Sample records for orav tiiu kailas

  1. [Effect of Oravive gel on enamel remineralization and anti-demineralization of young permanent teeth treated by sugar drink].


    Wang, Yu; Gong, Ling; Ji, Yan


    To evaluate the effect of Oravive gel and fluor protectors on remineralization and the capacity of resisting sugar drink erosion. The changes of surface microhardness (SMH) of young permanent teeth treated by Oravive gel or fluor protectors which were immersed in sugar drink in advance were measured. The morphological changes of surface were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SMH values of the young permanent teeth immersed in sugar drink and then treated with Oravive gel or fluor protectors increased significantly, and the Oravive group was stronger than fluor protectors group (P < 0.05). For the young permanent teeth treated with Oravive gel or fluor protectors and then immersed in sugar drink, the SHM value of Oravive group was significantly higher than fluor protectors group (P < 0.05). Under SEM, the enamel surface appeared solvation and remineralization after Oravive gel or fluor protectors treatment. Oravive gel may enhance the resistance of young permanent teeth enamel to sugar drink erosion, and promote the remineralization effects of demineralized enamel.

  2. TiC formation on a Ti evaporated graphite probe by plasma exposure in JIPP T-IIU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, T.; Mohri, M.; Yamashina, T.; Amemiya, S.; Katoh, T.; Noda, N.


    A graphite probe with Ti films (60 nm) was exposed to the scrape-off plasma of JIPP T-IIU to study surface effects by edge plasma. The surface and in-depth profile of the surface region were analyzed by RBS, PIXE, XPS and AES after 4 plasma discharges. Surface sputtering, deposition of impurities and surface modification were found to occur simultaneously during plasma discharges. About a half amount of pre-evaporated Ti was lost due to sputting, while the amount of deposited metallic impurities was maximum at the surface facing the ion drift side. The sputtering and deposition were not very significant, while the surface modification to form TiC was enhanced significantly at the surface facing the electron drift side.

  3. Improvement of a 500 keV heavy-ion-beam probe for JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; Kawasumi, Y.; Nishizawa, A.; Narihara, K.; Sato, K.; Seki, T.; Toi, K.; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Adachi, K.; Ejiri, A.; Hidekuma, S.; Hirokura, S.; Ida, K.; Kawahata, K.; Kojima, M.; Joong, K.; Kumazawa, R.; Kuramoto, H.; Liang, R.; Minami, T.; Sakakita, H.; Sasao, M.; Sato, K. N.; Tsuzuki, T.; Xu, J.; Yamada, I.; Watari, T.


    Several improvements in the high-voltage heavy-ion-beam probe (HIBP) are discussed. (1) It is clearly found that the precision slide mount of the detector plates 30° parallel to the base electrode is very effective for the determination of the in-plane entrance angle of the beam in the analyzer to estimate the error in the potential measurement. (2) A two-staged optical trap in the HIBP greatly reduced the effect of the UV radiation in the analyzer. (3) A multiple-plate detector up to 13 measurement points clearly showed the direction of the propagation of the turbulence and path-integral effects.

  4. An Arctic Child. An Active Learning Pack for 8-13 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy

    This resource packet includes: a teacher's guide; reproducible student worksheets; student activity cards; a simulation game; and a picture book, "The Gifts of 'Kaila.'" The materials are organized in three parts. Part one aims to help students understand something of the beauty and magnificence of the Arctic. Introductory activities…

  5. An Arctic Child. An Active Learning Pack for 8-13 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Roberts, Maggy

    This resource packet includes: a teacher's guide; reproducible student worksheets; student activity cards; a simulation game; and a picture book, "The Gifts of 'Kaila.'" The materials are organized in three parts. Part one aims to help students understand something of the beauty and magnificence of the Arctic. Introductory activities…

  6. Miocene burial and exhumation of the India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet: response to slab dynamics and erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrapa, Barbara; Orme, D.A.; DeCelles, Peter G.; Kapp, Paul; Cosca, Michael A.; Waldrip, R.


    The India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet preserves a record of geodynamic and erosional processes following intercontinental collision. Apatite fission-track and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data from the Oligocene–Miocene Kailas Formation, within the India-Asia collision zone, show a synchronous cooling signal at 17 ± 1 Ma, which is younger than the ca. 26–21 Ma depositional age of the Kailas Formation, constrained by U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and requires heating (burial) after ca. 21 Ma and subsequent rapid exhumation. Data from the Gangdese batholith underlying the Kailas Formation also indicate Miocene exhumation. The thermal history of the Kailas Formation is consistent with rapid subsidence during a short-lived phase of early Miocene extension followed by uplift and exhumation driven by rollback and northward underthrusting of the Indian plate, respectively. Significant removal of material from the India-Asia collision zone was likely facilitated by efficient incision of the paleo–Indus River and paleo–Yarlung River in response to drainage reorganization and/or intensification of the Asian monsoon.

