physiologically based pharmacokinetic software and validated by prediction of plasma concentration-time profiles of eight test compounds with diverse physicochemical properties. A good correlation between the simulated and experimental fractions of dose absorbed was established for the 111 compounds in the training set. Subsequently, the concentration-time profiles of six out of eight test compounds were predicted with high accuracy. The detailed model for GI transit and absorption presented in this study can help to understand the complex processes of oral absorption better and will be useful during the drug development process.

  19. Structural variations of different oral basement membranes revealed by cationic dyes and detergent added to aldehyde fixative solution.

    PubMed

    Chardin, H; Gokani, J P; Septier, D; Ruch, J V; Goldberg, M

    1992-06-01

    The ultrastructural appearance of different types of basement membrane was studied using histochemical methods for visualizing glycosaminoglycans. Samples of rat gingiva and mouse molar germ tissue were fixed either with glutaraldehyde, glutaraldehyde-ruthenium hexammine trichloride (RHT), glutaraldehyde-Cuprolinic Blue (CB) or cetylpyridinium chloride-glutaraldehyde (CPC). Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The results showed that the conventional trilaminar structure of the basement membrane was observed after glutaraldehyde and CB fixation. In contrast, after CPC or RHT fixation, the appearance of the basement membrane was homogeneous without any evidence of a lamina lucida. Furthermore, after single fixation with CPC, the ultrastructure of different basement membranes from oral tissues showed some differences in appearance which were related to their localizations, functions, or both.

  20. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of FDA-Approved Products of Oral Solutions Containing Dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-transtetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] in Schedule II. Interim final rule, with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2017-03-23

    On July 1, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new drug application for Syndros, a drug product consisting of dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] oral solution. Thereafter, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) provided the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) with a scheduling recommendation that would result in Syndros (and other oral solutions containing dronabinol) being placed in schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). In accordance with the CSA, as revised by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act, DEA is hereby issuing an interim final rule placing FDA-approved products of oral solutions containing dronabinol in schedule II of the CSA.

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ros-Llor, Irene; Lopez-Jornet, Pia

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s). Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique.

  2. Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

    PubMed

    Swithers, S E; Hall, W G

    1994-10-01

    Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The diminished responsiveness is specific to the flavor of the stimulus experienced orally and can persist for several hours. We suggest that this experience-based decrement in responsiveness is best considered "oral habituation" and that oral habituation largely accounts for the onset of satiety. Post-ingestive feedback signals may have their influence through the oral habituation process or act in the context of oral habituation. Oral habituation is also shown to depend on the pattern of stimulus presentation, a phenomenon that adds considerable complexity to assessing the contributions of oral experience to satiety. The concept of oral habituation may be useful in understanding the immediate control of ingestion and the moment-to-moment expression of ingestive behavior in adult animals.

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  4. Oral surgery. Basic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S

    1986-09-01

    Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.

  5. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2 mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R2) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines.

  6. Gastric pre-processing is an important determinant of the ability of medium-chain lipid solution formulations to enhance oral bioavailability in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2013-11-01

    The contribution of dispersion and digestion in the stomach to the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs administered in lipid-based formulations was assessed by comparison of intraduodenal (ID) and peroral (p.o.) administration using cinnarizine (CZ) as a model drug. Differences in the dispersion and digestion in the gastric and intestinal compartments for medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT) and long-chain triacylglycerides (LCT) were observed, leading to differences in the oral bioavailability of CZ. Bypassing gastric processing using ID administration of lipid solution formulations decreased drug bioavailability regardless of lipid type. Overall, bioavailability from LCT formulations was higher than MCT regardless of route of administration, consistent with past data after p.o. administration and previously reported descriptions of increases in drug precipitation after administration of medium-chain lipid formulations. The larger differences between bioavailability after both p.o. and ID administration for MCT compared with LCT formulations suggest that passage through the stomach is more critical for MCT formulations, and that gastric digestion may be more critical for MCT than LCT formulations. For MCT-based formulations, efficient dispersion and partial digestion in the stomach may be required to allow rapid transfer to intestinal-mixed micelles and absorption in the upper small intestine prior to drug precipitation.

  7. [Post-marketing surveillance of acetylcysteine oral solution 17.6% "SENJU" for the antidote to acetaminophen overdose--use--results surveillance].

    PubMed

    Suenobu, Toshihide; Yoshioka, Toshiharu; Maruta, Shinichi; Shimoji, Hidemi

    2006-10-01

    Use-result surveillance was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of Acetylcysteine Oral Solution 17.6 % "SENJU" having the indication for the antidote to acetaminophen (Paracetamol) overdose. Ninety six cases (patients) were collected for the safety evaluation, and 13 cases (incidence was 13.5 %) showed 29 adverse drug reactions as follows: 4 cases of nausea; 3 cases of vomiting; 2 cases each of liver dysfunction, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood bilirubin increased; and one case each of CK increased, anaemia, prothrombin time prolonged, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, LDH increased, body temperature increased, proteinuria, blood potassium decreased, thrombocytopenia, platelet count increased, white blood cell decreased, and blood amylase increased. One case of severe liver dysfunction which was ameliorated later was found. Neither case showing transitional chronic liver dysfunction, nor case of death was observed. Patient background analysis showed that 79.2% of the total patients was female, and that 28.1% was patients with mental disease. Gastrolavage, active charcoal administration, and extracorporeal removal of toxins were performed in cases of 71.9%, 50.0% and 7.3%, respectively. Those concomitant treatments, however, showed no influence for the incidence of adverse drug reaction or the drug effectiveness. Blood acetaminophen assay was performed in only 43.8% of the total cases. This rate indicates that the medical treatment procedure needs more consideration on the clinical standard for the antidote to acetaminophen overdose and on its practical application.

  8. Safety and efficacy of aspartame-based liquid versus sucrose-based liquids used for dilution in oral sodium phosphate solutions for colonoscopy preparations.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Balart, J Carter; Sideridis, Kostas; Salek, Jefrey; Sridhar, Subbaramiah; Thompson, William O

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based liquids used as diluents. The primary end point was the quality of the colonoscopy preparation and secondary end points were serum electrolytes before and after preparations. No significant difference in colonoscopy preparation quality was seen between the two OSPS diluent groups (Mantel-Haenzel chi (2) = 0.795, P = 0.484). There were no significant differences in mean electrolyte shifts of sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), or BUN/Cr ratios between the two groups. There was a statistically significant increase in serum phosphorous in the aspartame-based group compared to the sucrose-based diluent group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, there was no clinically detectable difference in colonoscopy preparation quality between the two OSPS diluent groups. This study suggests that passive fluid transport by aquaporins may well be the major mediator of fluid shifts in the study subjects. This result suggests the potential importance of aquaporins and minimizes the importance of sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in fluid and electrolyte transport in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aspartame or its constituent amino acids may enhance phosphate absorption across the human small intestine.

  9. Ocoxin® oral solution slows down tumor growth in an experimental model of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Joana; Mena, Jorge; Hernandez-Unzueta, Iera; Benedicto, Aitor; Sanz, Eduardo; Arteta, Beatriz; Olaso, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Liver metastatic disease is the main cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During metastatic spread of the disease an imbalance in the oxidative stress and inflammation plays a crucial role in tumor progression. In order to improve the efficacy of current therapies, new complementary therapeutic approaches are being analyzed including biologically active compounds with low side effects. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Ocoxin® oral solution (OOS) prompt us to analyze its effect on the metastatic development of CRC to the liver. First, in vitro effect of OOS in tumor cell viability and migration was analyzed. Second, in vivo effect of different dosage patterns and concentrations in the development of hepatic metastasis was analyzed by intra-splenic inoculation of C26 colon carcinoma cells in Balb/c mice. Third, the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin, caspase-3 and Ki-67 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry, then gene expression levels of inflammatory factors were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. According to our results, OOS reduced tumor cell viability and migration in vitro. Moreover, in vivo daily administration of OOS from the 7th day after tumor cell inoculation decreased the total area and size of metastatic foci in the liver. Furthermore, cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment was decreased in tumor foci while a higher number of apoptotic cells were observed. Finally, RNA levels for the inflammatory mediators COX-2, IFNγ, IL1β, IL6 and TNFα were reduced in total liver. In conclusion, OOS reduced the metastatic development of colorectal cancer to the liver by increasing apoptosis, and decreasing tumor cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment in the tumor foci, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators in total liver. These results point out OOS as a potential supplement to be applied as complementary therapy for the treatment of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  10. Evaluation of who oral rehydration solution (ORS) and salt tablets in resuscitating adult patients with burns covering more than 15% of total body surface area (TBSA)

    PubMed Central

    Moghazy, A.M.; Adly, O.A.; Elbadawy, M.A.; Hashem, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Intra-venous (IV) burn resuscitation is effective; nevertheless it has its disadvantages. WHO Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) has shown high effectiveness in treating dehydration. WHO-ORS, with salt supplement, seems to be suitable for burn resuscitation, where IV resuscitation is not available, feasible or possible. The objective of the study was to evaluate acute phase efficacy and safety, as well as limitations and complications of burn resuscitation using WHO-ORS and salt tablets. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the Burn Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. The study group was given WHO-ORS (15% of body weight/day) with one salt tablet (5gm) per liter according to Sørensen’s formula. The control group was given IV fluids according to the Parkland formula. Patients’ vital signs and urine output were monitored for 72 hours after starting resuscitation. Both groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and percentage, etiology and degree of burns. For all assessed parameters, there were no major significant differences between the study group (10 cases) and control group (20 cases). Even where there was a significant difference, apart from blood pressure in the first hour of the first day, the study group never crossed safe limits for pulse, systolic blood pressure, urine output, respiratory rate and conscious level. WHO-ORS with 5gm salt tablets, given according to Sørenson’s formula, is a safe and efficient alternative for IV resuscitation. It could even be a substitute, particularly in low resource settings and fire disasters. PMID:27857652

  11. Ocoxin® oral solution slows down tumor growth in an experimental model of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in Balb/c mice

    PubMed Central

    MÁRQUEZ, JOANA; MENA, JORGE; HERNANDEZ-UNZUETA, IERA; BENEDICTO, AITOR; SANZ, EDUARDO; ARTETA, BEATRIZ; OLASO, ELVIRA

    2016-01-01

    Liver metastatic disease is the main cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. During metastatic spread of the disease an imbalance in the oxidative stress and inflammation plays a crucial role in tumor progression. In order to improve the efficacy of current therapies, new complementary therapeutic approaches are being analyzed including biologically active compounds with low side effects. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Ocoxin® oral solution (OOS) prompt us to analyze its effect on the metastatic development of CRC to the liver. First, in vitro effect of OOS in tumor cell viability and migration was analyzed. Second, in vivo effect of different dosage patterns and concentrations in the development of hepatic metastasis was analyzed by intrasplenic inoculation of C26 colon carcinoma cells in Balb/c mice. Third, the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin, caspase-3 and Ki-67 expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry, then gene expression levels of inflammatory factors were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. According to our results, OOS reduced tumor cell viability and migration in vitro. Moreover, in vivo daily administration of OOS from the 7th day after tumor cell inoculation decreased the total area and size of metastatic foci in the liver. Furthermore, cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment was decreased in tumor foci while a higher number of apoptotic cells were observed. Finally, RNA levels for the inflammatory mediators COX-2, IFNγ, IL1β, IL6 and TNFα were reduced in total liver. In conclusion, OOS reduced the metastatic development of colorectal cancer to the liver by increasing apoptosis, and decreasing tumor cell proliferation and fibroblast recruitment in the tumor foci, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators in total liver. These results point out OOS as a potential supplement to be applied as complementary therapy for the treatment of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. PMID:26676882

  12. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  13. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  14. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  15. Treatment of diarrhea in young children: results from surveys on the perception and use of oral rehydration solutions, antibiotics, and other therapies in India and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Zwisler, Greg; Simpson, Evan; Moodley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) has tremendous therapeutic benefits, coverage of and demand for this product have remained low in many developing countries. This study surveyed caregivers and health care providers in India and Kenya to gather information about perceptions and use of various diarrhea treatments, assess reasons for low ORS use, and identify opportunities for expanding ORS use. Methods The project team conducted two rounds of semi–structured, quantitative surveys with more than 2000 caregivers in India and Kenya in 2012. A complementary survey covered more than 500 pharmacy staff and health care workers in both countries. In Kenya, the team also surveyed rural pharmacies to gather pricing and sales data. Results Although caregivers generally had very positive perceptions of ORS, they typically ranked antibiotics ahead of ORS as the strongest medicine for diarrhea (in India 62% ranked antibiotics first and 23% ranked ORS first, n = 404; in Kenya results were 55% and 29%, n = 401). Many caregivers had misconceptions about the purpose and effectiveness of various treatments. For example, most caregivers who gave ORS at last episode expected it to stop their child’s diarrhea (65% in India, n = 190; 73% in Kenya, n = 154). There were noteworthy differences between India and Kenya in the selection and sourcing of treatments. Much of the money spent by families during the last episode of diarrhea was for inappropriate treatments. This was especially true in India, where rural households typically spent US$ 2.29 (median for the 79% of rural households that paid for health care services or treatments, n = 199) with most of this going to pay fees of private health workers and/or for antibiotics. Conclusions Caregivers’ primary treatment goal is to stop diarrhea, and many believe that antibiotics or ORS will accomplish this

  16. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  17. Vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: a comparison between capsule and oral spray solution as a method of delivery in a wintertime, randomised, open-label, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Todd, Joshua J; McSorley, Emeir M; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Madigan, Sharon M; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela J

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D is typically supplied in capsule form, both in trials and in clinical practice. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of vitamin D administered via oral sprays - a method that primarily bypasses the gastrointestinal absorption route. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of vitamin D3 liquid capsules and oral spray solution in increasing wintertime total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. In this randomised, open-label, cross-over trial, healthy adults (n 22) received 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 daily for 4 weeks in either capsule or oral spray form. Following a 10-week washout phase, participants received the opposite treatment for a final 4 weeks. Anthropometrics and fasted blood samples were obtained before and after supplementation, with samples analysed for total 25(OH)D, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone and adjusted Ca concentrations. At baseline, vitamin D sufficiency (total 25(OH)D>50 nmol/l), insufficiency (31-49 nmol/l) and clinical deficiency (<30 nmol/l) were evident in 59, 23 and 18 % of the participants, respectively. Overall, baseline total mean 25(OH)D concentration averaged 59·76 (sd 29·88) nmol/l, representing clinical sufficiency. ANCOVA revealed no significant difference in the mean and standard deviation change from baseline in total 25(OH)D concentrations between oral spray and capsule supplementation methods (26·15 (sd 17·85) v. 30·38 (sd 17·91) nmol/l, respectively; F=1·044, adjusted r 2 0·493, P=0·313). Oral spray vitamin D3 is an equally effective alternative to capsule supplementation in healthy adults.

  18. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  19. Oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T

    2001-04-01

    Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.

