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Sample records for orange peel extract

  1. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  2. Cellulose extraction from orange peel using sulfite digestion reagents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2011-11-01

    Orange peel (OP) was used as raw material for cellulose extraction. Two different pulping reagents were used, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite. The effect of the main process parameters, sulfite agent dosage and reaction duration, on cellulose yield was investigated. A central composite rotatable design involving two variables at five levels and response surface methodology were used for the optimization of cellulose recovery. Other two invariable parameters were reaction temperature and hydromodulus. The optimum yields, referred to the weight of double extracted OP, were 40.4% and 45.2% for sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite digestions, respectively. The crude celluloses were bleached with hypochlorite and oxygen. The physicochemical characterization data of these cellulose materials indicate good levels of purity, low crystallinities, good whitenesses, good water retention and moderate molecular weights. According to these specific properties the recovered celluloses could be used as fillers, water absorbents, or as raw materials for cellulose derivatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  4. [A preliminary study on bioactivity of orange and tangerine peel extracts against aphis and mites].

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Ding, Z; Yang, L; Xu, L; Zhang, G; Li, K

    1995-07-01

    An assay was made on the bioactivity of the extracts of tangerine peel from Cinocitrus tangerina, orange peel from Citrus sinensis and mixed tangerine peel from Cinocitrus sp. against aphis Semia phis heraclei, Aphis craccivora, Uroleucon gobonis and Myzus persicae using residual film or topical method, and against mites Tetranychus viennensis and T. trancatus using slide-dip or immersion method. Test results show that these extracts have strong bioactivity against aphids and mites. The corrected mortality regression equations and LC50 (or LD50) of these extracts to pests are presented.

  5. Reusable nanobiocatalysts for the efficient extraction of pigments from orange peel.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Pramila; Ratrey, Poonam; Datta, Bhaskar

    2016-07-01

    Nagpur mandarin orange ( Citrus reticulata ) peels were subjected to treatment with nanobiocatalysts in the form of cellulase and pectinase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs (Fe 3 O 4 ) with average diameter in range of 40-90 nm were immobilized with cellulase and pectinase through APTES and glutaraldehyde. Treatment followed by extraction into organic solvents resulted in 8-9 fold increase in extraction of carotenoidic pigments compared to use of free enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature for the process were determined to be 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The nanobiocatalysts could be reused across three cycles with only 15 % drop in yield per cycle. Dinitrosalicylic acid assays showed that superior peel hydrolysis also led to greatest extent of pigment extraction.

  6. High voltage electrical discharges combined with enzymatic hydrolysis for extraction of polyphenols and fermentable sugars from orange peels.

    PubMed

    El Kantar, Sally; Boussetta, Nadia; Rajha, Hiba N; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2018-05-01

    Orange peels are a biomass rich in carbohydrates and polyphenols and characterized by their low lignin content. This work focuses on finding the best combination between physical and biological treatments to enhance the extraction of fermentable sugars and polyphenols. High voltage electrical discharges (HVED) (0 to 900 kJ/kg) or enzymatic hydrolysis with Viscozyme® L (12 FBGU/g) were applied on fresh or defatted orange peels for the extraction of polyphenols and fermentable sugars. An HVED energy input of 222 kJ/kg was optimal for the extraction of reducing sugars (19 g/100 g DM) and polyphenols (0.7 g/100 g DM). However, enzymatic hydrolysis allowed a higher extraction of reducing sugars (50 g/100 g DM). HVED were then applied prior or simultaneously to enzymatic hydrolysis to maximize the extraction of biomolecules from orange peels. Thus, the results clearly showed that the HVED pretreatment of orange peels is efficient to enhance the accessibility of cellulosic biomass to enzymes. HVED (222 kJ/kg) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis (12 FBGU/g), was the most effective combination of these two processes to get an intensive extraction of biomolecules from orange peels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Orange Flesh and Peel Extracted with Various Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hee; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of orange (Citrus auranthium) flesh (OF) and peel (OP) extracted with acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Antioxidant potential was examined by measuring total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA), total radical-trapping anti-oxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). The comet assay was used to determine the protective effects of OF and OP against H2O2-induced DNA damage. TPC was highest in the acetone extracts of OF and OP. DPPH RSA was also higher in the acetone extracts than in the ethanol extracts. The DPPH RSA was highest in the acetone extracts of OF. The TRAP and ORAC values of the all extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the TRAP assay, the acetone extracts of OF and OP had the lowest IC50 values. In the CAA assay, the methanol and acetone extracts of OP had the lowest IC50 values. All of the samples protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes, as measured by the comet assay, but the acetone extracts of OP had the strongest effect. These results suggest that acetone is the best solvent for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from OF and OP. Furthermore, the high antioxidant activity of OP, which is a by-product of orange processing, suggests that it can be used in nutraceutical and functional foods. PMID:25580393

  8. Kinetics of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from Balinese orange peel using Pseudo-homogeneous model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megawati, Wulansarie, Ria; Faiz, Merisa Bestari; Adi, Susatyo; Sammadikun, Waliyuddin

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the homogeneous kinetics of pectin extraction of Balinese orange peel conducted using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE). The experimental data showed that the power increases (180 to 600 W), so that the extraction yield of pectin also increases (12.2 to 30.6 % w/w). Moreover, the extraction time is longer (10, 15, and 20 min) the yield of pectin increases (8.8, 20.2, and 40.5). At time after of 20 min (25 and 30 min), the yield starts to decrease (36.6 and 22.9). This phenomena shows pectin degradation. Therefore, pectin extraction is a series reaction, i.e. extraction and degradation. The calculation result showed that pseudo series homogeneous model can quantitatively describe the extraction kinetics. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors of 1.58 × 105 and 2.29 × 105 1/min, while the activation energies are 64,350 and 56,571 J/mole for extraction and degradation, respectively.

  9. A polymethoxyflavone mixture, extracted from orange peels, suppresses the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Norihiro; Fujii, Takahiro; Hashizume, Ron; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B is the main cause of skin photoageing, which has characteristic features such as deep wrinkles. UVB increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the skin and can cause wrinkles by disrupting components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen fibres. We now report that a polymethoxyflavone (PMF) mixture, extracted from orange peels, suppresses the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1 that involves the inhibition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Furthermore, the PMF mixture also inhibits the UVB-induced phosphorylation of JNK. Therefore, the results suggest that the PMF mixture suppresses the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1 through the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation and should be useful as an antiphotoageing agent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Effect of Characteristic Variable Extraction on Accuracy of Cu in Navel Orange Peel by LIBS].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-bing; Yao, Ming-yin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Tian-bing; Zheng, Jian-hong; Fan, Shi-quan; Liu Mu-hua HE, Mu-hua; Lin, Jin-long; Ouyang, Jing-yi

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals pollution in foodstuffs is more and more serious. It is impossible to satisfy the modern agricultural development by conventional chemical analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technology with the characteristic of rapid and nondestructive detection. But LIBS' s repeatability, sensitivity and accuracy has much room to improve. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange which is the Jiangxi specialty fruit will be predicted by LIBS. Firstly, the navel orange samples were contaminated in our lab. The spectra of samples were collected by irradiating the peel by optimized LIBS parameters. The laser energy was set as 20 mJ, delay time of Spectral Data Gathering was set as 1.2 micros, the integration time of Spectral data gathering was set as 2 ms. The real concentration in samples was obtained by AAS (atom absorption spectroscopy). The characteristic variables Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 were extracted. And the calibration model was constructed between LIBS spectra and real concentration about Cu. The results show that relative error of the predicted concentrations of three relational model were 7.01% or less, reached a minimum of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.02% respectively. The average relative errors were 2.33%, 3.10% and 26.3%. Tests showed that different characteristic variables decided different accuracy. It is very important to choose suitable characteristic variable. At the same time, this work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel.

  11. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sour orange peel and its preliminary physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Saeid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Sour orange peel, a by-product of the fruit juice industry, was used as a source of pectin. The effects of temperature (75-95°C), time (30-90 min), and liquid-solid ratio (20-40, v/w) were investigated on yield, methoxylation degree (DE), and galacturonic acid content using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The highest extraction yield (17.95 ± 0.3%) was obtained at temperature of 95°C, time of 90 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 25 (v/w). The DE values for the pectin ranged from 17% to 30.5%, indicating that the pectin was low in methoxyle. The emulsifying activity of pectin extracted under optimal conditions was 45%. The emulsions were 86.6% stable at 4°C and 71.4% at 23°C after 30 days of storage. The pectin exhibited Newtonian flow at low concentrations (≤ 1.0%, w/v); as the concentration increased, pseudoplastic flow became dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Navel orange peel hydroethanolic extract, naringin and naringenin have anti-diabetic potentials in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama M; Hassan, Mohamed A; Abdel-Twab, Sanaa M; Abdel Azeem, Manal N

    2017-10-01

    The therapy of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) stays a challenging issue. During the last decade, there has been an interest in the expansion of anti-diabetic drugs especially those of natural sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the anti-hyperglycemic and the anti-hyperlipidemic effects as well as the anti-oxidant activities of navel orange hydroethanolic extract and its constituting flavonoids naringin and naringenin on nicotineamide (NA)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. To induce T2DM, 16h-fasted rats were intraperitoneally injected with STZ at dose of 50mg/kg body weight (b. w.), 15min after the intraperitoneal administration of NA (120mg/kg b. w.). The NA/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats were orally treated with navel orange peel hydroethanolic extract, naringin and narengenin at dose level of 100mg/kg b. w./day for 4 weeks. The treatments with navel orange peel hydroethanolic extract, naringin and narengenin potentially alleviated the lowered serum insulin and C-peptide levels, the depleted liver glycogen content, the elevated liver glucose-6-phosphatase and glycogen phosphorylase activities, the deteriorated serum lipid profile, and the suppressed liver antioxidant defense system of NA/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. The treatments also enhanced the mRNA expression of insulin receptor β-subunit, GLUT4 and adiponectin in adipose tissue of STZ/NA-induced type 2 diabetic rats. In conclusion, the navel orange peel hydroethanolic extract, naringin and naringenin have potent anti-diabetic effects in NA/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats via their insulinotropic effects and insulin improving action which in turn may be mediated through enhancing insulin receptor, GLUT4 and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase from orange peel.

    PubMed

    Malterud, K E; Rydland, K M

    2000-11-01

    A series of polymethoxylated flavonoids has been isolated from orange peel, and their inhibitory activity toward soybean 15-lipoxygenase was determined. The strongest inhibition was shown by 3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (IC(50) = 49 +/- 5 microM). Sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, tetramethylscutellarein, and 3,5, 6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone were somewhat less active, with IC(50) values of 70-86 microM, comparable to the positive control quercetin (IC(50) = 68 +/- 5 microM). Demethylation apparently results in less active compounds, with 5-O-demethylsinensetin having an IC(50) value of 144 +/- 10 microM. Some other orange peel constituents were isolated and tested as well, hesperidin (IC(50) = 180 +/- 10 microM) and ferulic acid (111 +/- 2 microM), showing moderate activity. The polymethoxylated flavonoids were virtually inactive as scavengers of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. Hesperidin was only slightly active (24.2 +/- 0.7% scavenged at a concentration of 2 mM), and ferulic acid showed good activity (IC(50) = 86.4 +/- 0.7 microM). From this, it appears that orange peel constituents may counteract enzymatic lipid peroxidation processes catalyzed by 15-lipoxygenase in vitro. The radical scavenging activity of orange peel extracts is only modest.

  14. Use of orange peel extract for mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris: increased production of biomass and FAMEs.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Moon, Myounghoon; Kwak, Min-Su; Jeon, Seungjib; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-11-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae is necessary to achieve economically feasible production of microalgal biodiesel, but the high cost of nutrients is a major limitation. In this study, orange peel extract (OPE) was used as an inorganic and organic nutrient source for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris OW-01. Chemical composition analysis of the OPE indicated that it contains sufficient nutrients for mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris OW-01. Analysis of biomass and FAME production showed that microalgae grown in OPE medium produced 3.4-times more biomass and 4.5-times more fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) than cells cultured in glucose-supplemented BG 11 medium (BG-G). These results suggest that growth of microalgae in an OPE-supplemented medium increases lipid production and that OPE has potential for use in the mass cultivation of microalgae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Novel Orange Peel Extract and It's Fractions on Leukemia HL-60 Cells.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Shafik, Reham Ezzat; Yasuda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, novel orange peel was extracted with 100%EtOH (ethanol) and fractionated into four fractions namely F1, F2, F3, F4 which were eluted from paper chromatographs using 100%EtOH, 80%EtOH, 50%EtOH and pure water respectively. The crude extract and its four fractions were evaluated for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and radical scavenging activity using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Their cytotoxic activity using WST assay and DNA damage by agarose gel electrophoresis were also evaluated in a human leukemia HL-60 cell line. The findings revealed that F4 had the highest TPC followed by crude extract, F2, F3 and F1. However, the crude extract had the highest TFC followed by F4, F3, F2, and F1. Depending on the values of EC50 and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, F4 possessed the strongest antioxidant activity while F1 and F2 displayed weak antioxidant activity. Further, incubation HL-60 cells with extract/fractions for 24h caused an inhibition of cell viability in a concentration- dependent manner. F3 and F4 exhibited a high antiproliferative activity with a narrow range of IC50 values (45.9 - 48.9 μg/ml). Crude extract exhibited the weakest antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 314.89 μg/ml. Analysis of DNA fragmentation displayed DNA degradation in the form of a smear-type pattern upon agarose gel after incubation of HL-60 cells with F3 and F4 for 6 h. Overall, F3 and F4 appear to be good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and potential anticancer activities.

  17. Larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of Citrus sinensis orange peel extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subrmaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present study explored the effects of orange peel ethanol extract of Citrus sinensis on larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The orange peel material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From orange peel, 300 g powdered was macerated with 1 L of ethanol sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yields of the orange peel ethanol crude extract of C. sinensis 13.86 g, respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4 °C. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. For C. sinensis, the median lethal concentration values (LC(50)) observed for the larvicidal and pupicidal activities against mosquito vector species A. stephensi first to fourth larval instars and pupae were 182.24, 227.93, 291.69, 398.00 and 490.84 ppm; A. aegypti values were 92.27, 106.60, 204.87, 264.26, 342.45, 436.93 and 497.41 ppm; and C. quinquefasciatus values were 244.70, 324.04, 385.32, 452.78 and 530.97 ppm, respectively. The results of maximum repellent activity were observed at 450 ppm in ethanol extracts of C. sinensis and the mean complete protection time ranged from 150 to 180 min was tested. The ethanol extract of C. sinensis showed 100% repellency in 150 min and showed complete protection in 90 min at 350 ppm against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The adult mortality was found in ethanol extract of C. sinensis with the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 272.19 and 457.14 ppm, A. stephensi; 289.62 and

  18. Biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceumL.) peel extract and their photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnan, Thenmozhi; Selvakumar, Stanly Arul Samuel

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, describes the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceumL.) peel extract via bio synthesis method and developed a new low cost technology to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. During the synthesis, fruit peel extract act as a natural ligation agent. The successfully prepared product was analyzed with some standard characterization studies like X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS Diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High resolution transmittance electron microscope (HR-TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under UV light and the result depicts around 83.99% decolorisation efficiency at 120 min of illumination. In addition with photodecolorisation, mineralization was also achieved. The mineralization has been confirmed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values.

  19. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves (Hyptis suaveolens) and orange peel (Citrus sinensis) oil extract on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Amusan, A A S; Idowu, A B; Arowolo, F S

    2005-09-01

    The ethanolic extracts of the orange peel (Citrus sinensis) and bush tea leaves (Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Eight graded concentrations, 0.9ppm, 0.8ppm, 0.7ppm, 0.6ppm, 0.5ppm, 0.4ppm, 0.3ppm and 0.2ppm of both plant extracts were tested on the larvae. The mean lethal dose LD10, was 0.15 ppm for C. sinensis, 0.01 for H. suaveolens, while LD50 for C. sinensis was 0.4ppm, H. suaveolens 0.60ppm and LD90 for C. sinensis was 0.9ppm and H. suaveolens was 1.45ppm. LD10 for the control 0.65ppm, LD50 0.9ppm and LD90 2.0 ppm. The extract of C. sinensis peel caused higher mortality rate at concentrations 0.8ppm (95%) and 0.3ppm (90%) of the larvae while the extract of H. suaveolens caused high mortality rate on the larvae at concentrations of 0.9ppm (80%) and 0.3ppm (80%). Significant differences were observed between untreated and treated larvae (exposed to either of the extract) at the various concentrations (P< 0.05).

  20. Biogenic synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract and its effect on magnetic and Methyl orange dye degradation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Cheera; Yuvaraja, Gutha; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri

    2017-02-01

    We have been developed facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using an aqueous extract of Pisum sativum peels (PS) is used as reducing and capping agent. The as synthesized PS-Fe3O4 MNPs are characterized by diverse techniques such as FTIR, powder XRD, TEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the obtained Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibits high specific surface area (∼17.6 m2/g) and agglomerated spherical in shape with the size range of 20-30 nm. The magnetic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs sample clearly exhibits ferromagnetic nature with a saturation magnetization of 64.2 emu/g. Further, the catalytic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs for degradation of Methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution have been investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The results show that PS-Fe3O4 MNPs is an efficient catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye than previously reported ones.

  1. Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2008-04-09

    The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation.

  2. Regiospecific Ester Hydrolysis by Orange Peel Esterase - An Undergraduate Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Lewin, Andrew M.; Catlin, Eric R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple but effective experiment has been developed to demonstrate the regiospecificity of enzyme catalysis using an esterase activity easily isolated from orange peel. The experiment involves the preparation of diester derivatives of para-, meta- and ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (e.g. methyl 4-acetoxy-benzoic acid). The derivatives are incubated with orange peel esterase, as a crude extract, and with commercially available pig liver esterase and porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic hydrolysis reactions are monitored by thin layer chromatography, revealing which of the two ester groups is hydrolysed, and the rate of the enzyme-catalysed reaction. The results of a group experiment revealed that in all cases hydrolysis was observed with at least one enzyme, and in most cases the enzymatic hydrolysis was specific for production of either the hydroxy-ester or acyl-acid product. Specificity towards the ortho-substituted series was markedly different to that of the para-substituted series, which could be rationalised in the case of pig liver esterase by a published active site model.

  3. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.

  4. The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

  5. Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: a new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.

    PubMed

    Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

    2015-05-01

    In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mgGA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    PubMed Central

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  8. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  9. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jabri karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23841062

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

    2015-02-01

    The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Protective effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel aqueous extract and hesperidin on oxidative stress and peptic ulcer induced by alcohol in rat.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Grami, Dhekra; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2017-08-14

    Massive alcohol drinking can lead to gastric ulcer. In the present study we investigated the gastroprotective effect of Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and Hesperidin (H) in ethanol (EtOH) induced oxidative stress and peptic ulcer in rats. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 each: control, EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH + various doses of CSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), EtOH + Hesperidin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and EtOH + Omeprazole (OM, 20 mg/kg, p.o.). Animals were perorally (p.o.) pre-treated with CSPE during 15 days and intoxicated with a single oral administration of EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.) during 2 h. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats with a single dose of ethanol (EtOH). Ulcer index, gene expression of gastric cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), malondialdhyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and Thiol groups (-SH) content in stomach and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and gluthation peroxidise (GPx) were measured. Furthermore, histopathological examinations were performed. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving oxidative stress markers level such as MDA (121 ± 4.45 nmol/mg proteins) and H 2 O 2 (24.62 ± 1.04 μmol/mg proteins), increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α level), as well as the expression of COX-2 in the ethanol group. However, a significant depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed, such as, GPx (72%), SOD (57.5%), CAT (41.6%) and -SH (50%). The lesions were associated with severe histopathological damage. The both Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and hesperidin significantly protect against all gastric damages caused by ethanol administration in rats. We propose that CSPE and hesperidin exhibit protective effects in EtOH-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in to part its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied

  12. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Andrés, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

  13. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  14. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    PubMed Central

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  15. A polymethoxyflavone mixture extracted from orange peels, mainly containing nobiletin, 3,3',4',5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone and tangeretin, suppresses melanogenesis through the acidification of cell organelles, including melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Norihiro; Hashizume, Ron; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    Skin color is determined by melanin contents and its distribution. Melanin is synthesized in melanosomes of melanocytes, catalyzed by tyrosinase, melanogenic enzymes. Regarding the process of melanin synthesis, melanosomal pH is considered to play an important role, because it has been reported to differ between Caucasian and Black melanocytes. Although polymethoxyflavone (PMF) has many beneficial effects, it has not been reported which PMF suppresses melanogenesis. In this study, we identified the mechanism underlying the effect of PMF on melanogenesis METHODS: We determined the effects of a PMF mixture extracted from orange peels on melanogenesis, on tyrosinase expression, on the localization of tyrosinase and on the acidification of organelles, including melanosomes, in HM3KO human melanoma cells. RESULTS TREATMENT: with the PMF mixture elicited the suppression of melanogenesis, the degradation of tyrosinase in lysosomes and the mislocalization of tyrosinase associated with the acidification of intracellular organelles, including melanosomes. The neutralization of cell organelle pH by ammonium chloride restored melanogenesis and the correct localization of tyrosinase to melanosomes, which had been suppressed by the PMF mixture. These results suggest that the PMF mixture suppresses the localization of tyrosinase to melanosomes and consequently inhibits melanogenesis due to the acidification of cell organelles, including melanosomes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anticholinesterase and antioxidative properties of water-extractable phytochemicals from some citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Ademosun, Ayokunle Olubode; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-05-01

    Aqueous extracts from citrus peels are used in many rural communities in Nigeria in treating various degenerative conditions, although the scientific basis for its use has not been well established. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from some citrus peels [orange (Citrus sinensis), grapefruit (Citrus paradisii), and shaddock (Citrus maxima)]. The effects of the extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, as well as Fe2+-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in vitro, were investigated. The total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities as typified by 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability and hydroxyl (OH) radicals scavenging abilities were also investigated. The results revealed that orange peels had the highest total phenol content followed by grapefruit peels, whereas shaddock peels had the least. The extracts inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner, although there is no significant difference (p>0.05) in their inhibitory abilities of the peels. The extracts exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by their radical (DPPH· and OH·) scavenging abilities as well as the inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain in vitro. The anticholinesterase activity and inhibition of MDA production by the aqueous extracts of the peels, as well as other antioxidant activities, could make the peels a good dietary means for the management of oxidative-mediated neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Isolation and Screening of Pectinolytic Fungi from Orange (Citrus nobilis Tan.) and Banana (Musa acuminata L.) Fruit Peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amilia, K. R.; Sari, S. L. A.; Setyaningsih, R.

    2017-04-01

    Pectinase is the one of most important enzyme which is used in food industry such as fruit and vegetable juice extraction, oil extraction and fermentation of coffee, cocoa and tea. Pectinase can be produced by microorganism such as bacteria and fungi. Fungi are known as potent producer of pectinase. This research was conducted to isolate and screen of the pectinolytic fungi from rotten orange and banana fruit peels. This research succeeded to isolate 10 fungal isolates from rotten orange peels and 5 fungal isolates from rotten banana peels. These isolates were screened in pectinolytic activities based on clear zone formation on pectic medium which is stained by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The screening result showed that fungal isolates which showed pectinolytic activity were O2, O3, O4, O7, O8, O10, B3, and B5. Based on morphological characters, pectinolytic fungi were identified as Fusarium O4 and O10, Penicillium O2, Aspergillus O3, O7, B3 and B5 and Trichoderma O8. The highest pectinolytic activity was showed by Penicillium O2 which was isolated from orange peel.

  18. Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  19. Yield, Esterification Degree and Molecular Weight Evaluation of Pectins Isolated from Orange and Grapefruit Peels under Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sayah, Mohamed Yassine; Chabir, Rachida; Benyahia, Hamid; Rodi Kandri, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Touzani, Hanan; Errachidi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification “DE” and on molecular weight “Mw”. Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels. Moreover, both peels allow the obtainment of a high methoxyl pectin with DE >50%. The molecular weight was calculated using Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation which describes its relationship with intrinsic viscosity. This later was determined using four equations; Huggins equation, kramer, Schulz-Blaschke and Martin equation. The molecular weight varied from 1.538 x1005 to 2.47x1005 g/mol for grapefruit pectin and from 1.639 x1005 to 2.471 x1005 g/mol for orange pectin. PMID:27644093

  20. Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong-Tsi; Chu, Heuy-Ling; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Chu, Chin-Chen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2012-12-15

    Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress were investigated. According to HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, hesperidin (HD), hesperetin (HT), nobiletin (NT), and tangeretin (TT) were present in water extracts of sweet orange peel (WESP). The cytotoxic effect in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells was inhibited by WESP and their bioactive compounds. The protective effect of WESP and their bioactive compounds in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells may be associated with positive regulation of GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes, decrease in ROS formation and TBARS generation, increase in the mitochondria membrane potential and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, as well as decrease in caspase-3 activation. Overall, WESP displayed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which may be most likely because of the phenolics-related bioactive compounds in WESP, leading to maintenance of the normal redox status of cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  2. Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

    2015-05-01

    The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation using pectinase and characterization of nanofibers from orange peel waste in juice factories.

    PubMed

    Hideno, Akihiro; Abe, Kentaro; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the preparation and characterization of nanofibers consisting mainly of cellulose microfibrils from orange peel (OP), which is a significant byproduct of orange juice production. Three treatments (boiling, alkaline, and pectinase) were investigated with and without subsequent grinding treatment. It was possible to prepare the cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using these methods, except for the boiling treatment with grinding. Interestingly, only pectinase and a mild-physical blender treatment without grinding produced nanofibers. The width of the nanofibers from OP was approximately 10 to 50 nm. The microfibril bundles of OP were considered to be thinner than those of commercial CNFs. Our data indicated that the removal of pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses covering the cellulose microfibrils was important for the preparation of nanofibers from OP. These nanofibers from OP using pectinase are proposed to be applicable as food materials, pharmaceuticals, and filters for the tractive characteristics of the sheet. This study demonstrates: (1) it was possible to prepare the nanofibers from orange peel using pectinase and (2) the width of the nanofibers from orange peel was approximately 10 to 50 nm. (3) Removal of polysaccharides such as pectin and hemicelluloses covering cellulose microfibrils was very important for preparation of nanofibers from OP. Considering the tractive characteristics of the sheets from nanofibers and the origin of orange peel, they are suitable for application of food materials, pharmaceuticals, and filters. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. OPAC (orange peel activated carbon) derived from waste orange peel for the adsorption of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides from water: Adsorption isotherm, kinetic modelling and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Pandiarajan, Aarthi; Kamaraj, Ramakrishnan; Vasudevan, Sudharshan; Vasudevan, Subramanyan

    2018-08-01

    This study presents the orange peel activated carbon (OPAC), derived from biowaste precursor (orange peel) by single step pyrolysis method and its application for the adsorption of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides from the water. The OPAC exhibited the surface area of 592.471 m 2  g -1 , pore volume and pore diameter of 0.242 cc g -1 and 1.301 nm respectively. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic equilibrium modelling for all chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides were investigated. The various parametric effects such as pH and temperature were evaluated. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was well fitted for all the herbicides. The Langmuir isotherm was obeyed for all the herbicides and the maximum Langmuir capacity of 574.71 mg g -1 was achieved. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption increases with increase in temperature. The results shows that the orange peel derived carbon (OPAC) as effective and efficient adsorbent material for the removal of chlorophenoxyacid herbicides from the water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Ultraviolet fluorescence to identify navel oranges with poor peel quality and decay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel oranges were sorted into four groups under ultraviolet (UV) illumination in commercial packinghouse black light rooms based upon the amount of fluorescence visible on each fruit to determine if fluorescence was predictive of peel quality. The groups corresponded to fruit with: 1) no fluorescen...

  7. Production of ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Baldwin, E.A.; Buslig, B.S.

    The authors extended their previous investigations of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in orange peel by commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to higher, more practical concentrations of orange peel solids. High yields of saccharification could be maintained even at substrate concentrations as high as 22-23%, but the rates of solubilization and saccarification decreased 2-3-fold. They also tested the fermentability of these hydrolysates by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which revealed the presence of inhibitory compounds. These compounds could be removed by the filtration of hydrolyzed peel. Successful fermentations of filtered hydrolysates were achieved after pH adjustment with calcium carbonate. 27 refs., 6more » figs., 1 tab.« less

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of orange (Citrus reticulata) peel in the recovery of nickel from electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rim A

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged from electroplating industry contains different concentrations of heavy metals, which when released into the environment pose a health hazard to human beings. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent in the recovery of Nickel (Ni) from electroplating wastewater. The effectiveness of orange peel as an adsorbent was assessed by determining the optimum conditions of adsorption (adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time), calculating the recovery percentage, and characterizing the orange peel sludge resulting from adsorption/desorption process as being hazardous or not. Under optimum conditions for adsorption, orange peel was found to be an effective adsorbent of Ni from electroplating wastewater. It achieved 59.28% removal of the metal from a solution containing 528 mg/l, at a dose of 60 g/l, at pH 7, and for 1-h contact time. The nickel uptake capacity of orange peel was calculated to be 5.2 mg/g. Using HCl for desorption of adsorbed Ni, a recovery of 44.46% of Ni discharged in the wastewater could be reached. Orange peel resulting from the adsorption/desorption process was characterized as being nonhazardous. Orange peel was found to be effective in the recovery of nearly half of the amount of Ni discharged in electroplating wastewater. Further studies are required to determine (a) the impact of the recovered NiCl2 solution on the quality of the plated product, (b) the effect of activation of orange peel on the adsorption process, and (c) the number of cycles during which orange peel can be reused as an effective adsorbent.

  9. Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Siles, Jose A; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-10-01

    Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed.

  10. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device frommore » 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.« less

  11. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

  12. Nondestructive Determination of Cu Residue in Orange Peel by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Huiqin; Huang, Lin; Liu, Muhua; Chen, Tianbing; Yang, Ping; Yao, Mingyin

    2015-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging tool with rapid, nondestructive, green characteristics in qualitative or quantitative analyses of composition in materials. But LIBS has its shortcomings in detect limit and sensitivity. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange, which is one of famous fruits from Jiangxi of China, was analyzed. In view of LIBS's limit, it is difficult to determinate heavy metals in natural fruits. In this work, nine orange samples were pretreated in 50-500 μg/mL Cu solution, respectively. Another one orange sample was chosen as a control group without any pollution treatment. Previous researchers observed that the content of heavy metals is much higher in peel than in pulp. So, the content in pulp can be reflected by detecting peel. The real concentrations of Cu in peels were acquired by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). A calibration model of Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 was constructed between LIBS intensity and AAS concentration by six samples. The correlation coefficient of the two models is also 0.95. All of the samples were used to verify the accuracy of the model. The results show that the relative error (RE) between predicted and real concentration is less than 6.5%, and Cu I 324.7 line has smaller RE than Cu I 327.4. The analysis demonstrated that different characteristic lines decided different accuracy. The results prove the feasibility of detecting heavy metals in fruits by LIBS. But the results are limited in treated samples. The next work will focus on direct analysis of heavy metals in natural fruits without any pretreatment. This work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31460419) and Major Project of Science and Technology of Jiangxi, China (No. 20143ACB21013)

  13. Synergistic effect of co-digestion to enhance anaerobic degradation of catering waste and orange peel for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Muzammil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Miandad, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel. Similar ratios were followed using green vegetable waste as co-substrate. The results showed that the highest organic matter degradation (49%) was achieved with co-digestion of catering waste and orange peel at a 50% mixing ratio (CF4). Similarly, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) was increased by 51% and reached its maximum value (9040 mg l -1 ) due to conversion of organic matter from insoluble to soluble form. Biogas production was increased by 1.5 times in CF4 where accumulative biogas was 89.61 m 3 t -1 substrate compared with 57.35 m 3 t -1 substrate in the control after 80 days. The main reason behind the improved biogas production and degradation is the dilution of inhibitory factors (limonene), with subsequent provision of balanced nutrients in the co-digestion system. The tCOD of the final digestate was decreased by 79.9% in CF4, which was quite high as compared with 68.3% for the control. Overall, this study revealed that orange peel waste is a highly feasible co-substrate for anaerobic digestion with catering waste for enhanced biogas production.

  14. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  15. Antioxidant activity and polyphenolic compound stability of lentil-orange peel powder blend in an extrusion process.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Rahul P; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-03-01

    Lentil contains substantial amount of protein, carbohydrate, fibre and other nutrients and orange peels powder rich in carbohydrate and fiber content The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of extrusion processing parameter on the level of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total tannin content and antioxidant activity of lentil-orange peel powder blend, also to investigate the possibility of blend as a candidate for production of protein rich extruded product by using response surface methodology. It was observed that, the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of lentil-orange peel based extrudate were highly dependent on process variables. The blend of lentil and orange peel powder has a huge potential for extrusion to produce ready-to-eat extruded with good acceptance. The overall best quality product was optimized and obtained at 16% moisture, 150 °C die temperature and 200 rpm screw speed. Extrusion process increased nutritional value of extruded product with TPC and TFC of 70.4 and 67.62% respectively and antioxidant activity of 60.6%. It showed higher stability at 150 °C with intermediate feed moisture content and despite the use of high temperatures in the extrusion-cooking is possible to minimize the loss of bioactive compounds to achieve products. Thus, results indicated that blend of lentil and orange peel may be used as raw material for the production of extruded snacks with great nutritional value.

  16. Adsorption of heavy metals from water using banana and orange peels.

    PubMed

    Annadural, G; Juang, R S; Lee, D J

    2003-01-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption removal of Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+ in the concentration range of 5-25 mg/L using low-cost banana and orange peel wastes was examined at 30 degrees C. Under comparable conditions, the amount of adsorption decreased in the order Pb2+ > Ni2+ > Zn2+ > Cu2+ > Co2+ for both adsorbents. The adsorption isotherms could be better described by the Freundlich equation. The amount of adsorption increased with increasing pH and reached a plateau at pH > 7, which was confirmed by the variations of zeta potentials. The application potential of such cellulose-based wastes for metal removal (up to 7.97 mg Pb2+ per gram of banana peel at pH 5.5) at trace levels appeared to be promising.

  17. Orange peel + nanostructured zero-valent-iron composite for the removal of hexavalent chromium in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea-Mejía, O.; Cabral-Prieto, A.; Salcedo-Castillo, U.; López-Tellez, G.; Olea-Cardoso, O.; López-Castañares, R.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we used the Pulsed Plasma in Liquid technique to synthesize zero-valent iron nanostructures. We used a DC Power Source to produce such plasma on water and methanol. The obtained particles were characterized by TEM to determine their shape and size and Mossbauer Spectroscopy to investigate the chemical state of the iron present. We found that 80% of the particles produced in water are composed of metallic iron and when methanol is used 97% of the particles are metallic iron. Once the Fe colloid was formed, orange skin was impregnated with these nanostructures for the removal of in water solution. The Cr(VI) removal experiments were done in a batch system in the presence of the composites at an inicial concentration of 50 ppm of Cr(VI). When using the iron nanostructures supported on the orange peel, the percentage of removal is 100% in the case of nanostructures formed in water and 96% when obtained in methanol.

  18. Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Saija, Antonella; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2006-01-11

    Bergamot peel is an underutilized byproduct of the essential oil and juice-processing industry. As with other Citrus peels, it still contains exploitable components, such as pectins and flavonoids. Commercial glycoside hydrolases, specifically a combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, solubilized a high percentage of the material (81.94%). The flavonoid profile of the peel consisted of characteristic Citrus species flavanone rutinosides and neohesperosides derived from naringenin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin. In addition, a number of minor flavanone and flavone glycosides, not found in orange and lemon peels, were identified. The majority of flavonoids were extracted in the two 70% v/v EtOH extractions. Processing this material clearly has economic potential leading to low environmental impact.

  19. Application of orange peel waste in the production of solid biofuels and biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Monteiro; Dweck, Jo; Viotto, Renata Silva; Rosa, André Henrique; de Morais, Leandro Cardoso

    2015-11-01

    This work aimed to study the potential use of pyrolyzed orange peels as solid biofuels and biosorption of heavy metals. The dry biomass and the biofuel showed moderate levels of carbon (44-62%), high levels of oxygen (30-47%), lower levels of hydrogen (3-6%), nitrogen (1-2.6%), sulfur (0.4-0.8%) and ash with a maximum of 7.8%. The activation energy was calculated using Kissinger method, involving a 3 step process: volatilization of water, biomass degradation and volatilization of the degradation products. The calorific value obtained was 19.3MJ/kg. The studies of metal biosorption based on the Langmuir model obtained the best possible data fits. The results obtained in this work indicated that the potential use of waste orange peel as a biosorbent and as a solid biofuel are feasible, this product could be used in industrial processes, favoring the world economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction kinetics and properties of proanthocyanidins from pomegranate peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With an objective of developing a safe and efficient method to extract proanthocyanidins products from pomegranate peel for use in nutraceuticals or as food additives, the effects of extraction parameters on the production efficiency, product properties, and extraction kinetics were systematically s...

  1. Effect of the concentration of essential oil on orange peel waste biomethanization: Preliminary batch results.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, P S; Pontoni, L; Porqueddu, I; Greco, R; Pirozzi, F; Malpei, F

    2016-02-01

    The cultivation of orange (Citrus×sinensis) and its transformation is a major industry in many countries in the world, it leads to the production of about 25-30Mt of orange peel waste (OPW) per year. Until now many options have been proposed for the management of OPW but although they are technically feasible, in many cases their economic/environmental sustainability is questionable. This paper analyse at lab scale the possibility of using OPW as a substrate for anaerobic digestion. Specific objectives are testing the possible codigestion with municipal biowaste, verifying the effect on methane production of increasingly high concentration of orange essential oil (EO, that is well known to have antioxidant properties that can slower or either inhibit biomass activity) and obtaining information on the behaviour of d-limonene, the main EO component, during anaerobic digestion. The results indicate that OPW can produce up to about 370LnCH4/kgVS in mesophilic conditions and up to about 300LnCH4/kgVS in thermophilic conditions. The presence of increasingly high concentrations of EO temporary inhibits methanogenesis, but according to the results of batch tests, methane production restarts while d-limonene is partially degraded through a pathway that requires its conversion into p-cymene as the main intermediate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and characterization of activated hydrochars from orange peels as potential adsorbents for emerging organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M E; Ledesma, B; Román, S; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2015-05-01

    Activated hydrochars obtained from the hydrothermal carbonization of orange peels (Citrus sinensis) followed by various thermochemical processing were assessed as adsorbents for emerging contaminants in water. Thermal activation under flows of CO2 or air as well as chemical activation with phosphoric acid were applied to the hydrochars. Their characteristics were analyzed and related to their ability to uptake three pharmaceuticals (diclofenac sodium, salicylic acid and flurbiprofen) considered as emerging contaminants. The hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent activations promoted substantial chemical transformations which affected the surface properties of the activated hydrochars; they exhibited specific surface areas ranging from 300 to ∼620 m(2)/g. Morphological characterization showed the development of coral-like microspheres dominating the surface of most hydrochars. Their ability to adsorb the three pharmaceuticals selected was found largely dependent on whether the molecules were ionized or in their neutral form and on the porosity developed by the new adsorbents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Orange Peel Excision of Gland: A Novel Surgical Technique for Treatment of Gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    S S, Shirol

    2016-12-01

    Gynecomastia is a common aesthetic problem faced by men with reported incidence as high as 65% with serious psychosocial impact. Although various techniques of liposculpture combined with glandular excision is the standard of treatment, many of the glandular excision techniques have inherent limitations and complications such as leaving a long scar, long operative time, contour abnormalities, and increased risk of hematoma. Here, we describe an innovative "the orange peel excision of gland (OPEG) technique" which overcomes these limitations with excellent cosmetic results. A total of 38 breasts were operated in 20 patients (18 bilateral and 2 unilateral). All the patients underwent suction-assisted liposuction and glandular excision under general anesthesia by our OPEG technique. The average operative time per breast was 60 minutes. One patient had a small hematoma which did not require evacuation. The patient satisfaction rate was 95%. The technique has reduced operative time and avoids residual gland and hematoma with excellent aesthetic outcome.