  7. JPRS Report West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    8217 Attraction Preferences 10 ICELAND Prime Minister Palsson on Women’s List, EC, Security Policy [Stockholm SVENSKA DAGBLADET 16 Jul 88] 11 NORWAY...principal government parties " apolo - gizes for being alive"—meaning his coexistence in the government. Party secretary Aarno Kaila (Coalition) for...applies to Vaso Papandreou with 4.4 among men and 2.4 among JPRS-WER-88-052 20 September 1988 11 POLITICAL women. By contrast, Aim. Ypsilanti and

  8. Time Series Models with a Specified Symmetric Non-Normal Marginal Distribution.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    processes with a specified non-Normal - marginal distribution, Gastwirth and Wolff [Ref.13] had derived a solution to the linear additive first-order...of Lewis, Orav and Uribe [Ref. 15]. The least squares estimation theory is derived around the concept of a linearized residual. Asymptotic properties...linear process of Gastwirth and Wolff [Ref. 13], called the LAR(1) process. The LDAR(1) model produces an {X I sequence using then first-order

  9. Boundary Layer Study. Experimental Validation Test Plan. Phase 4

    DTIC Science & Technology


    areas of experimental fluid mechanics, fiber technology, and control systems. During his four year activities in Owens - Corning Fiber Glass Technical...Flow and Temperature Fields of a Novel Fiberizing System - Owens - Corning Technical Report. 3. Direct Digital Control of the Flow Rate of an Electric...Melter - Owens - Corning Technical Report. 4. Numerical Study of the Flow of a Oravity Driven Non-Lsothermal Liquid Jet - Owens - Corning Technical Report

  10. Resettling the Thoughts of Ernst Mach and the Vienna Circle in Europe: The Cases of Finland and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemsen, Hayo; Siemsen, Karl Hayo


    Although it is generally assumed that the thoughts of Ernst Mach and the scientific fields he influenced (in this case psychophysics and Gestalt psychology) emigrated from Europe during Second World War they apparently survived in Finland, influencing the Finnish education system. The following article evaluates this relationship and its implications from a historical and an empirical perspective. In empirical studies comparing the education systems of different countries, such as PISA, the Finns are in general regarded as being very successful with their school system. Does this apparent success have anything to do with a Machian influence? Our current research has so far revealed that the Finns have gone through an independent cultural development in two specific aspects: in the idea of the development of the individual personality (Snellman) and in a specific phenomenalism (developed primarily by Eino Kaila, in which Kaila was heavily influenced in this by Ernst Mach). The result can be regarded as a nation-wide “Experiment”, the empirical evaluation of which can be found partly in the statistics of the PISA Studies, especially the evaluation of Finland in relation to other countries.

  11. Detrital Thermochronology of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone and implications for the tectonic and surface evolution of southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrapa, B.; Hassim, F.; Kapp, P. A.


    Detrital thermochronology has the unique potential to resolve the timing of source cooling associated with magmatic, tectonic and surface processes. Correct interpretation of the detrital signature requires a multi-dating approach involving chronometers sensitive to different temperatures and processes. A multi-dating study of modern river sands from southern Tibet reveals distinct cooling signals that provide significant information about tectonic and erosional evolution of the Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS) after the India-Asia collision with implications for the Cenozoic topographic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Modern sands from tributaries of the Yarlung River provide an opportunity to broadly sample source rocks exposed within the suture zone, including the Gangdese batholith, Xigaze forearc, Cenozoic basins, and Tethyan Himalayan rocks, and to investigate their regional geochemical signatures. Samples from rivers along the IYS in southern Tibet, between Xigaze and Mt. Kailas, were analyzed for detrital geochronology and low-temperature thermochronology. Comparison between ages recorded in the source and the detrital signature indicates that both the ages and their proportions directly reflect the ages and relative areas of source rocks in the catchment basins. Apatite fission track ages show two main cooling signals at 22-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are consistent with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith and Oligo-Miocene Kailas basin and indicate significant regional exhumation of the IYS during the Miocene. Regional exhumation recorded throughout the IYS is likely the combined product of active Miocene tectonics and erosion of a paleo-Yarlung River. Efficient incision and evacuation of material from the IYS zone by a paleo-Yarlung River during the Miocene suggests a significantly different paleoenvironment than that which exists today. Miocene capture of the Yarlung River by the Brahmaputra River may have enhanced erosion in the IYS zone.

  12. Crustal velocity structure of western Dharwar Craton, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, D.; Chandrakala, K.; Padmavathi Devi, P.; Sridhar, A. R.; Sain, K.; Reddy, P. R.