  20. Use of Only Oral Rehydration Salt Solution for Successful Management of a Young Infant with Serum Sodium of 201 mmol/L in an Urban Diarrhoeal Diseases Hospital, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Pietroni, Mark A.C.; Alom, Mohammad Samsul; Smith, Jonathan Harvey

    2012-01-01

    A boy aged 4 months 7 days was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the problems of acute watery diarrhoea with some dehydration, pneumonia, lethargy, and hypernatraemia (serum sodium of 201 mmol/L). Correction for hypernatraemia was tried by using only oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution. Seizures occurred during correction of the hypernatraemia. These were difficult to control and required three doses of injection lorazepam, a loading dose of injection phenobarbitone, followed by injection phenytoin and finally two doses of injection mannitol (even though there was no clinical or imaging evidence by ultrasonography or computed tomography of cerebral oedema). The correction was continued with ORS, and all the anticonvulsants were successfully weaned without any further seizures, and the patient recovered without any overt neurological sequelae. We present a case report of extreme hypernatraemia, which was successfully managed using only ORS. PMID:23082639

  1. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  2. Thermal inkjet application in the preparation of oral dosage forms: dispensing of prednisolone solutions and polymorphic characterization by solid-state spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Peter A; Kane, Kevin M; Ashvar, Claudine S; Albrecht, Mary; Smith, Pamela A

    2008-07-01

    The utility of thermal inkjet (TIJ) technology for preparing solid dosage forms of drugs was examined. Solutions of prednisolone in a solvent mixture of ethanol, water, and glycerol (80/17/3 by volume) were dispensed onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-coated fiberglass films using TIJ cartridges and a personal printer and using a micropipette for comparison. The post-dried, TIJ-dispensed samples were shown to contain a mixture of prednisolone Forms I and III based on PXRD analyses that were confirmed by Raman analyses. The starting commercial material was determined to be Form I. Samples prepared by dispensing the solution from a micropipette initially showed only Form I; subsequent Raman mapping of these samples revealed the presence of two polymorphs. Raman mapping of the TIJ-dispensed samples also showed both polymorphs. The results indicate that the solvent mixture used in the dispensing solution combined with the thermal treatment of the samples after dispensing were likely the primary reason for the generation of the two polymorphs. The advantages of using a multidisciplinary approach to characterize drug delivery systems are demonstrated using solid state mapping techniques. Both PXRD and Raman spectroscopy were needed to fully characterize the samples. Finally, this report clarifies prednisolone's polymorphic nomenclature existent in the scientific literature.

  3. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  4. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  5. pH-Responsive poly(itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogels with reduced ionic strength loading solutions offer improved oral delivery potential for high isoelectric point-exhibiting therapeutic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Koetting, Michael C.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    pH-Responsive hydrogels comprised of itaconic acid copolymerized with N-vinylpyrrolidone (P(IA-co-NVP)) were synthesized and tested as carriers for the oral delivery of high isoelectric point (pI) exhibiting therapeutic proteins. Swelling studies show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater and faster pH-responsive swelling than previously studied methacrylic acid-based hydrogels, achieving up to 68% greater equilibrium swelling and 10.4 times greater swelling in time-limited experiments. Using salmon calcitonin as a model high pI protein therapeutic, we show that P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogels exhibit significantly greater delivery potential than methacrylic acid-based hydrogels. Additionally, we show that utilizing a lower ionic strength solution during drug loading significantly improves drug delivery potential for high pI therapeutics. By using a 1.5 mM PBS buffer rather than the standard 150 mM PBS buffer during loading, up to 83 times as much calcitonin can be delivered in neutral conditions, with up to a 9.6 fold improvement in percent release. Using P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel microparticles and a low ionic strength loading solution, up to 48 μg calcitonin/mg hydrogel can be delivered in small intestinal conditions. Based on expected absorption in the small intestine, this is sufficient delivery potential for achieving therapeutic dosage via a single, regularly-sized pill taken daily. PMID:24853463

  6. Normal Oral Flora and the Oral Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H

    2017-04-01

    The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.

  7. Oral myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438

  8. Prophylactic Effects of Garlic Oil and Onion Oil Fractions as Compared to Vitamin E on Rats Orally Fed with Lead Acetate Solution.

    PubMed

    Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T; Jose, Regi

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO.

  9. There are considerable drawbacks to oral anticoagulant for monitoring patients at home which should lead family physicians to discuss alternative or enhanced solutions: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background INR (International Normalized Ratio) is the biological reference test for the monitoring of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy. Overdosage of VKAs causes about 17,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths each year in France. To avoid these complications, monitoring and blood sampling conditions must be rigorous. In France, more than half of INRs are carried out at home. The aim was to determine blood-sampling conditions at home, transit time and the quality of the laboratory reagents used. Method Questionnaire-based, descriptive epidemiological cross-sectional prevalence study involving home care nurses, family physicians (FPs) and clinical laboratories. Setting: Brittany, France, 2008. Study of the pre-analytical phase of INRs sampled at home and its influence on INR results. Results The study included 291 FPs, 249 home care nurses, and 49 laboratories. 32.5% of reported INRs were outside the therapeutic range. Samples were drawn into unsuitable tubes in 5.5% of cases and delivered in a chilled condition in 9% of cases. In urban areas 50% of the tubes took more than 2 hours to reach the laboratory compared with 71% from rural areas. The average International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of the thromboplastin was 1.62. The INRs provided by the laboratories were not analyzable in 64.7% of cases where blood samples had been taken at home. Conclusion Blood sample quality, transit time and the reagents used are currently inadequate. The majority of INRs taken at home are not reliable. FPs should consider these drawbacks in comparison with alternative solutions to increase patient safety. PMID:24024556

  10. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  11. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  12. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  13. Tolerability of up to 200 days of prophylaxis with valganciclovir oral solution and/or film-coated tablets in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of cytomegalovirus disease.

    PubMed

    Varela-Fascinetto, G; Benchimol, C; Reyes-Acevedo, R; Genevray, M; Bradley, D; Ives, J; Silva, H T

    2017-02-01

    This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21.4%). There were fewer AEs during days 101-228 vs days 1-100. Twenty-seven patients (48.2%) had treatment-related AEs during valganciclovir treatment, most commonly leukopenia (21.4%), neutropenia (19.6%), anemia (7.1%), and tremor (5.4%). Treatment-related serious AEs were reported for nine patients (16.1%) and six withdrew due to AEs. Viremia was centrally confirmed in 10 patients; there was no confirmed CMV disease. One patient tested positive for a resistance mutation (UL97 L595F). Biopsy-proven acute rejection occurred in six patients (10.7%), but no graft loss or deaths occurred. In conclusion, up to 200 days of valganciclovir prophylaxis in pediatric kidney allograft recipients showed a safety profile consistent with that established in adult transplant patients.

  14. The relationship between the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous itraconazole and clinical parameters, including plasma levels of itraconazole, in immunocompromised patients receiving itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Park, Jinny; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kang, Hye Jin; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Je-Hwan; Kim, Yang Soo; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kim, Hawk; Joo, Young-Don; Min, Yoo Hong

    2014-01-01

    To identify the role of therapeutic drug monitoring of itraconazole (ITZ) in the setting of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous (IV) ITZ, we performed a multicenter, prospective study in patients with hematological malignancies who had received antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ oral solution (OS). We evaluated the plasma levels of ITZ and hydroxy (OH) ITZ both before initiation of IV ITZ and on days 5-7 of IV ITZ. A total of 181 patients showed an overall success rate of 68.0 %. Prolonged baseline neutropenia and accompanying cardiovascular comorbidity were significantly associated with poor outcomes of the empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively). A significantly higher trough plasma level of OH ITZ per body weight was found in the patients who achieved success with empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.036). There were no significant correlations between plasma concentrations of ITZ/OH ITZ (baseline or trough levels) and toxicities. Seven patients had a discontinuation of ITZ therapy due to toxicity. This study demonstrated that IV ITZ as empirical antifungal therapy was effective and therapeutic drug monitoring was helpful to estimate the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ OS. To predict the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy with IV ITZ, we should evaluate baseline clinical characteristics and also perform the therapeutic drug monitoring of both ITZ and OH ITZ.

  15. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  16. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  17. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  18. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  19. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  20. [Prevention of oral diseases].

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin

    2013-06-01

    Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.

  1. Peptides in oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.

  2. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  3. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  4. Oral Communication K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, June, Ed.

    This speech communication curriculum guide is designed to provide a comprehensive oral language curriculum, to suggest ways for integrating oral activities into other curriculum areas, and to stimulate ideas for using oral language in a holistic rather than a fragmentary learning environment. Following an introductory chapter on "creating the…

  5. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  6. Uremic toxins and oral adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shunsuke; Yoshiya, Kunihiko; Kita, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Hideki; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2011-04-01

    Uremic toxins are associated with various disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease and it is difficult to remove some of these toxins by dialysis. Since some uremic toxins are generated by bacterial metabolites in the colon, oral adsorbents that interfere with the absorption of uremic toxins or their precursors are believed to prevent their accumulation in the body. AST-120 adsorbs various uremic retention solutes in the gastrointestinal system and has potential for providing clinical benefit. Sevelamer hydrochloride binds some harmful compounds in addition to phosphate and seems to have pleiotropic effects that include lowering serum LDL cholesterol levels and reduction of inflammation. The effect of sevelamer hydrochloride on indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol has been shown in an in vitro study; however, in vivo studies in mice or humans did not demonstrate this effect on protein-binding uremic toxins. Oral adsorbents are thus one of the important modalities in the treatment of uremic syndrome.

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  10. Oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  11. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  12. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  13. 78 FR 57057 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium; Meloxicam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium....100 Yes....... CE \\1\\. Health Corp., (amprolium) 9.6% as a generic GlenPointe Oral Solution. copy of........... Ceva Sante MELOXIDYL Original approval 520.1350 Yes....... CE \\1\\. Animale, 10 (meloxicam) Oral as...

  14. Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Lankin, Vadim Z; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-10-01

    Advanced glycation Maillard reaction end products (AGEs) are causing the complications of diabetes and skin aging, primarily via adventitious and cross-linking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen are particularly implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. The formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds represents an important step for cross-linking proteins in the glycation or Maillard reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of glycation coupled to the glycation free-radical oxidation reactions as markers of protein damage in the aging of skin tissue proteins and diabetes. To elucidate the mechanism for the cross-linking reaction, we studied the reaction between a three-carbon α-dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal, and amino acids using EPR spectroscopy, a spectrophotometric kinetic assay of superoxide anion production at the site of glycation and a chemiluminescence technique. The transglycating activity, inhibition of transition metal ions peroxidative catalysts, resistance to hydrolysis of carnosine mimetic peptide-based compounds with carnosinase and the protective effects of carnosine, carcinine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of proteins and lipid membranes were assessed in a number of biochemical and model systems. A 4-month randomized, double-blind, controlled study was undertaken including 42 subjects where the oral supplement of non-hydrolized carnosine (Can-C Plus® formulation) was tested against placebo for 3 months followed by a 1-month supplement-free period for both groups to assess lasting effects. Assessment of the age-related skin parameters and oral treatment efficacy measurements included objective skin surface evaluation with Visioscan® VC 98 and visual assessment of skin appearance parameters. The results together confirm that a direct one-electron transfer between a Schiff base methylglyoxal dialkylimine (or its protonated form) and methylglyoxal is responsible for

  15. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  16. Pediatric drugs--a review of commercially available oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Strickley, Robert G; Iwata, Quynh; Wu, Sylvia; Dahl, Terrence C

    2008-05-01

    Pediatric oral formulations can be quite scientifically challenging to develop and the prerequisites for both a measurable dosage form to administer based upon bodyweight, and also taste-masking are two of the challenges unique for pediatric oral formulations. The physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the active drug substance such as solubility, chemical stability, and taste along with the intended dose can determine which formulations are feasible to develop. Oral pediatric formulations are available in 17 different varieties and can be either a ready-to-use formulation such as a solution, syrup, suspension, tablet, scored tablet, chewable tablet, orally disintegrating tablet, or thin strip, or can also be a formulation that requires manipulation such as a powder for constitution to a suspension, tablet for constitution to a suspension, powder for constitution to a solution, drops for reconstitution to a suspension, concentrated solution for dilution, effervescent tablet, bulk oral granules, bulk oral powder, or solid in a capsule to mix with food or drink. Recently there has been an increase in pediatric formulation development inspired by increased regulatory incentives. The intent of this review is to educate the reader on the various types of formulations administered orally to pediatrics, the rationale in deciding which type of formulation to develop, the excipients used, development challenges, the in-use handling of oral pediatric formulations, and the regulatory incentives.

  17. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies.

  18. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  19. Oral contraceptives in migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.

  20. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  1. ORAL AMELANOTIC MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  2. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  3. Epilepsy and oral care.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole

    2002-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.

  4. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.

  5. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  6. Oral contraceptives: current status.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    2001-03-01

    During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.

  7. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  8. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  9. The effect of chlorhexidine in reducing oral colonisation in geriatric patients: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Abdullah, Sharifah Shafinaz Binti; Chong, Mei Chan; Surindar-Kaur, Surat Singh; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients. METHODS A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation. RESULTS The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group. CONCLUSION The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene. PMID:27211885

  10. [Oral rehydration at a third-level service].

    PubMed

    Mota-Hernández, F

    1990-02-01

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) has been shown to be useful in decreasing mortality, reducing treatment costs and diminishing the frequency of complications in children under the age of five with acute diarrhea. The current concept of ORT includes not only the increase in the intake of fluids and the administering of oral solution in order to prevent or treat dehydration, but also the continuance of everyday feeding, the teaching of the child's mother to detect signs of dehydration and other alarming changes, as well as the non-administering of medication, especially those considered as anti-diarrheal or anti-vomiting, and limiting the use of antimicrobials, only to be used in special cases. The theoretical know-how of these concepts has been seen to be insufficient in order to increase the use of community-wide Oral Rehydration Therapy, being this the main purpose for the establishment of the Oral Rehydration Ward in teaching hospitals of second and third level, where the majority of its' personnel must come into contact with and share the responsibility of treating children with diarrhea. Within these wards students obtain information, ability and assurance in the effective actual management of children with diarrhea, including the correction of the state of dehydration through the administering of oral solutions. Another complementary benefit from the coming about of this ward is the decrease in the need to hospitalize the majority of the patient with diarrhea therefore reducing costs and any related complications. Oral rehydration therapy; diarrhea; dehydration; oral solutions.

  11. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  12. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  13. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  14. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  15. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  16. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  17. [Schizophrenia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Moullan, M; Denis, F

    2017-03-24

    Mental health is an essential component of general health. Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental illness that affects higher brain functions. It is characterized by the presence of a mental dissociation, dampened or inappropriate affects, hallucinations and delirium. Schizophrenia has also a negative impact on oral health. As schizophrenia affects 1% of the population, every practitioner concerned with oral sphere will be confronted one day or another with a patient suffering from this disease. It is therefore important to acquire essential notions. The aim of our work was to make an update about factors that may affect oral health in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  19. Etiology of oral habits.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  20. Probiotics and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Haukioja, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

  1. [Oral formulation of choice for children].

    PubMed

    Lajoinie, A; Henin, E; Kassai, B

    2015-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate oral formulation is very challenging when developing medicines for children and in routine practice. Research in pediatric pharmacology has focused on oral drug formulation, determining whether the active pharmaceutical ingredient can be successfully delivered to children. Pediatric expert committees (EMA, EuFPI) recommend that children's medicines be safe, well tolerated, easy to use (palatable and requiring minimal handling), transportable, easily produced, cost effective, commercially viable, with a minimal impact on children's life-style. Oral liquid drug formulations (OLFs: solutions, syrups, suspensions) are historically considered as the most appropriate oral formulation for children, since they are easy to swallow for younger infants and palatable for children. However, OLFs present numerous disadvantages, such as low stability, potentially toxic excipients for children, and low transportability. In the long-term, dose volume and frequency of administration might lead to non-compliance. Multiple preparation steps and volume calculations are also among risk factors for medicine errors in children. An alternative to OLFs is the conventional solid oral dosage form (OSF), such as tablets and capsules. These offer the advantages of greater stability, easy dose selection, improved transportability, and ease of storage. They also allow the modification of drug pharmacokinetic parameters, minimizing administration frequency. Finally, OSFs are less costly than OLFs, since they are easier to develop, manufacture, transport, store, and deliver. Controlled study results suggest that the use of OSFs in children would be associated with greater acceptability by children, greater preference on the part of caregivers, and higher drug compliance than OLFs. Recent controlled studies, confirming that OSFs with an acceptable size for children (mini-tablets), should shift the current paradigm of OLFs as the reference for children's oral medicine

  2. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  3. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Albuterol is used to prevent and treat difficulty breathing, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness ... for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, ...