  4. Effect of second cooling on the chemical components of essential oils from orange peel (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Fu, Manqing; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2014-09-03

    A second cooling was added to the oil collectors of an improved Clevenger-type apparatus (ICT) to investigate the thermal reaction of essential oils from orange peel compared to a traditional Clevenger-type apparatus (CT). The results demonstrated the yield rate of essential oil from ICT was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that from CT. The major components of the essential oils consisted of monoterpenes, such as d-limonene, β-myrcene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, α-pinene. Interestingly, ICT prevented the thermal reaction-the transformation of β-myrcene to β-thujene-and reduced the oxidation on α-pinene and β-pinene of the essential oil in comparison to CT. In addition, the yield rate of γ-terpinene can also be improved via ICT compared to CT. Thus, ICT is an effective improvement to traditional CT.

  5. Purification, characterization, and prebiotic properties of pectic oligosaccharides from orange peel wastes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Remoroza, Connie; Schols, Henk A; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-08

    Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3-21), GalOS (DP 5-12), and OGalA (DP 2-12, with variable DM) were identified in POS mixtures, but long-chain products were also present. The prebiotic potential of the concentrate was assessed by in vitro fermentation using human fecal inocula. For comparative purposes, similar experiments were performed using orange pectin and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as substrates for fermentation. The dynamics of selected microbial populations was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gas generation, pH, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were also measured. Under the tested conditions, all of the considered substrates were utilized by the microbiota, and fermentation resulted in increased numbers of all the bacterial groups, but the final profile of the microbial population depended on the considered carbon source. POS boosted particularly the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, so that the ratio between the joint counts of both genera and the total cell number increased from 17% in the inocula to 27% upon fermentation. SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation.

  6. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wenjuan; Li, Pingping; Hong, Jihua; Liu, Zhiling; Chen, Yufang; Breksa, Andrew P; Pan, Zhongli

    2014-03-30

    Liquid extracts from pomegranate peel have the potential for use as natural antioxidant products. This study investigates the quality changes of liquid extracts before and after thermal treatment during sterilization and storage. Liquid pomegranate peel extracts were prepared, sterilized under ultra-high temperature (UHT) at 121 °C for 10 s and then stored at three temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C) for up to 180 days. The industrial, color, UV-visible spectrum profile and antioxidant (phenolics) characteristics were measured. Thermal sterilization treatment had no negative effects on the industrial, color, spectral and antioxidant characteristics of the extracts. After 180 days, the extracts stored at 4 °C retained 67% of the initial total soluble phenolic content and 58% of the original scavenging activity. The major antioxidant components in the extracts (stored at 4 °C for 180 days) were gallic acid, punicalagin A, punicalagin B and ellagic acid having concentrations of 19.3, 197.2, 221.1 and 92.4 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The results show that liquid pomegranate peel extracts had acceptable thermal stability after sterilization and storage. The recommended storage condition of this product was low temperature. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts as affected by cultivar.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Burgos, Ema C; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Kačániová, Miroslava; Hernández-García, Francisca; Cárdenas-López, José L; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-02-01

    Some studies have reported that different parts of the pomegranate fruit, especially the peel, may act as potential antimicrobial agents and thus might be proposed as a safe natural alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. The high tannin content, especially punicalagin, found in pomegranate extracts, has been reported as the main compound responsible for such antimicrobial activity. Because the pomegranate peel chemical composition may vary with the type of cultivar (sweet, sour-sweet and sour), pomegranates may also differ with respect to their antimicrobial capacity. The extract from PTO8 pomegranate cultivar peel had the highest antimicrobial activity, as well as the highest punicalagins (α and β) and ellagic acid concentrations. In the results obtained from both antibacterial and antifungal activity studies, the sour-sweet pomegranate cultivar PTO8 showed the best antimicrobial activity, and the highest ellagic acid concentrations. The results of the present study suggest that ellagic acid content has a significant influence on the antimicrobial activity of the pomegranate extracts investigated. The pomegranate peel of the PTO8 cultivar is a good source of antifungal and antibacterial compounds, and may represent an alternative to antimicrobial agents of synthetic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm.

  9. Optimization of ultrasonic emulsification conditions for the production of orange peel essential oil nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Hashtjin, Adel Mirmajidi; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of emulsifying conditions on some physical and rheological properties of orange peel essential oil (OPEO) in water nanoemulsions. In this regard, using the response surface methodology, the influence of ultrasonication conditions including sonication amplitude (70-100 %), sonication time (90-150 s) and process temperature (5-45 °C) on the mean droplets diameter (Z-average value), polydispersity index (PDI), and viscosity of the OPEO nanoemulsions was evaluated. In addition, the flow behavior and stability of selected nanoemulsions was evaluated during storage (up to 3 months) at different temperatures (5, 25 and 45 °C). Based on the results of the optimization, the optimum conditions for producing OPEO nanoemulsions (Z-average value 18.16 nm) were determined as 94 % (sonication amplitude), 138 s (sonication time) and 37 °C (process temperature). Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficients of determination values (R (2) > 0.95) for the response surface models of the energy input and Z-average. In addition, the flow behavior of produced nanoemulsions was Newtonian, and the effect of time and storage temperature as well as their interactions on the Z-average value was highly significant (P < 0.0001).

  10. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymethoxylated Flavones from Orange Peels Inhibit Cell Proliferation in a 3D Cell Model of Human Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Silva, Inês; Estrada, Marta F; V Pereira, Carolina; da Silva, Andreia Bento; Bronze, Maria R; Alves, Paula M; Duarte, Catarina M M; Brito, Catarina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) have been recognized to inhibit colorectal cancer proliferation through various mechanisms, however most of these studies have been performed on cells grown as monolayers that present limitations in mimicking the 3D tumor architecture and microenvironment. The main aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer potential of an orange peel extract (OPE) enriched in PMFs in a 3D cell model of colorectal cancer. The OPE was developed by supercritical fluid extraction and the anticancer effect was evaluated in HT29 spheroids cultures in a stirred-tank based system. Results showed that OPE inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest (G2/M phase), promoted apoptosis, and reduced ALDH + population on HT29 spheroids. The antiproliferative activity was significantly lower than that obtained for 2D model (EC50 value of 0.43 ± 0.02 mg/mL) and this effect was dependent on diameter and cell composition/phenotype of spheroids derived from different culture days (day 3 - 0.53 ± 0.05 mg/mL; day 5 - 0.55 ± 0.03 mg/mL; day 7 - 1.24 ± 0.15 mg/mL). HT29 spheroids collected at day 7 presented typical characteristics of in vivo solid tumors including a necrotic/apoptotic core, hypoxia regions, presence of cancer stem cells, and a less differentiated invasive front. Nobiletin, sinesentin, and tangeretin were identified as the main compounds responsible for the anticancer activity.

  12. [Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of pasteurized beverages fortified with orange deodorized residues extracts].

    PubMed

    Moreno Alvarez, Mario José; Machado, Alexandra; Padrón, Arelis; García, David; Belén Camacho, Douglas Rafael

    2004-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical parameters of pasteurized beverages conditioned with aqueous extracts from orange deodorized residues were evaluated. The fruits used were selected according to following criterion: homogenous maturity, without physical damage and absence of apparent chlorophyll. Orange peels were dried and transformed to flour. The juice was evaluated by means of these parameters: pH 3.90, degrees Brix 10, titrable acidity 0.33 g of citric acid/100 mL and total carotenoids 0.0078 mg/mL. Volatil compounds of the flour that may to cause bitterness were separated by means of two methods of deodorization: distillation in current of vapor and in autoclave to 121 degrees C; then, the flour was extracted with water (relation 1:50 p/v). Pasteurized citric beverages (orange juice) were elaborated adding the deodorized extracts. pH, degrees Brix, titrable acidity and total carotenoids showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Microbiological results were according to pasteurized products. Sensorial analysis by untrained panel showed no signiificant differences. In conclusion, the deodorant processes were effectives and permitted the inclusion of aquasoluble compounds as flavonoids with antioxidant activity.

  13. Biofortified orange maize enhances β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in egg yolks of laying hens better than tangerine peel fortificant.

    PubMed

    Heying, Emily K; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Vasic, Vedran; Cook, Mark; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-12-10

    The xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin provides vitamin A and has other purported health benefits. Laying hens deposit xanthophyll carotenoids into egg yolk. Hens (n = 8/group) were fed conventional-bred high β-cryptoxanthin biofortified (orange) maize, tangerine peel-fortified white maize, lutein-fortified yellow maize, or white maize for 40 d to investigate yolk color changes using L*a*b* scales, yolk carotenoid enhancement, and hen vitamin A status. Yolks from hens fed orange maize had scores indicating a darker, orange color and mean higher β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations (8.43 ± 1.82, 23.1 ± 4.8, 0.16 ± 0.08 nmol/g, respectively) than other treatments (P < 0.0001). Yolk retinol concentrations (mean: 14.4 ± 3.42 nmol/g) were similar among groups and decreased with time (P < 0.0001). Hens fed orange maize had higher liver retinol (0.53 ± 0.20 μmol/g liver) than other groups (P < 0.0001). β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified eggs could be another choice for consumers, providing enhanced color through a provitamin A carotenoid and supporting eggs' status as a functional food.

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from cocoa peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarah, M.; Hanum, F.; Rizky, M.; Hisham, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    Pectin is a polymer of d-galacturonate acids linked by β-1,4 glycosidic bond. This study isolates pectin from cocoa peel (Theobroma cacao) using citric acid as solvent by microwave-assisted extraction method. Cocoa peels (moisture content of 10%) with citric acid solution (pH of 1.5) irradiated by microwave energy at various microwave power (180, 300, 450 and 600 W) for 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes respectively. Pectin obtained from this study was collected and filtrated by adding 96% ethanol to precipitate the pectin. The best results obtained from extraction process using microwave power of 180 Watt for 30 minutes. This combination of power and time yielded 42.3% pectin with moisture content, ash content, weight equivalent, methoxyl content and galacturonate levels were 8.08%, 5%, 833.33 mg, 6.51% and 58,08%, respectively. The result finding suggested that microwave-assisted extraction method has a great potency on the commercial pectin production.

  15. Influence of power ultrasound application on mass transport and microstructure of orange peel during hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, Carmen; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Puig, Ana; Riera, Enrique; Garcia-Perez, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    Power ultrasound application on convective drying of foodstuffs may be considered an emergent technology. This work deals with the influence of power ultrasound on drying of natural materials addressing the kinetic as well as the product's microstructure. Convective drying kinetics of orange peel slabs (thickness 5.95±0.41 mm) were carried out at 40 ∘C and 1 m/s with (US) and without (AIR) power ultrasound application. A diffusion model considering external resistance to mass transfer was considered to describe drying kinetics. Fresh, US and AIR dried samples were analyzed using Cryo-SEM. Results showed that drying kinetics of orange peel were significantly improved by the application of power ultrasound. From modeling, it was observed a significant (p¡0.05) increase in both mass transfer coefficient and effective moisture diffusivity. The effects on mass transfer properties were confirmed from microestructural observations. In the cuticle surface, the pores were obstructed by wax components scattering, which evidence the ultrasonic effects on the interfaces. The cells of the flavedo were compressed and large intercellular air spaces were generated in the albedo facilitating water transfer through it.

  16. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    PubMed

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  < .05) higher crude fiber (2.58%), fat (9.74%), ash (2.49%), and carbohydrate (71.57%) compared with Citrus maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p  < .05) higher in the peel extract. The mineral composition revealed the order Ca > Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  17. Peroxidase extraction from jicama skin peels for phenol removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiong, T.; Lau, S. Y.; Khor, E. H.; Danquah, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives exist in various types of industrial effluents, and are known to be harmful to aquatic lives even at low concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies for phenol removal are challenged with long retention time, high energy consumption and process cost. Enzymatic treatment has emerged as an alternative technology for phenol removal from wastewater. These enzymes interact with aromatic compounds including phenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, forming free radicals which polymerize spontaneously to produce insoluble phenolic polymers. This work aims to extract peroxidase from agricultural wastes materials and establish its application for phenol removal. Peroxidase was extracted from jicama skin peels under varying extraction conditions of pH, sample-to-buffer ratio (w/v %) and temperature. Experimental results showed that extraction process conducted at pH 10, 40% w/v and 25oC demonstrated a peroxidase activity of 0.79 U/mL. Elevated temperatures slightly enhanced the peroxidase activities. Jicama peroxidase extracted at optimum extraction conditions demonstrated a phenol removal efficiency of 87.5% at pH 7. Phenol removal efficiency was ∼ 97% in the range of 30 - 40oC, and H2O2 dosage has to be kept below 100 mM for maximum removal under phenol concentration tested.

  18. Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Ashok; Joshi, Bhagyashree; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2010-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures.

  19. Control of bacillus cereus spore germination and outgrowth in cooked rice during chilling by nonorganic and organic appled, orange, and potato peel powders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore germination and outgrowth in cooked rice by nine fruit and vegetable peel powders prepared from store-bought conventional (nonorganic) and organic apples, oranges, and potatoes was investigated. The powders were mixed into rice at 10% (wt/wt) along with heat ...

  20. [Mass Transfer Kinetics Model of Ultrasonic Extraction of Pomegranate Peel Polyphenols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-yi; Zhang, Li-hua; Wang, Yu-hai; Zhang, Yuan-hu; Ma, Li; Zheng, Dan-dan

    2015-05-01

    The dynamic mathematical model of ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peel was constructed with the Fick's second law as the theoretical basis. The spherical model was selected, with mass concentrations of pomegranate peel polyphenols as the index, 50% ethanol as the extraction solvent and ultrasonic extraction as the extraction method. In different test conditions including the liquid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time, a series of kinetic parameters were solved, such as the extraction process (k), relative raffinate rate, surface diffusion coefficient(D(S)), half life (t½) and the apparent activation energy (E(a)). With the extraction temperature increasing, k and D(S) were gradually increased with t½ decreasing,which indicated that the elevated temperature was favorable to the extraction of pomegranate peel polyphenols. The exponential equation of relative raffinate rate showed that the established numerical dynamics model fitted the extraction of pomegranate peel polyphenols, and the relationship between the reaction conditions and pomegranate peel polyphenols concentration was well reflected by the model. Based on the experimental results, a feasible and reliable kinetic model for ultrasonic extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peel is established, which can be used for the optimization control of engineering magnifying production.

  1. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  2. Recovery of steroidal alkaloids from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Rawson, Ashish; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-05-13

    A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid-liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively.

  3. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores.

  4. Resistance to pathogens in terpene down-regulated orange fruits inversely correlates with the accumulation of D-limonene in peel oil glands

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Peña, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are secondary metabolites acting as a language for the communication of plants with the environment. In orange fruits, the monoterpene D-limonene accumulates at very high levels in oil glands from the peel. Drastic down-regulation of D-limonene synthase gene expression in the peel of transgenic oranges harboring a D-limonene synthase transgene in antisense (AS) configuration altered the monoterpene profile in oil glands, mainly resulting in reduced accumulation of D-limonene. This led to fruit resistance against Penicillium digitatum (Pd), Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and other specialized pathogens. Here, we analyze resistance to pathogens in independent AS and empty vector (EV) lines, which have low, medium or high D-limonene concentrations and show that the level of resistance is inversely related to the accumulation of D-limonene in orange peels, thus explaining the need of high D-limonene accumulation in mature oranges in nature for the efficient attraction of specialized microorganism frugivores. PMID:26023857

  5. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

    PubMed

    Phuaklee, Pathompong; Ruangnoo, Srisopa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content. Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content. The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content. This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

  7. Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Xia, H; Matharu, A S

    2017-09-21

    Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7-24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21 st century.

  8. Continuous and pulsed ultrasound-assisted extractions of antioxidants from pomegranate peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a great demand for developing efficient extraction methods in order to reduce extraction time and increase the yield and activity of functional antioxidants. The yields, activities, and extraction kinetics of antioxidants from dry peel of pomegranate marc were studied using ultrasound assis...

  9. Continuous and pulsed ultrasound-assisted extractions of antioxidants from pomegranate peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a great demand for developing efficient extraction methods in order to reduce extraction time and increase the yield and activity of functional antioxidants. The yields, activities, and extraction kinetics of antioxidants from dry peel of pomegranate marc were studied using ultrasound-assis...

  10. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  11. Production and characterization of films based on blends of chitosan from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and pectin from Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ricardo Duran; Pérez, Latife Lúquez; Salcedo, Jesús Mejía; Córdoba, Luis Pérez; Sobral, Paulo José do Amaral

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize films based on blends of chitosan and pectin, produced in laboratory scale, from industrial wastes. The chitosan was obtained by termoalcaline deacetylation of chitin, extracted from blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) waste and characterized according to degree of deacetylation (DD) and viscosimetric molecular weight (Mw); and pectin was extracted by conventional heating, from orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) peel and characterized according to degree of esterification (DE) and molecular weight (Mw). The Ch:P based films were prepared by the casting method in different Ch:P ratios [0: 100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0], and compared to two controls [0:100 and 100:0], of commercial pectin and chitosan. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer at concentrations of 0.2g/g macromolecules. The addition of high concentrations of pectin in the formulations resulted in films with high solubility and an increase in moisture. No significant difference (P>0.05) in the degree of swelling (DS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films was observed. Ch:P blend films were less stiff and therefore more elastic and flexible than films based on only one biopolymer. The control films presented better results in terms of color, being brighter and less opaque than other film formulations. These data suggest that chitosan or pectin obtained from agro-industrial waste is a potential matrix to produce biodegradable films for future food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical optimization of protein extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) have been shown to possess antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. The objective of this study was to chemically optimize a process for extracting proteins from sweet potato peel. The extraction procedure involved mixing pe...

  13. Investigation of Trace Element Content in the Seeds, Pulp, and Peel of Mashui Oranges Using Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingyun; Shen, Mei; Ma, Ande; Han, Weili

    2018-03-01

    Fresh Mashui orange samples were pretreated with microwave digestion using an HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 system. The levels of Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the seeds, pulp, and peel were then determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with collision cell technology (CCT) and kinetic energy discrimination (KED). The standard curve coefficient of determinations of the ten tested elements were between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The instrument detection limit was between 0.112 ng/L and 3.05 ng/mL. The method detection limit was between 0.0281 and 763 ng/g. The average recovery rate was between 85.0 and 117%. The current results showed that Mashui oranges are rich in three elements, namely Mg, K, and Ca. The concentrations of K and Ca were significantly higher than that of Mg in the peel. The content of K was the highest in the seeds. Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn had the second highest concentrations, and Fe was the highest in the seeds, while Cu was the lowest in the peel. As, Cd, and Pb (hazardous elements) had the lowest concentrations of all the tested elements.

  14. Banana peel extract suppressed prostate gland enlargement in testosterone-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Akamine, Kiichiro; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2009-09-01

    A methanol extract of banana peel (BPEx, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed the regrowth of ventral prostates and seminal vesicles induced by testosterone in castrated mice. Further studies in the androgen-responsive LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line showed that BPEx inhibited dose-dependently testosterone-induced cell growth, while the inhibitory activities of BPEx did not appear against dehydrotestosterone-induced cell growth. These results indicate that methanol extract of banana peel can inhibit 5alpha-reductase and might be useful in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia.

  15. Optimization of extraction of novel pectinase enzyme discovered in red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.

    PubMed

    Zohdi, Nor Khanani; Amid, Mehrnoush

    2013-11-20

    Plant peels could be a potential source of novel pectinases for use in various industrial applications due to their broad substrate specificity with high stability under extreme conditions. Therefore, the extraction conditions of a novel pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel was optimized in this study. The effect of extraction variables, namely buffer to sample ratio (2:1 to 8:1, X₁), extraction temperature (-15 to +25 °C, X₂) and buffer pH (4.0 to 12.0, X₃) on specific activity, temperature stability, storage stability and surfactant agent stability of pectinase from pitaya peel was investigated. The study demonstrated that the optimum conditions for the extraction of pectinase from pitaya sources could improve the enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme and protect its activity and stability during the extraction procedure. The optimum extraction conditions cause the pectinase to achieve high specific activity (15.31 U/mg), temperature stability (78%), storage stability (88%) and surfactant agent stability (83%). The most desirable conditions to achieve the highest activity and stability of pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel were the use of 5:1 buffer to sample ratio at 5 °C and pH 8.0.

  16. Antimicrobial effects of citrus sinensis peel extracts against periodontopathic bacteria: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khaja Amjad; Tarakji, Bassel; Kandy, Binu Purushothaman Panar; John, Jacob; Mathews, Jacob; Ramphul, Vandana; Divakar, Darshan Devang

    2015-01-01

    Use of plant extracts and phytochemicals with known antimicrobial properties may have great significance in therapeutic treatments. To assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for periodontal pathogens. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis were resistant to aqueous extracts while Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was inhibited at very high cncentrations. Hot ethanolic extracts showed significantly higher zone of inhibition than cold ethanolic extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against all three periodontal pathogens. Both extracts were found sensitive and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of orange peel in a semi-continuous pilot plant: An environmentally sound way of citrus waste management in agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zema, Demetrio A; Fòlino, Adele; Zappia, Giovanni; Calabrò, Paolo S; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Zimbone, Santo Marcello

    2018-07-15

    The management of residues of citrus processing involves economic and environmental problems. In particular, the uncontrolled disposal of citrus processing waste near production sites can have heavy impacts on air, soil, surface water bodies and groundwater. Anaerobic digestion has been proposed as a viable alternative for citrus waste valorisation, if some problems, linked to the biochemical processes, are overcome. Although many experimental tests have studied the inhibitory effects of the high essential oil content of orange peel on biomethanisation processes, fewer experiences have been carried out in continuous or semi-continuous pilot digesters, more similar to the full-scale biogas plants, using real orange peel. This study has evaluated the methane production through anaerobic digestion of industrial orange peel using a pilot plant (84L) with semi-continuous feeding at increasing Organic Loading Rates (OLR) and essential oil (EO) supply rates (EOsr) until the complete process inhibition. Under mesophilic conditions, the highest daily specific methane yield was achieved at OLR of 1.0g TVS L -1 d -1 and EOsr of 47.6mgL -1 d -1 . Partial inhibition of the anaerobic digestion was detected at OLR and EOsr of 1.98g TVS L -1 d -1 and 88.1mgL -1 d -1 , respectively and the process irreversibly stopped when OLR and EOsr reached 2.5g TVS L -1 d -1 and 111.2mgL -1 d -1 , respectively. Under thermophilic conditions, the cumulative methane production (0.12Lg TVS -1 ) was about 25% of that under mesophilic conditions (0.46Lg TVS -1 ). The thermophilic digestion was completely inhibited at lower OLR (1.98g TVS L -1 d -1 ) and EOsr (88.1mgL -1 d -1 ) compared to mesophilic conditions. This study confirmed the suitability of anaerobic digestion of orange peel for biomethane production (provided that the right management of the process is set), in view of an environmentally sound way of agricultural residues management in agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Volatile aroma components and antioxidant activities of the flavedo peel extract of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata).

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Taira, Ikuko; Inafuku, Sayuri; Sumi, Hidekazu; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-04-01

    The flavedo peel extracts of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) fruits were extracted using steam distillation (SD) or a cold-press (CP) system. Volatile aroma content and composition were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and each compound was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of the extracts were monoterpene hydrocarbons (91.75-93.75%[709.32-809.05 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]) including limonene (43.08-45.13%[341.46-379.81 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), γ-terpinene (27.88-29.06%[219.90-245.86 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), and p-cymene (8.13-11.02%[61.47-97.22 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]). The extraction process used was determined to be a decisive factor that affects the composition of key citrus aroma components, as well as the antioxidant activities of the Shiikuwasha fruit. Antioxidant capabilities of the extracts were examined by assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching inhibition. The cold-press extraction system may better retain the total phenolic content of the flavedo peel and display superior antioxidant activities, compared to the steam distillation extraction method. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is a type of small citrus fruit, and has been used as raw material for beverage and food additive productions in Japan. It had a unique aroma composition in which the limonene content of its peels is lower than that of other commonly known citrus peels. The present study detailed the volatile aroma composition, as well as antioxidant capabilities of Shiikuwasha peel extracts of different extraction methods, that are cold-press and steam distillation methods. The results of this study may provide a basis for selection of Shiikuwasha peel extracts in food industry for citrus flavor production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  20. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC), gallotannin content (GTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml), radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%), Ganesh (83.56%), and Ruby (83.34%) cultivars (P< 0.05). Dose dependent FIC and FRAP activities were exhibited by all the peel extracts. All extracts also exhibited high inhibition (>50%) against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh) and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche), respectively

  1. Optimization of antimicrobial activity of flavonoid extracts from pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel as food wrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugumaran, Kamaraj; Zakaria, Nur Zatul-'Iffah; Abdullah, Rozaini; Jalani, Nur Syazana; Zati-Hanani, Sharifah; Ibrahim, Roshita; Zakaria, Zarina

    2017-09-01

    This study has been carried out to optimize an antimicrobial activity of flavonoid extract from pomelo peels against Staphyloccus aureus (S. aureus). A comparative analysis of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity were done on two parts of peel which are albedo (inner peel) and flavedo (outer peel). Based on the result obtained, flavedo showed higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity (304.20 mg /g, 74.30 mg /g and 46.86 % respectively) when compared to albedo (150.98 mg /g, 52.97 mg /g and 24.70 % respectively). The effects of different extract concentration and pH on inhibition zone of S. aureus were optimized using Research Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimal condition of parameters was obtained based on the maximum zone of S. aureus inhibition at extract concentration of 200 mg/mL and pH of 4.8. The antimicrobial film has been developed by using optimal conditions by incorporating the flavonoid extract into chitosan polymer.

  2. Antioxidative properties of defatted dabai pulp and peel prepared by solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah

    2012-08-14

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C₁₈ cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.

  3. Isolation, screening and characterization of a novel extracellular xylanase from Aspergillus niger (KP874102.1) and its application in orange peel hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uday, Uma Shankar Prasad; Majumdar, Ria; Tiwari, Onkar Nath; Mishra, Umesh; Mondal, Abhijit; Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, a potent xylanase producing fungal strain Aspergillus niger (KP874102.1) was isolated through cultural and morphological observations from soil sample of Baramura forest, Tripura west, India. 28S rDNA technique was applied for genomic identification of this fungal strain. The isolated strain was found to be phylogenetically closely related to Aspergillus niger. Kinetic constants such as K m and V max for extracellular xylanase were determined using various substrate such as beech wood xylan, oat spelt xylan and CM cellulose through Lineweaver-Burk plot. K m , V max and K cat for beech wood xylan are found to be 2.89mg/ml, 2442U and 426178Umlmg -1 respectively. Crude enzyme did not show also CM cellulose activity. The relative efficiency of oat spelt xylan was found to be 0.819 with respect to beech wood xylan. After acid hydrolysis, enzyme was able to produce reducing sugar with 17.7, 35.5, 50.8 and 65% (w/w) from orange peel after 15, 30, 45 and 60min incubation with cellulase free xylanase and maximum reducing sugar formation rate was found to be 55.96μg/ml/min. Therefore, the Aspergillus niger (KP874102.1) is considered as a potential candidate for enzymatic hydrolysis of orange peel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Yoen; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage.

  5. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  6. Characterization of paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract in orange juices by liquid chromatography of carotenoid profiles.

    PubMed

    Mouly, P P; Gaydou, E M; Corsetti, J

    1999-03-01

    The carotenoid pigment profiles of authentic pure orange juices from Spain and Florida and an industrial paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract used for food coloring were obtained using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 packed column and an acetone/methanol/water eluent system. The procedure involving the carotenoid extraction is described. Both retention times and spectral properties using photodiode array detection for characterization of the major carotenoids at 430 and 519 nm are given. The influence of external addition of tangerine juice and/or paprika extract on orange juice color is described using the U.S. Department of Agriculture scale and adulterated orange juice. The procedure for quantitation of externally added paprika extract to orange juice is investigated, and the limit of quantitation, coefficient of variation, and recoveries are determined.

  7. Reverse micellar extraction of bromelain from pineapple peel--Effect of surfactant structure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jing; Guo, Jingjing; Miao, Zhitong; Guo, Xia

    2016-04-15

    Pineapple peel is generally disposed or used as compost. This study was focused on extracting bromelain from pineapple peel by using reverse micelles. It was found that gemini surfactant C12-8-C12·2Br (octamethylene-α,ω-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide)) showed distinctive advantage over its monomeric counterpart DTAB (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide); under optimized condition, the bromelain extracted with C12-8-C12·2Br reverse micelle had an activity recovery of 163% and a purification fold of 3.3, while when using DTAB reverse micelle, the activity recovery was 95% and the purification fold was 1.7. Therefore, the spacer of gemini surfactant should play a positive role in bromelain extraction and may suggest the potential of gemini surfactant in protein separation since it has been so far rarely used in relative experiments or technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Storage stability of sterilized liquid extracts from pomegranate peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pomegranate marc, a byproduct of commercial juice production, has shown promise as a starting material for the recovery of health promoting phenolic compounds. The stability of aqueous extracts prepared from pomegranate marc was evaluated in preparation to directly using these extracts as nutraceuti...

  10. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification and general properties of pectin methyl esterase from Curvularia inaequalis NRRL 13884 in solid state culture using orange peels as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Afifi, A F; Fawzi, E M; Foaad, M A

    2002-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) [E.C.3. 1.1.11] production by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn NRRL 13884 was investigated using solid-state culture. The highest level of extracellular pectin methyl esterase was detected with orange peels as an inducing substrate and as a sole carbon source. The enzyme was partially purified using Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. It was purified about 40 fold with optimum activity at pH 4.4 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme was activated by Co++, Mg++, Na+, whereas it was slightly activated in the presence of Cu++, K+, Mn++, Zn++. On the other hand Ag++, Ca++ and Hg++ inhibited the activity of the enzyme. The Km was calculated to be 0.52 mM.

  12. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  13. Antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of pumpkin (cucurbit) peel and puree extracts - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Sherazi, Tauqir A; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Hussain, Zaib; Mahmood, Hassan; Mahmood, Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Natural resources right from the beginning of the human civilization has paved the way to human being to combat different challenges. The big challenge was to safe the human being from diseases and shortage of food. Plants helped the man in both areas very efficiently. No doubt when plants are used as food actually we are also taking lot of compounds of medicinal values in an excellent combination which naturally reduce the risk of diseases. Extraction and purification of several medicinally important compounds also gave the way to develop pharmaceutical industry in addition to its own therapeutic effects against different lethal diseases. Pumpkin is one of the several medicinal important vegetables used in different way on the behalf of its admirable power to combat different diseases. Antioxidant and biological studies showed very important results. A good coherence was found among extraction yield (10.52 to 18.45%), total phenolics (1.13 to 6.78 mg GAE/100g), total flavonoids (0.23 to 0.72mg CE/100g) and antioxidant potential (≻70%). Antibacterial assays of peel and puree extracts advocated good potential to stop the growth and division of pathogenic bacteria. Further biological activity study was carried out using MDBK cancer cell line. The growth inhibitory effect on cancer cell line using MTT assay showed methanol extracts of peel and puree both remained efficient to inhibit growth (≻35%) and cell division of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of pumpkin puree and its waste, peel, may be utilize to prepare functional food against pathogenic born diseases and most active compounds may also be extracted, concentrated and converted into tablets or suspension form for therapeutic purposes.

  14. A hepatonephro-protective phenolic-rich extract from red onion (Allium cepa L.) peels.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atallah F; Al-Yousef, Hanan M; Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H; Al-Said, Mansour S

    2017-09-01

    Onion peel is a common bio-waste, occasionally used in traditional medicine in treatment of liver ailment and inflammation. However, a phytochemical and biological study is further required to provide the scientific evidence for this use. A phenolic-rich extract of red onion peels (coded as ACPE) was primarily prepared and then subjected to chromatographic separation. From the extract, six phenolic antioxidant compounds along with two phytosterols were isolated and identified by means of spectroscopic (NMR and MS) analyses. The in vivo protective activity of the ACPE against the oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) free radicals, in liver and kidney, was assessed in rats. Relative to the CCl4-challenged animals, pre-treatment with ACPE could significantly ameliorate the hepatonephrolinked serum and tissue markers in a dose-dependent response. The flavonol- and phenolic acid-based nature of constituents, the high phenolic content (72.33±5.30 mg gallic acid equivalent per one gram) and the significant antioxidant capacity (>1/3 potency of rutin) of ACPE may be thus attributed strongly to the hepatonephro-protective and anti-inflammatory effect of ACPE. The results suggest that red onion peels can serve as a convenient and cost-effective source of high-value antioxidant nutraceuticals for protection against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  15. Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guihua; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong

    2007-01-24

    This paper reports the effects of heat treatment on huyou (Citrus paradisi Changshanhuyou) peel in terms of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used in this study for the analysis of phenolic acids (divided into four fractions: free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) in huyou peel (HP) before and after heat treatment. The results showed that after heat treatment, the free fraction of phenolic acids increased, whereas ester, glycoside, and ester-bound fractions decreased and the content of total FGs declined (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of HP increased (P < 0.05), which was evaluated by total phenolics contents (TPC) assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS*+) method, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The correlation coefficients among TPC, ABTS, FRAP assay, and total cinnamics and benzoics (TCB) in the free fraction were significantly high (P < 0.05), which meant that the increase of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of HP extract was due at least in part to the increase of TCB in free fraction. In addition, FGs may be destroyed when heated at higher temperature for a long time (for example, 120 degrees C for 90 min or 150 degrees C for 30 min). Therefore, it is suggested that a proper and reasonable heat treatment could be used to enhance the antioxidant capacity of citrus peel.

  16. Characterization of pectins extracted from pomegranate peel and their gelling properties.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mouna; Cheikhrouhou, S; Renard, Catherine M G C; Bureau, Sylvie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-01-15

    The composition of pomegranate peel, the main by-product during pomegranate processing, and some of the characteristics of the water-soluble pectins were investigated. Four tunisian pomegranate peels were subjected to hot aqueous extractions (86°C, 80min, 20mM nitric acid). Pomegranate peels yielded between 6.8% and 10.1% pectins. The extracted pectins were low methylated and were characterized by the predominance of homogalacturonan regions. Principal component analysis applied on FT-IR spectral data in the region between 4000 and 650cm(-1) differentiated the samples according to their degree of methylation. At pH 3, in the presence of 0.7% pectin, all solutions showed a rapid gel formation with G'>G″. With decreasing temperature from 90°C to 10°C, G' increased to reach a plateau at 10°C. The variation in the pectin gel formation between varieties was attributed to difference in pectin characteristics particularly the hydrodynamic volume and the neutral sugar content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety, Efficacy, and Mechanistic Studies Regarding Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and p‐Synephrine

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange) extracts that contain p‐synephrine as the primary protoalkaloid are widely used for weight loss/weight management, sports performance, appetite control, energy, and mental focus and cognition. Questions have been raised about the safety of p‐synephrine because it has some structural similarity to ephedrine. This review focuses on current human, animal, in vitro, and mechanistic studies that address the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action of bitter orange extracts and p‐synephrine. Numerous studies have been conducted with respect to p‐synephrine and bitter orange extract because ephedra and ephedrine were banned from use in dietary supplements in 2004. Approximately 30 human studies indicate that p‐synephrine and bitter orange extracts do not result in cardiovascular effects and do not act as stimulants at commonly used doses. Mechanistic studies suggest that p‐synephrine exerts its effects through multiple actions, which are discussed. Because p‐synephrine exhibits greater adrenergic receptor binding in rodents than humans, data from animals cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. This review, as well as several other assessments published in recent years, has concluded that bitter orange extract and p‐synephrine are safe for use in dietary supplements and foods at the commonly used doses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28752649

  18. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) peel.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Young; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, Sun-Jung; Jeon, Kyung-Im; Park, Eunju; Park, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2006-04-01

    Heat treatment of persimmon peel (PP) increased the antioxidative activity of the 70% ethanolic extract (EE) and water extract (WE) from PP. EE and WE both prevented H2O2-induced DNA damage to human peripheral lymphocytes. The antioxidative and antigenotoxic activities of the PP extracts were significantly affected by heating.

  20. Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Robert, Christelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-05-15

    An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90°C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found that extraction pH was the most important parameter influencing yield and pectin chemical composition. Lower pH values negatively affected the galacturonic acid content of pectin, but increased the pectin yield. The values of degree of methylation decreased significantly with increasing temperature and time of extraction. The average molecular weight ranged widely from 87 to 248kDa and was mainly influenced by pH and extraction time. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of kukoamine a from potato peels.

    PubMed

    Piletska, Elena V; Burns, Rosemary; Terry, Leon A; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2012-01-11

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the purification of N(1),N(12)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermine (kukoamine A) was computationally designed and tested. The properties of the polymer were characterized. The protocol of the solid phase extraction (SPE) of kukoamine A from potato peels was optimized. A HPLC-MS method for the quantification of kukoamine A was developed and used for all optimization studies. The capacity of the MIP in relation to kukoamine A from the potato peels extract was estimated at 54 mg/g of the polymer. The kukoamine A purified from potato extract using MIP was exceptionally pure (≈ 90%). Although the corresponding blank polymer was less selective than the MIP for the extraction of kukoamine A from the potato extract, it was shown that the blank polymer could be effectively used for the purification of the crude synthetic kukoamine (polymer capacity = 80 mg of kukoamine A/g of the adsorbent, kukoamine A purity ≈ 86%). Therefore, selective adsorbents could be computationally designed for other plant products, allowing their purification in quantities that would be sufficient for more detailed studies and potential practical applications.

  2. Preparation and characterization of biocompatible silver nanoparticles using pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Nasiriboroumand, Majid; Montazer, Majid; Barani, Hossein

    2018-02-01

    The potential application of any nanoparticles, including silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), strongly depends on their stability against aggregation. In the current study, an aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was used as a stabilizer during synthesis of AgNPs. Nanoparticles have been prepared by the chemical reduction method from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate in the presence of sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The AgNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antibacterial efficiency of AgNPs against Escherichia coli was investigated. The size, polydispersity index, FWHM, and colloidal stability of nanoparticles in dispersion depends on the extract concentrations. In the presence of pomegranate peel extract, the nanoparticles suspension shows colloidal stability at least for a week. Our studies show that synthesized AgNPs with the above described procedure were stable at pH = 3-12 and in the temperature range of 25-85 °C. Additionally, AgNPs exhibit antibacterial properties, especially at the lowest amount of extract to silver ratio (K Extract/Ag ). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (1.6) as compared to sapodilla peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control than other three treatments. The increase in TBARS from initial day of storage to last day of storage was highest in control (514.3%) as compared to BHT (387.7%), BPE (370.6%) and SPE (383.7%). Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly decreased the TBARS. The average decrease in TBARS values during 8 days of storage was 56.8%, 38.3% and 37.2% values in BHT, BPE and SPE treatments respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from banana and sapodilla peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

  4. Salak plum peel extract as a safe and efficient antioxidant appraisal for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya; Ospondpant, Dusadee; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Pongpunyayuen, Siriluck; Chansriniyom, Chaisak

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of Salak plum (Salacca edulis) peel extracts were assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most potent (DPPHIC50=2.932 ± 0.030 µg/mL, ABTSIC50=7.933 ± 0.049 µg/mL, FRAPEC=7,844.44 ± 40.734). Chlorogenic acid was detected as the marker (1.400 ± 0.102 g/kg). The EtOAc fraction was non-cytotoxic in vero and normal human fibroblast (NHF) cells. It exhibited cellular oxidative prevention and damage treatment at 5-40 µg/mL in NHF cells. Salak plum peel loaded liposome consisting of lecithin and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethylcellulose (HMHEC) was developed and found stable with adequate entrapment efficacy. Thus Salak plum peel was highlighted as a potential ecological antioxidant for health promotion aspects, and for cosmetics.