    A deep seismic sounding (DSS) experiment was carried out across the Indian shield in 1972-1975. Kaila et al. (Kaila, K.L., Roy Chowdhury, K., Reddy, P.R., Krishna, V.G., Hari Narain, Subbotin, S.I., Sollogub, V.B., Chekunov, A.V., Kharetchko, G.E., Lazarenko, M.A., Ilchenko T.V., 1979. Crustal structure along Kavali-Udipi profile in the Indian peninsular shield from deep seismic sounding. J. Geol. Soc. of Ind., 20, 307-333) presented a crustal depth section based on the interpretation of the analog seismic data. In this paper, we re-examine the crustal structure of the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) by reprocessing the data of three major shot points. Kinematic 1-D inversion, followed by 2-D forward modeling of the first arrival refraction and a few persistent wide-angle reflection phases, was carried out to build, a first order two-dimensional velocity model of this segment of the profile. This model brings out a simple crustal velocity structure consisting of an upper and lower crust. The upper crust (velocity 6.0-6.2 km/s) is on average 23 km thick, which is underlain by a lower crust of velocity 6.8-7.0 km/s. The average Moho depth in this part is about 37-40 km, with higher-than-normal P n velocity of 8.4 km/s. A relatively deep Moho in this part of the Archean peninsular shield is associated with relatively low velocities in the lower crust, perhaps indicating absence of underplating in this region. Present results bring out the fact that the crust of WDC is not so typical as many other Archean crusts, in terms of both thickness and velocities.

  13. Tertiary deformation history of southeastern and southwestern Tibet during the Indo-Asian collision

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, A.; Harrison, T.M.; Murphy, M.A.; Grove, M.; Nie, S.; Ryerson, F.J.; Feng, W.X.; Le, C.Z.


    Geologic mapping and geochronological analysis in southwest (Kailas area) and southeast (Zedong area) Tibet reveal two major episodes of Tertiary crustal shortening along the classic Indus-Tsangpo suture in the Yalu River valley. The older event occurred between ca. 30 and 24 Ma during movement along the north-dipping Gangdese thrust. The development of this thrust caused extensive denudation of the Gangdese batholith in its hanging wall and underthrusting of the Xigase forearc strata in its footwall. Examination of timing of major tectonic events in central Asia suggests that the initiation of the Gangdese thrust was approximately coeval with the late Oligocene initiation and development of north-south shortening in the eastern Kunlun Shan of northern Tibet, the Nan Shan at the northeastern end of the Altyn Tagh fault, the western Kunlun Shan at the southwestern end of the Altyn Tagh fault, and finally the Tian Shan (north of the tarim basin). Such regionally synchronous initiation of crustal shortening in and around the plateau may have been related to changes in convergence rate and direction between the Eurasian plate and the Indian and Pacific plates. The younger thrusting event along the Yalu River valley occurred between 19 and 10 Ma along the south-dipping Great Counter thrust system, equivalent to the locally named Renbu-Zedong thrust in southeastern Tibet, the Backthrust system in south-central Tibet, and the South Kailas thrust in southwest Tibet. The coeval development of the Great Counter thrust and the North Himalayan granite-gneiss dome belt is consistent with their development being related to thermal weakening of the north Himalayan and south Tibetan crust, due perhaps to thermal relaxation of an already thickened crust created by the early phase of collision between India and Asia or frictional heating along major thrusts, such as the Main Central thrust, beneath the Himalaya.

  14. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along Southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.


    Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in southern Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in southern Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in southern Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.

  15. Quick profile-reoriganization driven by helical field perturbation for suppressing tokamak major disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ando, R.; Matsuoka, K.; Hirokura, S.; Kitagawa, S.; Mohri, A.; Tanahashi, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Toi, K.


    Disruptive behavior of magnetic field configuration leading to tokamak major disruption is found to be controlled by a mild mini-disruption which is induced by the compact external modular multipole-field coils with m=3/n=2 dominant helical field component in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. This mini-disruption ergodizes the m=2/n=1 magnetic island quickly but mildly and then prevents the profile of electron temperature from flattening. This quick profile-reorganization is effective to avoid the two-step disruption (pre- and major disruptions) responsible for the catastrophic current termination.