  4. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . See the following PDQ summaries for more information ...

  5. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ipratropium oral inhalation is used to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness in people ... damage to the air sacs in the lungs). Ipratropium is in a class of medications called bronchodilators. ...

  6. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...

  7. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...

  8. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-18

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.

  9. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  10. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  11. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  12. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  13. Oral contraception and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G

    1976-05-22

    A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.

  14. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  15. [Optimizing biopsies of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Raybaud, H; Voha, C; Cardot-Leccia, N; Monteil, R A

    2012-11-01

    We had for aim to describe and illustrate the artefacts observed in biopsies of the oral mucosa, as well as the impact of sending non-representative histological material to a laboratory. This article was based on an international literature review, as well as on our experience. We analysed the problems raised, for the pathologists and the histology lab-technicians, by these artefacts as well as their impact on the pathology report patient management. We suggest simple solutions.

  16. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  17. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  18. HPV-associated oral warts.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

  19. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  20. Enhancing oral moisture using an extract of Capparis masaikai Levl.

    PubMed

    Kitada, K; Ishikawa, M; Shibuya, K; Nakasugi, T; Oho, T

    2008-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Capparis masaikai Levl. extract on enhancing oral moisture. Solutions of Capparis masaikai extract, citric acid, sodium chloride, and sucrose were dropped on the tongue dorsum of 20 healthy subjects aged 23-34 years. After swallowing each solution, the oral moisture was measured for 60 min using a saliva wetness tester and a moisture checker. The subjects recorded the degree of taste using a visual analog scale to examine the stimulating effect of each solution on salivation. The Capparis masaikai extract had a long-lasting moistening effect on both the tongue dorsum and buccal mucosa for up to 60 min. The weakly bittersweet taste of the extract was perceived stronger than the other taste elements. The results suggest that the Capparis masaikai extract is useful for enhancing oral moisture.

  1. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  2. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  3. Oral contraceptives: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Derman, R

    1989-09-01

    Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.

  4. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  5. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  6. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  7. Oral myiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

    2012-04-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

  8. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  9. Enhancement of the oral absorption of cyclosporin in man.

    PubMed Central

    Drewe, J; Meier, R; Vonderscher, J; Kiss, D; Posanski, U; Kissel, T; Gyr, K

    1992-01-01

    1. The oral absorption of cyclosporin from three new semi-solid oral formulations was compared with the standard soft gelatine preparation in twelve healthy male volunteers. One formulation was based on a solid micellar solution, while the other two, with different in vitro release properties, were based on a microemulsion principle. 2. The results showed that the solid micellar solution and the faster releasing microemulsion formulation increased the extent of absorption on average by 45.2 and 49.0%, respectively, compared with the reference soft gelatine capsule. PMID:1633069

  10. Topical Antimycotics for Oral Candidiasis in Warfarin Users.

    PubMed

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Pottegård, Anton; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Burghle, Alaa; Mouaanaki, Fatima; Hallas, Jesper; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Damkier, Per

    2017-04-01

    Treatment for oral candidiasis in warfarin users may be complicated by drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between warfarin and topically applied antimycotics. However, current knowledge of these putative DDIs is merely based on case series. We therefore performed a cohort cross-over study with the objective to evaluate the potential DDIs between warfarin and miconazole oral gel or nystatin oral solution. The cohort consisted of individuals using warfarin in the period of 1998-2012 (n ≈ 7400). We collected data on cohort members' measurements of the international normalized ratio (INR) from a clinical database, and obtained information on their use of topically applied miconazole and nystatin from a regional prescription register. Potential DDIs were assessed by comparing INR values before and after initiation of an antimycotic drug. Among 17 warfarin users exposed to miconazole oral gel, the mean INR increased from 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1-2.8) to 3.8 (95% CI: 2.8-4.8) after exposure, corresponding to a mean INR increase of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.3-2.4). Among 30 warfarin users exposed to nystatin oral solution, the mean INR was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.3-3.1) before and 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9) after exposure. In conclusion, we found evidence supporting a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction between warfarin and miconazole oral gel. In contrast, we did not find any indication of an interaction between warfarin and nystatin oral solution. Nystatin rather than miconazole should be preferred when treating warfarin users for oral candidiasis.

  11. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Levalbuterol comes as a solution (liquid) to inhale by mouth using a nebulizer (machine that turns medication into a mist that can be inhaled), a concentrated solution to be mixed with normal saline and inhaled ...

  12. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  13. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  14. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  15. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  16. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  17. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  18. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  19. Oral Language Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno County Dept. of Education, Fresno, CA.

    An oral language continuum designed to help elementary students develop techniques for a variety of speech situations, learn to listen, and learn to be aware of the responsibility of the speaker is presented. The continuum is divided into four sections. Student needs, implications for teaching, and suggested activities are arranged sequentially.…

  20. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  1. The novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Garcia, David A

    2013-03-01

    After the introduction of warfarin, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment remained unchanged for more than 50 years. Most recently, with the development and approval of new oral anticoagulants, the treatment of medical conditions that require thrombosis prophylaxis and long-term anticoagulation has become more complex. In the case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention after orthopedic surgery, the new oral agents will be less costly than the parenteral alternative. In other settings (such as atrial fibrillation or treatment of acute VTE), the new agents will offer additional convenience at higher cost, but the degree to which they will reduce clinically important events such as thrombosis or bleeding will be limited, especially for patients on optimally controlled warfarin. As the use of the new oral anticoagulants becomes more widespread, it will be important for all clinicians to have a basic understanding of their pharmacology, advantages, and limitations. Although the need to measure or reverse the effect of these drugs will arise infrequently, clinicians--especially hematologists--will desire evidence-based recommendations about how to manage such scenarios, which will require research studies.

  2. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  3. Research in Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Walter T., Ed.

    This collection of six articles on oral language is a product of the cooperative efforts of the National Conference on Research in English, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the International Reading Association, the Association for Childhood Education International, and the National Council of Teachers of English. It is…

  4. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  5. Oral therapy of infant diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ransome-Kuti, O; Bamisaiye, A

    1978-08-26

    Immediate oral therapy at home by the mother using a sugar-salt solution offers a real prospect of reducing mortality from gastroenteritis among preschool children in the developing world. The sugar-salt solution enables the mother to take action against a disease which is the most frequent cause of death among young children. In Lagos, Nigeria, knowledge of the treatment has diffused rapidly in a low-income community served by a clinic run by the Institute of Child Health. In a recent study, women expecting their 1st child and others who had never used the service were able to describe the sugar-salt solution treatment taught to all who attend the clinic. However, of the 217 women who described the method, less than 1/2 (34%) could give the correct proportions of sugar and salt to be used (4 teaspoons and 1/4 teaspoon respectively in a standard local beer bottle filled with water). Most errors involved the use of too much salt. In nearly 1/2 these cases, 4 times too much salt was described, and in 3 cases, 16 times too much salt. Under these circumstances, we can expect a possible increase in children admitted with hypernatremia, a situation which would bring the method into disrepute. Any attempt to transfer health skills to mothers in developing countries must recognize, as in this example, the problems posed by lack of education and unfamiliarity with measurement terms such as "1/4" or even "a teaspoon." What is required is a simple measuring spoon giving the actual quantity to be used. Manufactured on a large scale in plastic, this would be inexpensive. Ideally, every mother of a preschool child should have 1, but where this is not possible, all health workers should have such spoons so that they can measure into a mother's hand the correct amounts. In this way the mother can make correct use of a treatment which has such potential for saving lives.

  6. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  7. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  8. [Oral manifestations in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2010-11-01

    Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.

  9. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K; Sherwin, LeeAnne B; Joseph, Paule V; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-07-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r(2) > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS.

  10. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  11. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  12. Oral and perioral piercing complications.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-12-04

    BACKGROUND.: The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing METHODS.: A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ;;oral and perioral, piercing , ;;oral, piercing and disease", ;;recessions and oral piercing . It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series RESULTS.: A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. CONCLUSION.: Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS.: Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

  13. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  14. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology for oral delivery of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhao, Lingyun; Huang, Laiqiang; Yang, Xiang-Liang; Tang, Jintian; Feng, Si-Shen

    2013-06-15

    Oral chemotherapy is an important topic in the 21st century medicine, which may radically change the current regimen of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. Unfortunately, most anticancer drugs, especially those of high therapeutic efficacy such as paclitaxel and docetaxel, are not orally bioavailable due to the gastrointestinal (GI) drug barrier. The molecular basis of the GI barrier has been found mainly due to the multidrug efflux proteins, i.e. P-type glycoproteins (P-gp), which are rich in the epithelial cell membranes in the GI tract. Medical solution for oral chemotherapy is to apply P-gp inhibitors such as cyclosporine A, which, however, suppress the body's immune system either, thus causing medical complication. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology, which is to apply and further develop nanotechnology to solve the problems in drug delivery, may provide a better solution and thus change the way we make drug and the way we take drug. This review is focused on the problems encountered in oral chemotherapy and the pharmaceutical nanotechnology solutions such as prodrugs, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers. Proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo results for oral delivery of anticancer drugs by the various nanocarriers, which can be found so far from the literature, are provided.

  15. Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Lim, Young Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Byeong-Jun; Hwang, Chang-Won

    2014-06-01

    Since Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 have the same crystal structure, they form a homogeneous solid solution. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the solid solution can be reduced by phonon scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit can be improved by controlling the carrier concentration through doping. In this study, Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:D m (D: dopants such as I, Cu, Ag, Ni, Zn) solid solutions were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction in the measured temperature range (323 K to 523 K), and their electrical conductivities decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The undoped solid solution showed a carrier concentration of 7.37 × 1019 cm-3, power factor of 2.1 mW m-1 K-1, and figure of merit of 0.56 at 323 K. The figure of merit ( ZT) was improved due to the increased power factor by I, Cu, and Ag dopings, and maximum ZT values were obtained as 0.76 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:Cu0.01 and 0.90 at 423 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:I0.005. However, the thermoelectric properties of Ni- and Zn-doped solid solutions were not enhanced.

  16. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Amoh, Takashi; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  17. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sekita, Yasuko; Murakami, Keiji; Amoh, Takashi; Ogata, Shohei; Matsuo, Takashi; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP) against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care. PMID:27413739

  18. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  19. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  20. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  2. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....5 milligram/pound/day; swine dysentery: 1 milliliter per 1 gallon of drinking water for 3... control and treatment of swine dysentery associated with Treponema hyodysenteriae. (3) Limitations. For... dysentery recurs. Do not slaughter treated swine for food for at least 3 days following treatment....

  3. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sole source of streptomycin. Warning: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for...: Certain strains of bacteria may develop a tolerance for streptomycin. Consult a veterinarian or...

  8. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Vianna, Leonora; Sobreira, Maria Nazareth; de Araújo, Flavio Nader Gross; de Melo, Nilce Santos

    2011-11-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are rare. However, bone and tooth resorption may be the result of chronic inflammation and the presence of osteoclastic cells surrounding the oxalate crystal deposit. A deposit of calcium oxalate in the periodontium was identified in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Dental radiographs indicated bone loss and external tooth resorption. Radiolucent image in the inferior incisor region was observed and removed. The tissue showed granulomatous inflammation with foreign body reaction and associated crystalline deposits. When viewed in polarized light, these deposits are green and presented a birefringent aspect, which were interpreted as calcium oxalate crystals compatible with oxaluria. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are of particular interest because of the unusual location of the oxalate crystal deposition, resulting in aggressive tooth resorption and alveolar bone loss, which may be misdiagnosed.

  9. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  10. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  11. Oral chemotherapy in tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kay, N J

    1981-05-01

    A double-blind triple cross-over trial was designed for 21 patients suffering from tinnitus; mexiletine, diazapam, betahistine and placebo were taken each for a month sequentially during which time the patients recorded their tinnitus loudness subjectively on a visual analogue scale. The results showed that these medications did not influence the tinnitus loudness. Since mexiletine is an oral analogue of lignocaine and a cardiovascular drug, any untoward cardiovascular history and clinical finding disqualified such patients from the trial. Twenty-one such patients were rejected from an original group of 42 patients. In a volunteer trial mexiletine unrelated to this, it was reported that a vasovagal attack was suffered by someone who had just consumed 400 mg mexiletine orally. After ethical considerations the tinnitus trial was stopped. Eleven patients completed the cycle of medications, 10 did not. The dangers of using a cardiovascular drug for a non-cardiovascular condition is thus exposed.

  12. Lasers in oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1994-12-01

    The indications of lasers in oral surgery are defined by the laser-tissue interaction types. These are mainly thermal effects depending especially on the absorption of laser light in varying biological tissues. In histological sections different laser effects are demonstrated on oral mucosa, bone and cartilage, which have a great influence on wound healing and subsequently on clinical indications of the different wavelengths. On the one hand the good coagulation effect of the Nd:YAG laser is wanted for hemostasis in soft tissue surgery. On the other hand, for the treatment of precancerous dysplasias or neoplasias an effective cutting with a coagulation effect like using the CO2 laser is necessary. However, the excision of benign mucosal lesions as well as performing osteotomies or shaping of cartilage should be undertaken with the Er:YAG laser without greater coagulation and consequently without any delay of wound healing.

  13. Oral health & HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Naidoo, Sudeshi; Berthold, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions are common in women and children with HIV/AIDS and may decrease the overall quality of life in these patients because of pain, dry mouth, and difficulty in eating. An oral cavity screening is an easy, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive procedure that provides nurses with invaluable information about the need for referral, treatment, and health education. Nurses can use the information obtained from a careful oral screening to decrease the symptoms experienced with oral lesions and optimize a patient's ability to chew and enjoy food. Common oral manifestations of HIV infection include fungal, viral, and bacterial infections, although neoplasms, periodontal disease, salivary gland disease, and lesions of uncertain origin are also seen. Oral lesions such as candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpetic ulcers, and Kaposi's sarcoma are often among the first symptoms of HIV infection.

  14. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  15. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  16. [Reiter's syndrome oral manifestations].

    PubMed

    Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G

    1988-01-01

    Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  17. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  18. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  19. -Saturated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

  20. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  1. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  2. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  3. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  4. Oral contraceptive compliance during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, D

    1997-06-17

    A review of the available literature suggests that adolescent lack of compliance with oral contraceptives (OCs) is a multifactorial problem that requires a multifactorial solution. Because of their lack of experience with contraception, higher frequency of intercourse, higher intrinsic fertility, and pattern of frequent stopping or switching of methods, adolescents experience higher OC failure rates than do adult women. Adolescents also are more likely to forget to take the pill or to discontinue due to side effects, without consulting their physician. A survey of European young women identified contraceptive protection without weight gain as the most necessary change in OCs. Adolescents must be counseled not to miss a single pill, observe the pill-free interval, take phasic formulations in the right order, and use a back-up method in case of diarrhea and vomiting or when certain medications (e.g., antibiotics and anti-epileptics) are used concurrently, and be informed of steps to take in the event of side effects and unprotected intercourse. The quality of the counseling appears to be more important to compliance than the quantity of information provided. Pharmacists should complete the counseling initiated by the physician and explain prescription use. The most significant predictor of consistent OC use is the adolescent's motivation.