  5. Investigation of fruit peel extracts as sources for compounds with antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khonkarn, Ruttiros; Okonogi, Siriporn; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against human cell lines of fruit peel extracts from rambutan, mangosteen and coconut. The highest antioxidant activity was found from rambutan peel crude extract where the highest radical scavenging capacity via ABTS assay was from its ethyl acetate fraction with a TEAC value of 23.0mM/mg and the highest ferric ion reduction activity via FRAP assay was from its methanol fraction with an EC value of 20.2mM/mg. Importantly, using both assays, these fractions had a higher antioxidant activity than butylated hydroxyl toluene and vitamin E. It was shown that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel had the highest polyphenolic content with a gallic acid equivalent of 2.3mg/mL. The results indicate that the polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the observed antioxidant activity of the extracts. Interestingly, the hexane fraction of coconut peel showed a potent cytotoxic effect on KB cell line by MTT assay (IC(50)=7.7 microg/mL), and no detectable cytotoxicity toward normal cells. We concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction of rambutan peel is a promising resource for potential novel antioxidant agents whereas the hexane fraction of coconut peel may contain novel anticancer compounds. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C U B; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Animals were treated orally with three different concentrations of the extract (1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight). Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test. The results showed that the two higher doses of the extract of M. paradisiaca induced statistically significant increases in the average numbers of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes for the two higher doses and a significant increase in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the three doses tested. The polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio scored in the treated groups was not statistically different from the negative control. The data obtained indicate that fruit peel extract from M. paradisiaca showed mutagenic effect in the peripheral blood cells of Swiss albino mice.

  7. Crude ethanol extracts from grape seeds and peels exhibit anti-tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Kuang; Chou, Su-Tze; Huang, Pai-Jane; Mong, Mei-Chin; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Hsueh, Yu-Pin; Jhan, Jyun-Kai

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase activities of ethanol extracts from the peels and the seeds of Kyoho grapes and Red Globe grapes (KG-PEE, KG-SEE, RGG-PEE, and RGG-SEE). The total phenolic content in KG-SEE and RGG-SEE was 400 +/- 11 and 339 +/- 7 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, respectively, about 22 times and 13 times that in KG-PEE and RGG-PEE, respectively. Both seed extracts showed significantly higher anti-tyrosinase activity than the peel extracts due to their high total phenolic content. The gallic acid content in RGG-SEE was twice that in KG-SEE, and gallic acid showed high anti-tyrosinase activity; thus, RGG-SEE had higher anti-tyrosinase activity than KG-SEE. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the inhibitory mechanism of the ethanol extracts from the grapes was a mix-type inhibition. Grape seed has a greater total phenolic content and has potential as a skin-lighting agent.

  8. Anti-corrosion and Anti-bacteria Property of Modified Pomegranate Peel Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xue-Fan; Chang, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Chao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yong-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Using weight loss method, the pomegranate peel extract (PPE), that is a green corrosion inhibitors, have been studied in the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel in 1M hydrochloric acid solution at 30°C, 45°C, 60°C, respectively. The inhibition rate of extract varies with the extraction concentration in the range of 10 ∼ 1000mg / L, up to 92.7%. Extract inhibits corrosion through adsorption mechanisms. Besides polyphenols hydroxyl and ether groups can slow down corrosion by capturing H+. Polyphenols can remove the dissolved O2, and curb oxygen reducing corrosion. PPE is antifungal active against TGB and FB, but not so active against SRB.

  9. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  10. Amelioration of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity by methanolic extract of pomegranate peels in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nadia; Tahir, Mohammad; Lone, Khalid Perwez

    2016-07-01

    To observe the ameliorating effect by methanolic extract of pomegranate peel in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. The randomised controlled study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 at the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised rats that were randomly divided into three equal groups. Control group A was given normal saline (5ml/kg), whereas group B and C were given 750mg/kg acetaminophen intraperitoneally dissolved in normal saline (5ml/kg) on 1st day of experiment. From Day 2 till day 14, group A and B were given distilled water (5ml/kg), while group C was given 50mg/kg methanolic extract of pomegranate peel dissolved in distilled water (5ml/kg) orally. On day 15, blood was collected through cardiac puncture, and livers were removed and processed for histological examination. There were 24 rats weighing 175±25gm each. Each group had 8(33.3%) rats. Mean liver aspartate aminotransferase at the end of the experiment in groups A, B and C were 97.88±19.45, 148.25±16.48 and 96.13±17.95U/L, while alanine transaminase levels were 51.50±15.38, 96.75±10.91 and 49.63±12.08 U/L (p<0.05 each) On histological examination of group B, the normal hepatic architecture was distorted with loss of classically arranged hepatic cords. Vascular congestion was present with centrilobular necrosis, marked by pyknotic nuclei and vacuoles. Acetaminophen is hepatotoxic and methanolic extract of pomegranate peel ameliorated the hepatic picture probably because of its antioxidant properties.

  11. Continuous extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel using high voltage electrical discharge.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Liang-Gong

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate peel, a waste generated from fruit processing industry, is a potential source of phenolic compounds that are known for their anti-oxidative properties. In this study, a continuous high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) extraction system was for the first time designed and optimized for phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for HVED were: flow rate of materials 12mL/min, electrodes gap distance 3.1mm (corresponding to 29kV/cm of electric field intensity) and liquid to solid ratio 35mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of phenolic compounds was 196.7±6.4mg/g, which closely agreed with the predicted value (199.83mg/g). Compared with the warm water maceration, HVED method possessed higher efficiency for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results demonstrated that HVED technique could be a very effective method for continuous extraction of natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of continuous and intermittent microwave extraction of pectin from banana peels.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Gabriela John; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2017-04-01

    Continuous and intermittent microwave-assisted extractions were used to extract pectin from banana peels. Extraction parameters which were employed in the continuous process were microwave power (300-900W), time (100-300s), pH (1-3) and in the intermittent process were microwave power (300-900W), pulse ratio (0.5-1), pH (1-3). The independent factors were optimized with the Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) (three factor three level) with the desirability function methodology. Results indicate that the independent factors have substantial effect on the pectin yield. Optimized solutions for highest pectin yield (2.18%) from banana peels were obtained with microwave power of 900W, time 100s and pH 3.00 in the continuous method while the intermittent process yielded the highest pectin content (2.58%) at microwave power of 900W, pulse ratio of 0.5 and pH of 3.00. The optimized conditions were validated and close agreement was observed with the validation experiment and predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Apple peel bioactive rich extracts effectively inhibit in vitro human LDL cholesterol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Needs, Paul W

    2013-05-01

    Apple peels are rich in antioxidant bioactives and hence can possess the ability to inhibit human low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation. LDL-C oxidation is known to initiate atherosclerotic plaque formation. Unique quercetin-rich (QAE) and triterpene-rich (TAE) apple peel extracts, their constituent compounds and three in vivo quercetin metabolites were investigated for in vitro LDL-C oxidation inhibition. Both extracts effectively inhibited Cu(2+)-induced LDL-C oxidation. IC(50) of QAE and TAE for LDL-C oxidation products were 0.06-8.29 mg/L and 29.58-95.49 mg/L, respectively. Quercetin compounds, chlorogenic acid and phloridzin could contribute more to the effectiveness of QAE at physiological concentrations. The three in vivo quercetin metabolites; quercetin-3'-sulfate, quercetin-3-glucuronic acid and isorhamnetin-3-glucuronic acid were effective at physiological concentrations and therefore, QAE can be effective in LDL-C oxidation inhibition under physiological conditions. Constituent TAE compounds did not perform well under Cu(2+)-induction. Overall, both extracts effectively inhibited LDL-C oxidation in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted acid extraction (UMAE) of pectin from pomelo peels.

    PubMed

    Liew, Shan Qin; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita; Teoh, Wen Hui

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to optimize sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) on pomelo peel using citric acid. The effects of pH, sonication time, microwave power and irradiation time on the yield and the degree of esterification (DE) of pectin were investigated. Under optimized conditions of pH 1.80, 27.52min sonication followed by 6.40min microwave irradiation at 643.44W, the yield and the DE value of pectin obtained was respectively at 38.00% and 56.88%. Based upon optimized UMAE condition, the pectin from microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (MUAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were studied. The yield of pectin adopting the UMAE was higher than all other techniques in the order of UMAE>MUAE>MAE>UAE. The pectin's galacturonic acid content obtained from combined extraction technique is higher than that obtained from sole extraction technique and the pectin gel produced from various techniques exhibited a pseudoplastic behaviour. The morphological structures of pectin extracted from MUAE and MAE closely resemble each other. The extracted pectin from UMAE with smaller and more regular surface differs greatly from that of UAE. This has substantiated the highest pectin yield of 36.33% from UMAE and further signified their compatibility and potentiality in pectin extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Ilakya, S; Anitha, S L; Sabarima, S Pooja; Priya, B

    2017-01-01

    Four factors three level face centered central composite response surface design was employed in this study to investigate and optimize the effect of process variables (liquid-solid (LS) ratio (10:1-20:1ml/g), pH (1-2), sonication time (15-30min) and extraction temperature (50-70°C)) on the maximum extraction yield of pectin from waste Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) peel by ultrasound assisted extraction method. Numerical optimization method was adapted in this study and the following optimal condition was obtained as follows: Liquid-solid ratio of 15:1ml/g, pH of 1.6, sonication time of 24min and temperature of 60°C. The optimal condition was validated through experiments and the observed value was interrelated with predicted value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Dong-Ryul; Jo, Seong-Chun; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2004-06-02

    The effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu peels was evaluated. Citrus peels (CP) (5 g) were placed in Pyrex Petri dishes (8.0 cm diameter) and heat-treated at 50, 100, or 150 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min in an electric muffle furnace. After heat treatment, 70% ethanol extract (EE) and water extract (WE) (0.1 g/10 mL) of CP were prepared, and total phenol contents (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power of the extracts were determined. The antioxidant activities of CP extracts increased as heating temperature increased. For example, heat treatment of CP at 150 degrees C for 60 min increased the TPC, RSA, and reducing power of EE from 71.8 to 171.0 microM, from 29.64 to 64.25%, and from 0.45 to 0.82, respectively, compared to non-heat-treated control. In the case of WE from CP heat-treated at the same conditions (150 degrees C for 60 min), the TPC, RSA, and reducing power also increased from 84.4 to 204.9 microM, from 15.81 to 58.26%, and from 0.27 to 0.96, respectively. Several low molecular weight phenolic compounds such as 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldoxime, 5-hydroxyvaleric acid, 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, and vanillic acid were newly formed in the CP heated at 150 degrees C for 30 min. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of CP extracts was significantly affected by heating temperature and duration of treatment on CP and that the heating process can be used as a tool for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP.

  17. Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable.

  18. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (P<0.01) after 8 days of storage. Sensory evaluation with respect to colour and rancid odour revealed that PE incorporation in meatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Ajah, Austin Azubuike; Elufioye, Taiwo Olayemi

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration.

  20. Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents

    PubMed Central

    Onasanwo, Samuel Adetunji; Emikpe, Benjamin Obukowho; Ajah, Austin Azubuike; Elufioye, Taiwo Olayemi

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration. PMID:23900937

  1. Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Asyifah Mohamed; Lu, Kaihui; Yip, Yew Mun; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of many chronic diseases. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that phytochemicals may inhibit adipogenesis and obesity. In this study, we report for the first time, the ability of Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract commonly known as star fruit (SFP) to effectively suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and therefore, address it as a potential candidate to treat obesity and its related diseases. (-)-Epicatechin was identified as a bioactive compound likely responsible for this suppression. As the genetic expression studies revealed that the adipogenic activity of SFP extract was due to the simultaneous downregulation of the C/EBPα and PPARγ as well as the upregulation of PPARα receptor genes, a detailed computational docking study was also elucidated to reveal the likely binding mode of (-)-epicatechin to the receptor of interest, accounting for the likely mechanism that results in the overall suppression of adipocyte differentiation.

  2. Effect of extraction condition on properties of pectin from banana peels and its function as fat replacer in salad cream.

    PubMed

    Maneerat, Nitjaree; Tangsuphoom, Nattapol; Nitithamyong, Anadi

    2017-02-01

    Banana peels are wasted from banana processing industry. Pectin is a soluble dietary fibre usually prepared from fruit and vegetable processing wastes. Pectin extraction from banana peels thus should be an effective way of waste utilization. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction condition on the properties of pectin from peels of Nam Wa banana ( Musa (ABB group) 'Kluai Nam Wa') and its role as fat replacer in salad cream. Banana peel pectin (BPP) was extracted with HCl (pH 1.5) and water (pH 6.0) for 30-120 min at 90 ± 5 °C. Acid extraction yielded 7-11% pectin on a dry basis with galacturonic acid content (GalA), degree of methylation (DM), and viscosity-average molecular weight (M v ) of 42-47, 57-61%, and 17-40 kDa, respectively; while water-extracted BPP contained lower DM but higher GalA and M v . Prolonged extraction raised the pectin yield but lowered the M v of BPP and the viscosity of their solutions. Incorporation of BPP obtained from 60 min acid- and water-extraction into salad cream at 30% oil substitution level resulted in the decreases in viscosity and lightness. All reduced-fat samples were stable to cream separation during 3-weeks storage although the formula containing water-extracted BPP had larger oil droplet size and greater extent of droplet flocculation. There was no difference in sensory scores rated by 50 panelists on thickness, smoothness, and overall acceptability of the full- and reduced-fat salad creams. Therefore, Nam Wa banana peels can be an alternative source of pectin with potential application as fat replacer in food products.

  3. Optimization of pectin extraction from banana peels with citric acid by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Mazzetto, Selma E; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-05-01

    A central composite design was used to determine effects of pH (2.0-4.5), extraction temperature (70-90 °C) and time (120-240 min) on the yield, degree of methoxylation (DM) and galacturonic acid content (GA) of pectins extracted from banana peels with citric acid. Changes in composition during the main steps of pectin extraction were followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR was also used to determine DM and GA of pectins. Harsh temperature and pH conditions enhanced the extraction yield, but decreased DM. GA presented a maximum value at 83 °C, 190 min, and pH 2.7. The yield of galacturonic acid (YGA), which took into account both the extraction yield and the pectin purity, was improved by higher temperature and lower pH values. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those resulting in a maximum YGA while keeping DM at a minimum of 51%, were: 87 °C, 160 min, pH 2.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pomegranate peel extract attenuates oxidative stress by decreasing coronary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hypertensive female rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Roger L; Dellacqua, Lais O; Delgado, Nathalie T B; Rouver, Wender N; Podratz, Priscila L; Lima, Leandro C F; Piccin, Mariela P C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Mauad, Helder; Graceli, Jones B; Moyses, Margareth R

    2016-01-01

    Based on the antioxidant properties of pomegranate, this study was designed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract on damage associated with hypertension and aging in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. The influence of pomegranate consumption was examined on systolic blood pressure (SBP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) coronary activity, oxidative stress, and vascular morphology. Four- or 28-wk-old SHR model rats were treated for 30 d, with terminal experimental animal age being 8 and 32 wk, respectively, with either pomegranate extract (SHR-PG) or filtered water (SHR). Data showed significant reduction in SBP and coronary ACE activity in both age groups. The levels of superoxide anion, a measure of oxidative stress, were significantly lower in animals in the SHR-PG group compared to SHR alone. Coronary morphology demonstrated total increases in vascular wall areas were in the SHR group, and pomegranate peel extract diminished this effect. Pomegranate peel extract consumption conferred protection against hypertension in the SHR model. This finding was demonstrated by marked reduction in coronary ACE activity, oxidative stress, and vascular remodelling. In addition, treatment was able to reduce SBP in both groups. Evidence indicates that the use of pomegranate peel extract may prove beneficial in alleviating coronary heart disease.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver and platinum nanoparticles using orange peel extract: characterisation and applications.

    PubMed

    Castro, Laura; Blázquez, María Luisa; González, Felisa; Muñoz, Jesús Ángel; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study focuses on the green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles (silver (Ag) and platinum (Pt)) and how the size and shape of the nanoparticles produced can be controlled through changes in the initial pH value of the precursor solution. The nanoparticles were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This simple and environmentally friendly method allows the synthesis of diverse nanostructures in the absence of a surfactant or polymer to direct nanoparticle growth, and without externally adding seed crystallites. The antibacterial effects of Ag nanoparticles and catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles were explored for future promising biotechnological approaches in different fields.

  6. The extract from Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel induces apoptosis and impairs metastasis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuanle; Li, Yali; Yang, Fangfang; Zeng, Anqi; Yang, Shuping; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Yiwen; Xie, Yongmei; Ye, Tinghong; Xia, Yong; Yin, Wenya

    2017-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a big threat to male for its poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Natural compounds are important resources of many anticancer drugs. Pomegranate is a kind of antioxidant-rich fruit and its peel and seed has potential anticancer activities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PoPx) on the apoptosis and metastasis of prostate cancer cells and the related mechanism. We found that PoPx showed growth inhibition on prostate cancer cells. Nuclei morphological and flow cytometer (FCM) analysis indicated that PoPx could induce prostate cancer apoptosis. Further investigation indicated that mitochondrial mediated intrinsic pathway is involved in the apoptosis. Exposure to PoPx led to loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δym), accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blot analysis showed that PoPx could increase the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and activation of apoptosis executor caspase 3. Wound healing assay and transwell migration and invasion assay implied that PoPx has the potential to inhibit migration and invasion, two critical steps in prostate cancer metastasis. Downregulation of MMP2/MMP9 and upregulation of TIMP2 showed accordance with the inhibition of migration and invasion. In summary, the present data showed that PoPx could be a promising drug candidate to treat prostate cancer, showing us a better way to develop novel drugs from natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Gui, Bing; Cao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The peel of Citrus maxima ( C. maxima ) is the primary byproducts during the process of fruit or juice in food industries, and it was always considered as biomass waste for further treatments. In this study, the authors reported a simple and eco-friendly method to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using C. maxima peel extract as reducing and capping agents. The synthesised AuNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-visible spectrum of the AuNPs colloid showed a characteristic peak at 540 nm. The peaks of XRD analysis at (2 θ ) 38.30°, 44.28°, 64.62°, 77.57° and 81.75° were assigned to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. The TEM images showed that AuNPs were nearly spherical in shape with the size of 8-25 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed that some bioactive compounds capped the surface of synthesised AuNPs. The biosynthesised AuNPs performed strong catalytic activity in degradation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and good antibacterial activity against both gram negative ( Escherichia coli ) and gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacterium. The synthesis procedure was proved simple, cost effective and environment friendly.

  8. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  9. Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

  10. Effect of extraction method on quality of orange juice: hand-squeezed, commercial-fresh squeezed and processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have flavor and nutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. In this study, ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, resulting in...

  11. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Zhe; Shao, Ping; Liu, Jian-Hua; Ru, Qiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE). Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel. PMID:23202938

  12. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kaviya, S; Santhanalakshmi, J; Viswanathan, B; Muthumary, J; Srinivasan, K

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved by a novel, simple green chemistry procedure using citrus sinensis peel extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out at room temperature (25°C) and 60°C. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, FESEM and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) has been studied. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Citrus hystrix peels extract on rats model

    PubMed Central

    Putri, Herwandhani; Nagadi, Standie; Larasati, Yonika Arum; Wulandari, Nindi; Hermawan, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the combination effect of doxorubicin and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime's) peel ethanolic extract (ChEE) on blood serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology of female Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Doxorubicin and ChEE (5 rats per group) were administered in five groups of 3 rats each for 11 d. Group I: doxorubicin (dox) 4.67 mg/kg body weight; Group II: dox+ChEE 500 mg/kg body weight; Group III: dox+ChEE 1 000 mg/kg body weight; Group IV: ChEE 1 000 mg/kg body weight; Group V: untreated (control). Results ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity rats, but did not repair neither hepatohistopathology profile nor reduce serum activity of ALT and AST. Conclusion ChEE has potency to be developed as cardioprotector agent in chemotherapy. PMID:23646300

  15. Neuroprotective Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract after Chronic Infusion with Amyloid-β Peptide in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Telles, Milena; Mourelle, Danilo; Bachiega, Patricia; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and degenerative condition that had no treatment until recently. The current therapeutic strategies reduce progression of the disease but are expensive and commonly cause side effects that are uncomfortable for treated patients. Functional foods to prevent and/or treat many conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, represent a promising field of study currently gaining attention. To this end, here we demonstrate the effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PPE) regarding spatial memory, biomarkers of neuroplasticity, oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of neurodegeneration. Male C57Bl/6 mice were chronically infused for 35 days with amyloid-β peptide 1–42 (Aβ) or vehicle (control) using mini-osmotic pumps. Another group, also infused with Aβ, was treated with PPE (p.o.– βA+PPE, 800 mg/kg/day). Spatial memory was evaluated in the Barnes maze. Animals treated with PPE and in the control group exhibited a reduction in failure to find the escape box, a finding that was not observed in the Aβ group. The consumption of PPE reduced amyloid plaque density, increased the expression of neurotrophin BDNF and reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. A reduction in lipid peroxidation and in the concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also observed in the PPE group. No hepatic lesions were observed in animals treated with PPE. In conclusion, administration of pomegranate peel extract has neuroprotective effects involving multiple mechanisms to prevent establishment and progression of the neurodegenerative process induced by infusion with amyloid-β peptide in mice. PMID:27829013

  16. Effects of mangosteen peel extract combined with demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft on osteocalcin, collagen 1, and osteoblast as alveolar bone regeneration in socket preservation.

    PubMed

    Kresnoadi, Utari; Raharjo, Tika; Rostiny, Rostiny

    2018-01-01

    Tooth extraction will provoke changes in alveolar bone morphology and dimensions. Postextraction bone resorption can lead to significant problems for restorative dentistry. Therefore, the extracted tooth socket needs to be preserved to reduce alveolar ridge bone resorption. This research aimed to analyze the expression and levels of osteocalcin, collagen 1, and osteoblasts in extracted tooth sockets filled with a combination of mangosteen peel extract and demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFDBBX). Fifty-six Cavia cobaya , whose lower left incisors had been extracted, were divided into eight groups according to the substance used to fill their sockets on days 7 and 30, Poly ethylene glycol, DFDBBX, mangosteen peel extract, or a combination of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX. This research was conducted in several stages; the application of mangosteen peel extract combined with graft material was performed as the form of tooth extraction socket preservation. The C. cobaya rats were subsequently examined by immunohistochemical methods to measure osteocalcin and collagen 1 expressions, whereas histological examination was conducted to calculate the number of osteoblasts in accordance with the duration of the research. On days 7 and 30, the group treated with a combination of DFDBBX and mangosteen peel extract which had the highest expression and levels of osteocalcin, collagen 1, and osteoblasts. The administration of mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX as a means of tooth extraction socket preservation can increase osteocalcin and collagen 1 expression. Consequently, osteoblasts as a means of alveolar bone regeneration will increase in number.

  17. Optimization of drying process and pressurized liquid extraction for recovery of bioactive compounds from avocado peel by-product.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jorge G; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2018-04-16

    The aim of the present study was to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds in avocado peel using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with GRAS solvents. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design 2 2 model was used in order to optimize PLE conditions. Moreover, the effect of air drying temperature on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and individual phenolic compounds concentration were evaluated. The quantification of individual compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS. The optimized extraction conditions were 200°C as extraction temperature and 1:1 v/v as ethanol/water ratio. Regarding to the effect of drying, the highest TPC was obtained with a drying temperature of 85°C. Forty seven phenolic compounds were quantified in the obtained extracts, showing that phenolic acids found to be the more stables compounds to drying process, while procyanidins were the more thermolabiles analytes. To our knowledge, this is the first available study in which phenolic compounds extraction was optimized using PLE and such amount of phenolic compounds was quantified in avocado peel. These results confirm that PLE represents a powerful tool to obtain avocado peel extracts with high concentration in bioactive compounds suitable for its use in the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical sector. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    PubMed

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc < 6.3%) rapid-set to ultrarapid-set high-methoxyl pectins at starch-adjusted yields of 11-21 g/100 g. However, despite similar high molecular weight fractions and galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratios, their average molecular weight was markedly reduced by a characteristic, almost monodisperse fraction of 16000-19000. Expanded galactans, indicated by galactose/rhamnose ratios of 15-24 mol/mol, probably represented arabinogalactan side-chain fragments withstanding hot-acid extraction at pH 1.5 and 2.0, as implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements.

  20. Consumer acceptance of orange juice mixed with water mint leave extract.

    PubMed

    Ali, Marwa Rashad

    2017-10-31

    Orange-Mint leaves juice was formulated using different addition percentages of mint leaves extract. The juice was aseptically processed, packed in glass bottles under sterilized environment and sterilized at 70°C for 15 minutes then storage at 5°C for 3 months. The physicochemical, nutritional value, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the juice was evaluated. There is no difference in pH, total soluble solids, ash, and total acidity in all samples moreover, the sample A2, "orange juice with 15% of mint leaves extract" recorded the best values of sensory evaluation, on the other hand, it was recorded lower values of vitamin C and total phenolic compound than sample (C) or (C1) because of increasing in addition% of mint leaves extract to orange juice. The sensory properties of juice samples were not remarkable any changes during storage. The result indicated that the juice was acceptable up to 3 months of storage 5°C. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Evaluation of a Pomegranate Peel Extract as an Alternative Means to Control Olive Anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Pangallo, Sonia; Nicosia, Maria G Li Destri; Agosteo, Giovanni E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Romeo, Flora V; Cacciola, Santa O; Rapisarda, Paolo; Schena, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruit worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues. In field trials, PGE was significantly more effective than copper, which is traditionally used to control the disease. The highest level of protection was achieved by applying the extract in the early ascending phase of the disease outbreaks because natural rots were completely inhibited with PGE at 12 g/liter and were reduced by 98.6 and by 93.0% on plants treated with PGE at 6 and 3 g/liter, respectively. Two treatments carried out 30 and 15 days before the expected epidemic outbreak reduced the incidence of the disease by 77.6, 57.0, and 51.8%, depending on the PGE concentration. The analysis of epiphytic populations showed a strong antimicrobial activity of PGE, which sharply reduced both fungal and bacterial populations. Because PGE was obtained from a natural matrix using safe chemicals and did not have any apparent phytotoxic effect on treated olive fruit, it may be regarded as a safe and effective natural antifungal preparation to control olive anthracnose and improve olive productions.

  2. Validated reversed phase LC method for quantitative analysis of polymethoxyflavones in citrus peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Shiming; Ferguson, Stephen; Goodnow, Robert; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2008-01-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), which exist exclusively in the citrus genus, have biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. A validated RPLC method was developed for quantitative analysis of six major PMFs, namely nobiletin, tangeretin, sinensetin, 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone, and 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone. The polar embedded LC stationary phase was able to fully resolve the six analogues. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and system suitability. The LOD of the method was calculated as 0.15 microg/mL and the recovery rate was between 97.0 and 105.1%. This analytical method was successfully applied to quantify the individual PMFs in four commercially available citrus peel extracts (CPEs). Each extract shows significant difference in the PMF composition and concentration. This method may provide a simple, rapid, and reliable tool to help reveal the correlation between the bioactivity of the PMF extracts and the individual PMF content.

  3. Carbon-Based Fe₃O₄ Nanocomposites Derived from Waste Pomelo Peels for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of 11 Triazole Fungicides in Fruit Samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Keyu; Zhang, Wenlin; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2018-05-06

    Carbon-based Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites (C/Fe₃O₄ NCs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using waste pomelo peels as the carbon precursors. The characterization results showed that they had good structures and physicochemical properties. The prepared C/Fe₃O₄ NCs could be applied as excellent and recyclable adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 11 triazole fungicides in fruit samples. In the MSPE procedure, several parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction time, the type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity ( R ² > 0.9916), the limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 1⁻100, 0.12⁻0.55, and 0.39⁻1.85 μg/kg for 11 pesticides, respectively. Lastly, the proposed MSPE method was successfully applied to analyze triazole fungicides in real apple, pear, orange, peach, and banana samples with recoveries in the range of 82.1% to 109.9% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.4%. Therefore, the C/Fe₃O₄ NCs based MSPE method has a great potential for isolating and pre-concentrating trace levels of triazole fungicides in fruits.

  4. Carbon-Based Fe3O4 Nanocomposites Derived from Waste Pomelo Peels for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of 11 Triazole Fungicides in Fruit Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Keyu; Zhang, Wenlin; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based Fe3O4 nanocomposites (C/Fe3O4 NCs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using waste pomelo peels as the carbon precursors. The characterization results showed that they had good structures and physicochemical properties. The prepared C/Fe3O4 NCs could be applied as excellent and recyclable adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 11 triazole fungicides in fruit samples. In the MSPE procedure, several parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction time, the type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity (R2 > 0.9916), the limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 1–100, 0.12–0.55, and 0.39–1.85 μg/kg for 11 pesticides, respectively. Lastly, the proposed MSPE method was successfully applied to analyze triazole fungicides in real apple, pear, orange, peach, and banana samples with recoveries in the range of 82.1% to 109.9% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.4%. Therefore, the C/Fe3O4 NCs based MSPE method has a great potential for isolating and pre-concentrating trace levels of triazole fungicides in fruits. PMID:29734765

  5. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  6. Extraction of nobiletin from Citrus Unshiu peels by supercritical fluid and its CRE-mediated transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Oba, Chisato; Ota, Masaki; Nomura, Koichiro; Fujiwara, Hironori; Takito, Jiro; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Inomata, Hiroshi

    2017-04-15

    Polymethoxyflavone (PMF) is one of bioactive compounds in Citrus Unshiu and included mainly in the peels rather than the fruits, seeds and leaves. Supercritical CO 2 extraction is one candidate for selective extraction of polymethoxyflavone and in this study, supercritical CO 2 extraction with/without ethanol entrainer from Citrus Unshiu peels was examined at a temperature of 333K and a pressure of 30MPa. CRE (cyclic AMP response element)-mediated transcriptional assay was examined by using the extracts from supercritical fluid extraction. The results showed that extracts including nobiletin increased with increasing ethanol concentration in supercritical CO 2 and the elapsed extraction time. Extracts at ethanol concentration of 5 mol% showed high CRE-mediated transcription activity. This can be caused by activity of the extract including nobiletin in addition to the other methoxylated flavonoid species such as tangeretin. Extracts at ethanol concentration of 50% showed the highest CRE-mediated transcription activity, which can be attributed to flavonoid glycoside such as hesperidin. From our investigations, flavonoid glycoside can be one of promoters of CRE-mediated transcription activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolic Compounds of Potato Peel Extracts: Their Antioxidant Activity and Protection against Human Enteric Viruses.

    PubMed

    Silva-BeltrÁn, Norma Patricia; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; López-Cuevas, Osvaldo; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; López-Mata, Marco A; Del-Toro-SÁnchez, Carmen Lizette; Marquez-Rios, Enrique; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    2017-02-28

    Potato peels (PP) contain several bioactive compounds. These compounds are known to provide human health benefits, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, these compounds could have effects on human enteric viruses that have not yet been reported. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant properties in the acidified ethanol extract (AEE) and water extract of PP, and the antiviral effects on the inhibition of Av-05 and MS2 bacteriophages, which were used as human enteric viral surrogates. The AEE showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids were the major phenolic acids. In vitro analysis indicated that PP had a strong antioxidant activity. A 3 h incubation with AEE at a concentration of 5 mg/ml was needed to reduce the PFU/ml (plaque-forming unit per unit volume) of Av-05 and MS2 by 2.8 and 3.9 log₁₀, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest that PP has potential to be a source of natural antioxidants against enteric viruses.

  8. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  9. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p < 0.01) increased from 0.101 ± 0.011 mg MA/kg to 0.495 ± 0.083 mg MA/kg, while remained lower in the citrus extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora.

  10. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Aloe vera peel extract on blood sugar level of alloxan-induced Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peniati, E.; Setiadi, E.; Susanti, R.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Aloe vera peel contains flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and sterols as its secondary metabolites. This research explores the effect of Aloe vera peel extract on blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced Wistar rats in a laboratory experimental scale. Blood glucose examination was performed by using GOD-PAP method. Twenty five 2 months old-white rat (Rattus norvegicus) male wistar strain weigh 150-200 grams body weight, and in healthy condition, was randomly divided into five groups. Those five groups were negative control group (K-), positive control group (K+), treatment group 1 (P1), treatment group 2 (P 2), and treatment group 3 (P 3). Each group was fed by standard diet and ad-libitum drinking. Treatments were given for 28 days. On the day 29, blood glucose level of all groups were analyzed. The results showed that the highest blood glucose levels in control group rat were positive (191.2 mg/dl). Aloe vera extract was able to decrease blood sugar level up to 104,6mg/dl in P3 group treatment rats (served Aloe vera extract 350 mg/kg BW/day). It comes to the conclusion that giving Aloe vera peel extract for 28 days decreases blood sugar level of hyperglycemic rat.

  11. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants.

  12. Citrus peel extracts attenuated obesity and modulated gut microbiota in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yen-Chen; Chang, Wei-Tien; Li, Shiming; Wu, Jia-Ching; Badmeav, Vladimir; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2018-06-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) and hydroxyl PMFs (HOPMFs) are mainly found in citrus peel and have shown anti-obesity potential in in vitro and in vivo studies. Herein, we have investigated the anti-obesity effects of two citrus peel extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction: PMF A, with a lower content of PMFs and HOPMFs, and PMF B, with a higher content of PMFs and HOPMFs. PMF A and PMF B were administered orally for 16 weeks to mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The results showed that PMF B decreased the lipid content more statistically significantly (p < 0.05) than PMF A in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, reduced the adipocyte size, decreased the adipose tissue weight and alleviated the total body weight in the HFD mice. Both PMF A and PMF B reduced the adipocyte size in the perigonadal fat by markedly decreasing the levels of lipid droplets (LD) and perilipin 1 protein and Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) expression. Compared to the case of the HFD group, PMF B altered the gut microbiota by increasing Prevotella and decreasing rc4-4 bacteria. The change in the composition of gut microbiota, the community of symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, may determine the metabolic health and be responsible for the anti-obesity mechanism. Our results indicate that the citrus peel extracts decrease lipid accumulation both in vivo and in vitro and should be considered for the management of overweight and obesity conditions.

  13. Ecofriendly Synthesis of nano Zero Valent Iron from Banana Peel Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunardi; Ashadi; Budi Rahardjo, Sentot; Inayati

    2017-01-01

    In this study, nano Zero Valent Iron (nZVI) were synthesized from banana peel extract (BPE) and ferrous sulfate. During the synthesis of nZVI both the precursor and the reducing agent were mixed in a clean sterilized flask in 1:1 proportion. For the reduction of Fe ions, 5 ml of filtered BPE was mixed to 5 ml of freshly prepared 0.001 M - 0.005 M aqueous of FeSO4 solution with constant stirring at room temperature. Within a particular time change in colour from brown to black color obtained by nanoparticles synthesis. A systematic characterization of nZVI was performed using UV-Vis. UV-visible absorption is used to investigate SPR. Characteristic surface plasmon absorption band was observed at 210 nm for the black colored nZVI synthesized from 0.001-0.005 M ferrous sulfate with BPE concentration 5 ml. It has been found that the optimum concentration for the synthesis of nZVI is 0.001M Fe2+ ions. There is small decrease in the intensity of SPR band from 0.001 to 0.005 M. The characterization size of nZVI was performed using TEM. The result shows that formation of particles size of nZVI was more 100 nm.

  14. Passion fruit peel extract attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Manikonda, Pavan Kumar; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fatal lung disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, with no effective treatments. We investigated the efficacy of natural products with high anti-inflammatory activity, such as passion fruit peel extract (PFPE), in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to induce PF. Daily PFPE treatment significantly reduced loss of body mass and mortality rate in mice compared with those treated with bleomycin. While bleomycin-induced PF resulted in elevated total numbers of inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on both days 7 and 21, PFPE administration significantly attenuated these phenomena compared with bleomycin group. On day 7, the decreased superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities observed in the bleomycin group were significantly restored with PFPE treatment. On day 21, enhanced hydroxyproline deposition in the bleomycin group was also suppressed by PFPE administration. PFPE treatment significantly attenuated extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of collagen in lung tissue sections of bleomycin-induced mice on days 7 and 21, respectively. Our results indicate that administration of PFPE decreased bleomycin-induced PF because of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  15. Citrus peel extract attenuates acute cyanide poisoning-induced seizures and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The primary aimed of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of methanolic extract of citrus peel (MECP) on acute cyanide (KCN) poisoning-induced seizures and oxidative stress in rats. The intraperitoneal LD50 value of KCN (6.3 mg/Kg bwt), based on 24 hrs mortality, was significantly increased by 9, 52 or 113% by oral administration of MECP (500 mg/Kg bwt) pre-administered for 1, 2 and 3 days, respectively, in rats in a time-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injection of the sublethal dose of KCN (3 mg/Kg bwt) into rats increased, 24 hrs later, lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), glutamate levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. KCN also decreased brain glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in these animals. Pre-treatment of rats with MECP inhibited KCN-induced increases in LPO, NO, and glutamate levels and AChE activity as well as decreases in brain GSH level and SOD and CAT activities. In addition, KCN significantly decreased norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin levels in different brain regions which were resolved by MECP. From the present results, it can be concluded that the neuroprotective effects of MECP against KCN-induced seizures and oxidative stress may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress overproduction and maintenance of antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  16. Pomegranate peel extract decreases small intestine lipid peroxidation by enhancing activities of major antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Blachier, François; Faure, Patrice; Garrel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) contains several compounds with antioxidative properties. PPE added to foods may interact with endogenous antioxidants and promote health. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which PPE exerts their actions on tissues of biological systems in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PPE on activities of antioxidant enzymes. Mice were used to investigate the effects of PPE on plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue MDA content and activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the small intestine, liver and skeletal muscle - different tissues involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of dietary nutrients. Control mice were fed a standard diet, whereas treated mice were fed for 40 days with the standard diet containing 5% or 10% PPE. Mice fed the 10% PPE diet exhibited lower plasma MDA concentrations, reduced content of MDA in the small intestine and liver and higher levels of SOD1 and GPX activities in the small intestine compared to mice fed the control diet. These findings demonstrate that intake of PPE in diet attenuates small intestine lipid peroxidation and strengthens the first line of small intestine antioxidant defense by enhancing enzymatic antioxidative pathways. PPE is worthy of further study as a therapeutic approach to prevent peroxidative stress-induced gut pathogenesis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kokila, T; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2016-12-01

    Waste fruit peel mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green chemistry approach that links nanotechnology and biotechnology. Using biological medium such as peel extract for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an ecofriendly and emerging scientific trend. With this back drop the present study focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract (CPPE) and evaluation of its antimicrobial potentials of the nanoparticles against different human pathogens and to investigate the free radical scavenging activity. Water soluble antioxidant constituents present in Carica Papaya peel extract were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nanosized Ag particles. UV-vis spectral analysis shows surface plasmon resonance band at 430nm. The presence of active proteins and phenolic groups present in the biomass before and after reduction was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study shows the average size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 28nm, as well as revealed their face centered cubic structure. Atomic force microscope image gives the 3D topological characteristic of silver nanoparticles and the particle size ranges from 10 to 30nm. The average particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles is 161nm (Dynamic light scattering) and the corresponding average zeta potential value is -20.5mV, suggesting higher stability of silver nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles efficiently inhibited pathogenic organisms both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles might serve as a potent antioxidant as revealed by DPPH and ABT S+ assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of processed and fresh squeezed ‘Hamlin’ orange juice - flavor quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Hamlin’ orange juice was extracted by a commercial food service juicer with or without pasteurization and compared to processed juice for flavor quality. There was much higher peel oil content (introduced from the flavedo), but lower insoluble solids and pectin content (introduced from albedo and s...