  16. Flexural bending of southern Tibet in a retro foreland setting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Erchie; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Xu, Ganqing; Hodges, Kip V.; Meng, Kai; Chen, Lin; Wang, Gang; Luo, Hui


    The highest elevation of the Tibetan Plateau, lying 5,700 m above sea level, occurs within the part of the Lhasa block immediately north of the India-Tibet suture zone (Yarlung Zangbo suture zone, YZSZ), being 700 m higher than the maximum elevation of more northern parts of the plateau. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain this differentially higher topography and the rock uplift that led to it, invoking crustal compression or extension. Here we present the results of structural investigations along the length of the high elevation belt and suture zone, which rather indicate flexural bending of the southern margin of the Lhasa block (Gangdese magmatic belt) and occurrence of an adjacent foreland basin (Kailas Basin), both elements resulting from supra-crustal loading of the Lhasa block by the Zangbo Complex (Indian plate rocks) via the Great Counter Thrust. Hence we interpret the differential elevation of the southern margin of the plateau as due originally to uplift of a forebulge in a retro foreland setting modified by subsequent processes. Identification of this flexural deformation has implications for early evolution of the India-Tibet continental collision zone, implying an initial (Late Oligocene) symmetrical architecture that subsequently transitioned into the present asymmetrical wedge architecture. PMID:26174578

  17. STS-42 Earth observation of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of the Tibetan Plateau (30.5N, 81.5E). The twin lakes with an altitude of 15,550 feet have the greatest visual impact among features on the plateau. The larger lake is Manasarovar and smaller lake is Rakshash Tal. The Hindus believe if you bathe in Manasarovar the sins of a lifetime are washed away. Both lakes are in Tibet, about ten miles north of its border with Nepal. Immediately to the north of Rakshash (down in the image) and just out of the photo is Mt Kailas 6741m. This is the holiest of all mountains for both Tibetan Buddhists and Hindus. Pilgrims come from many miles away to walk around this 'navel of the earth.' NASA scientists studying the STS-42 Earth photography note the intense dryness on the valley floors. Peaks in the Himalaya Range, immediately south, exceed 21,000 feet. Flanks of Ghurla Mandhata, which lies entirely within Tibet and rises 25,000 feet, appear at top.

  18. Development of an imaging vacuum-ultraviolet monochromator in the normal incidence region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koog, J.; Iwasaki, K.; Sato, K.; Hamada, Y.; Toi, K.; JIPP T-IIU Group


    An imaging vacuum-ultraviolet monochromator has been developed to provide the space-resolved impurity line emissions from magnetically confined plasmas. With minor modifications of a commercial normal incidence monochromator, a pinhole entrance slit and a microchannel plate detector displaced away from the exit slit, the instrument performs two-dimensional spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 Å. Ray tracing has been performed to understand the spatial imaging properties in the practical geometric configuration. The measured spatial resolution is about 0.5 and 1 mrad in dispersion and vertical plane, respectively, with the entrance slit of 0.1 mm width and height. The results of the testing experiments and the measurements carried out on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasma are presented and discussed.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Feasibility of the Gunn Effect in BiSCl, BiSBr, BiSI, BiSeI, BiSeBr and BiSeCl.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    BiSI has been measured with photon energy, from .2 ~e. to 3.6 eV. The band structures of BiSBr, BiSCI, BiSebr, BiSeCl and BiSel have 0.... been...ANDTIEORETICAL_,TUDY OF THE IASIBILITY OF TII-U EFFECT IN BI tlBiSBr, BISI, BiSel , WTSeBr ANWD BiSeCI* q ri1na Scientific Repot7- /t , .by J...measured with photon energy, lio, from 2.2 to 3.6 eV. The band structures of BiSBr, BiSCI, BiSI, BiSeBr, BiSeCI and BiSel have been calculated by using the

  20. Fifty-five million years of Tibetan evolution recorded in the Indus Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Shimizu, Nobu; Layne, Graham; Gaedicke, Christoph; Schlter, H.-U.; Clark, Marin; Amjad, Shahid

    Although the Indus Fan is only about one-third of the volume of its giant neighbor in the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the largest sediment bodies in the ocean basins, totaling ˜5×106 km3. Its detrital sedimentary record is an important repository of information on the uplift and erosion of the western Himalaya. New seismic and provenance data from the Pakistan margin now suggest that the Indus River and fan system was initiated shortly after the India-Asia collision at ˜5 Ma. The modern Indus drainage basin is dominated by the high peaks of the Karakoram, Kohistan, and other tectonic units of the Indus Suture Zone rather than the High Himalaya. The Indus River, which rises in western Tibet near Mount Kailas, follows the Indus Suture Zone along strike before cutting orthogonally through the Himalaya to the Arabian Sea. The other tributaries to the Indus, such as the Chenab and Sutlej, do drain the crystalline High Himalayan range, but do so in an area where its topography is much reduced (Figure 1). In contrast, the Bengal Fans main feeder rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, follow the High Himalaya along strike for much of the length of the orogen. In practice, this means that the Bengal Fan is swamped by the large volume of material derived from the rapidly unroofing High Himalaya [France-Lanord et al, 1993], while the Indus Fan is dominated by tectonic units adjacent to the suture zone, including western Tibet. This allows their erosional signal to be more readily isolated in the Indus Fan compared to in the Bengal.