  5. Expanding oral health preventative services for young children: a successful interprofessional model.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Evelyn; Marino, Deborah; Thacker, Sherrey; DiMarco, Marguerite; Huff, Marlene; Biordi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Progressive solutions are needed to solve the oral health chronic disease problem in the U.S. The importance of oral health coupled with urgent community oral health needs, shortage of primary providers, and emphasis on interprofessional collaboration make the timing ripe for allied health training and practice in oral health preventative services. A successful model is described that addressed the unmet oral health care needs of low-income and at-risk children. The model is a guide for integrating an oral health screen, fluoride varnish, anticipatory guidance, and dental referrals into allied health practice. An alternative oral health provider approach was used to address the low rate of early caries detection, preventative oral care, and access for underserved children. A comprehensive system for the administrative and clinical components of the project, including implementation plan, clinical protocols, prescriptive authority, a dental home referral system, clinical training and competency testing, was developed. The interprofessional project increased oral health services capacity and practice acceptance of oral health screening and fluoride varnishing among dietitians. Oral health care services provide allied health practitioners with unique opportunities to impact the poor access and unmet needs of at risk children and adults and to improve overall health.

  6. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578

  7. Oral health problems and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Davarian, Shieva; Crimmins, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Background/purpose Previous studies have shown the relationship between individual oral health conditions and mortality; however, the relationship between mortality and multiple oral health conditions has not been examined. This study investigates the link between individual oral health problems and oral comorbidity and mortality risk. Materials and methods Data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, which is linked to the National Death Index for mortality follow-up through 2006. We estimated the risk of mortality among people with three individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontitis as well as with oral comorbidity—or having all three conditions. Results Significant tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease were associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between oral health conditions and mortality disappeared when controlling for sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral indicators. Having multiple oral health problems was associated with an even higher rate of mortality. Conclusion Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying. PMID:24416472

  8. Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2000-01-01

    In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440

  9. Clinical trial registration in oral health journals.

    PubMed

    Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P

    2015-03-01

    Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials.

  10. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large... few days before or after treatment with or exposure to, cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). (3) Limitations. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...). (3) Limitations. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...). (3) Limitations. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). (3) Limitations. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before or after treatment. Do...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2520e - Trichlorfon boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). (3) Limitations. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended. Surgery or any severe stress should be avoided for at least 2 weeks before...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... mixed in 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water and administered by stomach tube or drench. (3) Do not re-treat... stomach tube or drench it shall also bear the statement: Caution; Federal law restricts this drug to...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mixed in 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water and administered by stomach tube or drench. (3) Do not re-treat... stomach tube or drench it shall also bear the statement: Caution; Federal law restricts this drug to...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mixed in 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water and administered by stomach tube or drench. (3) Do not re-treat... stomach tube or drench it shall also bear the statement: Caution; Federal law restricts this drug to...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... mixed in 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water and administered by stomach tube or drench. (3) Do not re-treat... stomach tube or drench it shall also bear the statement: Caution; Federal law restricts this drug to...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2380e - Thiabendazole with trichlorfon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mixed in 5 to 10 fluid ounces of water and administered by stomach tube or drench. (3) Do not re-treat... stomach tube or drench it shall also bear the statement: Caution; Federal law restricts this drug to...

  10. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  11. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  12. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  13. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  14. Oral epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) is an intermediate malignant potential vascular neoplasm with uncertain clinical behavior, wide variations in microscopic findings, and prognosis. According to the World Health Organization (2002) classification, epithelioid HE has been considered under malignant tumors which rarely metastasize. The epithelioid variant, the most aggressive one, has similar gender predilection and sporadic occurrence in children. The patients usually present with an asymptomatic oral mass whereas few cases may report with the painful bleeding lesion. We attempt to present a case in an adolescent male with previously never described biological behavior, diverse histopathological features, and immunohistochemistry findings. PMID:26681871

  15. Oral verruciform xanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia; Staines, Konrad; Pring, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is a key for the correct management of this lesion. Excision of this lesion is curative. PMID:25819830

  16. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  17. Oral Appliances Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dentist Platinum Sponsors Dental Sleep Solutions Nierman Practice Management ProSomnus Sleep Technologies Space Maintainers Laboratory Gold Sponsors Airway Metrics LLC Dental Prosthetic Services Myerson/Frantz Design Oventus Medical SomnoMed Silver Sponsors Copyright © American Academy ...

  18. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... baby is being treated with the antifungal solution. Changing diapers often also prevents fungal diaper rashes . Treatment ...

  19. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  20. Complications of equine oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.

  1. Improving oral hygiene for patients.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

    2015-01-13

    Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care.

  2. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  3. Le Discours Oral (Oral Discourse). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, C.; And Others

    The contrast between written language and oral language did not really begin to attract attention until second language teaching defined as its goal the acquisition of a communicative tool rather than a literary tool. This focus on communication made necessary the distinction between language used for oral communication and language used for…

  4. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma.

  5. [Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].

    PubMed

    Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

    2007-01-01

    Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity.

  6. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  7. Literacy and Orality in Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1978-01-01

    Points out the importance of orality in past centuries and in some contemporary cultures (including that of the black urban ghetto); discusses the problems in moving from oral expression to writing; and notes contrasts between primary orality, writing and printing, and secondary orality--the orality induced by radio and television. (GW)

  8. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…

  9. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  10. Oral Fluency and Its Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieke, Adolf E.

    It is proposed that a speech-dynamic analysis of oral fluency phenomena serves best to highlight the nondiscrete nature of the sound stream and to capture English syllable structure. Some current concepts and practices in oral testing are criticized, and previously neglected evidence concerning temporal variables in speech, automatic speech…

  11. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  12. 75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon H. Northover v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No... hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No....

  13. The Oral Language Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    This booklet describes the test used by the federal government to determine oral proficiency in a foreign language. The test is essentially an oral interview, conducted by two testers, and lasting from 15 to 30 minutes, although the format can vary. Proficiency levels range from 0 (for no practical speaking proficiency) to 5 (for speaking…

  14. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  15. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1978-02-01

    This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.

  16. Oral mucosal disease: pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Mignogna, Michele

    2008-06-01

    Pemphigus defines a group of rare mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases of which pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is the most common. The aetiology and pathogenesis of PV are not completely clear, but there is a fairly strong genetic background: ethnic groups such as Ashkenazi Jews and people of Mediterranean and Indian origin are particularly susceptible and there is a link to HLA class II alleles. The initiating event in PV is not clear, but circulating IgG autoantibodies develop, directed particularly against the intercellular cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in desmosomes of stratified squamous epithelium. Oral lesions often herald the disease and are initially vesiculobullous, but they rupture readily to leave ulcers. Involvement of other mucosa and skin is almost inevitable and PV is potentially life threatening. The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy with histological examination and immunostaining. Management is largely by systemic immunosuppression with corticosteroids, usually azathioprine or other agents, but newer treatments with potentially fewer adverse effects look promising.

  17. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  18. Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.

  19. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  20. Integrating oral health throughout cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin

    2015-10-01

    Oral health is often not a priority during cancer treatment; however, patients with cancer are at increased risk for oral complications during and after treatment. This article focuses on the importance of oral health care before, during, and after cancer treatment using the head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach. AT A GLANCE: Oral health is linked to overall health, and healthcare providers must be cognizant of the oral-systemic connection with patients undergoing cancer treatment, which may cause acute and chronic oral health problems. 
Oral assessment, prevention, early recognition, and treatment of oral problems must be incorporated into cancer care, particularly with the aid of an interprofessional team to meet patients' oral care needs. 
The head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach integrates oral care into patients' history taking, physical examination, and plan of cancer care.
.

  1. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  2. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    MedlinePlus

    ... desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral Health Important for ... changing. Reviewed: January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Women's Oral Health Burning Mouth Syndrome in Middle-aged ...

  3. Literacy and Orality in Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1980-01-01

    Treats orality and literacy in two ways: (1) examines the ubiquitous problem of moving from oral expression to writing, and (2) considers briefly the new, secondary orality that surrounds viewers on radio and television. (JMF)

  4. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  5. Efficacy of oral administration and oral intake of edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lauterslager, Tosca G M; Hilgers, Luuk A T

    2002-12-03

    To evaluate whether vaccine administration via intragastric gavage is indicative for the outcome of edible vaccines, mice were orally immunised with ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with or without Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in various compositions via various routes: (1) OVA dissolved in saline and intragastrically (IG) administered ('IG'); (2) OVA mixed with food extract and administered IG ('food IG'); (3) food chow absorbed with OVA dissolved in saline and fed to the animals ('food'); and (4) OVA dissolved in saline and administered via drinking bottles ('drinking'). When given to naive mice, 'IG' and 'food IG' but not 'food' or 'drinking' induced anti-OVA IgG1 responses in serum, but oral boost immunisations were necessary. Serum IgA was not induced. Oral boosting of subcutaneously (SC) primed mice enhanced the IgG1 and IgA response in serum regardless of the route of immunisation or the vaccine composition. CT did not dramatically enhance the immune response. All immunisation routes except 'drinking' induced antigen-specific IgA antibody secreting cells (ASC) in the lamina propria of naive mice. But antigen-specific antibody responses in faeces were not observed. We concluded that oral (i.e. IG) administration is distinct from oral intake. The composition of the vaccine (food or saline) did not influence oral administration. We thus suggested that the route of administration greatly influenced the outcome of oral immunisation. Although oral administration is a well-accepted route to test the potentials of oral vaccines, our study demonstrated that it is merely indicative for the effectiveness of edible vaccines. Studies on the feasibility of edible vaccines should thus be performed by eating the vaccine.

  6. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin concentration 2 hr after D-allulose administration. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activities showed a mild increase between 12 and 48 hr after D-allulose administration. These data suggested that a single oral dose of D-allulose does not show severe toxicity in dogs. PMID:26972334

  7. Novel approaches to oral immunization for hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shailja; Vyas, Suresh P

    2011-02-01

    Hepatitis B is a necroinflammatory liver disease manifested with subacute to acute symptoms, liver cirrhosis, and mortality. Parenteral alum-adsorbed hepatitis B surface antigenic (HBsAg) vaccination, although available, poses serious concerns regarding inability to induce both cell-mediated and mucosal immune response. In this context, oral delivery may be a prospective solution to the issues associated with conventional vaccination. However, the strategy is detrimental to the antigenic substances, suffers various physical/chemical barriers, and impedes poor transcytosis via mucosal route. Therefore, surface-engineered novel carrier-based approaches are reportedly promising for effective HBsAg oral vaccine delivery. This review focuses on the efforts for developing oral mucosal vaccine against hepatitis B, with considerable attention on novel drug delivery systems for spatial distribution of antigenic substance to the immune effector cells and organs.

  8. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  9. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  10. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  11. Combined use of crystalline salt forms and precipitation inhibitors to improve oral absorption of celecoxib from solid oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Héctor R; Tawa, Mark; Zhang, Zhong; Ratanabanangkoon, Pasut; Shaw, Paul; Gardner, Colin R; Chen, Hongming; Moreau, Jean-Pierre; Almarsson, Orn; Remenar, Julius F

    2007-10-01

    Biopharmaceutical evaluation of crystalline celecoxib salts in novel solid formulations, which were designed to simultaneously facilitate dissolution and inhibit precipitation in vitro, showed fast and complete absorption in beagle dogs at doses up to 7.5 mg/kg orally. In contrast, 5 mg/kg celecoxib in the form of Celebrex(R) showed approximately 40% absolute bioavailability in a cross-over experiment. An in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed in dog, and a threshold level of in vitro dissolution needed to maximize in vivo performance was highlighted. Oral bioavailability was limited in the absence of excipient combinations that delayed precipitation of celecoxib free acid as the salt neutralized in the GI fluid. Formulations of crystal forms having high energy (a 'spring'), thus transiently increasing solubility in aqueous solution relative to the free acid, combined with excipients functioning as precipitation inhibitors ('parachutes') were shown to provide both enhanced dissolution and high oral bioavailability.

  12. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution.

    PubMed

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

  13. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  14. Oral administration of hyaluronan reduces bone turnover in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jenny; Granton, Patrick V; Holdsworth, David W; Turley, Eva A

    2013-01-16

    The effect of oral hyaluronan (HA) on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) 3-month-old rats was measured using serum markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density. OVX rats were administered 1 mg/kg HA (OVX + HA) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (OVX + PBS) by oral gavage (5 days/week for 54 days). Additional controls included sham ovariectomy with PBS gavage (Sham + PBS) and no treatment. Oral administration of HA resulted in approximately 50% (p < 0.05) increases in serum HA. Gel filtration analyses showed this was high molecular weight HA (300-500 kDa). Osteopenia was mild due to the young age of the animals. Thus, ovariectomy resulted in a 30% increase in serum collagen N-terminal telopeptides (p < 0.001), a 20% increase in serum nitrate/nitrite levels (p = 0.05), and a 5-6% decrease in femur bone mineral density/content (p < 0.05). HA gavage blunted the development of osteopenia in this model as determined by preventing the 30% increase in serum collagen N-terminal telopeptide levels (p < 0.001) and by reducing bone mineral content loss from 6 to 4%. These results show that oral supplements of HA (gavage solution, 0.12% solution) significantly reduce bone turnover associated with mild osteopenia in rats.

  15. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Feller, Liviu; Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Jadwat, Yusuf; Lemmer, Johan

    2014-03-24

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis.There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease.In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation.

  16. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  17. Improving oral healthcare delivery systems through workforce innovations: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Elizabeth A; Finocchio, Len

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the purpose, rationale and key elements of the special issue, Improving Oral Healthcare Delivery Systems through Workforce Innovations. The purpose of the special issue is to further develop ideas presented at the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) workshop, Sufficiency of the U.S. Oral Health Workforce in the Coming Decade. Using the IOM discussions as their starting point, the authors evaluate oral health care delivery system performance for specific populations' needs and explore the roles that the workforce can play in improving the care delivery model. The contributing articles provide a broad framework for stimulating and evaluating innovation and change in the oral health care delivery system. The articles in this special issue point to many deficits in the current oral health care delivery system and provide compelling arguments and proposals for improvements. The issues presented and solutions recommended are not entirely new, but add to a growing body of work that is of critical importance given the context of wider health care reform.

  18. At-home oral care for adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Minihan, Paula M.; Morgan, John P.; Park, Angel; Yantsides, Konstantina E.; Nobles, Carrie J.; Finkelman, Matthew D.; Stark, Paul C.; Must, Aviva

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about effective at-home oral care methods for people with developmental disabilities (DDs) who are unable to perform personal preventive practices themselves and rely on caregivers for assistance. Methods A convenience sample of 808 caregivers (84.5 percent paid, 15.5 percent family members) who accompanied adults with DDs (20 years or older) to appointments at a specialized statewide dental care system completed computer-assisted personal interview surveys. The authors used these data to investigate caregivers’ at-home oral care experiences and to explore differences between caregivers who were paid and those who were family members. Results Caregivers reported that a high proportion (85 percent) of dentate adults with DDs received assistance with tooth cleaning. They also reported a high prevalence of dental problems, and low adherence to brushing (79 percent) and flossing (22 percent) recommendations. More caregivers reported that they felt confident assisting with brushing than with flossing (85 percent versus 54 percent). Family members and paid caregivers differed with respect to confidence and training. Conclusions At-home oral care, particularly flossing, presents substantial challenges for adults with DDs. Solutions must be tailored to address the different experiences and distinct needs of the family members and paid caregivers who assist these adults. Practical Implications Caregivers play an important role in providing at-home oral care, and they must be included in efforts to improve oral health outcomes for people with DDs. PMID:25270700

  19. [Acute zincteral oral poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kamenczak, A; Pokorska, M; Wołek, E; Kobyłecka, K

    Zinc vapour poisoning by inhalation in the form of zinc fever is more frequent than oral zinc product poisoning, the product used in therapy. The main aim of the study was the evaluation of clinical manifestation present after Zincteral ingestion as well as attempt to find the relationship between the presence and aggravation of the clinical manifestation and zinc level in the blood. The course of acute clinical suicidal poisoning by ingestion of Zincteral 50 tablets (10.0 g) and 100 tablets (20.0 g) is presented. The clinical picture revealed the following symptoms and signs: tachycardia, changes of arterial BP, vascular shock; dyspeptic nausea, vomiting cramps in abdominal region, diarrhoea. Damage of the parenchymatous organs, mainly liver was evident. In pregnant woman (9-week-pregnancy) on the 12-th day of her stay in the Clinic complete miscarriage took place accompanied by haemorrhage from reproductive organs. The kind and exacerbation of the clinical manifestations in relation to the zinc level in body fluid were analysed.