  19. Salmonella enterica growth and biofilm formation in flesh and peel cantaloupe extracts on four food-contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    De Abrew Abeysundara, Piumi; Dhowlaghar, Nitin; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Mark W; Mahmoud, Barakat; Sharma, Chander S; Ma, Din-Pow

    2018-05-04

    Salmonella enterica is responsible for the highest number of foodborne disease outbreaks pertaining to cantaloupe industry. The objective of this study was to examine the growth and biofilm formation by outbreak strains of S. enterica ser. Poona (S. Poona), S. enterica ser. Stanley (S. Stanley) and S. enterica ser. Montevideo (S. Montevideo) on different food-contact processing surfaces in cantaloupe flesh and peel extracts at 22 °C and 10 °C. The generation time of all S. enterica strains tested was shorter in the high concentration (50 mg/ml) of cantaloupe extract and high temperature. In 50 mg/ml of cantaloupe flesh or peel extract, the populations of S. enterica were increased by 5 log CFU/ml in 24 h at 22 °C and 1 log CFU/ml in 72 h at 10 °C. In 2 mg/ml of cantaloupe flesh or peel extracts, the populations of S. enterica were increased by 3.5 log CFU/ml in 56 h at 22 °C, but there were no changes in 72 h at 10 °C. The biofilm production of S. enterica was greater at 50 mg/ml of cantaloupe extract and 22 °C, but no major differences (P ≥ 0.05) were found among the strains tested. In 50 mg/ml cantaloupe extract, S. enterica produced 5-6 log CFU/cm 2 biofilm in 4-7 d at 22 °C and approximately 3.5-4 log CFU/cm 2 in 7 d at 10 °C. In 2 mg/ml of cantaloupe extract, S. enterica produced 4-4.5 log CFU/cm 2 biofilms in 4-7 d at 22 °C and 3 log CFU/cm 2 in 7 d at 10 °C. Biofilm formation by S. Poona (01A4754) was lowest on buna-n rubber compared to stainless steel, polyethylene and polyurethane surfaces under the majority of conditions tested. Overall, these findings show that S. enterica strains can grow rapidly and form biofilms on different cantaloupe processing surfaces in the presence of low concentrations of cantaloupe flesh or peel extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of pulsed ultrasound-assisted technique for extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peel of Malas variety: Punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Milad; Karim, Roselina; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-09-01

    Pomegranate peel is a rich source of phenolic compounds (such as punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids). However, the content of such bioactive compounds in the peel extract can be affected by extraction type and condition. It was hypothesized that the optimization of a pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE) technique could result in the pomegranate peel extract with higher yield and antioxidant activity. The main goal was to optimize PUAE condition resulting in the highest yield and antioxidant activity as well as the highest contents of punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids. The operation at the intensity level of 105W/cm(2) and duty cycle of 50% for a short time (10min) had a high efficiency for extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peel. The application of such short extraction can save the energy and cost of the production. Punicalagin and ellagic acid were the most predominant phenolic compounds quantified in the pomegranate peel extract (PPE) from Malas variety. PPE contained a minor content of gallic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Citrus peel polymethoxylated flavones extract modulates liver and heart function parameters in diet induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Green, Curtis O; Wheatley, Andrew O; McGrowder, Donovan A; Dilworth, Lowell L; Asemota, Helen N

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ortanique peel polymethoxylated flavones extract (PMF(ort)) on organ function parameters in the serum of hypercholesterolemic and normal rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high cholesterol diets supplemented with 1.5% PMF(ort) and niacin respectively for 49days. Hypercholesterolemic rats fed PMF(ort) had significant reductions in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (69.12±3.34 and 87.22±8.42U/L respectively) compared to the untreated hypercholesterolemic group (118.61±4.85 and 132.62±10.62U/L respectively, p<0.05). Supplementation of the diet with niacin or PMF(ort) resulted in no significant differences in the serum levels of creatinine or urea in any of the groups. Total bilirubin was highest in the untreated hypercholesterolemic group. Supplementation of the diets of hypercholesterolemic rats with PMF(ort) resulted in significant reductions in the activities of serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (119.3±25.3; 222.5±50.3U/L, p<0.05) respectively relative to the untreated hypercholesterolemic group (257.2±48.3; 648.8±103U/L, p<0.05). The results would suggest that PMF(ort) modulates hypercholesterolemia-associated organ injury in rats. PMF(ort) could therefore be a suitable candidate for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of hypercholesterolemia-associated organ injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Offerta, Alessia; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Venera, Cardile

    2014-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations causes important oxidative damages that result in clinical and hystopathological changes, contributing to premature skin aging. Hyperpigmented lesions, also known as age spots, are one of the most visible alterations in skin photoaging. Skin is naturally equipped with antioxidant systems against UV-induced ROS generation; however, these antioxidant defenses are not completely efficient during exposure to sunlight. Oral antioxidants are able to counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation and to strengthen the physiological skin antioxidant defenses. The present study was performed to evaluate the in vivo skin photo-protecting and anti-aging effects of a red orange (Citrus sinensis varieties Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) extract supplementation. Previous studies showed that red orange extracts possess strong in vitro free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity and photo-protective effects on human skin. The photo-protective effects of red orange extract intake against UV-induced skin erythema and melanin production in solar lentigo was evaluated on healthy volunteers by an objective instrumental method (reflectance spectrophotometry). Data obtained from in vivo studies showed that supplementation of red orange extract (100 mg/daily) for 15 days brought a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema degree. Moreover, skin age spots pigmentation (melanin content) decreased from 27% to 7% when subjects were exposed to solar lamp during red orange extract supplementation. Red orange extract intake can strengthen physiological antioxidant skin defenses, protecting skin from the damaging processes involved in photo-aging and leading to an improvement in skin appearance and pigmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-07-01

    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges.

  4. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation - after Tazortene, hydroquinone, and salicylic acid chemical peels Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ... after treatment with hydroquinone, TCA chemical peel, and salicylic acid chemical peel. Photo courtesy of of P. Grimes ...

  5. Recovery and purification of limonin from pummelo [Citrus grandis] peel using water extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and resin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan Fan; Zhang, Liang Zheng; Du, Xi Ping; Zhang, Su Fang; Li, Li Jun; Jiang, Ze Dong; Wu, Li Ming; Ni, Hui; Chen, Feng

    2017-08-15

    Limonin is a bioactive compound that is traditionally extracted from citrus seeds using organic solvents or alkaline/metal ion solutions. In the present study, pummelo [Citrus grandis] peel was investigated for limonin preparation using a novel process consisting of water extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation and resin adsorption. The pummelo peel was determined to have 4.7mg/g limonin, which could be extracted by water and further recovered by ammonium sulfate precipitation with a yield of 2.4mg/g, which was similar to that of traditional process using ethanol extraction and vacuumed evaporation. The precipitated limonin was purified by resin adsorption and crystallization with a purity of 96.4%. In addition, the limonin was identified via the analyses of retention time, infrared spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonance. This study indicates a novel and eco-friendly process for recovering limonin, providing a new candidate for limonin preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, OY; Erukainure, OL; Ajiboye, JA; Adejobi, RO; Owolabi, FO; Kosoko, SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity. PMID:23569717

  7. Phenolic composition of pomegranate peel extracts using an LC-MS approach with silica hydride columns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The peels of different pomegranate cultivars (Molla Nepes, Parfianka, Purple Heart, Wonderful and Vkunsyi) were compared in terms of phenolic composition and total phenolics. Analyses were performed on two silica hydride-based stationary phases: phenyl and undecenoic acid columns. Quantitation was ...

  8. The analyze of lung’s GSH number in rats exposed by cigarette smoke and inducted by rambutan peel extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisdiana

    2018-03-01

    The cigarette smoke is one of the pollutants in human and environment. It contains free radical compounds which cause oxidative stress. In the oxidative stress condition, the free radical causing peroxidation of cell membrane lipid as well as damages the cell membrane. One of the biomarkers of oxidative stress happens the number of GSH. The purpose of this study was to analyze the amount of rat's GSH which exposed by cigarette smoke as well as inducted by rambutan pell extract. This study applied to 25 male rats of Wistar which divided into five groups; K1 (control), K2 (negative), K3, K4, and K5 were the treatment groups of rambutan peel extract with various dosage; 3, 6, 12 mg/200 gramBB and cigarette smoke exposure along 30 days. The number of GSH measured by the DTNB of lung tissue. To know the difference of GSH number of each group did the data analysis with one way ANOVA test and LSD advance test. The result of statistic analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the control group and treatment group. The conclusion of this study was the rambutan peel extract with 3 mg/200 gramBB dosage could increase the number of lung's GSH of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

  9. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Wound Healing Properties of Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) Fruit Peel Hydroalcoholic Extract.

    PubMed

    Pitz, Heloisa da S; Pereira, Aline; Blasius, Mayara B; Voytena, Ana Paula L; Affonso, Regina C L; Fanan, Simone; Trevisan, Adriana C D; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa M; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba is a fruit from a native tree to Brazil, Plinia peruviana. Jaboticaba peels are an important source of antioxidant molecules such as phenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of jaboticaba fruit peels (HEJFP) in wound healing processes and antioxidant activity in murine fibroblasts (L929 cell line). HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were tested in MTT assay and cell proliferation was verified at 100 µg/mL after 24 h and at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL after 48 h of extract exposure. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed at 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL HEJFP concentrations. Cell treatment with HEJFP at 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL for 24 h followed by H2O2 exposure for 3 h showed a strong cytoprotective effect. In vitro scratch wound healing assay indicated that none of tested HEJFP concentrations (0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) were capable of increasing migration rate after 12 h of incubation. These results demonstrate a positive effect of HEJFP on the wound healing process on L929 fibroblasts cell line, probably due to the antioxidant activity exhibited by phytochemicals in the extract.

  10. Extraction of DNA from orange juice, and detection of bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Liao, Hui-Ling; Zhao, Wei; Kostenyuk, Igor; Burns, Jacqueline; Irey, Mike

    2013-10-02

    Orange juice processed from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected fruit is often associated with bitter taste and/or off-flavor. HLB disease in Florida is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem-limited bacterium. The current standard to confirm CLas for citrus trees is to take samples from midribs of leaves, which are rich in phloem tissues, and use a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test to detect the 16S rDNA gene of CLas. It is extremely difficult to detect CLas in orange juice because of the low CLas population, high sugar and pectin concentration, low pH, and possible existence of an inhibitor to DNA amplification. The objective of this research was to improve extraction of DNA from orange juice and detection of CLas by qPCR. Homogenization using a sonicator increased DNA yield by 86% in comparison to mortar and pestle extraction. It is difficult to separate DNA from pectin; however, DNA was successfully extracted by treating the juice with pectinase. Application of an elution column successfully removed the unidentified inhibitor to DNA amplification. This work provided a protocol to extract DNA from whole orange juice and detect CLas in HLB-affected fruit.

  11. The addition of pineapple flesh and pineapple peels extracts to increase the quality of used cooking oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumawardani, R.; Hasanah, N.; Sukemi

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, reuse of cooking oil is high and common. Heating process and reuse of the cooking oil causes a change in its chemical constituents and decrease its qualities. This research aimed to investigate the addition of pineapple flesh extract (PFE) and pineapple peel extract (PPE) on the increment of the quality of oxidized (used) cooking oil. The cooking oil has been used three times. Treatment was done by mixing the used cooking oil with the extract (2:1) at 50°C. Peroxide value, FFA and iodine number of treated and untreated used cooking oils were measured by using titration method. The result showed that the treatment could increase the quality of the used cooking oils. PPE was better than PFE to increase the quality of the used cooking oil.

  12. Evaluation of the suitability and performance of cassava waste (peel) extracts in a microbial fuel cell for supplementary and sustainable energy production.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Ademola; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    In a number of energy-poor nations, peel from cassava processing represents one of the most abundant sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This peel is mostly discarded indiscriminately and eventually constitutes a problem to the environment. However, energy can be extracted from this peel in a microbial fuel cell. In this study, the viability of cassava peel extract as a substrate in a single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell is demonstrated, and optimum performance conditions are explored. The effects of different pretreatments on the extract are also discussed in the context of observed changes in the internal resistances, conductivity and Coulombic efficiencies. At the best conditions examined, the extract from cassava peel fermented for 168 h and adjusted to a pH of 7.63 attained a peak voltage of 687 mV ± 21 mV, a power density of 155 mW m -3 of reactor volume and a Coulombic efficiency of 11 %. Although this energy is limited to direct use, systems exist that can effectively harvest and boost the energy to levels sufficient for supplementary energy usage in cassava producing regions.

  13. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  14. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  15. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Işıkçı, Fatma; Soyer, Ayla

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs was investigated during frozen storage at -18±1°C. Concentrated and freeze dried aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball mix at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations, and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without any antioxidant). In PE treated samples, particularly in high PE concentration, peroxide, malondialdehyde and carbonyl formation, loss of total protein solubility and sulfhydryl groups were significantly lower than control after 6months of storage. A diminution of both myofibrillar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins of high molecular weight was detected after 6months of the storage according to gel electrophoresis patterns. The 1.0% PE led to maintain colour intensity (C) and hue (h°) value. The results from sensory analyses revealed that PE addition to meatballs was effective on preventing rancid odour formation. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenolic composition of pomegranate peel extracts using an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach with silica hydride columns.

    PubMed

    Young, Joshua E; Pan, Zhongli; Teh, Hui Ean; Menon, Veena; Modereger, Brent; Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary

    2017-04-01

    The peels of different pomegranate cultivars (Molla Nepes, Parfianka, Purple Heart, Wonderful and Vkunsyi) were compared in terms of phenolic composition and total phenolics. Analyses were performed on two silica hydride based stationary phases: phenyl and undecanoic acid columns. Quantitation was accomplished by developing a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry approach for separating different phenolic analytes, initially in the form of reference standards and then with pomegranate extracts. The high-performance liquid chromatography columns used in the separations had the ability to retain a wide polarity range of phenolic analytes, as well as offering beneficial secondary selectivity mechanisms for resolving the isobaric compounds, catechin and epicatechin. The Vkunsyi peel extract had the highest concentration of phenolics (as determined by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry) and was the only cultivar to contain the important compound punicalagin. The liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry data were compared to the standard total phenolics content as determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Green synthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles using banana peel extract and their photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminuzzaman, Mohammod; Kei, Leong Mei; Liang, Wong Hong

    2017-04-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are interesting class of materials having multifunctional properties with promising applications in the areas of catalysts, gas sensors, batteries, magnetic storage media, solar energy, superconductors etc. Thus synthesis of CuO NPs has attracted tremendous interest to scientists and researchers Herein, we reported a green and simple method for biosynthesizing CuO NPs using banana peel extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. XRD, EDX, FE-SEM, FTIR have been used for characterization of biosynthesized CuO NPs. The results indicating that the CuO NPs synthesized by banana peel extract have high purity and the average particles size is 60 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CuO NPs has been investigated by degradation of Congo red (CR) dye under solar irradiation. The extent of CR dye degradation by CuO NPs is monitored by using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. Due to the smaller size and high purity, the biosynthesized CuO NPs showed an excellent photocatlytic activity.

  18. Phenolics extraction from sweet potato peels: modelling and optimization by response surface modelling and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Ana; Silva, Rúben; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2016-12-01

    Sweet potato peels (SPP) are a major waste generated during root processing and currently have little commercial value. Phenolics with free radical scavenging activity from SPP may represent a possible added-value product for the food industry. The aqueous extraction of phenolics from SPP was studied using a Central Composite Design with solvent to solid ratio (30-60 mL g -1 ), time (30-90 min) and temperature (25-75 °C) as independent variables. The comparison of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis on extraction modelling and optimising was performed. Temperature and solvent to solid ratio, alone and in interaction, presented a positive effect in TPC, ABTS and DPPH assays. Time was only significant for ABTS assay with a negative influence both as main effect and in interaction with other independent variables. RSM and ANN models predicted the same optimal extraction conditions as 60 mL g -1 for solvent to solid ratio, 30 min for time and 75 °C for temperature. The obtained responses in the optimized conditions were as follow: 11.87 ± 0.69 mg GAE g -1 DM for TPC, 12.91 ± 0.42 mg TE g -1 DM for ABTS assay and 46.35 ± 3.08 mg TE g -1 DM for DPPH assay. SPP presented similar optimum extraction conditions and phenolic content than peels of potato, tea fruit and bambangan. Predictive models and the optimized extraction conditions offers an opportunity for food processors to generate products with high potential health benefits.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of spine, skin and rind of Jack fruit peel - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Meera, M; Ruckmani, A; Saravanan, R; Lakshmipathy Prabhu, R

    2017-10-09

    The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extracts of spine, skin and rind of jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using Folin's Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods which revealed 316, 355 and 382 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of polyphenol and 96.7, 131.6 and 164.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of flavonoid in spine, skin and rind, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was comparable to diclofenac in vitro and in vivo studies. Skin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, rind had preferential inhibition on Cyclooxygenase-2 and spine and skin inhibited both Cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in vitro.

  20. Protective effects of extracts from Pomegranate peels and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang-Lan; Fang, Ru-Tang; Yang, Yong-Hua; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Ren, Guo-Xia; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Ming; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-10-27

    Liver fibrosis is a feature in the majority of chronic liver diseases and oxidative stress is considered to be its main pathogenic mechanism. Antioxidants including vitamin E, are effective in preventing liver fibrogenesis. Several plant-drived antioxidants, such as silymarin, baicalin, beicalein, quercetin, apigenin, were shown to interfere with liver fibrogenesis. The antioxidans above are polyphenols, flavonoids or structurally related compounds which are the main chemical components of Pomegranate peels and seeds, and the antioxidant activity of Pomegranate peels and seeds have been verified. Here we investigated whether the extracts of pomegranate peels (EPP) and seeds (EPS) have preventive efficacy on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50 % CCl4 subcutaneously in male wistar rats twice a week for four weeks. Meanwhile, EPP and EPS were administered orally every day for 4 weeks, respectively. The protective effects of EPP and EPS on biochemical metabolic parameters, liver function, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and liver fibrosis were determined in CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Compared with the sham group, the liver function was worse in CCl4 group, manifested as increased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin. EPP and EPS treatment significantly ameliorated these effects of CCl4. EPP and EPS attenuated CCl4-induced increase in the levels of TGF-β1, hydroxyproline, hyaluronic acid laminin and procollagen type III. They also restored the decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidized products in rats treated with CCl4. The EPP and EPS have protective effects against liver fibrosis induced by CCl4, and its mechanisms might be associated with their antioxidant activity, the ability of

  1. Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, G; Bennett, R N; Bisignano, G; Trombetta, D; Saija, A; Faulds, C B; Gasson, M J; Narbad, A

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of flavonoid-rich fractions derived from bergamot peel, a byproduct from the Citrus fruit processing industry and the influence of enzymatic deglycosylation on their activity against different bacteria and yeast. Bergamot ethanolic fractions were tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella enterica), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria innocua, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactococcus lactis) and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bergamot fractions were found to be active against all the Gram-negative bacteria tested, and their antimicrobial potency increased after enzymatic deglycosylation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the fractions and the pure flavonoids, neohesperidin, hesperetin (aglycone), neoeriocitrin, eriodictyol (aglycone), naringin and naringenin (aglycone), were found to be in the range 200 to 800 microg ml(-1). The interactions between three bergamot flavonoids were also evaluated. The enzyme preparation Pectinase 62L efficiently converted common glycosides into their aglycones from bergamot extracts, and this deglycosylation increased the antimicrobial potency of Citrus flavonoids. Pairwise combinations of eriodictyol, naringenin and hesperetin showed both synergistic and indifferent interactions that were dependent on the test indicator organism. Bergamot peel is a potential source of natural antimicrobials that are active against Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-11

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  4. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2015-09-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women.

  5. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease. PMID:26569295

  6. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 μg/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract.

  7. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Extraction of Amylase Enzyme from Dragon (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Zohdi, Norkhanani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction conditions on the enzymatic properties of thermoacidic amylase enzyme derived from dragon peel. The studied extraction variables were the buffer-to-sample (B/S) ratio (1 : 2 to 1 : 6, w/w), temperature (−18°C to 25°), mixing time (60 to 180 seconds), and the pH of the buffer (2.0 to 8.0). The results indicate that the enzyme extraction conditions exhibited the least significant (P < 0.05) effect on temperature stability. Conversely, the extraction conditions had the most significant (P < 0.05) effect on the specific activity and pH stability. The results also reveal that the main effect of the B/S ratio, followed by its interaction with the pH of the buffer, was significant (P < 0.05) among most of the response variables studied. The optimum extraction condition caused the amylase to achieve high enzyme activity (648.4 U), specific activity (14.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.4%), pH stability (85.2%), surfactant agent stability (87.2%), and storage stability (90.3%). PMID:25050403

  8. Hydroalcoholic extract based-ointment from Punica granatum L. peels with enhanced in vivo healing potential on dermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Hayouni, E A; Miled, K; Boubaker, S; Bellasfar, Z; Abedrabba, M; Iwaski, H; Oku, H; Matsui, T; Limam, F; Hamdi, M

    2011-08-15

    The present study reports for the first time, the in vivo wound healing potential of Punica granatum L. peels. A 5% (w/w) methanolic extract based-ointment was formulated and evaluated for its wound healing in guinea pigs. The ointment was applied in vivo on the paravertebral area of twelve excised wounded models once a day for 10 consecutive days. The ointment significantly enhanced the wound contraction and the period of epithelialization as assessed by the mechanical (contraction rate, tensile strength), the biochemical (increasing of collagen, DNA and proteins synthesis) and the histopathological characteristics. Such investigation was encouraged by the efficiency of the methanolic extract as antimicrobial and antioxidant. Indeed, the extract showed antioxidant activity as strong as natural and synthetic compounds (Trolox, BHA, Quercetin). Furthermore, the extract exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against almost all tested bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Trichopyton rubrum and Aspergillus niger. The formulated ointment might well find use as skin repair agent without hazard to human health based on these results and on the fact that it has been well established that the extracts of pomegranate used in conditions similar to those applied by traditional medicine, showed no toxic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Peel

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical peel: Your doctor will use a brush, cotton ball, gauze or sponge to apply a chemical ... medium chemical peel: Your doctor will use a cotton-tipped applicator or gauze to apply a chemical ...

  10. Anticoccidial efficacy of naringenin and a grapefruit peel extract in growing lambs naturally-infected with Eimeria spp.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fonseca, Agustín; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Alberti-Navarro, Aldo B

    2016-12-15

    The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water. Daily doses of GF and NAR were dissolved in 30ml of water and orally given to animals; whereas toltrazuril was administered as a single dose of an undiluted suspension to lambs of the TTZ group. The CTRL group received 30ml of water; as well as the TTZ group for the period after the single dose administration. Fecal and serum samples were collected from all lambs. Anticoccidial efficacy was estimated by coprological techniques. Generation of nitric oxide levels and the antioxidant capacity of the experimental compounds were determined by the Griess and ABTS assays, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of NAR and the GF extract were obtained. On day 30 post-ingestion, anticoccidial efficacy was 91.76% (NAR) and 89.65% (GF); whereas 99.63% of efficacy was achieved with TTZ 15days after treatment. NAR, GF and TTZ significantly reduced oxidative stress in infected animals. The mean daily weight gain for each group was 122g (NAR), 122g (GF), 143g (TTZ) and 98g (CTRL). Following the oral administration of NAR and GF, values in plasma approached

  11. Allergenicity of orange juice and orange seeds: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S L; Ye, S T; Yu, Y

    1989-06-01

    Oranges are considered to be common allergenic fruits in China. They may induce severe food allergy in sensitive individuals. Allergic histories were analyzed in 26 orange-sensitive patients. Intradermal tests with extracts of orange juice and seeds were performed in 16 out of the 26 patients. P-K test was performed in one patient. The allergic history analysis suggested that clinical symptoms of some orange-allergic subjects were different from other fruit allergies but similar to nut and other oil plant seed allergies. The skin test and P-K test showed that the major allergenic components of orange reside in orange seeds instead of orange juice. Systemic reactions developed in 5 patients after intradermal tests with 1:20-200 (w/v) orange seed extracts. We considered that orange seed contains high potent allergens which may induce orange sensitivity due to careless chewing of orange seeds.

  12. Oriented Growth of α-MnO2 Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Botero, Lina; Herrera, Adriana P.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO2) nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica ‘Cortland’ apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods: (1) reduction of KMnO4 in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2) a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO2 nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO2 nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water. PMID:28531147

  13. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements.

  14. Corrosion control of carbon steel using inhibitor of banana peel extract in acid diluted solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komalasari; Utami, S. P.; Fermi, M. I.; Aziz, Y.; Irianti, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Issues of corrosion happened in pipes, it was used as fluid transportation in the chemical industry. Corrosion cannot be preventing, however it could be controlled or blocked. Inhibitor addition is one of the method to control the corrosion inside the pipe. Corrosion inhibitors consisted of inorganic and organic compound inhibitors. Organic inhibitor is composed from synthetic and natural material. This study focused to evaluate the inhibition’s efficiency from banana peel to carbon steel in different concentration of inhibitor and immersing time in acid solution variation. The research employed inhibitor concentration of 0 gram/liter, 2 gram/liter, 4 gram/liter and 6 gram/liter, immersed time of carbon steel for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours. It was immersed in chloride acid solution of 0.5 M and 1.5 M. Carbon Steel AISI 4041 was used as specimen steel. Results were analyzed using corrosion rate evaluation for each specimens and inhibitor efficiencies determination. It was found that the specimen without inhibitor yielded fast corrosion rate in long immersing time and high concentration of HCl. However, the specimens with inhibitor gave lowest corrosion rate which was 78.59% for 6 gram/litre and 10 hours in 0.5 M HCl.

  15. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the prebiotic activity of a pectic oligosaccharide-rich extract enzymatically derived from bergamot peel.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, G; Nueno Palop, C; Tuohy, K; Gibson, G R; Bennett, R N; Waldron, K W; Bisignano, G; Narbad, A; Faulds, C B

    2007-01-01

    The prebiotic effect of a pectic oligosaccharide-rich extract enzymatically derived from bergamot peel was studied using pure and mixed cultures of human faecal bacteria. This was compared to the prebiotic effect of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Individual species of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli responded positively to the addition of the bergamot extract, which contained oligosaccharides in the range of three to seven. Fermentation studies were also carried out in controlled pH batch mixed human faecal cultures and changes in gut bacterial groups were monitored over 24 h by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, a culture-independent microbial assessment. Addition of the bergamot oligosaccharides (BOS) resulted in a high increase in the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, whereas the clostridial population decreased. A prebiotic index (PI) was calculated for both FOS and BOS after 10 and 24 h incubation. Generally, higher PI scores were obtained after 10 h incubation, with BOS showing a greater value (6.90) than FOS (6.12).

  17. Carbon molecular sieve based micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the extraction of polyphenols in pomegranate peel by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Jing; Huang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Bin; Wang, Chen-Hui; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Hu, Yu-Han; Yi, Ling; Cao, Jun; Peng, Li-Qing; Chen, Yu-Bo; Zhang, Qi-Dong

    2018-06-04

    A rapid, simple and efficient sample extraction method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD) was applied to the extraction of polyphenols from pomegranate peel. Five target analytes were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) was firstly used as dispersant to improve extraction efficiency in micro-MSPD. The major micro-MSPD parameters, such as type of dispersant, amount of dispersant, grinding time and the type and the volume of elution solvents, were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, 26 mg of pomegranate peel was dispersed with 32.5 mg of CMS, the grinding time was selected as 90 s, the dispersed sample was eluted with 100 μL of methanol. Results showed that the proposed method was of good linearity for concentrations of analytes against their peak areas (coefficient of determination r 2 >0.990), the limit of the detection was as low as 3.2 ng/mL, and the spiking recoveries were between 88.1% and 106%. Satisfactory results were obtained for the extraction of gallic acid, punicalagin A, punicalagin B, catechin and ellagic acid from pomegranate peel sample, which demonstrated nice reliability and high sensitivity of this approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of hesperidin from citrus peel using electron spin resonance and cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashaal, Hanan A; El-Sheltawy, Shakinaz T

    2011-03-01

    Hesperidin is a flavonoid that has various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The aim of the study is the isolation of hesperidin from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. (Rutaceae), and the evaluation of its antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity against different human carcinoma cell lines. In the present work, hesperidin is identified and confirmed using chromatographic and spectral analysis. To correlate between hesperidin concentration and antioxidant capacity of peel extracts, extraction was carried out using 1% HCl-MeOH, MeOH, alkaline solution, the concentration of hesperidin determined qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, in vitro antioxidant capacity of hesperidin and the extracts against free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) performed using an electron spin resonance spectrophotometer (ESR). Cytotoxic assay against larynx, cervix, breast and liver carcinoma cell lines was performed. Hesperidin was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent; its capacity reached 36%. In addition, the results revealed that hesperidin exhibited pronounced anticancer activity against the selected cell lines. IC₅₀ were 1.67, 3.33, 4.17, 4.58 µg/mL, respectively. Orange peels are considered to be a cheap source for hesperidin which may be used in the pharmaceutical industry as a natural chemopreventive agent. Hesperidin and orange peel extract could possess antioxidant properties with a wide range of therapeutic applications.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10). PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10-100 μg mL(-1) attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL(-1)). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10). PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  1. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    PubMed

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to <0.01M and the moisture content of the pulp increased from 93% to 97% (wet basis), showing the removal of caustic salts from the waste. Extraction efficiency varied from 32.5% to 94.5%. This study demonstrates a lab scale feasibility to extract lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adrianna

    2014-02-01

    Chemical peels are a method of resurfacing with a long-standing history of safety in the treatment of various skin conditions. This article reviews the classification of different chemical agents based on their depth of injury. The level of injury facilitates cell turnover, epidermal thickening, skin lightening, and new collagen formation. Preprocedural, periprocedural, and postprocedural skin care are briefly discussed. To select the appropriate chemical peel, the provider should evaluate the patient's expectations, medical history, skin type, and possible complications to determine the best chemical peel to achieve the desired results. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI have increased risk of dyspigmentation, hypertrophic, and keloid scarring. These individuals respond well to superficial and medium-depth chemical peels. Advances in the use of combination peels allow greater options for skin rejuvenation with less risk of complications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya (dragon fruit) peel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits, and pitaya fruits have gained popularity in many countries all over the world. However, studies on chemical composition and the nutritional quality of pitaya flesh peel are limited. Results Extracts of pitaya (H. polyrhizus and H. undatus) peel were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were investigated. The main components of H. polyrhizus extract were β-amyrin (15.87%), α-amyrin (13.90%), octacosane (12.2%), γ-sitosterol (9.35%), octadecane (6.27%), 1-tetracosanol (5.19%), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.65%), and campesterol (4.16%), whereas H. undatus were β-amyrin (23.39%), γ-sitosterol (19.32%), and octadecane (9.25%), heptacosane (5.52%), campesterol (5.27%), nonacosane (5.02%), and trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (5.21%). Both of the two extracts possessed good cytotoxic activities against PC3, Bcap-37, and MGC-803 cells (IC50 values ranging from 0.61 to 0.73 mg/mL), and the activities of their main components were also studied. Furthermore, these extracts also presented some radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 0.83 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion This paper provides evidence for studying the chemical composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya peel and their biological activity. PMID:24386928

  4. Effect of feeding dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves on growth performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler during the finisher phase.

    PubMed

    Alzawqari, M H; Al-Baddany, A A; Al-Baadani, H H; Alhidary, I A; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Aqil, G M; Abdurab, A

    2016-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dried sweet orange peel (SOP) and lemon grass leaves (LGL) as feed additives on broiler growth performance, serum metabolites, and antioxidant status. A total of 192-day-old (Ross 308) broiler chickens were distributed randomly into 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment. The dietary treatments included a control diet without any feed additive (T1), a diet containing 0.8 % SOP (T2), a diet containing 0.8 % LGL (T3), and a diet containing combination of 0.4 % SOP + 0.4 % LGL (T4) was fed during the growth period from 22 to 42 days. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass traits, serum components, and antioxidant status were measured. At the end of the experimental period, the results indicated that supplementation of SOP and LGL alone or in combination did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect BWG, FI, FCR, and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. Serum total protein was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 and T4 compared to the other treatments. Also, serum globulin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups. Serum glucose, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups, while cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein decreased in T2 compared to the other groups. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher total antioxidant status was observed in T2 compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that SOP, LGL, and their combination may positively modify some serum components and the antioxidant status without any beneficial effect on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens.

  5. Evaluation of different extraction methods from pomegranate whole fruit or peels and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the polyphenolic fraction.

    PubMed

    Masci, Alessandra; Coccia, Andrea; Lendaro, Eugenio; Mosca, Luciana; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Cesa, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Pomegranate is a functional food of great interest, due to its multiple beneficial effects on human health. This fruit is rich in anthocyanins and ellagitannins, which exert a protective role towards degenerative diseases. The aim of the present work was to optimize the extraction procedure, from different parts of the fruit, to obtain extracts enriched in selected polyphenols while retaining biological activity. Whole fruits or peels of pomegranate cultivars, with different geographic origin, were subjected to several extraction methods. The obtained extracts were analyzed for polyphenolic content, evaluated for antioxidant capacity and tested for antiproliferative activity on human bladder cancer T24 cells. Two different extraction procedures, employing ethyl acetate as a solvent, were useful in obtaining extracts enriched in ellagic acid and/or punicalagins. Antioxidative and antiproliferative assays demonstrated that the antioxidant capability is directly related to the phenolic content, whereas the antiproliferative activity is to be mainly attributed to ellagic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of heat and mass transfer of different microwave-assisted extraction methods of essential oil from Citrus limon (Lisbon variety) peel.

    PubMed

    Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Moayyedi, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    Dried and fresh peels of Citrus limon were subjected to microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), respectively. A comparison was made between MAHD and SFME with the conventional hydrodistillation (HD) method in terms of extraction kinetic, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity. Higher yield results from higher extraction rates by microwaves and could be due to a synergy of two transfer phenomena: mass and heat acting in the same way. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis did not indicate any noticeable differences between the constituents of essential oils obtained by MAHD and SFME, in comparison with HD. Antioxidant analysis of the extracted essential oils indicated that microwave irradiation did not have adverse effects on the radical scavenging activity of the extracted essential oils. The results of this study suggest that MAHD and SFME can be termed as green technologies because of their less energy requirements per ml of essential oil extraction.

  7. Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Letícia Celia de Lencastre; Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho Santos; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2013-01-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts Against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria In Vitro and on Poultry Skin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some plant extracts are known to contain substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria; therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the ability of extracts of pomegranate, orange, and lemon peels to inhibit the growth of five bacteria associated with processed poultry. The antibacterial activi...

  9. Effect of onion peel extract on endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Yong; Lee, Hansongyi; Woo, Jong Shin; Jang, Hyun Hee; Hwang, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Young-Seol; Choue, Ryowon; Cha, Yong-Jun; Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Weon

    2015-09-01

    Acute or chronic intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been reported to improve endothelial function. Quercetin, found abundantly in onion, is a potent antioxidant flavonoid. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of onion peel extract (OPE) improves endothelial function in healthy overweight and obese individuals. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-two healthy overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to receive a red, soft capsule of OPE (100 mg quercetin/d, 50 mg quercetin twice daily; n = 36 participants) or an identical placebo capsule (n = 36) for 12 wk. Endothelial function, defined by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by flow cytometry, and laboratory test were determined at baseline and after treatment. Baseline characteristics and laboratory findings did not significantly differ between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, the OPE group showed significantly improved FMD at 12 wk (from 12.5 ± 5.2 to 15.2 ± 6.1; P = 0.002), whereas the placebo group showed no difference. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation did not change in either group. EPC counts (44.2 ± 25.6 versus 52.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.005) and the percentage of EPCs were significantly increased in the OPE group. When FMD was divided into quartiles, rate of patients with endothelial dysfunction defined as lowest quartile (cutoff value, 8.6%) of FMD improved from 26% to 9% by OPE. Medium-term administration of OPE an improvement in FMD and circulating EPCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytotoxic potential of few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Munish; Lata, Kusum; Satija, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro anticancer activity of a few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against HepG2 cells. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared of five fruit peels, i.e., banana, lemon, guava, orange, and papaya by maceration and thereafter subjected for MTT assay to evaluate anticancer potential on HepG2 cells. Plant extract showed best activity was further fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate successively and screened again. Phytochemical analysis was then carried out to find out responsible components for the observed activity. Results: Out of the 40 samples from five fruit peel extracts with rich folklore usage, papaya extract showed maximum activity with least inhibitory concentration50 (IC50) value of 18.5 μg/ml. Further analysis after fractionation of the papaya peel extract, aqueous fraction showed the maximum inhibitory activity with least IC50 value of 17.3 μg/ml. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous fraction of papaya peel extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides. Total flavonoid content found to be 72.25 mg/g. Conclusion: Papaya fruit extract demonstrated the best activity against MTT assay which may be due to the presence of flavonoids. PMID:26997725

  11. Cytotoxic potential of few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Garg, Munish; Lata, Kusum; Satija, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    To investigate in vitro anticancer activity of a few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against HepG2 cells. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared of five fruit peels, i.e., banana, lemon, guava, orange, and papaya by maceration and thereafter subjected for MTT assay to evaluate anticancer potential on HepG2 cells. Plant extract showed best activity was further fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate successively and screened again. Phytochemical analysis was then carried out to find out responsible components for the observed activity. Out of the 40 samples from five fruit peel extracts with rich folklore usage, papaya extract showed maximum activity with least inhibitory concentration50 (IC50) value of 18.5 μg/ml. Further analysis after fractionation of the papaya peel extract, aqueous fraction showed the maximum inhibitory activity with least IC50 value of 17.3 μg/ml. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous fraction of papaya peel extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides. Total flavonoid content found to be 72.25 mg/g. Papaya fruit extract demonstrated the best activity against MTT assay which may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  12. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectinase enzyme from guava (Psidium guajava) peel: Enzyme recovery, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Islam Sarker, Zaidul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions on the yield, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability of the pectinase enzyme from guava peel. The ultrasound variables studied were sonication time (10-30 min), ultrasound temperature (30-50 °C), pH (2.0-8.0), and solvent-to-sample ratio (2:1 mL/g to 6:1 mL/g). The main goal was to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to maximize the recovery of pectinase from guava peel with the most desirable enzyme-specific activity and stability. Under the optimum conditions, a high yield (96.2%), good specific activity (18.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.3%), and storage stability (90.3%) of the extracted enzyme were achieved. The optimal conditions were 20 min sonication time, 40 °C temperature, at pH 5.0, using a 4:1 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio. The study demonstrated that optimization of ultrasound-assisted process conditions for the enzyme extraction could improve the enzymatic characteristics and yield of the enzyme.