  1. Determination, by 10Be Cosmogenic Dating, of Slip-rates on the Karakorum Fault (Tibet) and Paleoclimatic Evolution Since 200 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, M.; Tapponnier, P.; van der Woerd, J.; Finkel, R. C.; Ryerson, F. J.; Li, H.; Liu, Q.


    The millennial slip-rate along the Karakorum Fault, main right-lateral strike-slip fault north of the Himalayas, and its role in the kinematics of the present-day deformation of Tibet, are debated. Recent InSAR data suggest that it is barely active (1 ± 3 mm/yr). Surface exposure dating (10Be) of 266 quartz-rich samples collected on 8 lateral moraines crests and on 6 fans or terraces south of Bangong Lake in Western Tibet indicate instead that it slips at least five, and more likely ten times as fast. The geomorphic features we studied are offset by the fault by amounts that range between ~9 and ~1500 m. Offsets were measured both in the field and from retro-deformation of high-resolution satellite images (Ikonos, Corona, Spot and Landsat 7). Multiple samples (10 on average) were collected from each surface to assess exposure age variability and dispersion. From the Indus bend at Chaxikang to Mount Kailas, the slip-rate values obtained with different inferences vary from >11.8 ± 4.7 mm/yr to >14.3 ± 4.2 mm/yr. The cosmogenic exposure ages we obtain show good correlation with global climate changes in the last 200 000 years, as recorded by different climatic proxies (Specmap, Vostock, Marine Oxygen Isotopes, Guliya ice cap). The distribution of ages suggests for instance that the maximum glacial advances recorded by moraine emplacement occurred when the climate was coldest, during the LGM (~20 ka), the late MIS-3 (~40 ka), and MIS-6 (~140 ka). About 70% of moraine sample ages are younger than 50 ka with peaks during the LGM (15 to 30 ka, 45%) and the MIS-3 (35 to 50 ka, 28%). The view that the LGM advance was a minor event in the Western Himalayas may thus only reflect insufficient sampling. With few exceptions, most of the fans we dated have been emplaced during post-glacial warming and in the early Holocene. Such correlations imply that there is little bias in our cosmogenic exposure age measurements.

  2. New radiometric dating constrains the time for initiation of the Karakorum fault zone (KFZ), SW Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shifeng; Fang, Xiaomin; Lai, Qingzhou; Zheng, Dewen; Wang, Yanbin


    25-23 Ma cooling event bears no relationship to the activity of the KFZ, but resulted from a local metamorphic event caused either by a regional tectonic event (such as activity of the south Kailas thrust fault) or by magmatism around Shiquanhe (also known as Gar). The study of the KFZ around Namru supports the opinion that the KFZ propagated along the fault strike to the Gar-Menshi area around 12 Ma.

  3. Deep Seismic Reflection Profiles across the Karakoram Fault Limit the Role of Crustal Flow in the Western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Lu, Z.; Gao, R.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Li, H.; Dong, S.


    The 1000-km-long strike-slip Karakoram Fault (KF) in western Tibet has been interpreted as a small-offset upper-crustal fault beneath which channel flow returns underthrust material southwards, or as a large-offset fault penetrating the entire lithosphere and forming a barrier to channel flow. Sinoprobe acquired two deep reflection profiles across the KF: HKT-A from the Zada Basin across the Ayi Shan and the KF to the Gangdese Shan; and HKT-B, 170 km to the SE near Mt. Kailas, past Gurla Mandhata, across the Yarlung Zangbo Suture (YZS) and into the Gangdese Shan. The KF is a well-defined lineament where crossed by HKT-A, but splits into multiple traces spanning at least 15 km at the surface where crossed by HKT-B at its eastern extremity. Each 100-km, 72-fold profile was recorded to 30 s TWT ( 100 km depth) using explosive sources of 50-1000 kg. Processing culminated in Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration. HKT-B shows the KF limited to the upper 20-km of the crust, soling into the South Tibet Detachment (Gao et al., Nature Geo., 2016). South-verging, north-dipping reflections likely representing thrust duplexes within the Greater Himalayan Crystallines are separated by the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) from a transparent underthrust Indian basement above a reflective Moho. The sharp MHT reflection seems inconsistent with crustal flow of Indian basement upwards across the MHT into the upper plate south of the YZS. Channel flow, if occurring at this longitude, must be north of the YZS. HKT-A shows mid-crustal north-dipping reflections (similar to those imaged on HKT-B above the MHT) beneath reflections with apparent dip 18°S (all south of the KF) and mid-crustal south-dipping reflectors beneath reflections dipping 12°N (all north of the KF). The distinctive mid-crustal reflections persist to at least 20 s TWT suggesting a minimum depth of penetration of the KF to c. 65km with a width of <25km at that depth. The Moho is bowed down along the entire profile, deepening by