  20. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756

  1. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  2. Oral lesions in haemopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Grande, M; Milano, V; Desiate, A; Martinelli, A; Iaffaldano, B

    1990-03-01

    This paper deals with the oral manifestations observed in patients with haemolymphopathies and oral complications associated with systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We report the percentage of oral manifestations observed in 30 patients treated with cytotoxic drugs for malignant haemolymphopathies or other tumors after 2-4 cycles of systemic combinations chemotherapy. No sex or age differences were recorded except for abnormalities of taste present only in 13% treated patients older than 50. Stomatitis was more frequent in patients with malignant haemolymphopathies than in patient with other neoplastic diseases, probably due to the fact that in the former group neutropenia and thrombocytopenia induced by bone marrow infiltration or by more aggressive combination chemotherapy are most frequent. An oral care protocol for these patients is suggested.

  3. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates ... for information about oral health programs in my area? The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors ( ...

  4. Sleep disorders and oral devices.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, J R; Attanasio, R

    2001-10-01

    Many patients with upper airway sleep disorders can be successfully treated with oral appliance therapy. It is necessary for dentists to recognize these patients and refer them to a physician for further evaluation. Dentists must not become the primary care providers for these patients or attempt to treat a medical problem with an oral appliance without a proper diagnosis, which usually requires a sleep study and can only be diagnosed by a physician. Dentists must also be able to treat the patients referred by physicians and to follow accepted procedures when fabricating, inserting, titrating, and providing follow-up care for oral appliance therapy. In addition, the dental community needs to continue to heighten the awareness in their local medical community and in their patient population as to the possible contribution of oral appliance therapy to the management of snoring and some of the sleep-related breathing disorders.

  5. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  6. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control.

  7. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ill-fitting or loose dentures. Effects of Osteoporosis Treatments on Oral Health It is not known ... Resources For more information on osteoporosis, visit: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: ...

  8. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Annual Meeting New Orleans, LA April 21-25, 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline ... Annual Meeting New Orleans, LA April 21-25, 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Patient Resources Oral Medicine ...

  9. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  10. Solubilizing excipients in oral and injectable formulations.

    PubMed

    Strickley, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    A review of commercially available oral and injectable solution formulations reveals that the solubilizing excipients include water-soluble organic solvents (polyethylene glycol 300, polyethylene glycol 400, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide), non-ionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH 40, Cremophor RH 60, d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, Solutol HS 15, sorbitan monooleate, poloxamer 407, Labrafil M-1944CS, Labrafil M-2125CS, Labrasol, Gellucire 44/14, Softigen 767, and mono- and di-fatty acid esters of PEG 300, 400, or 1750), water-insoluble lipids (castor oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, peppermint oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated vegetable oils, hydrogenated soybean oil, and medium-chain triglycerides of coconut oil and palm seed oil), organic liquids/semi-solids (beeswax, d-alpha-tocopherol, oleic acid, medium-chain mono- and diglycerides), various cyclodextrins (alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin), and phospholipids (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol). The chemical techniques to solubilize water-insoluble drugs for oral and injection administration include pH adjustment, cosolvents, complexation, microemulsions, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, micelles, liposomes, and emulsions.

  11. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...

  12. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  13. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk.

  14. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions.

  15. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  16. Single-dose bioavailability of oral and intramuscular thiocolchicoside in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, P; Bouvier d'Yvoire, M; Chretien, P; Tillement, J P; Scherrmann, J M

    1994-01-01

    A single dose of 8 mg of thiocolchicoside was administered to 12 healthy volunteers according to a Latin square design, either as tablets (reference), oral solution, or intramuscular injection. Serum thiocolchicoside concentrations showed an absorption phase followed by a biexponential decay with a terminal half-life (t1/2 beta) of approximately 5 h, similar for the three formulations. The relative bioavailability of both oral formulations was approximately 25%, compared to the intramuscular formulation. There was a trend for the oral solution to have a slightly larger AUC and Cmax, as well as a slightly shorter Tmax, than the tablet formulation. However, the comparison of the two oral forms did not show statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, and AUC, suggesting that the Coltramyl tablets have an adequate in vivo dissolution profile.

  17. Oral Helicobacter pylori, its relationship to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori and saliva culture confirmation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X M; Yee, K C; Hazeki-Taylor, N; Li, J; Fu, H Y; Huang, M L; Zhang, G Y

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore the existence of oral Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), its relationship in the oral cavity to the success rate of eradication of the gastric H. pylori infection, and to determine if the mouthwash solution contained lysine (0.4%) and glycerol monolaurate (0.2%) (LGM) could eliminate oral H. pylori, as well as using the saliva H. pylori culture to confirm the existence of oral H. pylori. A total of 159 symptomatic individuals with stomach pain and 118 asymptomatic individuals with no stomach complaints, were recruited and tested using the saliva H. pylori antigen test (HPS), the H. pylori flagellin test (HPF), the urea breath test (UBT C(13)) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which tests were also confirmed by saliva culture. The test subjects also received various treatments. It was found that the H. pylori antigen exists in the oral cavity in UBT C(13) negative individuals. Traditional treatment for gastric eradication had only a 10.67 percent (10.67%) effectiveness rate on the oral H. pylori infection. In groups of patients with the oral H. pylori infection, but with negative UBT C(13), a mouthwash solution provided a 72.58% effectiveness rate in the 95% of the confidence interval (CI) ranges on the oral H. pylori infection. Traditional drug gastric eradication and teeth cleaning (TC) had less than a 10% effectiveness rate. Treatment of the oral infection increased the success rate of eradication of the stomach infection from 61.33% to 82.26% in the 95% CI ranges. We concluded that the successful rate of eradication of gastric H. pylori bears a significant relationship to the oral infection from H. pylori.

  18. [Oral medicine 8. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-01-01

    Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.

  19. Oral contraception following abortion

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0

  20. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  1. Oral contraceptives and cancer.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A

    1991-01-01

    Concerns over the safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) have led to numerous empirical studies of the relationship of OC use to normal pregnancy outcomes, pituitary effects, cardiovascular accidents, and cancer. The article reviews some of the results of studies on the effects of OC use on ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancer and on hepatic cancer and melanomas. Reference is made to direct study results rather than to reviews of studies, although it is noted that the critical reviews of Goldzieher and Realini reflect appropriate critiques of the validity of the methods employed in the analysis of cancers as well as cardiovascular risks. Concern is raised for meta-analysis of pooled data. In spite of the 30 years of research on OCs there is no definitive answer to the question of cause and effect. The epidemiological articles reviewed do not meet the standards of critical editorial review boards of experimental journals; confirmation of findings is also lacking. Studies suggesting increased risks as well as those showing positive benefits are questionable. The conclusion reached is that OCs protect against ovarian and uterine cancers and do not cause mammary, cervical, or liver cancer or melanoma. This conclusion is based on inconclusive data. The conclusion on hepatic cancer is that the 3 retrospective case control studies and anecdotal reports are flawed in design, and little confidence can be placed on such a limited number of cases. Malignant melanoma conclusions are that the data are inconsistent and hover around a risk of one for long-term OC-users. There is no increased risk related to OC-use. Ovarian cancer risk seems to be decreased in about 40% of OC-users. Endometrial cancer risk seems to be decreased, except for the sequential contraceptive Oracon which is associated with increased risk. Decreased risk is related to length of usage and continues after stoppage. Cervical carcinoma results appear to confirm the finding that prolonged OC use slightly

  2. Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herczegh, Anna; Gyurkovics, Milán; Agababyan, Hayk; Ghidán, Agoston; Lohinai, Zsolt

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), Listerine®, and high purity chlorine dioxide (Solumium, ClO2) on selected common oral pathogen microorganisms and on dental biofilm in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of oral antiseptics was compared to the gold standard phenol. We investigated Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Veillonella alcalescens, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans as some important representatives of the oral pathogens. Furthermore, we collected dental plaque from the upper first molars of healthy young students. Massive biofilm was formed in vitro and its reduction was measured after treating it with mouthrinses: CHX, Listerine® or hyper pure ClO2. Their biofilm disrupting effect was measured after dissolving the crystal violet stain from biofilm by photometer. The results have showed that hyper pure ClO2 solution is more effective than other currently used disinfectants in case of aerobic bacteria and Candida yeast. In case of anaerobes its efficiency is similar to CHX solution. The biofilm dissolving effect of hyper pure ClO2 is significantly stronger compared to CHX and Listerine® after 5 min treatment. In conclusion, hyper pure ClO2 has a potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and a powerful biofilm dissolving effect compared to the current antiseptics, therefore high purity ClO2 may be a new promising preventive and therapeutic adjuvant in home oral care and in dental or oral surgery practice.

  3. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  4. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-16

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions.

  5. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids.

  6. Headache and oral parafunctional behaviors.

    PubMed

    Glaros, Alan G; Hanson, Anne H; Ryen, Chris C

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that individuals with headaches would show significantly more oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls, be diagnosed with one or more temporomandibular disorders (TMD) significantly more frequently than controls, and would report significantly less pain and other symptoms of headache after participating in a habit reversal treatment to reduce oral parafunctional behaviors, compared to a wait list control. In Phase I, individuals with and without self-reported headaches were examined by a blinded examiner and participated in a week-long experience sampling protocol (ESM) to assess oral parafunctional behaviors, pain, and emotional states. In Phase II, those with headaches were randomly assigned to either a habit reversal treatment or to a wait list control group. In the last, sixth week of the program, participants again completed an ESM protocol. Results showed that headache patients were significantly more likely to report oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls and to receive a Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD diagnosis. Results from Phase II showed general improvement in both groups on pain and parafunctions. Individuals with headaches engage in significantly higher rates and intensities of oral parafunctional behaviors. Treatment of these behaviors using habit reversal techniques appears to have the same effect on pain as waiting.

  7. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions.

    PubMed

    González, Joaquín V; Gutiérrez, Rafael A; Keszler, Alicia; Colacino, Maria del Carmen; Alonio, Lidia V; Teyssie, Angelica R; Picconi, Maria Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.

  8. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Alsaedi, Wijdan; Alabdulmohsen, Waad; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fine, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the role of lactoferrin in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO−/−) mice were compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also determine the protective role of human lactoferrin in the LFKO−/− mice. Methods and Results Antibiotic treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0.3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO−/−I mice showed a 2 log (P=0.001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WTI mice. LFKO−/−I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P=0.001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO−/−I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy revealed that the tongue of the LFKO−/−I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO−/−I+hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO−/−I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO−/−I +hLF mice. Conclusions Human lactoferrin is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Significance and Impact of the Study Human lactoferrin, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral health care products against C. albicans. PMID:25319508

  9. Oral lichenoid tissue reactions: diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Khudhur, Ahmed Salih; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Carrozzo, Marco

    2014-03-01

    The concept of lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis was introduced in dermatology to define a number of diverse inflammatory skin diseases linked together by the presence of common histopathological features. Similarly to the skin, the oral mucosa is affected by a variety of oral lichenoid lesions. Oral LTRs (OLTRs) include: oral lichen planus; oral lichenoid contact lesion; oral lichenoid drug reaction; oral lichenoid lesions of graft-versus-host disease; oral discoid lupus erythematosus; oral lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus; erythema multiforme; paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome; chronic ulcerative stomatitis and lichen planus pemphigoid. Traditionally, diagnosis of OLTRs relies on clinical and histological correlation but in several instances this approach fails to provide a reliable diagnosis. Inclusion of molecular techniques may refine our ability to differentiate OLTRs.

  10. Recent advances in oral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Rebecca; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2014-01-01

    Oral vaccination is the most challenging vaccination method due to the administration route. However, oral vaccination has socio-economic benefits and provides the possibility of stimulating both humoral and cellular immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Despite the advantages of oral vaccination, only a limited number of oral vaccines are currently approved for human use. During the last decade, extensive research regarding antigen-based oral vaccination methods have improved immunogenicity and induced desired immunological outcomes. Nevertheless, several factors such as the harsh gastro-intestinal environment and oral tolerance impede the clinical application of oral delivery systems. To date, human clinical trials investigating the efficacy of these systems are still lacking. This review addresses the rationale and key biological and physicochemical aspects of oral vaccine design and highlights the use of yeast-derived β-glucan microparticles as an oral vaccine delivery platform. PMID:24553259

  11. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  12. Oral contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Shearman, R P

    1986-02-17

    The history of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been a progressive reduction in dosage to what is now probably the lowest does that is compatible with the desired therapeutic effect -- to inhibit ovluation. Yet, controversy and argument continue. A table lists the OCs that are available in Australia. Many of these preparations, although having different trade names, have an identical composition. Since the withdrawal of sequential OCs from the Australian market, there are only 2 generic types. These are the progestogen only (mini) OCs, which consist of either 30 mcg of levonorgestrel or 350 mcg of norethisterone given at the same time every day; and the combined OCs, which contain an estrogen and a progestogen. In the last 12 months, some of the older high-dose OCs have been withdrawn, and it seems likely that further withdrawals will follow. Only 2 estrogens are used in the formulation of the OC, but there is a greater variety of progestogens. Ethinyl estradiol is used in most preparations. A small minority of OCs contain mestranol, the 3-methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Currently, there are only 4 OC agents that are available in Australia that contain mestranol and 2 of these contain the high doses of 100 mcg. Fundamentally, there are 2 types of progestogens -- those that contain, or are metabolized to, norethisterone and those that contain norgestrel or its close relative, desogestrel. With the exception of the norgestrel group and desogestrel, all other progestins, including norethisterone itself, are effective in vivo after they have been metablized to norethisterone. Mestranol is effective in humans after demethylation to ethinyl estradiol. In the norgesterel group, since d-norgestrel is inert endocrinologically, 250 mcg of levonorgestrel and 500 mcg of dl-norgestrel are equivalent. Levonorgestrel and desogestrel are of approximately equal potency. With the combined OC agents, the overwhelming mechanism of action is by the inhibition of the

  13. Oral biopsy in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Mota-Ramírez, Amparo; Silvestre, Francisco Javier; Simó, Juan Manuel

    2007-11-01

    The conclusions drawn from the study of an oral biopsy are considered essential for the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the oral mucosa, and for the subsequent planning of appropriate treatment. Although the obtainment of biopsies is widely used in all medical fields, the practice is not so widespread in dental practice--fundamentally because of a lack of awareness of the procedure among dental professionals. In this context, it must be taken into account that the early diagnosis of invasive oral malignancy may be critical for improving the patient prognosis. However, in some cases the results are adversely affected by incorrect manipulation of the biopsy material. The present study provides an update on the different biopsy sampling techniques and their application. Such familiarization in turn will contribute to knowledge of the material and instruments required for correct biopsy performance in dentistry, as well as of the material required for correct sample storage and transport.