  13. Use of an online extraction liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method for the characterization of polyphenols in Citrus paradisi cv. Changshanhuyu peel.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chaoying; Peng, Mijun; Tong, Runna; Ma, Ruyi; Guo, Keke; Shi, Shuyun

    2018-01-19

    Chemical profiling of natural products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was critical for understanding of their clinical bioactivities, and sample pretreatment steps have been considered as a bottleneck for analysis. Currently, concerted efforts have been made to develop sample pretreatment methods with high efficiency, low solvent and time consumptions. Here, a simple and efficient online extraction (OLE) strategy coupled with HPLC-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) was developed for rapid chemical profiling. For OLE strategy, guard column inserted with ground sample (2 mg) instead of sample loop was connected with manual injection valve, in which components were directly extracted and transferred to HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system only by mobile phase without any extra time, solvent, instrument and operation. By comparison with offline heat-reflux extraction of Citrus paradisi cv. Changshanhuyu (Changshanhuyu) peel, OLE strategy presented higher extraction efficiency perhaps because of the high pressure and gradient elution mode. A total of twenty-two secondary metabolites were detected according to their retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and fragmentation ions in MS/MS spectra, and nine of them were discovered in Changshanhuyu peel for the first time to our knowledge. It is concluded that the developed OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system offers new perspectives for rapid chemical profiling of natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  15. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), β-pinene (0.63–31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cavendish banana peel extract and its antibacterial and free radical scavenging assay: a novel biological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokila, T.; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2015-12-01

    Biosynthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles has now become an alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from Cavendish banana peel extract (CBPE) and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field emission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential (ZP). The AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy through color conversion due to surface plasma resonance band at 430 nm. The effect of pH on nanoparticle synthesis was determined by adjusting the various pH of the reaction mixtures. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed from the XRD pattern, and the grain size was found to be around 34 nm. To identify the compounds responsible for the bioreduction of Ag+ ion and the stabilization of AgNPs produced, the functional group present in Cavendish banana peel extract was investigated using FTIR. AFM has proved to be very helpful in determining morphological features and the diameter of AgNPs in the range of 23-30 nm was confirmed by FESEM. DLS studies revealed that the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 297 nm. Zeta potential value for AgNPs obtained was -11 mV indicating the moderate stability of synthesized nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles was studied against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed a strong DPPH radical and ABTS scavengers compared to the aqueous peel extract of Cavendish banana.

  17. Antimicrobial effect of the Tunisian Nana variety Punica granatum L. extracts against Salmonella enterica (serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Ben Ajmia; Makni, Mohamed; Ammar, Sonda; Khannous, Lamia; Hassana, Amal Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-01-16

    Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains was observed with the peels ethanolic extract giving MIC values ranging from 10.75 to 12.5mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum Nana peels at 0.8 and 1.6mg/g significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Kentucky in chicken meat stored at 4°C. The phenolic composition of the ethanolic peel extract was explored by HPLC coupled to both DAD and ESI/TOF-MS detections. The obtained results allowed the detection of 21 phytochemical compounds among which various phenolic compounds have been identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra as well as with literature data. Among the detected compounds, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives and flavanols were further characterized through MS-MS analysis. Our results showed thus that the Tunisian variety Nana pomegranate constitutes a good source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activity on the growth of Salmonella strains suggesting that the studied pomegranate cultivar could be a natural remedy to minimize the emergence of Salmonella enterica strains which is often involved in food borne illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Edenta, Chidi; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Okpe, Oche

    2017-10-23

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata ( Saro, Ominni and Oranta ) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140-180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant ( p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  19. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Edenta, Chidi; Okpe, Oche

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140–180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:29065553

  20. An Ap"peel"ing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urich, Joshua A.; Sasse, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on mathematics activity wherein students peel oranges to explore the surface area and volume of a sphere. This activity encourages students to make conjectures and hold mathematical discussions with both their peers and their teacher. Moreover, students develop formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere…

  1. In vitro protective effects of two extracts from bergamot peels on human endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Domenico; Cimino, Francesco; Cristani, Mariateresa; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Saija, Antonella; Ginestra, Giovanna; Speciale, Antonio; Chirafisi, Joselita; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith; Narbad, Arjan; Faulds, Craig B

    2010-07-28

    Bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso) is a less commercialized Citrus fruit, mainly used for its essential oil extracted from the peel. Bergamot peel (BP) represents about 60% of the processed fruits and is regarded as primary waste. However, it contains good amounts of useful compounds, such as pectins and flavonoids. Many of the bioactivities of Citrus flavonoids appear to impact vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we report the protective effect of two flavonoid-rich extracts from BP (endowed with radical-scavenging properties and lacking genotoxic activity) against alterations in cell modifications induced by the pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as demonstrated by monitoring intracellular levels of malondialdehyde/4-hydroxynonenal, reduced and oxidized glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and the activation status of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Thus, BP appears to be a potential source of natural antioxidant/anti-inflammatory phytocomplexes to be employed as ingredients of nutraceutical products or functional foods.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of methyl ursolate obtained from a chemically derived crude extract of apple peels: potential use in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pádua, Tatiana A; de Abreu, Bianca S S C; Costa, Thadeu E M M; Nakamura, Marcos J; Valente, Lígia M M; Henriques, Maria das Graças; Siani, Antonio C; Rosas, Elaine C

    2014-11-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid found in apple peels (Malus domestica, Borkh, Rosaceae), has a large spectrum of pharmacological effects. However, the vegetal matrix usually produces highly viscous and poorly soluble extracts that hamper the isolation of this compound. To overcome this problem, the crude EtOH-AcOEt extract of commercial apple peels was exhaustively treated with diazomethane, after which methyl ursolate (MU) was purified by column chromatography and characterized spectrometrically. The anti-inflammatory effects of UA and MU (50 mg/kg) were analyzed by zymosan-induced paw edema, pleurisy and in an experimental arthritis model. After 4 h of treatment with UA and MU, paw edema was reduced by 46 and 44 %, respectively. Both UA and MU inhibited protein extravasation into the thoracic cavity; tibio-femoral edema by 40 and 48 %, respectively; and leukocyte influx into the synovial cavity after 6 h by 52 and 73 %, respectively. Additionally, both UA and MU decreased the levels of mediators related to synovial inflammation, such as KC/CXCL-1 levels by 95 and 90 %, TNF-α levels by 76 and 71 %, and IL-1β levels by 57 and 53 %, respectively. Both the compounds were equally effective when assayed in different inflammatory models, including experimental arthritis. Hence, MU may be considered to be a useful anti-inflammatory derivative to overcome the inherent poor solubility of UA for formulating pharmaceutical products.

  3. Application of response surface methodology for the optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of essential oil from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel.

    PubMed

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2016-07-01

    Essential oils and volatile components of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) peel of the Malas variety from Meybod, Iran, were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and hydro-distillation methods. The experimental parameters of SFE that is pressure, temperature, extraction time, and modifier (methanol) volume were optimized using a central composite design after a (2 4-1 ) fractional factorial design. Detailed chemical composition of the essential oils and volatile components obtained by hydro-distillation and optimum condition of the supercritical CO 2 extraction were analyzed by GC-MS, and seventy-three and forty-six compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra, respectively. The optimum SFE conditions were 350 atm pressure, 55 °C temperature, 30 min extraction time, and 150 µL methanol. Results showed that oleic acid, palmitic acid and (-)-Borneol were major compounds in both extracts. The optimum extraction yield was 1.18 % (w/w) for SFE and 0.21 % (v/w) for hydro-distillation.

  4. Protective effects of a standardised red orange extract on air pollution-induced oxidative damage in traffic police officers.

    PubMed

    Bonina, Francesco P; Puglia, Carmelo; Frasca, Giuseppina; Cimino, Francesco; Trombetta, Domenico; Tringali, Giovanni; Roccazzello, Annamaria; Insiriello, Elio; Rapisarda, Paolo; Saija, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    Several pathological conditions have all been associated with a higher release of atmospheric pollutants. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress may represent one of the agents involved in the initiation and/or progression of many of these pathologies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of short-term dietary supplementation with a standardised red orange extract (ROC) on a group of traffic police officers exposed to traffic exhaust pollution and cigarette smoking, by measuring some noninvasive biomarkers of oxidative stress. At the beginning of the study, all the groups showed similar serum lipid hydroperoxide levels, but traffic officers showed lower serum concentrations of thiol (SH) groups; furthermore, the frequency of spontaneous sister chromatide exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral lymphocytes was increased by smoking (but not by pollution exposure alone) at a higher degree in subjects exposed to traffic pollution. After 1 month of ROC administration, serum lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased only in all non-smoking subjects; furthermore, SH group levels measured in traffic officers appeared restored to normal values observed in the respective controls. Finally, the increase in SCE frequency induced by smoking was reduced by treatment with ROC especially in traffic officers. Our study suggests that ROC supplementation could be useful to minimise the detrimental effects caused by exposure to air pollution and smoking.

  5. Determination of polymethoxylated flavones in peels of selected Jamaican and Mexican citrus (Citrus spp.) cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Green, Curtis O; Wheatley, Andrew O; Osagie, Anthony U; St A Morrison, Errol Y; Asemota, Helen N

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of the polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in peels of selected citrus cultivars grown in Jamaica and Mexico were determined. The PMFs were extracted from sun-dried citrus peels with reagent-grade methanol. Analyses were carried out by reverse-phase HPLC and UV detection. The column used was a C(18) 5 microm (150 x 4.6 mm) Discovery column. Elution was in the gradient mode, using a ternary mobile phase. The results showed that all the citrus cultivars used contained at least three of the six major PMFs quantified. Ortanique peel contained the highest quantity of PMFs (34,393 +/- 272 ppm), followed by tangerine (28,389 +/- 343 ppm) and Mexican sweet orange (sample 1; 21,627 +/- 494 ppm). The major PMFs, i.e. sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, heptamethoxyflavone, tetramethylscutellarein and hexamethyl-o-quercetagetin, present in the peels of 20 citrus cultivars, was quantified. The results were compared with those of Florida citrus peels. A large amount of citrus peels and byproducts are produced in the Caribbean which could provide a cheap and convenient source of PMFs. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Phenolic Extract from Rambutan Peels (Nephelium lappaceum) in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Yan; Sun, Liping; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Glycogen content in mice liver was recovered by RPP, which further increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed that RPP effectively protected the tissue structure of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. In addition, RPP decreased the mesangial index and inhibited the expression of TGF-β in the kidney of diabetic mice. PMID:28933738

  7. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Phenolic Extract from Rambutan Peels (Nephelium lappaceum) in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Yan; Sun, Liping; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2017-07-26

    Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Glycogen content in mice liver was recovered by RPP, which further increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed that RPP effectively protected the tissue structure of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. In addition, RPP decreased the mesangial index and inhibited the expression of TGF-β in the kidney of diabetic mice.

  8. Biosynthesis, Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Effects Against Prostate Cancer (PC-3) Cells of Silver Nanoparticles Using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. Peel Extract.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Cheng, Shupeng; Jiang, Sen; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Metal nanoparticles, particularly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are developing more important roles as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancers with the improvement of eco-friendly synthesis methods. This study demonstrates the biosynthesis, antibacterial activity, and anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. peel aqueous extract. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR). The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNPs were observed via the agar dilution method and the growth inhibition test. The cytotoxicity effect was explored on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro by trypan blue assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat 3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. The longan peel extract acted as a strong reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. Water-soluble AgNPs of size 9-32 nm was gathered with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs had potent bactericidal activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with a dose-related effect. AgNPs also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells through a decrease of stat 3, bcl-2, and survivin, as well as an increase in caspase-3. These findings confirm the bactericidal properties and explored a potential anticancer application of AgNPs for prostate cancer therapy. Further research should be focused on the comprehensive study of molecular mechanism and in vivo effects on the prostate cancer.

  9. Extraction of essential oil from baby Java orange (Citrus sinensis) solid waste using water and steam distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, I. A.; Prastyo, A. M.; Wijana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Baby java orange (Citrus sinensis) is commonly consumed as juice. Processing of baby java orange leaves organic waste which consist of the mesocarp, exocarp, seed, and wall of the orange. Therefore, it is necessary to process baby java orange waste to be valuable products. The purpose of this study was to provide added value to unutilized baby java orange waste, and to find out the pretreatment of time-delay process that maximize the yield of essential oil produced. Essential oil processing can be done by water and steam distillation. The study used randomized block design with one factor namely distillation time-delay process by air drying consisted of 4 levels i.e. the distillation delay for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. The best treatment was determined based on the yield. The best essential oil from baby java orange waste was obtained from the treatment of distillation delay-process of 8 days. This pretreatment generated yield value of 0.63% with moisture content of 24.21%. By estimating the price of essential oil showed that this effort not only reduced the bulky organic waste but also provided potential economical value.

  10. Improvement of microbiological safety and sensorial quality of pork jerky by electron beam irradiation and by addition of onion peel extract and barbecue flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Kang, Suk Nam; Kim, Il Suk; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and addition of onion peel (OP) extract and barbecue flavor (BF) on inactivation of foodborne pathogens and the quality of pork jerky was investigated. Prepared pork jerky samples were irradiated (0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) and stored for 2 month at 25 °C. The D10 values of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium observed in the OP treated samples were 0.19, 0.18, and 0.19 kGy, whereas those in control were 0.25, 0.23, and 0.20 kGy, respectively. Irradiated samples with OP extract and BF had substantially lower total aerobic bacterial counts than the control had. Samples with added OP extract and BF had lower peroxide values than the control had. Sensory evaluation indicated that overall acceptability of treated samples was not changed up to 2 kGy. Therefore, EB irradiation, combined with OP extract and BF, has improved the microbiological safety with no negative effects on the quality of pork jerky.

  11. One-pot preparation of magnetic carbon adsorbent derived from pomelo peel for magnetic solid-phase extraction of pollutants in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youfang; Peng, Jinghe; Huang, Xiaojia

    2018-04-20

    In this work, magnetic carbon material derived from pomelo peels (MCMPs) was conveniently fabricated utilizing one-pot synthesis method and employed as adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Several characterized measures including infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to investigate the morphology, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of prepared adsorbent. Apolar parabens and polar fluoroquinolones (FQs) were used to investigate the extraction performance of MCMPs. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the MCMPs displayed satisfactory extraction performance for target analytes. At the same time, the MCMPs/MSPE was combined with HPLC-DAD for the sensitive determination of parabens and FQs in real-life water samples. Results showed that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for parabens and FQs were in the ranges of 0.011-0.053 μg/L and 0.012-0.46 μg/L, respectively. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 76.6-116% for parabens and 80.2-114% for FQs with good repeatability (relative standard deviations less than 10%). In comparison to reported methods, the developed MCMPs/MSPE-HPLC-DAD showed some merits including low-cost, simplicity, satisfactory sensitivity and green non-pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of different methods of protein extraction and identification of differentially expressed proteins upon ethylene-induced early-ripening in banana peels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Feng, Ren-Jun; Zhang, Yin-Dong

    2012-08-15

    Banana peels (Musa spp.) are a good example of a plant tissue where protein extraction is challenging due to the abundance of interfering metabolites. Sample preparation is a critical step in proteomic research and is critical for good results. We sought to evaluate three methods of protein extraction: trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone precipitation, phenol extraction, and TCA precipitation. We found that a modified phenol extraction protocol was the most optimal method. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) demonstrated good protein separation and distinct spots of high quality protein. Approximately 300 and 550 protein spots were detected on 2-DE gels at pH values of 3-10 and 4-7, respectively. Several spots were excised from the 2-DE gels and identified by mass spectrometry. The protein spots identified were found to be involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the biosynthesis of ethylene. Several of the identified proteins may play important roles in banana ripening. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

    2013-11-01

    The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of an aqueous two-phase micellar system to extract bromelain from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel waste and analysis of bromelain stability in cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Spir, Lívia Genovez; Ataide, Janaína Artem; De Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Moriel, Patrícia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; De Borba Gurpilhares, Daniela; Silveira, Edgar; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2015-01-01

    Bromelain is a set of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) tissues such as stem, fruit and leaves. Because of its proteolytic activity, bromelain has potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The present study focused on the recovery of bromelain from pineapple peel by liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS), using Triton X-114 (TX-114) and McIlvaine buffer, in the absence and presence of electrolytes CaCl2 and KI; the cloud points of the generated extraction systems were studied by plotting binodal curves. Based on the cloud points, three temperatures were selected for extraction: 30, 33, and 36°C for systems in the absence of salts; 40, 43, and 46°C in the presence of KI; 24, 27, and 30°C in the presence of CaCl2 . Total protein and enzymatic activities were analyzed to monitor bromelain. Employing the ATPMS chosen for extraction (0.5 M KI with 3% TX-114, at pH 6.0, at 40°C), the bromelain extract stability was assessed after incorporation into three cosmetic bases: an anhydrous gel, a cream, and a cream-gel formulation. The cream-gel formulation presented as the most appropriate base to convey bromelain, and its optimal storage conditions were found to be 4.0 ± 0.5°C. The selected ATPMS enabled the extraction of a biomolecule with high added value from waste lined-up in a cosmetic formulation, allowing for exploration of further cosmetic potential. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant-associated efficacy of flavonoid extracts from a traditional Chinese medicine Hua Ju Hong (peels of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianping; Shan, Letian; Chen, Zhiyun; Xu, Haishun; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Yuwen; Xiong, Yaokang

    2014-12-02

    Hua Ju Hong (HJH, peels of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine recorded by "Compendium of Materia Medica" (Ben Cao Gang Mu) in Ming Dynasty of China (1578 A.D.). With flavonoid components, HJH possesses hypolipidemic effect associated with antioxidation action. However, no report was found regarding the flavonoid profile and antioxidant activity of HJH. Five purified flavonoid extracts (TFCA, TFCB, TFCC, TFCD and TFCE.) were obtained from HJH using Ca(OH)2 and HPD-300 macroporous resins, and their total flavonoids and representative flavonoid components were analyzed. In vitro tests of DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity of each extract were evaluated. The most effective extract was selected for in vivo antioxidative evaluation using a rat hyperlipemia model. The total flavonoid content was varying among each HJH extract and decreased in an order of TFCB>TFCD>TFCC>TFCE>TFCA. TFCB, TFCD, and TFCC contained more than 50% of total flavonoids, the highest content of which was found in TFCB (80.7%). HPLC analysis showed that the contents of three flavonoid components, narirutin, naringin and neohesperidin, displayed a similar trend as that of total flavonoids. In vitro antioxidative tests determined that TFCB at 0.24 to 1.2mg/ml possessed the most significant antioxidant effects among other extracts and was also superior to BHT. In vivo experiment also revealed the significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of TFCB started from 50 to 200mg/kg after oral administration to hyperlipemia rats. These results indicate that TFCB with the highest flavonoid contents has the strongest antioxidant-associated activities. This is the first report regarding antioxidant-associated activities and relevant flavonoid components of HJH extracts, providing a promising candidate of traditional Chinese medicine for antioxidative treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  16. Annurca peel extract: from the chemical composition, through the functional activity, to the formulation and characterisation of a topical oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Francesca; Esposito, Tiziana; Mencherini, Teresa; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Picerno, Patrizia; Russo, Paola; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Essolito, Massimilano; Campiglia, Pietro; Aquino, Rita P

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a hydro-alcoholic safe antioxidant Malus pumila Miller cv Annurca peel extract (APE) useful as functional ingredient in an oil-in-water emulsion. Results showed that APE contains a hydroxycinnamic acid (chlorogenic acid), flavonol glycosides (quercetin derivatives) and a dihydrochalcone, phloridzin (phloretin-2-O-glucoside). The isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-glucoside) content was quantified in 0.3% w/w of extract. APE showed a significant and concentration-dependent free-radical scavenging activity correlated to its polyphenols content. No cytotoxic effect was observed in primary human epidermal keratinocyte adults and dermal fibroblast cell lines. The formulative approach led to produce a stable emulsion able to load a high amount of APE, up to 6.0% w/w. The homogenous distribution of APE in the emulsion was clearly demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy analysis. The emulsion resulted able to enhance the in vitro release rate of APE through synthetic membranes with respect to the raw material.

  17. The potential of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel extract, combined with demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft, to reduce ridge resorption and alveolar bone regeneration in preserving the tooth extraction socket.

    PubMed

    Kresnoadi, Utari; Ariani, Maretaningtias Dwi; Djulaeha, Eha; Hendrijantini, Nike

    2017-01-01

    Following the extraction of a tooth, bone resorption can cause significant problems for a subsequent denture implant and restorative dentistry. Thus, the tooth extraction socket needs to be maintained to reduce the chance of any alveolar ridge bone resorption. The objective of this study is to determine whether the administration of mangosteen peel extracts (MPEs), combined with demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFBBX) materials for tooth extraction socket preservation, could potentially reduce inflammation by decreased the expression of nuclear factor κβ (NfKb) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL), to inhibit alveolar bone resorption, and increased of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) expressions to accelerate alveolar bone regeneration. This study consists of several stages. First, a dosage of MPE combined with graft materials was applied to a preserved tooth extraction socket of a Cavia cobaya . Second, the C. cobaya was examined using immune histochemical expression of NfKb, RANKL, BMP2, as well as histology of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The research was statistically analyzed, using an analysis of variance test and Tukey honest significant difference test. The results of this research were that it was determined that MPEs combined with graft materials on a preserved tooth extraction socket can reduce NfKb, RANK, and osteoclasts also increase of BMP2 and osteoblast. The induction of MPEs and DFBBX is effective in reducing inflammation, lowering osteoclasts, decreasing alveolar bone resorption, and also increasing BMP2 expression and alveolar bone regeneration.

  18. GC-MS analysis of headspace and liquid extracts for metabolomic differentiation of citrus Huanglongbing and zinc deficiency in leaves of 'Valencia' sweet orange from commercial groves.

    PubMed

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan Manuel; García-Torres, Rosalía; Etxeberria, Edgardo; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is considered the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. Symptoms-based detection of HLB is difficult due to similarities with zinc deficiency. To find metabolic differences between leaves from HLB-infected, zinc-deficient, and healthy 'Valencia' orange trees by using GC-MS based metabolomics. Analysis based on GC-MS methods for untargeted metabolite analysis of citrus leaves was developed and optimized. Sample extracts from healthy, zinc deficient, or HLB-infected sweet orange leaves were submitted to headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and derivatization treatments prior to GC-MS analysis. Principal components analysis achieved correct classification of all the derivatized liquid extracts. Analysis of variance revealed 6 possible biomarkers for HLB, of which 5 were identified as proline, β-elemene, (-)trans- caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in oxo-butanedioic acid, arabitol, and neo-inositol were exclusively detected in samples from plants with zinc deficiency. Levels of isocaryophyllen, α-selinene, β-selinene, and fructose were significantly (P < 0.05) different in healthy leaves only. Results suggest the potential of using identified HLB biomarkers for rapid differentiation of HLB from zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/nuclear magnetic resonance as complementary analytical techniques for unambiguous identification of polymethoxylated flavones in residues from molecular distillation of orange peel oils (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Weber, Berthold; Hartmann, Beate; Stöckigt, Detlef; Schreiber, Klaus; Roloff, Michael; Bertram, Heinz-Jürgen; Schmidt, Claus O

    2006-01-25

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/nuclear magnetic resonance techniques with ultraviolet/diode array detection were used as complementary analytical tools for the reliable identification of polymethoxylated flavones in residues from molecular distillation of cold-pressed peel oils of Citrus sinensis. After development of a liquid chromatographic separation procedure, the presence of several polymethoxy flavones such as sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, quercetogetin, heptamethoxyflavone, and other derivatives was unambiguously confirmed. In addition, proceranone, an acetylated tetranortriterpenoid with limonoid structure, was identified for the first time in citrus.

  20. Application of fungal chitosan incorporated with pomegranate peel extract as edible coating for microbiological, chemical and sensorial quality enhancement of Nile tilapia fillets.

    PubMed

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed S; Moussa, Shaaban H; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2017-06-01

    Fish are generous sources for providing man with his essential nutritional requirements, but the extreme susceptibility to quality deterioration hinders their optimal usage and storage. Natural derivatives are always the perfect alternatives for food preservation. The application of fungal chitosan (Ch), from Aspergillus niger, and pomegranate peel extract (PPE), in coating films for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets preservation ‎and maintaining their microbiological, chemical and sensorial quality during cooled storage at 4°C for 30days, was investigated.‎ Fish fillet were coated with Ch (2%) and combined Ch+PPE, at PPE percentages of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%. Fillets coating resulted in sharp decrease of the entire microbial counts during storage; the increased concentrations from PPE strengthened coating film antimicrobial activity. Additionally, fillets coating could retard the chemical spoilage parameters increasing, i.e. nitrogen volatile base (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV) and reactive substances of thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), during storage period. The sensory evaluation indicated higher preferences for the odor, texture, color and overall quality of coated samples. Fish fillets coating with Ch and Ch+PPE could be recommended for shelf life extension and maintaining the microbiological, chemical and sensorial quality through the application of safe preservatives from natural origins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using fruit peel extracts: surface engineering, T 2 relaxometry, and photodynamic treatment potential.

    PubMed

    Bano, Shazia; Nazir, Samina; Nazir, Alia; Munir, Saeeda; Mahmood, Tariq; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Farzana Latif; Mazhar, Kehkashan

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17-25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R 2 relaxivity (225 mM(-1) s(-1)). Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa) cells. The bio-SPIONs developed are highly favorable for various biomedical applications without risking interference from potentially toxic reagents.

  2. Suppressive effect of ethanol extract from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel on IgE production in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Sasaki, Tomoko; Nishi, Kosuke; Tamamoto, Takeshi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2018-04-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is involved in the onset of allergic reaction, and the suppression of IgE production leads to alleviation of allergic symptoms. We found that mango peel ethanol extract (MPE) significantly suppresses IgE production by human myeloma cell line U266 cells, suggesting that MPE has an anti-allergic effect by inhibiting the production of IgE. Although mangiferin is contained in mango, which suppresses IgE production by U266 cells, it was not contained in MPE. We investigated the suppressive effect of MPE in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis model mice. The elevation of serum IgE level was significantly suppressed by oral administration of MPE. Intake of MPE also suppressed the expression level of IL-4 in the DNFB-challenged ears, suggesting that MPE suppresses the IL-4-mediated maturation into IgE-producing cells. Our findings indicate that MPE has a potential to alleviate the increase in serum IgE level that is feature of type I allergy.

  3. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using fruit peel extracts: surface engineering, T2 relaxometry, and photodynamic treatment potential

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Shazia; Nazir, Samina; Nazir, Alia; Munir, Saeeda; Mahmood, Tariq; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Farzana Latif; Mazhar, Kehkashan

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17–25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R2 relaxivity (225 mM−1 s−1). Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa) cells. The bio-SPIONs developed are highly favorable for various biomedical applications without risking interference from potentially toxic reagents. PMID:27570452

  4. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31 + G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100 mW·cm- 2 yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2 μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22 ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29 ms.

  5. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-15

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31+G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100mW·cm -2 yields a short-circuit current density (J sc ) of 3.23mA/cm 2 , a photovoltage (V oc ) of 0.48V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29ms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of Citrus Water-Extracts Obtained by Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Methods.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Leonardo; Quintieri, Laura; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Lentini, Giovanni; Habtemariam, Solomon

    2018-06-17

    Citrus pomace is a huge agro-food industrial waste mostly composed of peels and traditionally used as compost or animal feed. Owing to its high content of compounds beneficial to humans (e.g., flavonoids, phenol-like acids, and terpenoids), citrus waste is increasingly used to produce valuable supplements, fragrance, or antimicrobials. However, such processes require sustainable and efficient extraction strategies by solvent-free techniques for environmentally-friendly good practices. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of water extracts of three citrus peels (orange, lemon, and citron) against ten different sanitary relevant bacteria. Both conventional extraction methods using hot water (HWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used. Even though no extract fully inhibited the growth of the target bacteria, these latter (mostly pseudomonads) showed a significant reduction in biofilm biomass. The most active extracts were obtained from orange and lemon peel by using MAE at 100 °C for 8 min. These results showed that citrus peel water infusions by MAE may reduce biofilm formation possibly enhancing the susceptibility of sanitary-related bacteria to disinfection procedures.

  7. Peeling skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ilknur, Turna; Demirtaşoğlu, Melda; Akarsu, Sevgi; Lebe, Banu; Güneş, Ali Tahsin; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2006-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin. To date, several cases have been described with different clinical features called peeling skin syndrome. Previous reports describe two types (type A and type B) of peeling skin syndrome, both of which show generalized desquamation, sparing palms and soles. We report a 23-year old man who has been classified as neither type A nor type B, and whose history, clinical features and histopathological findings led to a diagnosis of peeling skin syndrome. In addition, the desquamation pattern in our patient was different from that of both types because our case's palms and soles were involved too.

  8. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-08-01

    Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001). This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  9. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10. PMID:26664417

  10. Quantification of Transfer of Salmonella from Citrus Fruits to Peel, Edible Portion, and Gloved Hands during Hand Peeling.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jiin; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have quantified bacterial transfer between hands and various materials, cross-contamination between the surface of fresh citrus fruit and the edible portions during hand peeling has not been reported. This study quantifies transfer of Salmonella to the edible portion of citrus fruit from a contaminated peel during hand peeling. Citrus fruits used for this study were Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) cultivars 'Valencia' and 'Navel', Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarins), Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi ('Minneola' tangelo or 'Honeybell'), and C. paradisi (grapefruit) cultivar 'Marsh'. An avirulent Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ATCC 700720) resistant to rifampin was used for all experiments. The inoculum containing approximately 9 log CFU/mL (50 μL) was spot inoculated onto the equator, stem, or styler of each fruit and allowed to dry for 24 h. Six volunteers put on single-use latex gloves and peeled inoculated fruit. Peel, edible fruit portion, and gloves were collected and enumerated separately. Three replicates of the study were performed in which each volunteer peeled two inoculated fruit of each variety (n = 36 fruit per variety). Cross-contamination from contaminated surface of citrus fruits to edible portion or gloved hands during peeling was affected by inoculation sites. Average Salmonella transfer to the edible portion ranged from 0.16% (Valencia inoculated at the equator) to 5.41% (navel inoculated at the stem). Average Salmonella transfer to gloved hands ranged from 0.41% (grapefruit inoculated at the stem) to 8.97% (navel inoculated at the stem). Most Salmonella remained on the peel of citrus fruits. The average level of Salmonella remaining on the peel ranged from 5.37% (Minneola inoculated at the equator) to 66.3% (Satsuma inoculated at the styler). When grapefruit was inoculated, the Salmonella that remained on the peel showed a bimodal pattern in which some individuals left almost all Salmonella on the peel, while others left

  11. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effects of a polymethoxy flavonoids-rich Citrus aurantium peel extract on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seol-Wa; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Kim, Hong-Suk; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of Citrus aurantium peel extract (CAE) against apoptosis in cholestatic liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in mice. Male ICR mice were divided to 5 groups: 1) Control group (Sham-operated mice), 2) Cholestatic liver injury group induced by bile duct ligation (BDL), 3) BDL mice treated with silymarin (200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, 4) BDL mice treated with 50 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks, 5) BDL mice treated with 200 mg/kg CAE for 4 weeks. Mice were sacrificed and liver fibrosis was evaluated by serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry tests and liver histopathological examination. Effects of CAE on inflammation and apoptosis gene regulation were investigated through real-time PCR. CAE effect on lipid metabolism related signaling was determined by western blot analysis. In BDL mice, administration of CAE for 4 weeks markedly attenuated liver fibrosis based on histopathological alteration. Serum and hepatic tissue biochemistry results revealed that CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that CAE regulated inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism factors increased by BDL. Interleukin family, tumor necrosis factor α, and related apoptosis factors mRNA levels were increased by BDL treatment. However, these increases were suppressed by CAE administration. In addition, CAE effectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and related cytoprotective proteins. CAE can efficiently regulate BDL-induced liver injury with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Potent activity of nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peel extract to facilitate cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling associated with learning and memory in cultured hippocampal neurons: identification of the substances responsible for the pharmacological action.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yoshida, Masaaki; Sun, Wen; Nakajima, Akira; Lai, Yanxin; Osaka, Naoya; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-10-01

    cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated transcription is crucial for learning and memory. We originally found nobiletin as a natural compound that stimulates this intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Citrus reticulata or C. unshiu peels are employed as "chinpi" and include a small amount of nobiletin. We here provide the first evidence for beneficial pharmacological actions on the cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB cascade of extracts from nobiletin-rich C.reticulata peels designated as Nchinpi, the nobiletin content of which was 0.83 ± 0.13% of the dry weight or 16-fold higher than that of standard chinpi extracts. Nchinpi extracts potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas the standard chinpi extracts showed no such activity. Also, the Nchinpi extract, but not the standard chinpi extract, stimulated PKA/ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, treatment with the Nchinpi extract at the concentration corresponding to approximately 5 μM nobiletin more potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity than did 30 μM nobiletin alone. Consistently, sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin were also identified as bioactive substances in Nchinpi that facilitated the CRE-mediated transcription. Purified sinensetin enhanced the transcription to a greater degree than nobiletin. Furthermore, samples reconstituted with the four purified compounds and nobiletin in the ratio of each constituent's content in the extract showed activity almost equal to that of the Nchinpi extract to stimulate CRE-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that above four compounds and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocampal neurons.

  14. A red orange extract modulates the vascular response to a recreational dive: a pilot study on the effect of anthocyanins on the physiological consequences of scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Balestra, C; Cimino, F; Theunissen, S; Snoeck, T; Provyn, S; Canali, R; Bonina, A; Virgili, F

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional antioxidants have been proposed as an expedient strategy to counter the potentially deleterious effects of scuba diving on endothelial function, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and heart function. Sixteen volunteers performing a single standard dive (20 min at 33 m) according to US Navy diving procedures were randomly assigned to two groups: one was administered with two doses of 200 mg of an anthocyanins (AC)-rich extract from red oranges, 12 and 4 h before diving. Anthocyanins supplementation significantly modulated the effects of diving on haematocrit, body water distribution and FMD. AC administration significantly reduces the potentially harmful endothelial effects of a recreational single dive. The lack of any significant effect on the most common markers of plasma antioxidant capacity suggests that the mechanism underlying this protective activity is independent of the putative antioxidant effect of AC and possibly involves cellular signalling modulation of the response to high oxygen.

  15. Phytochemical compositions of extract from peel of hawthorn fruit, and its antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Panpan; Li, Fajie; Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Bin; Ji, Zhaojie; Chen, Weidong

    2017-03-11

    Hawthorn fruit (HF) is a well-known traditional medicine in China with the effects of improving digestion and regulating qi-flowing for removing blood stasis. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that HF extract has various pharmaceutical properties and flavonoids are considered as the main bioactive compounds. In this paper, Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography was used to enrich flavonoids in PHF, and the phytochemical composition of EPHF was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In addition, EPHF's antioxidant capacity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and cytotoxic activity were evaluated. EPHF was obtained by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography. Phytochemical composition of EPHF was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using HPLC and LC-MS. Radical scavenging capacity of EPHF was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The AChE inhibitory activity of EPHF was evaluated by Ellman method. Cytotoxic activity of EPHF was assessed by means of MTT assay. Eight kinds of components were identified, in which ideain with the value of 179.4 mg/g was identified to be present in the highest level in EPHF, followed by (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, cyanidin 3-arabinoside, hyperoside and isoquercitrin at the concentrations of 40.9, 10.0, 1.4, 0.4 and 0.2 mg/g, respectively. The contents of these compounds in EPHF were much higher than those in PHF and HF. In addition, EPHF exhibited strong antioxidant and AChE inhibitory activity (ORAC value: 11.65 ± 2.37 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, DPPH IC 50 value: 6.72 μg/mL, anti-AChE activity IC 50 value: 11.72 μg/mL) compared with PHF and HF. Moreover, EPHF exhibited high levels of cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and SKOV-3 human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with the IC 50 of 2.76 and 80.11 μg/mL, respectively. Macroporous resin

  16. Determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in oranges and cucumbers using QuEChERS extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arrebola-Liébanas, Francisco Javier; Abdo, María Angeles Herrera; Moreno, José Luis Fernandez; Martínez-Vidal, José L; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method has been developed for determining relevant quaternary ammonium compounds in cucumber and orange samples. The target compounds were benzoalkonium chloride (BAC-10, BAC-12, BAC-14, and BAC-16), didecyldimethylammonium chloride, and benzethonium chloride, all frequently used biocides in the agrifood industry. An extraction based on the buffered Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method and determination by ultra-performance LC/MS/MS that eluted the biocides in less than 5 min were used. The method was fully validated and implemented in a UNE-EN-ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratory for its application to the analysis of real samples. Performance characteristics of the method are reported, including an estimation of measurement uncertainty. Calibration curves were set between 0.01 and 0.150 mg/kg, LOD values were always between 0.4 and 1.0 microg/kg, LOQ values were in the range 1-4 microg/kg, recovery was between 81 and 115%, intraday and interday precision were always lower than 17% (expressed as RSD), and expanded uncertainty was always lower than 40%. The validation was accomplished for the two studied matrixes at spiking concentrations of 0.011 and 0.050 mg/kg. The method has been applied to the analysis of 30 cucumber and orange samples that were found to contain concentrations of BAC-12 that ranged between 0.015 and 0.210 mg/kg and of BAC-14 between 0.018 and 0.081 mg/kg.

  17. Formation of Diketopiperazines by Penicillium italicum Isolated from Oranges

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Peter M.; Kennedy, Barry P. C.; Harwig, Joost; Chen, Y-K.

    1974-01-01

    Prolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine and 12,13-dehydroprolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine, known metabolites of Aspergillus ustus, were produced in low yield by Penicillium italicum in liquid culture and on unsterilized orange peel. PMID:4441068

  18. Reduction of salmonella on valencia oranges by cold plasma treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange juice has been the source of recurrent food borne illness outbreaks, primarily associated with Salmonella. There is a need for antimicrobial interventions which can effectively eliminate pathogens from fruit surfaces and reduce the risk of cross-contamination during peeling and processing. To...