  4. PREFACE: 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics (Hadron 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti Roy, Bidyut; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.


    the authors for giving us the manuscripts in good time. The workshop was financially supported by BRNS, DAE, GoI. We also received partial funding support from the India-FAIR coordination centre, Kolkata, for the organization of the India-PANDA discussion meeting. We acknowledge the financial support received from BRNS and DST (Department of Science and Technology). The assistance from various departments of BARC and the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE), TIFR is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank the members of the advisory committee and organizing committee and colleagues from NPD and Physics Group, BARC for their contributions. May 2012, Mumbai Bidyut Jyoti Roy A Chatterjee S Kailas Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Hadron 2011 photograph The PDF also contains a list of the workshop's committees and sponsors, photographs from the workshop and the programme of events.

  5. Refining estimates of Quaternary slip on the Karakoram Fault System, Ladakh, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohon, W.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Heimsath, A. M.


    The NW-SE striking, dextral Karakoram fault system (KFS) stretches for more than 1200 km from the Pamirs of Central Asia at least as far southeast as the Kailas area of Tibet. It is one of the major tectonic features in the Himalayan orogen, yet considerable controversy remains about the time-integrated slip rate of the system. Geodetic data suggest present-day motion along the entire KFS occurs at 1-3 mm/yr (Wright et al., 2004, Science 305; Jade et al., 2010, GSA 116), but estimates for the integrated late Quaternary slip along various segments of the system - based on the reconstruction of dated, offset geomorphic and geologic features - range from ca. 4 mm/yr to ca. 32 mm/yr (Liu et al., 1991 in Avouac and Tapponier, 1993, GRL 20; Brown et al., 2002, JGR 107; Chevalier et al., 2005, Science 307). In the Ladakh region of NW India (34°45.27'N, 77°33.57'E), the KFS expresses as northern ('Pangong') and southern ('Tangtse') strands bounding the Pangong Range. The lack of documented Quaternary offset along the southern fault strand has led most researchers to assume that Quaternary slip on the KFS in this region was partitioned exclusively to the northern fault strand (Searle, 1998, Geological Society [London] Special Publication 135; Phillips et al., 2004, EPSL 226; Rutter et al., 2007, Journal of Structural Geology 29). However, our more recent field work in the northwestern Pangong Range has documented significant Quaternary activity along the Tangtse fault strand. Along this strand in the Tangyar Valley (34°14.26'N, 77°55.05'E), an incised debris cone has erosional risers offset ~160 m right laterally and ~25 m vertically (east side up) which is consistent with the dextral-oblique transpressional sense of motion for the KFS in this region. 10Be concentration depth profiles yield a preliminary minimum exposure age of ~30,000 yrs for the offset debris fan surfaces, which provides a maximum slip rate of ~5 mm/yr. Adjacent to the debris cone is a lower and

  6. Satellite-based Observation of the Tectonics of Southern Tibet

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Finkel, R; van der Woerd, J


    from tens of meters to kilometers have been mapped using satellite imagery and field mapping, and samples ages determined by cosmic-ray exposure dating. Near Bulong Kol (39{sup o}N, 75{sup o}E) cosmogenic dating of a 40 m fluvial offset yields a slip rate of {approx}6.5 mm/yr. Near Mt. Kailas (31.5{sup o}N, 80.7{sup o}E), a glacial moraine offset by {approx}350 m has been dated at 32.3 {+-} 9.5 thousand years, yielding a slip rate of 10.8 {+-} 3.6 mm/yr. In the Gar Valley (32{sup o}N, 80{sup o}E) a river channel incised in glacial sediments yields an offset of 1750 m and an age of 283,000 years equivalent to a slip-rate of 6 mm/yr. Relative to the ATF, the slip rates on the KKF are lower than expected, and since these measurements cover almost the entire length of the KKF, the disparity cannot be attributed to along strike variation in the rate. Based upon the analysis of satellite images along the Karakorum Fault, we believe that this apparent slip deficit may be to the en echelon arrangement of multiple strike slip fault segments that characterize what should more appropriately be called the Karakorum Fault Zone. The geometric arrangement of parallel fault segments produces the ''pull apart'' basins that form the valleys along the KKF. Hence, at any given latitude, slip along the KKF may be distributed among numerous fault segments. This investigation supports efforts to understand the structure and mechanical response of the Earth's crust and supports the application of remote sensing methods.

  7. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.