  14. Oral Desensitization for Food Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Land, Michael H.; Kim, Edwin H.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Over the past 20 years, food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem primarily in developed countries[1]. An explanation for this increased prevalence is currently under investigation as it is not well understood. Allergic reactions can result in life threatening anaphylaxis over a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a rescue therapy rather than a disease modifying treatment. In recent years, investigators have been studying allergen immunotherapy as a way to promote induction of oral tolerance. These efforts have shown some promise towards a viable disease modifying therapy for food allergies. This review will examine the mechanisms of oral tolerance and the breakdown that leads to food allergy, as well as the history and current state of oral and sublingual immunotherapy development. PMID:21530825

  15. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  16. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  17. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  18. Oral contraceptives and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

  19. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis.

  20. Oral microbiota and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima S

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that bacteria are the primary cause of infectious diseases, however, evidence is emerging that these organisms are also indirectly responsible for several diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The oral cavity is home to several million bacteria that can cause two major diseases-periodontitis and caries. The relationship between periodontopathic bacteria and systemic diseases has been explored for several years. The concept of the oral cavity as a source of distant infection has been debated for at least a century. This review will discuss the historic aspects of the development of the focal infection theory, the reasons for its demise, its re-emergence and current status.

  1. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  2. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  3. Authentic Progress Assessment of Oral Language: Oral Portfolios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Yuichi

    Student testing in Japan is not effectively used. In many cases test results are used only for ranking and sorting students into whatever the designated purposes of the tests are. They are not focused on monitoring individual student progress. This is an especially inadequate approach for teaching oral communications courses. This paper proposes a…

  4. Regression of oral hairy leukoplakia after orally administered acyclovir therapy.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L; Herbst, J S; Ablashi, D V; Atherton, S; Frank, B; Rosen, L; Horwitz, S N

    1988-01-15

    To define the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of oral hairy leukoplakia, 13 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men with clinical and histologic evidence of oral hairy leukoplakia were enrolled in an open-label trial of orally administered acyclovir therapy (3.2 g/d for 20 days). Of six patients who received therapy, five exhibited clinical regression. Once therapy was discontinued, recurrences occurred in all responders. Among seven patients who refused therapy, no spontaneous remissions occurred. Before therapy, EBV replication within the leukoplakia was demonstrated by immunofluorescence tissue staining or electron microscopy in five patients who were studied. Human papillomavirus was not detected by immunocytochemistry or electron microscopy from tissue specimens of six patients. After therapy, biopsy specimens from two patients with complete responses revealed a normalization of histologic abnormalities and an inability to detect EBV in previously involved mucosa by immunofluorescence or in situ DNA hybridization assays. It was concluded that EBV replication within the epithelial cells of the tongue is necessary for the development of oral hairy leukoplakia.

  5. Curriculum Guidelines for Postdoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and…

  6. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus

  7. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  8. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  9. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  10. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  11. Carmellose Mucoadhesive Oral Films Containing Vermiculite/Chlorhexidine Nanocomposites as Innovative Biomaterials for Treatment of Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Holešová, Sylva; Štembírek, Jan; Pazdziora, Erich; Landová, Hana; Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Infectious stomatitis represents the most common oral cavity ailments. Current therapy is insufficiently effective because of the short residence time of topical liquid or semisolid medical formulations. An innovative application form based on bioadhesive polymers featuring prolonged residence time on the oral mucosa may be a solution to this challenge. This formulation consists of a mucoadhesive oral film with incorporated nanocomposite biomaterial that is able to release the drug directly at the target area. This study describes the unique approach of preparing mucoadhesive oral films from carmellose with incorporating a nanotechnologically modified clay mineral intercalated with chlorhexidine. The multivariate data analysis was employed to evaluate the influence of the formulation and process variables on the properties of the medical preparation. This evaluation was complemented by testing the antimicrobial and antimycotic activity of prepared films with the aim of finding the most suitable composition for clinical application. Generally, the best results were obtained with sample containing 20 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate carried by vermiculite, with carmellose in the form of nonwoven textile in its structure. In addition to its promising physicomechanical, chemical, and mucoadhesive properties, the formulation inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus and Candida; the effect was prolonged for tens of hours. PMID:26064926

  12. Carmellose Mucoadhesive Oral Films Containing Vermiculite/Chlorhexidine Nanocomposites as Innovative Biomaterials for Treatment of Oral Infections.

    PubMed

    Gajdziok, Jan; Holešová, Sylva; Štembírek, Jan; Pazdziora, Erich; Landová, Hana; Doležel, Petr; Vetchý, David

    2015-01-01

    Infectious stomatitis represents the most common oral cavity ailments. Current therapy is insufficiently effective because of the short residence time of topical liquid or semisolid medical formulations. An innovative application form based on bioadhesive polymers featuring prolonged residence time on the oral mucosa may be a solution to this challenge. This formulation consists of a mucoadhesive oral film with incorporated nanocomposite biomaterial that is able to release the drug directly at the target area. This study describes the unique approach of preparing mucoadhesive oral films from carmellose with incorporating a nanotechnologically modified clay mineral intercalated with chlorhexidine. The multivariate data analysis was employed to evaluate the influence of the formulation and process variables on the properties of the medical preparation. This evaluation was complemented by testing the antimicrobial and antimycotic activity of prepared films with the aim of finding the most suitable composition for clinical application. Generally, the best results were obtained with sample containing 20 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate carried by vermiculite, with carmellose in the form of nonwoven textile in its structure. In addition to its promising physicomechanical, chemical, and mucoadhesive properties, the formulation inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus and Candida; the effect was prolonged for tens of hours.

  13. Oral History: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul G.

    Defining oral history as a method of inquiry by which the memories of individuals are elicited, preserved in interview transcripts or on tape recordings, and then used to enrich understanding of individuals' lives and the events in which they participated, this annotated bibliography provides a broad overview and a sampling of the resources…

  14. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination.

  15. Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

  16. Raman spectroscopy of oral bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Quivey, Robert G.

    2003-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been employed to measure the varying concentrations of two oral bacteria in simple mixtures. Evaporated droplets of centrifuged mixtures of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans were analyzed via Raman microspectroscopy. The concentration of s. sanguis was determined based upon the measured Raman spectrum, using partial least squares cross-validation, with an r2 value of 0.98.

  17. [Ecology of the oral biosystem].

    PubMed

    Huerta, J

    1990-01-01

    The present work is a Literature review about the Ecologycal Concepts that can be applied to the host-parasite relationship that generates in the oral cavity. These concepts let understand us, much of the phenomena presents in the mouth, that explain pathologies that affects organs and tissues of it, in its morphophysiological aspects.

  18. Parkinson's disease and oral care.

    PubMed

    Fiske, J; Hyland, K

    2000-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is a relatively common, progressive, neurological disorder. Its key features of resting tremor, bradykinesia, akinesia, restricted mobility and postural instability militate against independence for daily living, mobility, good nutrition and oral health. The successful management of the disease requires a multi-disciplinary approach in which the dietician, speech therapist, nurse and dental staff are pivotal members of the care team.

  19. Oral Hemorrhagic Blister: An Enigma

    PubMed Central

    Shashikumar, BM; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, MR

    2013-01-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. PMID:24082207

  20. Oral hemorrhagic blister: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Shashikumar, Bm; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, Mr

    2013-09-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.

  1. Orality, Literacy, and Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Eric A.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…

  2. Developing the Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, James L.

    The Oral Language Program developed by the Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is intended to disseminate and implement strategies and materials which will improve the teaching of language skills to preschool and primary children with little or no facility in English. The first version of the program, known as Mark I, did not include…

  3. The Oral Accentuation of Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. Sidney

    1967-01-01

    A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…

  4. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  5. The Monitoring of Oral Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Cedric J.

    1988-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the use of anticoagulants, describing the specific tests their use requires. These tests are usually performed in a specialized laboratory. The clinical implication of the laboratory's use of different prothrombin time systems is explained. Implications of the use of oral anticoagulants in family practice are discussed. PMID:21253057

  6. [Adherence to oral antineoplastic therapy].

    PubMed

    Olivera-Fernandez, R; Fernandez-Ribeiro, F; Piñeiro-Corrales, G; Crespo-Diz, C

    2014-11-03

    Introducción: Los tratamientos antineoplasicos orales presentan ventajas en cuanto a coste, comodidad y mejora potencial en la calidad de vida respecto al tratamiento endovenoso, pero es mas dificil controlar la adherencia y monitorizar los efectos adversos. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la adherencia real en pacientes con antineoplasicos orales en nuestro centro, analizar la influencia de las caracteristicas del paciente y del tratamiento, identificar motivos de no adherencia, oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica y evaluar la posible relacion adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Método: estudio prospectivo observacional de cuatro meses de duracion, en los pacientes con tratamiento antineoplasico oral dispensado desde la consulta de farmacia oncologica. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron: orden medica, historia clinica y visita con entrevistas al paciente. Resultados: Se evaluaron un total de 141 pacientes. Un 72% se considero totalmente adherente, mientras que en un 28% se detecto algun tipo de no adherencia. El tiempo desde el diagnostico y la presencia de efectos adversos fueron las variables que afectaron a la adherencia. No se pudo demostrar relacion entre adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Conclusiones: La adherencia al tratamiento antineoplasico oral en nuestro centro fue del 72%, identificando oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica dirigidas a prevenir los efectos adversos y a potenciar la adherencia de nuestros pacientes.

  7. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  8. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  9. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities.

  10. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Medications Quick-Relief Medications Oral Steroids Oral Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  11. Teaching the Cold War through Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the "historical detective work" of oral history helps students break free of their textbooks and become active collectors of information. Provides five recommendations, six teacher guidelines, and seven student guidelines for implementing oral history in the classroom. (CFR)

  12. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... facial and oral disfigurement following surgery and even death. More than 8,000 people die each year from oral and pharyngeal diseases. If you use tobacco, it is important to see a dentist frequently ...

  13. Diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Peter J; Shetty, Kishore V

    2011-02-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in both the immunocompetent and the immunocompromised populations. This article reviews the clinical presentations of the different forms of oral candidiasis, as well as the diagnosis and management.

  14. Accessibility to Literature through Oral Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jack R.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes a greater emphasis on the oral expression of literature in English classrooms and English teacher education curricula. Examines the three main oral problems encountered by students--persona, emphasis, and pace. (RL)

  15. Experimental studies on the toxicity of lithographic developer solution.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the toxicity of a lithographic developer solution which contains hydroquinone is caused by hydroquinone or the alkaline lithographic developer solution. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. In four groups, rats were dosed orally with 3% hydroquinone or 3% hydroquinone in 3% lithographic developer solution. Hydroquinone levels were measured after one and 24 hours. In two groups, rats were dosed orally with 6% hydroquinone or 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution. In the seventh group, rats received the alkaline solution only. Hydroquinone measurement was made using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hydroquinone was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and subsequently distributed throughout the body. Nearly all hydroquinone was excreted in the urine as either a glucuronide or a sulfate (78-82%) within 24 hours. All rats administered 6% hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle died, but the mortality rate of rats administered 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution was 60%. Tissue hydroquinone was lower at one hour and 24 hours after administration in lithographic developer solution than in equal dose of hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle suggesting decreased absorption in an alkaline pH. Hydroquinone was not associated with gross pathologic changes of the intestine but all animals treated with lithographic developer solution or alkaline solution had congestion, hemorrhagic petechiae and purple-brown discoloration throughout the small intestine. The combination of alkaline/formaldehyde diluent with hydroquinone may delay hydroquinone absorption but increase the risk of intestinal necrosis.

  16. Absorption of cyclosporine A after oral dosing.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J

    1986-12-01

    Variability in the absorption of CsA seems to contribute to the observed lack of correlation between the size of the oral dose and the trough concentration at steady state. Absorption is probably improved by thorough dispersion of the oral solution of CsA in the drink the patient prefers. Evidence for GI metabolism of CsA has only been gathered in animal experiments. The importance of bile for absorption of CsA into the portal blood is established. The bioavailability of CsA does not seem to be determined by the metabolism during the first passage through the liver. Enterohepatic recycling is likely for CsA metabolites and unlikely for unchanged CsA. A pharmacokinetic model that assumes zero-order absorption of CsA describes human data better than a model with first-order absorption. According to the zero-order model, CsA is absorbed only in the upper part of the small intestine by a mechanism that operates under saturation. Two independent findings in transplantation patients support this model. First, it was shown that small doses of CsA produce disproportionally high blood concentrations, probably due to a better bioavailability. Second, accelerated transit times in the intestine (diarrhea) lead to unexpectedly low blood concentrations, probably due to poor bioavailability. Further factors have been identified that cause low absorption of CsA: liver dysfunction and external bile drainage after liver transplantation. The influence of food on the absorption of CsA is still not determined conclusively, but it seems that giving CsA together with a standard breakfast results in higher blood concentrations. The observed increase in the bioavailability of CsA with time after transplantation could be caused by the attempt to steadily lower the dose.

  17. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  18. The Oral History Collection of Columbia University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Starr, Louis M., Ed.

    This book is a catalog of the contents of the oral history collection at Columbia University. Entries are listed alphabetically by the person or group making the oral history recordings. Each entry includes the subject's full name and vocation, brief notes on the content of the oral recording, and an indication of the accessibility of the…

  19. [President George Washington and his oral complaints].

    PubMed

    Eijkman, M A J

    2012-09-01

    George Washington, the first president of the United States of America, suffered for most of his life from continuous oral pain. Through letters, diaries, and other personal information from this president, much has become known concerning his oral problems and the level of oral healthcare in the United States in the mid and late 18th century.

  20. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property. Follow...

  1. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other..., emphasize, and/or clarify information related to an appeal. Oral presentations are to be conducted in...

  2. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or augment, written information. Use of oral presentations as a substitute for portions of a proposal can be...

  3. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals official shall be granted. The purpose of an oral presentation shall be to permit the appellant to...

  4. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  5. Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

  6. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...

  7. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...

  8. Oral Tradition and Civic Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Clement A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that oral literature, which is an aspect of the oral tradition, has functioned historically as a vital medium of moral and civic education in non-literate societies the world over. Through the ages, oral literature has performed this function by presenting its various genres as forms of entertainment…

  9. Objective evaluation of oral presentation skills using Inertial Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Zhang, Di; Cosentino, Sarah; Manawadu, Udara; Kawasaki, Motoji; Thomas, George Thuruthel; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tsumura, Ryosuke; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentation is considered as one of the most sought after skills by companies and professional organizations and program accreditation agencies. However, both learning process and evaluation of this skill are time demanding and complex tasks that need dedication and experience. Furthermore, the role of the instructor is fundamental during the presentation assessment. The instructor needs to consider several verbal and nonverbal communications cues sent in parallel and this kind of evaluation is often subjective. Even if there are oral presentation rubrics that try to standardize the evaluation, they are not an optimal solution because they do not provide the presenter a real-time feedback. In this paper, we describe a system for behavioral monitoring during presentations. We propose an ecological measurement system based on Inertial Measurement Units to evaluate objectively the presenter's posture through objective parameters. The system can be used to provide a real-time feedback to the presenters unobtrusively.

  10. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  11. Oral piercing and oral diseases: a short time retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).