  19. A strategy to improve nitrogen utilization, reduce environmental impact, and increase performance and antioxidant capacity of fattening lambs using pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, M; Rouzbehan, Y; Rezaei, J

    2017-01-01

    Dietary natural plant secondary metabolites (PSM) extracted from a pomegranate peel (PP) byproduct have the potential to improve milk yield and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. This experiment was performed to assess the influence of different dietary levels of PP extract (PPE) on feedlot performance, ruminal status, nutrient utilization, and antioxidant status in fattening Moghani lambs. Thirty-two lambs (initial BW of 22 ± 1.2 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with a 72-d period and 4 treatments: PPE0 (no extract), PPE15 (15 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), PPE30 (30 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), and PPE45 (45 mL PPE/kg of diet DM). Feed intake, lamb growth, diet digestibility, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS), N retention, rumen parameters, and blood metabolites were determined. The addition of PPE to the diet of lambs had no effect on DMI (linear [L], = 0.96; quadratic [Q], = 0.65). In vivo digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, and Ash-free NDF were not affected (L, ≥ 0.28; Q, ≥ 0.26) by different levels of PPE, but it increased ADG (L, = 0.045; Q, = 0.19) and G:F (L, = 0.046; Q, = 0.20). Rumen pH, VFA concentrations, and acetate-to-propionate ratio were not affected (L, ≥ 0.14; Q, ≥ 0.23) by PPE supplementation. Dietary inclusion of PPE decreased the ruminal concentration of ammonia N (L, = 0.014; Q, = 0.67), total protozoa enumeration (L, < 0.001; Q, = 0.043), population (L, < 0.001; Q, = 0.19), urinary N excretion (L, = 0.005; Q, = 0.26), whereas MNS (L, = 0.019; Q, = 0.23) and N retention (L, < 0.001; Q, = 0.66) increased. Feeding PPE had no effect (L, ≥ 0.11; Q, ≥ 0.17) on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, or albumin-to-globulin ratio. Blood urea N (L, = 0.021; Q, = 0.32) decreased with dietary addition of PPE, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the rumen fluid (L, = 0.032; Q, = 0.64) and TAC in the blood (L, = 0.041; Q, = 0.51) increased. Overall, dietary inclusion of

  20. An Alginate/Cyclodextrin Spray Drying Matrix to Improve Shelf Life and Antioxidant Efficiency of a Blood Orange By-Product Extract Rich in Polyphenols: MMPs Inhibition and Antiglycation Activity in Dysmetabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Crascì, Lucia; Giannone, Virgilio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Fabroni, Simona; Sansone, Francesca; Rapisarda, Paolo; Panico, Anna Maria; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Alginate and β -cyclodextrin were used to produce easily dosable and spray-dried microsystems of a dried blood orange extract with antidysmetabolic properties, obtained from a by-product fluid extract. The spray-dried applied conditions were able to obtain a concentrate dried extract without the loss of AOA and with TPC and TMA values of 35-40% higher than that of the starting material. They were also effective in producing microparticles with 80-100% of encapsulation efficiency. The 2% sodium alginate was capable of improving the extract shelf life , while the beta-cyclodextrin (1 : 1 molar ratio with dried extract) prolonged the extract antioxidant efficiency by 6 hours. The good inhibition effect of the dried extract on the AGE formation and the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity is presumably due to a synergic effect exerted by both anthocyanin and bioflavonoid extract compounds and was improved by the use of alginate and cyclodextrin.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  2. [Orange Platform].

    PubMed

    Toba, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    The Organized Registration for the Assessment of dementia on Nationwide General consortium toward Effective treatment in Japan (ORANGE platform) is a recently established nationwide clinical registry for dementia. This platform consists of multiple registries of patients with dementia stratified by the following clinical stages: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, early-stage, and advanced-stage dementia. Patients will be examined in a super-longitudinal fashion, and their lifestyle, social background, genetic risk factors, and required care process will be assessed. This project is also notable because the care registry includes information on the successful, comprehensive management of patients with dementia. Therefore, this multicenter prospective cohort study will contribute participants to all clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease as well as improve the understanding of individuals with dementia.

  3. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, António G.; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sørensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. PMID:25081519

  4. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  5. Quantification of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in oranges and mandarins by chemiluminescent ELISA.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Marina M; Stepanova, Alexandra S; Eremin, Sergei A; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Uskova, Natalia A; Yu Sakharov, Ivan

    2013-11-15

    Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was developed. Varying the concentrations of monoclonal anti-2,4-D-antibody and the conjugate of soybean peroxidase and 2,4-D the conditions of ELISA performance were optimised. The chemiluminescent method based on peroxidase-catalysed oxidation of luminol was applied to measure the enzyme activity of the conjugate. A mixture of 3-(10'-phenothiazinyl)propane-1-sulfonate and 4-morpholinopyridine was used as potent enhancer of chemiluminescence signal. It was shown that the values of the lower detection limit, IC50 and the working range were 1.5, 64.0, and 6.5-545ng/mL, respectively. The recovery values of CL-ELISA from 10 spiked samples of oranges (n=5) and mandarins (n=5) cultivated in green house without use of 2,4-D and containing different 2,4-D concentrations (10-300ng/mL) were ranged from 92% to 104% that indicated on the absence of matrix effect for the fruit extracts of interest. Determination of 2,4-D in peel of five oranges and five mandarins purchased from stores in Vietnam showed that 2,4-D content in oranges fruits (79-104μg/kg) was significantly higher than that in mandarins (1.66-2.82μg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of oranges from a color image of an orange tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Gallagher, A.; Eriksson, J.

    1999-10-01

    The progress of robotic and machine vision technology has increased the demand for sophisticated methods for performing automatic harvesting of fruit. The harvesting of fruit, until recently, has been performed manually and is quite labor intensive. An automatic robot harvesting system that uses machine vision to locate and extract the fruit would free the agricultural industry from the ups and downs of the labor market. The environment in which robotic fruit harvesters must work presents many challenges due to the inherent variability from one location to the next. This paper takes a step towards this goal by outlining a machine vision algorithm that detects and accurately locates oranges from a color image of an orange tree. Previous work in this area has focused on differentiating the orange regions from the rest of the picture and not locating the actual oranges themselves. Failure to locate the oranges, however, leads to a reduced number of successful pick attempts. This paper presents a new approach for orange region segmentation in which the circumference of the individual oranges as well as partially occluded oranges are located. Accurately defining the circumference of each orange allows a robotic harvester to cut the stem of the orange by either scanning the top of the orange with a laser or by directing a robotic arm towards the stem to automatically cut it. A modified version of the K- means algorithm is used to initially segment the oranges from the canopy of the orange tree. Morphological processing is then used to locate occluded oranges and an iterative circle finding algorithm is used to define the circumference of the segmented oranges.

  7. Trace matrix solid phase dispersion using a molecular sieve as the sorbent for the determination of flavonoids in fruit peels by ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wan; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Pang, Xiao-Qing; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly selective trace matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, was proposed for extracting flavonoids from orange fruit peel matrices. Molecular sieve SBA-15 was applied for the first time as a solid support in trace MSPD. Parameters, such as the type of dispersant, mass ratio of the sample to the dispersant, grinding time, and elution pH, were optimized in detail. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing a powdered fruit peel sample (25 mg) into 25mg of SBA-15 and then eluting the target analytes with 500 μL of methanol. A satisfactory linearity (r(2) > 0.9990) was obtained, and the calculated limits of detection reached 0.02-0.03 μg/mL for the compounds. The results showed that the method developed was successfully applied to determine the content of flavonoids in complex fruit peel matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. β-Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin Pigments Accumulation to Induce Orange Color on Citrus Fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri

    2018-01-01

    Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.

  9. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  11. Antioxidant activity of apple peels.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-01-29

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated. The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 +/- 83.2 and 500.2 +/- 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 +/- 6.7 and 303.2 +/- 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 +/- 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 +/- 9.8 micromol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels). Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG(2) human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 +/- 0

  12. Complications of Macular Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Asencio-Duran, Mónica; Manzano-Muñoz, Beatriz; Vallejo-García, José Luis; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Macular peeling refers to the surgical technique for the removal of preretinal tissue or the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula for several retinal disorders, ranging from epiretinal membranes (primary or secondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment…) to full-thickness macular holes, macular edema, foveal retinoschisis, and others. The technique has evolved in the last two decades, and the different instrumentations and adjuncts have progressively advanced turning into a safer, easier, and more useful tool for the vitreoretinal surgeon. Here, we describe the main milestones of macular peeling, drawing attention to its associated complications. PMID:26425351

  13. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  14. Potential effect of Olea europea leaves, Sonchus oleraceus leaves and Mangifera indica peel extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes and CYP19A1 expression in MCF-7 cell line: Comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shaban, N Z; Hegazy, W A; Abdel-Rahman, S M; Awed, O M; Khalil, S A

    2016-08-29

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) provide novel approaches to the adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. In this study, different plant extracts from Olea europaea leaves (OLE), Sonchus oleraceus L. (SOE) and Mangifera indica peels (MPE) were prepared to identify phytoconstituents and measure antioxidant capacities. The effects of these three extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of these extracts on tissue-specific promoter expression of CYP19A1 gene in cell culture model (MCF-7) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Results showed a concentration-dependent decrease in aromatase activity after treatment with OLE and MPE, whereas, SOE showed a biphasic effect. The differential effects of OLE, SOE and MPE on aromatase expression showed that OLE seems to be the most potent suppressor followed by SOE and then MPE. These findings indicate that OLE has effective inhibitory action on aromatase at both the enzymatic and expression levels, in addition to its cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Also, MPE may be has the potential to be used as a tissue-specific aromatase inhibitor (selective aromatase inhibitor) and it may be promising to develop a new therapeutic agent against ER+ breast cancer.

  15. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. The use of silica-coated magnetic graphene microspheres as the adsorbent for the extraction of pyrethroid pesticides from orange and lettuce samples followed by GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mengying; Zang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Graphene-grafted ferroferric oxide microspheres were used as the adsorbent to extract some pyrethroid pesticides (bifenthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin) from orange and lettuce samples prior to their determination by GC-MS. The main variables that could affect the extraction, including the amount of the adsorbent, pH of the sample solution, extraction time, concentration of salt, and desorption conditions, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 0.3-100.0 ng/g for the analytes with the coefficients of determination ranging from 0.9877 to 0.9925. The LODs for the pyrethroids ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 ng/g. The method provided a good repeatability with RSDs < 10.6%. The recoveries for the six pyrethroid pesticides were in the range from 90.0 to 103.7%. The method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in orange and lettuce samples with a satisfactory result. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. An Alginate/Cyclodextrin Spray Drying Matrix to Improve Shelf Life and Antioxidant Efficiency of a Blood Orange By-Product Extract Rich in Polyphenols: MMPs Inhibition and Antiglycation Activity in Dysmetabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Giannone, Virgilio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo; Panico, Anna Maria; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Alginate and β-cyclodextrin were used to produce easily dosable and spray-dried microsystems of a dried blood orange extract with antidysmetabolic properties, obtained from a by-product fluid extract. The spray-dried applied conditions were able to obtain a concentrate dried extract without the loss of AOA and with TPC and TMA values of 35–40% higher than that of the starting material. They were also effective in producing microparticles with 80–100% of encapsulation efficiency. The 2% sodium alginate was capable of improving the extract shelf life, while the beta-cyclodextrin (1 : 1 molar ratio with dried extract) prolonged the extract antioxidant efficiency by 6 hours. The good inhibition effect of the dried extract on the AGE formation and the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity is presumably due to a synergic effect exerted by both anthocyanin and bioflavonoid extract compounds and was improved by the use of alginate and cyclodextrin. PMID:29230268

  18. Citrus peel use is associated with reduced risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Hakim, I A; Harris, R B; Ritenbaugh, C

    2000-01-01

    Limonene has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of breast and colon cancers. The principal sources of d-limonene are the oils of orange, grapefruit, and lemon. The present case-control study was designed to determine the usual citrus consumption patterns of an older Southwestern population and to then evaluate how this citrus consumption varied with history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In this Arizona population, 64.3% and 74.5% of the respondents reported weekly consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juices, respectively. Orange juice (78.5%), orange (74.3%), and grapefruit (65.3%) were the predominant varieties of citrus consumed. Peel consumption was not uncommon, with 34.7% of all subjects reporting citrus peel use. We found no association between the overall consumption of citrus fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.32] or citrus juices (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.71-1.31) and skin SCC. However, the most striking feature was the protection purported by citrus peel consumption (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.95). Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between higher citrus peel in the diet and degree of risk lowering. This is the first study to explore the relationship between citrus peel consumption and human cancers. Our results show that peel consumption, the major source of dietary d-limonene, is not uncommon and may have a potential protective effect in relation to skin SCC. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to more completely evaluate the interrelationships between peel intake, bioavailability of d-limonene, and other lifestyle factors.

  19. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae

  20. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration--to peel or not to peel?

    PubMed

    Brill, Shlomo; Zimmermann, Christian; Berger, Karin; Drewe, Juergen; Gutmann, Heike

    2009-03-01

    Interactions of acutely administered grapefruit juice (GFJ) with cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) function are well established. In this study, we investigated in vitro the effect of repeated administration of GFJ and its major constituents (the flavonoid naringin, its aglycone naringenin and the furanocoumarin bergamottin) on mRNA expression of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in LS180 cells. Since the bergamottin content is higher in the peel than in the fruit, we compared GFJ containing peel (GFJP+) with juice without any peel extract (GFJP-). GFJP- (1%) showed no significant effect on MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression, whereas 1% GFJP+ increased expression of MDR1 3.7-fold (P<0.01) and CYP3A4 2.3-fold (P<0.05). Of the tested constituents, only 10 microM bergamottin and 200 microM naringenin induced MDR1 mRNA levels 2.9- and 4.0-fold, respectively (P<0.01 for both), and CYP3A4 mRNA levels 3.2- and 15.6-fold (P<0.01 for both), respectively. Western blot analysis and rhodamine 123 uptake experiments partly confirmed these findings on the protein and the functional level. In summary, GFJ containing no peel extract may have a lower potential for interactions with CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein.

  2. Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel.

    PubMed

    Kang, H J; Chawla, S P; Jo, C; Kwon, J H; Byun, M W

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 72 h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20 kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined for color characteristics and antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities. There were significant changes in Hunter color values due to irradiation. The a*- and b*-values decreased due to radiation treatment. DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation treatment. Nitrite scavenging activity was the highest in the extract at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0. These functional properties of the aqueous solution were found to be stable in heat treatment. It could significantly improve oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. Based on these results there may be opportunities to use citrus peel powder as a functional component in the food processing industry with gamma irradiation treatment improving its color characteristics without adversely influencing the functional properties.

  3. Peeling without precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, John; Skinner, Dominic; Large, Tim

    2017-11-01

    The peeling by fluid injection of an elastic sheet away from a substrate is often regularised by invoking a thin prewetting film or a low-viscosity phase in the tip. Here we analyse fluid-driven peeling without such precursors, and consider an elastic sheet either bonded to, or simply laid on, an elastic substrate. To resolve the `elastic contact-line problem' that arises from viscous flow and beam theory, we determine the near-tip behaviour from lubrication theory coupled to the full equations of elasticity and fracture. The result is a law for the tip propagation speed in terms of the remote loading and the toughness of the sheet-substrate bonding (which might be zero). There are distinct modes of failure, according to whether there is slip ahead of the fluid front. The propagation-speed law gives rise to new similarity solutions for the spread of a fluid-filled blister in different regimes.

  4. Fe3O4@ionic liquid@methyl orange nanoparticles as a novel nano-adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xin; Huang, Yong; Liu, Chengwei; Zhao, Shulin

    2014-02-01

    A novel nano-adsorbent, Fe3O4@ionic liquid@methyl orange nanoparticles (Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs), was prepared for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. The Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs were synthesized by self-assembly of the ionic liquid 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C18mimBr) and methyl orange (MO) onto the surface of Fe3O4 silica magnetic nanoparticles, as confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interface device magnetometer. The extraction performance of Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs as a nano-adsorbent was evaluated by using five PAHs, fluorene (FLu), anthracene (AnT), pyrene (Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as model analytes. Under the optimum conditions, detection limits in the range of 0.1-2 ng/L were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). This method has been successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in environmental water samples by using the MSPE-HPLC-FLD. The recoveries for the five PAHs tested in spiked real water samples were in the range of 80.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.3 to 4.9%. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Extraction parameters and capillary electrophoresis analysis of limonin glucoside and phlorin in citrus byproducts.

    PubMed

    Braddock, R J; Bryan, C R

    2001-12-01

    Limonin glucoside (LG) and phlorin were extracted from citrus fruit tissues and assayed by capillary electrophoresis (CE). LG was determined in dried [1.20 +/- 0.10 mg of dry weight (dw)] and wet peel residues (1.16 +/- 0.04 mg of dw), orange juice finisher pulp (0.58 +/- 0.03 mg of dw), dried grapefruit seeds (2.70 +/- 0.15 mg of dw), and 50 degrees Brix molasses (2225 +/- 68 mg/L). Phlorin was purified from orange peel residue and grapefruit albedo, and concentrations were determined in some citrus products. Phlorin and LG were extracted from residues with water/pectinase or with water solutions of methanol and ethanol. Efficient LG extraction from grapefruit seeds (2.40 +/- 0.15 mg/g) was achieved with 50-65% methanol, solvent polarity P' approximately equal to 7-8. Extracts were purified and concentrated by adsorptive resins and HPLC to obtain 95% pure compounds of LG and phlorin. CE analysis did not require extract purification beyond filtration. LG and phlorin migrated as anions in electropherograms containing peaks representing other citrus flavonoids and limonoid glucosides.

  6. Viscous peeling with capillary suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gunnar; Lister, John

    2014-11-01

    If an elastic tape is stuck to a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous fluid and then peeled off by pulling at a small angle to the horizontal, then both viscous and capillary forces affect the peeling speed (McEwan and Taylor, 1966). If there is no capillary meniscus (e.g. if the peeling is due to viscous fluid being injected under the tape), then the peeling speed is given by a Cox-Voinov-like law, and is an increasing function of the peeling angle. We show that, with a meniscus present, the effect of the capillary forces is to suck down the tape, reducing the effective peeling angle and hence the peeling speed. When surface tension dominates and the peeling speed tends to zero, the system transitions to a new state whose time-evolution can be described by a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical calculations. Similar results hold for the peeling-by-bending of elastic beams, with ``angle'' replaced by ``curvature'' (i.e. bending moment).

  7. Instant controlled pressure drop technology and ultrasound assisted extraction for sequential extraction of essential oil and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Allaf, Tamara; Tomao, Valérie; Ruiz, Karine; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) technology enabled both the extraction of essential oil and the expansion of the matrix itself which improved solvent extraction. The sequential use of DIC and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) triggered complementary actions materialized by supplementary effects. We visualized these combination impacts by comparing them to standard techniques: Hydrodistillation (HD) and Solvent Extraction (SE). First, the extraction of orange peel Essential Oils (EO) was achieved by HD during 4h and DIC process (after optimization) during 2 min; EO yields was 1.97 mg/g dry material (dm) with HD compared to 16.57 mg/g d m with DIC. Second, the solid residue was recovered to extract antioxidant compounds (naringin and hesperidin) by SE and UAE. Scanning electron microscope showed that after HD the recovered solid shriveled as opposite to DIC treatment which expanded the product structure. HPLC analyses showed that the best kinetics and yields of naringin and hesperidin extraction was when DIC and UAE are combined. Indeed, after 1h of extraction, DIC treated orange peels with UAE were 0.825 ± 1.6 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) for hesperidin and 6.45 × 10(-2) ± 2.3 × 10(-4)g/g d m for naringin compared to 0.64 ± 2.7 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) and 5.7 × 10(-2) ± 1.6 × 10(-3)g/g d m, respectively with SE. By combining DIC to UAE, it was possible to enhance kinetics and yields of antioxidant extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Citrus ichangensis Peel Extract Exhibits Anti-Metabolic Disorder Effects by the Inhibition of PPARγ and LXR Signaling in High-Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaobo; Fan, Shengjie; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Gaigai; Guo, Lu; Jiang, Dong; Lu, Xiong; Li, Yiming; Zhou, Zhiqin; Huang, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a common nutritional disorder associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, and certain cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of Citrus ichangensis peel extract (CIE) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a chow diet or an HF diet alone or supplemented with 1% w/w CIE for 8 weeks. We found that CIE treatment could lower blood glucose level and improve glucose tolerance. In the HF+CIE group, body weight gain, serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels, and liver triglyceride (TG) and TC concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased relative to those in the HF group. To elucidate the mechanism of CIE on the metabolism of glucose and lipid, related genes expression in liver were examined. In liver tissue, CIE significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO). Moreover, CIE also decreased the expression of liver X receptor (LXR) α and β which are involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that CIE administration could alleviate obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF diet-induced obesity mice through the inhibition of PPARγ and LXR signaling. PMID:23320036

  9. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Sarmad; Nawaz, Shamsa; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Bushra; Aslam, Bilal

    2018-06-01

    Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract. In banana, water extract showed highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria while in case of papaya, absolute ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. The present study revealed that peels of banana and papaya fruits are potentially good source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  10. Philadelphus L.: mock orange

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    The mock oranges - Philadelphus spp. - have been placed in several families: Saxifragaceae (Harrington 1954), Hydrangeaceae (Hitchcock and others 1961), and more recently, the Philadelphaceae (Hickman 1993). Hydrangeaceae, however, is the most widely accepted placement (Cronquist and others 1997; USDA NRCS 2001). There are about 50 to 65 species of mock orange,...

  11. Novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid-solid phase micro-extraction membrane for the preconcentration of aniline as degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Wei, Xiao-Qing; Du, Chun-Hui; Ma, Xu-Ming; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-07-04

    A novel amphiphilic polymeric ionic liquid membrane containing a hydrophilic bromide anion and a hydrophobic carbonyl group was synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) systems using the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (BVImBr) and the methylmethacrylate (MMA) as monomers. The prepared amphiphilic ploy-methylmethacrylate-1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide (MMA-BVImBr) was characterized by a scanning electron microscope and an infrared spectrum instrument. The results of solid-phase micro-extraction membrane (SPMM) experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of membrane was about 0.76μgμg(-1) for aniline. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of trace aniline, as a degradation product of azo dye Orange G under sonication, was developed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The calibration curve showed a good linearity ranging from 0.5 to 10.0μgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient value of 0.9998. The limit of quantification was 0.5μgL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 90.6% to 96.1%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 8.3% and 10.9%. The developed SPMM-LC-MS/MS method was used successfully for preconcentration of trace aniline produced during the sonication of Orange G solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  13. Numerical models of delamination behavior in 2G HTS tapes under transverse tension and peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yujie; Ta, Wurui; Gao, Yuanwen

    2018-02-01

    In extreme operating environments, delamination in 2G HTS tapes occurs within and/or near the superconductor layer from high transverse tensile stresses caused by fabrication, Lorentz forces and thermal mismatch, etc. Generally, transverse opening and peeling off are the main delamination modes, and are always studied in anvil and peel tests, respectively. Numerical models of these modes for 2G HTS tape are presented wherein the mixed-mode traction-separation law at the interface of the silver and superconductor layers is considered. Plastic deformations of copper, silver, and Hastelloy® in the HTS tape are taken into account. The results obtained from the transverse opening model show that the maximum average tensile stress is smaller than the delamination tensile strength because delamination is asynchronous in the tape. When a crack appears in the tape, only a small stress ( ≤ 1 MPa) is required to expand the crack to other stress free areas through peeling. Using the peeling model, the dependency of the peel strength on peeling angle is investigated under constant fracture toughness. Peel strength decreases with the peeling angle until the minimum value is reached at 150°, and thereafter increases slightly. Other results indicate that peel strength depends strongly on delamination strength, fracture toughness, and thickness of copper layer. The fracture toughness of the delamination interface, which is difficult to obtain by experiment, can be extracted using the present model.

  14. Clinical study to assess the efficacy and safety of a citrus polyphenolic extract of red orange, grapefruit, and orange (Sinetrol-XPur) on weight management and metabolic parameters in healthy overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Constantin; Gerbi, Alain; Elbez, Yves; Caillard, Philippe; Zamaria, Nicolas; Cloarec, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy and safety effects of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic citrus dry extract) in weight management; metabolic parameters; and inflammatory, glycemic and oxidative status. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Sinetrol-XPur was given to overweight subjects twice daily with meals in the tested group (N = 47) versus a placebo group (N = 48). Waist and hip circumference and abdominal fat were decreased in the Sinetrol-XPur group as compared with the placebo group (p < 0.0001) (-5.71% vs. -1.56% for waist, -4.71% vs. -1.35% for hip and -9.73% vs. -3.18% for fat). Inflammatory markers were reduced (C-reactive protein: -22.87% vs. +61%; fibrinogen: -19.93% vs. -1.61%, p < 0.01). Oxidative stress was lowered as seen by the reduction of malondialdehyde (-14.03% vs. 2.76%) and the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione (17.38% vs. 2.19% and 4.63% vs. -2.36%, respectively, p < 0.01). No adverse effects were observed. Kidney, liver, and lipid panels remained unchanged. These results indicated that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing abdominal fat, waist and hip circumference, and body weight and for improving inflammatory, glycemic, and oxidative status in healthy overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pseudohyperglycemia: Effects of Unwashed Hand after Fruit Peeling or Handling on Fingertips Blood Glucose Monitoring Results.

    PubMed

    Olamoyegun, M A; Oloyede, T; Adewoye, O G; Abdulkarim, S O; Adeleke, A A

    2016-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of management for diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in T1DM and T2DM patients who are on insulin therapy. Adequate blood glucose monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to prevent blood glucose (BG) fluctuation and delay long-term diabetes complications. People with DM are advised to clean their hands before SMBG to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. The study tested the hypothesis that falsely elevated BG levels from fingertip occur after peeling or handling fruits in an unwashed hand. Fifty apparently healthy nondiabetes volunteers were enrolled. Capillary BG samples were collected from the fingertips after peeling or handling apple, orange, banana, watermelon, and pawpaw, followed by no hand washing for 1 h, cleaning the fingertip with alcohol swab once, five times, and washing hand thoroughly with tap water and drying. These samples were then analyzed with two different glucose meters. The mean BG values, measured from fingertip blood samples after peeling, and handling any of the fruits followed by no hand washing were significantly high, even after cleaning fingertip with a swab of alcohol once. However, there were no significant difference in BG levels measured after peeling and handling fruits followed by hand washing and the level of BG before peeling and handling fruits. Handling of peeled fruits with no hand washing with tap water is associated with overestimation of capillary BG (Pseudohyperglycemia) monitored with glucose meters.

  17. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169

  18. Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Karamać, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-05-09

    Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive.

  19. Enhanced production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-06-01

    Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was implemented in solid-state (SSF) and liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF) for biosynthesis of pectinase. Amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues, finger millet waste, broken rice, banana peels (BP), apple pomace (AP) and orange peels, banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.; Family: Musaceae) was most suitable for pectinase biosynthesis (LSSF: 400 ± 21.45 Uml -1 ; SSF: 6500 ± 1116.21 Ug -1 ). Optimization of process parameters using one-variable-at-a-time method revealed that an initial medium pH of 5.0 at 30 °C and 96 h of incubation along with mannitol, urea, ammonium persulfate and isoleucine have positive influence on pectinase production. Further, K + (1 mM), Riboflavin (10 mg 100 ml -1 ) and gibberellic acid (0.025 %, w/v) supported in enhanced pectinase production. Banana peels and AP at a ratio of 9:1, moisture content of 90 % with 2 % inoculum size were suitable combinations for production of pectinase. Similarly, 96 h of soaking time with 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) is essential for pectinase recovery. Purification to electrophoretic homogeneity revealed 1.42 fold purification with 8.08 % yield and a molecular weight of 24.6 kDa. Scaling up of various fermentation parameters and supplementing BP as the substrate for pectinase production with better recovery could make it promising for different industrial exploitation.

  20. Chemical peeling in ethnic/dark skin.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Chemical peeling for skin of color arose in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient cultures in and around Africa. Our current fund of medical knowledge regarding chemical peeling is a result of centuries of experience and research. The list of agents for chemical peeling is extensive. In ethnic skin, our efforts are focused on superficial and medium-depth peeling agents and techniques. Indications for chemical peeling in darker skin include acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, scarring, photodamage, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Careful selection of patients for chemical peeling should involve not only identification of Fitzpatrick skin type, but also determining ethnicity. Different ethnicities may respond unpredictably to chemical peeling regardless of skin phenotype. Familiarity with the properties each peeling agent used is critical. New techniques discussed for chemical peeling include spot peeling for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and combination peels for acne and photodamage. Single- or combination-agent chemical peels are shown to be efficacious and safe. In conclusion, chemical peeling is a treatment of choice for numerous pigmentary and scarring disorders arising in dark skin tones. Familiarity with new peeling agents and techniques will lead to successful outcomes.

  1. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar Ae

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/ antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% (EC50= 42.97 ?g extract/ mL), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 77.8 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective antileukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (Tlymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted noncytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.

  2. Green way genesis of silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peels waste and its antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor cell line studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganathan, Kiruthika; Thirunavukkarasu, Somanathan

    2017-04-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) opens a new path to kill and prevent various infectious diseases and also tumor. In this study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles using multiple fruit peel waste (pomegranate, orange, banana and apple (POBA)). The primarily nanoparticles formation has been confirmed by the color change. The synthesized SNP were analyzed by various physicochemical techniques such as UV- Visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The formation of SNP was confirmed by its absorbance peak observed at 430 nm in UV-Visible spectrum. Further, the obtained SNP were identified by XRD and TEM, respectively to know the crystalline nature and size and shape of the particles. The activities of SNP were checked with human pathogens (Salmonella, E.coli and Pseudomonas), plant pathogen (Fusarium) and marine pathogen (Aeromonas hydrophila) and also studied the scavenging effect and anticancer properties against MCF-7 cell lines. This studies proves that the SNP prepared from fruit waste peel extract approach appears extremely fast, cost efficient, eco-friendly and alternative for conventional methods of SNP synthesis to promote the usage of these nanoparticles in medicinal application.

  3. Tretinoin peel: a critical view*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Juliana Mayumi; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2017-01-01

    The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary. PMID:29186249

  4. Tretinoin peel: a critical view.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Juliana Mayumi; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Bagatin, Ediléia

    2017-01-01

    The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary.

  5. Charcoal from chemi-peeled hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1959-01-01

    Removing bark from standing trees with sodium arsenite is an inexpensive but efficient way to produce peeled pulpwood. About 200,000 cords, principally hardwoods, are produced annually by chemi-peeling, a technique that is fast replacing old-fashioned sap-peeling as a means of debarking in the woods.

  6. Quercetin, a functional compound of onion peel, remodels white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Gil; Parks, John S; Kang, Hye Won

    2017-04-01

    Adipocyte browning is a promising strategy for obesity prevention. Using onion-peel-derived extracts and their bioactive compounds, we demonstrate that onion peel, a by-product of onion, can change the characteristics of white adipocytes to those of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue of mice and 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of the following brown adipose tissue-specific genes was increased in the retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 0.5% onion-peel-extract-fed mice: PR domain-containing 16, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, uncoupling protein 1, fibroblast growth factor 21 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, onion peel extract induced the expression of brown adipose tissue-specific genes and increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α. This effect was supported by decreased lipid levels and multiple small-sized lipid droplets. The ethyl acetate fraction of the onion peel extract that contained the highest proportion of hydrophobic molecules showed the same browning effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A high-performance liquid chromatography analysis further identified quercetin as a functional compound in the browning effect of onion peel. The quercetin-associated browning effect was mediated in part by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. In summary, our study provides the first demonstration of the browning effects of onion peel and quercetin using both animal and cell models. This result indicates that onion peel has the potential to remodel the characteristics of white adipocytes to those of brown-like adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  8. Peeling Back the Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols.

    Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed.

    Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers.

    The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior.

    The Mazatzal targets were named

  9. Heavy metals in navel orange orchards of Xinfeng County and their transfer from soils to navel oranges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated heavy metal concentrations in soils and navel oranges of Xinfeng County, a well-known navel orange producing area of China. The results showed that the average concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in orchard soils all increased compared to the regional background values, especially for Cd, which increased by 422%. When compared to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (GB15618-1995), Pb, Cr and Hg concentrations in all orchard soil samples were below the limit standards, but Cd concentrations in 24 soil samples (21%) and As concentrations in 8 soil samples (7%) exceeded the limit standards. However, concentrations of all heavy metals in navel orange pulps were within the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2012). Dietary risk assessment also showed that the exposure to these five heavy metals by consumption of navel oranges could hardly pose adverse health effects on adults and children. Since the range and degree of soil Cd pollution was widest and the most severe of all, Cd was taken as an example to reveal the transfer characteristics of heavy metals in soil-navel orange system. Cd concentrations in different organs of navel orange trees decreased in the following order: root>leaf>peel>pulp. That navel oranges planted in the Cd contaminated soils were within the national food safety standard was mainly due to the low transfer factor for Cd from soil to pulp (TFpulp). Further studies showed that TFpulp was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Based on these soil properties, a prediction equation for TFpulp was established, which indicated that the risk for Cd concentration of navel orange pulp exceeding the national food limit is generally low, when soil Cd concentration is below 7.30 mg/kg. If appropriate actions are taken to increase soil pH, OC and CEC, Cd concentrations in navel orange pulps

  10. Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (p<0.05). The flavonol-rich fractions inhibited fish oil oxidation by 40-62% at a total phenolic concentration of 200 μg/ml. The fractionated polyphenols from both dried and frozen apple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deficit irrigation and maturation stage influence quality and flavonoid composition of 'Valencia' orange fruit.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Filipa S; Di Stefano, Vita; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Effects of continuous deficit irrigation (DI) and partial rootzone drying (PRD) treatments (50% ETc) in comparison with full irrigation (CI, 100% ETc) were investigated during 'Valencia' orange fruit maturation. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to quantify hesperidin, narirutin, tangeritin, nobiletin, didymin and neoeriocitrin in the fruit juice and peel. No significant effect of irrigation was found on yield, juice soluble solids or acidity. Juice color was not influenced by irrigation or harvest date, whereas peel color increased during maturation and was more pronounced in CI and PRD fruits. Juice acidity reached a peak in May, while soluble solids increased linearly throughout maturation. Hesperidin was the major flavanone detected during maturation, with concentrations 200-fold higher in the fruit peel than in the juice. In the peel, narirutin, didymin and neoeriocitrin decreased while hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin increased with maturation. Narirutin synthesis in the orange fruit was insensitive to irrigation strategy. In fruit peels, PRD and DI induced the decline of hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeritin only in June, whereas in the juice, deficit irrigation treatments induced an increase in hesperidin and didymin. These results suggest that deficit irrigation, in particular the conditions imposed with PRD, may cause a significant accumulation shift of total flavonoids from the fruit peel into the juice, with a positive impact on juice quality and nutritional value. Fruit compositional changes during maturation also suggest that late harvest can improve fruit palatability and nutritional quality under the cultural and environmental conditions of this study. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Bio-based synthesis of silver nanoparticles from orange waste: effects of distinct biomolecule coatings on size, morphology, and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Caio Henrique Nasi; Cruz, Guilherme Crispim Faria; Mayrink, Willian; Tasic, Ljubica

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the numerous reports on biological syntheses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), little is known about the composition of their capping agents, protein corona of plant extract-mediated synthesis, and their influence on the properties of AgNPs. Here, orange (Citrus sinensis) waste was utilized as a source of an extract for AgNP synthesis (the protein corona composition of which was elucidated), and also as a starting material for hesperidin and nanocellulose extraction, which were used for bio-based AgNP synthesis. A comparison of the results using the two methods of synthesis is presented. Methods AgNPs were synthesized using orange (C. sinensis) peel extract (Or-AgNPs) in a biological route, and using hesperidin (Hsd-AgNPs) and nanocellulose (extracted from oranges) in a green chemical route. Characterization of nanoparticles was carried out using zeta potential and hydrodynamic size measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Elucidation of proteins from protein corona was performed via ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer experiments. Antimicrobial activity was assessed via minimum inhibitory concentration assays against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the bacterium that causes citric canker in oranges. Results Or-AgNPs were not completely uniform in morphology, having a size of 48.1±20.5 nm and a zeta potential of −19.0±0.4 mV. Stabilization was performed mainly by three proteins, which were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments. Hsd-AgNPs were smaller (25.4±12.5 nm) and had uniform morphology. Nanocellulose provided a strong steric and electrostatic (−28.2±1.0 mV) stabilization to the nanoparticles. Both AgNPs presented roughly the same activity against Xac, with the minimum inhibitory concentration range between 22 and 24 μg mL−1. Conclusion Despite the fact that different capping biomolecules on AgNPs had an influence on morphology, size, and stability

  13. Chemical Mapping of Essential Oils, Flavonoids and Carotenoids in Citrus Peels by Raman Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiaohe; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hang; He, Lili; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-12-01

    Citrus peels, by-products in large quantity, are rich in various functional and beneficial components which have wide applications. Chemical analysis of these components in citrus peels is an important step to determine the usefulness of the by-products for further applications. In this study, we explored Raman microscopy for rapid, nondestructive, and in situ chemical mapping of multiple main functional components from citrus peels. The relative amount and distribution in different locations (flavedo, albedo, and longitudinal section) of 3 main functional components (essential oils, carotenoids, and flavonoids) in citrus peels were systematically investigated. The distribution profiles of these components were heterogeneous on the peels and varied between different species of citrus peels. Essential oil was found mainly existed in the oil glands, while carotenoids were in the complementary location. Some flavonoids were observed in the oil glands. This study showed the capability of Raman microscopy for rapid and nondestructive analysis of multiple bio-components without extraction from plants. The information obtained from this study would assist the better production and application of the functional and beneficial components from citrus by products in an effective and sustainable manner. This study indicated the capability of Raman microscopy for rapid and nondestructive analysis of multiple bioactive components in plant tissues. The information obtained from the study would be valuable for developing effective and sustainable strategy of utilization of citrus peels for further applications. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  15. Biohydrogen production from rotten orange with immobilized mixed culture: Effect of immobilization media for various composition of substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2015-12-01

    Enriched-immobilized mixed culture was utilized to produce biohydrogen in mesophilic condition under anaerobic condition using rotten orange as substrate. The process was conducted in batch reactors for 100 hours. Microbial cultures from three different sources were subject to a series of enrichment and immobilized in two different types of media, i.e. calcium alginate (CA, 2%) and mixture of alginate and activated carbon (CAC, 1:1). The performance of immobilized culture in each media was tested for biohydrogen production using four different substrate compositions, namely orange meat (OM), orange meat added with peel (OMP), orange meat added with limonene (OML), and mixture of orange meat and peel added with limonene (OMPL). The results show that, with immobilized culture in CA, the variation of substrate composition gave significant effect on the production of biohydrogen. The highest production of biohydrogen was detected for substrate containing only orange meet, i.e. 2.5%, which was about 3-5 times higher than biohydrogen production from other compositions of substrate. The use of immobilized culture in CAC in general has increased the hydrogen production by 2-7 times depending on the composition of substrate, i.e. 5.4%, 4.8%, 5.1%, and 4.4% for OM, OMP, OML, and OMPL, respectively. The addition of activated carbon has eliminated the effect of inhibitory compounds in the substrate. The major soluble metabolites were acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.

  16. Biohydrogen production from rotten orange with immobilized mixed culture: Effect of immobilization media for various composition of substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Damayanti, Astrilia, E-mail: liasholehasd@gmail.com; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Grafika No. 2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281; Sarto,

    Enriched–immobilized mixed culture was utilized to produce biohydrogen in mesophilic condition under anaerobic condition using rotten orange as substrate. The process was conducted in batch reactors for 100 hours. Microbial cultures from three different sources were subject to a series of enrichment and immobilized in two different types of media, i.e. calcium alginate (CA, 2%) and mixture of alginate and activated carbon (CAC, 1:1). The performance of immobilized culture in each media was tested for biohydrogen production using four different substrate compositions, namely orange meat (OM), orange meat added with peel (OMP), orange meat added with limonene (OML), and mixturemore » of orange meat and peel added with limonene (OMPL). The results show that, with immobilized culture in CA, the variation of substrate composition gave significant effect on the production of biohydrogen. The highest production of biohydrogen was detected for substrate containing only orange meet, i.e. 2.5%, which was about 3-5 times higher than biohydrogen production from other compositions of substrate. The use of immobilized culture in CAC in general has increased the hydrogen production by 2-7 times depending on the composition of substrate, i.e. 5.4%, 4.8%, 5.1%, and 4.4% for OM, OMP, OML, and OMPL, respectively. The addition of activated carbon has eliminated the effect of inhibitory compounds in the substrate. The major soluble metabolites were acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.« less

  17. Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, H; Molden, E; Christensen, H; Malterud, K E

    2003-02-01

    The oral availability of many drugs metabolised by the enzyme cytochrome P(450) 3A4 (CYP3A4) is increased if co-administered with grapefruit juice. Extracts from grapefruit peel have also demonstrated inhibitory activity and, during commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, inhibitory components might be squeezed into the juice from the peel. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to identify CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel. Grapefruit peel was extracted with diethyl ether, and the extract was further fractionated by normal-phase chromatography. Fractions demonstrating significant CYP3A4 inhibitory activity, as measured by the relative reduction in N-demethylation of diltiazem in transfected human liver epithelial cells, were subsequently separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Constituents of the fractions and isolated compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of diltiazem and N-demethyl-diltiazem was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the identified components in grapefruit peel, only epoxybergamottin demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of diltiazem. The IC(50) value was calculated to be 4.2+/-1.1 micro M. Coumarins without the furan ring and flavonoids isolated from grapefruit peel did not interfere with the metabolism of diltiazem. The results indicated the presence of other CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel, but these agents were lost during the purification process excluding their identification. The furanocoumarin epoxybergamottin, present in grapefruit peel, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. In commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, epoxybergamottin is possibly distributed into the juice. During manufacturing, however, epoxybergamottin may be hydrolysed to 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, which has been suggested as an important CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit juice.