    Nuclear Science and Technologies 6. Nuclear Reactions and Structure of Unstable Nuclei 7. Equation of State of Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter, Clusters in Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions 8. Fusion and Fission 9. Nuclear Astrophysics 10. New Facilities and Detectors We would like to thank Texas A&M University and Texas A&M University-Commerce for their organizational support and for providing financial support for many students and postdocs and those who had special need. This support helped assure the success of NN2012. Special thanks also go to all members of the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee (listed below) for their great work in advising upon, preparing and executing the NN2012 scientific program as well as the social events that all together made the NN2012 an enjoyable experience for both the participants and their companions. NN2012 International Advisory Committee N Auerbach (Israel) J Aysto (Finland) C Beck (France) S Cherubini (Italy) L Ferreira (Portugal) C Gagliardi (USA) S Gales (France) C Gale (Canada) W Gelletly (Great Britain) Paulo R S Gomes (Brazil) W Greiner (Germany) W Henning (USA) D Hinde (Australia) S Hofmann (Germany) M Hussein (Brazil) B Jacak (USA) S Kailas (India) W G Lynch (USA) Z Majka (Poland) L McLerran (USA) V Metag (Germany) K Morita (Japan) B Mueller (USA) D G Mueller (France) T Motobayashi (Japan) W Nazarewicz (USA) Y Oganessian (Russia) J Nolen (USA) E K Rehm (USA) N Rowley (France) B Sherrill (USA) J Schukraft (Switzerland) W Q Shen (China) A Stefanini (Italy) H Stoecker (Germany) A Szanto de Toledo (Brazil) U van Kolck (USA) W von Oertzen (Germany) M Wiescher (USA) N Xu (USA) N V Zamfir (Romania) W L Zhan (China) H Q Zhang (China) NN2012 Local Organizing Committee Marina Barbui Carlos Bertulani Robert Burch Jr Cheri Davis Cody Folden Kris Hagel John Hardy Bao-An Li (Co-Chair and Scientific Secretary) Joseph Natowitz (Co-Chair) Ralf Rapp Livius Trache Sherry Yennello Editors of NN2012 Proceedings Bao

  8. PREFACE: International Symposium on `Vacuum Science and Technology' (IVS 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, K. C.; Gupta, S. K.


    equipments, accessories, products etc by different manufacturers and suppliers has been organized at the venue of the symposium hall for the benefit of the participants. The interest shown by the exhibitors reveals that the industry has come of age and the advances that have taken place over the years is quite significant. During the symposium, the Indian Vacuum Society felicitated two distinguished personalities who have contributed significantly for the development of vacuum science and technology in the country. The C AMBASANKARAN memorial and Smt SHAKUNTALABAI VYAWAHARE memorial Awards were also conferred on the two best contributed papers. A committee constituted by the Symposium Organizing Committee evaluated the relevance, scientific content, and clarity of presentation to decide the award winning papers. It is hoped that the discussion generated by the delegates at the symposium will help in a better understanding vacuum science and technology. K C Mittal Convener S K Gupta Co Convener International Advisory Committee Kakodkar, Anil DAE/India, Chairman Badve, Cdr A.V.(IN Retd.) Pfeiffer Vac India Banerjee, S. BARC/India Bhandari, R.K. BRNS/India Chander, Shekhar CEERI/India Chopra, K.L. IIT Delhi/India Day, Chris ITER Grover, R.B DAE,BARC/India Jakub, Szajman VSA/ Australia Jayaraj, R.N. NFC/India Kamath, H.S. BARC/India Kaw, P.K. IPR/India Kobayashi, M. VSJ/Japan Kumar, Lalit MTRDC, India Kumar, Vikram NPL., India Langley, Robert AVS, USA Larour, Jean Ecole/France Mendonsa, R.H. Lawrence and Mayo Myneni, Ganapatirao Jlab/USA Narsaiah, S.V. HHV Padamsee, Hasan Cornell/USA Pillay, R.G. TIFR Raj, Baldev IGCAR/India Raju, P.T. IVS/India Ramasami, T. DST/India Ray, A.K. BARC/India Reid, RJ IUVSTA/UK Roy, Amit IUAC/india Sahni, V.C. RRCAT, BARC/India Schamiloglu, E. UNM/USA Shankara, K.N. VSSC,ISRO/India Sinha, Bikash VEC,SINP/India Strubin, P. CERN/Switzerland Local Organizing Committee Ray, A.K. BARC (Chairman) Kailas, S. BARC, (Co Chairman) Chakravarty, D.P. BARC

  9. Combined 40Ar/39Ar and Fission-Track study of the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex, Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa: Implications for the Initial Break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and Insight into the Post-rift Evolution of the Sie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Ibrahim; Wijbrans, Jan; Andriessen, Paul; Beunk, Frank; Strasser-King, Victor; Fode, Daniel


    , 316: 287-296. Umeji, A.C. (1983). Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Freetown Layered Basic Igneous Complex of Sierra Leone. Chemical Geology, 39: 17-38. Wells, M.K. (1962). Structure and Petrology of the Freetown Layered Basic Complex of Sierra Leone. Overseas Geol. Mineral. Res. Bull. Suppl., 4, 115 pp. Williams, H.R. (1986). The Archaean Kaila Group of Western Sierra Leone: Geology and Relations with adjacent Granite-Greenstone Terrane. Precambrian Research, 38: 201-213.

  10. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav


    of ca. 1o x 1o. The REVEALS estimates of the past cover of PFTs will be 1) compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS (10 PFTs), a widely-used dynamic vegetation model and 2) used as an alternative to the LPJ-GUESS-simulated vegetation (3 PFTs) to run for the past the regional climate model RCA3 developed at the Rossby Centre, Norrköping, Sweden. The study will evaluate and further refine these models (RCA3 and LPJ-GUESS) using a data-model comparison approach that incorporates new syntheses of palaeoclimatic data as well. It will lead to new assessments of the possible effect of various factors on climate, such as deforestations and afforestations, and changes in vegetation composition and spatial patterns of land cover/land use. Refined climate models and empirical land-cover reconstructions will shed new light on controversial hypotheses of past climate change and human impacts, such as the "Ruddiman hypothesis". First maps of REVEALS estimates of plant functional types (PFTs) are now available for Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Poland, Germany, The Czech Republic, Switzerland and Britain (see Mazier et al. C1.21 and Trondman et al. C1.22). Correlation tests show that the REVEALS estimates are robust in terms of ranking of the PFTs' abundance (see Mazier et al, C1.21). The LANDCLIM project and network are a contribution to the IGBP-PAGES-Focus 4 PHAROS programme on human impact on environmental changes in the past. The following LANDCLIM members are acknowledged for providing pollen records, for help with pollen databases, and for providing results to the project: Mihkel Kangur and Tiiu Koff (Univ. Tallinn, Tallinn); Erik Kjellström (SMHI, Norrköping), Anna Broström, Lena Barnekow and Thomas Persson (GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University); Anneli Poska (Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University); Thomas Giesecke (Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen), Anne Bjune and John Birks (Dept. of

  11. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam


    clearly indicates that industry has advanced quite significantly. During the symposium, the Indian Vacuum Society honoured two distinguished personalities for their remarkable and significant contributions to the field of vacuum science and development of technology in the country. Awards were presented for both oral and poster papers during the symposium. A committee evaluated the scientific content and clarity of presentation of contributed papers. We believe that deliberations and discussions at the symposium will help gain a better understanding of the complicated and involved technology of vacuum science and be of benefit to scientists and technologists. Subimal Saha Convener Gautam Pal Co-Convener V S Pandit Secretary Surajit Pal Treasurer Conference photograph International Advisory Committee National Advisory Committee S BanerjeeDAE/IndiaR K Bhandari (Chairman)VECC Rockett AngusAVS/USAD L BandyopadhyayIVS A V Dadve CdrPfeiffer Vac /IndiaS B BhattIPR M Barma TIFR/IndiaK G BhushanBARC R K BhandariVECC/IndiaAlok ChakrabartiVECC R C BudhaniNPL, IndiaD P ChakravartyBARC Shekhar ChanderCEERI/IndiaTushar DesaiMumbai Univ S C ChetalIGCAR/IndiaR DeyVECC K L ChopraIIT Delhi/IndiaS C GadkariBARC Christian DayKIT/GermanyS K GuptaIUVSTA/India Kraemer DieterFAIR/GermanyShrikrishna GuptaBARC L M GantayatBARC/IndiaRajendra JatharAgilent Technologies R B GroverDAE, BARC/IndiaS N JoshiCEERI P D Gupta RRCAT/IndiaD KanjilalIUAC Szajman JakubVSA/AustraliaC MallikVECC R N JayarajNFC/IndiaS G MarkandeyaBRNS S KailasBARC/IndiaK C MittalBARC P K KawIPR/IndiaS NagarjunHHV Bangalore Lalit KumarMTRDC/IndiaK G M NairIGCAR Jean Larour Ecole/FranceGautam Pal (Co-convener)VECC Marminga LiaTRIUMF/CanadaSurajit Pal (Treasurer)VECC Shekhar MishraFermilab/USA V S Pandit (Secretary)VECC Ganapatirao MyneniJlab/USaR G PillayTIFR S V NarasaiahHHV/IndiaMohan PradeepNPL K RadhakrishnanISRO/IndiaY Ranga RaoVac Techniques A S Raja RaoIVS/IndiaR RanganathanSINP T RamasamiDST/IndiaSubimal Saha (Convener