  12. Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

  13. Examining the use of oral rehydration salts and other oral rehydration therapy for childhood diarrhea in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Blum, Lauren S; Oria, Prisca A; Olson, Christine K; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

    2011-12-01

    Reductions in the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the need to examine caregiver perceptions of ORT during diarrheal episodes. Qualitative research involving group discussions with childcare providers and in-depth interviews with 45 caregivers of children < 5 years of age who had experienced diarrhea was conducted in one rural and urban site in Kenya during July-December 2007. Diarrhea was considered a dangerous condition that can kill young children. Caregivers preferred to treat diarrhea with Western drugs believed to be more effective in stopping diarrhea than ORT. Inconsistent recommendations from health workers regarding use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) caused confusion about when ORS is appropriate and whether it requires a medical prescription. In the rural community, causal explanations about diarrhea, beliefs in herbal remedies, cost, and distance to health facilities presented additional barriers to ORS use. Health communication is needed to clarify the function of ORT in preventing dehydration.

  14. Examining the Use of Oral Rehydration Salts and Other Oral Rehydration Therapy for Childhood Diarrhea in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Lauren S.; Oria, Prisca A.; Olson, Christine K.; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2011-01-01

    Reductions in the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the need to examine caregiver perceptions of ORT during diarrheal episodes. Qualitative research involving group discussions with childcare providers and in-depth interviews with 45 caregivers of children < 5 years of age who had experienced diarrhea was conducted in one rural and urban site in Kenya during July–December 2007. Diarrhea was considered a dangerous condition that can kill young children. Caregivers preferred to treat diarrhea with Western drugs believed to be more effective in stopping diarrhea than ORT. Inconsistent recommendations from health workers regarding use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) caused confusion about when ORS is appropriate and whether it requires a medical prescription. In the rural community, causal explanations about diarrhea, beliefs in herbal remedies, cost, and distance to health facilities presented additional barriers to ORS use. Health communication is needed to clarify the function of ORT in preventing dehydration. PMID:22144457

  15. Expanding the Metchnikoff Postulate: Oral Health Is Crucial in a Successful Global Aging Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Illuzzi, Nicola; Galli, Romina; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Licciardello, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The mouth offers a unique opportunity for the physician and dental hygienist to evaluate and monitor a number of early nutritional-related diseases and vitamin deficiencies in still-healthy people. Increasing evidence suggests that periodontal disease might be associated with several systemic diseases (diabetes, immunosuppression, obesity, hormonal changes). Conversely, oral/periodontal disease might be the perpetuating factor or possibly the trigger of chronic illnesses via the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the sub-gingival biofilm and oral microbiome unbalance. Office-based microbiological and susceptibility genomic testing in the oral cavity (e.g., BACTOdent-DENTYgen, 4P-Genomics, Luxembourg) are expected to be widespread tools in a global approach for an age-management strategy connecting oral health and personalized solutions. PMID:24050262

  16. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  17. Oral Health in the District of Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Janice C.; Towe, Vivian; Donald, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research suggests that there are significant barriers to oral health care for many children in Washington, D.C. This article assesses the perspectives of Washington, D.C., stakeholders, including parents and providers, about the oral health of children, particularly those insured by Medicaid. The authors present qualitative data from focus groups with parents and providers, from an oral health forum with primary care medical and oral health clinicians and representatives from the D.C. government, and from a provider survey. The opinions captured here provide a snapshot of the challenges to improving access to oral care for D.C. children and suggest recommendations for doing so. PMID:28083291

  18. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    PubMed

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  19. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains.

  20. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion.

  1. Recent innovations in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

    2010-03-01

    Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone.

  2. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  3. Novel oral suspensions: a review.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Harsha; Phadke, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    An oral pharmaceutical suspension has been one of the most favorable dosage forms for pediatric and geriatric patients or patients unable to tolerate solid dosage forms. The liquid form is preferred because of the ease of swallowing and flexibility in the administration of doses. This emerging area of suspensions as applied to the pharmaceutical field are discussed in the current article enlightening the vision of the readers towards pharmaceutical formulations including nanosuspensions, non-aqueous suspensions and modified release suspensions. The emphasis in the article focuses on the essential principles involved in the process of formation of different types of suspensions and their applications, since novel oral suspensions have potential to provide various strategy systems.

  4. Orally-transmitted Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Filigheddu, Maria Teresa; Górgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José Manuel

    2017-02-09

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is most frequently associated with a vectorial transmission. However, in recent years we have observed a significant increase in the oral transmission of the disease, associated mainly with the consumption of drinks made from fruit or other vegetables contaminated with triatomine faeces or secretions from infected mammals. After a latency period of 3 to 22 days after ingestion, the oral infection is characterized by more severe manifestations than those associated with vectorial transmission: prolonged fever, acute myocarditis with heart failure and, in some cases, meningoencephalitis. Mortality can reach up to 33% of those infected. The aim of this paper is to review this matter and to promote prevention practices.

  5. Choosing the appropriate oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Langer, A; Devanesan, M; Pelosi, M A

    1978-06-01

    The estrogen and progestin in most oral contraceptives, regardless of amounts, can produce undesirable side effects in any woman. The convenience and effectiveness, however, make oral contraceptives an excellent birth control method for the correctly screened patient. The use of relatively small doses of estrogen combined with a progestin complementary to the estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic needs of the patient will reduce the risk of side effects. Above the 50 ug estrogen level there is significantly higher risk of pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, and cerebral thrombosis. Hypertension, depression and hepatic disorders are other potential side effects. Less serious complications are breakthrough bleeding, likely caused by low level estrogen dosage and amenorrhea. Progestogenic effects include sustained noncyclic weight gain and amenorrhea. Prescribing these agents necessitates adequate follow-up and willingness to alter the prescription.

  6. Psoriasis: pathophysiology and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Kaminski, M J; Pulitzer, D R; Hu, J; Thomas, H F

    1996-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, remitting and relapsing inflammatory skin disorder with a strong genetic predisposition. Psoriasis affects 1-3% of the world's population in their early lives representing a disabling condition with significant social and economic impact. Despite a great deal of research on the etiology and tissue destruction mechanisms, the disease is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to provide current information from the literature with a special focus on oral manifestations. The major signs and symptoms presented in the oral environment of a psoriasis patient may include geographic tongue, fissure tongue, gingival and/or mucosal lesions. Inflammatory temporomandibular joint lesions have been reported in less than 5% of psoriasis patients. Multiple treatment strategies, be they topical or systemic, have been applied to these patients for symptom relief but not for cure.

  7. Comparative analysis of different oral approaches to treat Vibrio cholerae infection in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Koley, Hemanta; Mitra, Soma; Saha, Dhira Rani; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have established an oral phage cocktail therapy in adult mice model and also performed a comparative analysis between phage cocktail, antibiotic and oral rehydration treatment for orally developed Vibrio cholerae infection. Four groups of mice were orally infected with Vibrio cholerae MAK 757 strain. Phage cocktail and antibiotic treated groups received 1×10(8) plaque forming unit/ml (once a daily) and 40mg/kg (once a daily) as an oral dose respectively for consecutive three days after bacterial infection. In case of oral rehydration group, the solution was supplied after bacterial infection mixed with the drinking water. To evaluate the better and safer approach of treatment, tissue and serum samples were collected. Here, phage cocktail treated mice reduced the log10 numbers of colony per gram by 3log10 (p<0.05); however, ciprofloxacin treated mice reduced the viable numbers up to 5log10 (p<0.05). Whereas, the oral rehydration solution application was not able to reduce the viable bacterial count but the disease progress was much more diminished (p>0.05). Besides, it was evident that antibiotic and phage cocktail treated group had a gradual decrease in both IL-6 and TNF-α level for 3 days (p<0.05) but the scenario was totally opposite in bacterial control and oral hydration treated group. Histological examinations also endorsed the phage cocktail and ciprofloxacin treatment in mice. Although, in this murine model of cholera ciprofloxacin was found to be a better antimicrobial agent, but from the safety and specificity point of view, a better method of application could fill the bridge and advances the phages as a valuable agent in treating Vibrio cholerae infection.

  8. Delivery systems and adjuvants for oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Ed C; O'Hagan, D T

    2006-11-01

    The oral route is the ideal means of delivering prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, offering significant advantages over systemic delivery. Most notably, oral delivery is associated with simple administration and improved safety. In addition, unlike systemic immunisation, oral delivery can induce mucosal immune responses. However, the oral route of vaccine delivery is the most difficult because of the numerous barriers posed by the gastrointestinal tract. To facilitate effective immunisation with peptide and protein vaccines, antigens must be protected, uptake enhanced and the innate immune response activated. Numerous delivery systems and adjuvants have been evaluated for oral vaccine delivery, including live vectors, inert particles and bacterial toxins. Although developments in oral vaccines have been disappointing so far, in terms of the generation of products, the availability of a range of novel delivery systems offers much greater hope for the future development of improved oral vaccines.

  9. Oral health considerations in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mawardi, Hani H; Al-Mohaya, Maha A; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-05-01

    Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have helped in prolonging the survival rate for cancer patients. However, the patients who undergo treatment for cancer are potentially at high-risk for developing a number of oral complications, including oral mucositis, infections, hyposalivation, dental caries, and jaw osteonecrosis. Cancer survivors may remain at life-long risk of developing oral complications, and therefore require long-term dental follow-up, well after completion of cancer therapy. Patients should typically undergo thorough oral examination prior to initiation of therapy, during and after therapy to identify any active infection. In addition, and in order to maintain adequate oral health throughout treatment, patients should continue normal oral hygiene with tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning. The aim of this review is to discuss potential oral complications as a result of cancer therapy, and the certain precautions we should be aware of these patients.

  10. Novel, orally effective cyanide antidotes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Herbert T; Goon, David J W; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Patterson, Steven E

    2007-12-27

    A series of prodrugs of 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), the substrate for the enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate/cyanide sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) that converts cyanide to the nontoxic thiocyanate, which are highly effective cyanide antidotes, have been developed. These prodrugs of 3-MP are unique in being not only orally bioavailable, but may be administered up to an hour prior to cyanide as a prophylactic agent and are both rapid- or slow-acting when given parenterally.

  11. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384

  12. 76 FR 73691 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: James C. Latham v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number DA-0353-10-0408-I-1; Ruby N. Turner v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number SF-0353-10... Service; MSPB Docket Number SF-0353-10-0329-I-1; Arleather Reaves v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB...

  13. Nitrous oxide and oral premedication.

    PubMed

    Giovannitti, J A

    1984-01-01

    Patients frequently require conscious-sedation to achieve anxiety relief in the dental office. There are specific indications, contraindications, advantages, and disadvantages to each sedation modality. Selection of the appropriate anesthetic technique should be individualized for each patient. This paper reviews two important conscious-sedation modalities: oral premedication and nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation.Pertinent drugs are reviewed and recommendations are made for their use; current researches are presented and new areas for investigation are suggested.

  14. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  15. Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

    2013-10-01

    To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis.

  16. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  17. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A; Almers, Lucy M; Cardwell, Chris R; Murray, Liam J; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-03-10

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder.

  18. Apoptosis in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R

    2001-10-01

    Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness.

  19. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A.; Almers, Lucy M.; Cardwell, Chris R.; Murray, Liam J.; Abnet, Christian C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder. PMID:28281559

  20. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms.

  1. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  2. Process Inquiry: Analysis of Oral Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trance, Naci John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents another effort in determining the difficulty of engineering students in terms of solving word problems. Students were presented with word problems in algebra. Then, they were asked to solve the word problems orally; that is, before they presented their written solutions, they were required to explain how they understood the…

  3. Developing and Integrating Courseware for Oral Presentations into ESP Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the development of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) multimedia courseware on oral presentations, and its integration into self-study learning and elective courses for students with different English proficiencies, as one solution to problems in ESP courses in Taiwan. The courseware design is based on Mayer's multimedia…

  4. Teaching Oral Presentation in the Business Communications Course: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles W.

    The teaching of public speaking and oral presentation is a challenge to many business communication instructors. One solution is an interdisciplinary approach involving the cooperation of the speech and business administration departments. In the first week of the quarter the business communications instructor has conferences with the students to…

  5. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  6. Acoustical, morphological and optical properties of oral rehydration salts (ORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Preetha Mary; Jayakumar, S.; Divya, P.; Subhashree, N. S.; Ahmed, M. Anees

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity were measured in different concentrations of oral rehydration salts (ORS) at room temperature 303 k. From the experimental data other related thermodynamic parameters, viz adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, acoustic impedence, relaxation time are calculated. The experimental data were discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the liquid mixtures. The results have been discussed in terms of solute-solvent interaction between the components. Structural characterization is important for development of new material. The morphology, structure and grain size of the samples are investigated by SEM. The optical properties of the sample have been studied using UV Visible spectroscopy.

  7. Acoustical, morphological and optical properties of oral rehydration salts (ORS)

    SciTech Connect

    George, Preetha Mary E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Divya, P.; Jayakumar, S. E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Subhashree, N. S.; Ahmed, M. Anees

    2015-06-24

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity were measured in different concentrations of oral rehydration salts (ORS) at room temperature 303 k. From the experimental data other related thermodynamic parameters, viz adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, acoustic impedence, relaxation time are calculated. The experimental data were discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the liquid mixtures. The results have been discussed in terms of solute-solvent interaction between the components. Structural characterization is important for development of new material. The morphology, structure and grain size of the samples are investigated by SEM. The optical properties of the sample have been studied using UV Visible spectroscopy.

  8. Rice solution and World Health Organization solution by gastric infusion for high stool output diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Mota-Hernández, F; Bross-Soriano, D; Pérez-Ricardez, M L; Velásquez-Jones, L

    1991-08-01

    We sought to determine the efficacy of three different types of treatment in children with acute diarrhea who, during the oral rehydration period, had high stool output (greater than 10 mL/kg per hour). Sixty-six children, aged 1 to 18 months, with an average stool output of 22.6 mL/kg per hour were randomly distributed into three groups: group 1 received a rice flour solution, group 2 received the World Health Organization rehydration solution by gastric infusion, and group 3 continued to receive this solution orally. In all three groups, a decrease in stool output was observed, with the higher decrease observed in group 1 patients. Such a decrease facilitated rehydration of all 22 patients in group 1 (100%) in 3.3 +/- 1.5 hours, 16 (73%) in group 2 in 4.3 +/- 2.1 hours, and 15 (69%) in group 3 in 4.9 +/- 2.0 hours. No complications were observed. These data indicate that the rice flour solution is effective in children with high stool output diarrhea.

  9. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  10. Tribocorrosion and oral and maxillofacial surgical devices.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Mathew T; Kerwell, Shelley; Lundberg, Hannah J; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mercuri, Louis G

    2014-05-01

    The release of metal ions or material particles, or both, into tissues that surround implanted medical or dental devices can create postimplantation complications. These rare but disturbing events are mainly caused by the mechanical movements of the components of the implant against each other, coupled with the influences of local biochemical and electrochemical factors. Mechanical movement of the components of implants against each other results in friction and wear, the study of which is called tribology. The tribology of an implanted device depends on the patient's activity and is affected by variables such as load, frequency, and the surface properties of the components of the implant that are in contact. Local biochemical and electrochemical factors include the ambient pH, and concentrations of protein and oxygen. The effect on local tissues and extracellular fluid can produce biochemical or electrochemical responses to the implant material in the surrounding solution, which is termed corrosion. The combined effect of these mechanical, biochemical, and electrochemical factors is known as tribocorrosion. In this paper we will provide a brief overview of the basic principles of tribocorrosion, and its current status and future perspectives, to create awareness and interest, and to inspire research into its effects on implantable devices in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The information garnered from such investigations, appropriately applied, will not only improve present devices but also will lead to the development of superior ones, ultimately improving care and outcomes for patients.

  11. The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446

  12. Shaping the oral mycobiota: interactions of opportunistic fungi with oral bacteria and the host.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2015-08-01

    The oral mycobiota is an important component of the oral microbiota that has only recently received increased attention. The diversity and complexity of the oral mycobiota in healthy humans is greater than any other body site. Dysbiotic imbalance of indigenous fungal communities in immunosuppressed hosts has been proposed to lead to oropharyngeal fungal infections. As in other body sites, to survive and thrive in the oral cavity fungi have to maintain mutually beneficial relationships with the resident bacterial microbiota and the host. Here we review our current understanding of the composition of the oral mycobiota and how it may be influenced by oral commensal bacteria and the host environment.

  13. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  14. Targeted therapy of oral hairy leukoplakia with gentian violet.

    PubMed

    Bhandarkar, Sulochana S; MacKelfresh, Jamie; Fried, Levi; Arbiser, Jack L

    2008-04-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a common oral manifestation of HIV infection. Clinically, these lesions appear as white plaques on the edges of the tongue. Pathophysiologically, these lesions occur because of infection of oral epithelium with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). No universally effective therapy exists for OHL. We have previously shown that EBV infection and EBV viral products induce the generation of reactive oxygen. We have also demonstrated that the Food and Drug Administration-approved over-the-counter medication gentian violet is a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen species. We thus chose to treat a patient with biopsy-proven OHL with topical gentian violet. Gentian violet solution was applied topically to the tongue of a patient with OHL. Complete clinical resolution was noted after three treatments. Treatment with topical gentian violet resulted in resolution of the lesions. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required. The application of gentian violet can be used as a method to OHL treatment. Gentian violet is an inexpensive and safe therapy and, given that it inhibits reactive oxygen, this old therapy is now a targeted novel therapy.

  15. Glutaminolysis and carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar; Grimm, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Glutaminolysis is a crucial factor for tumor metabolism in the carcinogenesis of several tumors but has not been clarified for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet. Expression of glutaminolysis-related solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5)/neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT2), glutaminase (GLS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS were significantly overexpressed in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue, while GLDH was weakly detected. Compared with SIN I-III SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS expression were significantly increased in OSCC. GLDH expression did not significantly differ from SIN I-III compared with OSCC. This study shows the first evidence of glutaminolysis-related SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS, and GLDH expression in OSCC. The very weak GLDH expression indicates that glutamine metabolism is rather related to nucleotide or protein/hexosamine biosynthesis or to the function as an antioxidant (glutathione) than to energy production or generation of lactate through entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overcoming glutaminolysis by targeting c-Myc oncogene (e.g. by natural compounds) and thereby cross-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS inhibitors may be a useful strategy to sensitize cancer cells to common OSCC cancer therapies.

  16. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  17. Impact of 30-Day Oral Dosing With N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine on Sprague-Dawley Rat Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated a protective effect associated with N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) against toxic chemical exposure. However, the...impact of long-term oral dosing on tssue pathology has not been determined. In this study, we assessed the impact of long-term oral NAC administration on...SD rats (10 male, 10 female), 8 weeks of age, were dosed daily by oral gavage with deionized H2O (negative controls) or NAC solution at a rate of 600

  18. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.

  19. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  20. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  1. Marathon Maternity Oral History Project

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing

  2. Oral epithelial hyperplasia in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Girtan, Mihaela; Zurac, Sabina; Stăniceanu, Florica; Bastian, Alexandra; Popp, Cristiana; Nichita, Luciana; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic systemic disorders with major influences of the oral cavity microenvironment. Oral manifestations of diabetes are diverse; they are represented by candidose, lichen plan, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, salivary disorders, oral mucosa atrophy and rarely hypertrophy; a possible link between oral cancer and diabetes is suspected, both in animal models and humans. We report a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes with class I Kennedy edentation with mobile denture prosthesis; latter in the clinical follow-up, a hyperplasic lesion of the oral mucosa with p53 expression within the epithelial nuclei was identified, p53 being the more likely pathogenic pathway involved in diabetes-related oral cancer. The approach of this patient required multidisciplinary investigations and careful follow-up.

  3. [Indicating analgesics in oral health care].

    PubMed

    Allard, R H B; Bruers, J M M; Baart, J A

    2012-01-01

    A representative survey amongst Dutch dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons showed that almost all of them indicated analgesics regularly. Thirty-five% of the dentists advised their patients in case of one or several tooth extractions to use analgesics. Forty-seven % of these dentists advised using the analgesics before the pain starts. After similar treatments, 89% of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons indicated analgesics and 73% advised taking the analgesic preventatively. Also in the case of other treatments oral and maxillofacial surgeons advised more often than dentists using analgesics preventatively. Dentists usually advised paracetamol and oral and maxillofacial surgeons a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Most dentists and all oral and maxillofacial surgeons thought that they had enough knowledge about the side-effects and interactions of analgesics. The majority of the dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons indicated that they would like to be updated on analgesia by post-graduate education occasionally

  4. Oral Health and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review oral health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and T2DM, oral health awareness is lacking among patients with diabetes and other health professionals. There is a need for the treating physician to be educated about the various oral manifestations of diabetes so that they can be diagnosed early and timely referrals to oral health specialists can be made. The established link between periodontitis and diabetes calls for an increased need to study ways to control both diseases, particularly among populations with health disparities and limited access to oral and health care. PMID:23531957

  5. [Infections of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Reibel, Jesper; Kragelund, Camilla

    2010-11-01

    The most common infections of the oral mucosa are those caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Candidosis occurs as pseudomembraneous, erythematous and hyperplastic types with varying symptoms from no to a burning sensation. Treatment most importantly includes elimination of any predisposing factors such as smoking, sub-optimal denture hygiene and hyposalivation. A primary HSV infection results in a life-long latent infection recurring in some infected persons either intraorally or on the lip. If treatment is indicated, topical or systemic aciclovir and related drugs can be used.

  6. Erectile dysfunction: oral pharmacotherapy options.

    PubMed

    Vitezic, D; Pelcic, J Mrsic

    2002-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) (impotence) is a widespread, age-related problem, which affects 52% of men between 40 and 70 years of age. It is classified as psychogenic, organic, or mixed psychogenic and organic. ED is not a problem only of men, because the relationship between partners can also be disturbed. Therefore, adequate treatment of ED is needed and the most convenient and simplest way is oral drug therapy. Sildenafil, phosphodiesterase-(PDE)-5-selective inhibitor has been the drug of choice for patients with ED since it has been launched in March 1998. The results of various studies have confirmed the efficacy of the drug in men with ED of various etiologies, as well as the positive effect of sildenafil on the quality of a partnership. The most frequent adverse effects documented with sildenafil usage are headache, flushes, dyspepsia, visual disturbances and nasal congestion/rhinitis. These adverse effects are dose-related, usually transient and mild, with low withdrawal rate. Several studies performed recently have shown that sildenafil is a safe and effective treatment of ED in patients with cardiovascular disease, who do not take nitrates or nitrate donors concomitantly. Other oral medications for ED include apomorphine, phentolamine, yohimbine, trazodone, testosterone and new PDE-5 inhibitors in Phase III clinical trials, such as vardenafil and tadalafil. It is obvious, according to recent data, that the concept of PDE-5 inhibition has a central position in oral pharmacotherapy of ED. However, larger clinical studies of efficacy and safety should be carried out using most of the other above-mentioned oral agents and these may also gain a place in the therapy of ED. There are no studies directly comparing sildenafil and other treatments of ED or assessing its role in combination with other therapies. According to the present knowledge, the quality of life, not only of patients but also of their sexual partners, will be improved significantly with

  7. [Mercilon - the optimal oral contraceptive].

    PubMed

    Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Kolarov, G; Novachkov, V; Ivanov, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the effect of the oral contraceptive Mercilon on menstrual cycle, contraceptive efficacy, lipid profile, safety profile and adverse effects in a group of 32 women, included in the survey. The results of the trial show excellent contraceptive effect with Pearl Index of 0.00 and good control over the menstrual cycle. No negative or unfavorable effects were seen on the lipid profile as well as on the liver kidney and coangulant system function. Minor side effects were seen in only 5% of the patients.

  8. Planar microdevices for enhanced in vivo retention and oral bioavailability of poorly permeable drugs.

    PubMed

    Chirra, Hariharasudhan D; Shao, Ling; Ciaccio, Natalie; Fox, Cade B; Wade, Jennifer M; Ma, Averil; Desai, Tejal A

    2014-10-01

    The development of novel oral drug delivery platforms for administering therapeutics in a safe and effective manner through the harsh gastrointestinal environment is of great importance. Here, the use of engineered thin planar poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevices is tested to enhance oral bioavailability of acyclovir, a poorly permeable drug. Acyclovir is loaded into the unidirectional drug releasing microdevice reservoirs using a drug entrapping photocross-linkable hydrogel matrix. An increase in acyclovir permeation across in vitro caco-2 monolayer is seen in the presence of microdevices as compared with acyclovir-entrapped hydrogels or free acyclovir solution. Cell proliferation studies show that microdevices are relatively nontoxic in nature for use in in vivo studies. Enhanced in vivo retention of microdevices is observed as their thin side walls experience minimal peristaltic shear stress as compared with spherical microparticles. Unidirectional acyclovir release and enhanced retention of microdevices achieve a 4.5-fold increase in bioavailability in vivo as compared with an oral gavage of acyclovir solution with the same drug mass. The enhanced oral bioavailability results suggest that thin, planar, bioadhesive, and unidirectional drug releasing microdevices will significantly improve the systemic and localized delivery of a broad range of oral therapeutics in the near future.

  9. [Desirable way for oral biomaterial research].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keiichi

    2007-07-01

    This review article is based on the ingredients of my lecture titled "Desirable way for oral biomaterial research in the JPS - considering Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Summer School 2006" at the JPS Advanced Seminar which was held with the general assembly meeting at March 4, 2007. How we explore the desirable way for oral biomaterial research in Japan was discussed with referral of the contents and discussion in the summer school.

  10. Oral benign fibrous histiocytoma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported. PMID:20066060

  11. Periodontics and Oral-Systeric Relationships: Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Glascoe, Alison; Brown, Ronald; Robinson, Grace; Hailu, Kassahun

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity is a part of the body. The health of the oral cavity affects the health of the entire body. This relationship is reciprocal, as the overall health of an individual will also affect the health of that individual's oral cavity. Periodontal disease is a common, chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. It has been proposed that periodontal disease is a risk factor for systemic diseases such as diabetes.

  12. Oral health problems in elderly rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Andersson, P; Hallberg, I R; Lorefält, B; Unosson, M; Renvert, S

    2004-05-01

    A combination of poor oral hygiene and dry mouth may be hazardous to the oral health status. However, systematic assessments in order to detect oral health problems are seldom performed in the nursing care of the elderly. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of oral health problems measured using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG) and to analyse associations between oral health problems and age, gender, living conditions, cohabitation, reason for admission, number of drugs, and functional and nutritional status. One registered nurse performed oral health assessments using ROAG in 161 newly admitted elderly patients in rehabilitation care. Oral health problems were found in 71% of the patients. Thirty per cent of these patients had between four and eight problems. Low saliva flow and problems related to lips were the most frequent oral health problems. Problems in oral health status were significantly associated with presence of respiratory diseases (problems with gums, lips, alterations on the tongue and mucous membranes), living in special accommodation (low saliva flow, problems with teeth/dentures and alterations on the tongue), being undernourished (alterations on the tongue and low saliva flow) and being a woman (low saliva flow). The highest Odds ratio (OR) was found in problems with gums in relation with prevalence of respiratory diseases (OR 8.9; confidence interval (CI) 2.8-27.8; P < 0.0005). This study indicates the importance of standardised oral health assessments in order to detect oral health problems which can otherwise be hidden when the patients are admitted to the hospital ward.

  13. Effect of Lactoferrin on Oral Biofilm Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    dental implant failures, denture stomatitis and oral yeast infections such as candidiasis. It is one of the most widely studied biofilm systems, yet...and free-floating forms. In the oral cavity, microbial biofilms including dental plaque, are involved in the pathogenesis of caries, periodontitis...award. B.1. Previously Approved Statement of Work Title: "Effect of Lactoferrin on Oral Biofilm Formation" Background: Dental emergencies

  14. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.

  15. Use of Lugol's iodine in oral cancer diagnosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Massimo; Lucchese, Alberta; Baldoni, Edoardo; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Serpico, Rosario

    2010-11-01

    Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) still represents an important challenge for clinicians and patients. Vital staining such as toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine solution, are routinely used in the OSCC detection but few data exist about the last one. A literature review is made to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Lugol's iodine solution in OSCC detection and in its margins demarcation. A review was made of the studies published between 1990 and 2010 in relation to the application of Lugol's iodine for OSCC detection and a better definition of its margins. Data obtained point to the utility and the safety of Lugol's iodine when employed for detection and margins delineation of OSCC and dysplasia. All the studies consulted found the Lugol's iodine to be effective, cheap and easy to use and they emphasized its importance in clinical practice. There is need for larger controlled, randomized studies with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures and patients.

  16. Strategies to Overcome Heparins’ Low Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Ana Rita; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena

    2016-01-01

    Even after a century, heparin is still the most effective anticoagulant available with few side effects. The poor oral absorption of heparins triggered the search for strategies to achieve oral bioavailability since this route has evident advantages over parenteral administration. Several approaches emerged, such as conjugation of heparins with bile acids and lipids, formulation with penetration enhancers, and encapsulation of heparins in micro and nanoparticles. Some of these strategies appear to have potential as good delivery systems to overcome heparin’s low oral bioavailability. Nevertheless, none have reached the market yet. Overall, this review aims to provide insights regarding the oral bioavailability of heparin. PMID:27367704

  17. Update on oral herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

    2014-04-01

    Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs.

  18. Hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Zac C; Schofield, Christopher; Prinsloo, Peter J J; Sturrock, Nigel D C

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcaemia due to hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy is a relatively common occurrence. Standard treatment is with oral calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy; lack of response to oral therapy is rare. Herein we describe a case of hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy in a patient with a complex medical history. We consider the potential causes in the context of calcium metabolism including: poor adherence, hungry bone syndrome, malabsorption, vitamin D resistance, bisphosphonate use and functional hypoparathyroidism secondary to magnesium deficiency. Malabsorption due to intestinal hurry was likely to be a contributory factor in this case and very large doses of oral therapy were required to avoid symptomatic hypocalcaemia.

  19. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  20. Inhibition of adriamycin-induced nephropathy in rats by herbs based kangshenoral solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingsheng; Lin, Xinwei; Xiao, Xueqing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong; Yi, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhengchen; Zhang, Xinkuan

    2015-01-01

    The Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the progressive loss in renal function over a period. The progression of CKD will finally result the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Symptoms which needs permanent renal replacement therapies. Therefore, control the progression of CKD is necessary. In this study, based on the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Traditional Chinese Herbology, we developed the Kangshen Oral Solution based ona combination of different herbs for extraction. By utilizing adriamycin (ARD)-induced chronic renal failure in rats as the CKD model, our results demonstrated thatadministration of the Kangshen Oral Solution reduced the kidney disease induced weight loss in rats. The Kangshen Oral Solution could also relieve the proteinuria and kidney index induced by ARD which indicated the partially restoration of the kidney function. The improved kidney function was further supported by biochemical tests for blood total protein level, albumin level as well as cholesterol, triglycerides and Creatinine. Moreover, the histology examination also confirmed the ARD induced pathological changes in kidney was relieved by Kangshen Oral Solution. Taken together, these findings suggested Kangshen Oral solution could reduce ARD-induced nephropathy in rats model and may be employed as an alternative treatment for CKD patients. PMID:26885229