  18. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  19. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium).

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Kuo, Chun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Inhibiting microglial activation-mediated neuroinflammation has become a convincing target for the development of functional foods to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium) has potent anti-inflammatory capacity; however, its anti-neuroinflammatory capacity and the corresponding active compounds remain unclear. To this end, the composition of a tangerine peel ethanolic extract was analysed by LC-MS, and the anti-neuroinflammatory ability was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture system. Hesperidin is the most predominant flavonoid in tangerine peel, followed by tangeretin and nobiletin. Among the eight tested flavanone glycosides and polymethoxy flavones, only nobiletin displayed a capacity of>50% to inhibit LPS-induced proinflammatory NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 secretion at a concentration of 100 μM. At 2 mg/ml, tangerine peel extract attenuated LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 secretion by 90.6%, 80.2%, 66.7%, and 86.8%, respectively. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin individually (at concentrations of 135, 40, and 60 μM, respectively) in 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract were only mildly inhibitory, whereas in combination, they significantly inhibited LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression at levels equal to that of 2 mg/ml tangerine peel extract. Overall, tangerine peel possesses potent anti-neuroinflammatory capacity, which is attributed to the collective effect of hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Terpene down-regulation in orange reveals the role of fruit aromas in mediating interactions with insect herbivores and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-06-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens.

  1. Influence of lipid content and lipoxygenase on flavor volatiles in the tomato peel and flesh.

    PubMed

    Ties, Paige; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-07-01

    Ten different varieties of tomatoes were separated into peel and flesh and each portion was measured separately. Headspace volatiles were measured in real time using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Lipoxygenase activity was measured using the adsorption of conjugated dienes formed by lipoxygenase. Lipid was extracted and fatty acids were quantified using a gas chromatograph. Volatiles were significantly greater in the peel than flesh when there was a significant difference. The lipoxygenase activity of flesh and peel correlated with the volatiles produced by the lipoxygenase pathway. There was no correlation with other volatiles, which are not dependent on lipid oxidation by lipoxygenase. The lipoxygenase activity, total fatty acid content, and linolenic acid of the peel were greater than the flesh, which is directly related to an increase in fresh, green volatiles. Addition of exogenous lipoxygenase had no effect on lipoxygenase-derived volatiles formed. The addition of linoleic acid caused an increase in hexanal, 1-hexanol, and (E)-2-heptenal in the flesh and (E)-2-heptenal in the peel. Stored unrefrigerated peel had higher volatile concentrations, whereas refrigerated peel had significantly lower concentration than day 0. Storage decreased lipoxygenase activity in the unrefrigerated and refrigerated peel, but had no effect on the fatty acid content. Overall, linolenic acid was the most important to the formation of headspace volatiles, but lipoxygenase activity and unknown factors are also important. The peel of a tomato is most beneficial to the production of volatiles associated with the fresh aroma of tomatoes; therefore, it should be used in the processing of tomato products to produce a fresh, green aroma rather than being removed. Knowledge of the effects of lipoxygenase activity, total fatty acid content, and fatty acid profile on flavor volatiles will allow for better selection of a variety for raw consumption. © 2012 Institute of Food

  2. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  3. Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.

    PubMed

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-12-28

    The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose and Nanocellulose from Agro-industrial Waste - Cassava Peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiarto, S.; Yuwono, S. D.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Cassava peel is an agro-industrial waste which is available in huge quantities in Lampung Province of Indonesia. This work was conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava peel as a source of cellulose and nanocellulose. Cellulose was extracted from cassava peel by using different chemical treatment, and the nanocellulose was prepared by hydrolysis with the use of sulfuric acid. The best methods of cellulose extraction from cassava peels are using alkali treatment followed by a bleaching process. The cellulose yield from this methods was 17.8% of dry base cassava peel, while the yield from nitric and sulfuric methods were about 10.78% and 10.32% of dry base cassava peel respectively. The hydrolysis was performed at the temperature of 50 °C for 2 hours. The intermediate reaction product obtained after each stage of the treatments was characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the removal of non-cellulosic constituent. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose increased after hydrolysis. Morphological investigation was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The size of particle was confirmed by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  5. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  6. Antioxidant effectiveness of organically and non-organically grown red oranges in cell culture systems.

    PubMed

    Tarozzi, A; Hrelia, S; Angeloni, C; Morroni, F; Biagi, P; Guardigli, M; Cantelli-Forti, G; Hrelia, P

    2006-03-01

    Consumers consider plant food products from organic origin healthier than the corresponding conventional plant foods. Clear experimental evidence supporting this assumption is still lacking. To determine if the organic red oranges have a higher phyto-chemical content (i. e., phenolics, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant activity and in vitro bioactivity, in terms of protective effect against oxidative damage at cellular level, than nonorganic red oranges. Total phenolics were measured using the Folin Ciocalteau assay, while total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid levels were determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis, respectively. In addition, the total antioxidant activity of red orange extracts was measured by the ABTS(*+) test. The ability of red orange extracts to counteract conjugated diene containing lipids and free radical production in cultured rat cardiomyocytes and differentiated Caco-2 cells, respectively, was assessed. Organic oranges had significantly higher total phenolics, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid levels than the corresponding non-organic oranges (all p < 0.05). Moreover, the organic orange extracts had a higher total antioxidant activity than non-organic orange extracts (p < 0.05). In addition, our results indicate that red oranges have a strong capacity of inhibiting the production of conjugated diene containing lipids and free radicals in rat cardiomyocytes and differentiated Caco-2 cells, respectively. Statistically higher levels of antioxidant activity in both cell models were found in organically grown oranges as compared to those produced by integrated agriculture practice. Our results clearly show that organic red oranges have a higher phytochemical content (i. e., phenolics, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant activity and bioactivity than integrated red oranges. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the organic agriculture practice is likely to increase the antioxidant activity of

  7. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anil K; Yadav, Devendra K; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity.

  8. A Case of Peeling Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Anil K.; Yadav, Devendra K.; Soni, Bajrang; Arya, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by widespread painless peeling of the skin in superficial sheets. Etiology is still unknown with an autosomal recessive inheritance. Less than 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. We present a 32-year-old man having asymptomatic peeling of skin since birth. Sheets of skin were peeling from his neck, trunk, and extremities, following friction or rubbing especially if pre-soaked in water but sparing palm and soles. Histologically, there was epidermal separation at the level of stratum corneum, just above the stratum granulosum. This case is being presented due to its rarity. PMID:28584761

  9. Bioactive compounds from orange epicarp to enrich fish burgers.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Sara; Lecce, Lucia; Likyova, Desislava; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2018-05-01

    The orange industry produces considerable amounts of by-products, traditionally used for animal feed or fuel production. Most of these by-products could be used as functional ingredients. To assess the potential food application of orange epicarp, different percentages of micro-encapsulated orange extract were added to fresh fish burgers. Then, an in vitro digestion was also carried out, before and after micro-encapsulation, to measure the bio-accessibility of the active compounds. A significant increase of bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds has been observed in the orange epicarp extract after micro-encapsulation by spray-drying. From the sensory point of view, the fish sample enriched with 50 g kg -1 micro-encapsulated extract was the most comparable to the control burger, even if it showed a higher phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid bio-accessibility. Orange epicarp may be used as a food additive to enhance the health content of food products. The micro-encapsulation is a valid technique to protect the bioactive compounds and increase their bio-accessibility. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Terpene Down-Regulation Triggers Defense Responses in Transgenic Orange Leading to Resistance against Fungal Pathogens1[W

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Alquézar, Berta; Gadea, José; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; De Ollas, Carlos José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are isoprene compounds that are emitted by plants to communicate with the environment. In addition to their function in repelling herbivores and attracting carnivorous predators in green tissues, the presumed primary function of terpenoid volatiles released from mature fruits is the attraction of seed-dispersing animals. Mature oranges (Citrus sinensis) primarily accumulate terpenes in peel oil glands, with d-limonene accounting for approximately 97% of the total volatile terpenes. In a previous report, we showed that down-regulation of a d-limonene synthase gene alters monoterpene levels in orange antisense (AS) fruits, leading to resistance against Penicillium digitatum infection. A global gene expression analysis of AS versus empty vector (EV) transgenic fruits revealed that the down-regulation of d-limonene up-regulated genes involved in the innate immune response. Basal levels of jasmonic acid were substantially higher in the EV compared with AS oranges. Upon fungal challenge, salicylic acid levels were triggered in EV samples, while jasmonic acid metabolism and signaling were drastically increased in AS orange peels. In nature, d-limonene levels increase in orange fruit once the seeds are fully viable. The inverse correlation between the increase in d-limonene content and the decrease in the defense response suggests that d-limonene promotes infection by microorganisms that are likely involved in facilitating access to the pulp for seed-dispersing frugivores. PMID:24192451

  11. Anti-diabetic effect of dietary mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Basha, Shaik Akbar; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, Ummiti J S Prasada

    2015-03-30

    In the present study, the composition of mango peel powder (MPP) collected from the mango pulp industry was determined and the effect of MPP on ameliorating diabetes and its associated complications was studied. Mango peel was rich in polyphenols, carotenoids and dietary fibre. Peel extract contained various bioactive compounds and was found to be rich in soluble dietary fibre. Peel extract exhibited antioxidant properties and protected against DNA damage. Therefore, the effect of peel on ameliorating diabetes was investigated in a rat model of diabetes. A significant increase in urine sugar, urine volume, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, and decrease in high density lipoprotein were observed in the rats; however, these parameters were ameliorated in diabetic rats fed with diet supplemented with mango peel at 5% and 10% levels in basal diet. Treatment of diabetic rats with MPP increased antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma, kidney and liver compared to untreated diabetic rats. Glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria levels were ameliorated in MPP treated diabetic group. Mango peel, a by-product, can be used as an ingredient in functional and therapeutic foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of banana peel against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocyte at different stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Anjum, Shadma; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Rai, Gyanendra Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and cytoprotective activities and their therapeutic properties. Banana peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and others. In the present study, effect of ripening, solvent polarity on the content of bioactive compounds of crude banana peel and the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe banana fruit on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and their antioxidant capacity were investigated. Banana (Musa paradisica) peel at different stages of ripening (unripe, ripe, leaky ripe) were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned in order of polarity with water, ethyl acetate, chloroform (CHCl₃), and hexane sequentially. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by the red cell hemolysis assay, free radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical elimination) and superoxide dismutase activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The findings of this investigation suggest that the unripe banana peel sample had higher antioxidant potency than ripe and leaky ripe. Further on fractionation, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of unripe peel displayed high antioxidant activity than CHCl₃ and hexane fraction, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavenging capacity and the content of phenolic compound were found in unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe stages of banana peel.

  13. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  14. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S.; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Material and Methods: Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. Results: In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. Conclusion: From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:26681854

  15. Orange River, Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-738-036 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- The astronauts used a 70mm handheld camera to expose this frame of the west-flowing Orange River, which constitutes the international boundary between Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. The railroad and highway connecting the two countries is seen as a ribbon crossing the corner of the view. The broad color difference between strong browns/reds in the northern half of the view and lighter yellows in the southern corresponds to two land surfaces. The darker is a higher, flat land surface developed on horizontal Nama Sandstone’s, with rock surfaces widely coated with a dark manganese stain, typical of desert regions. This region is known as Namaqualand and borders the Namib Desert. Where rivers have cut down into this surface, the lighter underlying rock and soil colors show up.

  16. Production and Optimization of Physicochemical Parameters of Cellulase Using Untreated Orange Waste by Newly Isolated Emericella variecolor NS3.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neha; Srivastava, Manish; Manikanta, Ambepu; Singh, Pardeep; Ramteke, P W; Mishra, P K; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2017-10-01

    Cellulase enzymes have versatile industrial applications. This study was directed towards the isolation, production, and characterization of cellulase enzyme system. Among the five isolated fungal cultures, Emericella variecolor NS3 showed maximum cellulase production using untreated orange peel waste as substrate using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Maximum enzyme production of 31 IU/gds (per gram of dry substrate) was noticed at 6.0 g concentration of orange peel. Further, 50 °C was recorded as the optimum temperature for cellulase activity and the thermal stability for 240 min was observed at this temperature. In addition, the crude enzyme was stable at pH 5.0 and held its complete relative activity in presence of Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ . This study explored the production of crude enzyme system using biological waste with future potential for research and industrial applications.

  17. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Development of a kolanut peeling device.

    PubMed

    Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

    2014-10-01

    A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm.

  19. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2018-05-01

    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. [Chemical peels and management of skin aging].

    PubMed

    Pelletier-Louis, M-L

    2017-10-01

    Chemical peels are an alternative and/or a complementary treatment to the surgical procedures for skin aging. The purpose of this article is to specify the procedures and the indications of the three principal types of chemical peels: alpha-hydroxy acids, trichloracetic acid, phenol-croton oil peel. The clinical examination will determine the depth of the lesions to treat and will take into consideration counter-indications and specific limits to each patient. Chemical peel is a four step procedure: pre-peel preparation, peeling itself, recovery phase and maintenance phase. The preparation is a very important phase which requires a thorough knowledge of cosmetics. This preparation can extend to any medical or surgical treatment for aging skin. Various techniques of peelings: superficial, medium, deep, combined and mosaïc peel will be detailed. These procedures require a rigorous training and a distinct learning curve. The follow up will be specified as well as the management of the possible complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Food peeling: conventional and new approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling is an important unit operation in food processing that prepares fruits and vegetables for subsequent processes through removal of inedible or undesirable rind or skin. This chapter covers an exhaustive discussion on advancement in peeling technologies of fruits and vegetables from different ...

  2. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  3. Suppression of Type-II Diabetes with Dyslipidemia and Nephropathy by Peels of Musa cavendish Fruit.

    PubMed

    Navghare, Vijay; Dhawale, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    Musa cavendish, peels has local and traditional use to promote wound healing, hyperglycemia, ulceration etc. The present work investigated the lipid lowering; nephroprotective and glucose lowering properties of ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish (EMC) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The EMC 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day and the vehicle were administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) for 3 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, lipid profile along with kidney function before and after treatment with EMC were recorded. The ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish reduced blood glucose, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and creatinine levels and improvement in body weight, liver glycogen, serum HDL cholesterol, serum albumin and total protein level when compared with untreated rats. Musa cavendish has lipid lowering, nephroprotective and antidiabetic property by regulating glucose uptake in the liver and muscles by restoring the intracellular energy balance.

  4. Chemical peeling in ethnic skin: an update.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Galadari, H

    2013-10-01

    With the growth of cosmetic dermatology worldwide, treatments that are effective against skin diseases and augment beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasing in popularity. Chemical peels are a commonly used, fast, safe and effective clinic room treatment that may be used for cosmetic purposes, such as for fine lines and photoageing, but also as primary or adjunct therapies for acne, pigmentary disorders and scarring. Clinicians are faced with specific challenges when using peels on ethnic skin (skin of colour). The higher risk of postinflammatory dyschromias and abnormal scarring makes peels potentially disfiguring. Clinicians should therefore have a sound knowledge of the various peels available and their safety in ethnic skin. This article aims to review the background, classification, various preparations, indications, patient assessment and complications of using chemical peels in ethnic skin. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Blood orange juice inhibits fat accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Titta, L; Trinei, M; Stendardo, M; Berniakovich, I; Petroni, K; Tonelli, C; Riso, P; Porrini, M; Minucci, S; Pelicci, P G; Rapisarda, P; Reforgiato Recupero, G; Giorgio, M

    2010-03-01

    To analyze the effect of the juice obtained from two varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Moro (a blood orange) and Navelina (a blond orange), on fat accumulation in mice fed a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Obesity was induced in male C57/Bl6 mice by feeding a HFD. Moro and Navelina juices were provided instead of water. The effect of an anthocyanin-enriched extract from Moro oranges or purified cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was also analyzed. Body weight and food intake were measured regularly over a 12-week period. The adipose pads were weighted and analyzed histologically; total RNA was also isolated for microarray analysis. Dietary supplementation of Moro juice, but not Navelina juice significantly reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation regardless of the increased energy intake because of sugar content. Furthermore, mice drinking Moro juice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity with no alterations in food intake. Only the anthocyanin extract, but not the purified C3G, slightly affected fat accumulation. High-throughput gene expression analysis of fat tissues confirmed that Moro juice could entirely rescue the high fat-induced transcriptional reprogramming. Moro juice anti-obesity effect on fat accumulation cannot be explained only by its anthocyanin content. Our findings suggest that multiple components present in the Moro orange juice might act synergistically to inhibit fat accumulation.

  6. Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswaty, V.; Risdian, C.; Primadona, I.; Andriyani, R.; Andayani, D. G. S.; Mozef, T.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a large pineapple (Ananas comosus) producing country. Food industries in Indonesia processed this fruit for new products and further resulted wastes of which cause an environmental problems. Approximately, one pineapple fruit total weight is 400 gr of which 60 g is of peel wastes. In order to reduce such pineapple peel wastes (PPW), processing to a valuable product using an environmentally friendly technique is indispensable. PPW contained phenolic compound, ferulic acid, and vitamin A and C as antioxidant. This study aimed to PPW using ethanol and water as well as to analyze its chemical properties. Both dried and fresh PPW were extracted using mixtures of ethanol and water with various concentrations ranging from 15 to 95% (v/v) at room temperature for 24 h. The chemical properties, such as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent/GAE), and total sugar content were determined. The results showed that the range of Inhibition Concentration (IC)50 value as antioxidant activity of extracts from dried and fresh PPW were in the range of 0.8±0.05 to 1.3±0.09 mg.mL-1 and 0.25±0.01 to 0.59±0.01 mg.mL-1, respectively, with the highest antioxidant activity was in water extract. The highest of total phenolic content of 0.9 mg.g-1 GAE, was also found in water extract.

  7. Growing Oranges. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of three orange growers in Florida and one in California. Two of the Florida orange growers also have other jobs, one as manager of a citrus cooperative and the other as a citrus insurance salesman. The operations of orange groves, the care and picking of oranges,…

  8. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    PubMed

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml).

  9. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B

    PubMed Central

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

  10. [Drusen characteristics after internal limiting membrane peeling].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, F; Jenisch, T; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

    2015-05-01

    There are some reports showing isolated cases of drusen regression after pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (iLM). Drusen characteristics after iLM peeling was investigated in this study. The data of 527 patients who had received iLM peeling between 2004 and 2012 were retrospectively collected and those patients with retinal drusen were selected for the study. Fundus photographs before and after vitrectomy due to a macular hole or epiretinal gliosis were compared and drusen arrangement in the peeling site was analyzed. The aim of the study was to show whether there was drusen regression 2-5 months after surgery. Out of the 527 patients 11 showed central macular drusen, 4 with confluent large drusen (> 63 µm diameter) and 7 with small hard drusen (≤ 63 µm diameter). One patient showed drusen regression after iLM peeling without any changes in the other eye and all other patients showed no differences in the drusen findings (n = 6) or even some additional drusen (n = 4) without drusen alterations in the other eye. The results of this study could not confirm some reports showing drusen regression after iLM peeling in the peeling site in general and there was only one single case of central drusen regression.

  11. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  12. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    PubMed Central

    Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rahimi, Roja; Samadi, Nasrin; Heidari, Mohammad; Esfandyari, Mohammadamin; Baeeri, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Soltani, Saba; Pourvaziri, Ali; Amin, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin) is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE). Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent. PMID:28852445

  13. Application of edible coating from cassava peel – bay leaf on avocado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, M. N.; Karlina, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Cakrawati, D.

    2018-05-01

    Avocados have a fairly short shelf life and are included in climacteric fruits. Edible coating application is one alternative to maintain the shelf life of avocado. Cassava peel starch is potential to be used as raw material for edible coating making. Addition of bay leaf extract containing antioxidants can increase the functional value of edible coating. The purpose of this study is to know the shrinkage of weight, acid number, color change and respiration rate of avocado coated with edible coating from cassava peel starch with an addition of bay leaf extract. The study consisted of making cassava peel starch, bay leaf extraction, edible coating making, edible coating application on avocado, and analysis of avocado characteristics during storage at room temperature. The results showed that addition of bay leaf extract on cassava peel starch edible coating applied to avocado, an effect on characteristics of avocado. Avocado applied edible coating and stored at room temperatures had lower weight loss than avocado without edible coating, lower acid number, tend to be more able to maintain color rather than avocado without edible coating.

  14. Terpene Down-Regulation in Orange Reveals the Role of Fruit Aromas in Mediating Interactions with Insect Herbivores and Pathogens1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens. PMID:21525333

  15. Characterization of monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.), a potential new crop for arid regions.

    PubMed

    Sitrit, Yaron; Loison, Stephanie; Ninio, Racheli; Dishon, Eran; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2003-10-08

    The green monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam., Loganiaceae), a tree indigenous to tropical and subtropical Africa, produces juicy, sweet-sour, yellow fruits containing numerous hard brown seeds. The species has recently been introduced into Israel as a potential new commercial crop. However, little is known about its agronomical performance, fruit development and ripening, or postharvest physiology. The current study shows that during ripening in storage, the peel color changes from green to yellow, accompanied by a climacteric burst of ethylene and carbon dioxide emission. Total soluble solids slightly increased during storage, whereas total titratable acidity and pH did not change significantly. The major sugars that accumulated during ripening in storage were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and the main acids, citric and malic acids. The main volatiles present in the peel of ripe fruits were phenylpropanoids, trans-isoeugenol being the major compound.

  16. Functional analysis of unfermented and fermented citrus peels and physical properties of citrus peel-added doughs for bread making.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Yung-Shin; Lu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have indicated citrus peels (CP) contain specific methoxy flavones, e.g. nobiletin and tangeretin, which have been shown to prevent numerous diseases. However, research reports regarding their application as food additive in healthy baked products is scarce. In our study, both unfermented (UF) and fermented (F) citrus peels were processed under different dry hot-air temperatures to make four citrus peel powders , UF-100 °C,UF-150 °C, F-100 °C, F-150 °C, respectively. The analysis of the basic components and nutraceuticals as well as antioxidant activity were conducted. Various percentages of CP were added to dough and toast bread for physical property and sensory evaluations. The results indicated the contents of crude proteins (3.3-4.3 mg/g) and fibers (10.9-14.9 %) among the four samples were similar. The UF extracts showed better antioxidant activities than F extracts. HPLC analysis indicated the contents of hesperidine, nobiletin and tangeretin in CP extracts were UF-150 °C > UF-100 °C. Farinograph analysis indicated a linear relation between CP powder content and the parameters of the physical properties of dough. A high percentage of fibrous CP powder in dough increases the water adsorption capacity of the dough, resulting in a decrease in its stability The sensory evaluation results indicated a greater acceptability of UF-added toast bread relative to the F-added one. Among these, according to the statistical anaylsis, the UF-150 °C 4 % and UF-100 °C 6 % groups were the best and F-150 °C 2 % group was the poorest in overall acceptability.

  17. An eco-benign synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Longan fruit peel: Antiproliferative response against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, antioxidant and photocatalytic deprivation of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Ullah; Yuan, Qipeng; Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Shakeel, Muhammad; Ullah, Sadeeq

    2018-05-07

    Plants mediated synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is encountered as a clean, environment friendly, lucrative and benign loom. The current study consists of clean and green synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Phytoconstituents from Longan (Euphorbia longana Lam.) fruit peel were used to reduce Ag + into AgNPs. Different analytical techniques i.e. UV-vis Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze the synthesized AgNPs. AgNPs have localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak at 445 nm which is confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the prepared AgNPs are spheroid in shape and well dispersed while XRD results showed that the AgNPs are face centered cubic crystalline. EDX confirmed the elemental composition of AgNPs. The antiproliferative response of AgNPs was assayed by an exhaustive MTT assay. AgNPs showed potent anticancer activity (88%) against breast cancer cells MCF-7. Moreover, the green produced AgNPs effectively scavenged 91% of the stable and harmful 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical which confirms its' efficient antioxidant nature. AgNPs have profound photocatalytic degradation (99%) of methylene blue in a short period of time (7 min). The noteworthy biological and photocatalytic responses of the green and cleanly produced AgNPs are encountered to their well dispersion, petite volume and round shaped structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In Vitro Determination of Prebiotic Properties of Oligosaccharides Derived from an Orange Juice Manufacturing By-Product Stream

    PubMed Central

    Manderson, K.; Pinart, M.; Tuohy, K. M.; Grace, W. E.; Hotchkiss, A. T.; Widmer, W.; Yadhav, M. P.; Gibson, G. R.; Rastall, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from orange peel pectin were assessed in mixed fecal bacterial culture. The orange peel oligosaccharide fraction contained glucose in addition to rhamnogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan pectic oligosaccharides. Twenty-four-hour, temperature- and pH-controlled, stirred anaerobic fecal batch cultures were used to determine the effects that oligosaccharides derived from orange products had on the composition of the fecal microbiota. The effects were measured through fluorescent in situ hybridization to determine changes in bacterial populations, fermentation end products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to assess short-chain fatty acid concentrations, and subsequently, a prebiotic index (PI) was determined. Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were able to increase the bifidobacterial and Eubacterium rectale numbers, albeit resulting in a lower prebiotic index than that from fructo-oligosaccharide metabolism. Orange albedo maintained the growth of most bacterial populations and gave a PI similar to that of soluble starch. Fermentation of POS resulted in an increase in the Eubacterium rectale numbers and concomitantly increased butyrate production. In conclusion, this study has shown that POS can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microflora; however, a classical prebiotic effect was not found. An increase in the Eubacterium rectale population was found, and butyrate levels increased, which is of potential benefit to the host. PMID:16332825

  19. The Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Warren; Black, Ronald

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the department of physics of the Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT) has been involved in the Peel Inlet-Harvey Estuary study. An appendix which presents the departmental approach to curriculum matters is also included. (HM)

  20. Antioxidant properties and phenolic profile characterization by LC-MS/MS of selected Tunisian pomegranate peels.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mouna; Yaich, Héla; Cheikhrouhou, Salma; Khemakhem, Ibtihel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-08-01

    Antioxidant contents and activities of different extracts from four Tunisian pomegranate peels, locally called "Acide", "Gabsi", "Nebli" and "Tounsi", were studied. Peels samples were extracted with three solvents (water, ethanol and acetone). For each extract, the total phenol contents and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The highest values of polyphenol, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins were recorded in the acetone extract of Acide ecotype with 304.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g; 292.23 mg gallic acid equivalent/g; 15.46 mg Quercetin/g and 54.51 mg cy-3-glu/100 g, respectively. The acetone extract of Acide ecotype also showed the highest free radical-scavenging and reducing power activity compared to other extracts. Besides, the phytochemical analysis by LC-MS/MS revealed a high content of ellagitannins with punicalagin and punicalagin derivatives as the major compounds that might be responsible for promising antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extracts. Two compounds (Castalagin derivative and Galloyl-bis-HHDP-hex derivative) were detected only in "Acide" ecotype in important contents.

  1. Optimization of free radical scavenging capacity and pH of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel by Response Surface Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putranto, A. W.; Dewi, S. R.; Puspitasari, Y.; Nuriah, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel, a by-product of juice processing, contains a high antioxidant that can be used for nutraceuticals. Hence, it is important to extract and investigate its antioxidant stability. The aim of this study was to optimize the free radical scavenging capacity and pH of H. polyrhizus peel extract using Central Composite Design (CCD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The extraction of H. polyrhizus peel was done by using green-Pulsed Electric Field (PEF)-assisted extraction method. Factors optimized were electric field strength (kV/cm) and extraction time (seconds). The result showed that the correlation between responses (free radical-scavenging capacity and pH) and two factors was quadratic model. The optimum conditions was obtained at the electric field strength of 3.96 kV/cm, and treatment time of 31.9 seconds. Under these conditions, the actual free radical-scavenging capacity and pH were 75.86 ± 0.2 % and 4.8, respectively. The verification model showed that the actual values are in accordance with the predicted values, and have error rate values of free radical-scavenging capacity and pH responses were 0.1% and 3.98%, respectively. We suggest to extract the H. polyrhizus peel using a green and non-thermal extraction technology, PEF-assisted extraction, for research, food applications and nutraceuticals industry.

  2. Pyrolysis production of fruit peel biochar for potential use in treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Lam, Su Shiung; Liew, Rock Keey; Cheng, Chin Kui; Rasit, Nazaitulshila; Ooi, Chee Kuan; Ma, Nyuk Ling; Ng, Jo-Han; Lam, Wei Haur; Chong, Cheng Tung; Chase, Howard A

    2018-05-01

    Fruit peel, an abundant waste, represents a potential bio-resource to be converted into useful materials instead of being dumped in landfill sites. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a harmful waste that should also be treated before it can safely be released to the environment. In this study, pyrolysis of banana and orange peels was performed under different temperatures to produce biochar that was then examined as adsorbent in POME treatment. The pyrolysis generated 30.7-47.7 wt% yield of a dark biochar over a temperature ranging between 400 and 500 °C. The biochar contained no sulphur and possessed a hard texture, low volatile content (≤34 wt%), and high amounts of fixed carbon (≥72 wt%), showing durability in terms of high resistance to chemical reactions such as oxidation. The biochar showed a surface area of 105 m 2 /g and a porous structure containing mesopores, indicating its potential to provide many adsorption sites for use as an adsorbent. The use of the biochar as adsorbent to treat the POME showed a removal efficiency of up to 57% in reducing the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand COD, total suspended solid (TSS) and oil and grease (O&G) of POME to an acceptable level below the discharge standard. Our results indicate that pyrolysis shows promise as a technique to transform banana and orange peel into value-added biochar for use as adsorbent to treat POME. The recovery of biochar from fruit waste also shows advantage over traditional landfill approaches in disposing this waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  4. Facile synthesis of luminescent carbon dots from mangosteen peel by pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Susanto; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Sulhadi

    2017-06-01

    Carbon dots (C-Dots) from mangosteen peel has been synthesized by pyrolysis method. Synthesis of C-Dots is done using precursor solution which is prepared from extract of mangosteen peel as carbon source and urea as passivation agent. C-Dots is successfully formed with absorbance spectra at wavelength 350-550 nm. Urea affects to the formed C-Dots, while the absorbance and the luminescent spectra are independent toward urea. C-Dots from extract of mangosteen peel has size in range 2-15 nm. The absorbance peaks of C-Dots shows significant wavelength shift at visible region as the increasing of synthesized temperature. Shift of wavelength absorbance indicates the change of electronic transition of C-Dots. Meanwhile, the luminescent of C-Dots can be controlled by synthesized temperature as well. C-Dots luminescent were increasing as higher synthesized temperature. It was shown by the shift of wavelength emission into shorter wavelength, 465 nm at 200 °C, 450 nm at 250 °C, and 423 nm at 300 °C. Synthesized temperature also affects size of C-Dots. It has size 10-15 nm at 200 °C, 7-11 nm at 250 °C and 2-4 nm at 300 °C. In addition, temperature corresponds to the structure of carbon chains and C-N configuration of formed C-Dots from mangosteen peel extract.

  5. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rolim, P M; Fidelis, G P; Padilha, C E A; Santos, E S; Rocha, H A O; Macedo, G R

    2018-03-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.

  6. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and their antiproliferative effect in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, P.M.; Fidelis, G.P.; Padilha, C.E.A.; Santos, E.S.; Rocha, H.A.O.; Macedo, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20–85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1–1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells. PMID:29513789

  7. Effect of chlorine dioxide gas on Salmonella enterica inoculated on navel orange surfaces and its impact on the quality attributes of treated oranges.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Arpan; Mahmoud, Barakat S M; Linton, Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms, including pathogens of public health significance, have been shown to contaminate orange juice during the mechanical extraction of juice. The problem gets exacerbated when washed oranges have high initial microbial load, due to an insufficient postharvest treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the reduction of Salmonella enterica on orange surfaces using ClO₂ gas treatments to achieve a 5 log reduction, consistent with the recommendations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. A mixed culture of four Salmonella strains, isolated from previous orange juice outbreaks, was spot inoculated onto orange skin surface areas. The oranges were then treated with 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/L ClO₂ gas for 2-14 minutes at 22°C and 90%-95% relative humidity. Surviving bacteria on treated areas were recovered and enumerated over treatment time on a nonselective medium, tryptic soy agar, followed by culturing onto a selective medium, xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. A >5 log reduction of Salmonella per sample of orange surface was observed with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L ClO₂ gas treatments at 14 minutes and a similar log reduction was observed at 0.5 mg/L ClO₂ gas at 10 minutes. This result demonstrates that the treatment of oranges with ClO₂ gas is a promising technology that could be successfully employed for the treatment of whole oranges to reduce the risk of Salmonella outbreaks in orange juice.

  8. Effect of drying on the bioactive compounds, antioxidant, antibacterial and antityrosinase activities of pomegranate peel.

    PubMed

    Mphahlele, Rebogile R; Fawole, Olaniyi A; Makunga, Nokwanda P; Opara, Umezuruike L

    2016-05-26

    The use of pomegranate peel is highly associated with its rich phenolic concentration. Series of drying methods are recommended since bioactive compounds are highly sensitive to thermal degradation. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of drying on the bioactive compounds, antioxidant as well as antibacterial and antityrosinase activities of pomegranate peel. Dried pomegranate peels with the initial moisture content of 70.30 % wet basis were prepared by freeze and oven drying at 40, 50 and 60 °C. Difference in CIE-LAB, chroma (C*) and hue angle (h°) were determined using colorimeter. Individual polyphenol retention was determined using LC-MS and LC-MS(E) while total phenolics concentration (TPC), total flavonoid concentration (TFC), total tannins concentration (TTC) and vitamin C concentration were measured using colorimetric methods. The antioxidant activity was measured by radical scavenging activity (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of methanolic peel extracts were tested on Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) using the in vitro microdilution assays. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) and diphenolase (DOPA), with arbutin as positive controls. Oven drying at 60 °C resulted in high punicalin concentration (888.04 ± 141.03 mg CE/kg dried matter) along with poor red coloration (high hue angle). Freeze dried peel contained higher catechin concentration (674.51 mg/kg drying matter) + catechin and -epicatechin (70.56 mg/kg drying matter) compared to oven dried peel. Furthermore, freeze dried peel had the highest total phenolic, tannin and flavonoid concentrations compared to oven dried peel over the temperature range studied. High concentration of vitamin C (31.19 μg AAE/g dried matter) was observed in the oven dried (40 °C) pomegranate peel

  9. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  10. Effect of chemical peeling on photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photo-aged skin. We assessed the photo-chemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, and 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid in distilled water at the right back of ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks for glycolic acid, salicylic acid and 10% trichloroacetic acid, and every 4 weeks for 35% trichloroacetic acid for a total of 18 weeks after the establishment of photo-aged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B range light three times a week for 14 weeks at a total dose of 6.66 J/cm(2) . Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of p53 expression and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also in the non-treated area. Peeling suppressed retention of p53-positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid and trichloroacetic acid could serve tumor prevention by removing photo-damaged cells. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  12. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  13. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  14. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  15. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those...

  16. Comparison of the Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities by Infusions from Green Tea and Some Citrus Peels

    PubMed Central

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and some citrus peels [shaddock (Citrus maxima), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), and orange (Citrus sinensis)] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (MAO) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)]. The total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and Fe2+ chelating abilities were also investigated. Green tea had the highest total phenol (43.3 mg/g) and total flavonoid (16.4 mg/g) contents, when compared to orange [total phenol (19.6 mg/g), total flavonoid (6.5 mg/g)], shaddock [total phenol (16.3 mg/g), total flavonoid (5.2 mg/g)], and grapefruit [total phenol (17.7 mg/g), total flavonoid (5.9 mg/g)]. Orange (EC50 = 1.78 mg/mL) had the highest MAO inhibitory ability, while green tea had the least MAO inhibitory ability (EC50 = 2.56 mg/mL). Similarly, green tea had the least BChE inhibitory ability (EC50 = 5.43 mg/mL) when compared to the citrus peels' infusions. However, green tea infusions had the strongest highest ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating ability. The inhibition of MAO and BChE activities by the green tea and citrus peels infusions could make them good dietary means for the prevention/management of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25243093

  17. Purple is the new Orange

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blood orange and Cara cara-like citrus varieties with purple or red fruit color, increased antioxidants and modified flavor could be the next generation of cultivars produced via genetic engineering. These varieties are being developed by enhancing the presence of anthocyanin and lycopene pigments...

  18. ORANGES evaluation discussion group process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-03-24

    This report describes and documents the process and methodology to be used to conduct a series of before and after discussion groups with smart card holders and participating agency employees as part of the ORANGES multiple purpose smart card Field O...

  19. Extraction of green labeled pectins and pectic oligosaccharides from plant byproducts.

    PubMed

    Zykwinska, Agata; Boiffard, Marie-Hélène; Kontkanen, Hanna; Buchert, Johanna; Thibault, Jean-François; Bonnin, Estelle

    2008-10-08

    Green labeled pectins were extracted by an environmentally friendly way using proteases and cellulases being able to act on proteins and cellulose present in cell walls. Pectins were isolated from different plant byproducts, i.e., chicory roots, citrus peel, cauliflower florets and leaves, endive, and sugar beet pulps. Enzymatic extraction was performed at 50 degrees C for 4 h, in order to fulfill the conditions required for microbiological safety of extracted products. High methoxy (HM) pectins of high molar mass were extracted with three different enzyme mixtures. These pectins were subsequently demethylated with two pectin methyl esterases (PMEs), either the fungal PME from Aspergillus aculeatus or the orange PME. It was further demonstrated that high molar mass low methoxy (LM) pectins could also be extracted directly from cell walls by adding the fungal PME to the mixture of protease and cellulase. Moreover, health benefit pectic oligosaccharides, the so-called modified hairy regions, were obtained after enzymatic treatment of the residue recovered after pectin extraction. The enzymatic method demonstrates that it is possible to convert vegetable byproducts into high-added value compounds, such as pectins and pectic oligosaccharides, and thus considerably reduce the amount of these residues generated by food industries.

  20. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  1. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Chemical Peeling: A Useful Tool in the Office.

    PubMed

    Truchuelo, M; Cerdá, P; Fernández, L F

    2017-05-01

    Chemical peeling is a common treatment in cosmetic dermatology. A peel that has been used for many years is trichloroacetic acid. Its adverse effects have for a long time been a major limitation. We present a practical review of the characteristics, mechanisms of action, indications, and complications of superficial chemical peels and of peeling with trichloroacetic acid. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  4. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  5. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  6. Differential partitioning of triterpenes and triterpene esters in apple peel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple peel functions as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, and preserving the integrity and appearance of peel critical for market acceptance. Peel epidermal cells and epicuticular wax are a rich source of secondary metabolites, including triterpenes. Several studies have ou...

  7. Peeling flexible beams in viscous fluids: Rigidity and extensional compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhong, Charles; Fréchette, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    We describe small angle peeling measurements in completely submerged environments to study the coupling between viscous forces and the mechanical properties of the plates being peeled. During the experiments, the plates resist motion because of lubrication forces while van der Waals forces between the plates and the static surface are negligible. In particular, we study the role played by flexural rigidity in the force-displacement curves and in the energy release rate. We show that the coupling between the viscous forces and the flexural rigidity of the plates dictates the shape and magnitude of the force-displacement curves. We develop simple scaling relationships that combine the lubrication forces with an Euler-Bernoulli beam to extract how the peak force and energy release rates depend on the ratio between rigidity and viscosity, and show good agreement between the predictions and experimental results. We also show that increasing the extensional compliance leads to a decrease in both the force-displacement curve and in the energy release rate. We then demonstrate that this reduction can be interpreted in terms of a stress decay length.

  8. Effect of substituted gelling agents from pomegranate peel on colour, textural and sensory properties of pomegranate jam.

    PubMed

    Abid, Mouna; Yaich, Héla; Hidouri, Hayfa; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2018-01-15

    A series of pomegranate jams were prepared from a Tunisian ecotype (Tounsi) with different amounts of sugar (10, 20 and 30%) and low-methoxylated pectin (0.2, 0.7 and 1.2%). The most appreciated formulation was that contaning 30% sugars and 0.2% pectin. Then, commercial pectin was substituted by other gelling agents (pomegranate peel powders dried at 50°C vs lyophilized, pectin and fibre extracted from pomegranate peel) for the preparation of pomegranate peel-based jams. The elaborated jams were evaluated for physichochemical, colour, texture and sensory characteristics. Results revealed that the jam (JPP2) elaborated with 0.2% pectin extracted from pomegranate peel exhibited similar overall acceptability to that prepared with commercial pectin. However, it was more acceptable than other pomegranate peel-based jams, which was related to a better appreciation of sweetness and colour. According to the colour and texture measurements, this sample (JPP2) was more reddish and less firm than other samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of four different drying methods on the carotenoid composition and antioxidant capacity of dried Gac peel.

    PubMed

    Chuyen, Hoang V; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Parks, Sophie E; Nguyen, Minh H

    2017-03-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) is a rich source of carotenoids for the manufacture of powder, oil and capsules for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Currently, only the aril of the Gac fruit is processed and the peel, similar to the other components, is discarded, although it contains high level of carotenoids, which could be extracted for commercial use. In the present study, four different drying methods (hot-air, vacuum, heat pump and freeze drying), different temperatures and drying times were investigated for producing dried Gac peel suitable for carotenoid extraction. The drying methods and drying temperatures significantly affected the drying time, carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity of the dried Gac peel. Among the investigated drying methods, hot-air drying at 80  o C and vacuum drying at 50  o C produced dried Gac peel that exhibited the highest retention of carotenoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity. Hot-air drying at 80  o C and vacuum drying at 50  o C are recommended for the drying of Gac peel. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Orange fiber laser for ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, M.; Kojima, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-02-01

    For the light source of photocoagulators for ophthalmology, orange laser is more suitable than green laser because of low scattering loss by the crystalline lens, and low absorption by xanthophylls in the retina. We developed two orange fiber lasers (580 nm and 590 nm) to investigate the effect depending on the difference in the range of orange. The 580nm laser is composed of a 1160 nm fiber laser and a Periodically Polled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal for second harmonic generation. The 1160 nm fiber laser beam is focused into the MgO-doped PPLN crystal whose length is 30 mm with 3-pass configuration. Continuous-wave 1.3 W output power of 580 nm was obtained with 5.8 W input power of 1160nm for the first time. The conversion efficiency was 22%. The band width of the second harmonic was 0.006 nm (FWHM). The 590 nm laser is almost the same as 580 nm laser source. In this case we used a Raman shift fiber to generate 1180 nm, and the output power of 590 nm was 1.4 W. We developed an evaluation model of photocoagulator system using these two laser sources. A 700 mW coagulation output power was obtained with this orange fiber laser photocoagulator system. This is enough power for the eye surgery. We have the prospect of the maintenance-free, long-life system that is completely air-cooled. We are planning to evaluate this photocoagulator system in order to investigate the difference between the two wavelengths at the field test.

  11. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifuge gave an...

  12. Chemical peels for melasma in dark-skinned patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-10-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results.

  13. Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results. PMID:23378706

  14. Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

    2014-01-01

    Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Late Immersion in Perspective: The Peel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents the 1979 evaluation of the Peel County (Ontario) late immersion French program, in the context of some current issues in second language education in Canada. These include the comparative effectiveness of early and late immersion, the importance of intense exposure, and total accumulated hours of instruction. (Author/AMH)

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bennett, Richard N; Kirby, Andrew R; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Waldron, Keith W; Faulds, Craig B

    2006-10-18

    Pectinolytic and cellulolytic enzymes (Pectinase 62L, Pectinase 690L, and Cellulase CO13P) were used to evaluate the solubilization of carbohydrates and low molecular weight flavonoids from bergamot peel, a major byproduct of the essential oil industry. The enzymes were characterized for main-chain and side-chain polysaccharide hydrolyzing activities and also against pure samples of various flavonoids previously identified in bergamot peel to determine various glycosidase activities. The addition of Pectinase 62L or 690L alone, or the combination of Pectinase 62L and Cellulase CO13P, was capable of solubilizing between 70 and 80% of the bergamot peel, and up to 90% of the flavonoid glycosides present were cleaved to their aglycones. Cellulase CO13P alone solubilized 62% of the peel but had no deglycosylating effect on the flavonoid glycosides. Over a 24-h time course, a rapid release of cell wall carbohydrates was observed after treatment with Pectinase 62L, with a concurrent gradual hydrolysis of the flavonoid glycosides. Size-exclusion chromatography of the solubilized extract showed that after 24-h incubation, the majority of the solubilized carbohydrates were present as monosaccharides with a smaller proportion of oligosaccharides.

  17. Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Akpan, E J; Essien, E P

    2005-09-01

    Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28 + 20 degrees C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in radial growth rates was observed between moulds cultivated on PBA and MEA, although growth rates on MEA were slightly better. Slight variations in sizes of asexual spores and reproductive hyphae were also observed between moulds grown on MEA and BPA. Smaller conidia and sporangiospores, and shorter aerial hyphae (conidiophores and sporangiophores) were noticed in moulds grown on BPA than on MEA. The biomass weight of the test moulds obtained after one month of incubation with BPB were only about 1.8 mg and 1.4 mg less than values recorded for A. fumigatus and M. hiemalis respectively, grown on MEB. The impressive performance of the moulds on banana peel substrate may be attributed to the rich nutrient (particularly the crude protein 7.8% and crude fat 11.6% contents) composition of banana peels. The value of this agricultural waste can therefore be increased by its use not only in the manufacture of mycological medium but also in the production of valuable microfungal biomass which is rich in protein and fatty acids.

  18. On-line separation and preconcentration of lead(II) by solid-phase extraction using activated carbon loaded with xylenol orange and its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Shiraz, A Zendegi

    2008-02-11

    Activated carbon loaded with xylenol orange in a mini-column was used for the highly selective separation and preconcentration of Pb(II) ions. An on-line system for enrichment and the determination of Pb(II) was carried out on flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The conditions of preconcentration and quantitative recovery of Pb(II) from diluted solution, such as pH of aqueous phase, amount of the sorbent, volume of the solutions and flow variables were studied as well as effect of potential interfering ions. Under the optimum conditions, Pb(II) in an aqueous sample was concentrated about 200-fold and the detection limit was 0.4 ng mL(-1) Pb(II). The adsorption capacity of the solid phase was 0.20mg of lead per one gram of the modified activated carbon. The modified activated carbon is stable for several treatments of sample solutions without the need for using any chemical reagent. The recovery of lead(II) from river water, waste water, tap water, and in the following reference materials: SRM 2711 Montana soil and GBW-07605 tea were obtained in the range of 97-104% by the proposed method.

  19. Synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres by precipitation polymerization for the inline molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of thiabendazole from citrus fruits and orange juice samples.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Carvente-Juárez, Megumi Monserrat; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i) injected with vehicle; (ii) treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg) via gavage; (iii) injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally; (iv) treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs) obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI). Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI). PMID:24363823

  1. Differentiation between Flavors of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) and Mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Gmitter, Frederick G; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-10

    Pioneering investigations referring to citrus flavor have been intensively conducted. However, the characteristic flavor difference between sweet orange and mandarin has not been defined. In this study, sensory analysis illustrated the crucial role of aroma in the differentiation between orange flavor and mandarin flavor. To study aroma, Valencia orange and LB8-9 mandarin were used. Their most aroma-active compounds were preliminarily identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Quantitation of key volatiles followed by calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) further detected potent components (OAV ≥ 1) impacting the overall aromatic profile of orange/mandarin. Follow-up aroma profile analysis revealed that ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, octanal, decanal, and acetaldehyde were essential for orange-like aroma, whereas linalool, octanal, α-pinene, limonene, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were considered key components for mandarin-like aroma. Furthermore, an unreleased mandarin hybrid producing fruit with orange-like flavor was used to validate the identification of characteristic volatiles in orange-like aroma.

  2. Banana fruit pulp and peel involved in antianxiety and antidepressant effects while invigorate memory performance in male mice: Possible role of potential antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Samad, Noreen; Muneer, Aqsa; Ullah, Najeeb; Zaman, Aqal; Ayaz, M Mazhar; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-stress and memory enhancing effects of banana (Musa sapientum L.) fruit pulp and peel extract in male mice. Locally bred albino Wistar mice were divided into control and 2 test groups (n=10). Control rats received drinking water while test groups were treated with banana fruit pulp (600 mg/kg; oral administration) and extract of banana peel (400mg/kg; oral administration). Behavioral activities of animals were monitored 14 days post administration of banana pulp and peel extract. Depression-like symptoms were measured by forced swimming test (FST). Anxiety like behavior was monitored using light-dark activity (LDA) test and plus maze activity (PMA) test and memory functions of rats were assessed by morris water maze (MWM) test. Following 2 weeks animals were decapitated and brain was removed for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In the present study both banana peel and pulp increased the time spent in light box and open arm, suggesting anxiolytic effects. A significant decrease in immobility time was observed in FST in both banana pulp and peel treated animals suggesting antidepressant like effects. Moreover, learning and memory assessed by MWM showed decrease in time to reach platform in both short term and long term memory test suggested increased memory function in both banana pulp and peel treated animals as compared to control animals. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p<0.05) greater in banana pulp and peel treated animals than control. It is concluded that both banana pulp and peel have anti-anxiety, antidepressant effect as well as strengthen the memory possibly via its antioxidant mechanism. Therefore, it is recommended that supplementation of banana could be taken a vital role in stress (anxiety and depression) relief and increased in memory function possibly by phyto-antioxidants.

  3. Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L.; Murphy, Christopher S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Piston, David W.

    2009-01-01

    We report that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as a screen of 12 variants yielded 8 that exhibit photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins can be switched into a green state, and two orange variants can be photoconverted to the far red. The orange highlighters are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibit the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent protein described to date. PMID:19363494

  4. Preparation of an novel botanic biopreservative and its efficacy in keeping quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Deng, Shanggui; Li, Jianrong

    2013-06-01

    A novel botanic biopreservative was successfully prepared by the combination of the bamboo leaves extracts and ebony extracts, designated as ebony-bamboo leaves complex extracts (EBLCE), whose antimicrobial activity was assessed according to an inhibition zone method against 10 common pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It was found that EBLCE was more effective from all the chosen microorganisms, as compared by potassium sorbate. Due to its excellent antimicrobial activity, and some additional properties like edibility, safety and economy, EBLCE was selected for further study to evaluate the efficacy in prolonging shelf life and improving the quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei during storage at 4 °C, based on periodical microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis. As a result, EBLCE was observed to prevent spoilage of peeled P. vannamei efficiently as reflected by a distinct decrease in total viable count, pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, as well as a slower decline in the sensory evaluation scores. Therefore, a prolonged shelf life of 16 days was obtained for EBLCE pre-treated peeled shrimps with comparison of 6 days for the control group, demonstrating EBLCE as a promising alternative for preserving food.

  5. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  6. Impact behaviour of freeze-dried and fresh pomelo (Citrus maxima) peel: influence of the hydration state

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, Marc; Speck, Thomas; Seidel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Pomelos (Citrus maxima) are known for their thick peel which—inter alia—serves as energy dissipator when fruits impact on the ground after being shed. It protects the fruit from splitting open and thus enables the contained seeds to stay germinable and to potentially be dispersed by animal vectors. The main part of the peel consists of a parenchymatous tissue that can be interpreted from a materials point of view as open pored foam whose struts are pressurized and filled with liquid. In order to investigate the influence of the water content on the energy dissipation capacity, drop weight tests were conducted with fresh and with freeze-dried peel samples. Based on the coefficient of restitution it was found that freeze-drying markedly reduces the relative energy dissipation capacity of the peel. Measuring the transmitted force during impact furthermore indicated a transition from a uniform collapse of the foam-like tissue to a progressive collapse due to water extraction. Representing the peel by a Maxwell model illustrates that freeze-drying not only drastically reduces the damping function of the dashpots but also stiffens the springs of the model. PMID:26543566

  7. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. Comprehensive identification of bioactive compounds of avocado peel by liquid chromatography coupled to ultra-high-definition accurate-mass Q-TOF.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jorge G; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2018-04-15

    Industrially the avocado pulp is exploited principally as oil and paste, generating a huge quantity of peel and seed as by-products. Avocado peel is a promising inexpensive candidate for recovery phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to identify the bioactive compounds present in an extract of avocado peel obtained by a green extraction technique. Accelerated solvent extraction was performed using water and ethanol as extraction solvents. Liquid chromatography coupled to ultra-high-definition accurate-mass spectrometry was used in order to identify the bioactive compounds. A total of sixty-one compounds belonging to eleven families were identified. Procyanidins, flavonols, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids were the most common compounds. A sum of thirty-five compounds has been identified here for the first time in avocado peel. These results confirm the potential of avocado peel as a source of bioactive ingredients for its use in the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gaseous Viscous Peeling of Linearly Elastic Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, Shai; Jacob, Hila; Gat, Amir

    2017-11-01

    We study pressure-driven propagation of gas into a micron-scale gap between two linearly elastic substrates. Applying the lubrication approximation, the governing nonlinear evolution equation describes the interaction between elasticity and viscosity, as well as weak rarefaction and low-Mach-number compressibility, characteristic to gaseous microflows. Several physical limits allow simplification of the evolution equation and enable solution by self-similarity. During the peeling process the flow-field transitions between the different limits and the respective approximate solutions. The sequence of limits occurring during the propagation dynamics can be related to the thickness of the prewetting layer of the configuration at rest, yielding an approximate description of the entire peeling dynamics. The results are validated by numerical solutions of the evolution equation. Israel Science Foundation 818/13.

  10. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  11. The role of peel stresses in cyclic debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When an adhesively bonded joint is undergoing cyclic loading, one of the possible damage modes that occurs is called cyclic debonding - progressive separation of the adherends by failure of the adhesive bond under cyclic loading. In most practical structures, both peel and shear stresses exist in the adhesive bonding during cyclic loading. The results of an experimental and analytical study to determine the role of peel stresses on cyclic debonding in a mixed mode specimen are presented. Experimentally, this was done by controlling the forces that create the peel stresses by applying a clamping force to oppose the peel stresses. Cracked lap shear joints were chosen for this study. A finite element analysis was developed to assess the effect of the clamping force on the strain energy release rates due to shear and peel stresses. The results imply that the peel stress is the principal stress causing cyclic debonding.

  12. Chemical peels in active acne and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

  14. Genetically engineered orange petunias on the market.

    PubMed

    Bashandy, Hany; Teeri, Teemu H

    2017-08-01

    Unauthorized genetically engineered orange petunias were found on the market. Genetic engineering of petunia was shown to lead to novel flower color some 20 years ago. Here we show that petunia lines with orange flowers, generated for scientific purposes, apparently found their way to petunia breeding programmes, intentionally or unintentionally. Today they are widely available, but have not been registered for commerce.

  15. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  16. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  17. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF.

  18. Acral peeling skin syndrome: a case of two brothers.

    PubMed

    Wakade, Oojwala; Adams, Beth; Shwayder, Tor

    2009-01-01

    We report two brothers of Middle Eastern descent with consanguineous parents who present with numerous fragile, flaccid blisters on the hands and feet. In addition to spontaneous peeling, they can manually peel skin from acral areas without pain. The symptoms worsen with warm temperatures, excessive water exposure, and perspiration. Two biopsies from flaccid blisters on the feet were taken from the older brother, which revealed cleavage at the level of the stratum corneum. A diagnosis of acral peeling skin syndrome was made.

  19. Peeling the Onion: Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    March–April 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 24 Feature Peeling the Onion Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works Lt Col Alan Docauer...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Peeling the Onion : Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works 5a...Air & Space Power Journal | 25 Docauer Peeling the Onion Feature What Is Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution? Emerging in the aftermath of

  20. Katharsis of the skin: Peeling applications and agents of chemical peelings in Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity.

    PubMed

    Ursin, F; Steger, F; Borelli, C

    2018-04-28

    Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications. First, we will have to identify ancient Greek medical terms for the modern terms "peeling" and "chemical peeling". Second, based on the identified terms we will perform a systematic fulltext search for agents in original sources. Third, we will categorize the results into three peeling applications: (1) cleansing, (2) aesthetical improvement of the skin, and (3) therapy of dermatological diseases. We performed a full systematic keyword search with the identified Greek terms in databases of ancient Greek texts. Our keywords for peeling and chemical peeling are "smēxis" and "trīpsis". Our keywords for agents of peeling and chemical peeling are "smégmata", "rhýmmata", "kathartiká", and "trímmata". Diocles (4 th century BC) was the first one who mentioned "smēxis" and "trīpsis" as parts of daily cleansing routine. Criton (2 nd century AD) wrote about peeling applications, but any reference to the agents is lost. Antyllos (2 nd century AD) composed three lists of peeling applications including agents. Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity report several peeling applications like cleansing, brightening, darkening, softening, and aesthetical improvement of the skin by use of peeling and chemical peeling, as well as therapy of dermatological diseases. There are 27 ancient agents for what is contemporarily called peeling and chemical peeling. We discovered more specific agents than hitherto known to research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  1. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  2. Influence of skin peeling procedure in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Baik Kee; Lee, Jun Young

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in patients who have previously undergone skin peeling has been rarely studied. We compared the frequency of positive patch test (PT) reactions in a patient group with a history of peeling, to that of a control group with no history of peeling. The Korean standard series and cosmetic series were performed on a total of 262 patients. 62 patients had previously undergone peeling and 200 patients did not. The frequency of positive PT reactions on Korean standard series was significantly higher in the peeling group compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05, chi-square test). However, the most commonly identified allergens were mostly cosmetic-unrelated allergens. The frequency of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the peeling group was higher than that of the control group, but lacked statistical significance. The frequency (%) of positive PT reactions on cosmetic series in the high-frequency peel group was higher than that of the low-frequency group, but lacked statistical significance. It appears peeling may not generally affect the development of contact sensitization. Further work is required focusing on the large-scale prospective studies by performing a PT before and after peeling.

  3. Acral peeling skin syndrome: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    García, Elena García; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Martínez González, Miguel A; Reyes, José Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare dermatosis characterized by spontaneous and painless peeling of the skin. The authors report two patients with history of spontaneous, asymptomatic, and noninflammatory peeling skin of the acral surfaces after soaking in water. On light microscopy, blisters were located in the mid layers of the stratum corneum, above the granular layer. Ultrastructural examination revealed increased intercellular lipids and abnormal, "moth-eaten," keratohyalin granules, but the authors were unable to determine whether the separation initiated within the horny cells or between adjacent cells. These patients represented a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome.

  4. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in tomato peel, seeds, and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2014-06-11

    The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.

  5. Preparation, isolation, and characterization of cutin monomers and oligomers from tomato peels.

    PubMed

    Osman, S F; Irwin, P; Fett, W F; O'Connor, J V; Parris, N

    1999-02-01

    Cutin in tomato peels was depolymerized in methanolic base to yield cutin monomers or a mixture of cutin oligomers. These products were isolated by typical solvent extraction methods or by precipitation, and the isolates were characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. It was determined that the compositions of the isolates from both isolation procedures were similar, although solvent extraction gave higher yields. However, the precipitation method, which is easy to carry out and avoids the use of undesirable organic solvents, may be preferable in commercial processes for recovering these compounds.

  6. Facile and scalable synthesis of magnetite/carbon adsorbents by recycling discarded fruit peels and their potential usage in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Shuangshuang; Chen, Kezheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, apple, banana and orange peels were used as precursor compounds for the mass production of magnetite/carbon adsorbents. A so-called "soak-calcination" procedure was employed by firstly soaking these waste fruit peels in FeCl 3 aqueous solutions and secondly calcining these precursors in the nitrogen atmosphere to yield final magnetite/carbon composites. This approach is quite simple and effective to synthesize carbon-based adsorbents on an industrial scale. The as-produced adsorbents feature the merits of appropriate ferromagnetism (>4emug -1 ), high adsorption capacity (several hundreds of milligrams per gram for adsorption of methyl blue, Congo red, rhodamine B and Cr 6+ ions), and good regenerability (>85%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole.

    PubMed

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; P<0.00001) and final macular hole closure (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.63-9.75; P=0.02) and less requirement for additional surgery (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.23; P<0.00001), with no evidence of a difference between groups with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications or PROs. The ILM peeling was found to be highly cost-effective. Available evidence

  8. Subspecies identification of captive Orang Utan in Melaka based on D-loop mitochondria DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaluddin, Siti Norsyuhada; Yaakop, Salmah; Idris, Wan Mohd Razi; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of Bornean Orang Utan populations suggests that there are three different subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus; Sarawak & Northwest Kalimantan, P. p. wurmbii; Southern West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, P. p. morio; East Kalimantan and Sabah). The subspecies of Orang Utans in captivity are difficult to determine through morphological observation. Thus, misidentification by ranger or zoo staffs leads to unwanted consequences especially towards conservation efforts of Orang Utan. The main objective of this study was to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of 10 Orang Utans in Zoo Melaka and A' Famosa by using partial mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences. DNA of all individuals was extracted from FTA Card. Data analyses were performed using Maximum Parsimony, MP and Neighbor Joining, NJ. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that all the samples likely belong to one species of Sumatran Orang Utan (P. abelii) and three different subspecies of Bornean Orang Utans (P. p. pygmaeus, P. p. morio, and P. p. wurmbii). The results obtained in this study indirectly help the management of zoos in term of conservation and visitor's education.

  9. Carbon isotope ratios of selected volatiles in Citrus sinensis and in orange-flavoured food.

    PubMed

    Schipilliti, Luisa; Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Cotroneo, Antonella; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Twenty genuine samples of industrially cold-pressed sweet orange essential oils, were analysed by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry to determine the values of the carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C(VPDB)) of selected volatiles and assess the corresponding range of authenticity. Successively, four commercial orange-flavoured products were analysed under identical conditions to evaluate the authenticity of the orange flavour. The samples were extracted by solid-phase microextraction under optimised conditions. The evaluation was performed by using an internal standard procedure to neglect the contribution due to the original environment to the isotopic abundance of (13)C. The composition of the volatile fraction of the essential oils and of the flavoured products was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with linear retention indices, and by gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector. The δ(13)C(VPDB) values of seven secondary metabolites determined here were successfully used to characterise genuine orange essential oil. These values were used to evaluate the quality of orange-flavoured products, revealing the presence of compounds of different origin, not compatible with the values of genuine orange secondary metabolites. This study provides the range of authenticity of δ(13)C(VPDB) of seven different secondary metabolites in sweet orange genuine essential oil, useful for evaluating the genuineness of orange flavour. In accord with a previous study on different essential oils, the values determined here can be successfully applied for the evaluation of a large number of flavoured food stuffs and correlated with their origins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Optimization of extraction parameters on the antioxidant properties of banana waste.

    PubMed

    Toh, Pui Yee; Leong, Fei Shan; Chang, Sui Kiat; Khoo, Hock Eng; Yim, Hip Seng

    2016-01-01

    Banana is grown worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purposes. Peels form about 18-33% of the whole fruit and are discarded as a waste product. With a view to exploiting banana peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different extraction parameters on the antioxidant activities of the industrial by-product of banana waste (peel). Influence of different extraction parameters such as types of solvent, percentages of solvent, and extraction times on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of mature and green peels of Pisang Abu (PA), Pisang Berangan (PB), and Pisang Mas (PM) were investigated. The best extraction parameters were initially selected based on different percentages of ethanol (0-100% v/v), extraction time (1-5 hr), and extraction temperature (25-60°C) for extraction of antioxidants in the banana peels. Total phenolic content (TPC) was evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay while antioxidant activities (AA) of banana peel were accessed by DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays at optimum extraction conditions. Based on different extraction solvents and percentages of solvents used, 70% and 90% of acetone had yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PA peels, respectively; 90% of ethanol and methanol has yielded the highest TPC for the mature and green PB peels, respectively; while 90% ethanol for the mature and green PM peels. Similar extraction conditions were found for the antioxidant activities for the banana peel assessed using DPPH assay except for green PB peel, which 70% methanol had contributed to the highest AA. Highest TPC and AA were obtained by applying 4, 1, and 2 hrs extraction for the peels of PA, PB and PM, respectively. The best extraction conditions were also used for determination of AAs using ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assays. Therefore, the best extraction conditions used have given the highest TPC and AAs. By

  11. Short communication: in vitro assessment of antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of peel of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Basharat; Dar, Kamran Khurshid; Ali, Shaukat; Awan, Uzma Azeem; Nayyer, Abdul Qayyum; Ghous, Tahseen; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial effect of Citrus sinensis peel extracts was evaluated against several pathogenic bacteria associated with human and fish infections viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcesnces, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium and Serratia odorifera. Methanol, ethanol, chloroform and diethyl ether solvents were used for extraction. In vitro antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well and agar disc diffusion methods. It was found that ethanol extract showed highly significant inhibition of E. coli and K. pneumonia (12.6±0.94 mm and 11.6±1.2 mm) whereas methanol extract of C. sinensis also showed high zone of inhibition of S. odorifera (10.0±2.16 mm). The potential activity of active extracts was assessed and also compared with standard antibiotics through activity index formulation. The order of antioxidant activity through ABTS·+ and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was ethanol>methanol>chloroform>diethyl ether. Phytochemical screening of all solvents had determined the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and flavonoids. It was also found that Chloroform/Methanol (5:5) and Butanol/Ethanol/Water (4:1:2.2) solvent systems showed significant separation of active phytochemical constituents. These findings reveal the potential use of C. sinensis peel to treat infectious diseases, which are being caused by microorganisms.

  12. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) peel: A better source of antioxidants and a-glucosidase inhibitors than pulp, flake and seed, and phytochemical profile by HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-Cai; Xie, Xing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Lu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) peel is an underutilized by-product in both, the production and processing of jackfruit. This research compared the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of jackfruit peel with jackfruit pulp, flake and seed for the first time. The phytochemical profile of peel extract was characterized with HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Results revealed that peel extract exhibited the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content, and the phenolics was 4.65, 4.12 and 4.95 times higher than that of pulp, flake and seed extract, respectively. The strongest DPPH and ABTS + scavenging ability, α-glucosidase inhibition were also found in peel extract, and the α-glucosidase inhibition was about 11.8-fold of that of acarbose. The HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis led to the tentative identification of 53 compounds, prenylflavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and glycosides are the predominant bioactive compounds. Above results reveal promising potential of jackfruit peel as a new source of natural antioxidants and hypoglycemic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...

  14. A comparison of processed and fresh squeezed ‘Hamlin’ orange juice - nutrients and phytonutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Hamlin’ orange juices were extracted using one of following methods: 1) freshly squeezed with a commercial food service squeezer (fresh), 2) freshly squeezed + pasteurized (fresh/pasteurized), and 3) processed with industrial extractor and pasteurized (processed). Samples were taken directly after ...

  15. Fractionation of secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional HPLC provides ready detection of the major phenolic compounds in methanol extracts of orange leaves, yet conventional HPLC also shows the presence of many more compounds, to an extent where extensive peak overlap prevents distinct peak detection and reliable quantitation. A more complet...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... from Mexico for processing. 319.56-44 Section 319.56-44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice if...

  20. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  1. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  2. Effects of heat treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) by heat treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...

  3. Guidelines for chemical peeling in Japan (3rd edition).

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Chemical peeling may be defined as the therapies, procedures and techniques used for the treatment of certain cutaneous diseases or conditions, and for aesthetic improvement. The procedures include the application of one or more chemical agents to the skin. Chemical peeling has been very popular in both medical and aesthetic fields. Because neither its scientific background is well understood nor a systematic approach established, medical and social problems have taken place. This prompted us to establish and distribute a standard guideline of care for chemical peeling. Previous guidelines such as the 2001 and 2004 versions included minimum standards of care such as indications, chemicals, applications, and any associated precautions, including post-peeling care. The principles in this updated version of chemical peeling are as follows: (i) chemical peeling should be performed under the strict technical control and responsibility of a physician; (ii) the physician should have sufficient knowledge of the structure and physiology of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and understand the mechanisms of wound-healing induced by chemical peeling; (iii) the physician should be board-certified in an appropriate specialty such as dermatology; and (iv) the ultimate judgment regarding the appropriateness of any specific chemical peeling procedure must be made by the physician while considering all standard therapeutic protocols, which should be presented to each individual patient. Keeping these concepts in mind, this new version of the guidelines includes a more scientific and detailed approach from the viewpoint of evidence-based medicine. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  5. Killing Unwanted West Indies Mahogany Trees by Peeling and Frilling

    Treesearch

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Peeling and frilling each killed approximately 70 percent of treated West Indies mahogany, but peeling killed a higher percentage of trees between 18 and 33 centimeters (7 and 13 inches) than did frilling. Essentially all mortality occurred within the first 15 months following treatment.

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  7. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  8. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  10. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  11. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  12. Orange Button Solar Data Exchange | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Orange Button Solar Data Exchange Orange Button Solar Data Exchange The new Orange Button Solar Data Exchange tool serves as an online resource for the solar industry to share, sell, or retrieve solar data and connect with colleagues. Screenshot image of Orange Button data website home page. The

  13. Manual for Program PSTRESS: Peel stress computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkey, Derek A.; Madan, Ram C.

    1987-01-01

    Described is the use of the interactive FORTRAN computer program PSTRESS, which computes a closed form solution for two bonded plates subjected to applied moments, vertical shears, and in-plane forces. The program calculates in-plane stresses in the plates, deflections of the plates, and peel and shear stresses in the adhesive. The document briefly outlines the analytical method used by PSTRESS, describes the input and output of the program, and presents a sample analysis. The results of the latter are shown to be within a few percent of results obtained using a NASTRAN finite element analysis. An appendix containing a listing of PSTRESS is included.

  14. FT-IR and DFT study of lemon peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, K. V.; Likhter, A. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Novoselova, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Experimental FT-IR spectra of lemon peel are registered in the 650 - 3800 cm-1 range. The influence of peel artificial and natural dehydration on its vibrational spectrum is studied. The colored outer surface of lemon peel is proved not to have a significant impact on FT-IR spectrum. It is determined that only dehydration processes affect the FT-IR vibrational spectrum of the peel when a lemon is stored for 28 days under natural laboratory conditions. Polymer molecule models for dietary fibers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, as well as hesperidin - flavonoid glycoside, and free moisture cluster are developed within the framework of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) theoretical method. By implementing supramolecular approach, modeling of the vibrational FT-IR spectrum of lemon peel is carried out and its detailed theoretical interpretation is presented.

  15. Microcontact Peeling as a New Method for Cell Micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Sho; Matsui, Tsubasa S.; Deguchi, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Micropatterning is becoming a powerful tool for studying morphogenetic and differentiation processes of cells. Here we describe a new micropatterning technique, which we refer to as microcontact peeling. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were treated with oxygen plasma, and the resulting hydrophilic layer of the surface was locally peeled off through direct contact with a peeling stamp made of aluminum, copper, or silicon. A hydrophobic layer of PDMS could be selectively exposed only at the places of the physical contact as revealed by water contact angle measurements and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which thus enabled successful micropatterning of cells with micro-featured peeling stamps. This new micropatterning technique needs no procedure for directly adsorbing proteins to bare PDMS in contrast to conventional techniques using a microcontact printing stamp. Given the several unique characteristics, the present technique based on the peel-off of inorganic materials may become a useful option for performing cell micropatterning. PMID:25062030

  16. Metro orange line BRT project evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    In partnership with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the National Bus Rapid Transit Institute (NBRTI) conducted an evaluation of the Metro Orange Line BRT service, whic...

  17. A photoswitchable orange-to-far-red fluorescent protein, PSmOrange.

    PubMed

    Subach, Oksana M; Patterson, George H; Ting, Li-Min; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2011-07-31

    We report a photoswitchable monomeric Orange (PSmOrange) protein that is initially orange (excitation, 548 nm; emission, 565 nm) but becomes far-red (excitation, 636 nm; emission, 662 nm) after irradiation with blue-green light. Compared to its parental orange proteins, PSmOrange has greater brightness, faster maturation, higher photoconversion contrast and better photostability. The red-shifted spectra of both forms of PSmOrange enable its simultaneous use with cyan-to-green photoswitchable proteins to study four intracellular populations. Photoconverted PSmOrange has, to our knowledge, the most far-red excitation peak of all GFP-like fluorescent proteins, provides diffraction-limited and super-resolution imaging in the far-red light range, is optimally excited with common red lasers, and can be photoconverted subcutaneously in a mouse. PSmOrange photoswitching occurs via a two-step photo-oxidation process, which causes cleavage of the polypeptide backbone. The far-red fluorescence of photoconverted PSmOrange results from a new chromophore containing N-acylimine with a co-planar carbon-oxygen double bond.

  18. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  19. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. PMID:29419800

  20. A randomized controlled trial of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv Kumar; Kaur, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical peeling and aspiration and neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy for pearl form of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). A prospective, randomized, double blind, study was done at Rotary Eye Hospital, Maranda, Palampur, India, Santosh Medical College Hospital, Ghaziabad, India and Laser Eye Clinic, Noida India. Consecutive patients with pearl form of PCO following surgery, phacoemulsification, manual small incision cataract surgery and conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) for age related cataract, were randomized to have peeling and aspiration or neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intra-operative and post-operative complications were compared. A total of 634 patients participated in the study, and 314 (49.5%) patients were randomized to surgical peeling and aspiration group and 320 (50.5%) to the Nd:YAG laser group. The mean pre-procedural logMAR CDVA in peeling and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser group was 0.80±0.25 and 0.86±0.22, respectively. The mean final CDVA in peeling group (0.22±0.23) was comparable to Nd:YAG group (0.24±0.28; t test, P=0.240). There was a significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (P<0.001). A slightly higher percentage of patients in Nd:YAG laser group (283/88.3%) than in peeling group (262/83.4%) had a CDVA of 0.5 (20/63) or better at 9mo (P<0.001). On the contrary, patients having CDVA worse than 1.00 (20/200) was also significantly higher in Nd:YAG laser group as compared to peeling group (25/7.7% vs 15/4.7%, respectively). On application of ANCOVA, there was less than 0.001% risk that PCO thickness and total laser energy had no effect on rate of complications in Nd:YAG laser group and less than 0.001 % risk that PCO thickness had no effect on complications in peeling group respectively. Sum of square analysis suggests that in the Nd:YAG laser group, thick PCO had a stronger impact on complications

  1. A randomized controlled trial of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv Kumar; Kaur, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare surgical peeling and aspiration and neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy for pearl form of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). METHODS A prospective, randomized, double blind, study was done at Rotary Eye Hospital, Maranda, Palampur, India, Santosh Medical College Hospital, Ghaziabad, India and Laser Eye Clinic, Noida India. Consecutive patients with pearl form of PCO following surgery, phacoemulsification, manual small incision cataract surgery and conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) for age related cataract, were randomized to have peeling and aspiration or neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intra-operative and post-operative complications were compared. RESULTS A total of 634 patients participated in the study, and 314 (49.5%) patients were randomized to surgical peeling and aspiration group and 320 (50.5%) to the Nd:YAG laser group. The mean pre-procedural logMAR CDVA in peeling and neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser group was 0.80±0.25 and 0.86±0.22, respectively. The mean final CDVA in peeling group (0.22±0.23) was comparable to Nd:YAG group (0.24±0.28; t test, P=0.240). There was a significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (P<0.001). A slightly higher percentage of patients in Nd:YAG laser group (283/88.3%) than in peeling group (262/83.4%) had a CDVA of 0.5 (20/63) or better at 9mo (P<0.001). On the contrary, patients having CDVA worse than 1.00 (20/200) was also significantly higher in Nd:YAG laser group as compared to peeling group (25/7.7% vs 15/4.7%, respectively). On application of ANCOVA, there was less than 0.001% risk that PCO thickness and total laser energy had no effect on rate of complications in Nd:YAG laser group and less than 0.001 % risk that PCO thickness had no effect on complications in peeling group respectively. Sum of square analysis suggests that in the Nd:YAG laser group, thick PCO had a stronger impact on

  2. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T

    2012-04-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage.

  3. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  4. Happy orang-utans live longer lives.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Adams, Mark J; King, James E

    2011-12-23

    Nonhuman primate ageing resembles its human counterpart. Moreover, ratings of subjective well-being traits in chimpanzees, orang-utans and rhesus macaques are similar to those of humans: they are intercorrelated, heritable, and phenotypically and genetically related to personality. We examined whether, as in humans, orang-utan subjective well-being was related to longer life. The sample included 184 zoo-housed orang-utans followed up for approximately 7 years. Age, sex, species and number of transfers were available for all subjects and 172 subjects were rated on at least one item of a subjective well-being scale. Of the 31 orang-utans that died, 25 died a mean of 3.4 years after being rated. Even in a model that included, and therefore, statistically adjusted for, sex, age, species and transfers, orang-utans rated as being "happier" lived longer. The risk differential between orang-utans that were one standard deviation above and one standard deviation below baseline in subjective well-being was comparable with approximately 11 years in age. This finding suggests that impressions of the subjective well-being of captive great apes are valid indicators of their welfare and longevity.

  5. Self-peeling of impacting droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruiter, Jolet; Soto, Dan; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2018-01-01

    Whether an impacting droplet sticks or not to a solid surface has been conventionally controlled by functionalizing the target surface or by using additives in the drop. Here we report on an unexpected self-peeling phenomenon that can happen even on smooth untreated surfaces by taking advantage of the solidification of the impacting drop and the thermal properties of the substrate. We control this phenomenon by tuning the coupling of the short-timescale fluid dynamics--leading to interfacial defects upon local freezing--and the longer-timescale thermo-mechanical stresses--leading to global deformation. We establish a regime map that predicts whether a molten metal drop impacting onto a colder substrate will bounce, stick or self-peel. In many applications, avoiding adhesion of impacting droplets around designated target surfaces can be as crucial as bonding onto them to minimize waste or cleaning. These insights have broad applicability in processes ranging from thermal spraying and additive manufacturing to extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  6. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.

    PubMed

    Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequent