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Sample records for orbital blowout fracture

  1. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  2. Orbital blowout fractures: experimental evidence for the pure hydraulic theory.

    PubMed

    Rhee, John S; Kilde, John; Yoganadan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of injury and the underlying biomechanics of orbital blowout fractures remain controversial. The "hydraulic" theory proposes that a generalized increased orbital content pressure results in direct compression and fracturing of the thin orbital bone. To examine the pure hydraulic mechanism of injury by eliminating the factor of globe-to-wall contact and its possible contribution to fracture thresholds and patterns. Five fresh human cadaver specimens were used for the study. In each cadaver head, 1 orbit was prepared to mimic the normal physiologic condition by increasing the hypotony of the cadaver globe to normal intraocular pressure (15-20 mm Hg) with intravitreous injection of isotonic sodium chloride solution (saline). The second orbit served as a "hydraulic control," whereby the globe and orbital contents were exenterated and replaced by a saline-filled balloon at physiologic intraocular pressure. A 1-kg pendulum measuring 2.5 cm in diameter was used to strike the cadaver heads. Drop heights ranged from 0.2 m to 1.1 m (1960 mJ to 10 780 mJ energy). Each head was struck twice, once to each orbit. Direct visualization, high-speed videography, and computed tomographic scans were used to determine injury patterns at various heights between the 2 orbits. A fracture threshold was found at a drop height of 0.3 m (2940 mJ). Fracture severity and displacement increased with incremental increases in drop height (energy). Fracture displacement, with herniation of orbital contents, was obtained at heights above 0.5 m (4900 mJ). Isolated orbital floor fractures were obtained at lower heights, with medial wall fractures occurring in conjunction with floor fractures at higher energies (> or =6860 mJ). The globe intact side and balloon (hydraulic control) side showed nearly identical fracture patterns and levels of displacement at each drop height. This study provides support for the "hydraulic" theory and evidence against the role of direct globe-to-wall contact

  3. MR imaging of orbital blow-out fractures.

    PubMed

    McArdle, C B; Amparo, E G; Mirfakhraee, M

    1986-01-01

    We report on a case of orbital blow-out fractures involving the medial and inferior walls. In this case conventional multiplanar 8 mm thick sections with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be more helpful than 1.5 mm axial thin sections with CT in demonstrating the extent of orbital floor herniation of fat. Entrapment of muscle was excluded. Oblique sagittal views were most helpful in evaluating the orbital floor, since the full course of the inferior rectus muscle is seen. Additionally, the optic nerve is seen along its entire length. Masking of intraorbital contents by isodense hemorrhage on CT studies apparently is not a problem with MR imaging if hemorrhage is small or nonacute.

  4. Change of the orbital volume ratio in pure blow-out fractures depending on fracture location.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Ah; Aum, Jae Ho; Kang, Dong Hee; Gu, Ja Hea

    2013-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to observe bony orbital volume (OV) changes in pure blow-out fractures according to fracture location using a facial computed tomographic scan and to investigate whether the OV measurements can be used as a quantitative value for the evaluation of the surgical results of the acute blow-out fracture.Forty-five patients with unilateral pure blow-out fracture were divided into 3 groups: inferior (group I), inferior medial (group IM), and medial (group M) orbital wall fracture. The OV and the orbital volume ratio (OVR) were prospectively measured before and 6 months after surgery with the use of 3-dimensional computed tomographic scans, and the Hertel scale was measured with a Hertel exothalmometer.The preoperative OVR increased to the greatest extent in group IM, and the mean preoperative OVR was 121.46. The mean preoperative OVR in group I was significantly higher than that of group M (P = 0.005). The OV and OVR revealed a statistically significant decrease after the surgery (P = 0.000). The Hertel scale improved from -1.04 mm before the surgery to -0.78 mm after the surgery, but no significant difference was observed (P = 0.051).The OVR was useful as a quantitative value to evaluate pure blow-out fractures, compared with that of the Hertel scale. Fracture location-associated OVR studies are needed to make volume guidelines of blow-out fracture surgery.

  5. Role of Negative Vector Orbit in Orbital Blow-Out Fractures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Youn; Lee, Hwa; Baek, Sehyun

    2017-09-12

    Negative vector orbit is defined as the most anterior globe portion protrudes past the malar eminence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between negative vector orbit and blow-out fracture location analyzing the distance between the anterior corneal surface and orbital bone with facial soft tissue in medial and orbital floor blow out fractures using orbital computed tomography (CT). Seventy-seven patients diagnosed with blow-out fractures involving the medial or orbital floor were included. Distances from the anterior cornea to lower lid fat, inferior orbital wall, inferior orbital rim, and anterior cheek mass were measured using orbital CT scans. The proportion of negative vector orbit and measured distanced were compared between medial wall fracture and orbital floor fracture. Medical records including age, sex, concomitant ophthalmic diagnosis, and nature of injury were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-three eyes from 43 patients diagnosed with medial wall fracture and 34 eyes from 34 patients diagnosed with orbital floor fracture were included. There was no significant difference in the distance from the anterior cornea to lower lid fat (P = 0.574), inferior orbital wall (P = 0.494), or orbital rim (P = 0.685). The distance from anterior cornea to anterior cheek mass was significantly different in medial wall fracture (-0.19 ± 3.49 mm) compared with orbital floor fracture (-1.69 ± 3.70 mm), P = 0.05. Negative vector orbit was significantly higher in orbital floor fracture patients (24 among 34 patients, 70.6%) compared with those with medial wall fractures (19 among 43 patients, 44.2%) (P = 0.04). Patients presenting with a negative vector orbit relationship when the most anterior portion of globe protruded past the anterior cheek mass and malar eminence were more likely to develop orbital floor fracture than medial wall fracture.

  6. [Correction of enophthalmos deformity caused by orbital blow-out fractures using medpor implantation].

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Min, Ren; Lai, Gui

    2005-07-01

    To study the surgical reconstruction for correction of enophthalmos deformity caused by orbital blow-out fractures. From December 1996 to March 2004, 56 cases of enophthalmos deformity caused by orbital blow-out fracture were repaired. There were 37 cases diplopia, 35 cases with worsened visual acuity than pre-trauma. Typical sub-ciliary incision was employed to expose the fractured area. The dissection was done beneath the medial and inferior orbital periosteum. The fracture areas were exposed and the tissues protrusion to maxillary sinus were released through the space between fractured bones. After the medial and inferior orbital walls and orbital floors were exposed,the herniated orbital contents were released and reduced to the orbital cavity. The fractured orbital walls were repaired precisely with Medpor which were fixed to the area beneath the periosteum with 2 plates at least. All 56 cases of enophthalmos deformity caused by orbital blow-out fracture repaired with this technique recovered well and their facial appearance improved greatly. With a follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5 years, the degree of enophthalmos stabilized at within 2 mm, no relapse and other complications occurred. Of 34 patients with diplopia, 27 were improved. Of the 35 cases with worsened visual acuity, 9 were improved with different degree. No diplopia or visual acuity worsening occurred. It is safe and effective to correct the orbital blow-out fractures. The earlier it is repaired, the better the effect will be. Medpor with its advantages like better histocompatibility, easier sculpturing, moderate hardness, lower absorptivity, fewer complications and permanence effect is the preferable implantation material for correcting enophthalmos deformity.

  7. Buckling and hydraulic mechanisms in orbital blowout fractures: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fateh; Kirkpatrick, Niall A; Lyne, Jonathan; Urdang, Michael; Waterhouse, Norman

    2006-05-01

    Since the first description of orbital blowout fractures, there has been much confusion as to their etiology. Two principal mechanisms have been proposed to explain their production, the buckling and the hydraulic mechanisms caused, respectively, by trauma to the orbital rim and the globe of the eye. The aim of this study was to evaluate both mechanisms qualitatively and quantitatively. Our protocol used intact cadavers, quantifiable intraocular pressure, variable and quantifiable force, and quantifiable bone strain distribution with strain gauge analysis. One orbit of each cadaver was used to simulate each of the two mechanisms, allowing direct comparison. Fractures produced by the buckling mechanism were limited to the anterior part of the orbital floor, with strain readings reaching up to 3756 microepsilon. Posteriorly, strain did not exceed 221 microepsilon. In contrast, hydraulic-type fractures were much larger, involving anterior and posterior parts of the floor as well as the medial wall of the orbit. Here, strain exceeded 3756 microepsilon in both parts of the floor. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the average energy required to fracture the orbital floor by the buckling mechanism is 1.54 J, whereas an average energy of 1.22 J is needed to produce this fracture by the hydraulic mechanism. Our results suggest that efforts to establish one or another mechanism as the primary etiology are misplaced. Both mechanisms produce orbital blowout fractures, with different and specific characteristics. We believe this provides the basis for our reclassification of such fractures.

  8. A case of blowout fracture of the orbital floor in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sugamata, Akira; Yoshizawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of blowout fractures of the orbital floor in children younger than 5 years of age; in a search of the literature, we found only six reported cases which revealed the exact age, correct diagnosis, and treatment. We herein report the case of a 3-year-old boy with a blowout fracture of the orbital floor. Computed tomography showed a pure blowout fracture of the left orbital floor with a slight dislocation of the orbital contents. The patient was treated conservatively due to the absence of abnormal limitation of eye movement or enophthalmos. The patient did not develop any complications that necessitated later surgical intervention. Computed tomography at 6 months after the injury showed the regeneration of the orbital floor in the area of the fracture and no abnormalities in the left maxillary sinus. We herein present our case and the details of six other cases reported in the literature, and discuss their etiology, diagnosis, and treatment methods. PMID:26251631

  9. Endoscopic transnasal approach for treatment of the medial orbital blowout fracture using nasal septum graft.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Carlos R; Sava, Luiz C; Maeda, Carlos A S; Nogueira, Gustavo F; Jebahi, Yasser; Sava, Henrique W; Koladicz, Karyn R J

    2009-02-01

    We present the experience of the Ear, Nose, and Throat Department of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba and Hospital Universitário Cajuru PUC-PR in the transnasal endoscopic approach to medial orbital blowout fractures using nasal septum grafts. Seventeen patients have undergone endoscopic repair since June 2005, and septum grafts were used to maintain the orbital contents in position. All 17 patients were treated with this method. Two patients had diplopia on immediate postoperative evaluation. This symptom was corrected with orthoptic exercises in one patient, and the other had a little residual diplopia. Postoperative computed tomography scans showed anatomic reduction in 14 of 17 cases. There were no complications in these surgeries. The transnasal endoscopic approach is a reasonable method for the treatment of medial orbital blowout fractures. Use of septum graft is another surgical alternative for this technique.

  10. Blow-out fractures of the orbit: a comparison of computed tomography and conventional radiography with anatomic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Hammeschlag, S.B.; Hughes, S.; O'Reilly, G.V.; Naheedy, M.H.; Rumbaugh, C.L.

    1982-05-01

    Orbital blow-out fractures were experimentally created in eight human cadavers. Each orbit underwent conventional radiographic studies, complex motion tomography, and computed tomographic examinations. A comparison of the three modalities was made. Anatomical correlation was obtained by dissecting the orbits. The significance of medial-wall fractures and enophthalmos is discussed. Limitation of inferior rectus muscle mobility is thought to be a result of muscle kinking associated with orbital fat-pad prolapse at the fracture site, rather than muscle incarceration. Blow-out fractures should be evaluated by computed tomographic computer reformations in the oblique sagittal plane.

  11. Diplopia of Pediatric Orbital Blowout Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 83 Patients Classified by Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger

  12. Diplopia of pediatric orbital blowout fractures: a retrospective study of 83 patients classified by age groups.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger the

  13. Surgical Treatment of Orbital Blowout Fractures: Complications and Postoperative Care Patterns.

    PubMed

    Shew, Matthew; Carlisle, Michael P; Lu, Guanning Nina; Humphrey, Clinton; Kriet, J David

    2016-11-01

    Orbital fractures are a common result of facial trauma. Sequelae and indications for repair include enophthalmos and/or diplopia from extraocular muscle entrapment. Alloplastic implant placement with careful release of periorbital fat and extraocular muscles can effectively restore extraocular movements, orbital integrity, and anatomic volume. However, rare but devastating complications such as retrobulbar hematoma (RBH) can occur after repair, which pose a risk of permanent vision loss if not addressed emergently. For this reason, some surgeons take the precaution of admitting patients for 24-hour postoperative vision checks, while others do not. The incidence of postoperative RBH has not been previously reported and existing data are limited to case reports. Our aim was to examine national trends in postoperative management and to report the incidence of immediate postoperative complications at our institution following orbital repair. A retrospective assessment of orbital blowout fractures was undertaken to assess immediate postoperative complications including RBH. Only patients treated by a senior surgeon in the Department of Otolaryngology were included in the review. In addition, we surveyed AO North America (AONA) Craniomaxillofacial faculty to assess current trends in postoperative management. There were 80 patients treated surgically for orbital blowout fractures over a 9.5-year period. Nearly all patients were observed overnight (74%) or longer (25%) due to other trauma. Average length of stay was 17 hours for those observed overnight. There was one (1.3%) patient with RBH, who was treated and recovered without sequelae. Results of the survey indicated that a majority (64%) of responders observe postoperative patients overnight. Twenty-nine percent of responders indicated that they send patients home the same day of surgery. Performance of more than 20 orbital repairs annually significantly increased the likelihood that faculty would manage patients on

  14. [Medpor plus titanic mesh implant in the repair of orbital blowout fractures].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Jia-yu; Cai, Jian-qiu; Shi, Ming-guang

    2011-05-10

    To study the efficacy of porous polyethylene (Medpor) plus titanic mesh sheets in the repair of orbital blowout fractures. A total of 20 patients underwent open surgical reduction with the combined usage of Medpor and titanic mesh. And they were followed up for average period of 14.5 months (range: 9 - 18). There is no infection or extrusion of medpor and titanic mesh in follow-up periods. There was no instance of decreased visual acuity at post-operation. And all cases of enophthalmos were corrected. The post-operative protrusion degree of both eyes was almost identical at less than 2 mm. The movement of eye balls was satisfactory in all directions. Diplopia disappeared in 18 cases with a cure rate of 90%, 1 case improved and 1 case persisted. Medpor plus titanic mesh implant is a safe and effective treatment in the repair of orbital blow out fractures.

  15. Diplopia and ocular motility in orbital blow-out fractures: 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Alhamdani, Faaiz; Durham, Justin; Greenwood, Mark; Corbett, Ian

    2015-09-01

    To investigate diplopia (binocular single vision [BSV] test) and ocular motility (uniocular field of fixation [UFOF] test) characteristics in blow-out fractures of the orbit and their value in fracture management. Patients with isolated blow-out fractures treated from 2000 to 2010 were included. BSV scores were stratified into three categories: low BSV category (0-60); moderate BSV category (61-80), and high BSV category (81-100). UFOF scores were also divided into three categories: low score (60-240), moderate score (241-270), and high score (271-365) categories. A total of 183 patients (106 surgically and 77 conservatively managed) met the inclusion criteria. There was no significant improvement in BSV postoperatively in surgically managed patients with preoperatively high BSV, whereas there was significant improvement (p < 0.05) for the high BSV category in the conservative group. Preoperative BSV was found to be significantly related (p < 0.05) to postoperative BSV, subjective diplopia outcome, follow-up time, and number of follow-up visits. However, improvement of BSV score in the surgical group was not found to be significantly correlated with subjective outcome in relation to diplopia. Preoperative UFOF score has no influence on subjective outcome in relation to diplopia. Surgical timing, approach, and choice of implant material were not found to be statistically related to final diplopia outcome, follow-up time, or number of follow-up visits. BSV is better correlated with diplopia outcome, follow-up time, and number of follow-up visits than is UFOF. On the basis of this study, surgical intervention would not be recommended for blow-out fracture cases with BSV score >80% for correction of diplopia alone. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical effects of 3-D printing-assisted personalized reconstructive surgery for blowout orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bin; Chen, Han; Sun, Ying-Jian; Wang, Bei-Fen; Che, Lin; Liu, Shu-Yan; Li, Guang-Yu

    2017-08-07

    One of the key challenges during orbital fracture reconstructive surgery, due to the complex anatomy of the orbit, is shaping and trimming the precise contour of the implants. The objectives of this study were to describe and evaluate the use of a three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique for personalized reconstructive surgery for repairing orbital fractures. A total of 29 cases which had 3-D technique-assisted surgical reconstruction, and 27 cases which had traditional surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative and postoperative CT images were measured using MIMICS software, and the contour of the fracture zone and the Medpor-titanium implant were analyzed and compared. The surgical duration was also compared between the two groups. There were statistically significant differences in the maximum width, depth and area between fracture zone and implant between the two groups, with the absolute value in the 3-D group markedly lower as compared to the control group. In addition, the difference in the medial-inferior wall angle between the surgical eye and healthy eye was also statistically significant between the groups. The average surgical duration in the 3-D group was substantially shorter than in the control group. Additionally, the postoperative clinical evaluation in the 3-D group was superior to that of the control group. The 3-D printing technique is of great value for predicting the precise fracture zone before, and during, personalized surgery, and can help surgeons achieve accurate anatomical reconstruction for repairs of blowout orbital fractures. Moreover, the simulated bone template produced by 3-D printing models allows for "true-to-original" orbital reconstruction, which can shorten the surgical duration and improve the accuracy and safety of the operation.

  17. Outcomes of Orbital Blow-Out Fracture Repair Performed Beyond 6 Weeks After Injury.

    PubMed

    Scawn, Richard L; Lim, Lee Hooi; Whipple, Katherine M; Dolmetsch, Angela; Priel, Ayelet; Korn, Bobby; Kikkawa, Don O

    2016-01-01

    Blow-out fractures cause expansion of the bony orbital walls and prolapse of orbital contents in the sinuses. This can result in diplopia, enophthalmos, and hypoglobus. Early surgical repair has been previously recommended, however, recent reports show that delayed surgery can also be effective. In this study, the clinical and functional outcome of patients with delayed presentation and blow-out fracture repair beyond 6 weeks after injury are described. This is a noncomparative retrospective study. Medical records of adult patients with late orbital floor fracture repair performed by 4 surgeons from April 2008 to January 2014 at 3 tertiary referral centers were reviewed. All repairs were performed more than 6 weeks from the time of injury. Patients with prior orbital fracture repair surgery were excluded. Twenty patients were included in the study. The duration from time of injury to surgery ranged from 7 weeks to 21 years with a mean of 19 months. Follow up ranged from 6 weeks to 56 months (mean 8 months). Mean age was 48 years (range, 25-80). Male to female ratio was 11:9. Surgery was performed on 10 right eyes and 10 left eyes. CT imaging demonstrated 10 patients had isolated floor fractures, while the remaining 10 patients had combined floor and medial wall fractures. Four patients also had associated facial fractures that did not require surgery. Indications for surgery included enophthalmos of 2 mm or more (18 of 20) and/or significant diplopia within 30° of primary gaze (6 of 20). Mean pre- and postoperative enophthalmos was 2.4 ± 0.9 mm and 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, respectively, corresponding to a mean reduction in enophthalmos of 2.1 ± 1.2 mm (range, 1-5 mm). Four of 7 patients with hypoglobus ranging from 1.5 mm to 8 mm preoperatively had complete resolution postoperatively, the remaining 3 patients showed reduced hypoglobus. Of the 12 patients that had diplopia preoperatively in any position of gaze, 6 patients had complete resolution

  18. Orbital stress analysis, Part IV: Use of a "stiffness-graded" biodegradable implants to repair orbital blow-out fracture.

    PubMed

    Al-Sukhun, Jehad; Penttilä, Heikki; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model (FEM) of a human orbit, of 1 patient, who had an orbital blow-out fracture, to study the effect of using a "stiffness-graded" (SG) biodegradable implant on the biomechanics of bone-fracture repair. An FEM of the orbit and the globe, of 1 patient who had an orbital blow-out fracture and was treated with biodegradable poly-L/DL-lactide [P(L/DL)LA 70/30], was generated based on computed tomography scan images. Simulations were performed with a computer using a commercially available finite element software. The FEM was then used to study the effect of using an SG biodegradable implant on the stress distribution in the fractured bone. This was compared with the stress distribution at the fracture interface and at the bone-implant interface, when using P(L/DL)LA implant with a uniform stiffness. The use of SG implants caused less stress shielding to the fractured bone. At 50% of the bone healing stage, stress at the fracture interface was compressive in nature, that is, 0.2 MPa for the uniform implant, whereas SG implants resulted in tensile stress of 0.2 MPa. The result was that SG implants allowed the 50% healed bone to participate in loadings. Stiffness-graded implants are more flexible and hence permit more bending of the fractured bone. This results in higher compressive stresses, induced at the fractured faces, to accelerate bone healing. However, away from the fracture interface, the reduced stiffness and elastic modulus of the implant cause the neutral axis of the composite structure to be lowered into the bone, resulting in the higher tensile stress in the bone layer underneath the implant. The use of SG implants induced significant changes in the stress patterns at the fracture interface and at the bone-implant interface. Stiffness-graded biodegradable implants offered less stress shielding to the bone, providing higher compressive stress at the fractured surface, to induce accelerated bone

  19. Orbital blow-out fractures: correlation of preoperative computed tomography and postoperative ocular motility.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J; Garcia, G H; Logani, S C; Murphy, M L; Sheth, B P; Seth, A K

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although the management of orbital blow-out fractures was controversial for many years, refined imaging with computed tomography (CT) helped to narrow the poles of the debate. Many orbital surgeons currently recommend repair if fracture size portends late enophthalmos, or if diplopia has not substantially resolved within 2 weeks of the injury. While volumetric considerations have been generally well-served by this approach, ocular motility outcomes have been less than ideal. In one series, almost 50% of patients had residual diplopia 6 months after surgery. A fine network of fibrous septa that functionally unites the periosteum of the orbital floor, the inferior fibrofatty tissues, and the sheaths of the inferior rectus and oblique muscles was demonstrated by Koornneef. Entrapment between bone fragments of any of the components of this anatomic unit can limit ocular motility. Based on the pathogenesis of blow-out fractures, in which the fibrofatty-muscular complex is driven to varying degrees between bone fragments, some measure of soft tissue damage might be anticipated. Subsequent intrinsic fibrosis and contraction can tether globe movement, despite complete reduction of herniated orbital tissue from the fracture site. We postulated that the extent of this soft tissue damage might be estimated from preoperative imaging studies. METHODS: Study criteria included: retrievable coronal CT scans; fractures of the orbital floor without rim involvement, with or without extension into the medial wall; preoperative diplopia; surgical repair by a single surgeon; complete release of entrapped tissues; and postoperative ocular motility outcomes documented with binocular visual fields (BVFs). Thirty patients met all criteria. The CT scans and BVFs were assessed by different examiners among the authors. Fractures were classified into 3 general categories and 2 subtypes to reflect the severity of soft tissue damage within each category. "Trap-door" injuries

  20. Novel use of an aerospace selective laser sintering machine for rapid prototyping of an orbital blowout fracture.

    PubMed

    Williams, J V; Revington, P J

    2010-02-01

    The authors describe the novel use of a selective laser sintering (SLS) machine, commonly used in the aerospace industry, to produce an accurate model of an orbital blowout fracture. Standard stereolithographic apparatus (SLA) technology failed to reproduce either orbital floor of a patient with a blowout fracture. The use of SLS technology using the same CT dataset to produce a superior model, highlights potential limitations of routine SLA technology and the high accuracy of SLS models. A custom-made titanium implant was constructed by hand using the SLS model as a template, it was positioned surgically and the patient's symptoms resolved uneventfully. Copyright 2009 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retroseptal Transconjunctival Approach for Blowout Fracture of the Orbital Floor: An Ideal Choice in East-Asian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chuman, Takahiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Morikawa, Aya; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Watanabe, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ask experts in the field to evaluate a surgeon’s experience with a retroseptal transconjunctival approach for the repair of the orbital floor damaged by blowout fracture that the surgeon encountered in 12 East-Asian patients. Methods: Patients were identified from a database, and a retrospective case note review was conducted. A total of 12 conjunctival procedures were conducted for the repair of blowout fracture with no other complicating fractures. All operative procedures were done by transconjunctival approach alone without lateral canthotomy or any other additional approach. Results: The repair of the orbital floor was successful in all the cases. Three patients had bone grafting to the orbital floor after reduction. The mean of overall surgical time was 48.8 minutes (range, 22–85 minutes) for orbit exposure by transconjunctival approach plus reduction and bone grafting when applicable. There were 6 urgent surgeries associated with missing or entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle, and its repair took an average of 32.0 minutes (range, 22–41 minutes). Postoperative diplopia recovered at an average of 12.4 weeks (range, 0–60 weeks); in urgent cases, it took an average of 5.3 weeks (range, 0–14 weeks) before recovery. Conclusions: A retroseptal transconjunctival approach in repairing the orbital floor is a simple, easily manageable, and effective procedure, leaving no conspicuous facial scars. It has proved to be an optimal choice in blowout fracture cases, especially when there was urgency to decompress the ischemic inferior rectus muscle in as short a surgery time as possible. PMID:27579249

  2. Retroseptal Transconjunctival Approach for Blowout Fracture of the Orbital Floor: An Ideal Choice in East-Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Tetsuji; Chuman, Takahiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Morikawa, Aya; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Watanabe, Hidetaka

    2016-05-01

    To ask experts in the field to evaluate a surgeon's experience with a retroseptal transconjunctival approach for the repair of the orbital floor damaged by blowout fracture that the surgeon encountered in 12 East-Asian patients. Patients were identified from a database, and a retrospective case note review was conducted. A total of 12 conjunctival procedures were conducted for the repair of blowout fracture with no other complicating fractures. All operative procedures were done by transconjunctival approach alone without lateral canthotomy or any other additional approach. The repair of the orbital floor was successful in all the cases. Three patients had bone grafting to the orbital floor after reduction. The mean of overall surgical time was 48.8 minutes (range, 22-85 minutes) for orbit exposure by transconjunctival approach plus reduction and bone grafting when applicable. There were 6 urgent surgeries associated with missing or entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle, and its repair took an average of 32.0 minutes (range, 22-41 minutes). Postoperative diplopia recovered at an average of 12.4 weeks (range, 0-60 weeks); in urgent cases, it took an average of 5.3 weeks (range, 0-14 weeks) before recovery. A retroseptal transconjunctival approach in repairing the orbital floor is a simple, easily manageable, and effective procedure, leaving no conspicuous facial scars. It has proved to be an optimal choice in blowout fracture cases, especially when there was urgency to decompress the ischemic inferior rectus muscle in as short a surgery time as possible.

  3. Comparative Orbital Volumes between a Single Incisional Approach and a Double Incisional Approach in Patients with Combined Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Wook; Seo, Bommie F.; Rhie, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Tae; Oh, Deuk Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Blowout fracture characterized by concurrent floor and medial wall fractures is a rare entity. We compared surgical outcomes between a single approach and a double approach in patients with orbital fracture by measuring the postoperative orbital volume. Methods. We confirmed that 21 (8.5%) of a total of 246 patients with orbital fractures had fractures of the medial wall and floor through a retrospective chart review. Of these, 10 patients underwent the single approach and the remaining 11 patients had the double approach. We performed a statistical analysis of changes between the preoperative and postoperative orbital volumes at a 6-month follow-up. Results. Compared with the contralateral, nonaffected side, the orbital volume was 115.3 (±6.09)% preoperatively and 106.5 (±6.15)% postoperatively in the single approach group and 118.2 (±11.16)% preoperatively and 108.6 (±13.96)% postoperatively in the double approach. These results indicated that there was a significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative orbital volumes in each group (P < 0.05). However there was no significant difference between the single approach and the double approach (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Our results showed that there were no significant differences in surgical outcomes between the two modalities. The treatment modality may be selected based on the surgeons' preference, as well as the fracture type. PMID:25961049

  4. Application of Computer-Aided Designing and Rapid Prototyping Technologies in Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures of the Orbital Floor.

    PubMed

    Tabaković, Saša Z; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Radosavljević, Radivoje; Movrin, Dejan; Hadžistević, Miodrag; Hatab, Nur

    2015-07-01

    Traumatology of the maxillofacial region represents a wide range of different types of facial skeletal injuries and encompasses numerous treatment methods. Application of computer-aided design (CAD) in combination with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies and three-dimensional computed tomography techniques facilitates surgical therapy planning for efficient treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of individually designed implants of poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA) in the reconstruction of blowout fractures of the orbital floor. In the course of a surgical treatment, individually designed implants manufactured by CAD/RP technologies were used. Preoperative analysis and postoperative monitoring were conducted to evaluate the successfulness of orbital floor reconstruction using customized PDLLA implants, based on: presence of diplopia, paresthesia of infraorbital nerve, and presence of enophthalmos. In 6 of the 10 patients, diplopia completely disappeared immediately after surgical procedure. Diplopia gradually disappeared after 1 month in 3 patients, whereas in 1, it remained even after 6 months. In 7 patients, paresthesia disappeared within a month after surgery and in 3 patients within 2 months. Postoperative average Orbital volume (OV) of the injured side (13.333 ± 3.177) was significantly reduced in comparison with preoperative OV (15.847 ± 3.361) after reconstruction of the orbital floor with customized PDLLA implant (P < 0.001). Thus, average OV of corrected orbit was not different compared with the OV of the uninjured orbit (P = 0.981). Reconstruction of blowout fractures of the orbital floor by an individually designed PDLLA implant combined with virtual preoperative modeling allows easier preoperative preparation and yields satisfactory functional and esthetic outcomes.

  5. A peculiar blow-out fracture of the inferior orbital wall complicated by extensive subcutaneous emphysema: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Palczewski, Piotr; Błaż, Marcin; Zmorzyński, Michał; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert

    2012-04-01

    Blow-out fracture of the orbit is a common injury. However, not many cases are associated with massive subcutaneous emphysema. Even fewer cases are caused by minor trauma or are associated with barotrauma to the orbit due to sneezing, coughing, or vomiting. The authors present a case of blow-out fracture complicated by extensive subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema that occurred without any obvious traumatic event. A 43-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a painful right-sided exophthalmos that he had noticed in the morning immediately after waking up. The patient also complained of diplopia. Physical examination revealed exophthalmos and crepitations suggestive of subcutaneous emphysema. The eye movements, especially upward gaze, were impaired. CT showed blow-out fracture of the inferior orbital wall with a herniation of the orbital soft tissues into the maxillary sinus. There was an extensive subcutaneous emphysema in the head and neck going down to the mediastinum. The patient did not remember any significant trauma to the head that could explain the above mentioned findings. At surgery, an inferior orbital wall fracture with a bony defect of 3×2 centimeter was found and repaired. Blow-out fractures of the orbit are usually a result of a direct trauma caused by an object with a diameter exceeding the bony margins of the orbit. In 50% of cases, they are complicated by orbital emphysema and in 4% of cases by herniation of orbital soft tissues into paranasal sinuses. The occurrence of orbital emphysema without trauma is unusual. In some cases it seems to be related to barotrauma due to a rapid increase in pressure in the upper airways during sneezing, coughing, or vomiting, which very rarely leads to orbital wall fracture. Computed tomography is the most accurate method in detecting and assessing the extent of orbital wall fractures.

  6. Transcaruncular Approach for Treatment of Medial Wall and Large Orbital Blowout Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dennis C.; Shahzad, Farooq; Snyder-Warwick, Alison; Patel, Kamlesh B.; Woo, Albert S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the safety and efficacy of the transcaruncular approach for reconstruction of medial orbital wall fractures and the combined transcaruncular–transconjunctival approach for reconstruction of large orbital defects involving the medial wall and floor. A retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic data of patients who underwent either a transcaruncular or a combined transcaruncular–transconjunctival approach by a single surgeon for orbital fractures between June 2007 and June 2013 was undertaken. Seven patients with isolated medial wall fractures underwent a transcaruncular approach, and nine patients with combined medial wall and floor fractures underwent a transcaruncular–transconjunctival approach with a lateral canthotomy. Reconstruction was performed using a porous polyethylene implant. All patients with isolated medial wall fractures presented with enophthalmos. In the combined medial wall and floor group, five out of eight patients had enophthalmos with two also demonstrating hypoglobus. The size of the medial wall defect on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 cm2; the defect size of combined medial wall and floor fractures was 4.5 to 12.7 cm2. Of the 11 patients in whom postoperative CT scans were obtained, all were noted to have acceptable placement of the implant. All patients had correction of enophthalmos and hypoglobus. One complication was noted, with a retrobulbar hematoma having developed 2 days postoperatively. The transcaruncular approach is a safe and effective method for reconstruction of medial orbital floor fractures. Even large fractures involving the orbital medial wall and floor can be adequately exposed and reconstructed with a combined transcaruncular–transconjunctival-lateral canthotomy approach. The level of evidence of this study is IV (case series with pre/posttest). PMID:26889348

  7. Footprints of the globe: a practical look at the mechanism of orbital blowout fractures, with a revisit to the work of Raymond Pfeiffer.

    PubMed

    Erling, B F; Iliff, N; Robertson, B; Manson, P N

    1999-04-01

    Multiple mechanisms of orbital blowout fractures have been proposed since the fracture was described at the beginning of this century. The original theory of direct globe-to-wall contact was abandoned long ago for the more contemporary hydraulic and bone conduction theories. Although the more widely accepted theories play an obvious role in fracture generation and its associated complications, it is our contention that direct globe-to-wall contact is an important and largely unrecognized mechanism in orbital blowout fracture production. By means of a critical review of the historical literature and an analysis of patient computed tomography scans, support is presented for the original theory first proposed by Raymond Pfeiffer in 1943.

  8. Reconstruction of orbital floor blow-out fractures with autogenous iliac crest bone: a retrospective study including maxillofacial and ophthalmology perspectives.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, John Edward; Hartnett, Claire; Hickey-Dwyer, Marie; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-03-01

    This is a 10-year retrospective study of patients with an isolated unilateral orbital floor fracture reconstructed with an autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The following inclusion criteria applied: isolated orbital floor fracture without involvement of the orbital rim or other craniofacial injuries, pre-/post-operative ophthalmological/orthoptic follow-up, pre-operative CT. Variables recorded were patient age and gender, aetiology of injury, time to surgery, follow-up period, surgical morbidity, diplopia pre- and post-operatively (Hess test), eyelid position, visual acuity, and the presence of en-/or exophthalmos (Hertel exophthalmometer). Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 29 years. The mean follow up period was 26 months. No patient experienced significant donor site morbidity. There were no episodes of post-operative infection or graft extrusion. Three patients had diplopia in extremes of vision post-operatively, but no interference with activities of daily living. One patient had post-operative enophthalmos. Isolated orbital blow-out fractures may be safely and predictably reconstructed using autogenous iliac crest bone. The rate of complications in the group of patients studied was low. The value of pre- and post-operative ophthalmology consultation cannot be underestimated, and should be considered the standard of care in all patients with orbitozygomatic fractures, in particular those with blow-out fractures. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple Repair of a Blow-Out Fracture by the Modified Caldwell-Luc Approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Woo; Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel Kofi; Lee, Suk Keun

    2015-06-01

    Here we report a patient with a blow-out fracture of the orbital floor that was treated by an intraoral transmaxillary approach. This 38-year-old man suffered a sudden blow to the periorbital area, which caused prolapse of the orbital contents into the maxillary sinus. The modified Caldwell-Luc approach was used to repair the orbital blow-out fracture and the maxillary sinus during was packed with Frazin gauze for 7 days to prevent recurrence of the prolapse. This was an easy and minimally invasive technique for the management of a blow-out fracture of the orbital floor.

  10. Blowout Fracture in a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pluijmers, Britt I.; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  11. Evaluation of the Biodegradable Plates (PG910/PDO) for Reconstruction of Various Sizes of Orbital Floor Defects in the Blow-Out Fractures.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Reza; Langner, Nicole J; Pouzesh, Ayatollah; Arabion, Hamidreza

    2013-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the biodegradable plates (PG910/PDO) for reconstruction of various sizes of the orbital floor defects in the blow-out fractures. We included patients who had an impure blow-out fracture. All patients had a recent trauma and also the surgical intervention was done between 1 and 10 days after trauma. The amount of the orbital floor defect was measured in each case through computed tomography scan. In the surgical intervention, a biodegradable plate was used for the reconstruction of the orbital floor defect along with titanium miniplates used for bone fixation in orbital rim. Due to aesthetic reasons, all patients underwent secondary surgery including removal of titanium miniplates after 18 months. The orbital floor was reevaluated during the removal of the miniplates. The clinical evaluation of remnant defects and biodegradable plates (presence of complete or partial resorption) were documented for each patient. In our study a total of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females) underwent the orbital floor reconstruction using biodegradable miniplates. The size of the orbital floor defects was meanly 3.51 ± 1.29 cm(2). Results demonstrated that 4 out of 15 patients had a remnant defect after resorption of the biodegradable plate. In 10 out of 15 patients, the biodegradable plates completely replaced with fibrous tissues after 18 months. Remaining five patients had partial resorption of plates. There was not any relationship between the defect size and the remnant defects (p > 0.05). A significant relationship was seen between the defect size and the plates' resorption rate (p < 0.001). There is a significant relationship between the resorption rate and the remnant defect. The risk to have remnant defects have been increased as the plates had incomplete resorption. The use of biodegradable plates is an appropriate option for reconstruction of the orbital floor defects. The defect size does not have any effect on the stability of the

  12. Interaction of hydraulic and buckling mechanisms in blowout fractures.

    PubMed

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Miyamoto, Junpei; Jiang, Hua; Tamaki, Tamotsu; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    The etiology of blowout fractures is generally attributed to 2 mechanisms--increase in the pressure of the orbital contents (the hydraulic mechanism) and direct transmission of impacts on the orbital walls (the buckling mechanism). The present study aims to elucidate whether or not an interaction exists between these 2 mechanisms. We performed a simulation experiment using 10 Computer-Aided-Design skull models. We applied destructive energy to the orbits of the 10 models in 3 different ways. First, to simulate pure hydraulic mechanism, energy was applied solely on the internal walls of the orbit. Second, to simulate pure buckling mechanism, energy was applied solely on the inferior rim of the orbit. Third, to simulate the combined effect of the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms, energy was applied both on the internal wall of the orbit and inferior rim of the orbit. After applying the energy, we calculated the areas of the regions where fracture occurred in the models. Thereafter, we compared the areas among the 3 energy application patterns. When the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms work simultaneously, fracture occurs on wider areas of the orbital walls than when each of these mechanisms works separately. The hydraulic and buckling mechanisms interact, enhancing each other's effect. This information should be taken into consideration when we examine patients in whom blowout fracture is suspected.

  13. Using the Endoscopic Transconjunctival and Transcaruncular Approach to Repair Combined Orbital Floor and Medial Wall Blowout Fractures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Minwook; Yang, Seong Won; Park, Jin-Hwan; Lee, Joonsik; Lee, Hwa; Park, Min Soo; Baek, Sehyun

    2017-06-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of the endoscopic transcaruncular and transconjunctival approach in the repair of combined medial and inferior orbital wall fractures. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 160 patients with combined medial and inferior orbital wall fractures. All patients underwent surgery via an endoscopic transcaruncular and transconjunctival approach without lateral canthotomy, performed by a single surgeon. Porous polyethylene sheets (1.0 mm in thickness) were implanted to cover the orbital defects. The minimal postoperative follow-up period was 6 months. The authors evaluated enophthalmos, diplopia, and ocular motility pre and postoperatively and report surgical complications. A total of 160 patients were included, comprising 121 men and 39 women. The mean patient age was 33.9 ± 14.1 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 12 months. The average enophthalmos was 3.20 mm preoperatively, and the mean improvement at 6 months after surgery was 2.82 mm. One patient suffered a canalicular laceration after surgery, and another retrobulbar hemorrhage; however, both of these complications resolved with appropriate management. Otherwise, there were no significant surgical complications including newly developed diplopia, decreased visual acuity, or cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The endoscopic transcaruncular and transconjunctival approach is a useful and promising technique to repair combined medial and inferior orbital wall fractures.

  14. Straightforward factors for predicting the prognosis of blow-out fractures.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Takuya; Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Eguchi, Tomoaki; Kato, Yuki

    2011-07-01

    In blow-out fractures, some nonoperative cases have a poor outcome, and a method for accurate prognosis is required. To address this need, we retrospectively reviewed blow-out fractures presenting at Teikyo University Hospital between July 2004 and May 2007 and conducted a survey regarding diplopia and enophthalmos for nonoperative cases. Computed tomographic scan findings were divided according to fracture width and the degree of protrusion of the inferior rectus muscle into the maxillary sinus. We had 106 patients presenting with blow-out fractures, and 89 patients had been treated nonoperatively. In medial orbital wall fractures, no patient had diplopia, and 1 patient had enophthalmos after nonoperative treatment. In punched-out orbital floor fractures, all cases had diplopia when the fracture width was less than half the diameter of the globe, and the protrusion of the inferior rectus muscle into the maxillary sinus was half or more of its section. Even if the fracture width was less than half the diameter of the globe, 2 of 3 patients had enophthalmos when the protrusion of the inferior rectus muscle into the maxillary sinus was half or more of its section. Among the linear orbital floor fractures, 1 case required an emergency operation. We suggest a new algorithm for treatment of blow-out fractures based on computed tomographic scan findings that can also contribute to making a prognosis.

  15. Diplopia and enophthalmos in blowout fractures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Pil Joong

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the changes of diplopia and enophthalmos in patients with blowout fractures. Three hundred sixty-two patients who presented with blowout fractures between March 2006 and February 2011 were analyzed. The sequential time changes of diplopia and enophthalmos were measured in the operated group and the observed group according to (1) the duration of preoperative observation (early: within 7 days, late: 8-14 days, delayed: >15 days); (2) the defect size (minimal: <1 cm(2), small: 1.1-2.0 cm, medium: 2.1-3.0 cm(2), large: >3.0 cm(2)); and (3) the age of the patients (<20, 21-40, 41-60, >61 years).Among the 362 patients, 242 (66.9%) had an operation, and 120 (33.1%) did not. The duration of preoperative observation did not affect the postoperative diplopia or enophthalmos. There were significant differences of enophthalmos among the operated groups with a different defect size at the preoperative period (P = 0.036 [Pearson χ(2)]). There were significant differences of diplopia among the operated groups with different defect sizes at the 6 months' follow-up period (P = 0.014 [Pearson χ(2)]). The diplopia in the older age group (>60 years) was significantly greater than that of the other 3 groups at 6 months (P = 0.023) and at 12 months (P = 0.023, [Pearson χ(2)]).We think surgery should be delayed until the swelling is decreased unless the medial rectus muscle is incarcerated. We also think that the defect size is not an important factor for whether to perform surgery. We think that the reason for the greater diplopia in the older age group is that the adaptation of binocular convergence is decreased in the older age group.

  16. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and such fractures. This study is based on 2 databases that have continuously recorded data of patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures between 2001 and 2010. On the whole, 447 patients (334 males, 113 females) with pure blow-out orbital wall fractures were included. The most frequently involved orbital site was the floor (359 fractures), followed by medial wall (41 fractures) and lateral wall (5 fractures). At presentation, 227 patients (50.7%) had evidence of diplopia. In particular, in most patients, a diplopia in all directions was referred (78 patients). Statistically significant associations were found between diplopia on eye elevation and orbital floor fractures (P < 0.05) and between horizontal diplopia and medial wall fractures (P < 0.000005). In patients under evaluation for orbital trauma, the observation of diplopia on eye elevation and horizontal diplopia at presentation could be useful clinical indicators orbital floor and medial wall fractures, respectively.

  17. Prevalence of Diplopia and Extraocular Movement Limitation according to the Location of Isolated Pure Blowout Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Seok; Kim, Young Joon; Kim, Hoon; Nam, Sang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Background Isolated pure blowout fractures are clinically important because they are the main cause of serious complications such as diplopia and limitation of extraocular movement. Many reports have described the incidence of blowout fractures associated with diplopia and limitation of extraocular movement; however, no studies have statistically analyzed this relationship. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the correlation between the location of isolated pure blowout fractures and orbital symptoms such as diplopia and limitation of extraocular movement. Methods We enrolled a total of 354 patients who had been diagnosed with isolated pure blowout fractures, based on computed tomography, from June 2008 to November 2011. Medical records were reviewed, and the prevalence of extraocular movement limitations and diplopia were determined. Results There were 14 patients with extraocular movement limitation and 58 patients complained of diplopia. Extraocular movement limitation was associated with the following findings, in decreasing order of frequency: floor fracture (7.1%), extended fracture (3.6%), and medial wall (1.7%). However, there was no significant difference among the types of fractures (P=0.60). Diplopia was more commonly associated with floor fractures (21.4%) and extended type fractures (23.6%) than medial wall fractures (10.4%). The difference was statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected chi-squared test P<0.016). Conclusions Data indicate that extended type fractures and orbital floor fractures tend to cause diplopia more commonly than medial wall fractures. However, extraocular movement limitation was not found to be dependent on the location of the orbital wall fracture. PMID:22783527

  18. Medpor implant fixation using fibrin glue in blowout fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Hyunwoo; Song, Seung Han; Kang, Nakheon; Oh, Sang-Ha

    2013-01-01

    The Medpor implant is (Prous polyethylene, Porex Surgical Inc, Newnan, GA, USA) widely used to reconstruct orbital wall defects. However, this implant is commonly associated with numerous complications, including implant displacement. Therefore, the authors have hypothesized that fixation of the Medpor implant with fibrin glue (Tisseel, Baxter Healthcare, Norfolk, UK), compared to other fixation methods, may be more stable and could provide better results than other fixation methods.In this study, 485 patients who had been treated for blowout fractures from 2008 to 2012 were evaluated. Medpor implants fixed using Tisseel were used to reconstruct bone defects of the orbital wall. The patients' hospital records and radiologic images were reviewed according to sex, fracture site, and postoperative complications.According to retrospective chart review and radiologic evaluation, the complication rate was low and included diplopia (7%; 33 patients), enophthalmos (4%; 17 patients), and extraocular movement limitation (3%; 13 patients).This study suggests that Medpor implant fixation using Tisseel is a simpler, more secure, and more suitable for reconstruction of the fractured orbital wall compared with other methods.

  19. Clinical characteristics and treatment of blow-out fracture accompanied by canalicular laceration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa; Ahn, Jaemoon; Lee, Tae Eun; Lee, Jong Mi; Shin, Hyungho; Chi, Mijung; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2012-09-01

    Blow-out fracture and canalicular laceration can occur simultaneously as a result of the same trauma. Despite its importance, little research has been conducted to identify clinical characteristics or surgical techniques for repair of a blow-out fracture accompanied by canalicular laceration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, the surgical approach, and the outcomes. Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients who underwent simultaneous repair of canalicular laceration using silicone tube intubation and reconstruction of blow-out fracture were included. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patient demographics, nature of injury, affected canaliculus, location, and severity of blow-out fracture, associated facial bone fracture, ophthalmic diagnosis, length of follow-up period, and surgical outcome. Mean patient age was 40.0 years (range, 17-71 y). The mean follow-up was 7.3 months. Fist to the orbital area (10 patients, 29.4%) was the most common cause. There were 24 lower canalicular lacerations (70.6%), 6 upper canalicular lacerations (17.6%), and 4 upper and lower canalicular lacerations (11.8%). Isolated medial wall fractures were most common (area A4: 20/34, 58.8%). Fractures involving both the floor and medial wall and maxillo-ethmoidal strut (areas A1, A2, A3, and A4) were the second most common (6/34, 17.6%), and floor and medial wall with intact strut (areas A1, A2, and A4) were injured in 6 patients (17.6%). Pure inferior wall fractures were least frequent (areas A1 and A2: 2/34, 5.9%). The severity of the fracture was severe in most patients except for 1 linear fracture with tissue entrapment and 1 moderate medial wall fracture (32/34, 94.1%). There was lid laceration in 20 patients (58.8%). Nasal bone fracture (5/34, 14.7%) was the most common facial bone fracture. Tubes were removed at a mean of 3.3 months (range, 3-4 mo). In total, 31 patients (91.2%) achieved complete success in canalicular laceration and blow-out

  20. Analgesic Effect of Perioperative Systemic Dexamethasone on Blowout Fracture Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kormi, Eeva; Snäll, Johanna; Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Thorén, Hanna; Törnwall, Jyrki

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the effect of systemic dexamethasone (DXM) on pain and postoperative opioid (oxycodone) consumption after blowout fracture surgery. A prospective randomized observer-blinded trial of 20 patients who had a blowout fracture requiring surgical intervention was conducted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a total dose of intravenous DXM 30 mg perioperatively or no DXM (controls). Pain was assessed postoperatively using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) each time analgesics (acetaminophen every 6 hours or oxycodone upon request) were administered. The VAS area under the curve (VAS AUC) for 24 hours postoperatively represented the outcome. Data were analyzed using χ(2) test, Student t test, 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test, and linear regression, with a P value less than .05 indicating significance. Patients with blowout fracture receiving perioperative systemic DXM exhibited a significantly lower average VAS AUC (P = .04). After controlling for other confounding variables, this result remained significant (P = .03). DXM appears to decrease postoperative pain and thus is recommended as a pre-emptive analgesic in blowout fracture surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The white-eyed blowout fracture in the child: beware of distractions.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D; Grew, N; Khan, Z

    2013-07-12

    Inferior 'trapdoor' orbital floor fractures with muscle and soft tissue incarceration are the most common type of orbital fracture in children. Delays to treatment can lead to a significant morbidity. It has been recommended that children who present with a 'white-eyed blowout' fracture should have surgery performed within 48h of diagnosis, otherwise prognosis is poor. A 14-year-old boy was initially misdiagnosed with a head injury due to the minor appearance of his orbital injury and his presenting complaint of nausea and vomiting. This resulted in a significant delay to surgery. The oculovagal reflex associated with orbital injuries is well documented (Wei and Durairaj in Pediatric orbital floor fractures. J AAPOS 2011;15: :173-80). It should be considered by emergency department and paediatric staff when dealing with patients who have sustained a blow to the orbital region, despite not having a subconjunctival haemorrhage. The importance of examination to detect other features of orbital blow-out and entrapment are stressed. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

  2. Antiadhesive effect of mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose after blow-out fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Mi; Baek, Sehyun

    2012-11-01

    Treatment of blow-out fractures is aimed at the prevention of permanent diplopia and cosmetically unacceptable enophthalmos. Porous polyethylene sheets are one of the most common alloplastic implants for blow-out fracture repair. Because adhesion between the porous polyethylene and the orbital soft tissue can result in restrictions of ocular motility, prevention of postoperative adhesion is important in the reconstruction of blow-out fractures. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of the mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC) on postoperative adhesion in blow-out fracture repair in an animal model.Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were used. An 8-mm defect was made in the maxillary sinuses including the bone and mucosa. A 10-mm porous polyethylene sheet (Medpor; Porex Surgical Inc., Newnan, GA) was inserted in to the defect. The rabbits were divided into a control group and a HACMC group. In the HACMC group, HACMC solution was instilled onto the surface of the implant and then the implant was inserted. The implants were harvested at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery (3 implants each period). Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) stains were performed for evaluation of inflammation, fibrosis, and vascularization.Inflammation appeared less severe in the HACMC group, but the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. The degree of fibrosis was more severe in the control group. There were significant differences in the degree of fibrosis between the 2 groups 4 and 8 weeks after surgery (P = 0.046). The amount of vascularization was similar in both groups.The HACMC solution seemed to be effective for reducing postoperative adhesion in reconstruction of blow-out fractures in a rabbit model. Our results suggest that the application of HACMC solution could be an effective adjunct for the repair of trap-door fractures or revision

  3. Orbital fractures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P

    2011-01-01

    This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training. PMID:21339801

  4. Effectiveness of Computed Tomography for Blow-out Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seup; Song, Jae-Min; Shin, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the association between eye symptoms (enophthalmos or diplopia) and site of damage, volume, deviated inferior rectus muscle (IRM) and type of fracture with computed tomography (CT). The intent is to anticipate the prognosis of orbital trauma at initial diagnosis. Methods: Forty-five patients were diagnosed with fractures of the inferior wall of one orbit. Fracture area, volume of displaced tissue, deviated IRM, and type of fracture were evaluated from coronal CT by one investigator. The association of those variables with the occurrence of eye symptoms (diplopia and enophthalmos) was assessed. Results: Of 45 patients, 27 were symptom-free (Group A) and 18 had symptoms (Group B) of enophthalmos and/or diplopia. In Group B, 12 had diplopia, one was enophthalmos, and five had both. By CT measurement, group A mean area was 192.6 mm2 and the mean volume was 673.2 mm3. Group B area was 316.2 mm2 and volume was 1,710.6 mm3. The volume was more influential on symptom occurrence. Each patient was categorized into four grades depending on the location of IRM. Symptom occurrence and higher grade were associated. Twenty-six patients had trap-door fracture (one side, attached to the fracture), and 19 had punched-out fracture (both sides detached). The punched-out fracture was more strongly associated with symptoms and had statistically significantly higher area and volume. Conclusion: In orbital trauma, measurement of fracture area and volume, evaluation of the deviated IRM and classification of the fracture type by coronal CT can effectively predict prognosis and surgical indication. PMID:27489846

  5. Three Cases of Acquired Simulated Brown Syndrome after Blowout Fracture Operations

    PubMed Central

    Ji, So Young; Yoo, Jae Hong; Ha, Won; Lee, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Brown syndrome is known as limited elevation of the affected eye during adduction. It is caused by a disorder of the superior oblique tendon, which makes it difficult for the eyeball to look upward, especially during adduction. It is classified into congenital true sheath Brown syndrome and acquired simulated Brown syndrome. Acquired simulated Brown syndrome can be caused by trauma, infection, or inflammatory conditions. The surgical restoration of blowout fractures can also lead to limitations of ocular motility, including Brown syndrome. We report on three patients with acquired simulated Brown syndrome, who complained of diplopia and limitation of ocular motility after operations to treat blowout fractures. PMID:26015892

  6. Pediatric Orbital Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

  7. Controlling chaos, blowout bifurcation, and periodic- orbit theory in chaotic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yoshihiko

    1997-12-01

    We present three distinct investigations in the study of chaos. First section is controlling chaos. It is common for nonlinear dynamical systems to exhibit behaviors where orbits switch between distinct chaotic phases in an intermittent fashion. A feedback control strategy using small parameter perturbations is proposed to stabilize the trajectory around a desired chaotic phase. The idea is illustrated using intermittent chaotic time series generated by model dynamical systems in parameter regimes after critical events such as the interior crisis. Relevance to biological situations is discussed. Second section is that a theory for characterization of the blowout bifurcation by periodic orbits. Blowout bifurcation in chaotic systems occurs when a chaotic attractor, lying in some symmetric invariant subspace, becomes transversely unstable. We present an analysis and numerical results which indicate that the bifurcation is mediated by changes in the transverse stability of an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the chaotic attractor. There are two distinct groups of periodic orbits: one transversely stable and another transversely unstable. The bifurcation occurs when some properly weighted transverse eigenvalues of these two groups are balanced. In the last section is characterization of the natural measure in terms of the unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic attractor. The natural measure of a chaotic set in a phase-space region can be related to the dynamical properties of the unstable periodic orbits embedded in that set. Previous result has been proven to be valid for hyperbolic chaotic systems. We test the goodness of such a periodic-orbit characterization of the natural measure for nonhyperbolic chaotic systems by comparing the natural measure of a typical chaotic trajectory with that computed from unstable periodic orbits. Our results suggest that the unstable periodic- orbit formulation of the natural measure is typically valid

  8. The predictive factors of diplopia and extraocular movement limitations in isolated pure blow-out fracture.

    PubMed

    Kasaee, Abolfazl; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Arash; Kazemnezhad, Fatemeh; Eshraghi, Bahram; Akbari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the predictive factors for development of diplopia and extraocular muscle movement (EOM) limitations in the patients with isolated pure blow-out fracture. One hundred thirty-two patients with isolated pure blow-out fracture were included. The diagnosis was done with computed tomography scan. Possible predictive factors were analyzed with logistic regression. The cases that underwent surgery were assigned in the surgical group, and other cases were assigned in the non-surgical group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used in the surgical group to evaluate the power of time interval from trauma to the surgery to predict persistence of 6 months postoperative diplopia and EOM limitation. At the first visit, 45 of 60 cases (75%) in the surgical group and 15 of 72 cases (20.8%) in the nonsurgical group had diplopia. After 6 months follow-up, 7 cases (11.7%) in the surgical group and 1 case (1.4%) in the nonsurgical group had persistent diplopia. Type of fracture was significantly associated with first visit diplopia (P = 0.01) and EOM limitations (P = 0.06). In the surgical group, type of fracture (P = 0.02 for both) and time interval from trauma to the surgery (P = 0.006 and 0.004, respectively) were significantly associated with 1 month diplopia and EOM limitations. Only time interval from trauma to the surgery (P = 0.04) was significantly associated with 3 months EOM limitation. In the ROC curve analysis, if the surgery was done before 4.5 (sensitivity = 87.5% and specificity = 61.3%) and 7.5 (sensitivity = 87.5% and specificity = 66.9%) days, risk of 6 months postoperative diplopia and EOM limitation was reduced, respectively. In the early postoperative period, a higher rate of diplopia was observed in the patients with combined inferior and medial wall fractures and longer time intervals from trauma to the surgery. The best time for blow-out fracture surgery was within 4.5 days after the trauma.

  9. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Methods Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Results Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Conclusions Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients. PMID:27689047

  10. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold.

    PubMed

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-09-01

    Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  11. Mechanisms of orbital floor fractures: a clinical, experimental, and theoretical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, J D; Warwar, R E; Ballal, D R; Ballal, R D

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the two accepted mechanisms of the orbital blow-out fracture (the hydraulic and the buckling theories) from a clinical, experimental, and theoretical standpoint. METHODS: Clinical cases in which blow-out fractures resulted from both a pure hydraulic mechanism and a pure buckling mechanism are presented. Twenty-one intact orbital floors were obtained from human cadavers. A metal rod was dropped, experimentally, onto each specimen until a fracture was produced, and the energy required in each instance was calculated. A biomathematical model of the human bony orbit, depicted as a thin-walled truncated conical shell, was devised. Two previously published (by the National Aeronautics Space Administration) theoretical structural engineering formulas for the fracture of thin-walled truncated conical shells were used to predict the energy required to fracture the bone of the orbital floor via the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms. RESULTS: Experimentally, the mean energy required to fracture the bone of the human cadaver orbital floor directly was 78 millijoules (mj) (range, 29-127 mj). Using the engineering formula for the hydraulic theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 71 mj (range, 38-120 mj); for the buckling theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 68 mj (range, 40-106 mj). CONCLUSION: Through this study, we have experimentally determined the amount of energy required to fracture the bone of the human orbital floor directly and have provided support for each mechanism of the orbital blow-out fracture from a clinical and theoretical basis. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5E FIGURE 5F PMID:10703119

  12. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orbital Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Benjamin; Rajjoub, Lamise; Mansour, Tamer; Chen, Tony; Mumtaz, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic use in patients with orbital fracture prevent orbital infection. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Participants: All patients diagnosed with orbital fracture between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2014 at The George Washington University Hospital and Clinics. Main Outcome Measures: Development of orbital infection. Results: One hundred seventy-two patients with orbital fracture met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. No orbital infections were documented. Twenty subjects (12%) received no prophylactic antibiotic, and two (1%) received only one dose of antibiotics pre-operatively for surgery. For primary antibiotic, 136 subjects (79%) received oral antibiotics, and 14 (8%) received intravenous (IV) antibiotics (excluding cefazolin). Cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most prescribed oral antibiotics that are equally effective. Five-to-seven day courses of antibiotics had no increased infections compared to ten-to-fourteen day courses. Calculated boundaries for effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics ranged from a Number Needed to Treat (NNT) of 75 to a Number Needed to Harm (NNH) of 198. Conclusion: Antibiotics for prevention of orbital infection in patients with orbital fractures have become widely used. Coordination between trauma teams and specialists is needed to prevent patient overmedication and antibiotic resistance. Should antibiotics be used, shorter courses and avoidance of broad spectrum agents are recommended. Additional studies are needed. PMID:28400887

  13. Mechanisms of extraocular muscle injury in orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Iliff, N; Manson, P N; Katz, J; Rever, L; Yaremchuk, M

    1999-03-01

    The gross and microscopic events that occur after orbital blowout fractures were evaluated to assess the mechanisms of diplopia and muscle injury. Intramuscular and intraorbital pressures were evaluated in experimental animals, in cadavers, and at the time of orbital fracture explorations for repair of orbital fractures in humans. Histologic and circulatory changes, muscle pressure recordings, and operative observations were evaluated. Creation of a compartment syndrome was evaluated to include a histologic evaluation of the orbital fibrous sheath network for the extraocular muscles and the intramuscular vasculature. These experiments and observations do not support the role of a compartment syndrome in ocular motility disturbances because (1) intramuscular pressures were subcritical in both humans and animals; (2) no limiting fascial compartment could be demonstrated; and (3) microangiograms and histologic evaluations did not confirm areas of compartmental ischemic necrosis. Muscle contusion, scarring within and around the orbital fibrous sheath network, nerve contusion, and incarceration within fractures remain the probable causes of diplopia, with the most likely explanations being muscle contusion and fibrosis or incarceration involving the muscular fascial network.

  14. 'Orbital volume restoration rate after orbital fracture'; a CT-based orbital volume measurement for evaluation of orbital wall reconstructive effect.

    PubMed

    Wi, J M; Sung, K H; Chi, M

    2017-01-13

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of orbital reconstruction and factors related to the effect of orbital reconstruction by assessing of orbital volume using orbital computed tomography (CT) in cases of orbital wall fracture.MethodsIn this retrospective study, 68 patients with isolated blowout fractures were evaluated. The volumes of orbits and herniated orbital tissues were determined by CT scans using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique (the Eclipse Treatment Planning System). Orbital CT was performed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at final follow ups (minimum of 6 months). We evaluated the reconstructive effect of surgery making a new formula, 'orbital volume reconstruction rate' from orbital volume differences between fractured and contralateral orbits before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow up.ResultsMean volume of fractured orbits before surgery was 23.01±2.60 cm(3) and that of contralateral orbits was 21.31±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.005). Mean volume of the fractured orbits immediately after surgery was 21.29±2.42 cm(3), and that of the contralateral orbits was 21.33±2.52 cm(3) (P=0.921). Mean volume of fractured orbits at final follow up was 21.50±2.44 cm(3), and that of contralateral orbits was 21.32±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.668). The mean orbital volume reconstruction rate was 100.47% immediately after surgery and 99.17% at final follow up. No significant difference in orbital volume reconstruction rate was observed with respect to fracture site or orbital implant type. Patients that underwent operation within 14 days of trauma had a better reconstruction rate at final follow up than patients who underwent operation over 14 days after trauma (P=0.039).ConclusionComputer-based measurements of orbital fracture volume can be used to evaluate the reconstructive effect of orbital implants and provide useful quantitative information. Significant reduction of orbital volume is observed immediately after orbital wall

  15. Orbital fractures: role of imaging.

    PubMed

    Caranci, Ferdinando; Cicala, Domenico; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Briganti, Francesco; Brunese, Luca; Fonio, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The orbit may be injured directly or indirectly. Blunt and penetrating trauma occurs with equal frequency. Soft tissue swelling often obscures direct clinical evaluation of the globe, limits ocular motion, and may limit clinical assessment of vision. Plain film radiographs of the orbits and sinuses are rarely used for diagnosis in orbital trauma. Computed tomography is considered the imaging modality of choice in this circumstance, as it is deemed to be the most accurate method in detecting fractures. The protocol is based on obtaining thin-section axial scans and multiplanar reformatted images, both are useful tools to guide treatment. Orbital fractures are not considered an ophthalmologic emergency unless there is visual impairment or globe injury. Surgical repair is indicated for patients who have persistent diplopia or cosmetic concerns (enophthalmos) and generaly is not performed until swelling subsides 7-10 days after injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Ciuluvica, R; Dinu, I; Careba, I; Gradinaru, S

    2015-01-01

    The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from the total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life. The majority of cases required reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this was that the bony walls were comminuted and/ or bone fragments were missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of the missing bone was important rather than reducing the bone fragments. This could be accomplished by using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: non resorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/ allogeneic/ xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of the material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:25914737

  17. The isolated orbital floor fracture from a transconjunctival or subciliary perspective-A standardized anthropometric evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Djedovic, Gabriel; Peisker, Andre; Wohlrath, Rene; Rieger, Ulrich; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of orbital fractures and their repair on the rate of deformities of the lower eyelid is an ongoing source of discussion in the literature. Most of the present studies include isolated blowout as well as combined orbital fractures. Material and Methods We present a retrospective evaluation of a series of 100 patients after isolated blowout fracture repair using reference anthropometric data on standardized photographs. Analysis included eye fissure width and height, lid sulcus height, upper lid height, upper and lower iris coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, canthal tilt, scleral show, ectropion and entropion. It was clearly distinguished between operated and contralateral eyelid, whether a transconjunctival or a subciliary approach was performed and amount of fracture. Our main interests were changes of the aforementioned parameters with regards to eyelid deformities. Results Surgery per se did not significantly influence eyelid deformities. However, the surgical approach selected significantly affected eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show, indicating retraction of the lower eyelid. Conclusions The standardized measurements described here are accurate and objective to evaluate postoperative results. The subciliary approach included the highest risk of lower lid retraction as compared to transconjunctival approaches. Key words:Transconjunctical approach, subciliary approach, orbital floor fracture. PMID:26595833

  18. Reconstruction of Orbital Floor Fractures with Autogenous Bone Graft Application from Anterior Wall of Maxillary Sinus: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bande, Chandrashekhar R; Daware, Surendra; Lambade, Pravin; Patle, Bhaskar

    2015-09-01

    Orbital wall fracture implies a situation where disruptions of the walls or floor have occurred. It is a blowout type fracture where bone fragments with torn periosteum are pushed outside of the original bony orbit. There is no intact bone even near the defect area except the thin bone rim surrounding the blowout fracture. The purpose of this defect repair is to support orbital contents, free entrapped tissue, and, especially, restore the original orbital volume. Ten patients (seven males and three females) who underwent repair of orbital floor factures with maxillary sinus bone grafts were included in this study. Surgical procedure for harvesting graft and its fixation was almost same in all operated cases. The collection in the maxillary sinus due to fracture of floor of orbit, blood and bony fragments collected in the maxillary sinus can be easily drained and removed after removal of anterior wall of maxillary sinus and through the same approach you can reduce the floor of orbit manually to the proper position which helps to decease the orbital floor defect.

  19. The isolated orbital floor fracture from a transconjunctival or subciliary perspective-A standardized anthropometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Gregor; Djedovic, Gabriel; Peisker, Andre; Wohlrath, Rene; Rieger, Ulrich; Guentsch, Arndt; Gomez-Dammeier, Marta; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The influence of orbital fractures and their repair on the rate of deformities of the lower eyelid is an ongoing source of discussion in the literature. Most of the present studies include isolated blow-out as well as combined orbital fractures. We present a retrospective evaluation of a series of 100 patients after isolated blow-out fracture repair using reference anthropometric data on standardized photographs. Analysis included eye fissure width and height, lid sulcus height, upper lid height, upper and lower iris coverage, position of cornea to palpebra inferior, canthal tilt, scleral show, ectropion and entropion. It was clearly distinguished between operated and contralateral eyelid, whether a transconjunctival or a subciliary approach was performed and amount of fracture. Our main interests were changes of the aforementioned parameters with regards to eyelid deformities. Surgery per se did not significantly influence eyelid deformities. However, the surgical approach selected significantly affected eye fissure index, lower iris coverage and rate of scleral show, indicating retraction of the lower eyelid. The standardized measurements described here are accurate and objective to evaluate postoperative results. The subciliary approach included the highest risk of lower lid retraction as compared to transconjunctival approaches.

  20. Late correction of orbital-zygomatic-maxillary fractures combined with orbital wall fractures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjuan; Zhou, Huifang; Xiao, Caiwen; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing number of patients with facial trauma, orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fracture combined with orbital wall fracture has become common. Such fractures always induce symptoms of enophthalmos, hypoglobus, and diplopia. This study was aimed to investigate the surgical technique and operative effect of late reconstruction of OZM fractures combined with orbital wall fractures. A retrospective analysis of the 46 patients (46 orbits) who were treated from January 2005 to December 2008 was performed. All cases had reconstruction of OZM fractures combined with orbital wall fractures at an average of 5.3 months after injury. Various incisions were selected. According to the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing design, the osteotomy, reposition, and 4-point fixation of the fractured bones were individualized performed. Titanium mesh was preshaped according to the mirroring technology and inserted into the orbit with or without high-density polyethylene (HDPE) implant material to repair the orbital wall defect and the enlarged orbital volume. All patients were followed up 1 year after surgery. Forty-two of the 46 patients who had enophthalmos were completely corrected. Forty patients who had hypoglobus were corrected postoperatively. Of the 43 cases with diplopia, 20 cases were resolved. Late reconstruction by osteotomy and 4-point fixation could recover midface cosmesis, correct the enophthalmos, and improve the diplopia of OZM fractures combined with orbital wall fractures. The computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system and mirroring technology can help improve the outcome of surgery when repairing such fractures.

  1. Clinical features and treatment of pediatric orbit fractures.

    PubMed

    Hink, Eric M; Wei, Leslie A; Durairaj, Vikram D

    2014-01-01

    To describe a series of orbital fractures and associated ophthalmic and craniofacial injuries in the pediatric population. A retrospective case series of 312 pediatric patients over a 9-year period (2002-2011) with orbit fractures diagnosed by CT. Five hundred ninety-one fractures in 312 patients were evaluated. There were 192 boys (62%) and 120 girls (38%) with an average age of 7.3 years (range 4 months to 16 years). Orbit fractures associated with other craniofacial fractures were more common (62%) than isolated orbit fractures (internal fractures and fractures involving the orbital rim but without extension beyond the orbit) (38%). Roof and medial wall fractures were most common (30% and 28%, respectively), followed by orbital floor (24%) and lateral wall (18%) fractures. Orbital roof fractures are the most common fracture in patients <8 years old, whereas orbital floor fractures are the most common fracture in patients older than 8 years. Eighty-seven patients (28%) underwent surgical repair. There is an increasing incidence of surgery in older patients (p = 0.02). Associated neurologic injuries were more common (23%) than associated ophthalmic injuries (20%). Pediatric orbit fracture patterns are dictated by the age of the patient with respect to their craniofacial morphology and mechanism of injury. Orbital roof fractures are more likely to occur in younger patients and not require surgery, whereas orbital floor fractures are more common in older patients and are more likely to require surgery.

  2. Diplopia secondary to orbital fracture in adults.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Flores, I; Santos-Armentia, E; Fernández-Sanromán, J; Costas-López, A; Fernández-Ferro, M

    2017-09-08

    To evaluate the incidence and evolution of diplopia as a complication of orbital fractures in adults. A review was conducted on medical records of all consecutive adults with orbital fracture referred between January 2014 and December 2015. An analysis was made of the incidence of diplopia secondary to fracture in the acute phase and its evolution. A descriptive study was performed on the variables related to patients, fractures, and fracture and diplopia treatment. The study included 39patients with a mean age of 48years (17-85). Of all the patients, 17 (43.6%) presented with diplopia in the acute phase. Differences were found between the groups with and without diplopia in relation to muscle entrapment diagnosed by orbital computed tomography, duction limitation, and fracture surgery ≤1week (P=.02, P=.00, P=.04, respectively). Out of the 17patients with diplopia, 12 had a mean follow-up of 18weeks (1-72), and in 10 (83.3%) diplopia was resolved in a mean time of 10weeks (1-72). There were spontaneous resolution in 4 (33.3%) patients, and resolution after fracture surgery in 4 (57%) of the 7 that underwent surgery. In 4cases (33.3%) prisms were prescribed, and 2 (16.6%) required strabismus surgery. Diplopia secondary to orbital fracture in adults is frequent, but it is resolved in most cases spontaneously or after fracture surgery. A few patients will require prisms and/or strabismus surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Usefulness of a Transconjunctival Approach in the Reconstruction of the Medial Blow-Out Wall Fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi An; Sun, Hook; Yun, Ji Young

    2017-06-01

    A transcaruncular approach is typically used for reconstructions of medial wall fractures. However, others reported that a transconjunctival approach was conducive for securing an adequate surgical field of view. In this study, we aimed to examine the extent of repair of medial wall fracture via a transconjunctival approach. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients diagnosed as having medial wall fracture via preoperative computed tomography and who underwent surgery between March 2011 and February 2014. The fracture location was defined by dividing each of the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior distances into three compartments. A transcaruncular approach was used in 7 patients, while the transconjunctival approach was performed in the remaining 43 patients. The transconjunctival approach enabled a relatively broad range of repair that partially included the front and back of the medial wall, and was successful in 86% of the entire study population. It is known that more than 50% of total cases of the medial wall fracture occur mainly in the middle-middle portion, a majority of which can be reconstructed via a transconjunctival approach. We used a transconjunctival approach in identifying the location of the fracture on image scans except for cases including the fracture of the superior portion in patients with medial wall fracture. If it is possible to identify the location of the fracture, a transconjunctival approach would be an useful method for the reconstruction in that it causes no damages to the lacrimal system and is useful in confirming the overall status of the floor.

  4. Infraorbital Nerve Block for Isolated Orbital Floor Fractures Repair: Review of 135 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Giuseppe; Rocchetta, Davide; Carnevali, Giulia; Valente, Domenico; Conti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Orbital blowout fractures can be managed by several surgical specialties including plastic and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, and ophthalmology. Recommendations for surgical fracture repair depend on a combination of clinical and imaging studies to evaluate muscle/nerve entrapment and periorbital tissue herniation. Methods: The aim of this study was to verify the applicability of regional anesthesia when repairing orbital floor fractures. A retrospective chart review was performed for isolated orbital floor fractures treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Florence between May 2011 and July 2012. The study included 135 patients who met the inclusion criteria: 96 subjects were male (71%) and 39 were female (29%). The mean age was 45.3 years, ranging from 16 to 77 years. Results: The results revealed that isolated anterior orbital floor fractures can be safely repaired under regional and local anesthesia. Regional and local anesthesia should be combined with intravenous sedation when the fracture involves the posterior floor. The surgical outcome was comparable to the outcome achieved under general anesthesia. There was a lower rate of surgical revisions due to concealed malposition or entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle (19% vs 22%). However, this result was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions: There are several advantages to surgically repairing isolated orbital floor fractures under regional and local anesthesia that include the following: surgeons can check the surgical outcome (enophthalmos and extrinsic ocular muscles function) intraoperatively, thereby reducing the reoperation rate; patient discomfort due to general anesthesia is eliminated; and the hospital stay is reduced, thus decreasing overall healthcare costs. PMID:25289294

  5. Usefulness of a Transconjunctival Approach in the Reconstruction of the Medial Blow-Out Wall Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi An; Yun, Ji Young

    2017-01-01

    Background A transcaruncular approach is typically used for reconstructions of medial wall fractures. However, others reported that a transconjunctival approach was conducive for securing an adequate surgical field of view. In this study, we aimed to examine the extent of repair of medial wall fracture via a transconjunctival approach. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients diagnosed as having medial wall fracture via preoperative computed tomography and who underwent surgery between March 2011 and February 2014. The fracture location was defined by dividing each of the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior distances into three compartments. Results A transcaruncular approach was used in 7 patients, while the transconjunctival approach was performed in the remaining 43 patients. The transconjunctival approach enabled a relatively broad range of repair that partially included the front and back of the medial wall, and was successful in 86% of the entire study population. Conclusion It is known that more than 50% of total cases of the medial wall fracture occur mainly in the middle-middle portion, a majority of which can be reconstructed via a transconjunctival approach. We used a transconjunctival approach in identifying the location of the fracture on image scans except for cases including the fracture of the superior portion in patients with medial wall fracture. If it is possible to identify the location of the fracture, a transconjunctival approach would be an useful method for the reconstruction in that it causes no damages to the lacrimal system and is useful in confirming the overall status of the floor. PMID:28913311

  6. Management of orbital fractures: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Jennings R; Pemberton, John D; Bonilla-Velez, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists encounter and treat orbital fractures. The management of these fractures is often challenging due to the impact that they can have on vision. Acute treatment involves a thorough clinical examination and management of concomitant ocular injuries. The clinical and radiographic findings for each individual patient must then be analyzed for the need for surgical intervention. Deformity and vision impairment can occur from these injuries, and while surgery is intended to prevent these problems, it can also create them. Therefore, surgical approach and implant selection should be carefully considered. Accurate anatomic reconstruction requires complete assessment of fracture margins and proper implant contouring and positioning. The implementation of new technologies for implant shaping and intraoperative assessment of reconstruction will hopefully lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:26604678

  7. Medpor Implant Fixation Using Fibrin Glue in the Treatment of Medial Orbital Wall Fracture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nakheon; Song, Seung Han; Kyung, Hyunwoo; Oh, Sang-Ha

    2015-06-01

    The optimal treatment modalities are determined based on the symptoms and degree of the bone defects in patients with medial orbital wall blowout fracture. Most of the patients in this series underwent implant surgery. However, there are many patients whose implants were not fixed during surgery. Therefore, some patients who had implant migration occurred had been reported. We have therefore used methods for applying fibrin glue (Tisseel, Baxter Healthcare, Norfolk, United Kingdom) for the fixation of implant. Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 168 patients underwent porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor) surgery with the application of Tisseel. All the patients underwent surgical treatments via a transcaruncular approach, for which the Medpor was used. Postoperative complications include 6 cases of the limitation of extraoccular movement, 10 cases of diplopia, and 7 cases of enophthalmos. However, there were no specific complications caused by Tisseel. All the patients were satisfied with the treatment outcomes. In this study, we report the usefulness of Tisseel in the fixation of the medial orbital wall fracture using the Medpor implant with a review of literatures.

  8. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Orbital Fractures - Level 3 Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Christoph; Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Buitrago-Téllez, Carlos H.; Rudderman, Randal; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The AOCMF Classification Group developed a hierarchical three-level craniomaxillofacial classification system with increasing level of complexity and details. Within the midface (level 1 code 92), the level 2 system describes the location of the fractures within defined regions in the central and lateral midface including the internal orbit. This tutorial outlines the level 3 detailed classification system for fractures of the orbit. It depicts the orbital fractures according to the subregions defined as orbital rims, anterior orbital walls, midorbit, and apex. The system allows documentation of the involvement of specific orbital structures such as inferior orbital fissure, internal orbital buttress, the greater wing of sphenoid, lacrimal bone, superior orbital fissure, and optic canal. The classification system is presented along with rules for fracture location and coding, a series of case examples with clinical imaging and a general discussion on the design of this classification. PMID:25489393

  9. Blowout Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed software shell for developing expert systems, has been embedded in a PC-based expert system for training oil rig personnel in monitoring oil drilling. Oil drilling rigs if not properly maintained for possible blowouts pose hazards to human life, property and the environment may be destroyed. CLIPS is designed to permit the delivery of artificial intelligence on computer. A collection of rules is set up and, as facts become known, these rules are applied. In the Well Site Advisor, CLIPS provides the capability to accurately process, predict and interpret well data in a real time mode. CLIPS was provided to INTEQ by COSMIC.

  10. The late treatment of vertical orbital dystopia resulting from an orbital roof fracture.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, J H; Persing, J A; Winn, H R; Edgerton, M T

    1984-12-01

    Traumatic fracture of the orbital roof is uncommon and it may be unrecognized at the time of injury. In this article we describe a patient with progressive vertical orbital dystopia four years after he sustained a fracture of his "frontal" bone. Surgical exploration revealed an orbital roof fracture complicated by a chronic dural leak. An intracranial-extracranial approach through a modified frontal craniotomy provided excellent visualization to elevate the bony orbit and globe safely and repair the dural tear. Our study illustrates the need to correct residual soft tissue deformity at a second operation. Orbital roof fracture is a complex injury and is best treated by a multispecialty team using the methods learned from the treatment of patients with congenital orbital dystopia.

  11. Maxillary antral bone grafts for repair of orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Copeland, M; Meisner, J

    1991-04-01

    Use of bone from the maxillary antrum to repair defects in the orbital floor was described more than 20 years ago but has not been reported for correction of orbital rim fractures. The method is appealing because the source is contiguous with the recipient site; enhanced exposure might allow better fracture reduction and evacuation of debris and hematoma from the maxillary sinus. The intraoral approach also avoids an external incision and scar, prevents such complications as pneumothorax or dural perforation, and reduces postoperative pain. In 60 cases of orbital and zygomatic complex fractures seen between 1985 and 1990, less than 8% required more extensive graft material than the maxillary antra could provide. To assess the potential advantages of local over extraanatomical bone grafts, we evaluated maxillary antral bone grafts obtained through buccal sulcus incisions in 14 patients for restoration following fractures of the orbit. Several of these patients are described. Bone union was complete in all patients and there was no morbidity related to infection, oroantral fistula formation, dehiscence, or disfigurement. Sufficient bone was available from the uninvolved contralateral side to repair even severely comminuted fractures. In zygomatic complex fractures, maxillary antral grafts appeared to provide additional strength in the region of the fractured maxillary buttress. The success of the procedure in our experience, coupled with the safety of bone harvesting from this source, and the avoidance of an external scar make maxillary antral bone well suited to reconstruction of all areas of the orbit.

  12. Transconjunctival preseptal approach for orbital floor and infraorbital rim fracture.

    PubMed

    Santosh, B S; Giraddi, Girish

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the transconjunctival preseptal approach for time required for exposure, adequacy of exposure, intraoperative and postoperative complications. Materials for this study involved 15 cases of maxillofacial injuries with orbital floor and infraorbital rim fracture. The average exposure time taken for placement of incision till the exposure of the fracture was 21 min. Exposure obtained for fracture site was adequate in all cases, for the reduction of orbital floor and internal fixation of infraorbital rim. No cases had intraoperative and postoperative complications. In all cases postoperative esthetic outcome was satisfactory. The transconjunctival preseptal approach is most effective surgical access to infraorbital rim and orbital floor and even to medial orbital wall. This approach is surgically similar in providing exposure and access, but aesthetically superior to other approaches and has minimal complications. There are no disadvantages to transconjunctival preseptal approach, if performed meticulously with sound knowledge of anatomy of periorbital tissues.

  13. Chronic subperiosteal hematic cyst formation twelve years after orbital fracture repair with alloplastic orbital floor implant.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis; Lissauer, Boaz; Hornblass, Albert

    2005-03-01

    An 89-year-old female patient with a history of a left orbital floor fracture repair with synthetic implant 12 years prior, presented with a three-week history of blurry vision, inferior conjunctival chemosis and proptosis of the left eye. CT scan revealed a well-circumscribed subperiosteal lesion with superior elevation of the orbital floor implant. The patient underwent transconjunctival orbital surgery with removal of the implant and drainage of the subperiosteal hemorrhagic cyst. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course, with resolution of the proptosis, chemosis, and return of normal vision. This case represents an unusual late complication of orbital fracture repair with associated reduced visual acuity.

  14. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING STRATEGIES AND PERSPECTIVES IN ORBITAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Denise Takehana; Oliveira, Jefferson Xavier; Vannier, Michael Walter; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of multislice computed tomography (CT) for diagnosis of orbital fractures following different protocols, using an independent workstation. Materials and methods: CT images of 36 patients with maxillofacial fractures (symptomatic to orbit region) who were submitted to multislice CT scanning were analyzed, retrospectively. The images were interpreted based on 5 protocols, using an independent workstation: 1) axial (original images); 2) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); 3) 3D images; 4) association of axial/MPR/3D images and 5) coronal images. The evaluated anatomical sites were divided according to the orbital walls: lateral (with or without zygomatic frontal process fracture); medial; superior (roof) and inferior (anterior, medial). The collected data were analyzed statistically using a validity test (Youden's J index; p<0.05). The clinical and/or surgical findings (medical records) were considered as the gold standard to corroborate the diagnosis of the anatomical localization of the orbital fracture. Results: 3D-CT scanning presented sensitivity of 78.9%, which was not superior to that of MPR (84.0%), axial/MPR/3D (90.5%) and coronal images (86.1%). On the other hand, the diagnostic value of axial images was considered limited for orbital fractures region, with sensitivity of 44.2%. Conclusions: Except for the axial images, which presented a low sensitivity, all methods evaluated in this study showed high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of orbital fractures according to the proposed methodology. This protocol can add valuable information to the diagnosis of fractures using the association of axial/MPR/3D with multislice CT. PMID:19089117

  15. Reconstruction of internal orbital fractures with Vitallium mesh.

    PubMed

    Sargent, L A; Fulks, K D

    1991-07-01

    Trauma to the face frequently results in internal orbital fractures that may produce large orbital defects involving multiple walls. Accurate anatomic reconstruction of the bony orbit is essential to maintain normal appearance and function of the eye following such injuries. Autogenous bone grafts do not always produce predictable long-term support of the globe. Displacement and varying amounts of bone-graft resorption can lead to enophthalmos. This study examines the use of Vitallium mesh in the acute reconstruction of internal orbital defects. Fifty-four patients with 66 orbits underwent reconstruction of internal orbital defects with Vitallium mesh. Associated fractures were anatomically reduced and rigidly fixed. Forty-six patients and 57 orbits had adequate follow-up for analysis of results. The average follow-up was 9 months, with 85 percent of the patients followed 6 months or longer. There were no postoperative orbital infections, and none of the Vitallium mesh required removal. Large internal orbital defects can be reconstructed using Vitallium mesh with good results and little risk of infection. Vitallium mesh appears to be well tolerated in spite of free communication with the sinuses. Stable reconstruction of the internal orbit can be achieved and predictable eye position maintained without donor-site morbidity.

  16. Preseptal transconjunctival approach to the orbital floor fractures. Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, S; Scolozzi, P

    2015-12-01

    Orbital floor fractures may be reached through 2 types of conjunctival approaches, the preseptal one and the retroseptal one. While the retroseptal approach offers a more direct and easier route to the orbital rim and floor, it is associated with a significantly higher rate of lower lid complications compared to the preseptal approach. We will focus on the preseptal transconjunctival approach. The conjunctival incision is performed with a guarded needle-tip electrocautery or with a long-handled scalpel (blade No. 15) from the inferior extremity of the semilunar fold to the lateral canthal region. The subconjunctival plane is divided with Stevens scissors medially and laterally. This plane, located between the preseptal cranial conjunctival flap covered by the orbital septum and the caudal conjunctival flap covered by the orbicular muscle's fascia, is opened with the scissors toward the inferior orbital rim. The periosteum over the inferior orbital rim is incised and reflected. The subperiosteal dissection is continued toward the orbital floor. The incarcerated periorbital tissues are repositioned to expose the stable bone margins of the fracture before orbital reconstruction. The closure of the periorbita is performed with uninterrupted 5-0 Vicryl sutures. The conjunctiva is closed with a running 6-0 Maxon suture. Although technically more demanding than the retroseptal approach, the preseptal approach enables a large and safe access to the entire orbital floor by passing through an anatomical bloodless plane. This approach can also be combined with a lateral canthotomy/cantholysis and with a medial caruncular transconjunctival incision, thus providing extended exposure of the entire orbit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconstruction of Large Orbital Posterior Floor Wall Fracture Considering Orbital Floor Slope Using Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhwan; Huh, Jungah; Lee, Joonsik; Chang, Minwook; Lee, Hwa; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction of a large orbital fracture extending to the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus is difficult and challenging. In this study, the authors present transconjunctival or transcaruncular approach using endoscopy and layered porous polyethylene barrier sheets to manage large orbital floor wall fracture. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent reconstruction of large orbital floor wall fractures between June 2009 and July 2015 was conducted. Patient demographics, degree of enophthalmos, ocular motility and diplopia test results, and surgical complications were reviewed. This study included 53 eyes of 53 patients. The mean time from trauma to surgery was 34.1 days (range, 1-360 days). The average postoperative follow-up period was 6.1 months (range, 3-14 months). The degrees of enophthalmos preoperatively, and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively were -1.98 mm (range, -1.5 to -3 mm), 0.13 mm (range, -1.0 to +1.5 mm), -0.09 mm (range, -2.0 to +1.5 mm), and -0.43 mm (range, -2.0 to +1.0 mm), respectively. The mean improvement in enophthalmos at 3 months postoperation was 1.55 mm (P < 0.001). There was only 1 patient with residual 2 mm enophthalmos at 3 months postoperation. There were no definite surgical complications in any patient. Sufficient dissection to the posterior extent of the fracture and reconstruction of the orbital floor slope are the most important surgical factors to prevent residual enophthalmos. The authors believe using an endoscope and layered porous polyethylene are effective techniques in challenging patients with large orbital wall fracture.

  18. [Computed tomography in cats with craniofacial trauma with regard to maxillary and orbital fractures].

    PubMed

    Wunderlin, N; Amort, K; Wigger, A; Klumpp, S; Biel, M; Eichner, G; Kramer, M

    2012-10-17

    Computed tomographic examination of the skull of cats with craniofacial trauma. Analysis of diagnostic findings with regard to the occurrence of isolated and combined maxillary and orbital fractures. Prospective study (August 2006 - June 2010): Computed tomography (CT) of the skull of cats with craniofacial trauma. Thirty-eight cats met the inclusion criteria. Breeds were 36 Domestic Shorthair cats, one Maine Coon and one Somali cat. Age at admission ranged from 11 to 187 months. The ratio of the numbers of males to females was 22:16 (1.4). Computed tomographic examination revealed a maxillary fracture in 27 (71%) animals. Sixteen (42%) cats had multiple maxillary fractures (≥2). Twenty-eight animals (74%) displayed orbital fractures. Combined maxillary and orbital fractures occurred in 26 (68%) patients. The odds ratio of this combined occurrence was 87 (p<0.001). Sixteen (57%) of 28 cats with orbital fractures showed multiple orbital fractures (≥2). The incidence of bilateral orbital fractures was 67% (25 patients). The medial orbital wall was the most commonly fractured orbital wall (66%), and the orbital floor the second most common (61%). Computed tomographic examination of the skull of cats with craniofacial trauma showed that maxillary and orbital fractures are more common than previously described. Combined maxillary and orbital fractures occurred in more than half of the patients. In cats, orbital fractures mainly affect the medial orbital wall and the orbital floor. Cats with craniofacial trauma often have maxillary and orbital fractures. The additional information taken from the computed tomographic examination could lead to an optimised therapeutical concept.

  19. Proposed three-dimensional model of the orbit and relevance to orbital fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Fitzhugh, Alexander; Naveed, Hasan; Davagnanam, Indran; Messiha, Ashraf

    2016-07-01

    To describe the relationship of the orbital rim and depth in Far Eastern skulls by anatomical study, using morphometry to yield an octagonal three-dimensional model of the orbit. Forty-one orbits of 21 Far Eastern skulls from the Department of Anatomy of St George's, University of London were included in this study. A morphometric study was conducted, measuring between eight reproducible orbital rim landmarks to yield perimeters, and from these landmarks to the optic canal to yield orbital depth. Orbital height and width were also recorded. Results were statistically analysed to look for evidence of gender variation or laterality before comparison with those from other ethnicities. The authors then present a method for three-dimensional description of the orbit. 67 % of orbits were male. Orbital height and width were significantly greater in males (34.6 ± 2.0 and 39.4 ± 1.7, vs. 32.5 ± 2.3 and 37.2 ± 2.4 mm). Orbital perimeter tended towards being larger in males (126.3 vs. 122.2 mm, p = 0.05), as was the angle between medial and lateral walls (50.1° ± 2.0°, vs. 47.9° ± 3.0°). This study has proposed a new method for describing the orbit using three-dimensional measurements, yielding clinically useful morphometric data. These results and model have applications in surgical navigation of the orbit, repair of fractures, and prediction of post-traumatic or surgical enophthalmos.

  20. Combined Orbital Fractures: Surgical Strategy of Sequential Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Su Won; Kim, Sung Eun; Chung, Kyu Jin; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Gon

    2015-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of combined orbital floor and medial wall fractures with a comminuted inferomedial strut (IMS) is challenging and requires careful practice. We present our surgical strategy and postoperative outcomes. Methods We divided 74 patients who underwent the reconstruction of the orbital floor and medial wall concomitantly into a comminuted IMS group (41 patients) and non-comminuted IMS group (33 patients). In the comminuted IMS group, we first reconstructed the floor stably and then the medial wall by using separate implant pieces. In the non-comminuted IMS group, we reconstructed the floor and the medial wall with a single large implant. Results In the follow-up of 6 to 65 months, most patients with diplopia improved in the first-week except one, who eventually improved at 1 year. All patients with an EOM limitation improved during the first month of follow-up. Enophthalmos (displacement, 2 mm) was observed in two patients. The orbit volume measured on the CT scans was statistically significantly restored in both groups. No complications related to the surgery were observed. Conclusions We recommend the reconstruction of orbit walls in the comminuted IMS group by using the following surgical strategy: usage of multiple pieces of rigid implants instead of one large implant, sequential repair first of the floor and then of the medial wall, and a focus on the reconstruction of key areas. Our strategy of step-by-step reconstruction has the benefits of easy repair, less surgical trauma, and minimal stress to the surgeon. PMID:26217562

  1. Orbital hematoma caused by bleeding from orbital branch of the infraorbital artery after reconstruction of an orbital fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho; Kang, Young Hye

    2014-03-01

    We experienced and report on a case of retrobulbar hematoma caused by bleeding from the orbital branch of the infraorbital artery after a medial orbital wall reconstruction.A healthy 28-year-old man struck his left eye while playing baseball before admission. A computed tomographic scan revealed an approximately 13 × 12-mm-sized fracture of the left orbit medial wall. The medial orbit wall was reconstructed through a subciliary approach on the 18th day after the injury. Approximately 15 hours after the orbit wall reconstruction, the patient complained of pain in the left orbital area, headache, and vomiting. Upon an examination, swelling and ecchymosis were observed on the left eye. His visual acuity was 0.8 (oculus dexter [OD])/0.4 (oculus sinister [OS]) and the intraocular pressure was 18 (OD)/24 (OS) mm Hg by a Goldmann applanation tonometry. A computed tomographic scan showed an intraorbital hematoma and proptosis on the left side. In an emergency operation, a hematoma with a volume of approximately 2 to 3 mL was evacuated and an active bleeding point was noted on the orbital floor, which was thought to be the orbital branch of the infraorbital nerve. The bleeding point was cauterized. After the operation, his visual acuity was 1.0 (OD)/0.8 (OS) and the ocular pressure normalized to 16 (OD)/16 (OS) mm Hg by a Goldmann applanation tonometry.Close observation and meticulous hemostasis along the infraorbital groove may be needed in an orbital floor exploration to prevent postoperative orbital hematoma.

  2. Smooth nylon foil (SupraFOIL) orbital implants in orbital fractures: a case series of 181 patients.

    PubMed

    Park, D J John; Garibaldi, Daniel C; Iliff, Nicholas T; Grant, Michael P; Merbs, Shannath L

    2008-01-01

    The SupraFOIL smooth nylon foil implant is a polyamide sheet available in varying thicknesses that has been used in orbital reconstruction following trauma. The authors report their experience with smooth nylon foil implants in the repair of orbital fractures. A retrospective chart review of patients having undergone repair of orbital fractures between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2003 was conducted. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare cases with complications and those with no complications. Of 282 orbits that underwent fracture repair with alloplastic material, 87 were excluded because non-nylon foil implants were used alone or in combination with nylon foil to repair the orbital fracture. An additional 14 fractures were excluded because of insufficient clinical data or lack of follow-up, for a total of 181 orbits that underwent orbital fracture repair with only nylon foil. A transconjunctival approach was used in 98% cases, and all 181 implants were fixated with at least 1 titanium screw. Average follow-up was 362.8 days. The overall complication rate was 1.7%. One patient had an acute postoperative orbital hemorrhage (0.6% acute complication rate). Two patients had late orbital infections, 683 days and 984 days following repair (1.1% late complication rate). The authors found the smooth nylon foil implant to be safe and effective in orbital fracture repair. The lower rate of complications the authors observed compared with previously reported series may be related to implant fixation. A titanium screw secured just posterior to the orbital rim may decrease long-term complications by providing more stability than implants left without fixation.

  3. Correlation between the 2-Dimensional Extent of Orbital Defects and the 3-Dimensional Volume of Herniated Orbital Content in Patients with Isolated Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Moon, Myeong Ho; Lee, Yong Hae; Koh, In Chang; Kim, Kyu Nam; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the 2-dimensional (2D) extent of orbital defects and the 3-dimensional (3D) volume of herniated orbital content in patients with an orbital wall fracture. Methods This retrospective study was based on the medical records and radiologic data of 60 patients from January 2014 to June 2016 for a unilateral isolated orbital wall fracture. They were classified into 2 groups depending on whether the fracture involved the inferior wall (group I, n=30) or the medial wall (group M, n=30). The 2D area of the orbital defect was calculated using the conventional formula. The 2D extent of the orbital defect and the 3D volume of herniated orbital content were measured with 3D image processing software. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between the 2D and 3D parameters. Results Varying degrees of positive correlation were found between the 2D extent of the orbital defects and the 3D herniated orbital volume in both groups (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.568−0.788; R2=32.2%−62.1%). Conclusions Both the calculated and measured 2D extent of the orbital defects showed a positive correlation with the 3D herniated orbital volume in orbital wall fractures. However, a relatively large volume of herniation (>0.9 cm3) occurred not infrequently despite the presence of a small orbital defect (<1.9 cm2). Therefore, estimating the 3D volume of the herniated content in addition to the 2D orbital defect would be helpful for determining whether surgery is indicated and ensuring adequate surgical outcomes. PMID:28194344

  4. Use of copolymer polylactic and polyglycolic acid resorbable plates in repair of orbital floor fractures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jonathan; German, Michael; Wong, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The fractures of the orbital floor are common after craniofacial trauma. Repair with resorbable plates is a viable reconstructive option; however, there are few reports in the literature. This study describes our experience using copolymer polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLLA/PGA) orbital reconstruction plates (LactoSorb, Lorenz Surgical, Jacksonville, FL) in 29 cases of the orbital floor fracture repair. We conducted a retrospective review of 29 orbital floor fractures at a single institution repaired through transconjunctival, preseptal dissection using PLLA/PGA plates fashioned to repair the orbital floor defect. Associated fractures included zygomaticomaxillary, LeFort, and nasoethmoid fractures. There were six patients with complications. Four patients had transient diplopia with complete resolution of symptoms within 1 year. One patient had diplopia postoperatively, but was later lost to follow-up. Two patients have had persistent enophthalmos since 1 year. In each of these cases, the floor fracture was coincident with significant panfacial or neurotrauma. We did not encounter any adverse inflammatory reactions to the implant material itself. The study concluded that orbital floor fracture repair with resorbable plates is safe, relatively easy to perform, and in the majority of cases was effective without complications. In the presence of severe orbital trauma, more rigid implant materials may be appropriate.

  5. The effects of airbags on orbital fracture patterns in frontal automobile crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Jernigan, M Virginia

    2003-03-01

    To investigate orbital fractures that occurred in frontal automobile crashes and to determine the effects of frontal airbags on injury incidence and severity. The National Automotive Sampling System database files from 1993 to 2000 were examined. Frontal crashes were selected that included drivers and front-seat passengers only and excluded ejected occupants and rollover crashes. Orbital fractures could be closed, open, displaced, or any combination of these and were identified by using the Abbreviated Injury Scale codes. The analysis included 12,429,580 front-seat occupants from 25,464 cases. Of all occupants who were exposed to an airbag deployment, 0.09% sustained an orbital fracture. In contrast, occupants who were not exposed to an airbag deployment were more than twice as likely to sustain an orbital fracture (0.22%). In addition to reduction in incidence, airbags were also shown to decrease the severity of orbital fractures that occupants sustained. Occupants exposed to airbag deployment mostly sustained closed, less severe fractures (61.9%), whereas occupants not exposed to airbag deployment sustained the majority as more severe, open, displaced, or comminuted fractures (61.3%). This article presents the most comprehensive study of orbital fractures in automobile crashes to date. It is shown that both the incidence and the overall severity of orbital fractures decreases considerably with exposure to airbag deployment. This is accomplished because the airbag minimizes occupant contact with the windshield and steering wheel, which are the two leading sources of orbital fractures for occupants not exposed to airbag deployment.

  6. BMP implant associated with platelet-rich plasma in orbit fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Fabio Henrique; Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Schellini, Ricardo Campos; Pellizon, Claudia Helena; Hirai, Flavio Eduardo; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) implant with and without platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is supposed to accelerate fracture consolidation in the orbit fracture treatment. Thirty-six white rabbits were subjected to orbital fracture and treated in three groups: BMP implant fracture repair (G1), BMP plus PRP implant fracture repair (G2), and fracture and spontaneous repair (G3). The animals were sacrificed at 7, 30, 90, and 180 days after surgery. A radiology evaluation was carried out on the 7th day after the fracture and at the sacrifice moments. After the animals' death, the orbital content material was removed and prepared for morphological and morphometric analysis. Radiology suggested intramembranous and progressive cavitation and ossification without a reduction in implant size and with signs of calcium deposition; these events were confirmed by histological analysis, which showed a lymphomononuclear inflammatory reaction in G1 and G2, more intense 7 days after surgery and reducing after 30 days. Associating PRP with BMP did not accelerate bone induction. BMP implant promotes bone induction, integration at fracture site, scarce inflammatory reaction, and may be a good alternative in orbit fracture reconstruction. The addition of PRP to the BMP plate did not accelerate the resolution, and its use is not necessary.

  7. Treatment of Orbital Roof Blow-Up Fracture Using a Superior Blepharoplasty Incision.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Kyoichi; Enomoto, Sayaka; Aoki, Tomoko

    2015-06-01

    In orbital roof blow-up fractures, reduction can be achieved easily using an approach from the anterior cranial fossa but the procedure is highly invasive. In contrast, an orbital approach using a superior blepharoplasty incision is minimally invasive. However, if bone fragments are adhered to the dura mater, there is a risk of dura mater injury when fragments are moved for reduction. In blow-in fractures, reduction is performed by pushing the bone fragments against the anterior cranial fossa. In contrast, the procedure is difficult for blow-up fractures because bone fragments must be pulled out into the orbit through the anterior cranial fossa. Orbital blow-up fractures are often associated with intracranial injuries and frequently treated by an approach from the anterior cranial fossa. There has not yet been a report that discusses whether reduction of bone fragments should be performed in blow-up fracture without intracranial injury. In this report, we describe two cases of orbital roof blow-up fracture that did not require treatment for intracranial injury and that were treated using an orbital approach. The treatment involved only the release of orbital fat entrapped between bone fragments and did not involve reduction. The treatment outcomes were good in both cases.

  8. Penetrating injury of orbital roof and brain sparing the eye ball in a pediatric patient: A rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikul; Singh, Atul Kumar; Bhaikhel, Kulwant Singh

    2016-01-01

    Blowout fractures are a common occurrence in traumatic brain injury patients. In pediatric age group, orbital floor fracture is a common occurrence. We report a case of 2-year-old male admitted to trauma center, with penetrating injury to the left eye by the clutch of motorbike which fell on the child. Noncontrast computed tomography scan revealed fracture of the roof of left orbit with left frontal contusion sparing the left eyeball. There was also the continuous leak of brain matter from the left eye which suggested tear of dura mater. Urgent left frontal craniotomy was done with the evacuation of contusion, reconstruction of orbital roof, and duroplasty under general anesthesia.

  9. A Protocol to Reduce Interobserver Variability in the Computed Tomography Measurement of Orbital Floor Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ang, Chuan Han; Low, Jin Rong; Shen, Jia Yi; Cai, Elijah Zheng Yang; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Chan, Yiong Huak; Sundar, Gangadhara; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2015-12-01

    Orbital fracture detection and size determination from computed tomography (CT) scans affect the decision to operate, the type of surgical implant used, and postoperative outcomes. However, the lack of standardization of radiological signs often leads to the false-positive detection of orbital fractures, while nonstandardized landmarks lead to inaccurate defect measurements. We aim to design a novel protocol for CT measurement of orbital floor fractures and evaluate the interobserver variability on CT scan images. Qualitative aspects of this protocol include identifying direct and indirect signs of orbital fractures on CT scan images. Quantitative aspects of this protocol include measuring the surface area of pure orbital floor fractures using computer software. In this study, 15 independent observers without clinical experience in orbital fracture detection and measurement measured the orbital floor fractures of three randomly selected patients following the protocol. The time required for each measurement was recorded. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the surface area measurements is 0.999 (0.997-1.000) with p-value < 0.001. This suggests that any observer measuring the surface area will obtain a similar estimation of the fractured surface area. The maximum error limit was 0.901 cm(2) which is less than the margin of error of 1 cm(2) in mesh trimming for orbital reconstruction. The average duration required for each measurement was 3 minutes 19 seconds (ranging from 1 minute 35 seconds to 5 minutes). Measurements performed with our novel protocol resulted in minimal interobserver variability. This protocol is effective and generated reproducible results, is easy to teach and utilize, and its findings can be interpreted easily.

  10. "Roller coaster maneuver via lateral orbital approach" for reduction of isolated zygomatic arch fractures.

    PubMed

    Pilanci, Ozgur; Basaran, Karaca; Datli, Asli; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2013-11-01

    Numerous techniques have been reported for the reduction of zygomatic arch fractures. In this article, we aimed to describe a technique we named as "roller coaster maneuver via lateral orbital approach" to closed reduction of the isolated-type zygomatic arch fractures. Surgical outcomes of 14 patients treated with this method were outlined.

  11. Combination of absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix in orbital wall fracture for preventing herniation of orbit.

    PubMed

    Tak, Kyoung Seok; Jung, Min Su; Lee, Byeong Ho; Kim, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Duk Kyun; Jeong, Hii Sun; Park, Young Kyu; Suh, In Suck

    2014-07-01

    After restoration of orbit wall fracture, preventing sequelae is important. An absorbable mesh is commonly used in orbit wall fracture, yet it has limitation due to orbit sagging when bony defect is larger than the moderate size (1 × 1 cm2). In this study, the authors present a satisfactory result in treating orbit wall fracture larger than the moderate size with a combination of absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix.From 2009 to 2012, 63 patients with bony defect larger than the moderate size, who were treated with a combination of absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix, were reviewed retrospectively. The site of bony defect, size, and applied amount of demineralized bone matrix were reviewed, and a 2-year follow-up was done. Facial computed tomography scans were checked preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 2-year postoperative.Among the 63 patients, there were 52 men and 11 women. Mean age was 33.3 years. The most common cause was blunt blow (35 cases); mean defect size was 13.36 × 12.82 mm2 in inferior wall fracture and 20.69 × 14.41 mm2 in medial wall fracture. There was no complication except for 3 cases of infraorbital nerve hypoesthesia. A 2-year follow-up computed tomography showed that the surgical site preserved bony formation without herniation. In treating moderate-sized bony defect in orbit wall fracture, absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix can maintain structural stability through good bony formation even after degradation of absorbable mesh.

  12. Orbital fractures and ocular injury: is a postoperative ophthalmology examination necessary?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Zachary S; Boulos, Toufic; Miller, John B; Gardiner, Matthew F; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Troulis, Maria J

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether formal ophthalmology evaluation is necessary after operative repair of orbital fractures and the association of an ocular injury to the severity of facial injury. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with orbital fractures undergoing operative repair from 2005 to 2013. Subjects were included if they had undergone reconstruction of orbital floor fractures and had data from pre- and postoperative examinations by the oral and maxillofacial surgery and ophthalmology services available. The predictor variables included the service performing the ocular examination (oral and maxillofacial surgery or ophthalmology) and the number of fractures present. The outcome variables were the presence of pre- and postoperative ocular injuries. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship of the fracture number to ocular injury. A total of 28 subjects had undergone repair of orbital fractures with preoperative and postoperative examinations performed by both services. Preoperative ocular injuries were found in 17 of the 28 subjects. Those detected by oral and maxillofacial surgeons were limited to changes in visual acuity, pupillary response, and extraocular muscle dysfunction in 11 subjects. Two subjects had new postoperative ocular findings that were considered minor and did not alter management. An increasing number of facial fractures was associated with an increased risk of ocular trauma. Those with 3 or more fractures had an odds ratio of 14.625 (95% confidence interval, 2.191 to 97.612, P = .006) for the presence of ocular injury. Operative repair of orbital fractures did not lead to new ocular injuries that would change the management. Thus, those without preoperative ocular injuries will not require a formal postoperative ophthalmology examination. However, the subjects with more fractures had an increased likelihood of ocular injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  13. Successful application of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy to orbital floor trapdoor fracture in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yasunori; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Although surgical treatment of orbital floor fractures can be performed by many different approaches, the application of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for this condition has rarely been described in the literature. We report on a case of a 7-year-old boy with a trapdoor orbital floor fracture successfully treated with the application of EMMM. The patient suffered trauma to the right orbit floor and the inferior rectus was entrapped at the orbital floor. Initially, surgical repair via endoscopic endonasal approach was attempted. However, we were unable to adequately access the orbital floor through the maxillary ostium. Therefore, an alternative route of access to the orbital floor was established by EMMM. With sufficient visualization and operating space, the involved orbital content was completely released from the entrapment site and reduced into the orbit. To facilitate wound healing, the orbital floor was supported with a water-inflated urethral balloon catheter for 8 days. At follow-up 8 months later, there was no gaze restriction or complications associated with the EMMM. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of EMMM in endoscopic endonasal repair of orbital floor fracture, particularly for cases with a narrow nasal cavity such as in pediatric patients.

  14. [Reconstruction of the orbital fracture with enophthalmos using customized titanium mesh combined with Medpor].

    PubMed

    Sun, Libo; Xiao, Jingang; Lan, Yuyan; Xiong, Yilin; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Hangyu; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of customized titanium mesh, which was designed by mirror imaging and rapid prototyping technique, with Medpor applied for orbital fracture with enophthalmos. Orbital axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scan, and three-dimension CT examination were performed routinely in. 18 cases of orbital fracture with enophthalmos preoperatively. Based on the CT data, prosthesis model was designed by reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technique. The customized titanium mesh and Medpor were applied for orbital reconstruction and enophthalmos correction. Orbital reduction and globe projection were evaluated by postoperative CT scan and clinical follow-up visits. CT scans revealed that the customized titanium mesh with Medpor had great accuracy to reconstruct the orbital fracture and correct the enophthalmos in all patients without serious complications. The eye and facial appearance and function recovered significantly. No serious complication occurred in the operation and after operation. The customized titanium mesh, based on mirror imaging and rapid prototyping technique, can accurately reconstruct the orbital fractures with enophthalmos. The application of Medpor can effectively correct enophthalmos and eyeball mobility malformation.

  15. Single-stage soft tissue reconstruction and orbital fracture repair for complex facial injuries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng Sen; Matoo, Reshvin; Sun, Hong; Song, Li Yuan; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Orbital fractures with open periorbital wounds cause significant morbidity. Timing of debridement with fracture repair and soft tissue reconstruction is controversial. This study focuses on the efficacy of early single-stage repair in combined bony and soft tissue injuries. Retrospective review. Twenty-three patients with combined open soft tissue wounds and orbital fractures were studied for single-stage orbital reconstruction and periorbital soft tissue repair. Inclusion criteria were open soft tissue wounds with clinical and radiographic evidence of orbital fractures and repair performed within 48 h after injury. Surgical complications and reconstructive outcomes were assessed over 6 months. The main outcome measures were enophthalmos, pre- and post-CT imaging of orbits, scar evaluation, presence of diplopia, and eyelid position. Enophthalmos was corrected in 16/19 cases and improved in 3/19 cases. 3D reconstruction of CT images showed markedly improved orbital alignment with objective measurements of the optic foramen to cornea distance (mm) in reconstructed orbits relative to intact orbits of 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (lower 0.33, upper 0.99) mm. The mean baseline of Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale was 0.6, 95%CI (0.30-0.92), and for 6 months, the mean score was 3.4, 95%CI (3.05-3.73). Residual diplopia in secondary gazes was present in two patients; one patient had ectropion. Complications included one case of local wound infection. An early single-stage repair of combined soft tissue and orbital fractures yields satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes. Complications are low and likely related to trauma severity. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Superbubble blowout dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Mccray, Richard; Norman, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Multiple supernovae and stellar winds from OB associations carve large holes filled with hot gas in the galactic disk. These superbubbles sweep up H I into cold, thin, dense shells and eventually grow large enough to blow completely out of the galactic H I disk. When superbubbles blow out of the disk, they vent hot gas and supernova energy into the galactic corona. In this paper ZEUS, a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code, is used to model the blowout of a superbubble from exponential and Gaussian models for the vertical density stratification. The results are compared to those from the Kompaneets (thin-shell) approximation. It is found that this approximation works very well, and that most of the mass of the shell remains in the plane, with 5 percent of it accelerating upward. The venting of the hot gas and the stability of the shell depends strongly on the model of the density distribution. It is suggested that the low galactic halo actually consists of a froth of merged superbubbles.

  17. Long-term infectious complications of using porous polyethylene mesh for orbital fracture reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuefei; Li, Lunhao; Sun, Yiyuan; Fan, Xianqun; Li, Zhengkang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Porous polyethylene is a widely used implants in orbital reconstruction, on which comprehensive clinical analysis, various treatments, and different prognosis according to specific classification principles on long-term complications have not been reported. To investigate the new clinical symptoms, intraoperative findings, treatments, and outcomes of complications long period after previous surgery, resulting from the use of porous polyethylene mesh for orbital fracture reconstruction. A retrospective study was conducted on 21 patients at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital with orbital complications after orbital fracture reconstruction with porous polyethylene mesh for 4 ± 2.2 years from 2011 to 2013. These data included new clinical symptoms after previous surgery, computerized tomography data, intraoperative findings, treatments, and outcomes. Data from 21 patients were analyzed in this study. Two patients received conservative treatment, while the other 19 patients underwent surgical approaches. Classification principles for orbital complications after orbital wall defect reconstruction with porous polyethylene mesh were formulated according to patients’ new clinical symptoms, computed tomography (CT), and intraoperative findings after previous surgery. In the last follow-up, 19 patients (90.5%) were cured or improved according to our assessment principle. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 45 months (35 months in average). According to specific classification for orbital complications resulting from the use of porous polyethylene mesh for orbital fracture reconstruction, various medical treatments should be carried out, and the prognosis may be different. PMID:27336867

  18. Long-term infectious complications of using porous polyethylene mesh for orbital fracture reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuefei; Li, Lunhao; Sun, Yiyuan; Fan, Xianqun; Li, Zhengkang

    2016-06-01

    Porous polyethylene is a widely used implants in orbital reconstruction, on which comprehensive clinical analysis, various treatments, and different prognosis according to specific classification principles on long-term complications have not been reported.To investigate the new clinical symptoms, intraoperative findings, treatments, and outcomes of complications long period after previous surgery, resulting from the use of porous polyethylene mesh for orbital fracture reconstruction.A retrospective study was conducted on 21 patients at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital with orbital complications after orbital fracture reconstruction with porous polyethylene mesh for 4 ± 2.2 years from 2011 to 2013. These data included new clinical symptoms after previous surgery, computerized tomography data, intraoperative findings, treatments, and outcomes.Data from 21 patients were analyzed in this study. Two patients received conservative treatment, while the other 19 patients underwent surgical approaches. Classification principles for orbital complications after orbital wall defect reconstruction with porous polyethylene mesh were formulated according to patients' new clinical symptoms, computed tomography (CT), and intraoperative findings after previous surgery. In the last follow-up, 19 patients (90.5%) were cured or improved according to our assessment principle. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 45 months (35 months in average).According to specific classification for orbital complications resulting from the use of porous polyethylene mesh for orbital fracture reconstruction, various medical treatments should be carried out, and the prognosis may be different.

  19. Ocular and periocular injuries associated with an isolated orbital fracture depending on a blunt cranial trauma: anatomical and surgical aspects.

    PubMed

    Karabekir, H Selim; Gocmen-Mas, Nuket; Emel, Erhan; Karacayli, Umit; Koymen, Ramazan; Atar, Elmas Kagnici; Ozkan, Nezih

    2012-10-01

    The anatomical location of fractures following blunt cranio-orbital trauma is important for neurosurgeons and maxillofacial surgeons. In this study, 588 cranio-orbital fractures following blunt trauma were evaluated retrospectively with regard to the anatomical site and surgical treatment. Orbital cranial nerve injuries and the outcomes of the medical and/or surgical treatment are described. Distribution of the zygomatic complex and orbital fractures were as follows: zygomatic complex fractures (n:304), isolated orbital fractures (n:58), complex comminuted fractures (n:226). In 58 cases, 69 orbit fractures were found (11 bilateral and 47 unilateral fractures). The lateral wall was the most frequent fracture (n:63). The least frequent fracture was the roof of the orbit (n:11). The accompanying lesions were as follows: 89.65% of cases were associated with periorbital haematoma (n:52), 13.79% of cases with retrobulbar haemorrhage (n:8), 96.55% cases with periorbital soft tissue oedema (n:56), 53.45% cases with pneumocephalus (n:31), 8.62% cases with intra-parenchymal contusion (n:5), 6.89% cases with enophthalmia (n:4), 5.17% of cases with rhinorrhoea (n: 3), 5.17% cases with optic bulb injury and adnexial trauma (n:3), 32.76% cases with intra-orbital emphysema (n:19), and 20.69% with vision dysfunctions (n:12), of whom 2 had no optic nerve injury. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Systemic enzyme therapy in the treatment of children with lower orbital wall fractures].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, L A; Guseva, M R; Gorbunova, E D; Gorbunov, A V; Kazinskaia, N V

    2006-01-01

    Wobenzim, a drug for systemic enzyme therapy, was used in 26 children with lower orbital wall fractures as monotherapy in early periods (on days 1 to 7) after brain injury to improve healing conditions and to minimize the formation of scar tissues in the fractural area. A control group comprised 24 patients who received systemic dehydration and vessel-strengthening therapy. Systemic enzyme therapy with Wobenzim could reduce the attenuation time of inflammatory manifestations of injury, prevent complications, such as strangulation of the musculus rectus inferior in the fractural area and development of strangulated orbital soft tissue hernia, and substantially decrease the number of patients having indications for surgical plastic repair of the orbital wall, as compared with the control group.

  1. Late treatment of orbital fractures: a new analysis for surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Pagnoni, M; Marenco, M; Ramieri, V; Terenzi, V; Bartoli, D; Amodeo, G; Mazzoli, A; Iannetti, G

    2014-12-01

    Surgical treatment of orbital fractures should be performed without delay; in some cases acute management is not possible due to general conditions and might be delayed for weeks or months. In the latter case, the fractured fragments can consolidate improperly, causing secondary deformities of the orbital region with aesthetic and functional alteration. Surgical planning of secondary deformities is critical for adequate pre-operative planning. In the last decade an increasing number of dedicated software applications for surgical planning have been developed. Standard computed tomography (CT) or the relatively new cone beam CT can be used for diagnostic purposes, pre-surgical visual treatment outcome and virtual surgery. In this report, the authors propose their pre-operative planning analysis for surgical correction of secondary deformities of orbital fractures. The treatment of orbital fracture must, in fact, analyse not only the bone structures but the soft tissue and surrounding periorbital region. The position of the orbit in the space should be determined in relation to the surrounding structures compared to the contralateral side, if this is not affected by the trauma or pre-existing malformations.

  2. Traumatic globe luxation associated with orbital fracture in a child: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Márcio Bruno Figueiredo; Carvalho, Matheus Furtado; Ferreira, André Baptista; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2015-03-01

    Orbital fracture associated with traumatic globe luxation is rare, as it generally requires trauma with high energy for this to occur. The present case report focused on a child who had been hit by a motorcycle, leading to a globe luxation of the left eye and fractures of the superolateral orbital walls. The patient presented initial cosmetic and psychological benefits from the repositioning of the intact globe and the reduction of the orbital fractures. However, a subsequent evisceration of the globe was required due to persistent proptosis and pain. An ocular prosthesis was also implanted, thus recovering the patient's aesthetics. Thirty-four well-documented cases of traumatic globe luxation could be found in the English literature since 1970. The mean age of patients presenting traumatic globe luxation was 29.5 years. The male gender proved to be more prevalent, with traffic collisions representing the most common accident etiology. Direct orbital trauma with fractures of medial and floor walls displacing the globe into the maxillary sinus represented the most common injury mechanism (38.2 %), followed by an elongated object entering the orbit (26.5 %). Optical nerve avulsion is the most serious complication seen in association with traumatic globe luxation, with the repositioning of the initial globe, with no enucleation or evisceration, representing the main form of management.

  3. Orbit fractures: Identifying patient factors indicating high risk for ocular and periocular injury.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Brian T; Jackson, Anee Sophia; Nazir, Niaman; Hromas, Alan; Sokol, Jason A; Thurston, Todd E

    2016-02-01

    Maxillofacial trauma frequently involves the bony orbit that surrounds the ocular globe. Concomitant globe injury is a concern whenever orbit trauma occurs and in severe cases can occasionally result in vision loss. The mechanism of injury, physical exam findings, and radiographic imaging can provide useful information concerning the severity of the injury and concerns for vision loss. Using these three tools, it is hypothesized that the patient's history, physical exam, and radiographic findings can identify high-risk maxillofacial trauma patients with concomitant ocular injury. Identification of high risk patients who require comprehensive ophthalmologic evaluation may alter management and possibly preserve or restore vision. A retrospective clinical chart review was performed at a tertiary academic medical center. Subjects were identified using the institutional trauma registry. Data collected included subject demographics, patient medical records and notes, ophthalmologic testing, and radiographic imaging. The incidence of orbit fracture and concomitant ocular injury associated with the mechanism of injury, physical exam findings, and radiographic imaging was determined. Statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square and Fisher exact test. In this study, 279 subjects with orbit fractures were identified and the incidence of concomitant ocular injury was 27.6% (77 of 279). Mechanism of injury was statistically associated with an increased risk of ocular injury (P = 0.0340), with penetrating trauma being the most likely etiology. The physical exam findings of visual acuity and an afferent pupillary defect were statistically associated with ocular injury (P = 0.0029 and 0.0001, respectively). Depth of orbit fracture on radiographic imaging was statistically associated with ocular injury (P = 0.0024), with fractures extending to the posterior third of the orbit being most likely to have associated ocular injury. Maxillofacial trauma patients with orbit

  4. The use of anatomically drop-shaped bioactive glass S53P4 implants in the reconstruction of orbital floor fractures--A prospective long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stoor, P; Mesimäki, Karri; Lindqvist, Christian; Kontio, Risto

    2015-07-01

    An isolated fracture of the orbital floor needs reconstruction if there is a clear herniation of adipose tissue or of the rectus inferior muscle into the maxillary sinus. A prospective study was carried out treating 20 patients with an isolated blow-out fracture of the orbital floor or with a combined zygomatico-orbito-maxillary complex fracture, using a newly designed anatomically drop-shaped implants made of bioactive glass (BAG) S53P4. Computed tomography (CT) was performed immediately postoperatively to confirm the correct position of the plate. The patients were followed up for an average of 32 months clinically and radiologically with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for an average of 31 months. None of the patients had any signs of complications related to the implant and the clinical outcome was very good. None of the patients had persisting diplopia. The level of the pupillas was normal in 15 of 20 patients. Minor hypo-ophthalmos ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 mm was observed in three patients, and moderate hypo-ophthalmos of 2.0 mm was seen in one patient. Hyperophthalmos of 1.0 mm was seen in one patient. Minor enophthalmos on the operated side ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 mm was seen in eight patients. Mild to moderate paraesthesia of the infraorbital nerve was observed in six patients. The immediate postoperative CT and the long term follow-up MRI revealed that the drop-shaped BAG implants retained their correct position in the orbital floor and did not show any evidence of losing their original shape or material resorption. No adverse tissue reaction was associated with the material. Due to the anatomical drop shape, the implants could successfully maintain the orbital volume and compensate for the retrobulbar adipose tissue atrophy. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Template-Based Orbital Wall Fracture Treatment Using Statistical Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Hans-Martin; Huempfner-Hierl, Heike; Kruber, Daniel; Schulze, Peter; Hierl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate whether a mold generated from a statistical shape model of the orbit could be generated to provide a cost-efficient means for the treatment of orbital fractures. A statistical shape model was created from 131 computed tomographic (CT) scans of unaffected adult middle European human orbits. To generate the model, CT scans were segmented in Brainlab software, preregistered using anatomic landmarks, trimmed to an identical size, and definitely registered. Then, the model was created using the global master algorithm. Based on this model, a mold consisting of a male part and a female part was constructed and printed using a rapid prototyping technique. A statistical shape model of the human orbit was generated from 125 CT scans. Six scans (4.5%) presented major anatomic deviations and were discarded. A solid mold based on this model was printed. Using this mold, flat titanium mesh could be successfully deformed to serve as an orbital implant. A mold based on the statistical orbital shape could serve as a cost-effective means for the treatment of orbital fractures. It allows the anatomic preformation of titanium or resorbable implant material for orbital reconstruction. Because these materials could be cut from larger sheets, the use of a mold would be a cost-effective treatment alternative. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospective study on ocular motility limitation due to orbital muscle entrapment or impingement associated with orbital wall fracture.

    PubMed

    Alinasab, Babak; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Stjärne, Pär

    2017-07-01

    The recommended urgent surgical management of ocular motility restriction due to orbital muscle entrapment or impingement associated with orbital wall fracture needs to be elucidated. To evaluate the importance of the time from injury to surgery for the outcome in ocular motility and diplopia, the time lapse of ocular motility, diplopia and hypesthesia recovery. Patients with entrapment or impingement of orbital contents due to orbital wall fracture were followed up prospectively over 1year regarding ocular motility, diplopia, hypesthesia and cosmetic deformity. 21 patients (10 entrapments and 11 impingements) were included and treated surgically. The median time from injury to surgery was 36 (8-413)h for the entrapment group and 168 (48-326)h for the impingement group. The median time from study inclusion to surgery was 0 (0-1) days for the entrapment group and 1.0 (0.2-4.8) days for the impingement group. All the patients had ocular motility limitation and diplopia at the inclusion. Ocular motility improved gradually and was normal at final visit. Diplopia resolved gradually in all patients except in two with non-disturbing diplopia, at the final visit. Forced duction test was positive in 90% of the patients in the entrapment group and 70% in impingement group. At final visit, hypesthesia was found in none of the patients in the entrapment group but in 4 patients in the impingement group. In this, the first prospective long term follow up of orbital wall fractures with ocular motility restriction, we did not find any significant correlation between the time from injury to surgery and the outcomes in ocular motility and diplopia. An entrapment requires surgery as soon as possible; however, the surgical reduction is at least as important as surgical timing. Surgery should be delayed until it can be performed by an experienced surgeon. Ocular motility restriction causing diplopia due to impingement is not an ophthalmologic emergency and surgery is recommended if the

  7. Lower eyelid complications associated with transconjunctival versus subciliary approaches to orbital floor fractures.

    PubMed

    Pausch, Niels Christian; Sirintawat, Nattapong; Wagner, Rouven; Halama, Dirk; Dhanuthai, Kittipong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of lower eyelid complications after subciliary versus transconjunctival approaches to orbital floor fractures. The investigators implemented a retrospective cohort study and enrolled a sample composed of subjects who had orbital floor repair. The predictor variable was surgical approach, classified as subciliary or transconjunctival. The primary outcome variable was postoperative lower eyelid complications (ectropion, entropion, and eyelid retraction). Other variables were demographic, anatomic, or time to surgery. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. The study samples were composed of 346 patients (98 [28.3%] females; 225 [65%] underwent a subciliary approach) with a mean age of 42.7 ± 21.1 years. The subciliary approach was significantly linked to the higher rates of ectropion and the lower rates of entropion at 7 days and 6 months postoperatively. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of eyelid retraction between both groups. In the setting of orbital floor fractures, these results suggest that the use of the subciliary approach increases the frequency of ectropion, while the transconjunctival approach increases the frequency of entropion. The authors decline to comment on what the better surgical approach to the orbital floor fractures is. The selection should be based on an individual patient basis and surgeon's preference.

  8. Flow dynamics in a trough blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.

    1996-02-01

    The dynamics and geomorphological development of a trough blowout located at Fiona Beach in the Myall Lakes National Park in NSW, Australia are examined. Wind velocities and flow structure were measured utilising an array of miniature Rimco cup anemometers, Gill bi-vane and UVW instruments, and wind vanes. Flow measurements indicate that when the wind approaches the trough blowout parallel to the throat orientation, jets occur both in the deflation basin and along the erosional walls, relative flow deceleration and expansion occur up the depositional lobe, jets are formed over the depositional lobe crest accompanied by downwind flow separation on the leeward side of the lobe, and flow separation and the formation of corkscrew vortices occur over the crests of the erosional walls. Maximum erosion and transport occur up the deflation basin and onto the depositional lobe. Trough blowout morphologies are explained as a function of these flow patterns. When the wind approaches the blowout obliquely, the flow is steered considerably within the blowout. The degree and complexity of topographic steering is dependent on the blowout topography. The flow is usually extremely turbulent and large corkscrew vortices are common. The local topography of a blowout can be very important in determining flow patterns, overall sand transport and blowout evolutionary conditions and paths. Estimates of potential sand transport within the blowout may be up to two orders of magnitude lower than actual rates if remote wind data are used.

  9. Offshore blowouts, data for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Holand, P.

    1995-12-31

    Blowouts are, besides gas leakages, the major contributor to the total risk for offshore installations. Therefore, the blowout risk is always included in Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) of offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea. SINTEF Offshore Blowout Database has existed since 1984 (until 1990 it was called Marintek`s blowout database). In 1990 the responsibility of the database was transferred to SINTEF Safety and Reliability. Throughout these years the database has been used for assessing blowout risk associated to development and operation of fields offshore Norway. Six oil companies and two consultants are presently sponsoring the database. These companies are using the database when performing risk analyses. During the past three years the database has been subjected to a thorough quality improvement, both with respect to the user interface, and most important, regarding the blowout data included in the database. What is unique with this database, besides the high quality of blowout descriptions, is first that the blowout causes are categorized related to loss of primary and secondary barriers. Secondly that the user interface makes it possible to establish searches to withdraw information regarding any blowout type subjected for specific searches.

  10. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  11. Iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim during frontal trephine irrigation.

    PubMed

    Angel, Douglas; Zener, Rebecca; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2014-12-01

    Frontal sinus trephination (FST) has numerous applications in the treatment of acute and chronic sinus disease. This procedure involves making an incision at the medial aspect of the supraorbital rim and then drilling the sinus's anterior table. Placement of a frontal trephine allows for irrigation of the frontal recess in order to evacuate the frontal sinus in a minimally invasive manner. Orbital injury is a rare complication of FST. We present a case of previously unreported orbital compartment syndrome secondary to iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim as a complication of frontal trephine irrigation. We also review the literature on the applications of FST and its associated complications, and we discuss orbital compartment syndrome as a complication of sinus surgery.

  12. Isolated lesion of the medial orbital wall following endonasal surgery. Isolated fractures of the medial orbital wall.

    PubMed

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Cavina, C; Scassellati-Sforzolini, B; Vancini, F; Cavina, C

    Isolated fractures of the medial orbital wall are infrequent. The diagnostic triad includes: adduction block, exotropia with diplopia in all directions of gaze, positive passive duction in abduction. Sometimes a slight enophthalmos is present. Computed tomography shows the extension and the seat of the fracture. The authors illustrate the case of a 60 year old male who presented with a breach of the medial orbital wall following endonasal surgery. The patient was successfully operated using an iliac bone graft inserted via an eyebrow-nasal cutaneous approach, after a previous attempt with a transconjunctival approach performed in another hospital had failed. A good functional and aesthetic result was observed within the first year after surgery. After almost 11 years a full adduction is still present and diplopia is absent. The authors underline the importance of an early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. The fat-muscle entrapment should be removed and the bone defect closed. A close cooperation between ophthalmologist and plastic surgeon is suggested.

  13. Posttraumatic orbital emphysema: a numerical model.

    PubMed

    Skorek, Andrzej; Kłosowski, Paweł; Plichta, Lukasz; Raczyńska, Dorota; Zmuda Trzebiatowski, Marcin; Lemski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features-thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from 1 · 10(-3) to 1 · 10(-2) second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  14. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    PubMed Central

    Skorek, Andrzej; Kłosowski, Paweł; Plichta, Łukasz; Zmuda Trzebiatowski, Marcin; Lemski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from 1 · 10−3 to 1 · 10−2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found. PMID:25309749

  15. Repair of the Orbital Wall Fractures in Rabbit Animal Model Using Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite-Based Implant

    PubMed Central

    Gradinaru, Sinziana; Popescu, Laura Madalina; Piticescu, Roxana Mioara; Zurac, Sabina; Ciuluvica, Radu; Burlacu, Alexandrina; Tutuianu, Raluca; Valsan, Sorina-Nicoleta; Motoc, Adrian Mihail; Voinea, Liliana Mary

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) are dependent on its physical parameters. Therefore, an understanding of both surface chemistry and morphology of nanoHAp is needed in order to be able to anticipate its in vivo behavior. The aim of this paper is to characterize an engineered nanoHAp in terms of physico-chemical properties, biocompatibility, and its capability to reconstitute the orbital wall fractures in rabbits. NanoHAp was synthesized using a high pressure hydrothermal method and characterized by physico-chemical, structural, morphological, and optical techniques. X-ray diffraction revealed HAp crystallites of 21 nm, while Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images showed spherical shapes of HAp powder. Mean particle size of HAp measured by DLS technique was 146.3 nm. Biocompatibility was estimated by the effect of HAp powder on the adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in culture. The results showed that cell proliferation on powder-coated slides was between 73.4% and 98.3% of control cells (cells grown in normal culture conditions). Computed tomography analysis of the preformed nanoHAp implanted in orbital wall fractures, performed at one and two months postoperative, demonstrated the integration of the implants in the bones. In conclusion, our engineered nanoHAp is stable, biocompatible, and may be safely considered for reconstruction of orbital wall fractures. PMID:28344268

  16. Primary orbital fracture repair: development and validation of tools for morphologic and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hontscharuk, Rayisa; Fialkov, Jeffrey A; Binhammer, Paul A; McMillan, Catherine R; Antonyshyn, Oleh

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a technique for objective quantitative evaluation of outcomes of orbital reconstruction. Facial three-dimensional images were captured using a Vectra three-dimensional camera. Morphometric analysis was based on interactive anthropometric identification. The analysis was applied to a population of healthy adults (n = 13) and a population of patients following primary repair of unilateral orbital fractures (n = 13). Morphologic results following reconstruction were evaluated by identifying residual asymmetries. All subjects further completed the Derriford Appearance Questionnaire and the Orbital Appearance and Function Questionnaire.Normative reference values for periorbital asymmetry were determined in a reference population. The mean asymmetry was less than 1.6 mm for each measured morphologic feature. In the trauma population, primary orbital reconstruction effectively restored normal periorbital symmetry in 16 of 20 measured parameters. The fracture population showed no significant differences in the degree of asymmetry in globe projection, lower eyelid position, or ciliary margin length.The overall DAS59 scores were significantly higher in the fracture population (P = 0.04). This was due to significantly higher physical distress and dysfunction scores (P = 0.02), as well as a trend toward higher general and social self-consciousness scores (P = 0.06). No significant difference in facial self-consciousness was noted (P = 0.21). Thus, although primary orbital reconstruction was effective in restoring periorbital morphology, patients still experienced a higher level of physical distress and dysfunction than their nontraumatized counterparts. This was in accordance with patient self-report, which indicated that a greater percentage of patients were significantly bothered by functional outcomes postoperatively as opposed to appearance.

  17. Acoustic characterization of flame blowout phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Suraj

    Combustor blowout is a very serious concern in modern land-based and aircraft engine combustors. The ability to sense blowout precursors can provide significant payoffs in engine reliability and life. The objective of this work is to characterize the blowout phenomenon and develop a sensing methodology which can detect and assess the proximity of a combustor to blowout by monitoring its acoustic signature, thus providing early warning before the actual blowout of the combustor. The first part of the work examines the blowout phenomenon in a piloted jet burner. As blowout was approached, the flame detached from one side of the burner and showed increased flame tip fluctuations, resulting in an increase in low frequency acoustics. Work was then focused on swirling combustion systems. Close to blowout, localized extinction/re-ignition events were observed, which manifested as bursts in the acoustic signal. These events increased in number and duration as the combustor approached blowout, resulting an increase in low frequency acoustics. A variety of spectral, wavelet and thresholding based approaches were developed to detect precursors to blowout. The third part of the study focused on a bluff body burner. It characterized the underlying flame dynamics near blowout in greater detail and related it to the observed acoustic emissions. Vorticity was found to play a significant role in the flame dynamics. The flame passed through two distinct stages prior to blowout. The first was associated with momentary strain levels that exceed the flame's extinction strain rate, leading to flame "holes". The second was due to large scale alteration of the fluid dynamics in the bluff body wake, leading to violent flapping of the flame front and even larger straining of the flame. This led to low frequency acoustic oscillations, of the order of von Karman vortex shedding. This manifested as an abrupt increase in combustion noise spectra at 40-100 Hz very close to blowout. Finally, work

  18. Patient specific implants (PSI) in reconstruction of orbital floor and wall fractures.

    PubMed

    Gander, Thomas; Essig, Harald; Metzler, Philipp; Lindhorst, Daniel; Dubois, Leander; Rücker, Martin; Schumann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the orbital wall and floor can be challenging due to the demanding three-dimensional anatomy and limited intraoperative overview. Misfitting implants and inaccurate surgical technique may lead to visual disturbance and unaesthetic results. A new approach using individually manufactured titanium implants (KLS Martin, Group, Germany) for daily routine is presented in the current paper. Preoperative CT-scan data were processed in iPlan 3.0.5 (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany) to generate a 3D-reconstruction of the affected orbit using the mirrored non-affected orbit as template and the extent of the patient specific implant (PSI) was outlined and three landmarks were positioned on the planned implant in order to allow easy control of the implant's position by intraoperative navigation. Superimposition allows the comparison of the postoperative result with the preoperative planning. Neither reoperation was indicated due to malposition of the implant and the ocular bulb nor visual impairments could be assessed. PSI allows precise reconstruction of orbital fractures by using a complete digital workflow and should be considered superior to manually bent titanium mesh implants.

  19. Single-donor allogeneic platelet fibrin glue and osteoconductive scaffold in orbital floor fracture reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tim-Mo; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Tsai, Jui-Che; Burnouf, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    Commonly used materials for orbital floor fracture reconstruction include autologous cranial bone graft and titanium mesh. We have evaluated here a biomaterial combining biphasic calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite [HA]/β-tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) osteoconductive scaffold with single-donor allogeneic platelet fibrin glue. The study was conducted on 10 consecutive patients with a follow-up of up to 4 years. Platelet fibrin glue was prepared by mixing equal volumes of single-donor platelet-rich plasma and cryoprecipitate with HA/β-TCP followed by activation with human thrombin prepared by plasma activation. Postoperative evaluations included serial photographs, repeated physical examination, and 3-dimensional computed tomography scan performed 2 years after surgery. The fibrin-rich platelet biomaterial was easy to mold and to apply on the surgical site allowing the surgeon to sculpt accurately the bone defect, providing mechanical stability while avoiding spillage of the scaffold. No infection of the orbit or extrusion of HA/β-TCP was observed. Ocular motility was normal, and no diplopia or enophthalmos of the injured orbit was noted. Coronal computed tomography scans of the reconstructed orbits revealed good restoration of the orbital floor defect in all 10 patients. The use of single-donor platelet fibrin glue combined with an osteoconductive scaffold offers a valuable alternative to autologous cranial bone graft or titanium mesh in the reconstruction of orbital floor bone defect.

  20. Influence of kinesiologic tape on postoperative swelling, pain and trismus after zygomatico-orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Ristow, Oliver; Pautke, Christoph; Victoria Kehl; Koerdt, Steffen; Schwärzler, Katharina; Hahnefeld, Lilian; Hohlweg-Majert, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    Surgical treatment of zygomatico-orbital (ZO) fractures is a common procedure in maxillofacial surgery. Often accompanied by pain, trismus and swelling, postoperative morbidity is a major disadvantage, affecting patients' quality of life. The appliance of kinesiologic tape (KT) improves the blood and lymph flow, removing congestions of lymphatic fluid and haemorrhages. The aim of this study was to find out if the application of kinesiologic tape prevents or improves swelling, pain and trismus after zygomatico-orbital fracture surgery, improving patients' postoperative quality of life. A total of 30 patients were assigned for treatment of zygomatico-orbital fractures and were randomly divided into treatment either with or without kinesiologic tape. Tape was applied directly after surgery and maintained for at least 5 days postoperatively. Facial swelling was quantified using a five-line measurement at six specific time points. Pain and degree of mouth opening was measured. Patient's subjective feeling and satisfaction was queried. The results of this study show that application of kinesiologic tape after zygomatico-orbital surgery significantly reduced the incidence of swelling with an earlier swelling maximum, and decreased the maximum turgidity for more than 60% during the first 2 days after surgery. Although, kinesiologic tape has no significant influence on pain control and trismus, mouth opening increased earlier after operation in the kinesiologic tape group compared to the no-kinesiologic tape group. Furthermore, patients with kinesiologic tape felt significantly lower morbidity than those without kinesiologic tape. Therefore kinesiologic tape is a promising, simple, less traumatic, economical approach, which is free from adverse reaction and improves patients' quality of life.

  1. Orbital emphysema after a protracted episode of sneezing in a patient with no history of trauma or sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Khader, Qasim A; Abdul-Baqi, Khader J

    2010-11-01

    Orbital emphysema is a benign self-limiting condition. It can occur directly (as a result of trauma to the face) or indirectly (secondary to a blowout fracture). We report a case of orbital emphysema in a 38-year-old man who presented with ecchymosis of the right eye, pressure within the right orbit, and periorbital swelling following a protracted episode of vigorous sneezing. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography. Systemic antibiotics were given, and the patient was cautioned to avoid blowing his nose. His signs and symptoms resolved within 1 week.

  2. Orbital fracture and eyeball rupture caused by golf-club injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of an orbital fracture and an eyeball rupture caused by a golf-club injury. A 75-year-old man was struck in his right eye by a golf club while watching behind his son swinging a hybrid-type golf club at his home. A 70-mm muscle-depth laceration was present in the infraorbital area with active bleeding. Computed tomographic imaging of the face revealed a rupture of the right eyeball; fractures in the superior, medial, lateral, and inferior wall of the right orbit; a fracture in the right zygomaticofrontal junction; and a small amount of pneumocephalus in the parafalx region. Under general anesthesia, evisceration of the right eyeball was performed. Not only golfers but also people just watching or passing by can be injured by an errantly struck golf ball or swung golf club. Elderly people as well as children should be instructed in technique and safety and also be supervised when playing golf. Also, the public should be educated about the risk of eye injuries and the benefits of wearing a protective eyewear.

  3. Prototyping for the treatment of late zygomatic-orbital fracture: A case report.

    PubMed

    do Ó Silva, Amanda Lúcio; Dias, Isabella Jardelino; Grempel, Rafael Grotta; de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo; da Silva Oliveira Brito, Nadja Maria; de Castro Gomes, Daliana Queiroga

    2017-01-01

    Zygomatic-orbital complex fractures are the most common facial traumas that can result in severe esthetic and functional sequelae. Surgical correction of these fractures is a delicate approach and prototyping is an excellent tool to facilitate this procedure. A 27-year-old man, a motorcycle accident victim, was hospitalized in the intensive care unit for 30days. After this period, facial fractures were treated surgically, leaving sequelae such as enophthalmos, dystopia and loss of projection of the zygomatic arch. A second intervention was planned after one year for reconstruction of the orbit with the help of prototyping. Better outcomes were achieved than in the first intervention. This report permits to compare the result of conventional surgery and the use of a prototype in the same patient. Noticeably better outcomes were achieved with the second approach. Prototyping made the surgical procedure more predictable and reduced operative time because of the possibility of using preshaped titanium plates. Prototyping was found to be an excellent option to overcome the deficiencies of the conventional technique, recovering the functional and esthetic characteristics of the patient's face and ensuring a markedly satisfactory outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Orbital roof fracture and orbital cellulitis secondary to halo pin penetration: case report.

    PubMed

    Menon, K Venugopal; Al Rawi, Asif Esam; Taif, Sawsan; Al Ghafri, Khalifa; Mollahalli, Kishore Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective To report and discuss a rare complication after a patient was treated conservatively with a halo vest. Methods A 51-year-old man sustained a hangman's injury of the C2 vertebra following a motor vehicle collision. He was treated conservatively in a halo vest appliance and following mobilization was discharged from the hospital. Two weeks after discharge, the patient presented to the emergency department complaining of proptosis, ptosis, diplopia, and pin loosening. He was readmitted to the hospital, the halo vest was removed, and urgent imaging studies including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed. They revealed that one of the halo pins had penetrated the orbital roof with active infection of the extraocular soft tissues. In consultation with the ophthalmologist, he was treated conservatively with antibiotics for 10 days. Results His ophthalmologic complaints resolved gradually and his eye returned to normal appearance and function. In the meantime, he was immobilized in a sterno-occipital mandibular immobilizer brace. Conclusion Though rare, penetrating injuries after cranial pin insertion can occur. Halo devices must be applied by, or under close supervision of, experienced personnel to avoid such complications, and halo vests should be reviewed frequently to detect such incidents early.

  5. Treatment of Orbital Medial Wall Fractures with Titanium Mesh Plates Using Retrocaruncular Approach: Outcomes with Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gerbino, Giovanni; Zavattero, Emanuele; Viterbo, Stefano; Ramieri, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    Surgical management of medial wall orbital fractures should be considered to avoid diplopia and posttraumatic enophthalmos. Treatment of these fractures remains a challenge for the maxillofacial surgeon because of complex anatomy and limited vision. This article aims to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes in the repair of medial orbital wall fractures using a retrocaruncular approach and titanium meshes, comparing the placement of the titanium mesh with three different techniques: (1) conventional free hand under direct vision, (2) with the assistance of an endoscope, and (c) with the assistance of a navigation system. Eighteen patients who underwent surgery for orbital medial wall fracture were enrolled in the study. On the basis of the implant placement technique, three groups were identified: group 1 (CONV), conventional free hand under direct vision; group 2 (ENDO), endoscopically assisted; group 3 (NAVI), a navigational system assisted (BrainLab, Feldkirchen, Germany). The postoperative quality of orbital reconstruction was assessed as satisfactory in 12 cases, good in 4 cases, and unsatisfactory in 2 cases. Particularly in group 1 (CONV) in four patients out of eight, the posterior ledge of the fracture was not reached by the implant and in one patient the mesh hinged toward the ethmoid. In group 3 (NAVI), in one patient out of five, the posterior ledge of the fracture was not reached. In conclusion, titanium orbital mesh plates and retrocaruncular approach are a reliable method to obtain an accurate orbital medial wall reconstruction. The use of endoscopic assistance through the surgical incisions improves accuracy of treatment allowing better visualization of the surgical field. Navigation aided surgery is a feasible technique especially for complex orbital reconstruction to improve predictability and outcomes in orbital repair. PMID:26576238

  6. Maxillofacial Fractures: Midface and Internal Orbit-Part I: Classification and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mast, Gerson; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Litschel, Ralph; Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2015-08-01

    Fractures of the midface and internal orbit occur isolated or in combination with other injuries. Frequently, the patients are first seen in emergency rooms responsible for the coordination of initial diagnostic procedures, followed by the transfer to specialties for further treatment. It is, therefore, important for all physicians treating facial trauma patients to understand the basic principles of injuries to the midface. Thus, this article aims to describe the anatomy and the current classification systems in use, the related clinical symptoms, and the essential diagnostic measures to obtain precise information about the injury pattern.

  7. Application of Rapid Prototyping Technique and Intraoperative Navigation System for the Repair and Reconstruction of Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Lee, Yong Hae; Ruy, Wan Chul; Roe, Young; Moon, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Restoring the orbital cavity in large blow out fractures is a challenge for surgeons due to the anatomical complexity. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes and orbital volume after orbital wall fracture repair using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique and intraoperative navigation system. Methods This prospective study was conducted on the medical records and radiology records of 12 patients who had undergone a unilateral blow out fracture reconstruction using a RP technique and an intraoperative navigation system from November 2014 to March 2015. The surgical results were assessed by an ophthalmic examination and a comparison of the preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. Results All patients had a successful treatment outcome without complications. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant decrease in the mean OVR from 1.0952±0.0662 (ranging from 0.9917 to 1.2509) preoperatively to 0.9942±0.0427 (ranging from 0.9394 to 1.0680) postoperatively. Conclusion The application of a RP technique for the repair of orbital wall fractures is a useful tool that may help improve the clinical outcomes by understanding the individual anatomy, determining the operability, and restoring the orbital cavity volume through optimal implant positioning along with an intraoperative navigation system. PMID:28913272

  8. Application of Rapid Prototyping Technique and Intraoperative Navigation System for the Repair and Reconstruction of Orbital Wall Fractures.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Lee, Yong Hae; Ruy, Wan Chul; Roe, Young; Moon, Myung Ho; Jung, Sung Gyun

    2016-09-01

    Restoring the orbital cavity in large blow out fractures is a challenge for surgeons due to the anatomical complexity. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes and orbital volume after orbital wall fracture repair using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique and intraoperative navigation system. This prospective study was conducted on the medical records and radiology records of 12 patients who had undergone a unilateral blow out fracture reconstruction using a RP technique and an intraoperative navigation system from November 2014 to March 2015. The surgical results were assessed by an ophthalmic examination and a comparison of the preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. All patients had a successful treatment outcome without complications. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant decrease in the mean OVR from 1.0952±0.0662 (ranging from 0.9917 to 1.2509) preoperatively to 0.9942±0.0427 (ranging from 0.9394 to 1.0680) postoperatively. The application of a RP technique for the repair of orbital wall fractures is a useful tool that may help improve the clinical outcomes by understanding the individual anatomy, determining the operability, and restoring the orbital cavity volume through optimal implant positioning along with an intraoperative navigation system.

  9. Examination of Relationship Between Photonic Signatures and Fracture Strength of Fused Silica Used in Orbiter Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Estes, Linda R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Lankford, James, Jr.; Lesniak, Jon

    2011-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outermost pane of the orbiter windows. Four categories of damage: hyper-velocity impacts that occur during space-flight (HVI); hypervelocity impacts artificially made at the Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F); impacts made by larger objects falling onto the pane surface to simulate dropped items on the window during service/storage of vehicle (Bruises); and light scratches from dull objects designed to mimic those that might occur by dragging a dull object across the glass surface (Chatter Checks) are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses, examined with the GFP and other methodologies, and broken using the ASTM Standard C1499-09 to measure the fracture strength. A correlation is made between the fracture strength and damage-site measurements including geometrical measurements and GFP measurements of photoelastic retardation (stress patterns) surrounding the damage sites. An analytical damage model to predict fracture strength from photoelastic retardation measurements is presented and compared with experimental results.

  10. Treatment of orbital floor fracture using a periosteum-polymer complex.

    PubMed

    Asamura, Shinichi; Ikada, Yoshito; Matsunaga, Kazuhide; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Isogai, Noritaka

    2010-04-01

    Various materials for the reconstruction of bone defects in orbital floor fractures have been developed and applied clinically. Recently, reconstruction using polymers, in place of autologous bone and artificial materials, has been actively introduced, but there are problems, such as the size of reconstructable bone defects and the decomposition rate of polymers. A basic study was performed on bone regeneration using a periosteum-polymer complex produced by attaching periosteum to a biodegradable polymer sheet. In this study, patients with orbital floor fractures were evaluated clinically who had undergone reconstruction of orbital floor defects of the using a periosteum-polymer complex produced by applying periosteum to an Hydroxyapatite-[poly (l-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone)](HA-P (CL/LA)) sheet and the ilium in the previous 3 years. A bone defect of less than 2.5cm(2) area was defined as small, that of 2.5-4cm(2) as intermediate, and that of more than 4cm(2) as a large bone defect. For small bone defects, hypoaesthesia in the infraorbital nerve was observed in one patient each of the periosteum-polymer complex and ilium groups. Regarding intermediate bone defects, diplopia and hypoaesthesia in the infraorbital nerve were observed in one patient in each of the two groups. For large bone defects, diplopia was observed in one patient each for the periosteum-polymer complex and ilium groups, and hypoaesthesia of the infraorbital nerve was only detected in one patient of the former group. Not more than 2mm of enophthalmos was detected in any patient. The anatomical eyeball position and eyeball movement were normal after surgical treatment using the periosteum-polymer complex, just as in reconstruction using autologous bone.

  11. Penetrating injury of orbital roof and brain sparing the eye ball in a pediatric patient: A rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikul; Singh, Atul Kumar; Bhaikhel, Kulwant Singh

    2016-01-01

    Blowout fractures are a common occurrence in traumatic brain injury patients. In pediatric age group, orbital floor fracture is a common occurrence. We report a case of 2-year-old male admitted to trauma center, with penetrating injury to the left eye by the clutch of motorbike which fell on the child. Noncontrast computed tomography scan revealed fracture of the roof of left orbit with left frontal contusion sparing the left eyeball. There was also the continuous leak of brain matter from the left eye which suggested tear of dura mater. Urgent left frontal craniotomy was done with the evacuation of contusion, reconstruction of orbital roof, and duroplasty under general anesthesia. PMID:27606024

  12. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF STANDARD AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-10-10

    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adopt spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event.

  13. Management of Carotid Blowout from Radiation Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Gleysteen, John; Clayburgh, Daniel; Cohen, James

    2016-06-01

    Although the incidence of carotid blowout has decreased with the advent of better reconstructive techniques, it remains a real risk after major head and neck surgery, especially in an irradiated field. A systematic, multidisciplinary approach incorporating appropriate history and physical examination, adequate resuscitation, diagnostic computed tomography, and diagnostic and therapeutic angiography can manage most of these patients in a safe and effective manner. Surgery has a limited role in acute management, although surgical techniques are useful both for prevention of this problem and for wound management after carotid blowout. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors

    DOEpatents

    Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

    2006-08-15

    The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

  15. The Dimensions of the Orbital Cavity Based on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Human Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Bloch, Sune Land; Buchwald, Christian von

    2016-06-01

    Blow-out fractures affect the volume and surface area of the orbital cavity. Estimation of these values after the trauma may help in deciding whether or not a patient is a candidate for surgery. Recent studies have provided estimates of orbital volume and area of bone defect, and correlated them with the degree of enophthalmos. However, a large degree of biological variation between individuals may preclude such absolute values from being successful indicators for surgery.Stereological methods have been used to estimate orbital cavity volume in a few studies, but to date these have not been used for surface area. To authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have measured the entire surface area of the orbital cavity.The volume and surface area of the orbital cavity were estimated in computed tomography scans of 11 human cadavers using unbiased stereological sampling techniques. The mean (± SD) total volume and total surface area of the orbital cavities was 24.27 ± 3.88 cm and 32.47 ± 2.96 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference in volume (P = 0.315) or surface area (P = 0.566) between the 2 orbital cavities.The stereological technique proved to be a robust and unbiased method that may be used as a gold standard for comparison with automated computer software. Future imaging studies in blow-out fracture patients may be based on individual and relative calculation involving both herniated volume and fractured surface area in relation to the total volume and surface area of the uninjured orbital cavity.

  16. Organized investigation expedites insurance claims following a blowout

    SciTech Connect

    Armstreet, R.

    1996-01-22

    Various types of insurance policies cover blowouts to different degrees, and a proper understanding of the incident and the coverage can expedite the adjustment process. Every well control incident, and the claim arising therefrom, has a unique set of circumstances which must be analyzed thoroughly. A blowout incident, no matter what size or how severe, can have an emotional impact on all who become involved. Bodily injuries or death of friends and coworkers can result in additional stress following a blowout. Thus, it is important that all parties involved remain mindful of sensitive matters when investigating a blowout. This paper reviews the definition of a blowout based on insurance procedures and claims. It reviews blowout expenses and contractor cost and accepted well control policies. Finally, it reviews the investigation procedures normally followed by an agent and the types of information requested from the operator.

  17. Dynamic Blowout Risk Analysis Using Loss Functions.

    PubMed

    Abimbola, Majeed; Khan, Faisal

    2017-08-11

    Most risk analysis approaches are static; failing to capture evolving conditions. Blowout, the most feared accident during a drilling operation, is a complex and dynamic event. The traditional risk analysis methods are useful in the early design stage of drilling operation while falling short during evolving operational decision making. A new dynamic risk analysis approach is presented to capture evolving situations through dynamic probability and consequence models. The dynamic consequence models, the focus of this study, are developed in terms of loss functions. These models are subsequently integrated with the probability to estimate operational risk, providing a real-time risk analysis. The real-time evolving situation is considered dependent on the changing bottom-hole pressure as drilling progresses. The application of the methodology and models are demonstrated with a case study of an offshore drilling operation evolving to a blowout. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Superior oblique muscle entrapment in orbital fracture presenting as acquired brown-like syndrome: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Adulkar, Namrata; Kim, Usha; Shetty, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric orbital trauma with fracture involving the junction of roof and medial wall leading to superior oblique entrapment is rare. Here the authors report a case of orbital fracture at the junction of roof and medial wall with entrapment of the superior oblique muscle presenting clinically as canine tooth syndrome which was surgically released. Postoperatively, the ocular motility improved, and the patient was relieved of diplopia. They recommend early surgical exploration in such cases, which lead to successful resolution of diplopia.

  19. Reconstruction of a Complicated Orbital Depression Fracture with Medial Wall and Globe Repositioning in a Horse: A Collaboration Across Disciplines and Specialties.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Mattie; Caldwell, Fred; Gillen, Alexandra; Hespel, Adrien; Budny, Patrick; Abarca, Eva

    2016-05-01

    To report the surgical reconstruction of a complicated orbital depression fracture in a horse with emphasis on medial wall and globe repositioning. Clinical report. A 6 year old Irish Sport Horse gelding. The eventer presented with acute, severe orbital trauma and globe displacement. After initial elevation of the depression fractures of the facial bones and reconstruction of the orbit, the globe was recessed secondary to displacement of the medial wall and floor of the orbit within the conchofrontal sinus. A three-dimensional model of the fracture configuration was used for presurgical planning to reposition the globe. During a subsequent surgical procedure, a resorbable plate was placed in the floor of the orbit and the medial orbital wall and globe were repositioned using a sinoscopic approach and stabilized with the placement of tissue expanders within the conchofrontal sinus. The tissue expanders were subsequently removed after 3 weeks under standing sedation. The right globe was successfully repositioned in a more correct anatomical orientation and the horse resumed work 3 months postoperatively, and successfully competed at its previous level 5 months postoperatively. No visual deficits have been reported by the owners. Efforts to restore the medial wall and/or floor of the orbit with concurrent globe repositioning should be considered in horses with severe orbital depression fractures that result in abnormal globe position. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Modified transconjunctival lower lid approach for orbital fractures in East Asian patients: the lateral paracanthal incision revisited.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeonghoon; Lee, Gordon K; Kwon, Sung Tack; Kim, Suk Wha; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2014-11-01

    Optimal repair of an orbital fracture requires adequate exposure into the orbit. The transconjunctival approach with lateral canthotomy is a valid option in East Asian patients, who are especially sensitive to the appearance of an external skin scar, although one must also recognize the potential complications associated with eyelid aperture mechanics. The authors report the modification of the transconjunctival approach, in which a lateral paracanthal incision is made along with division of the lateral tarsal plate but not at the lateral canthus. This was developed to overcome the complications of traditional lateral cantholysis. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who had received the modified transconjunctival incision. Patient demographics, injury characteristics, and surgical outcomes were evaluated. The baseline demographics of 30 patients in this study was typical of orbital fractures in the Korean population. A take-back operation was required in one case of preseptal hematoma. The mean follow-up period was 6 months, and no long-term functional complications were identified. Of the 30 total patients, 29 showed excellent aesthetic outcome. One patient did present with postoperative notch deformity but did not feel the need for a revision operation. The transconjunctival approach with a lateral paracanthal incision is an alternative approach to the orbital wall. The decoupling of the lower eyelid through the lateral portion of the tarsal plate provides excellent exposure of the orbital floor and provides a reliable and consistent landmark by which the anatomy of the eyelid can be restored. The aesthetic and functional outcomes are excellent. Therapeutic, IV.

  1. 16 CFR 1507.6 - Burnout and blowout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burnout and blowout. 1507.6 Section 1507.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.6 Burnout and blowout. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall...

  2. 16 CFR 1507.6 - Burnout and blowout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burnout and blowout. 1507.6 Section 1507.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.6 Burnout and blowout. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall...

  3. 16 CFR 1507.6 - Burnout and blowout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burnout and blowout. 1507.6 Section 1507.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.6 Burnout and blowout. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall...

  4. 16 CFR 1507.6 - Burnout and blowout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burnout and blowout. 1507.6 Section 1507.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.6 Burnout and blowout. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall...

  5. 16 CFR 1507.6 - Burnout and blowout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burnout and blowout. 1507.6 Section 1507.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.6 Burnout and blowout. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall...

  6. Blowout preventer having a variable ram seal

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, N.A.

    1982-06-01

    A blowout preventer is disclosed as including a ram-type seal element which can be compressed and deformed to seal around a variety of pipe sizes. The seal element is molded from a resilient rubber material and includes a generally semicircular section to sealingly engage pipes. A plurality of metallic support elements are embedded in the seal to support the rubber material for deformation essentially only in a radial inward direction to conform to the drill string pipe size, when force is applied to the seal by the ram hydraulic system.

  7. A STANDARD-TO-BLOWOUT JET

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chang; Deng Na; Liu Rui; Wang Shuo; Wang Haimin; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    The commonly observed jets provide critical information on the small-scale energy release in the solar atmosphere. We report a near disk-center jet on 2010 July 20, observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In this event, the standard interchange magnetic reconnection between an emerging flux spanning 9 x 10{sup 3} km and ambient open fields is followed by a blowout-like eruption. In the 'standard' stage, as the emerging negative element approached the nearby positive network fields, a jet with a dome-like base in EUV grew for 30 minutes before the jet spire began to migrate laterally with enhanced flux emergence. In the 'blowout' stage, the above converging fields collided and the subsequent cancellation produced a UV microflare lasting seven minutes, in which the dome of the jet seemed to be blown out as (1) the spire swung faster and exhibited an unwinding motion before vanishing, (2) a rising loop and a blob erupted leaving behind cusped structures, with the blob spiraling outward in acceleration after the flare maximum, and (3) ejecting material with a curtain-like structure at chromospheric to transition-region temperatures also underwent a transverse motion. It is thus suggested that the flare reconnection rapidly removes the outer fields of the emerging flux to allow its twisted core field to erupt, a scenario favoring the jet-scale magnetic breakout model as recently advocated by Moore et al. in 2010.

  8. Inline Repair of Blowouts During Laser Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. S.; Olsen, F. O.; Kristiansen, M.; Madsen, O.

    In a current laser welding production process of components of stainless steel, a butt joint configuration may lead to failures in the form of blowouts, causing an unacceptable welding quality. A study to improve the laser welding process was performed with the aim of solving the problem by designing a suitable pattern of multiple small laser spots rather than a single spot in the process zone. The blowouts in the process are provoked by introducing small amounts of zinc powder in the butt joint. When the laser heats up the zinc, this rapidly evaporates and expands, leaving the melt pool to be blown away locally. Multiple spot pattern designs are tested. Spot patterns are produced by applying diffractive optics to a beam from a single mode fiber laser. Results from welding while applying spot patterns both with and without trailing spots are presented. Data showing the power ratio between a trailing spot and two main spots as a function of spot distance is also presented. The results of the study show that applying multiple spots in the welding process may improve the process stability when welding materials with small impurities in the form of zinc particles.

  9. Orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2003-06-01

    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  10. Carotid blowout syndrome in patients treated by larynx cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Betances Reinoso, Frank Alberto; Osorio Velasquez, Alejandra; Castro Macia, Olalla; Gonzalez Cortés, Maria Jesus; Araujo Nores, Jesus

    2016-09-29

    Carotid blowout syndrome is an uncommon complication for patient treated by head and neck tumours, related with a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to study the risk of carotid blowout in a large cohort of patients treated only by larynx cancer. Retrospective analysis of patients older than 18 years, treated by larynx cancer who developed a carotid blowout syndrome in a tertiary academic centre. 197 patients met the inclusion criteria, 192 (98.4%) were male and 5 (1.6%) were female. 6 (3%) patients developed a carotid blowout syndrome, 4 patients had a carotid blowout syndrome located in the internal carotid artery and 2 in the common carotid artery. According to the type of rupture, 3 patients suffer a type I, 2 patients a type III and 1 patient a type II. Five of those patients had previously undergone radiotherapy and all patients underwent total laryngectomy. We found a statistical correlation between open surgical procedures (p=0.004) and radiotherapy (p=0.023) and the development of a carotid blowout syndrome. Carotid blowout syndrome is an uncommon complication in patients treated by larynx tumours. According to our results, patient underwent radiotherapy and patients treated with open surgical procedures with pharyngeal opening have a major risk to develop this kind of complication. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Posterior Wall Blowout in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Justin J.; Dean, Chase S.; Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J.; Cram, Tyler R.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Violation of the posterior femoral cortex, commonly referred to as posterior wall blowout, can be a devastating intraoperative complication in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and lead to loss of graft fixation or early graft failure. If cortical blowout occurs despite careful planning and adherence to proper surgical technique, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and alternative fixation techniques is imperative to ensure optimal patient outcomes. This article highlights anatomic considerations for femoral tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction and techniques for avoidance and salvage of a posterior wall blowout. PMID:27335885

  12. Comparison of the supporting strength of a poly-L-lactic acid sheet and porous polyethylene (Medpor) for the reconstruction of orbital floor fractures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the supporting strength of the curved poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) sheet and porous polyethylene (Medpor) for reconstruction of orbital floor fractures. For one-half and two-thirds orbital floor fractures, reconstruction was performed using the PLLA sheet and Medpor. The PLLA sheet was molded to fit the orbital floor (concavity). The anterior portion (1 cm) was curved to fit the inferior orbital rim and fixed with a screw. Medpor was designed to fit the orbital floor. A screw was fixed 6 mm away from the anterior border of the orbital floor. Each implant was hung by wire, and the degree of sagging of the implant was measured using micrometers by the power of a force gauge. For one-half orbital floor fractures, the power of the PLLA sheet to sag 5 mm was 2.46 (SD, 0.14) N, and that of Medpor was 0.59 (SD, 0.04) N. The power of the PLLA sheet to sag 10 mm was 6.9 (SD, 0.14) N, and that of Medpor was 1.52 (SD, 0.16) N. For two-thirds orbital floor fractures, the power of the PLLA sheet to sag 5 mm was 1.79 (SD, 0.24) N, and that of Medpor was 0.39 (SD, 0.04) N. For 10 mm of sagging, the power of the PLLA sheet was 5.61 (SD, 0.29) N, and that of Medpor was 0.94 (SD, 0.09) N. For sagging of 15 mm, the power of the PLLA sheet was 8.99 (SD, 0.16) N, and that of Medpor was 2.98 (SD, 0.24) N. The PLLA sheet was irreversibly bent when the force reached approximately 8 to 9 N. For Medpor, the degree of sagging during the early stage was larger than at the later stage. In all situations, the supporting power of the PLLA sheet was greater than that of Medpor. The differences were significant in all situations (P = 0.000). The degree of sagging in one-half orbital floor fractures was 2.87 mm for the PLLA sheet and 7.96 mm for Medpor. There was an increased orbital volume of 0.4 mL with the PLLA sheet and 1.19 mL for Medpor. The predicted enophthalmos was 0.41 mm with the PLLA sheet and 1.07 mm with Medpor. The degree of sagging for the two

  13. Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    A fracture is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open ... falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the ...

  14. Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D. ); Moore, P. )

    1993-08-30

    The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

  15. Modelling turbulent flame ignition and blowout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.; Heywood, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    A statistical mixing model incorporating an overall rate equation to describe the fuel oxidation process was developed for studies of ignition and blowout in a combustor primary zone. This zone is treated as a partially stirred reactor whose composition is described by a statistical ensemble of equal mass fluid elements. This ensemble experiences mixing interactions, which represent the turbulent mixing process, at time intervals governed by an empirically determined mixing frequency. Each mixing interaction is computed by ramdomly selecting two different elements which are then allowed to mix completely so that they reach a mean composition depending on their thermodynamic states prior to mixing. The two elements then separate, and the chemical kinetics proceed depending on their new composition and temperature.

  16. Fluid dynamics used to kill South Louisiana blowout

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, R.D.; Cudd, B.

    1989-04-01

    Blowouts often result in severe damage to downhole tubulars and surface equipment. The damage is routinely so extensive that reliance on tubular integrity only results in further loss of control. In some cases, the damaged equipment may appear to be in good condition only to be found inadequate in time of need. Under these situations, fluid dynamics have proven invaluable in regaining control of the well. In many instances, well control is relegated to the realm of the mystic. The authors can engineer men to the moon, but their only solution to a blowout is a bigger stick. According to many, well control and blowouts are exempt from obeying the laws of science. Experience has shown that blowouts are engineering problems subject to the same physical laws as all engineering problems and more can be gained by working within these laws than by relying on fear and superstition.

  17. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop Hα macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Å snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T ~ 104 - 105 K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  18. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  19. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  20. Two-Year Follow-up on the Use of Absorbable Mesh Plates in the Treatment of Medial Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae-Pil; Kim, Deok-Woo; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Han, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Absorbable materials offer many advantages in the reconstruction of orbital walls; however, the possibility of postoperative enophthalmos after complete absorption cannot be excluded. We evaluated the postoperative results of absorbable mesh plates used as onlay implanting on the medial orbital wall to determine whether they are suitable for medial orbital wall reconstruction. Methods The study included 20 patients with medial orbital wall fractures who were followed up for more than 2 years postoperatively. We used absorbable mesh plates in all of the patients. We measured the following: the changes in the expanded orbital volume by comparing the preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans and the degree of clinical enophthalmos. Results There were no major complications associated with the use of absorbable materials such as infection, migration, or extrusion of mesh plates during the long-term follow-up. The orbital volumetric changes between the preoperative and postoperative CT scans were not statistically significant. However, the expanded orbital volume was not related to the degree of clinical enophthalmos. Conclusions The reconstructed orbital wall may provide supportive scar tissue to the orbital contents even after the absorbable materials have dissolved completely. Absorbable mesh plates could be another option for the reconstruction of the medial orbital wall. PMID:24286046

  1. Subciliary vs. transconjunctival approach for the management of orbital floor and periorbital fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed; Thaller, Seth R; Ellis, Edward

    2017-07-19

    This study compared complications between subciliary and transconjunctival approaches to the infraorbital rim/orbital floor, using systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library was performed. Randomized controlled and controlled (retrospective or prospective) clinical studies, with the aim of comparing subciliary to transconjunctival approaches in the management of infraorbital rim/orbital floor fractures, were included. Outcome variables were lower lid malposition including ectropion, entropion, scleral shows, canthal malpositions, and others complications. An odds ratio (OR) of outcome variables, using a Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) test with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), was calculated using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. A descriptive analysis of postoperative complications was also presented. The subciliary approach had a significantly higher incidence of ectropion and scleral show when compared with the subconjunctival approach (p < 0.001). The subconjunctival approach had a significantly higher incidence of entropion than the subciliary approach (p < 0.001). Both the subciliary and the transconjunctival approaches are associated with specific complications. Overall, the transconjunctival approach shows the lowest incidence of complications. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Failure Analysis of Fractured Poppet from Space Shuttle Orbiter Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the failure analysis of a fractured poppet from a flow control valve (FCV) used on the space shuttle. This presentation has focused on the laboratory analysis of the failed hardware. The use of Scanning electron fractography during the investigation led to the conclusion that the poppet failed due to fatigue cracking that, most likely, occurred under changing loading conditions. The initial investigation led to a more thorough test of poppets that had been retired, this testing led to the conclusion that the thumbnail cracks in the flight hardware had existed for the life of the shuttle program. This led to a program to develop an eddy current technique that was capable of detecting small very tight cracks.

  3. Facial fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509

  4. Determining blowout risks for producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Woodyard, A.

    1981-04-01

    A method for estimating the probability that a producing well will blow out uses a fault tree to analyze how each piece of completion equipment affects the well's overall integrity. The technique attempts to predict blowout frequency and to pinpoint changes that could be made to a well completion to maximize its reliability. The simplified well-completion diagram includes the Christmas tree, casing, tubing, packer, and safety valve. A basic problem in reliability analysis is the lack of accurate, universally accepted component failure rates. By properly representing the relationships that cause the top event probability, a realistic failure tree, along with a sensitivity analysis, can partially compensate for the deficiencies in the component failure rate. Also, in comparisons of similar systems having many common components, inaccuracies in three failure rates of those common components, inaccuracies in the failure rates of those common components tend to have little effect on the overall ranking. An important element of each well system's leak probability is the risk that accompanies workover procedures; when workover is included in the computation, the well completion's leak probability rises significantly due to the higher risk.

  5. Pseudo-Brown syndrome: a potential ophthalmologic sequela after a transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach for orbital fracture repair.

    PubMed

    de Haller, Raul; Imholz, Benoît; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    To prospectively assess the incidence of orthoptic anomalies and, more specifically, the possible development of pseudo-Brown syndrome related to inferior oblique muscle (IO) myotomy after the transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach for orbital fracture repair and its effect on the possible development of annoying diplopia. We analyzed the clinical data from 14 patients with severe isolated medial wall or combined medial wall/floor fractures treated using titanium meshes placed using a transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach. All patients were assessed with a pre- and postoperative ophthalmologic examination using the following methods: prisms and alternate cover test in all 9 gaze directions, Hess-Weiss coordimetry, Maddox rod screen testing, and Harms wall deviometry. The Bielschowsky head-tilt and a forced duction test were also performed. The patients were classified into the following 2 groups: IO paretic-underaction group and non-IO paretic-underaction group. Of the 14 patients, 7 (50%) fulfilled the criteria for IO paretic-underaction. All 7 developed double vision limited to the extreme upgaze in adduction. Four patients in the non-IO paretic-underaction group had double vision limited to the extreme upgaze in abduction that was already present preoperatively. Diplopia did not interfere with the daily activities in the patients from either group. The present study has demonstrated that IO myotomy associated with the combined transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach can result in orthoptic complications. Moreover, our study has shown that the development of a pseudo-Brown syndrome related to IO underaction was not uncommon but resulted in sequela restricted to a very limited portion of the binocular field of vision. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental legacy of an underground gas well blowout: long-term effects of gas and brine leakage on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schout, Gilian; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-04-01

    In 1965, a catastrophic underground blowout occurred during the drilling of a gas well in the village of Sleen, the Netherlands. The blowout led to the uncontrolled release of large amounts of natural gas and saline groundwater. Now, 50 years later, a number of nearby groundwater monitoring have been sampled to study the long term effects of this event on the groundwater composition of the overlying freshwater aquifers. The findings are used as an analogue for studying the potential adverse effects of hydraulic fracturing on groundwater quality. In total, 27 samples were taken and analysed for dissolved gas molecular and isotopic composition, major ion chemistry, water isotopes and stable chlorine isotope ratios. The resulting data show that concentrations of dissolved methane are still strongly elevated compared to background samples in a plume downstream of the blowout location. Isotopic data reveals the thermogenic nature of this plume; all samples with methane concentrations greater than 10 mg/l (n=12) had δC-CH4 values greater than -30‰ (VPDB), characteristic of thermogenic methane. The maximum distance at which thermogenic methane is observed is at approximately 500 meter downstream of the centre of the blowout. The progressive enrichment of both δ13C-CH4 and δ2D-CH4, that is observed with distance from the well and decreasing methane concentrations, presents strong evidence for the role of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) in limiting the spread of the dissolved methane plume. Low sulphate and increased Fe(II) and Mn(II) concentrations indeed suggest that multiple AOM pathways are involved in the natural attenuation of the dissolved methane plume. Chlorine concentrations were only elevated in a subset of wells in close proximity to the blowout location, indicating that the present-day effects of brine migration are minimal. Nevertheless, elevated Na/Cl ratio's in multiple wells reveal that freshening of the aquifer is still on-going. In summary, this

  7. 30 CFR 250.517 - Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blowout preventer system tests, inspections... SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.517 Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and... Practices for Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells (incorporated by reference as...

  8. 30 CFR 250.516 - Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blowout preventer system tests, inspections... SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.516 Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and... Practices for Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells (as incorporated by reference in § 250...

  9. 30 CFR 250.517 - Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blowout preventer system tests, inspections... SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.517 Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and... Practices for Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells (incorporated by reference as...

  10. Patterns and injuries associated with orbital wall fractures in elderly patients who visited the emergency room: a retrospective case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Jung; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Lee, Hyung-Joo; Park, In-June; Yang, Dong-Jin; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine orbital wall fracture (OWF) patterns and associated facial injuries in elderly patients and compare them with those in their younger adult counterparts. Design A retrospective case–control study. Setting An emergency department of a university-affiliated hospital located in an urban area. Participants A total of 1378 adult patients with OWF diagnosed by CT from 1 January 2004 through 31 March 2014 were enrolled. Patients were categorised into elderly (≥65 years) and non-elderly (<65 years) groups. Results The elderly group (n=146) had a mean age of 74.0 years compared with 37.5 years in the non-elderly group (n=1232). Slipping was the most common cause of OWF in the elderly group (43.8%, p<0.001), whereas violence was the most common cause in the non-elderly group (37.3%, p<0.001). The lateral orbital wall was the more common site of fracture in the elderly group, and their injuries were more often associated with concurrent facial bone fractures, including the mandible, maxilla and zygoma, compared with the non-elderly group. After adjusting for sex and the mechanism of injury, inclusion in the elderly group was a significant risk factor for fracture of the lateral wall (OR 1.658; 95% CI 1.074 to 2.560) and concomitant facial bone fractures of the maxilla (OR 1.625; 95% CI 1.111 to 2.377) and zygoma (OR 1.670; 95% CI 1.126 to 2.475). Conclusions Elderly patients were vulnerable to facial trauma, and concurrent facial bone fracture associated with OWF was more commonly observed in this age group. Therefore, a high index of suspicion and thorough investigation, including CT, for OWF-associated facial bone fractures are important. PMID:27645553

  11. Maxillofacial fractures in the province of Latina, Lazio, Italy: review of 400 injuries and 83 cases.

    PubMed

    Arangio, Paolo; Vellone, Valentino; Torre, Umberto; Calafati, Vincenzo; Capriotti, Marco; Cascone, Piero

    2014-07-01

    A retrospective study was performed to assess maxillofacial fractures in patients treated at the public "S.M. Goretti Hospital" hospital from 2011 to 31/8/2012. Data were prospectively recorded including age and sex, cause and mechanisms of injury, soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures and type of treatment. The pre-surgical and post-surgical hospitalization days were also analysed. Causes were grouped into five categories: road traffic collision, sports accidents, occupational accidents, assaults and domestic accidents. The analyses involved descriptive statistics. Records from 83 patient sustaining 95 maxillofacial fractures were evaluated. The zygoma was the most fractured anatomical site in both males and females, accounting for 32% of injuries, followed by isolated fracture of the orbital floor (blow-out and blow-in) with 11%. The age group between 18 and 39 years showed the highest rate of incidence of maxillofacial fractures. Men were more involved than women in all cases with a male:female ratio of 5,4:1. Accidents were the most frequent cause of maxillofacial fractures in the age group between 18 and 39 years and interpersonal violence was the most frequent cause of maxillofacial fractures in the age group between 40 and 59 years. Facial fractures occurred primarily among men under 30 years of age, and the most common sites of fractures in the face were the mandible and the zygomatic complex. Road traffic collisions were the main aetiologic factor associated with maxillofacial trauma. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Rapid Response Study of the Hercules Gas Well Blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Samantha B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Murawski, Steven A.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Wade, Terry L.; Montuoro, Raffaele; Roberts, Brian J.; Hollander, David J.; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Chanton, Jeffery P.

    2014-09-01

    On 20 April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig lost well control while drilling at the Macondo prospect in the Gulf of Mexico. At the time of the Macondo blowout, the academic scientific community was ill prepared to initiate and rapidly conduct the necessary coordinated interdisciplinary studies of the environments around the discharge area.

  13. Three years of morphologic changes at a bowl blowout, Cape Cod, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alex; Gares, Paul A.; Wasklewicz, Thad; Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents measurements of blowout topography obtained with annual terrestrial laser surveys carried out over a three-year period at a single, large bowl blowout located in the Provincelands Dunes section of Cape Cod National Seashore, in Massachusetts. The study blowout was selected because its axis is aligned with northwest winds that dominate the region, and because it was seemingly interacting with a smaller saucer blowout that had recently formed on the southern rim of the primary feature. Assuming that blowouts enlarge both horizontally and vertically in response to the wind regime, the objectives of the study were to determine both the amount of horizontal growth that the blowout experiences annually and the spatial patterns of vertical change that occur within the blowout. Changes to the blowout lobe surrounding the feature were also determined for areas with sparse enough vegetation cover to allow laser returns from the sand surface. The results show that the blowout consistently expanded outward during the three years, with the greatest expansion occurring at its southeast corner, opposite the prevailing winds. The most significant occurrence was the removal, in the first year, of the ridge that separated the two blowouts, resulting in a major horizontal shift of the southern rim of the new combined blowout. This displacement then continued at a lesser rate in subsequent years. The rim also shifted horizontally along the northwest to northeast sections of the blowout. Significant vertical loss occurred along the main axis of the blowout with the greatest loss concentrated along the southeast rim. On the lobe, there were large areas of deposition immediately downwind of the high erosion zones inside the blowout. However, there were also small erosion areas on the lobe, extending downwind from eroding sections of the rim. This study shows that: 1. blowouts can experience significant areal and volumetric changes in short periods of time; 2

  14. Environmental implications of a gas well blowout in northwest Louisiana - A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, M.S.; McKenzie, D.T.; Schramm, W.H.

    1995-10-01

    Oil and gas exploration in northern Louisiana has been ongoing since the 1920s. During this time occasional blowouts have occurred which have impacted the environment. In March, 1994, a Sligo Field well experienced an unusual blowout in that the event propagated to the surface through an adjacent abandoned well. While drilling through the fractured Thompson-Pettet interval at a depth of 5000 feet, a pressure kick, caused by a loss of drilling fluids, occurred. The well control devices activated and prevented loss of the well. However, the pressure front moved up the well`s uncased annulus until reaching the base of the cemented surface casing where it dispersed laterally in the Nacatoch formation at a depth of approximately 1000 feet. This was the uppermost portion of the uncased hole. The pressure front propagated through the Nacatoch until it encountered the poorly cemented annulus of the abandoned Hardman No. 1 well, located approximately 300 feet to the south of the drilling location. After moving up the annulus of the Hardman No. 1 well and charging the fresh water sands of the Wilcox system, local residential water wells and the drilling rig`s water supply well became flowing artesian. Several hours later sand and fluids began erupting, creating a large cavity on the outside of the casing surrounding the Hardman No. 1 well. The artesian impact lasted approximately four days until the pressure front dissipated. Subsequent sampling of the rig supply well determined the well to be contaminated with benzene, a known human carcinogen. The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, in conjunction with the operator, is currently investigating the extent of contamination with the goal of ensuring the health of the local residents and the protection of the environment.

  15. Need for airbag and seatbelt to reduce orbital injuries from steering wheel knob.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to report a blowout fracture of the orbital floor and medial wall caused by being struck by a steering wheel knob of an automobile and to discuss the use of airbags and seatbelts as a preventive measure for orbital injuries. A 58-year-old man was struck in the left eye by a steering wheel. His car hit a telephone pole, and he had a frontal collision injury. In this frontal impact, his left eye was hit by a Brodie knob attached to the steering wheel. At the time of injury, the speed of the car was about 65 km/h. He was not wearing a seatbelt, and the airbag had not deployed. Swelling and ecchymosis were observed at the left periorbital area, and he had diplopia on a left-side gaze. A CT revealed fractures in the medial and inferior wall of the left orbit. Entrapped soft tissues were reduced, and the medial wall and floor were reconstructed with a resorbable sheet. His diplopia disappeared 12 days after surgery. To prevent the injury from the steering wheel knob, an airbag should be installed in any vehicle, which has a steering wheel knob. Legislation mandating the use of airbags as well as seatbelts in vehicles with attached steering wheel knobs should be made.

  16. A NUMERICAL MODEL OF STANDARD TO BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.

    2013-06-01

    We report on three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of the formation of jets produced during the emergence and eruption of solar magnetic fields. The interaction between an emerging and an ambient magnetic field in the solar atmosphere leads to (external) reconnection and the formation of ''standard'' jets with an inverse Y-shaped configuration. Eventually, low-atmosphere (internal) reconnection of sheared fieldlines in the emerging flux region produces an erupting magnetic flux rope and a reconnection jet underneath it. The erupting plasma blows out the ambient field and, moreover, it unwinds as it is ejected into the outer solar atmosphere. The fast emission of the cool material that erupts together with the hot outflows due to external/internal reconnection form a wider ''blowout'' jet. We show the transition from ''standard'' to ''blowout'' jets and report on their 3D structure. The physical plasma properties of the jets are consistent with observational studies.

  17. Blowout brought under control in Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Greenhill Petroleum Corp., Houston, killed a well blowout Oct. 9 and began cleaning up oil spilled into Timbalier Bay off La Fourche Parish, La. Development well No. 250 in Timbalier Bay field blew out Sept. 29 while Blake Drilling and Workover Co., Belle Chasse, La., was trying to recomplete it in a deeper zone. Fire broke out as Boots and Coots Inc., Houston, was positioning control equipment at the wellhead. State and federal oil spill response officials estimated the uncontrolled flow of well No. 250 at 1,400 b/d of oil. Coast Guard officials on Oct. 8 upgraded the blowout to a major spill, after deciding that at least 2,500 bbl of oil had gone into the water.

  18. Impact on water surface due to deepwater gas blowouts.

    PubMed

    Premathilake, Lakshitha T; Yapa, Poojitha D; Nissanka, Indrajith D; Kumarage, Pubudu

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on the impact of underwater gas blowouts near the ocean surface, which has a greater relevance to assess Health, Safety, and Environmental risks. In this analysis the gas flux near the surface, reduction of bulk density, and gas surfacing area are studied for different scenarios. The simulations include a matrix of scenarios for different release depths, release rates, and initial bubble size distributions. The simulations are carried out using the MEGADEEP model, for a location in East China Sea. Significant changes in bulk density and gas surface flux near the surface are observed under different release conditions, which can pose a potential threat for cleanup and rescue operations. Furthermore, the effect of hydrate formation on gas surfacing is studied for much greater release depths. The type of outcomes of this study is important to conduct prior risk assessments and contingency planning for underwater gas blowouts.

  19. Blowout control: Response, intervention and management; Part 5

    SciTech Connect

    Smestad, P.; Rygg, O.B. ); Wright, J.W. )

    1994-04-01

    All well control design functions depend on construction of an accurate computer hydraulics model of the blowout at hand. Such a model incorporates all available downhole data on characteristics of the reservoir, well effluent, pressure, temperature etc., and factors influencing the surface flowpath of the blow. In turn, the hydraulics data allows development of a blowout model and, finally, a workable well kill model that will indicate the most efficient kill/control method to use. The modeling process can be split into two phases: (1) establishing kill rates for different fluids, and maximum pressure and power requirements; (2) defining an operational kill plan and schedule. Establishing maximum rates, etc., can be done with steady state calculations. But dynamic (time based) calculations are needed to obtain kill volumes. Manually stepping a steady state simulator may also provide volumes. This paper reviews the application and requirement for such a model.

  20. Capping blowouts from Iran's eight-year war

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, B. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on capping blowouts from Iran's eight year war. Fires in three Iranian wells (two oil, one gas), started during 1987 by Iraqi sabotage, finally were extinguished during the last several months of 1990. Burning during the final months of the countries' eight-year war, plus another subsequent peaceful two years, the fires consumed millions of barrels of oil and billions of cubic feet of gas before they were capped. Ironically, bringing the wells under control took relatively little time.

  1. Holocene Development and Progression of Aeolian Blowouts on Padre Island National Seashore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, M. E.; Houser, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that development of dune blowouts along Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, and migration of the parabolic dunes to the backbarrier shoreline are the primary mechanisms by which the island transgresses in response to relative sea level rise. This study characterizes the development and migration of dune blowouts at decadal and century scales in order to understand these changes. An initial breach, caused by the removal of vegetation, develops along the dune line allowing sediment to be funneled into the dune field. The entrance of the blowout focuses the wind velocity, allowing sediment to be transported into the dune field, covering any vegetation that is present. This process continues as sediment is eroded from the foredune increasing the size of the blowout until the foredune is rebuilt and vegetation stabilizes the entrance. With the front stabilized, the blowout begins its movement across the island. Aerial photographs, LIDAR data, ground penetrating radar, and optically stimulated luminescence were used to track and date the migration of these blowouts. Photographs and satellite images, taken at least twice a decade since the 1940s, were used to track blowouts from their initial conception to their final stabilization by vegetation. Each consecutive blowout was digitized to understand the surface characteristics of the feature. For a greater understanding of the system at the decadal scale, LIDAR data collected by the USGS and other agencies was used to create an elevation model in order compute the volumetric changes within the northern portion of the National Seashore. Within the larger study area, three smaller sites: a young blowout that had just begun to close as the foredune is reestablished, a "middle age" blowout that was detached from the foredune and become an active dune field, and a former blowout now stabilized by vegetation, were selected for geophysical analysis . A Trimble GX 3-D scanner was used to determine the

  2. Dune field reactivation from blowouts: Sevier Desert, UT, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.

    2013-12-01

    Dune field reactivation (a shift from vegetated to unvegetated state) has important economic, social, and environmental implications. In some settings reactivation is desired to preserve environmental values, but in arid regions reactivation is typically a form of land degradation. Little is known about reactivation due to a lack of published records, making modeling and prediction difficult. Here we detail dune reactivations from blowout expansion in the Sevier Desert, Utah, USA. We use historical aerial photographs and satellite imagery to track the transition from stable, vegetated dunes to actively migrating sediment in 3 locations. We outline a reactivation sequence: (i) disturbance breaches vegetation and exposes sediment, then (ii) creates a blowout with a deposition apron that (iii) advances downwind with a slipface or as a sand sheet. Most deposition aprons are not colonized by vegetation and are actively migrating. To explore causes we examine local sand flux, climate data, and stream flow. Based on available data the best explanation we can provide is that some combination of anthropogenic disturbance and climate may be responsible for the reactivations. Together, these examples provide a rare glimpse of dune field reactivation from blowouts, revealing the timescales, behaviour, and morphodynamics of devegetating dune fields.

  3. Remediation of blowouts by clonal plants in Maqu degraded alpine grasslands of northwest China.

    PubMed

    Kang, JianJun; Zhao, WenZhi; Zhao, Ming

    2017-03-01

    The sand-fixation of plants is considered to be the most effective and fundamental measure in desertification control in many arid and semi-arid regions. Carex brunnescens (Carex spp) and Leymus secalinus (Leymus), two perennial clonal herbs native to the Maqu degraded alpine areas of northwest China, are dominant and constructive species in active sand dunes that have excellent adaptability to fix sand dunes found to date. In order to study the ability and mechanism of sandland blowout remediation by two clone plants C. brunnescens and L. secalinus, the artificially emulated blowouts were set up in the populations of two clonal plants in the field. The results showed that both C. brunnescens and L. secalinus produced more new ramets in the artificially emulated blowouts than in the natural conditions, suggesting that the two clonal plants had strong ability in blowouts remediation; while the biomass, number of leaves and height of new ramets in the artificially emulated blowouts were less than in the natural conditions due to the restriction of poor nutrients in the artificially emulated blowouts. The ability of blowouts remediation by C. brunnescens was stronger than L. secalinus, as it generated more new ramets than L. secalinus in the process of blowouts remediation. The new ramets of L. secalinus in the blowouts remediation were mainly generated by the buds in the rhizomes which spread from outside of the blowouts; while those of C. brunnescens were generated both by the buds in the rhizomes which spread from outside, and by the buds in the rhizomes inside which were freed from dormancy in the deeper soil under wind erosion conditions. These findings suggest that through rapid clonal expansion capability, C. brunnescens and L. secalinus exhibited strong ability in blowouts remediation which can be one of the most effective strategies to restore and reconstruct degraded vegetations in Maqu alpine areas of northwest China.

  4. Windflow circulation patterns in a coastal dune blowout, south coast of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, G.S.; Bennett, S.W.; Olyphant, G.A.; Bauch, N.J.; Ferguson, V.; Gellasch, C.A.; Millard, C.L.; Mueller, B.; O'Malley, P. J.; Way, J.N.; Woodfield, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The windflow patterns in a large active blowout in a coastal dune on the southern shore of Lake Michigan were intensively monitored during a two-day period when the predominant winds shifted from onshore (Day 1) to offshore (Day 2). The wind data were used in conjunction with mapped geomorphic features and sedimentologic characteristics to infer the following aspects of blowout evolution: (1) Prevailing winds are transformed considerably once they enter the blowout. Flow separation occurs when offshore winds enter the blowout over the steep back wall. Separated flows may, in turn, induce countercurrent flows within the trough. Flow expansion and deceleration occur when onshore winds enter over gently sloping walls at the front of the blowout. (2) Maximum erosion occurs along the deflationary floor near the entrance to the blowout, and lateral extensional lobes are also expanding the blowout to the east. Sand avalanches down the eastern and western lateral walls toward the deflationary floor where it is moved toward the rear of the blowout and up the ramp at the south end. Sand leaves the blowout as a series of depositional lobes prograding out onto the surface of the host dune along the south and east walls. (3) Vegetation prevents expansion of the blowout in certain directions and impediments to flow, such as slump blocks, alter circulation patterns and sand transport paths. (4) Prevailing onshore winds deflate the floor and promote eastward expansion of lateral erosional lobes, whereas strong flows from the southwest apparently are the main cause of transport up the transportational ramp and over the south wall of the blowout.

  5. Understanding Blowout Phenomena to the Induced Angle of V-Gutter-Stabilized Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubhakaran, K.; Parammasivam, K. M.

    2016-04-01

    The combustion and flame blowout characteristics are investigated in a vitiated environment by placing the 60°, 90° and 120° V-gutters. The blowout is initiated through varying the equivalence ratio of reactants' flow rates. The blowout is mainly investigated in ultra-lean condition where the equivalence ratio ranges from 0.18 to 0.8, by varying the length of the combustor; the blowout of flame takes place more quickly; it occurred in all tested gutter angles. On increasing the gutter angle from 60° to 120° the flame blowout takes place at Reynolds number from 2,500 to 6,000, which is inversely proportional to the gutter-induced angle of the gutter. The flame flashback possibility occurs due to aggression of the flame marching towards the blowout. The 120° V-gutter has possible flashback since the blowout takes place at very low Reynolds number. As the length of the combustor increases, it is also evident that flashback phenomenon occurred in the rigorous flame just before the flame blowout.

  6. 30 CFR 250.1611 - Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections, and maintenance. 250.1611 Section 250.1611 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1611 Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections,...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1611 - Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections, and maintenance. 250.1611 Section 250.1611 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1611 Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections,...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1611 - Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections, and maintenance. 250.1611 Section 250.1611 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1611 Blowout preventer systems tests, actuations, inspections,...

  9. Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2009-10-01

    Well blowouts are one type of event in hydrocarbon exploration and production that generates health, safety, environmental and financial risk. Well blowouts are variously defined as 'uncontrolled flow of well fluids and/or formation fluids from the wellbore' or 'uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore'. Theoretically this is irrespective of flux rate and so would include low fluxes, often termed 'leakage'. In practice, such low-flux events are not considered well blowouts. Rather, the term well blowout applies to higher fluxes that rise to attention more acutely, typically in the order of seconds to days after the event commences. It is not unusual for insurance claims for well blowouts to exceed US$10 million. This does not imply that all blowouts are this costly, as it is likely claims are filed only for the most catastrophic events. Still, insuring against the risk of loss of well control is the costliest in the industry. The risk of well blowouts was recently quantified from an assembled database of 102 events occurring in California Oil and Gas District 4 during the period 1991 to 2005, inclusive. This article reviews those findings, updates them to a certain extent and compares them with other well blowout risk study results. It also provides an improved perspective on some of the findings. In short, this update finds that blowout rates have remained constant from 2005 to 2008 within the limits of resolution and that the decline in blowout rates from 1991 to 2005 was likely due to improved industry practice.

  10. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2003-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over a period of 17 hours. Within this interval, a small CME was reported in C2. Nothing was reported in C3. The ejecta was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. The interplanetary CME (ICME) displayed all the properties of a typical ICME. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied.

  11. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2003-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over a period of 17 hours. Within this interval, a small CME was reported in C2. Nothing was reported in C3. The ejecta was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. The interplanetary CME (ICME) displayed all the properties of a typical ICME. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied.

  12. Treatment of malar and midfacial fractures with osteoconductive forged unsintered hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide composite internal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin; Ballon, Alexander; Ghanaati, Sharam; Tran, Andreas; Sader, Robert

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the internal fixation of malar and midfacial fractures, long-term results, and biocompatibility of osteoconductive internal fixation devices composed of a forged composite of unsintered hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide (F-u-HA/PLLA). From January 2006 to June 2010, 29 patients (24 males and 5 females; age 33 ± 15 years) were included in the present prospective study. The fracture type was malar in 24 patients, midfacial in 5, isolated orbital floor blowout in 2, and frontal sinus, cranial base in 2 patients. The fractures were fixed with internal fixation devices; these were plates and screws composed of F-u-HA/PLLA. The 24 patients with malar fractures were treated with a single 4-hole L-plate or a straight plate at the infrazygomatic crest. All fractures with internal fixation using devices composed of F-u-HA/PLLA healed well. All malar and midfacial fractures had satisfactory long-term stability. The follow-up examinations at 12 to 67 months after surgery showed that most patients had no complaints, although 2 patients (15%) had a foreign body reaction that was treated by implant removal, with complete symptom resolution. At 5 years after fracture fixation, 2 patients had ultrasound and 2 had radiographic evidence of residual material. An exemplar biopsy showed direct bone growth into the material. In patients with malar and midfacial fractures, hardware composed of the F-u-HA/PLLA composite provided reliable and satisfactory internal fixation, intraoperative handling, long-term stability, and biocompatibility. Direct bone growth into the material could be histopathologically exemplified, in contrast to previous polymer fixations that were resorbed and surrounded by a connective tissue layer. This finding indicates that long-term F-u-HA/PLLA residual material will be included into the remodeled bone, which was confirmed on long-term follow-up radiographs. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  13. Morphological response of a large-scale coastal blowout to a strong magnitude transport event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Fernandez, Irene; Jackson, Derek; Smith, Alexander; Smyth, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale blowouts are fundamental features of many coastal dune fields in temperate areas around the world. These distinctive erosional (mostly unvegetated) landform features are often characterised by a significant depression area and a connected depositional lobe at their downwind edges. These areas also provide important transport corridors to inland parts of the dune system and can provide ideal habitats for specialist flora and fauna as well as helping to enhance landscape diversity. The actual morphology and shape/size of blowouts can significantly modify the overlying atmospheric boundary layer of the wind, influencing wind flow steering and intensity within the blowout, and ultimately aeolian sediment transport. While investigations of morphological changes within blowouts have largely focused on the medium (months) to long (annual/decadal) temporal scale, studies of aeolian transport dynamics within blowouts have predominantly focused on the short-term (event) scale. Work on wind-transport processes in blowouts is still relatively rare, with ad-hoc studies providing only limited information on airflow and aeolian transport. Large-scale blowouts are characterised by elongated basins that can reach hundreds of meters, potentially resulting in airflow and transport dynamics that are very different from their smaller scale counterparts. This research focuses on a short-term, strong wind event measured at the Devil's Hole blowout (Sefton dunes, NW England), a large-scale blowout feature approximately 300 m in length and 100 m in width. In situ measurements of airflow and aeolian transport were collected during a short-term experiment on the 22nd October 2015. A total of twenty three, 3D ultrasonic anemometers, sand traps, and wenglor sensors were deployed in a spatial grid covering the distal end of the basin, walls, and depositional lobe. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to quantify morphological changes within the blowout before and after the

  14. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seuss, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over approximately 10 hours. A small CME was reported in C2. A substantial interplanetary CME (ICME) was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. This detection illustrates the properties of an ICME for a known solar source and demonstrates that the identification can be done even beyond 3 AU. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied. We report on the SOHO observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the solar limb and the subsequent in situ detection at Ulysses, which was near quadrature at the time, above the location of the CME. SOHO-Ulysses quadrature was 13 June, when Ulysses was 3.36 AU from the Sun and 58.2 degrees south of the equator off the east limb. The slow streamer blowout was on 10 June, when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses angle was 87 degrees.

  15. A Slow Streamer Blowout at the Sun and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seuss, S. T.; Bemporad, A.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    On 10 June 2000 a streamer on the southeast limb slowly disappeared from LASCO/C2 over approximately 10 hours. A small CME was reported in C2. A substantial interplanetary CME (ICME) was later detected at Ulysses, which was at quadrature with the Sun and SOHO at the time. This detection illustrates the properties of an ICME for a known solar source and demonstrates that the identification can be done even beyond 3 AU. Slow streamer blowouts such as this have long been known but are little studied. We report on the SOHO observation of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on the solar limb and the subsequent in situ detection at Ulysses, which was near quadrature at the time, above the location of the CME. SOHO-Ulysses quadrature was 13 June, when Ulysses was 3.36 AU from the Sun and 58.2 degrees south of the equator off the east limb. The slow streamer blowout was on 10 June, when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses angle was 87 degrees.

  16. Meso-scale aeolian transport of beach sediment via dune blowout pathways within a linear foredune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Nicholas; Delgado-Fernandez, Irene; Jackson, Derek; Aplin, Paul; Marston, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of coastal foredunes is largely controlled by sediment exchanges between the geomorphic sub-units of the nearshore, beach, foredune and dune field. Although blowouts are widely recognised as efficient sediment transport pathways, both event-scale and meso-scale quantification of their utility in transferring beach sediments landwards is limited. Foredunes characterised by multiple blowouts may be more susceptible to coastline retreat through the enhanced landwards transport of beach or foredune sediments. To date, a key constraint for investigations of such scenarios has been the absence of accurate blowout sediment transport records. Here we use the Sefton coast in north-west England as a study area where an unprecedented temporal coverage of LIDAR data is available between 1999 and 2015. Additionally, an extensive set of aerial photography also exists, dating back to 1945 allowing comparison of blowout frequency and magnitude together with the alongshore limits of coastline retreat. Digital terrain models are derived for each year that LIDAR data is available. Informed by LIDAR based topography and areas of bare sand (aerial photos) terrain models have been created containing individual blowouts. Differentials in 'z' values between each terrain model of each available year has identified topographic change and total levels of transport. Preliminary results have confirmed the importance of blowouts in transporting beach or foredune sediment landwards and thus potentially promoting coastline retreat. Repetition of processes across a larger number of blowout topographies will allow better identification of individual blowouts for 'event' scale field investigations to examine spatial and temporal variability of beach sediment transport via blowouts routes.

  17. Previously undescribed palpebral branch from the infraorbital canal: Application to surgery of the eyelid and treatment of orbital floor fractures.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Joe; Watanabe, Koichi; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The sensory innervation of the inferior eyelid is mainly derived from the inferior palpebral branch (IPb) of the infraorbital nerve (ION). This study aimed to investigate another, to our knowledge, previously unknown branch, and elucidate its location and distribution. Twelve sides from seven fresh frozen cadaveric Caucasian heads were used in this study. The specimens were derived from two male and four female adult cadavers age. The diameter of the IPb of the ION (D1) and branch arising from the upper wall of the infraorbital canal (D2), and distance between the branching points of this branch and the anterior border of the orbit floor (L1) was measured. A branch to the lower eyelid was found arising from the infraorbital canal on the majority of sides. D1 ranged from 0.4 to 1.1 mm. The branch arising from the upper wall of the infraorbital canal was found 10 sides (83%). D2 ranged 0.6 to 1.0 mm. L1 ranged from 10.2 to 19.8 mm. All of the branches arising from the upper wall of the infraorbital canal (10 sides) primarily innervated to the inferior eyelid. We suggest this branch should be named the "posterior IPb" of the ION. Knowledge of this branch might decrease sensory loss following invasive procedures of the lower orbit. Clin. Anat. 30:835-838, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Endovascular Covered Stent Reconstruction Improved the Outcomes of Acute Carotid Blowout Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao-Liang; Wong, Ho-Fai; Ku, Yi-Kang; Mun-Ching Wong, Alex; Wai, Yau-Yau; Ng, Shu-Hang

    2008-01-01

    Summary Carotid blowout is a devastating complication in patients with head and neck cancer, commonly encountered as a delayed complication of radiation therapy. The clinical outcomes in patients with carotid blowout are discouraging; even transarterial embolization has been performed to control the acute massive bleeding. In recent years, covered stents have been reported as an alternative treatment producing favorable results. In this study, 13 consecutive patients with acute carotid blowout syndrome were treated at our institute by covered-stent reconstruction between December 2005 and December 2007. The median posthemorrhagic survival period after reconstruction (187 days) was more than that reported in patients treated only with transarterial embolization (26 days). Though the estimated mortality was about 54%, those who survived showed favorable outcomes, and only one transit complication of acute in-stent thrombosis occurred. Thus, endovascular covered-stent reconstruction is a safe and effective approach to manage acute carotid blowout syndrome. PMID:20557797

  19. Management of carotid 'blowout' with endovascular stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Warren, Frank M; Cohen, James I; Nesbit, Gary M; Barnwell, Stanley L; Wax, Mark K; Andersen, Peter E

    2002-03-01

    Since 1992, endovascular techniques for vascular occlusion and stenting have evolved significantly. Endovascular occlusion of the carotid artery has been used in the management of carotid "blowout." Although it seems logical to expand this application to the use of arterial stents to repair rather than occlude the artery when cerebral cross-circulation is inadequate, concerns remain regarding the placement of a foreign body in a contaminated field. The purpose of the present report is to describe our experience with endovascular stents for control of carotid hemorrhage. Retrospective case review. Retrospective review of three cases of acute or threatened carotid hemorrhage managed with endovascular stent placement. Two patients presented with acute carotid blowout, and one patient with a probable sentinel bleed. All patients previously had been heavily treated with surgery and irradiation: Two had developed pharyngocutaneous fistulas, and one had an open wound filled with tumor that surrounded the carotid artery. All were thought to be at significant risk for stroke if the carotid artery was occluded. In all three patients, stent placement resolved the acute hemorrhage. Mean duration of follow-up was 8.3 months. In two patients, the stent became exposed, ultimately thrombosed or extruded, or both. The third patient had no residual sequelae of stenting but died 3 months later. When an unacceptable risk of cardiovascular accident makes occlusion unwise, acute carotid hemorrhage can be successfully managed with directed placement of endovascular stents, but the long-term sequelae of placing these foreign bodies in a field with ongoing contamination make this a temporizing rather than permanent measure for use while more definitive long-term solutions are pursued.

  20. Blowout Jets: Evidence from Hinode/XRT for X-Ray Jets Made by Blowout Eruption of the Emerging Bipole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2009-01-01

    Yamauchi et al (2004, ApJ, 605, 511) found that there are two structurally and dynamically distinct types of H macrospicules in polar coronal holes: single-column jet macrospicules and erupting-loop macrospicules. The structure and motion of the single-column jet macrospicules fit the standard Shibata reconnection picture for solar X-ray jets (Shibata et al 1992, PASJ, 44, L173). The form and motion of the erupting-loop macrospicules is reminiscent of the ejective eruption of the sheared-core-field flux rope in the filament-eruption birth of a bubble-type coronal mass ejection (CME). That roughly half of all polar H macrospicules were observed to be erupting-loop macrospicules suggests that there should be a corresponding large class of X-ray jets in which the emerging bipole at the base of the jet undergoes a blowout eruption as in a bubble-type CME, instead of staying closed as in the standard picture for X-ray jets. Along with a cartoon of the standard picture, we present a cartoon depicting the signatures to be expected of a blowout jet in high-resolution coronal X-ray movies such as from Hinode/XRT. From Hinode/XRT movies in polar coronal holes, we show: (1) examples of X-ray jets that fit the standard picture very well, and (2) other examples that do not fit the standard picture but do show signatures appropriate for blowout jets. These signatures are (1) a flare arcade inside the emerging bipole in addition to the flare arcade produced between the emerging bipole and the ambient high-reaching unipolar field by reconnection of these two fields as in the standard picture, and (2) in addition to the jet prong expected from the standard reconnection, a second jet prong or strand, one that could not be produced by the standard reconnection but could be produced by reconnection between the ambient unipolar field and one leg of an erupting core-field flux rope that has blown out the emerging bipole. We therefore infer that these "two pronged" jets are made by

  1. Blowout Jets: Evidence from Hinode/XRT for X-Ray Jets Made by Blowout Eruption of the Emerging Bipole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2009-01-01

    Yamauchi et al (2004, ApJ, 605, 511) found that there are two structurally and dynamically distinct types of H macrospicules in polar coronal holes: single-column jet macrospicules and erupting-loop macrospicules. The structure and motion of the single-column jet macrospicules fit the standard Shibata reconnection picture for solar X-ray jets (Shibata et al 1992, PASJ, 44, L173). The form and motion of the erupting-loop macrospicules is reminiscent of the ejective eruption of the sheared-core-field flux rope in the filament-eruption birth of a bubble-type coronal mass ejection (CME). That roughly half of all polar H macrospicules were observed to be erupting-loop macrospicules suggests that there should be a corresponding large class of X-ray jets in which the emerging bipole at the base of the jet undergoes a blowout eruption as in a bubble-type CME, instead of staying closed as in the standard picture for X-ray jets. Along with a cartoon of the standard picture, we present a cartoon depicting the signatures to be expected of a blowout jet in high-resolution coronal X-ray movies such as from Hinode/XRT. From Hinode/XRT movies in polar coronal holes, we show: (1) examples of X-ray jets that fit the standard picture very well, and (2) other examples that do not fit the standard picture but do show signatures appropriate for blowout jets. These signatures are (1) a flare arcade inside the emerging bipole in addition to the flare arcade produced between the emerging bipole and the ambient high-reaching unipolar field by reconnection of these two fields as in the standard picture, and (2) in addition to the jet prong expected from the standard reconnection, a second jet prong or strand, one that could not be produced by the standard reconnection but could be produced by reconnection between the ambient unipolar field and one leg of an erupting core-field flux rope that has blown out the emerging bipole. We therefore infer that these "two pronged" jets are made by

  2. Reactivation of supply-limited dune fields from blowouts: A conceptual framework for state characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian dune fields mantle the Earth in both vegetated (stable) and unvegetated (active) states. Changes in state are poorly understood; in particular, little is known about reactivation (devegetation) from a vegetated state. Available evidence indicates that dune reactivation can be driven by changes in aridity, increased wind speed, fire, biogenic disturbance, human disturbance, or a combination of the previous. How these controls fit together and define the reactivation potential of dune fields is presently unknown. Here we develop a framework to describe reactivation potential for a specific case: presently vegetated, supply-limited dune fields that develop blowouts under a unidirectional wind. We first define a conceptual model of blowout expansion, and then split the functions of vegetation in a stable dune field into: (i) maintenance of a protective skin, and (ii) blowout suppression. We model reactivation as disturbance breaking through the protective skin, which forms a blowout that is either (i) suppressed by colonizer species, or (ii) capable of advancing downwind and reactivating part of the dune field. The capacity for disturbance to break through the protective skin is a function of disturbance magnitude, area, and resistance of the skin. The blowout suppression capacity of a dune field is a function of sediment flux, blowout depth (related to geomorphology), and colonizer species vitality. By plotting a given dune field with two variables (protective skin breach rate and blowout suppression capacity) we define four states: (i) stable, (ii) blowout dominated, (iii) reactivating, or (iv) stable but disturbance susceptible. We reinforce the conceptual model with qualitative examples and discussion of experiments on grassland-stabilized dunes in Canada. Overall, our framework provides a starting point for quantifying the reactivation potential of vegetated dune fields.

  3. Postirradiated carotid blowout syndrome in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Chih; Yen, Ting-Ting; Hsieh, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Jiang, Rong-San; Chen, Wen-Hsien; Liang, Kai-Li

    2015-06-01

    Carotid blowout syndrome is one of the most devastating complications of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) therapy. A retrospective review was conducted from January 2004 to April 2013. Thirty-one patients with carotid blowout syndrome were enrolled and a case control study was conducted to analyze the risk factors. When a comparison was made between the carotid blowout syndrome and matched non-bleeding group, there was a significantly higher local recurrence rate and prevalence of skull base osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in the carotid blowout syndrome group compared to those of the control group (both p < .001). The hazard ratio of carotid blowout syndrome was 3.599 between patients with or without reirradiation (95% confidence interval, 1.465-8.839; p = .005, adjusted for nasopharyngectomy and chemotherapy) using a Cox proportional hazard model. Reirradiation and skull base ORN are strong predisposing factors for carotid blowout syndrome, and therefore they should be mentioned in the informed consent form before treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Maxillofacial Fractures and Dental Trauma in a High School Soccer Goalkeeper: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mihalik, Jason P; Myers, Joseph B; Sell, Timothy C; Anish, Eric J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a 17-year-old male soccer goalkeeper who sustained maxillofacial fractures and dental trauma after being struck in the face by an opponent's knee. Background: Because of the nature of the sport and a lack of protective headgear, soccer players are at risk for sustaining maxillofacial trauma. Facial injuries can complicate the routine management of on-field medical emergencies often encountered by certified athletic trainers. The appropriate management of maxillofacial trauma on the playing field may help to reduce both the immediate and long-term morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. Differential Diagnosis: Lacerated superior labial artery, lacerated upper lip, dental fractures, maxillofacial fractures, orbital blowout fracture, closed head injury, cervical spine injury, cerebrovascular accident. Treatment: The athlete received immediate on-field medical care and was subsequently transported to the hospital, where diagnostic testing was performed and further treatment was provided. Hospital inpatient management included dental and plastic surgery. After discharge from the hospital, the athlete underwent several additional dental procedures, including gingival surgery and nonsurgical endodontic treatments. The fractures were followed closely to assure that adequate healing had occurred. The athlete did not return to soccer. Uniqueness: Certified athletic trainers need to be prepared for on-field medical emergencies. Bleeding associated with maxillofacial trauma can complicate basic medical interventions such as airway maintenance. Inappropriate on-field management may result in unnecessary morbidity and mortality for the injured athlete. Therefore, immediate recognition of the severity of the injury is needed in order to institute appropriate airway-management strategies. Conclusions: It is sometimes necessary to consider nonstandard methods of airway management in order to first address heavy bleeding that may be

  5. Morphometrics of aeolian blowouts from high-resolution digital elevation data: methodological considerations, shape metrics, and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, T. K.; Duke, G.; Brown, O.; Koenig, D.; Barchyn, T. E.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2011-12-01

    Aeolian blowouts are wind erosion hollows that form in vegetated aeolian landscapes. They are especially pervasive in dunefields of the northern Great Plains, yielding highly pitted or hummocky terrain, and adding to the spatial variability of microenvironments. Their development is thought to be linked to feedbacks between morphology and airflow; however, few measurements are available to test this hypothesis. Currently, a dearth of morphology data is limiting modeling progress. From a systematic program of blowout mapping with high-resolution airborne LiDAR data, we used a GIS to calculate morphometrics for 1373 blowouts in Great Sand Hills, Saskatchewan, Canada. All of the blowouts selected for this investigation were covered by grassland vegetation and inactive; their morphology represents the final stage of evolution. We first outline methodological considerations for delineating blowouts and measuring their volume. In particular, we present an objective method to enhance edge and reduce operator error and bias. We show that blowouts are slightly elongate and 49% of the sample blowouts are oriented parallel to the prevailing westerly winds. We also show that their size distribution is heavy-tailed, meaning that most blowouts are relatively small and rarely increase in size beyond 400 m3. Given that blowout growth is dominated by a positive feedback between sediment transport and vegetation erosion, these results suggest several possible mechanisms: i) blowouts simultaneously evolved and stabilized as a result of external climate forcing, ii) blowouts are slaved to exogenous biogenic disturbance patterns (e.g., bison wallows), or iii) a morphodynamic limiting mechanism restricts blowout size. Overall, these data will serve as a foundation for future study, providing insight into an understudied landform that is common in many dunefields.

  6. Fractured Mounds in Elysium Planitia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-15

    This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows fractured mounds on the southern edge of Elysium Planitia. The fractures that crisscross their surfaces are probably composed of solidified lava.

  7. [Craniofacial fractures].

    PubMed

    Benech, A; Gerbino, G

    1990-12-01

    Results of early combined maxillo-facial and neurosurgical treatment of 53 craniofacial fractures are referred. The fracture location was in 31 cases central midfrontal, 10 lateral supraorbital and 12 combined central and lateral fractures. 35 fractures interested the floor and the posterior wall of frontal sinus, lacerating the underlying dura and cortical tissue. In 19 fractures orbital displacement was present. The key points in the management of these patients are: 1) Early (within 1 to 5 days) and one stage neurosurgical-maxillofacial procedure. Immediate intervention is indicated only in case of evolutive neurological lesions; 2) wide exposition of all the injuries through bicoronal incision and bone flap; 3) assessment of fractures pattern and amount of bone loss; 4) reconstruction of craniofacial frame with osteosynthesis and autologous bone grafts (35 cases iliac crest, 7 split calvarial graft); 5) interosseous wiring is used in sutured mosaic, small bone fragments and intraoperative temporary fixation; miniplates are used for rigid fixation of craniofacial pillars; 6) for optimal cosmetic result reconstruction of supraorbital ridge, nasoglabellar region and zygomatic arch is essential; 7) fractures involving the sinus floor, posterior wall and the nasofrontal duct result in direct communication between the nose and intracranial cavity with high risk of infection and mucocele formation. Cranialization of the sinus removing the posterior wall and all the mucosa is mandatory. The nasofrontal duct, the floor and sinus dead space are obliterated with autologous bone chips. Osteoneogenesis occurred in all the cases.

  8. Three-dimensional æolian dynamics within a bowl blowout during offshore winds: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the æolian dynamics of a deep bowl blowout within the foredune of the Greenwich Dunes, on the northeastern shore or Prince Edward Island, Canada. Masts of cup anemometers and sonic anemometers were utilized to measure flow velocities and directions during a strong regional ESE (offshore) wind event. The flow across the blowout immediately separated at the upwind rim crest, and within the blowout was strongly reversed. High, negative vertical flows occurred down the downwind (but seaward) vertical scarp which projected into the separation envelope and topographically forced flow back into the blowout. A pronounced, accelerated jet flow existed near the surface across the blowout basin, and the flow exhibited a complex, anti-clockwise structure with the near-surface flow following the contours around the blowout basin and lower slopes. Significant æolian sediment transport occurred across the whole bowl basin and sediment was delivered by saltation and suspension out the blowout to the east. This study demonstrates that strong offshore winds produce pronounced topographically forced flow steering, separation, reversal, and more complex three-dimensional motions within a bowl blowout, and that such winds within a bowl blowout play a notable role in transporting sediment within and beyond deep topographic hollows in the foredune.

  9. Morphology and Sediment Transport Dynamics of a Trough-Blowout Dune, Bodega Marine Reserve, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, D.; Dunleavy, C. J.; Smith, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Blowout dunes are a primary mechanism for transporting sand within vegetated coastal dune systems. Understanding the fine-scale variation in sediment transport within these systems is critical to predicting their formation and migration. Previous investigations of a coastal dune system located at the Bodega Marine Reserve, on the Sonoma Coast of Northern California have indicated that aeolian sand flux in unvegetated sand is ~450x greater than in vegetated areas. To better understand sand flux and its relationship with wind speed, direction and precipitation, we deployed an array of 12 sand traps within a single blowout area adjacent to the BOON marine climatology station. The blowout is trough- shaped, approximately 50 meters long and 15 meters wide. Its main 'fairway' is 5-10 meters below the surrounding beach grass (Ammophila)-covered land surface. Surface sediment within the blowout is fine-grained to granule-sized lithic to sub-lithic sand, and is coarsest in the center. Dune sediment in the Bodega Marine Reserve has been transported by aeolian processes from Salmon Creek Beach to the NW. Within the blowout, typical bedforms include 15-25 cm-wavelength, ~10 cm high sinuous to lingoid ripples arranged perpendicularly to the dominant wind direction (~280 degrees). An 8-10 meter-high mound at the downwind end has accumulated due to the trapping of sand flux by vegetation. Sediment flux across the studied blowout was sampled monthly over a 10-month period of 2013-2014. Sand traps were constructed using modified PVC cylinders, and are 0.5 meter high and 0.3 meter in diameter, with a 0.74-micron mesh screen. Based on measured sand flux, the sites can be categorized into three groups-axial, medial, and peripheral. Rates increase downwind within the blowout. Inter-site sand flux variability within unvegetated locations of the blowout is greater than two orders of magnitude. Axial sites, which experience the greatest sand flux, occur on the edge of the blowout adjacent

  10. Sensing and dynamics of lean blowout in a swirl dump combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiruchengode, Muruganandam

    This thesis describes an investigation on the blowout phenomenon in gas turbine combustors. The combustor primarily used for this study was a swirl- and dump-stabilized, atmospheric pressure device, which did not exhibit dynamic combustion instabilities. The first part of the thesis work concentrated on finding a sensing methodology to be able to predict the onset of approach of combustor blowout using optical methods. Temporary extinction-reignition events that occurred prior to blowout were found to be precursor events to blowout. A threshold based method was developed to identify these events in the time-resolved sensor output. The number and the average length of each event were found to increase as the LBO limit (fuel-air ratio) is approached. This behavior is used to predict the proximity to lean blowout. In the second part of this study, the blowout sensor was incorporated into a control system that monitored the approach of blowout and then actuated an alternate mechanism to stabilize the combustor near blowout. Enhanced stabilization was achieved by redirecting a part of the main fuel to a central preinjection pilot injection. The sensing methodology, without modification, was effective for the combustor with pilot stabilization. An event based control algorithm for controlling the combustor from blowing out was also developed in this study. The control system was proven to stabilize the combustor even when the combustor loading was rapidly changed. The final part of this study focused on understanding the physical mechanisms behind the precursor events. High speed movies of flame chemiluminescence and laser sheet scattering from oil droplets seeded into the reactants were analyzed to explain the physical processes that cause the extinction and the reignition of the combustor during a precursor event. A physical model for coupling of the fluid dynamics of vortex breakdown and combustion during precursor and blowout events is proposed. This model of blowout

  11. [Osteosynthesis treatment of periorbital fractures with the mandibular mesh system].

    PubMed

    Kurzeja, A

    1984-10-01

    We report about 11 patients with periorbital fracture. Blow-out fracture and patients with fracture of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus. Treatment was operative osteosynthesis. We used for that the Mandibular Mesh System of 3M Company, Germany. We usually observed the patients for one year and got a firm unification of the fragments, as well a good cosmetic success from the beginning. We had not seen any complications caused by the osteosynthesis material. The author consider the most important advantages of this system to be the considerably smaller measurements, the possibility to form the osteosynthetical sheets out of a lattice, the higher solidity of Titanium and the good formability.

  12. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  13. Coiled-tubing applications for blowout-control operations

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N.J.; Mack, S.K.; Fannin, V.R.; Rocchi, T.

    1996-05-01

    Coiled-tubing drilling is now being used in various operations. Its complete field of applications is not currently established. Coiled tubing used for well control while drilling is a new field where its limits are being explored. This paper provides guidelines on topics to be considered in determining the applicability of coiled tubing for well-control problems. The information provided is based on recent field experiences with several well-control problems when drilling vent and relief wells. In some cases, coiled-tubing drilling capabilities, by necessity, were significantly extended beyond levels the industry considered to be upper limits. Well control cannot always be handled by coiled tubing. It is a special-application tool that can handle many situations and is, in some cases, clearly the optimum choice for the application. This paper presents guidelines for selecting coiled tubing for each application and discusses economics. It also describes coiled-tubing operations for regaining control of blowout wells in certain situations and gives technical requirements for planning and executing these types of jobs. Case histories where coiled-tubing units (CTU`s) have been used to regain control of drilling and producing wells are provided for illustration.

  14. Contemporary management of carotid blowout syndrome utilizing endovascular techniques.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Nauman F; Rezaee, Rod P; Ray, Abhishek; Wick, Cameron C; Blackham, Kristine; Stepnick, David; Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    To illustrate complex interdisciplinary decision making and the utility of modern endovascular techniques in the management of patients with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). Retrospective chart review. Patients treated with endovascular strategies and/or surgical modalities were included. Control of hemorrhage, neurological, and survival outcomes were studied. Between 2004 and 2014, 33 patients had 38 hemorrhagic events related to head and neck cancer that were managed with endovascular means. Of these, 23 were localized to the external carotid artery (ECA) branches and five localized to the ECA main trunk; nine were related to the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and one event was related to the innominate artery. Seven events related to the CCA/ICA or innominate artery were managed with endovascular sacrifice, whereas three cases were managed with a flow-preserving approach (covered stent). Only one patient developed permanent hemiparesis. In two of the three cases where the flow-preserving approach was used, the covered stent eventually became exposed via the overlying soft tissue defect, and definitive management using carotid revascularization or resection was employed to prevent further hemorrhage. In cases of soft tissue necrosis, vascularized tissues were used to cover the great vessels as applicable. The use of modern endovascular approaches for management of acute CBS yields optimal results and should be employed in a coordinated manner by the head and neck surgeon and the neurointerventionalist. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:383-390, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Covered Stents for the Prevention and Treatment of Carotid Blowout Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Brandon G; Haussen, Diogo C; Ambekar, Sudheer; Peterson, Eric C; Yavagal, Dileep R; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy

    2015-08-01

    Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a life-threatening emergency resulting from compromise of the carotid artery caused by malignancy in the head and neck. To report our experience with covered stents for the prevention or treatment of carotid blowout syndrome secondary to head and neck cancer to ascertain the safety and efficacy of this technique. We reviewed the characteristics and outcome of all patients who underwent covered stent placement in the extracranial carotid artery in the setting of head and neck malignancy between 2006 and 2013 at the University of Miami. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms, devices used, perioperative complications, imaging, and follow-up data were reviewed. Seventeen carotids in 15 patients, whose ages ranged from 20 to 84 years (mean, 70.4 years), were treated with 20 covered nitinol (Viabahn Endoprosthesis, Gore, Flagstaff, Arizona) stents. Three patients were treated acutely for bleeding from carotid blowout, and 12 were treated prophylactically for threatened carotid blowout. All patients were given periprocedural dual antiplatelet therapy. No thromboembolic or ischemic complications were noted. Hemorrhage after treatment occurred in 4 patients. In 2 patients, the hemorrhage was from a source not covered by the stent. The use of covered stents is a simple, safe, and effective method for treating or preventing carotid blowout syndrome in patients with head and neck malignancy. Carotid artery reconstruction with covered stents may minimize the risk of ischemic complications associated with endovascular or surgical carotid sacrifice.

  16. Diplopia secondary to orbital surgery.

    PubMed

    Silbert, David I; Matta, Noelle S; Singman, Eric L

    2012-01-01

    Diplopia may occur following any type of ocular or pericocular surgery. The surgeries most frequently associated with postoperative diplopia include: repair of orbital fracture, endoscopic sinus surgery (from inadvertent orbital penetration), and orbital decompression for thyroid-related immune orbitopathy (TRIO). Postoperative diplopia after orbital tumor resection has been reported--e.g., after excision of fibrous dysplasia and osteoma. However, a recent case series suggests diplopia after orbital tumor resection is uncommon and transient. Surgical intervention for orbital trauma carries the highest risk of postoperative diplopia and will be the focus of this review. We will also present a case report of worsening diplopia following repair of orbital floor fracture to highlight potential motility issues that can arise when implants are employed to treat orbital floor fractures.

  17. 30 CFR 250.1707 - What are the requirements for blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements for blowout preventer... preventer system testing, records, and drills? (a) BOP pressure tests. When you pressure test the BOP system... between blowout preventer tests is allowed when there is a stuck pipe or pressure-control operation and...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1707 - What are the requirements for blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements for blowout preventer... preventer system testing, records, and drills? (a) BOP pressure tests. When you pressure test the BOP system... between blowout preventer tests is allowed when there is a stuck pipe or pressure-control operation and...

  19. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA.

    PubMed

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2012-01-01

    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of Seafood Safety after the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi; Tipre, Meghan; Leader, Mark; Fitzgerald, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory and chemical analyses of seafood. All federal waters have been reopened, yet concerns have been raised regarding the robustness of the protocol to identify all potential harmful exposures and protect the most sensitive populations. Objectives: We aimed to assess this protocol based on comparisons with previous oil spills, published testing results, and current knowledge regarding chemicals released during the DH oil spill. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning seafood contamination and oil spills and consulted with academic and government experts. Results: Protocols to evaluate seafood safety before reopening fisheries have relied on risk assessment of health impacts from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures, but metal contamination may also be a concern. Assumptions used to determine levels of concern (LOCs) after oil spills have not been consistent across risk assessments performed after oil spills. Chemical testing results after the DH oil spill suggest PAH levels are at or below levels reported after previous oil spills, and well below LOCs, even when more conservative parameters are used to estimate risk. Conclusions: We recommend use of a range of plausible risk parameters to set bounds around LOCs, comparisons of post-spill measurements with baseline levels, and the development and implementation of long-term monitoring strategies for metals as well as PAHs and dispersant components. In addition, the methods, results, and uncertainties associated with estimating seafood safety after oil spills should be communicated in a transparent and timely manner, and stakeholders should be actively involved in developing a long

  1. Effect of Oxygen addition on altitude blowout and relight of an experimental combustor segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of oxygen addition on the low pressure altitude blowout limits of an experimental combustor segment was investigated. Data were obtained for two inlet-air temperatures, two inlet-airflow rates, and a constant fuel-air ratio of 0.020 with Jet A fuel. It was shown that the pressure at blowout could be reduced to correspond to an increase in altitude of 4.6 kilometers with oxygen flow rates of 8 to 16 percent by weight of the total fuel flow.

  2. One-side riddled basin below and beyond the blowout bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. L.

    2000-10-01

    In this Rapid Comunication we report a phenomenon of a one-side riddled basin where one side of the basin of attraction of an attractor on an invariant subspace (ISS) is globally riddled, while the other side is only locally riddled. This kind of basin appears due to the symmetry breaking with respect to the ISS. This one-side riddled basin can even persist beyond the blowout bifurcation, contrary to the previously reported riddled basins which exist only below the blowout transition. An experimental situation where this phenomenon can be expected is proposed.

  3. 30 CFR 250.616 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drills. 250.616 Section 250.616 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.616 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) BOP... disconnecting a pressure seal in the assembly, the affected seal will be pressure tested. (c) Drills. All...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1625 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drills. 250.1625 Section 250.1625 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Operations § 250.1625 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) Prior to conducting high..., upper and lower kelly cocks, and drill-string safety valves shall be pressure tested to pipe-ram test...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1625 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drills. 250.1625 Section 250.1625 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1625 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) Prior to... manifold valves, upper and lower kelly cocks, and drill-string safety valves shall be pressure tested to...

  6. 30 CFR 250.617 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drills. 250.617 Section 250.617 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.617 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) BOP... disconnecting a pressure seal in the assembly, the affected seal will be pressure tested. (c) Drills. All...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1625 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drills. 250.1625 Section 250.1625 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Operations § 250.1625 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) Prior to conducting high..., upper and lower kelly cocks, and drill-string safety valves shall be pressure tested to pipe-ram test...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1625 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drills. 250.1625 Section 250.1625 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Operations § 250.1625 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) Prior to conducting high..., upper and lower kelly cocks, and drill-string safety valves shall be pressure tested to pipe-ram test...

  9. 30 CFR 250.617 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drills. 250.617 Section 250.617 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.617 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) BOP... disconnecting a pressure seal in the assembly, the affected seal will be pressure tested. (c) Drills. All...

  10. Flame Propagation and Blowout in Hydrocarbon Jets: Experiments to Understand the Stability and Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-29

    than that found by Weiland and Strakey (2009) of ε = 4.92 for confined nitrogen-diluted hydrogen flames. The discrepancy can be due to differences...Model of Turbulent Mixing Applied to Blowout of Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames, Combustion and Flame, 106: 442-66, 1996. Weiland , N.T. and Strakey

  11. A Solar Blowout Jet Caused by the Eruption of a Magnetic Flux Rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Wang, Huaning; Cheng, Xin; Huang, Chong

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure of a blowout jet originating in the western edge of NOAA active region (AR) 11513 on 2012 July 2 by means of recently developed forced field extrapolation model. The results show that the blowout jet was caused by the eruption of the magnetic flux rope (MFR) consisting of twisted field lines. We further calculate the twist number {{ T }}w and squashing factor Q of the reconstructed magnetic field and find that (1) the MFR corresponds well with the high {{ T }}w region, and (2) the MFR outer boundary corresponds well with the high Q region, probably interpreting the bright structure at the base of the jet. The twist number of the MFR is estimated to be {{ T }}w=-1.54+/- 0.67. Thus, the kink instability is regarded as the initiation mechanism of the blowout jet as {{ T }}w reaches or even exceeds the threshold value of the kink instability. Our results also indicate that the bright point at the decaying phase is actually composed of some small loops that are heated by the reconnection occurring above. In summary, the blowout jet is mostly consistent with the scenario proposed by Moore et al., except that the kink instability is found to be a possible trigger.

  12. 30 CFR 250.616 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drills. 250.616 Section 250.616 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Operations § 250.616 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) BOP pressure tests. When you...-workover operations shall participate in a weekly BOP drill to familiarize crew members with...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1625 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drills. 250.1625 Section 250.1625 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 250.1625 Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (a) Prior to conducting high-pressure... kelly cocks, and drill-string safety valves shall be pressure tested to pipe-ram test pressures....

  14. Management of ocular, orbital, and adnexal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Spoor, T.C.; Nesi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Ruptured Globe: Primary Care; Corneal Trauma, Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic Usage; Radiology of Orbital Trauma; Maxillofacial Fractures; Orbital Infections; and Basic Management of Soft Tissue Injury.

  15. Fracture detection logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Benzing, William M.

    1992-06-09

    A method and apparatus by which fractured rock formations are identified and their orientation may be determined includes two orthogonal motion sensors which are used in conjunction with a downhole orbital vibrator. The downhole vibrator includes a device for orienting the sensors. The output of the sensors is displayed as a lissajou figure. The shape of the figure changes when a subsurface fracture is encountered in the borehole. The apparatus and method identifies fractures rock formations and enables the azimuthal orientation of the fractures to be determined.

  16. [Orbital emphysema: radiologic and ophthalmologic findings].

    PubMed

    Solanas-Álava, Susana; Rodríguez-Marco, Nelson Arturo; Artigas-Martín, José María; Fernández-Larripa, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Orbital emphysema, or the presence of air in orbital tissues, is normally associated with an injury although it can arise when a Valsalva maneuver causes an increase in upper airway pressure. This potential complication of an orbital wall fracture, usually in the ethmoid bone, occurs in 50% of such cases. On fracture, air passes from the nasal fossa, sinuses, or subcutaneous tissue. The condition is benign and transient in most cases, and loss of vision is rare. No protocol for treating orbital emphysema with serious complications in which vision is affected has been established. We report 9 cases of orbital emphysema, describing events leading to the fractures, radiologic findings, and treatments.

  17. Skull fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have been drinking alcohol or is otherwise impaired. Alternative Names Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture Images Skull of an adult Skull fracture Skull fracture ...

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter crash and rescue information - Basic characteristics of the Space Shuttle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. C.

    1976-01-01

    Major fire and rescue activity procedures developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter are reproduced, together with diagrams of the Orbiter's ejection seat and of emergency egress-ingress hatches and blowout panels. Duties assigned to the Manager of the Fire, Crash and Rescue division of the Space Shuttle Program are discussed, including training of both ground and flight personnel in accordance with the Orbiter Crash Rescue Information manual. The special problem of providing a means of egress and rescue for the flight and ground crews of the Orbiter while it is in the piggyback configuration on top the Boeing 747 carrier was solved by use of a modified 85-foot articulated boom.

  19. Spatial-temporal evolution of aeolian blowout dunes at Cape Cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhar, Kimia C.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Gares, Paul A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores historical evolution of blowouts at Cape Cod National Seashore (CCNS), USA - a site that hosts one of the world's highest densities of active and stabilized blowouts. The Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Moving Polygons (STAMP) method is applied to a multi-decadal dataset of aerial photography and LiDAR to extract patterns of two-dimensional movement and morphometric changes in erosional deflation basins and depositional lobes. Blowout development in CCNS is characterized by several geometric (overlap) and movement (proximity) responses, including: i) generation and disappearance, ii) extension and contraction, iii) union or division, iv) clustering and v) divergence by stabilization. Other possible movement events include migration, amalgamation and proximal stabilization, but they were not observed in this study. Generation events were more frequent than disappearance events; the former were highest between 1985 and 1994, while the latter were highest between 2000 and 2005. High rates of areal change in erosional basins occurred between 1998 and 2000 (+ 3932 m2 a-1), the lowest rate (+ 333 m2 a-1) between 2005 and 2009, and the maximum rate (+ 4589 m2 a-1) between 2009 and 2011. Union events occurred mostly in recent years (2000-2012), while only one division was observed earlier (1985-1994). Net areal changes of lobes showed gradual growth from a period of contraction (- 1119 m2 a-1) between 1998 and 2000 to rapid extension (+ 2030 m2 a-1) by 2010, which is roughly concurrent with rapid growth of erosional basins between 2005 and 2009. Blowouts extended radially in this multi-modal wind regime and, despite odd shapes initially, they became simpler in form (more circular) and larger over time. Net extension of erosional basins was toward ESE (109°) while depositional lobes extended SSE (147°). Lobes were aligned with the strongest (winter) sand drift vector although their magnitude of areal extension was only 33% that of the basins. These

  20. Simulation of scenarios of oil droplet formation from the Deepwater Horizon blowout.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; Adams, Eric; Socolofsky, Scott A; King, Thomas; Lee, Kenneth; Nedwed, Timothy

    2015-12-15

    Knowledge of the droplet size distribution (DSD) from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout is an important step in predicting the fate and transport of the released oil. Due to the absence of measurements of the DSD from the DWH incident, we considered herein hypothetical scenarios of releases that explore the realistic parameter space using a thoroughly calibrated DSD model, VDROP-J, and we attempted to provide bounds on the range of droplet sizes from the DWH blowout within 200 m of the wellhead. The scenarios include conditions without and with the presence of dispersants, different dispersant treatment efficiencies, live oil and dead oil properties, and varying oil flow rate, gas flow rate, and orifice diameter. The results, especially for dispersant-treated oil, are very different from recent modeling studies in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. HELICAL BLOWOUT JETS IN THE SUN: UNTWISTING AND PROPAGATION OF WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E. J.; Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a numerical experiment of the recurrent onset of helical ''blowout'' jets in an emerging flux region. We find that these jets are running with velocities of ∼100-250 km s{sup –1} and they transfer a vast amount of heavy plasma into the outer solar atmosphere. During their emission, they undergo an untwisting motion as a result of reconnection between the twisted emerging and the non-twisted pre-existing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. For the first time in the context of blowout jets, we provide direct evidence that their untwisting motion is associated with the propagation of torsional Alfvén waves in the corona.

  2. Physical Parameters of a Blowout Jet Observed by HINODE and STEREO/EUVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Poletto, G.; Sterling, A.; Romoli, M.

    2012-05-01

    The present work aims at identifying a typical blowout jet and inferring its physical parameters. To this end, we present a preliminary multi-instrument analysis of the bright X-ray jet that occurred in the north polar coronal hole on Nov. 3, 2007, at 11:50 UT. The jet shows the typical characteristics of “blowout jets'' (Moore et al. 2010), and was observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and by Stereo/Extreme UltraViolett Imager (EUVI) and COR1. Temperatures and Emission Measures (EMs) of the jet have been derived from the EUVI A data via the filter ratio technique in the pre-event, near maximum and in the post-maximum phases. Temperatures and EMs inferred from EUVI data are then used to calculate the predicted XRT Al-poly intensity: predicted values are compared with observed values and found to be consistent.

  3. Blowout Jets: Hinode X-Ray Jets that Don't Fit the Standard Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly half of all H-alpha macrospicules in polar coronal holes appear to be miniature filament eruptions. This suggests that there is a large class of X-ray jets in which the jet-base magnetic arcade undergoes a blowout eruption as in a CME, instead of remaining static as in most solar X-ray jets, the standard jets that fit the model advocated by Shibata. Along with a cartoon depicting the standard model, we present a cartoon depicting the signatures expected of blowout jets in coronal X-ray images. From Hinode/XRT movies and STEREO/EUVI snapshots in polar coronal holes, we present examples of (1) X-ray jets that fit the standard model, and (2) X-ray jets that do not fit the standard model but do have features appropriate for blowout jets. These features are (1) a flare arcade inside the jet-base arcade in addition to the small flare arcade (bright point) outside that standard jets have, (2) a filament of cool (T is approximately 80,000K) plasma that erupts from the core of the jetbase arcade, and (3) an extra jet strand that should not be made by the reconnection for standard jets but could be made by reconnection between the ambient unipolar open field and the opposite-polarity leg of the filament-carrying flux-rope core field of the erupting jet-base arcade. We therefore infer that these non-standard jets are blowout jets, jets made by miniature versions of the sheared-core-arcade eruptions that make CMEs

  4. Mechanisms of Flame Stabilization and Blowout in a Reacting Turbulent Hydrogen Jet in Cross-Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kolla, H.; Grout, R. W.; Gruber, A.; Chen, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms contributing to flame stabilization and blowout in a nitrogen-diluted hydrogen transverse jet in a turbulent boundary layer cross-flow (JICF) are investigated using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed chemistry. Non-reacting JICF DNS were performed to understand the relative magnitude and physical location of low velocity regions on the leeward side of the fuel jet where a flame can potentially anchor. As the injection angle is reduced from 90{sup o} to 70{sup o}, the low velocity region was found to diminish significantly, both in terms of physical extent and magnitude, and hence, its ability to provide favorable conditions for flame anchoring and stabilization are greatly reduced. In the reacting JICF DNS a stable flame is observed for 90{sup o} injection angle and, on average, the flame root is in the vicinity of low velocity magnitude and stoichiometric mixture. When the injection angle is smoothly transitioned to 75{sup o} a transient flame blowout is observed. Ensemble averaged quantities on the flame base reveal two phases of the blowout characterized by a kinematic imbalance between flame propagation speed and flow normal velocity. In the first phase dominant flow structures repeatedly draw the flame base closer to the jet centerline resulting in richer-than-stoichiometric mixtures and high velocity magnitudes. In the second phase, in spite of low velocity magnitudes and a return to stoichiometry, due to jet bending and flame alignment normal to the cross-flow, the flow velocity normal to the flame base increases dramatically perpetuating the blowout.

  5. Heat Build-Up and Blow-Out of Rubber Blocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    heated without being subjected to mechanical working. (ii) Blow-out due only to heating Samples of an SBR compound (SBR2), a natural rubber compound...stiffness, extensibility, or resistance to tearing? Does repeated stressing play a direct role in causing the failure, as in mechanical fatigue of rubber...or is it merely a mechanism for raising the internal temperature to the level at which rapid decomposition takes place? In an attempt to answer some of

  6. Breaking primary seed dormancy in Gibbens' beardtongue (Penstemon gibbensii) and blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii)

    Treesearch

    Kassie L. Tilini; Susan E. Meyer; Phil S. Allen

    2016-01-01

    This study established that chilling removes primary seed dormancy in 2 rare penstemons of the western US, Gibbens’ beardtongue (Penstemon gibbensii Dorn [Scrophulariaceae]) and blowout penstemon (Penstemon haydenii S. Watson). Wild-harvested seeds were subjected either to moist chilling at 2 to 4 °C (36-39 °F) for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk or to approximately 2 y of dry...

  7. A MICRO CORONAL MASS EJECTION ASSOCIATED BLOWOUT EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET JET

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Junchao; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Yang Jiayan; Bi Yi; Yang Bo

    2011-09-10

    The so-called mini coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were recently identified as small-scale eruptive events showing the same on-disk characteristics as large-scale CMEs, and Moore et al. further found that one-third of polar X-ray jets are the so-called blowout jets, in which the jet-base magnetic arch, often carrying a filament, undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. By means of the two viewpoint observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Ahead of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO A), in this Letter, we present the first observations that a blowout jet from the eruption of an EUV mini-filament channel in the quiet Sun was indeed associated with a real micro-CME. Captured by the on-disk SDO observations, the whole life of the mini-filament channel, from the formation to eruption, was associated with convergences and cancellations of opposite-polarity magnetic flux in the photosphere, and its eruption was accompanied by a small flare-like brightening, a small corona dimming, and posteruptive loops. The near-limb counterpart of the eruption observed by STEREO A, however, showed up as a small EUV jet followed by a white-light jet. These observations not only confirm the previous results that mini-filaments have characteristics common to large-scale ones, but also give clear evidences that blowout jets can result from the eruptions of mini-filaments and are associated with mini-CME.

  8. Blow-Out Velocities of Solutions of Hydrocarbons and Boron Hydride - Hydrocarbon Reaction Products in a 1 7/8-Inch-Diameter Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, James F.; Lord, Albert M.

    1957-01-01

    Blow-out velocities were determined for JP-4 solutions containing: (1) 10 % ethylene - decaborane reaction product, (2) 10% and 20% acetylene - diborane reaction product, and (3) 5.5%, 15.7%, and 30.7% methylacetylene - diborane reaction product. These were compared with blow-out velocities for JP-4, propylene oxide, and neohexane and previously reported data for JP-4 solutions of pentaborane. For those reaction products investigated, the blow-out velocities at a fixed equivalence ratio were higher for those materials containing higher boron concentrations; that is, blow-out velocity increased in the following order: (1) methylacetylene - diborane, (2) acetylene - diborane, and (3) ethylene - decaborane reaction products.

  9. Covered stent graft for treatment of a pseudoaneurysm and carotid blowout syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Nazli; Alkawi, Ammar; Georgiadis, Alexandros L.; Kirmani, Jawad F.; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2008-01-01

    Background Carotid blowout syndrome with pseudoaneurysm, a rapidly progressive pathology, may present emergently with massive oral hemorrhage. Use of an endograft prosthesis offers a treatment strategy with salvation of the carotid artery. Case History: A 55 year old man with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presented with recurrent transoral hemorrhage, requiring endovascular treatment. Technical Report: Coil embolization was initially performed with little impact on the hemorrhage. A 7 x 40 mm Fluency® Plus covered stent (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, Arizona, USA) was placed and was supplemented by a second 8 x 40 mm Fluency Plus stent, with resulting cessation of active contrast extravasation. Discussion: The risks and benefits of various treatment options of carotid pseudoaneurysm with blowout are discussed including the use or omission of antiplatelet and anticoagulant regimens, with reference to previously reported cases. Conclusion: Tandem, overlapping covered stent placement in the common carotid artery is feasible and offers a treatment option for carotid blowout syndrome. Risks of aggravation of hemorrhage versus long-term thromboembolic events without antiplatelet therapy must be considered in cases of active ongoing hemorrhage. PMID:22518207

  10. Droplet and bubble formation of combined oil and gas releases in subsea blowouts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Gao, Feng; Socolofsky, Scott A; Lee, Kenneth

    2017-07-15

    Underwater blowouts from gas and oil operations often involve the simultaneous release of oil and gas. Presence of gas bubbles in jets/plumes could greatly influence oil droplet formation. With the aim of understanding and quantifying the droplet formation from Deepwater Horizon blowout (DWH) we developed a new formulation for gas-oil interaction with jets/plumes. We used the jet-droplet formation model VDROP-J with the new module and the updated model was validated against laboratory and field experimental data. Application to DWH revealed that, in the absence of dispersant, gas input resulted in a reduction of d50 by up to 1.5mm, and maximum impact occurred at intermediate gas fractions (30-50%). In the presence of dispersant, reduction in d50 due to bubbles was small because of the promoted small sizes of both bubbles and droplets by surfactants. The new development could largely enhance the prediction and response to oil and gas blowouts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evolution of bubble size distribution from gas blowout in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C.; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Loney, Norman; Geng, Xiaolong

    2016-03-01

    Gas is often emanated from the sea bed during a subsea oil and gas blowout. The size of a gas bubble changes due to gas dissolution in the ambient water and expansion as a result of a decrease in water pressure during the rise. It is important to understand the fate and transport of gas bubbles for the purpose of environmental and safety concerns. In this paper, we used the numerical model, VDROP-J to simulate gas formation in jet/plume upon release, and dissolution and expansion while bubble rising during a relatively shallow subsea gas blowout. The model predictions were an excellent match to the experimental data. Then a gas dissolution and expansion module was included in the VDROP-J model to predict the fate and transport of methane bubbles rising due to a blowout through a 0.10 m vertical orifice. The numerical results indicated that gas bubbles would increase the mixing energy in released jets, especially at small distances and large distances from the orifice. This means that models that predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) should account for this additional mixing energy. It was also found that only bubbles of certain sizes would reach the water surfaces; small bubbles dissolve fast in the water column, while the size of the large bubbles decreases. This resulted in a BSD that was bimodal near the orifice, and then became unimodal.

  12. Tracking the Hercules 265 marine gas well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Isabel C.; Özgökmen, Tamay; Snyder, Susan; Schwing, Patrick; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Olascoaga, Maria J.; Zhu, Ping; Ryan, Edward; Chen, Shuyi S.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Hollander, David; Murawski, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    On 23 July 2013, a marine gas rig (Hercules 265) ignited in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The rig burned out of control for 2 days before being extinguished. We conducted a rapid-response sampling campaign near Hercules 265 after the fire to ascertain if sediments and fishes were polluted above earlier baseline levels. A surface drifter study confirmed that surface ocean water flowed to the southeast of the Hercules site, while the atmospheric plume generated by the blowout was in eastward direction. Sediment cores were collected to the SE of the rig at a distance of ˜0.2, 8, and 18 km using a multicorer, and demersal fishes were collected from ˜0.2 to 8 km SE of the rig using a longline (508 hooks). Recently deposited sediments document that only high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the rig suggesting higher pyrogenic inputs associated with the blowout. A similar trend was observed in the foraminifera Haynesina germanica, an indicator species of pollution. In red snapper bile, only HMW PAH metabolites increased in 2013 nearly double those from 2012. Both surface sediments and fish bile analyses suggest that, in the aftermath of the blowout, increased concentration of pyrogenically derived hydrocarbons was transported and deposited in the environment. This study further emphasizes the need for an ocean observing system and coordinated rapid-response efforts from an array of scientific disciplines to effectively assess environmental impacts resulting from accidental releases of oil contaminants.

  13. Sino-orbital fistula: two case reports.

    PubMed

    McNab, A A

    2000-08-01

    A fistula between the paranasal sinuses and the orbit as a late complication of orbital fractures is rare and may present with intermittent symptoms due to air passing into the orbit. A case note review of two patients with sino-orbital fistula is presented. Two patients, 23- and 30-year-old males, presented with intermittent symptoms of globe displacement, diplopia or discomfort months after repair of an orbital floor fracture with a synthetic orbital floor implant. The symptoms occurred after nose blowing. They were both cured by removal of the implant and partial removal of the tissue surrounding the implant. A sino-orbital fistula may complicate the otherwise routine repair of an orbital floor fracture, but may be cured by removal of the implant and part of the surrounding pseudocapsule.

  14. Outcomes of endovascular occlusion and stenting in the treatment of carotid blowout.

    PubMed

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Cloft, Harry J

    2015-08-01

    Carotid blowout is a life threatening complication of invasive head and neck cancers and their treatments. This is commonly treated with endovascular embolization and carotid stenting. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we report the immediate clinical results of patients receiving embolization and/or stenting for treatment of carotid blowout associated with head and neck cancer. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the period 2003-2011, we defined carotid blowout patients as those with head and neck malignancies receiving carotid stenting and/or endovascular embolization without open surgery. Outcomes studied included mortality, acute ischemic stroke, hemiplegia/paresis, and other post-operative neurologic complications. Outcomes for the endovascular embolization and carotid stenting group were compared. A total of 1218 patients underwent endovascular treatment for carotid blowout. Of these, 1080 patients (88.6%) underwent embolization procedures and 138 patients (11.4%) underwent carotid stenting. The mortality rate of endovascular embolization patients was similar to that of carotid stenting patients (8.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.5%-9.7% versus 10.2%, 95% CI=6.0%-16.4%, p = 0.36). Stroke rate was similar between embolization patients and stenting patients (2.3%, 95% CI=1.6%-3.4% vs. 3.4%, 95% CI=1.3%-8.4%, p = 0.43). Hemiplegia rates were significantly higher rate in stenting patients compared with endovascular occlusion patients (3.8%, 95% CI=1.3%-8.4% vs. 1.4%, 95% CI=1.4%-2.4%, p = 0.05). The rate of post-operative neurologic complications was higher in stenting patients compared with embolization patients (6.5%, 95% CI=3.3%-12.1% vs. 1.4%, 95% CI=0.9%-2.4%, p < 0.0001). Given the natural history of carotid blowout, carotid stenting and endovascular embolization are acceptable means of treating this disease. Endovascular embolization remains the most common treatment among patients with head and neck cancers with lower

  15. A small-scale eruption leading to a blowout macrospicule jet in an on-disk coronal hole

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mitzi; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Gary, G. Allen E-mail: alphonse.sterling@nasa.gov E-mail: gag0002@uah.edu

    2014-03-01

    We examine the three-dimensional magnetic structure and dynamics of a solar EUV-macrospicule jet that occurred on 2011 February 27 in an on-disk coronal hole. The observations are from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). The observations reveal that in this event, closed-field-carrying cool absorbing plasma, as in an erupting mini-filament, erupted and opened, forming a blowout jet. Contrary to some jet models, there was no substantial recently emerged, closed, bipolar-magnetic field in the base of the jet. Instead, over several hours, flux convergence and cancellation at the polarity inversion line inside an evolved arcade in the base apparently destabilized the entire arcade, including its cool-plasma-carrying core field, to undergo a blowout eruption in the manner of many standard-sized, arcade-blowout eruptions that produce a flare and coronal mass ejection. Internal reconnection made bright 'flare' loops over the polarity inversion line inside the blowing-out arcade field, and external reconnection of the blowing-out arcade field with an ambient open field made longer and dimmer EUV loops on the outside of the blowing-out arcade. That the loops made by the external reconnection were much larger than the loops made by the internal reconnection makes this event a new variety of blowout jet, a variety not recognized in previous observations and models of blowout jets.

  16. Prophylactic placement of a covered nitinol stent to prevent carotid blowout in a patient with supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takeshi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tanabe, Masahiro; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2015-01-01

    Enlargement of primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes in patients with head and neck cancer can be progressive and invade the surrounding vessels despite intensive treatment. Carotid blowout (CBS) tends to occur in these patients, and prompt treatment is required. Surgical management of carotid blowout is technically troublesome because exploration and repair of the previously irradiated or tumor-invaded field are difficult. Endovascular therapy with stent deployment is a good alternative to surgery. Even with such interventional procedures as stent grafting, it is sometimes difficult to obtain favorable outcomes in end-stage patients with poor general conditions. The prophylactic placement of a covered nitinol stent was performed to prevent carotid blowout in a patient with supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from esophageal cancer, and fatal bleeding due to carotid blowout was avoided. The usefulness of the prophylactic placement of a covered nitinol stent for preventing carotid blowout in an end-stage patient is presented.

  17. Blowout revegetation on pipeline rights-of-way in the Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Taylor, J.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Blowouts caused by wind erosion on pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) that cross rangelands in the southwestern United States are of significant concern because diminished range productivity is affecting the relationship between ROW owners and pipeline companies and because protective soil cover over the pipelines is lost, causing potential safety hazards. A study to develop and evaluate speedy and cost-effective blowout stabilization and revegetation methods was conducted in Wheeler County, Texas. Seven methods were tested, and each method combined one or more components, as follows: (1) fence, grade, mulch, fertilize, crimp, and seed; (2) fence, grade, mulch, fertilize, and seed; (3) fence, grade, mulch, fertilize, and crimp; (4) grade, mulch, fertilize, crimp, and seed; (5) fence, grade, fertilize, and sprig; (6) grade, fertilize, and sprig; and (7) fence. A single application rate was used for the native hay mulch, fertilizer, and native grass seed mixture, and cost data were collected for each method during implementation. Soil loss/deposition was monitored for two years, and soil samples were collected and analyzed annually. The rate and type of vegetation established was measured by using the point-intercept method three times each year for five growing seasons. The cost of the methods ranged from about $800 to $3450 ha[sup [minus]1]. All seven methods controlled wind erosion, but grass cover on areas treated with five of the seven methods was not equivalent to that on the adjacent rangeland after five years. The two methods that included sprigging produced grass cover equal to that of the adjacent rangeland in less than two growing seasons. An industry-wide saving of about one-quarter of a million dollars per year could be realized if only 550 acres of blowout area on ROWs were stabilized and revegetated by means of sprigging.

  18. The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem, six years after the Macondo oil well blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Samantha B.; Bracco, Annalisa; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Grosell, Martin; MacDonald, Ian R.; Cordes, Erik E.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Passow, Uta

    2016-07-01

    The Gulf of Mexico ecosystem is a hotspot for biological diversity and supports a number of industries, from tourism to fishery production to oil and gas exploration, that serve as the economic backbone of Gulf coast states. The Gulf is a natural hydrocarbon basin, rich with stores of oil and gas that lie in reservoirs deep beneath the seafloor. The natural seepage of hydrocarbons across the Gulf system is extensive and, thus, the system's biological components experience ephemeral, if not, frequent, hydrocarbon exposure. In contrast to natural seepage, which is diffuse and variable over space and time, the 2010 Macondo oil well blowout, represented an intense, focused hydrocarbon infusion to the Gulf's deepwaters. The Macondo blowout drove rapid shifts in microbial populations and activity, revealed unexpected phenomena, such as deepwater hydrocarbon plumes and marine "oil snow" sedimentation, and impacted the Gulf's pelagic and benthic ecosystems. Understanding the distribution and fate of Macondo oil was limited to some degree by an insufficient ability to predict the physical movement of water in the Gulf. In other words, the available physical oceanographic models lacked critical components. In the past six years, much has been learned about the physical oceanography of the Gulf, providing transformative knowledge that will improve the ability to predict the movement of water and the hydrocarbons they carry in future blowout scenarios. Similarly, much has been learned about the processing and fate of Macondo hydrocarbons. Here, we provide an overview of the distribution, fate and impacts of Macondo hydrocarbons and offer suggestions for future research to push the field of oil spill response research forward.

  19. Reliability Analysis of the Electrical Control System of Subsea Blowout Preventers Using Markov Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zengkai; Liu, Yonghong; Cai, Baoping

    2014-01-01

    Reliability analysis of the electrical control system of a subsea blowout preventer (BOP) stack is carried out based on Markov method. For the subsea BOP electrical control system used in the current work, the 3-2-1-0 and 3-2-0 input voting schemes are available. The effects of the voting schemes on system performance are evaluated based on Markov models. In addition, the effects of failure rates of the modules and repair time on system reliability indices are also investigated. PMID:25409010

  20. Blowout jets and impulsive eruptive flares in a bald-patch topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, R.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Joshi, B.; Cristiani, G. D.; Cremades, H.; Pariat, E.; Nuevo, F. A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Uddin, W.

    2017-02-01

    Context. A subclass of broad extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray jets, called blowout jets, have become a topic of research since they could be the link between standard collimated jets and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Aims: Our aim is to understand the origin of a series of broad jets, some of which are accompanied by flares and associated with narrow and jet-like CMEs. Methods: We analyze observations of a series of recurrent broad jets observed in AR 10484 on 21-24 October 2003. In particular, one of them occurred simultaneously with an M2.4 flare on 23 October at 02:41 UT (SOLA2003-10-23). Both events were observed by the ARIES Hα Solar Tower-Telescope, TRACE, SOHO, and RHESSI instruments. The flare was very impulsive and followed by a narrow CME. A local force-free model of AR 10484 is the basis to compute its topology. We find bald patches (BPs) at the flare site. This BP topology is present for at least two days before to events. Large-scale field lines, associated with the BPs, represent open loops. This is confirmed by a global potential free source surface (PFSS) model. Following the brightest leading edge of the Hα and EUV jet emission, we can temporarily associate these emissions with a narrow CME. Results: Considering their characteristics, the observed broad jets appear to be of the blowout class. As the most plausible scenario, we propose that magnetic reconnection could occur at the BP separatrices forced by the destabilization of a continuously reformed flux rope underlying them. The reconnection process could bring the cool flux-rope material into the reconnected open field lines driving the series of recurrent blowout jets and accompanying CMEs. Conclusions: Based on a model of the coronal field, we compute the AR 10484 topology at the location where flaring and blowout jets occurred from 21 to 24 October 2003. This topology can consistently explain the origin of these events. The movie associated to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Reliability analysis of the electrical control system of subsea blowout preventers using Markov models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengkai; Liu, Yonghong; Cai, Baoping

    2014-01-01

    Reliability analysis of the electrical control system of a subsea blowout preventer (BOP) stack is carried out based on Markov method. For the subsea BOP electrical control system used in the current work, the 3-2-1-0 and 3-2-0 input voting schemes are available. The effects of the voting schemes on system performance are evaluated based on Markov models. In addition, the effects of failure rates of the modules and repair time on system reliability indices are also investigated.

  2. Sea-floor methane blow-out and global firestorm at the K-T boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Max, M.D.; Dillon, William P.; Nishimura, C.; Hurdle, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    A previously unsuspected source of fuel for the global firestorm recorded by soot in the Cretaceous-Tertiary impact layer may have resided in methane gas associated with gas hydrate in the end-Cretaceous seafloor. End-Cretaceous impact-generated shock and megawaves would have had the potential to initiate worldwide oceanic methane gas blow-outs from these deposits. The methane would likely have ignited and incompletely combusted. This large burst of methane would have been followed by longer-term methane release as a part of a positive thermal feedback in the disturbed ocean-atmosphere system.

  3. Application of Petri nets to performance evaluation of subsea blowout preventer system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengkai; Liu, Yonghong; Cai, Baoping; Li, Xiaolei; Tian, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an application of deterministic and stochastic Petri nets (DSPN) to evaluate the performance of subsea blowout preventer (BOP) system. The overall subsea BOP system is comprised of five mechanical subsystems and five electrical subsystems, which can be viewed as a series-parallel system. In regard to common cause failures, TimeNET 4.0 toolkit is utilized to develop and analyze the DSPN models. Availability and reliability of the subsea BOP system and its subsystems are obtained. Besides, the effects of failure rate and repair time of each component on system performance are researched.

  4. Stress Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    Stress fractures Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by ... up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of a ...

  5. Greenstick Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    Greenstick fractures Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone bends and cracks, instead of breaking completely into separate pieces. The fracture looks similar to what happens when you try ...

  6. Lean blowout limits of a gas turbine combustor operated with aviation fuel and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Lean blowout (LBO) limits is critical to the operational performance of combustion systems in propulsion and power generation. The swirl cup plays an important role in flame stability and has been widely used in aviation engines. Therefore, the effects of swirl cup geometry and flow dynamics on LBO limits are significant. An experiment was conducted for studying the lean blowout limits of a single dome rectangular model combustor with swirl cups. Three types of swirl cup (dual-axial swirl cup, axial-radial swirl cup, dual-radial swirl cup) were employed in the experiment which was operated with aviation fuel (Jet A-1) and methane under the idle condition. Experimental results showed that, with using both Jet A-1 and methane, the LBO limits increase with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-radial swirl cup, while LBO limits decrease with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-axial swirl cup. In addition, LBO limits increase with the swirl intensity for three swirl cups. The experimental results also showed that the flow dynamics instead of atomization poses a significant influence on LBO limits. An improved semi-empirical correlation of experimental data was derived to predict the LBO limits for gas turbine combustors.

  7. Underwater Oil Plume Intrusion from Deepwater Blowouts - A Large-Eddy Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Chen, B.; Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of buoyancy-driven hydrocarbon plumes with the stably stratified deep-ocean environment plays a crucial role in the formation of underwater oil intrusions. As gas bubbles and oil droplets are released from an underwater oil well blowout, they induce a strong buoyancy flux that lifts entrained sea water to form an upward plume. Towards higher elevations, the stratification-induced negative buoyancy increases and eventually exceeds the gas/oil-induced buoyancy, causing the plume to decelerate and a large fraction of entrained sea water to peel off from the rising plume to form a fountain-like downward outer plume. During this peeling process, weakly buoyant particles (e.g. small oil droplets) are trapped and fall together with the detrained fluid, and then migrate horizontally at the equilibrium buoyancy depth, forming underwater oil intrusion layers. In this study, the complex plume dynamics and oil intrusion are studied using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The LES model captures the essential characteristics of the plume structure and the peeling/intrusion processes, and yields good agreement with prior laboratory experiments. Applying to the Deepwater Horizon oil well blowout condition, the LES model shows considerable underwater trapping and intrusion of oil droplets under various conditions, with the trapping rate significantly affected by the diameter of the oil droplet. This study is supported by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative RFP-II research grant.

  8. Rare presentation of intracranial vascular blowout after tumor resection and radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alaraj, Ali; Behbahani, Mandana; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Aardsma, Nathan; Aletich, Victor A

    2014-01-01

    A middle-aged patient presented with a rapidly growing right dural-based extra-axial posterior clinoid mass extending to the right cavernous sinus that was surgically resected. Histological examination showed solid growth of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from the third nerve. Following surgical resection, the patient was further managed by radiation and chemotherapy. Two years later the patient developed new intracranial hemorrhage in the area adjacent to the previous surgical cavity. A cerebral angiogram showed contrast extravasation at the junction of the posterior communicating artery (Pcom) and the right posterior cerebral artery (PCA), with an expanding pseudoaneurysm. This was managed with N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization. Autopsy showed microscopic recurrence of tumor into the PCA/PCom region with invasion of the wall of the Pcom. This case report illustrates the concept of vascular blowout in intracranial cerebral vasculature. It appears that, in the presence of risk factors that contribute to weakening of vessel walls (surgery, radiation, tumor recurrence), a blowout can occur intracranially. PMID:24748141

  9. Blow-out protector and fire control system for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Caraway, M.F.; Caraway, B.L.

    1987-10-06

    A blow-out protector is described for an oil well comprising a housing having a vertical passageway therethrough for a Kelly. The housing has a lower end adapter flange to be connected to a well casing, an elastomeric body having an opening for the Kelly and carried on the Kelly for providing sealing contact with the Kelly and housing passageway, a catch ring secured to the Kelly and having a surface defined by a given diameter, a compressor ring plate positioned below the elastomeric body on the Kelly, means on an interior of the housing having a given diameter and preventing the compressor ring plate from falling down and yet providing engagement with the surface of the catch ring, the compressor ring plate having a hole for passage of the Kelly drive-mechanism for the drill pipe, the catch ring on the Kelly positioned below the compressor plate. The diameter of the catch ring is smaller than the diameter of the interior means on the housing so that when the Kelly is pulled up the catch ring will contact and force the compressor ring plate against the elastomeric body and force the elastomeric body into tight contact with both the Kelly and the housing thus sealing the space between the Kelly and the housing against a blow-out.

  10. The rise and fall of methanotrophy following a deepwater oil-well blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Meile, C. D.; Hunter, K. S.; Diercks, A.-R.; Asper, V. L.; Orphan, V. J.; Tavormina, P. L.; Nigro, L. M.; Battles, J. J.; Chanton, J. P.; Shiller, A. M.; Joung, D.-J.; Amon, R. M. W.; Bracco, A.; Montoya, J. P.; Villareal, T. A.; Wood, A. M.; Joye, S. B.

    2014-06-01

    The blowout of the Macondo oil well in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 injected up to 500,000 tonnes of natural gas, mainly methane, into the deep sea. Most of the methane released was thought to have been consumed by marine microbes between July and August 2010. Here, we report spatially extensive measurements of methane concentrations and oxidation rates in the nine months following the spill. We show that although gas-rich deepwater plumes were a short-lived feature, water column concentrations of methane remained above background levels throughout the rest of the year. Rates of microbial methane oxidation peaked in the deepwater plumes in May and early June, coincident with a rapid rise in the abundance of known and new methane-oxidizing microbes. At this time, rates of methane oxidation reached up to 5,900 nmol l-1 d-1--the highest rates documented in the global pelagic ocean before the blowout. Rates of methane oxidation fell to less than 50 nmol l-1 d-1 in late June, and continued to decline throughout the remainder of the year. We suggest the precipitous drop in methane consumption in late June, despite the persistence of methane in the water column, underscores the important role that physiological and environmental factors play in constraining the activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria in the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. The persistence of large-scale blowouts in largely vegetated coastal dune fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Fernandez, Irene; Smyth, Thomas; Jackson, Derek; Davidson-Arnott, Robin; Smith, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Coastal dunes move through natural phases of stability and instability during their evolution, displaying various temporal and spatial patterns across the dune field. Recent observations, however, have shown exceptionally rapid rates of stability through increased vegetative growth. This progressive vegetation colonisation and consequent loss of bare sand on coastal dune systems has been noted worldwide. Percentage reductions in bare sand of as much as 80% within just a few decades can been seen in examples from South Africa, Canada and Brazil as well as coastal dune sites across NW Europe. Despite these dramatic trends towards dune stabilisation, it is not uncommon to find particular examples of large-scale active blowouts and parabolic dunes within largely vegetated coastal dunes. While turbulence and airflow dynamics within features such as blowouts and other dune forms has been studied in detail within recent years, there is a lack of knowledge about what maintains dune mobility at these specific points in otherwise largely stabilized dune fields. This work explores the particular example of the 'Devil's Hole' blowout, Sefton Dunes, NW England. Approximately 300 m long by 100 m wide, its basin is below the water-table which leads to frequent flooding. Sefton Dunes in general have seen a dramatic loss of bare sand since the 1940s. However, and coinciding with this period of dune stabilisation, the 'Devil's Hole' has not only remained active but also grown in size at a rate of 4.5 m year-1 along its main axis. An exploration of factors controlling the maintenance of open bare sand areas at this particular location is examined using a variety of techniques including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) airflow modelling and in situ empirical measurements of (short-term experiments) of wind turbulence and sand transport. Field measurements of wind parameters and transport processes were collected over a 2 week period during October 2015. Twenty three 3D ultrasonic

  12. Analysis of 809 facial bone fractures in a pediatric and adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hun; Lee, Soo Hyang; Cho, Pil Dong

    2012-11-01

    Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have different clinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflects the flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protected environments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performed a retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years, with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associated injuries, treatment and complications. A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girls was 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years of age (36.3%). The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the most common type of fracture (69%) and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%). Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%). The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea. Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shift towards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these age groups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpful in further evaluation and management.

  13. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of LANL Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Jason P.

    2005-09-01

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  14. Flow and sediment transport dynamics in a slot and cauldron blowout and over a foredune, Mason Bay, Stewart Island (Rakiura), NZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Hilton, Michael; Konlecher, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    This study is the first to simultaneously compare flow and sediment transport through a blowout and over an adjacent foredune, and the first study of flow within a highly sinuous, slot and cauldron blowout. Flow across the foredune transect is similar to that observed in other studies and is primarily modulated by across-dune vegetation density differences. Flow within the blowout is highly complex and exhibits pronounced accelerations and jet flow. It is characterised by marked helicoidal coherent vortices in the mid-regions, and topographically vertically forced flow out of the cauldron portion of the blowout. Instantaneous sediment transport within the blowout is significant compared to transport onto and/or over the adjacent foredune stoss slope and ridge, with the blowout providing a conduit for suspended sediment to reach the downwind foredune upper stoss slope and crest. Medium term (4 months) aeolian sedimentation data indicates sand is accumulating in the blowout entrance while erosion is taking place throughout the majority of the slot, and deposition is occurring downwind of the cauldron on the foredune ridge. The adjacent lower stoss slope of the foredune is accreting while the upper stoss slope is slightly erosional. Longer term (16 months) pot trap data shows that the majority of foredune upper stoss slope and crest accretion occurs via suspended sediment delivery from the blowout, whereas the majority of the suspended sediment arriving to the well-vegetated foredune stoss slope is deposited on the mid-stoss slope. The results of this study indicate one mechanism of how marked alongshore foredune morphological variability evolves due to the role of blowouts in topographically accelerating flow, and delivering significant aeolian sediment downwind to relatively discrete sections of the foredune.

  15. Zebrafish blowout provides genetic evidence for Patched1-mediated negative regulation of Hedgehog signaling within the proximal optic vesicle of the vertebrate eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiwoon; Willer, Jason R; Willer, Gregory B; Smith, Kierann; Gregg, Ronald G; Gross, Jeffrey M

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we have characterized the ocular defects in the recessive zebrafish mutant blowout that presents with a variably penetrant coloboma phenotype. blowout mutants develop unilateral or bilateral colobomas and as a result, the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium are not contained within the optic cup. Colobomas result from defects in optic stalk morphogenesis whereby the optic stalk extends into the retina and impedes the lateral edges of the choroid fissure from meeting and fusing. The expression domain of the proximal optic vesicle marker pax2a is expanded in blowout at the expense of the distal optic vesicle marker pax6, suggesting that the initial patterning of the optic vesicle into proximal and distal territories is disrupted in blowout. Later aspects of distal optic cup formation (i.e. retina development) are normal in blowout mutants, however. Positional cloning of blowout identified a nonsense mutation in patched1, a negative regulator of the Hedgehog pathway, as the underlying cause of the blowout phenotype. Expanded domains of expression of the Hedgehog target genes patched1 and patched2 were observed in blowout, consistent with a loss of Patched1 function and upregulation of Hedgehog pathway activity. Moreover, colobomas in blowout could be suppressed by pharmacologically inhibiting the Hedgehog pathway with cyclopamine, and maximal rescue occurred when embryos were exposed to cyclopamine between 5.5 and 13 hours post-fertilization. These observations highlight the critical role that Hedgehog pathway activity plays in mediating patterning of the proximal/distal axis of the optic vesicle during the early phases of eye development and they provide genetic confirmation for the integral role that patched1-mediated negative regulation of Hedgehog signaling plays during vertebrate eye development.

  16. Zebrafish blowout provides genetic evidence for Patched1 mediated negative regulation of Hedgehog signaling within the proximal optic vesicle of the vertebrate eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwoon; Willer, Jason R.; Willer, Gregory B.; Smith, Kierann; Gregg, Ronald G.; Gross, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we have characterized the ocular defects in the recessive zebrafish mutant blowout that presents with a variably penetrant coloboma phenotype. blowout mutants develop unilateral or bilateral colobomas and as a result, the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium are not contained within the optic cup. Colobomas result from defects in optic stalk morphogenesis whereby the optic stalk extends into the retina and impedes the lateral edges of the choroid fissure from meeting and fusing. The expression domain of the proximal optic vesicle marker pax2a is expanded in blowout at the expense of the distal optic vesicle marker pax6, suggesting that the initial patterning of the optic vesicle into proximal and distal territories is disrupted in blowout. Later aspects of distal optic cup formation (i.e. retina development) are normal in blowout mutants, however. Positional cloning of blowout identified a nonsense mutation in patched1, a negative regulator of the Hedgehog pathway, as the underlying cause of the blowout phenotype. Expanded domains of expression of the Hedgehog target genes patched1 and patched2 were observed in blowout, consistent with a loss of Patched1 function and upregulation of Hedgehog pathway activity. Moreover, colobomas in blowout could be suppressed by pharmacologically inhibiting the Hedgehog pathway with cyclopamine, and maximal rescue occurred when embryos were exposed to cyclopamine between 5.5 and 13 hours post fertilization. These observations highlight the critical role that Hedgehog pathway activity plays in mediating patterning of the proximal/distal axis of the optic vesicle during the early phases of eye development and they provide genetic confirmation for the integral role that patched1-mediated negative regulation of Hedgehog signaling plays during vertebrate eye development. PMID:18479681

  17. A novel classification of frontal bone fractures: The prognostic significance of vertical fracture trajectory and skull base extension.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gassner, Jennifer; Hartman, Michael J; Leverson, Glen; King, Timothy W; Bentz, Michael L; Gentry, Lindell R

    2015-05-01

    The broad spectrum of frontal bone fractures, including those with orbital and skull base extension, is poorly understood. We propose a novel classification scheme for frontal bone fractures. Maxillofacial CT scans of trauma patients were reviewed over a five year period, and frontal bone fractures were classified: Type 1: Frontal sinus fracture without vertical extension. Type 2: Vertical fracture through the orbit without frontal sinus involvement. Type 3: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus without orbit involvement. Type 4: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus and ipsilateral orbit. Type 5: Vertical fracture through the frontal sinus and contralateral or bilateral orbits. We also identified the depth of skull base extension, and performed a chart review to identify associated complications. 149 frontal bone fractures, including 51 non-vertical frontal sinus (Type 1, 34.2%) and 98 vertical (Types 2-5, 65.8%) fractures were identified. Vertical fractures penetrated the middle or posterior cranial fossa significantly more often than non-vertical fractures (62.2 v. 15.7%, p = 0.0001) and had a significantly higher mortality rate (18.4 v. 0%, p < 0.05). Vertical fractures with frontal sinus and orbital extension, and fractures that penetrated the middle or posterior cranial fossa had the strongest association with intracranial injuries, optic neuropathy, disability, and death (p < 0.05). Vertical frontal bone fractures carry a worse prognosis than frontal bone fractures without a vertical pattern. In addition, vertical fractures with extension into the frontal sinus and orbit, or with extension into the middle or posterior cranial fossa have the highest complication rate and mortality. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Virtual Surgical Planning for Orbital Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Duncan, Katherine; Mahoney, Nicholas R; Merbs, Shannath L; Grant, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computer-assisted technology has revolutionized planning for complex craniofacial operations, including orbital reconstruction. Orbital reconstruction is ideally suited for virtual planning, as it allows the surgeon to assess the bony anatomy and critical neurovascular structures within the orbit, and plan osteotomies, fracture reductions, and orbital implant placement with efficiency and predictability. In this article, we review the use of virtual surgical planning for orbital decompression, posttraumatic midface reconstruction, reconstruction of a two-wall orbital defect, and reconstruction of a large orbital floor defect with a custom implant. The surgeon managing orbital pathology and posttraumatic orbital deformities can benefit immensely from utilizing virtual planning for various types of orbital pathology.

  19. Virtual Surgical Planning for Orbital Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Susarla, Srinivas M.; Duncan, Katherine; Mahoney, Nicholas R.; Merbs, Shannath L.; Grant, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computer-assisted technology has revolutionized planning for complex craniofacial operations, including orbital reconstruction. Orbital reconstruction is ideally suited for virtual planning, as it allows the surgeon to assess the bony anatomy and critical neurovascular structures within the orbit, and plan osteotomies, fracture reductions, and orbital implant placement with efficiency and predictability. In this article, we review the use of virtual surgical planning for orbital decompression, posttraumatic midface reconstruction, reconstruction of a two-wall orbital defect, and reconstruction of a large orbital floor defect with a custom implant. The surgeon managing orbital pathology and posttraumatic orbital deformities can benefit immensely from utilizing virtual planning for various types of orbital pathology. PMID:26692714

  20. All Along the Fractures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-30

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft provides information about erosion and movement of surface material, about wind and weather patterns, even about the soil grains and grain sizes. However, looking past the dunes, these images also reveal the nature of the substrate beneath. Within the spaces between the dunes, a resistant and highly fractured surface is revealed. The fractured ground is resistant to erosion by the wind, and suggests the material is bedrock that is now shattered by a history of bending stresses or temperature changes, such as cooling, for example. Alternately, the surface may be a sedimentary layer that was once wet and shrunk and fractured as it dried, like gigantic mud cracks. In either case, the relative small and indistinct fractures have trapped the dark dune sand marching overhead. Now the fractures have become quite distinct, allowing us to examine the orientation and spacing of the fractures to learn more about the processes that formed them. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19958

  1. [Myocardial infarction complicating left ventricular free wall blowout rupture: a survival case after surgical repair].

    PubMed

    Asakura, T; Hoshino, M; Ajioka, M; Sakai, K; Yasuura, K; Matsuura, A

    1990-08-01

    A 58-year-old man who suffered from acute myocardial infarction complicated with left ventricular rupture and subacute pericardial tamponade was reported. On admission, echocardiography strongly suspected presence of intrapericardial fluid. And immediate pericardiocentesis proved left ventricular free wall rupture (LVFWR). Coronary angiography with the support of IABP revealed occlusion of LAD (# 8). Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was performed with partial success. After pericardiotomy, the hemodynamic state was improved, however, 2 hours later, his blood pressure fell down to 40 mmHg suddenly. Emergent operation (re-mediastinumotomy+ ) was performed under the suspicion of left ventricular blowout rupture with the direct closure of the perforated site with 4 woven Dacron pledgets at bedside in ICU. The patient ran an uneventful postoperative course and is now doing well. Clinical and therapeutic features of LVFWR were discussed.

  2. An examination of the scaling laws for LWFA in the self-guided nonlinear blowout regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Asher; Tableman, Adam; Yu, Peicheng; An, Weiming; Tsung, Frank; Lu, Wei; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Mori, Warren B.

    2017-03-01

    A detailed study of the scaling laws for LWFA in the self-guided, nonlinear blowout regime is presented. The study is enabled through the recent implementation of the quasi-3D algorithm into OSIRIS, which permits particle-in-cell simulations of LWFA at lower densities and higher laser energy. We find that the scaling laws continue to work well when we fix the normalized laser amplitude, pulse-length, and spot size, while reducing the plasma density. We examine parameters for which the self-injected electron energies are between 1 and 10 GeV. Over a wide parameter space, the evolution of the electron energy and laser spot size are similar when plotted in normalized units.

  3. Formation dynamics of subsurface hydrocarbon intrusions following the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Socolofsky, Scott A.; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbons released following the Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout were found in deep, subsurface horizontal intrusions, yet there has been little discussion about how these intrusions formed. We have combined measured (or estimated) observations from the DH release with empirical relationships developed from previous lab experiments to identify the mechanisms responsible for intrusion formation and to characterize the DH plume. Results indicate that the intrusions originate from a stratification-dominated multiphase plume characterized by multiple subsurface intrusions containing dissolved gas and oil along with small droplets of liquid oil. Unlike earlier lab measurements, where the potential density in ambient water decreased linearly with elevation, at the DH site it varied quadratically. We have modified our method for estimating intrusion elevation under these conditions and the resulting estimates agree with observations that the majority of the hydrocarbons were found between 800 and 1200 m.

  4. Formation dynamics of subsurface hydrocarbon intrusions following the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Socolofsky, S.A.; Adams, E.E.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbons released following the Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout were found in deep, subsurface horizontal intrusions, yet there has been little discussion about how these intrusions formed. We have combined measured (or estimated) observations from the DH release with empirical relationships developed from previous lab experiments to identify the mechanisms responsible for intrusion formation and to characterize the DH plume. Results indicate that the intrusions originate from a stratification-dominated multiphase plume characterized by multiple subsurface intrusions containing dissolved gas and oil along with small droplets of liquid oil. Unlike earlier lab measurements, where the potential density in ambient water decreased linearly with elevation, at the DH site it varied quadratically. We have modified our method for estimating intrusion elevation under these conditions and the resulting estimates agree with observations that the majority of the hydrocarbons were found between 800 and 1200 m. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  6. Orbital cellulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001012.htm Orbital cellulitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Orbital cellulitis is an infection of the fat and muscles ...

  7. Changes in sediment redox conditions following the BP DWH blowout event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, D. W.; Schwing, P. T.; Brooks, G. R.; Larson, R. A.; Morford, J. L.; Roeder, T.; Quinn, K. A.; Bartlett, T.; Romero, I. C.; Hollander, D. J.

    2016-07-01

    Following the blowout of the Macondo well, a pulse in sedimentation resulted in changes in sedimentary redox conditions. This is demonstrated by downcore and temporal changes in the concentration of redox sensitive metals: Mn, Re, and Cd. Sediment cores collected in the NE Gulf of Mexico (GoM) reveal increased sedimentation after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout. The formation of mucous-rich marine snow in surface waters and subsequent rapid deposition to underlying sediments is the likely cause. Respiration of this material resulted in decreased pore-water oxygen concentration and a shoaled redoxcline, resulting in two distinct Mn peaks in sediments following the event, one typically in the top 10 mm, with the other at 20-30 mm. Most cores near the wellhead reveal this non-steady state behavior for up to two years after the event. Associated with the Mn minimum between the two Mn peaks, a modest (15-30%) enrichment of Re consistent with reducing sediments typically exists. A three-year time series of three stations following the event reveal that sediment Re increased 3-4 times compared to the pre-impact baseline value for two years, indicating sediments are increasingly more reducing for two years. In the third year, Re concentration decreased, suggesting a return towards pre-impact conditions. In select sites where the density of benthic foraminifera was determined, an assemblage-wide decrease occurred coincident with reducing conditions as determined by redox sensitive metals, demonstrating the important consequences of changing redox conditions on benthic ecosystems. Determination of redox sensitive metals will continue to constrain the temporal evolution of reducing conditions, which will serve to document the long-term effects of the spill, and the possible return to pre-event conditions.

  8. Risk of Carotid Blowout After Reirradiation of the Head and Neck: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Moore, Michael G.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Carotid blowout (CB) is a rare but frequently fatal complication of head-and-neck (H and N) cancer or its treatment. We sought to determine the reported rate of CB in patients receiving salvage reirradiation for H and N cancer. Methods and Materials: A literature search identified 27 published articles on H and N reirradiation involving 1554 patients, and a pooled analysis was performed to determine the rate of CB. Treatment parameters, including prior radiation dose, interval from prior radiation, dose and fractionation of reirradiation, use of salvage surgery, and chemotherapy, were abstracted and summarized. The cumulative risk of CB was compared between groups using Fisher's exact test. Results: Among 1554 patients receiving salvage H and N reirradiation, there were 41 reported CBs, for a rate of 2.6%; 76% were fatal. In patients treated in a continuous course with 1.8-2-Gy daily fractions or 1.2-Gy twice-daily fractions, 36% of whom received concurrent chemotherapy, the rate of CB was 1.3%, compared with 4.5% in patients treated with 1.5 Gy twice daily in alternating weeks or with delayed accelerated hyperfractionation, all of whom received concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of CB between patients treated with or without concurrent chemotherapy, or between patients treated with or without salvage surgery before reirradiation. Conclusion: Carotid blowout is an infrequent but serious complication of salvage reirradiation for H and N cancer. The rate of CB was lower among patients treated with conventional or hyperfractionated schedules compared with regimens of accelerated hyperfractionation, though heterogeneous patient populations and treatment parameters preclude definite conclusions. Given the high mortality rate of CB, discussion of the risk of CB is an important component of informed consent for salvage reirradiation.

  9. [Atlas fractures].

    PubMed

    Schären, S; Jeanneret, B

    1999-05-01

    Fractures of the atlas account for 1-2% of all vertebral fractures. We divide atlas fractures into 5 groups: isolated fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas, isolated fractures of the posterior arch, combined fractures of the anterior and posterior arch (so-called Jefferson fractures), isolated fractures of the lateral mass and fractures of the transverse process. Isolated fractures of the anterior or posterior arch are benign and are treated conservatively with a soft collar until the neck pain has disappeared. Jefferson fractures are divided into stable and unstable fracture depending on the integrity of the transverse ligament. Stable Jefferson fractures are treated conservatively with good outcome while unstable Jefferson fractures are probably best treated operatively with a posterior atlanto-axial or occipito-axial stabilization and fusion. The authors preferred treatment modality is the immediate open reduction of the dislocated lateral masses combined with a stabilization in the reduced position using a transarticular screw fixation C1/C2 according to Magerl. This has the advantage of saving the atlanto-occipital joints and offering an immediate stability which makes immobilization in an halo or Minerva cast superfluous. In late instabilities C1/2 with incongruency of the lateral masses occurring after primary conservative treatment, an occipito-cervical fusion is indicated. Isolated fractures of the lateral masses are very rare and may, if the lateral mass is totally destroyed, be a reason for an occipito-cervical fusion. Fractures of the transverse processes may be the cause for a thrombosis of the vertebral artery. No treatment is necessary for the fracture itself.

  10. The mechanism of fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this book eighty-five papers look at fractures. Topics covered are fracture mechanics, fracture mechanisms, evaluating fracture resistance, fracture toughness, predicting crack growth, surface cracking, crack initiation and propagation, weld fractures, engineering applications of fracture mechanics, fracture and failure in nonmetallic materials, dynamic fractures, test techniques, radiation embrittlement, applications of fracture mechanics, design concepts, and creep.

  11. Stress Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  12. A novel integrated approach for path following and directional stability control of road vehicles after a tire blow-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Hong; Guo, Konghui; Cao, Dongpu

    2017-09-01

    The path following and directional stability are two crucial problems when a road vehicle experiences a tire blow-out or sudden tire failure. Considering the requirement of rapid road vehicle motion control during a tire blow-out, this article proposes a novel linearized decoupling control procedure with three design steps for a class of second order multi-input-multi-output non-affine system. The evaluating indicators for controller performance are presented and a performance related control parameter distribution map is obtained based on the stochastic algorithm which is an innovation for non-blind parameter adjustment in engineering implementation. The analysis on the robustness of the proposed integrated controller is also performed. The simulation studies for a range of driving conditions are conducted, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  13. Effects of laser pulse heating of copper photocathodes on high-brightness electron beam production at blowout regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lian-Min; Du, Ying-Chao; Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Gai, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Producing high-brightness and high-charge (>100 pC) electron bunches at blowout regime requires ultrashort laser pulses with high fluence. The effects of laser pulse heating of the copper photocathode are analyzed in this paper. The electron and lattice temperature is calculated using an improved two-temperature model, and an extended Dowell-Schmerge model is employed to calculate the thermal emittance and quantum efficiency. A time-dependent growth of the thermal emittance and the quantum efficiency is observed. For a fixed amount of charge, the projected thermal emittance increases with decreasing laser radius, and this effect should be taken into account in laser optimization at blowout regime. Moreover, laser damage threshold fluence is simulated, showing that the maximum local fluence should be less than 40 mJ/cm2 to prevent damage to the cathode. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375097)

  14. Novel Surgical Approaches to the Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ashley A.; Grob, Seanna R.; Yoon, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Determining safe surgical access to the orbit can be difficult given the complex anatomy and delicacy of the orbital structures. When considering biopsy or removal of an orbital tumor or repair of orbital fractures, careful planning is required to determine the ideal approach. Traditionally, this has at times necessitated invasive procedures with large incisions and extensive bone removal. The purpose of this review was to present newly techniques and devices in orbital surgery that have been reported over the past decade, with aims to provide better exposure and/or minimally invasive approaches and to improve morbidity and/or mortality. PMID:26692713

  15. Novel Surgical Approaches to the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ashley A; Grob, Seanna R; Yoon, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Determining safe surgical access to the orbit can be difficult given the complex anatomy and delicacy of the orbital structures. When considering biopsy or removal of an orbital tumor or repair of orbital fractures, careful planning is required to determine the ideal approach. Traditionally, this has at times necessitated invasive procedures with large incisions and extensive bone removal. The purpose of this review was to present newly techniques and devices in orbital surgery that have been reported over the past decade, with aims to provide better exposure and/or minimally invasive approaches and to improve morbidity and/or mortality.

  16. Patterns of Fracture and Tidal Stresses Due to Nonsynchronous Rotation: Implications for Fracturing on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.; Helfenstein, P.

    1985-01-01

    Global lineaments on Europa were interpreted as fractures in an icy crust. A variety of lineament types were identified, which appear to form a systematic pattern on the surface. For a synchronously rotating body, the patterns of fractures observed could be produced by a combination of stresses due to orbital recession, orbital eccentricity, and internal contraction. However, it was recently suggested that the forced eccentricity of Europa's orbit may result in nonsynchronous rotation. The hypothesis that fractures in a thin icy crust may have formed in response to stresses resulting from nonsynchronous rotation is studied.

  17. Patterns of fracture and tidal stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation: Implications for fracturing on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, E. M.; Helfenstein, P.

    1985-04-01

    Global lineaments on Europa were interpreted as fractures in an icy crust. A variety of lineament types were identified, which appear to form a systematic pattern on the surface. For a synchronously rotating body, the patterns of fractures observed could be produced by a combination of stresses due to orbital recession, orbital eccentricity, and internal contraction. However, it was recently suggested that the forced eccentricity of Europa's orbit may result in nonsynchronous rotation. The hypothesis that fractures in a thin icy crust may have formed in response to stresses resulting from nonsynchronous rotation is studied.

  18. Computer simulation of reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsieh, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the application of a computer model to simulate reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Reservoir and fluid data used for model development are based on (1) information released in BP's investigation report of the incident, (2) information provided by BP personnel during meetings in Houston, Texas, and (3) calibration by history matching to shut-in pressures measured in the capping stack during the Well Integrity Test. The model is able to closely match the measured shut-in pressures. In the simulation of the 86-day period from the blowout to shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure at the well face declines from the initial reservoir pressure of 11,850 pounds per square inch (psi) to 9,400 psi. After shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure recovers to a final value of 10,300 psi. The pressure does not recover back to the initial pressure owing to reservoir depletion caused by 86 days of oil discharge. The simulated oil flow rate declines from 63,600 stock tank barrels per day just after the Deepwater Horizon blowout to 52,600 stock tank barrels per day just prior to shut in. The simulated total volume of oil discharged is 4.92 million stock tank barrels. The overall uncertainty in the simulated flow rates and total volume of oil discharged is estimated to be + or - 10 percent.

  19. Minifilament Eruption as the Source of a Blowout Jet, C-class Flare, and Type-III Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND/WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  20. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  1. Lean Blow-out Studies in a Swirl Stabilized Annular Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Kishore Kumar, S.; Chandel, Sunil

    2015-05-01

    Lean blow out characteristics in a swirl stabilized aero gas turbine combustor have been studied using computational fluid dynamics. For CFD analysis, a 22.5° sector of an annular combustor is modeled using unstructured tetrahedral meshes comprising 1.2 × 106 elements. The governing equations are solved using the eddy dissipation combustion model in CFX. The primary combustion zone is analyzed by considering it as a well stirred reactor. The analysis has been carried out for different operating conditions of the reactants entering into the control volume. The results are treated as the base-line or reference values. Combustion lean blow-out limits are further characterized studying the behavior of combustion zone during transient engine operation. The validity of the computational study has been established by experimental study on a full-scale annular combustor in an air flow test facility that is capable of simulating different conditions at combustor inlet. The experimental result is in a good agreement with the analytical predictions. Upon increasing the combustor mass flow, the lean blow out limit increases, i.e., the blow out occurs at higher fuel-air ratios. In addition, when the operating pressure decreases, the lean blow out limit increases, i.e., blow out occurs at higher fuel-air ratios.

  2. Role of fluid density in shaping eruption currents driven by frontal particle blow-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.; Louge, M. Y.

    2012-06-01

    We study the role of suspension density in eruption currents, a regime of gravity-driven flow that is sustained by massive, localized blow-out of particles acting as a steady source of heavier fluid injected into a uniform flow at high Reynolds number. Inspired by the potential flow solution of Saffman and Yuen ["Finite-amplitude interfacial waves in the presence of a current," J. Fluid Mech. 123, 459-476 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082003152], we show that the relative density difference between the two fluids swells the size of the current's head without changing its shape, while inducing a velocity jump at the interface. We test this inviscid theory against inviscid and large-eddy-simulations. We also conduct experiments in a water flume, where a line source of fluorescent brines of various densities is injected in a cross-stream and visualized with a narrow sheet of light. Simulations and experiments reveal that, with isotropic velocity distribution on a finite source, eruption currents expand further and develop interface oscillations, but the inviscid theory still captures relative swelling induced by density. We compare predictions to the static pressure data of McElwaine and Turnbull ["Air pressure data from the Vallee de la Sionne avalanches of 2004," J. Geophys. Res. 110, F03010, doi:, 10.1029/2004JF000237 (2005)] in powder snow avalanches.

  3. Magnitude and oxidation potential of hydrocarbon gases released from the BP oil well blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joye, Samantha B.; MacDonald, Ian R.; Leifer, Ira; Asper, Vernon

    2011-03-01

    The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over slowly in the deep ocean, and microbial consumption of these gases could have a long-lasting impact on oceanic oxygen levels. Here, we combine published estimates of the volume of oil released, together with provisional estimates of the oil to gas ratio of the discharged fluid, to determine the volume of gaseous hydrocarbons discharged during the spill. We estimate that the spill injected up to 500,000t of gaseous hydrocarbons into the deep ocean and that these gaseous emissions comprised 40% of the total hydrocarbon discharge. Analysis of water around the wellhead revealed discrete layers of dissolved hydrocarbon gases between 1,000 and 1,300m depth; concentrations exceeded background levels by up to 75,000 times. We suggest that microbial consumption of these gases could lead to the extensive and persistent depletion of oxygen in hydrocarbon-enriched waters.

  4. Trace element distributions in the water column near the Deepwater Horizon well blowout.

    PubMed

    Joung, DongJoo; Shiller, Alan M

    2013-03-05

    To understand the impact of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout on dissolved trace element concentrations, samples were collected from areas around the oil rig explosion site during four cruises in early and late May 2010, October 2010, and October 2011. In surface waters, Ba, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Co were relatively well correlated with salinity during all cruises, suggesting mixing with river water was the main influence on metal distributions in these waters. However, in deep oil/gas plumes (1000-1400 m depth), modestly elevated concentrations of Co and Ba were observed in late May, compared with postblowout conditions. Analysis of the oil itself along with leaching experiments confirm the oil as the source of the Co, whereas increased Ba was likely due to drilling mud used in the top kill attempt. Deep plume dissolved Mn largely reflected natural benthic input, though some samples showed slight elevation probably associated with the top kill. Dissolved Fe concentrations were low and also appeared largely topographically controlled and reflective of benthic input. Estimates suggest that microbial Fe demand may have affected the Fe distribution but probably not to the extent of Fe becoming a growth-limiting factor. Experiments showed that the dispersant can have some limited impact on dissolved-particulate metal partitioning.

  5. Availability analysis of subsea blowout preventer using Markov model considering demand rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghee; Chung, Soyeon; Yang, Youngsoon

    2014-12-01

    Availabilities of subsea Blowout Preventers (BOP) in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (GoM OCS) is investigated using a Markov method. An updated β factor model by SINTEF is used for common-cause failures in multiple redundant systems. Coefficient values of failure rates for the Markov model are derived using the β factor model of the PDS (reliability of computer-based safety systems, Norwegian acronym) method. The blind shear ram preventer system of the subsea BOP components considers a demand rate to reflect reality more. Markov models considering the demand rate for one or two components are introduced. Two data sets are compared at the GoM OCS. The results show that three or four pipe ram preventers give similar availabilities, but redundant blind shear ram preventers or annular preventers enhance the availability of the subsea BOP. Also control systems (PODs) and connectors are contributable components to improve the availability of the subsea BOPs based on sensitivity analysis.

  6. Application of Bayesian networks in quantitative risk assessment of subsea blowout preventer operations.

    PubMed

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen; Ji, Renjie

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes a methodology for the application of Bayesian networks in conducting quantitative risk assessment of operations in offshore oil and gas industry. The method involves translating a flow chart of operations into the Bayesian network directly. The proposed methodology consists of five steps. First, the flow chart is translated into a Bayesian network. Second, the influencing factors of the network nodes are classified. Third, the Bayesian network for each factor is established. Fourth, the entire Bayesian network model is established. Lastly, the Bayesian network model is analyzed. Subsequently, five categories of influencing factors, namely, human, hardware, software, mechanical, and hydraulic, are modeled and then added to the main Bayesian network. The methodology is demonstrated through the evaluation of a case study that shows the probability of failure on demand in closing subsea ram blowout preventer operations. The results show that mechanical and hydraulic factors have the most important effects on operation safety. Software and hardware factors have almost no influence, whereas human factors are in between. The results of the sensitivity analysis agree with the findings of the quantitative analysis. The three-axiom-based analysis partially validates the correctness and rationality of the proposed Bayesian network model. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Macrobenthic community structure in the deep Gulf of Mexico one year after the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Travis W.; Reuscher, Michael G.; Montagna, Paul A.; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeffrey L.

    2017-09-01

    The impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster on deep-sea Gulf of Mexico benthic communities were analyzed one year after the blowout. Richness, diversity, and evenness were severely impaired within a radius of approximately 1 km around the DWH wellhead. However, lower diversity than background was observed in several stations up to 29 km to the southwest of the wellhead. Compared to samples from 2010, abundance near the DWH wellhead increased in 2011 with some of the highest values found at stations within the 1 km radius. The increase was mostly caused by the high abundance of opportunistic polychaetes of the family Dorvilleidae, genus Ophryotrocha. At contaminated stations near the DWH wellhead, diversity did not change with increased sampling area, whereas a steep increase of diversity with increasing sampling area was observed at stations farther from the wellhead. The spatial extent of DWH impacts appeared to decrease from 2010 to 2011. Impacts on diversity near the wellhead were still observed; however, the large increase in abundance may indicate the initial stages of recovery, year-to-year variability, or an early stage of succession following a disturbance; and this can be resolved only with additional temporal sampling.

  8. Footprint of Deepwater Horizon blowout impact to deep-water coral communities.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Charles R; Hsing, Pen-Yuan; Kaiser, Carl L; Yoerger, Dana R; Roberts, Harry H; Shedd, William W; Cordes, Erik E; Shank, Timothy M; Berlet, Samantha P; Saunders, Miles G; Larcom, Elizabeth A; Brooks, James M

    2014-08-12

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout occurred, releasing more oil than any accidental spill in history. Oil release continued for 87 d and much of the oil and gas remained in, or returned to, the deep sea. A coral community significantly impacted by the spill was discovered in late 2010 at 1,370 m depth. Here we describe the discovery of five previously unknown coral communities near the Macondo wellhead and show that at least two additional coral communities were impacted by the spill. Although the oil-containing flocullent material that was present on corals when the first impacted community was discovered was largely gone, a characteristic patchy covering of hydrozoans on dead portions of the skeleton allowed recognition of impacted colonies at the more recently discovered sites. One of these communities was 6 km south of the Macondo wellhead and over 90% of the corals present showed the characteristic signs of recent impact. The other community, 22 km southeast of the wellhead between 1,850 and 1,950 m depth, was more lightly impacted. However, the discovery of this site considerably extends the distance from Macondo and depth range of significant impact to benthic macrofaunal communities. We also show that most known deep-water coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico do not appear to have been acutely impacted by the spill, although two of the newly discovered communities near the wellhead apparently not impacted by the spill have been impacted by deep-sea fishing operations.

  9. TRIGGER OF A BLOWOUT JET IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION ASSOCIATED WITH A FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Shuhong; Chen, Huadong; Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-20

    Using the multi-wavelength images and the photospheric magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study the flare that was associated with the only coronal mass ejection (CME) in active region (AR) 12192. The eruption of a filament caused a blowout jet, and then an M4.0 class flare occurred. This flare was located at the edge of the AR instead of in the core region. The flare was close to the apparently “open” fields, appearing as extreme-ultraviolet structures that fan out rapidly. Due to the interaction between flare materials and “open” fields, the flare became an eruptive flare, leading to the CME. Then, at the same site of the first eruption, another small filament erupted. With the high spatial and temporal resolution Hα data from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope at the Fuxian Solar Observatory, we investigate the interaction between the second filament and the nearby “open” lines. The filament reconnected with the “open” lines, forming a new system. To our knowledge, the detailed process of this kind of interaction is reported for the first time. Then the new system rotated due to the untwisting motion of the filament, implying that the twist was transferred from the closed filament system to the “open” system. In addition, the twist seemed to propagate from the lower atmosphere to the upper layers and was eventually spread by the CME to the interplanetary space.

  10. Evaluation of entrainment formulations for liquid/gas plumes from underwater blowouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarolo, Luciana F.; Innocentini, Valdir

    2016-07-01

    A numerical model using the Lagrangian approach developed to simulate the fate of liquid/gas blowouts in deepwater is presented, and three entrainment formulations are tested: HOULT, JETLAG, and CORJET parameterizations, given by Hoult et al. (1969), Lee and Cheung (1990), and Jirka (2004), respectively. The results are discussed and compared with field and laboratory observations. These formulations differ both in shear and forced contributions to the entrainment. As expected, the qualitative analysis of the dynamics of a liquid plume shows that the entrainment of ambient water decreases the acceleration due to buoyancy, and the plume and ambient momentums become increasingly similar over time. However, simulations of field and laboratory cases, where different plumes (gas, liquid, and gas/liquid) were discharged into environments with different ambient stratifications and crossflows, show that the JETLAG parameterization provides the best results, while HOULT (CORJET) overestimates (underestimates) the entrainment. Additional numerical experiments applying only the JETLAG formulation are performed, considering different plume composition, ambient condition, nozzle diameter, and initial discharge. For all the studied cases, the simulated results are in good agreement with the observations. Especially noteworthy were field experiments with gas released at depth of 50-60 m. The vertical plume velocity decreased during the ascending motion, but after a certain level, the velocity increased. This feature was simulated by the JETLAG parameterization, and a closer analysis reveals the increase of buoyancy due to gas expansion exceeding the decrease caused by the entrainment. These results encourage the use of this model in realistic and complex situations.

  11. Hamate fractures.

    PubMed

    Sarabia Condés, J M; Ibañez Martínez, L; Sánchez Carrasco, M A; Carrillo Julia, F J; Salmerón Martínez, E L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the treatment of the fractures of the hamate and to make a review of the literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated in our clinic between 2005-2012 suffering from fractures of the hamate. Six cases were fractures of the body and four were fractures of the hamate. Five cases were of associated injuries. Diagnostic delay ranged from 30 days to 2 years. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the DASH questionnaire. Five patients with a fracture of the body underwent surgery, and one was treated conservatively. Two patients with fracture of the hook of the hamate were treated with immobilization, and two more patients had the fragment removed. The grip strength and the digital clip were reduced in 2 cases. Flexion and extension of the wrist was limited in 3 cases. The mobility of the fingers was normal in all the cases, except in one. The results obtained from the DASH questionnaire were normal in all the cases, except in one case of fracture of the hamate, and in two cases of fracture of the body. The surgical treatment should reduce the dislocation and stabilize the injuries with osteosynthesis. The fractures of the hamate are usually diagnosed late, and the most recommended treatment is removal of the fragment, although it cannot be deduced from this study. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental impact and regulatory concerns for the protection of a freshwater aquifer impacted by a gas well blowout in northwest Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, W.H.; McKenzie, D.T.; Kline, M.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Ground Water Protection Division (GWPD) is responsible for oversight of the investigation and remediation of unpermitted releases to the waters of the State. In March, 1994, a Sligo Field gas well blowout caused artificial artesian conditions in the shallow Wilcox aquifer resulting in flowing water wells near the drilling location. The eruption of sand and formation water created a crater around an old abandoned well south of the active rig and a collapse crater north of the rig. The company, in cooperation with the GWPD, began an investigation of the environmental impacts of the blowout. An electric log run in a stratigraphic boring and newly installed monitor wells were used to determine the sand/shale distribution and to assess the extent of contamination in the aquifer. Monitor wells and nearby water supply wells were sampled for BETX. Only the wells nearest to the blowout showed constituents above regulatory limits. The well, positioned between the blowout and residential wells, showed no BETX. This paper will present the continued investigation and remedial activities planned for this site. They include additional wells or borings to delineate the horizontal area impacted by the blowout and evaluation of pump and treat methods to establish hydrologic control of the Wilcox Aquifer in the immediate area. Periodic testing of the residential and monitor wells will ensure that appropriate efforts are made to protect the local residents.

  13. The use of time-series LIDAR to understand the role of foredune blowouts in coastal dune dynamics, Sefton, NW England.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Nicholas; Delgado-Fernandez, Irene; Aplin, Paul; Jackson, Derek; Marston, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Coastal dunes are natural buffers against the threat of climate change-induced sea level rise. Their evolution is largely controlled by sediment exchanges between the geomorphic sub-units of the nearshore, beach, foredune and dune field. Coastlines characterised by multiple blowouts at the beach-dune interface may be more susceptible to coastline retreat through the enhanced landwards transport of beach and foredune sediment. This study, based in Sefton, north-west England, exploits an unprecedented temporal coverage of LIDAR surveys spanning 15 years (1999, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2014). Established GIS techniques have been utilised to extract both the coastline (foredune toe) and the foredune crest from each LIDAR derived DTM (Digital Terrain Model). Migration of the foredune toe has been tracked over this period. Analysis of differentials between the height of the dune toe and dune crest have been used to locate the alongshore position of blowouts within the foredune. Dune sediment budgets have then been calculated for each DTM and analysis of the budgets conducted, with the coastline being compartmentalised alongshore, based on presence of blowouts within the foredune. Results indicate that sections of the coastline where blowouts are present within the foredune may be most vulnerable to coastline retreat. Temporal changes in the sediment budget within many of these sections also provides evidence that, if blowouts are present, coastline retreat continues to be a possibility even when the dune sediment budget remains positive.

  14. ON A CORONAL BLOWOUT JET: THE FIRST OBSERVATION OF A SIMULTANEOUSLY PRODUCED BUBBLE-LIKE CME AND A JET-LIKE CME IN A SOLAR EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-02-01

    The coronal blowout jet is a peculiar category among various jet phenomena, in which the sheared base arch, often carrying a small filament, experiences a miniature version of blowout eruption that produces large-scale coronal mass ejection (CME). In this paper, we report such a coronal blowout jet with high-resolution multi-wavelength and multi-angle observations taken from Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, and Big Bear Solar Observatory. For the first time, we find that simultaneous bubble-like and jet-like CMEs were dynamically related to the blowout jet that showed cool and hot components next to each other. Our observational results indicate that (1) the cool component resulted from the eruption of the filament contained within the jet's base arch, and it further caused the bubble-like CME; (2) the jet-like CME was associated with the hot component, which was the outward moving heated plasma generated by the reconnection of the base arch and its ambient open field lines. On the other hand, bifurcation of the jet's cool component was also observed, which resulted from the uncoupling of the erupting filament's two legs that were highly twisted at the very beginning. Based on these results, we propose a model to interpret the coronal blowout jet, in which the external reconnection not only produces the jet-like CME, but also leads to the rising of the filament. Subsequently, internal reconnection starts underneath the rising filament and thereby causes the bubble-like CME.

  15. The Hot Orbit: Orbital Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Rashed, Waleed; Arat, Yonca O.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition previously associated with severe complications. If untreated, orbital cellulitis can be potentially sight and life threatening. It can affect both adults and children but has a greater tendency to occur in the pediatric age group. The infection most commonly originates from sinuses, eyelids or face, retained foreign bodies, or distant soources by hematogenous spread. It is characterized by eyelid edema, erythema, chemosis, proptosis, blurred vision, fever, headache, and double vision. A history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to the onset is very common especially in children. In the era prior to antibiotics, vision loss from orbital cellulitis was a dreaded complication. Currently, imaging studies for detection of orbital abcess, the use of antibiotics and early drainage have mitigated visual morbidity significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe current investigative strategies and management options in the treatment of orbital cellulitis, establish their effectiveness and possible complications due to late intervention. PMID:22346113

  16. Inflammation of the Orbit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors of the Orbit Any or all of ... Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors of the Orbit NOTE: This ...

  17. 'Sutureless' transconjunctival approach for infraorbital rim fractures.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Vaibhav; Ghosh, Abhishek; Nanjappa, Madan; Ramesh, Keerthi

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the ease and surgical outcome of using sutureless transconjunctival approach for repair of infra-orbital fractures. Prospective clinical case series. Totally 5 patients with infra-orbital rim or orbital floor fractures were selected and the fractures were accessed through a pre-septal transconjunctival incision. After reduction and fixation, the conjunctiva was just re-approximated and re-draped into position. Incidence of post-operative complications such as diplopia, lid retraction, eyelid dystopia, foreign body granuloma and poor conjunctival healing was assessed at intervals of 1 week, 15 days and a month post-operatively. No complications were observed in any of the 5 patients. Healing was satisfactory in all patients. The sutureless technique appears to be a time saving and technically simpler viable alternative to multilayered suturing in orbital trauma with minimal post-operative complications.

  18. How to simplify the CT diagnosis of Le Fort fractures.

    PubMed

    Rhea, James T; Novelline, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    The numerous components seen in the Le Fort fractures make classification difficult. Our objective is to simplify the task of classifying Le Fort fractures. Each of the Le Fort fractures has at least one unique component that is easily recognizable: I, the anterolateral margin of the nasal fossa; II, the inferior orbital rim; and III, the zygomatic arch. Classification of the Le Fort fractures is simplified by using these unique components to establish a tentative classification that is then confirmed.

  19. Orbital pseudotumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goodlick TA, Kay MD, Glaser JS, Tse DT, Chang WJ. Orbital disease and neuro-ophthalmology. In: Tasman ... 423. Review Date 8/20/2016 Updated by: Franklin W. Lusby, MD, ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La ...

  20. Orbital Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Khataminia, Gholamreza; Aghajanzadeh, Roja; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Rahdar, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To present a case of massive orbital myiasis. Case Report An 87-year-old debilitated woman suffering from left ocular pain of four days’ duration presented with a severely necrotized left orbit and several attached live larvae. The upper and lower eyelids and the eyeball were completely destroyed. She had history of eyelid surgery in the same eye due to a skin lesion, apparently some type of skin cancer, 15 years before. The larvae were identified as Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) or old world screwworm fly. Conclusion Infestation of ocular and orbital tissues by fly larvae (ophthalmomyiasis) progresses rapidly and can completely destroy orbital tissues within days, especially in patients with poor general health. Treatment consists of removal of the larvae and surgical debridement. PMID:22454736

  1. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  2. Was the extreme and wide-spread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    PubMed

    Vonk, Sophie M; Hollander, David J; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2015-11-15

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates whether MOSSFA occurred in other large oil spills and identifies the main drivers of oil sedimentation. MOSSFA was found to have occurred during the IXTOC I blowout and possibly during the Santa Barbara blowout. Unfortunately, benthic effects were not sufficiently studied for the 52 spills we reviewed. However, based on the current understanding of drivers involved, we conclude that MOSSFA and related benthic contamination may be widespread. We suggest to collect and analyze sediment cores at specific spill locations, as improved understanding of the MOSSFA process will allow better informed spill responses in the future, taking into account possible massive oil sedimentation and smothering of (deep) benthic ecosystems.

  3. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Malleolar fracture; Tri-malleolar; Bi-malleolar; Distal tibia fracture; Distal fibula fracture; Malleolus fracture ... Some ankle fractures may require surgery when: The ends of the bone are out of line with each other (displaced). The ...

  4. Blowout revegetation on pipeline rights-of-way in the Texas Panhandle. Final report, June 1985--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Taylor, J.D.

    1991-09-01

    Blowouts caused by wind erosion on pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) that cross rangelands in the southwestern United States are of significant concern because diminished range productivity is affecting the relationship between ROW owners and pipeline companies and because protective soil cover over the pipelines is lost, causing potential safety hazards. A study to develop and evaluate speedy and cost-effective blowout stabilization and revegetation methods was conducted in Wheeler County, Texas. Seven methods were tested, and each method combined one or more components, as follows: (1) fence, grade, mulch, fertilize, crimp, and seed; (2) fence, grade, mulch, fertilize, and seed; (3) fence, grade, mulch, fertilize, and crimp; (4) grade, mulch, fertilize, crimp, and seed; (5) fence, grade, fertilize, and sprig; (6) grade, fertilize, and sprig; and (7) fence. A single application rate was used for the native hay mulch, fertilizer, and native grass seed mixture, and cost data were collected for each method during implementation. Soil loss/deposition was monitored for two years, and soil samples were collected and analyzed annually. The rate and type of vegetation established was measured by using the point-intercept method three times each year for five growing seasons. The cost of the methods ranged from about $800 to $3450 ha{sup {minus}1}. All seven methods controlled wind erosion, but grass cover on areas treated with five of the seven methods was not equivalent to that on the adjacent rangeland after five years. The two methods that included sprigging produced grass cover equal to that of the adjacent rangeland in less than two growing seasons. An industry-wide saving of about one-quarter of a million dollars per year could be realized if only 550 acres of blowout area on ROWs were stabilized and revegetated by means of sprigging.

  5. Numerical simulations of the Macondo well blowout reveal strong control of oil flow by reservoir permeability and exsolution of gas.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Curtis M; Freifeld, Barry M; Pruess, Karsten; Pan, Lehua; Finsterle, Stefan; Moridis, George J

    2012-12-11

    In response to the urgent need for estimates of the oil and gas flow rate from the Macondo well MC252-1 blowout, we assembled a small team and carried out oil and gas flow simulations using the TOUGH2 codes over two weeks in mid-2010. The conceptual model included the oil reservoir and the well with a top boundary condition located at the bottom of the blowout preventer. We developed a fluid properties module (Eoil) applicable to a simple two-phase and two-component oil-gas system. The flow of oil and gas was simulated using T2Well, a coupled reservoir-wellbore flow model, along with iTOUGH2 for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. The most likely oil flow rate estimated from simulations based on the data available in early June 2010 was about 100,000 bbl/d (barrels per day) with a corresponding gas flow rate of 300 MMscf/d (million standard cubic feet per day) assuming the well was open to the reservoir over 30 m of thickness. A Monte Carlo analysis of reservoir and fluid properties provided an uncertainty distribution with a long tail extending down to 60,000 bbl/d of oil (170 MMscf/d of gas). The flow rate was most strongly sensitive to reservoir permeability. Conceptual model uncertainty was also significant, particularly with regard to the length of the well that was open to the reservoir. For fluid-entry interval length of 1.5 m, the oil flow rate was about 56,000 bbl/d. Sensitivity analyses showed that flow rate was not very sensitive to pressure-drop across the blowout preventer due to the interplay between gas exsolution and oil flow rate.

  6. Numerical simulations of the Macondo well blowout reveal strong control of oil flow by reservoir permeability and exsolution of gas

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Pruess, Karsten; Pan, Lehua; Finsterle, Stefan; Moridis, George J.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for estimates of the oil and gas flow rate from the Macondo well MC252-1 blowout, we assembled a small team and carried out oil and gas flow simulations using the TOUGH2 codes over two weeks in mid-2010. The conceptual model included the oil reservoir and the well with a top boundary condition located at the bottom of the blowout preventer. We developed a fluid properties module (Eoil) applicable to a simple two-phase and two-component oil-gas system. The flow of oil and gas was simulated using T2Well, a coupled reservoir-wellbore flow model, along with iTOUGH2 for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. The most likely oil flow rate estimated from simulations based on the data available in early June 2010 was about 100,000 bbl/d (barrels per day) with a corresponding gas flow rate of 300 MMscf/d (million standard cubic feet per day) assuming the well was open to the reservoir over 30 m of thickness. A Monte Carlo analysis of reservoir and fluid properties provided an uncertainty distribution with a long tail extending down to 60,000 bbl/d of oil (170 MMscf/d of gas). The flow rate was most strongly sensitive to reservoir permeability. Conceptual model uncertainty was also significant, particularly with regard to the length of the well that was open to the reservoir. For fluid-entry interval length of 1.5 m, the oil flow rate was about 56,000 bbl/d. Sensitivity analyses showed that flow rate was not very sensitive to pressure-drop across the blowout preventer due to the interplay between gas exsolution and oil flow rate. PMID:21730177

  7. Treatment of traumatic infra orbital nerve paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Parveen Akhter; Singh, R. K.; Pal, U. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was done to find out the role of topiramate therapy in infraorbital nerve paresthesia after miniplate fixation in zygomatic complxex fractures. A total 2 cases of unilateral zygomatic complex fracture, 2-3 weeks old with infra orbital nerve paresthesia were slected. Open reduction and plating was done in frontozygomaticregion. Antiepileptic drug tab topiramate was given in therapeutic doses and dose was increased slowly until functional recovery was noticed. PMID:23833503

  8. Intrusion dynamics of particle plumes in stratified water with weak crossflow: Application to deep ocean blowouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayang; Adams, E. Eric

    2016-06-01

    We present an experimental study of particle plumes in ambient stratification and a mild current. In an inverted framework, the results describe the fate of oil droplets released from a deep ocean blowout. A continuous stream of dense glass beads was released from a carriage towed in a salt-stratified tank. Nondimensional particle slip velocity UN ranged from 0.1 to 1.9, and particles with UN ≤ 0.5 were observed to enter the intrusion layer. The spatial distributions of beads, collected on a bottom sled towed with the source, present a Gaussian distribution in the transverse direction and a skewed distribution in the along-current direction. Dimensions of the distributions increase with decreasing UN. The spreading relations can be used as input to far-field models describing subsequent transport of particles or, in an inverted framework, oil droplets. The average particle settling velocity, Uave, was found to exceed the individual particle slip velocity, Us, which is attributed to the initial plume velocity near the point of release. Additionally, smaller particles exhibit a "group" or "secondary plume" effect as they exit the intrusion as a swarm. The secondary effect becomes more prominent as UN decreases, and might help explain observations from the 2000 Deep Spill field experiment where oil was found to surface more rapidly than predicted based on Us. An analytical model predicting the particle deposition patterns was validated against experimental measurements, and used to estimate near-field oil transport under the Deepwater Horizon spill conditions, with/without chemical dispersants.

  9. Footprint of Deepwater Horizon blowout impact to deep-water coral communities

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Charles R.; Hsing, Pen-Yuan; Kaiser, Carl L.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Roberts, Harry H.; Shedd, William W.; Cordes, Erik E.; Shank, Timothy M.; Berlet, Samantha P.; Saunders, Miles G.; Larcom, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, James M.

    2014-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout occurred, releasing more oil than any accidental spill in history. Oil release continued for 87 d and much of the oil and gas remained in, or returned to, the deep sea. A coral community significantly impacted by the spill was discovered in late 2010 at 1,370 m depth. Here we describe the discovery of five previously unknown coral communities near the Macondo wellhead and show that at least two additional coral communities were impacted by the spill. Although the oil-containing flocullent material that was present on corals when the first impacted community was discovered was largely gone, a characteristic patchy covering of hydrozoans on dead portions of the skeleton allowed recognition of impacted colonies at the more recently discovered sites. One of these communities was 6 km south of the Macondo wellhead and over 90% of the corals present showed the characteristic signs of recent impact. The other community, 22 km southeast of the wellhead between 1,850 and 1,950 m depth, was more lightly impacted. However, the discovery of this site considerably extends the distance from Macondo and depth range of significant impact to benthic macrofaunal communities. We also show that most known deep-water coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico do not appear to have been acutely impacted by the spill, although two of the newly discovered communities near the wellhead apparently not impacted by the spill have been impacted by deep-sea fishing operations. PMID:25071200

  10. Polycyclic hydrocarbon biomarkers confirm selective incorporation of petroleum in kangaroo rat liver samples near oil well blowout site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Lu, Shan-tan; Lee, Ru-po; Warrick, G.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, a well blowout occurred at an oil field in the western, part of the San Joaquin Valley, resulting in deposition of crude oil south of the well. Some light oil spray was found up to 13.6 km from the well, but the most heavily affected area was within 0.8 km of the site. Because the location contains habitats for several threatened and endangered species, an evaluation of damages to natural resources was initiated soon after the well was capped. As part of the assessment of damages to wildlife, an investigation was conducted to determine whether kangaroo rats had ingested crude oil hydrocarbons from the spill.

  11. Fracture line distribution of olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Bart; Mellema, Jos J; Janssen, Stein J; Ring, David

    2017-01-01

    The association between specific olecranon fracture characteristics (e.g., displacement, fragmentation, subluxation) and fracture line distribution might help surgeons predict intra-articular fracture location based on fracture characteristics that can be determined on radiographs. We hypothesized that fracture mapping techniques would reveal different fracture patterns for minimally displaced fractures, displaced fractures, and fracture-dislocations of the olecranon. A consecutive series of 78 patients with olecranon fractures were evaluated using initial radiographs and computed tomography scans and characterized according to the Mayo classification. Fracture lines were identified based on reduced three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and graphically superimposed onto a standard template to create two-dimensional fracture maps. The fracture maps were then converted into fracture heat maps. Based on fracture and heat maps, fracture line location and patterns were determined. Six (7.7%) patients had a non- or minimally displaced fracture, 22 (28%) a displaced fracture, and 50 (64%) a fracture-dislocation of the olecranon. There were 27 (54%) anterior and 23 (46%) posterior olecranon fracture-dislocations. Fracture lines of non- or minimally displaced fractures and posterior fracture-dislocations enter and exit the trochlear notch at the base of the coronoid, while fracture lines of displaced fractures and anterior fracture-dislocations were spread more broadly over the depths of the trochlear notch. Based on fracture characteristics depicted on radiographs, one can anticipate the amount of the olecranon involved (how close is the fracture line to the coronoid) and the orientation of the fracture line. Computer tomography could be reserved for when more specific knowledge of the fracture line might affect treatment. III.

  12. Applications of 3D orbital computer-assisted surgery (CAS).

    PubMed

    Scolozzi, P

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present report is to describe the indications for use of 3D orbital computer-assisted surgery (CAS). We analyzed the clinical and radiological data of all patients with orbital deformities treated using intra-operative navigation and CAD/CAM techniques at the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Switzerland, between 2009 and 2016. We recorded age and gender, orbital deformity, technical and surgical procedure and postoperative complications. One hundred and three patients were included. Mean age was 39.5years (range, 5 to 84years) and 85 (87.5%) were men. Of the 103 patients, 96 had intra-operative navigation (34 for primary and 3 for secondary orbito-zygomatic fractures, 15 for Le Fort fractures, 16 for orbital floor fractures, 10 for combined orbital floor and medial wall fractures, 7 for orbital medial wall fractures, 3 for NOE (naso-orbito-ethmoidal) fractures, 2 for isolated comminuted zygomatic arch fractures, 1 for enophthalmos, 3 for TMJ ankylosis and 2 for fibrous dysplasia bone recontouring), 8 patients had CAD/CAM PEEK-PSI for correction of residual orbital bone contour following craniomaxillofacial trauma, and 1 patient had CAD/CAM surgical splints and cutting guides for correction of orbital hypertelorism. Two patient (1.9%) required revision surgery for readjustment of an orbital mesh. The 1-year follow-up examination showed stable cosmetic and dimensional results in all patients. This study demonstrated that the application of 3D orbital CAS with regards to intra-operative navigation and CAD/CAM techniques allowed for a successful outcome in the patients presented in this series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hun; Lee, Soo Hyang

    2012-01-01

    Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have different clinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflects the flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protected environments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performed a retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatric population. Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years, with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associated injuries, treatment and complications. Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girls was 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years of age (36.3%). The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the most common type of fracture (69%) and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%). Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%). Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea. Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shift towards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these age groups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpful in further evaluation and management. PMID:23233885

  14. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  15. Hip Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... make older people more likely to trip and fall — one of the most common causes of hip ... Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent hip fracture. Signs and symptoms ...

  16. Fracture Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... to hold the fracture in the correct position. • Fiberglass casting is lighter and stronger and the exterior ... with your physician if this occurs. • When a fiberglass cast is used in conjunction with a GORE- ...

  17. Lisfranc fractures.

    PubMed

    Wright, Amanda; Gerhart, Ann E

    2009-01-01

    Injuries of the tarsometatarsal, or Lisfranc, joint are rarely seen. Lisfranc fractures and fracture dislocations are among the most frequently misdiagnosed foot injuries in the emergency department. A misdiagnosed injury may have severe consequences including chronic pain and loss of foot biomechanics. Evaluation of a foot injury should include a high level of suspicion of a Lisfranc injury, and a thorough work-up is needed for correct diagnosis.

  18. Colles' fracture.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    Many people "slip and fall", especially in the icy areas of the winter season. To prevent an injury to the head, most people put their hand out to hit the ground first, so the wrist usually gets injured. The most frequent injury from this type of "intervention" is a fracture to the distal radius and/or ulna, which is frequently called a "Colles' fracture."

  19. Prospecting from Orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-04

    The combination of morphological and topographic information from stereo images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, as well as compositional data from near-infrared spectroscopy has been proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the geology of Mars. Beginning with the OMEGA instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter in 2003, the surface of Mars has been examined at near-infrared wavelengths by imaging spectrometers that are capable of detecting specific minerals and mapping their spatial extent. The CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) instrument on our orbiter is a visible/near-infrared imaging spectrometer, and the HiRISE camera works together with it to document the appearance of mineral deposits detected by this orbital prospecting. Mawrth Vallis is one of the regions on Mars that has attracted much attention because of the nature and diversity of the minerals identified by these spectrometers. It is a large, ancient outflow channel on the margin of the Southern highlands and Northern lowlands. Both the OMEGA and CRISM instruments have detected clay minerals here that must have been deposited in a water-rich environment, probably more than 4 billion years ago. For this reason, Mawrth Vallis is one of the two candidate landing sites for the future Mars Express Rover Mission planned by the European Space Agency. This image was targeted on a location where the CRISM instrument detected a specific mineral called alunite, KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6. Alunite is a hydrated aluminum potassium sulfate, a mineral that is notable because it must have been deposited in a wet acidic environment, rich in sulfuric acid. Our image shows that the deposit is bright and colorful, and extensively fractured. The width of the cutout is 1.2 kilometers. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21936

  20. Late extrusion of alloplastic orbital floor implants.

    PubMed

    Brown, A E; Banks, P

    1993-06-01

    Complications following the use of alloplastic orbital floor implants are well documented but it is not widely recognised that these can occur many years after initial treatment. Three patients who presented with late extrusion of an implant through the facial skin are reported. This complication occurred 10, 16 and 17 years respectively after treatment of the orbital floor fracture. The tissue reaction to silicone rubber and Teflon inplants is reviewed and the possible cause for this late complication is discussed.

  1. Boxer's fracture.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Boxer's fracture is a common name for a fracture of the distal fifth metacarpal and received its name from one of its most common causes, punching an object with a closed fist. It can occur from a fistfight or from punching a hard object. The injury of a "Boxer's Fracture" earned the name from the way in which the injury occurred, punching an immovable object with a closed fist and no boxing mitt (Figure 1). Naturally, a "Boxer" usually punches his fist into his opponent's face or body. An angry person may perform the same action into a person, or into the wall. The third person may be performing a task and strike something with his fist with forceful action accidentally. In any event, if the closed fist "punches" into an immovable or firm object with force, the most frequent injury sustained would be a fracture of the fifth metacarpal neck. Some caregivers would also call a fourth metacarpal neck fracture a boxer's fracture.

  2. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Intercomparison of oil spill prediction models for accidental blowout scenarios with and without subsea chemical dispersant injection.

    PubMed

    Socolofsky, Scott A; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C; Aman, Zachary M; Johansen, Øistein; Konkel, Wolfgang J; Lindo, David; Madsen, Mads N; North, Elizabeth W; Paris, Claire B; Rasmussen, Dorte; Reed, Mark; Rønningen, Petter; Sim, Lawrence H; Uhrenholdt, Thomas; Anderson, Karl G; Cooper, Cortis; Nedwed, Tim J

    2015-07-15

    We compare oil spill model predictions for a prototype subsea blowout with and without subsea injection of chemical dispersants in deep and shallow water, for high and low gas-oil ratio, and in weak to strong crossflows. Model results are compared for initial oil droplet size distribution, the nearfield plume, and the farfield Lagrangian particle tracking stage of hydrocarbon transport. For the conditions tested (a blowout with oil flow rate of 20,000 bbl/d, about 1/3 of the Deepwater Horizon), the models predict the volume median droplet diameter at the source to range from 0.3 to 6mm without dispersant and 0.01 to 0.8 mm with dispersant. This reduced droplet size owing to reduced interfacial tension results in a one to two order of magnitude increase in the downstream displacement of the initial oil surfacing zone and may lead to a significant fraction of the spilled oil not reaching the sea surface.

  4. News from the "blowout", a man-made methane pockmark in the North Sea: chemosynthetic communities and microbial methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea I.; Wilfert, Philipp; Schmidt, Mark; Bryant, Lee; Haeckel, Matthias; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Linke, Peter; Sommer, Stefan; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2013-04-01

    The accidental penetration of a base-Quaternary shallow gas pocket by a drilling rig in 1990 caused a "blowout" in the British sector of the North Sea (57°55.29' N, 01°37.86' E). Large quantities of methane have been seeping out of this man-made pockmark ever since. As the onset of gas seepage is well constrained, this site can be used as a natural laboratory to gain information on the development of methane oxidizing microbial communities at cold seeps. During an expedition with the R/V Celtic Explorer in July and August 2012, we collected sediments by video-guided push-coring with an ROV (Kiel 6000) along a gradient from inside the crater (close to where a jet of methane bubbles enters the water column) outwards. We also sampled the water column in a grid above the blowout at three different depths. In this presentation, we provide evidence for the establishment of methanotrophic communities in the sediment (AOM communities) on a time scale of decades. Furthermore, we will report data on methane concentrations and anaerobic methane oxidation rates in the sediment. Finally, we will also discuss the spatial distribution of methane and aerobic methane oxidation rates in the water column.

  5. Fractured Craters on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Two highly fractured craters are visible in this high resolution image of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The two craters in the center of the image lie in the ancient dark terrain of Marius Regio, at 40 degrees latitude and 201 degrees longitude, at the border of a region of bright grooved terrain known as Byblus Sulcus (the eastern portion of which is visible on the left of this image). Pervasive fracturing has occurred in this area that has completely disrupted these craters and destroyed their southern and western walls. Such intense fracturing has occurred over much of Ganymede's surface and has commonly destroyed older features. The image covers an area approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) by 18 kilometers (11 miles) across at a resolution of 86 meters (287 feet) per picture element. The image was taken on September 6, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  6. Fractured Craters on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Two highly fractured craters are visible in this high resolution image of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The two craters in the center of the image lie in the ancient dark terrain of Marius Regio, at 40 degrees latitude and 201 degrees longitude, at the border of a region of bright grooved terrain known as Byblus Sulcus (the eastern portion of which is visible on the left of this image). Pervasive fracturing has occurred in this area that has completely disrupted these craters and destroyed their southern and western walls. Such intense fracturing has occurred over much of Ganymede's surface and has commonly destroyed older features. The image covers an area approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) by 18 kilometers (11 miles) across at a resolution of 86 meters (287 feet) per picture element. The image was taken on September 6, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  7. Can we treat CO₂ well blowouts like routine plumbing problems? A study of the incidence, impact, and perception of loss of well control

    SciTech Connect

    Porse, Sean L.; Wade, Sarah; Hovorka, Susan D.

    2014-12-31

    Risk communication literature suggests that for a number of reasons, the public may perceive a risk to be greater than indicated by its statistical probability. Public concern over risk can lead to significant and costly delays in project permitting and operations. Considering these theories, media coverage of CO₂-related well blowouts in 2013 gave rise to the questions: What is the risk of CO₂ well blowouts associated with CCUS through CO₂ EOR? What is the potential public perception of those risks? What information could be used to respond to public concern? To address these questions, this study aims to: 1) provide a framework for understanding the nature of onshore well blowouts, 2) quantify the incidence of such events for three specific geographic regions of Texas, 3) relate this data to CCUS and findings from other studies, and 4) explore the potential implications for public perception of this risk associated with CCUS projects. While quantifying answers to these questions proved to be challenging, the results from this study suggest that (1) the perceived risk of CO₂ well blowouts may exceed the statistical risk and (2) information that could be used to address this gap could be made more readily available to the greater benefit of industry and stakeholders who support the development of CCUS as an option for addressing anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. The study also suggests approaches to best conduct such data inquiries.

  8. Can we treat CO₂ well blowouts like routine plumbing problems? A study of the incidence, impact, and perception of loss of well control

    DOE PAGES

    Porse, Sean L.; Wade, Sarah; Hovorka, Susan D.

    2014-12-31

    Risk communication literature suggests that for a number of reasons, the public may perceive a risk to be greater than indicated by its statistical probability. Public concern over risk can lead to significant and costly delays in project permitting and operations. Considering these theories, media coverage of CO₂-related well blowouts in 2013 gave rise to the questions: What is the risk of CO₂ well blowouts associated with CCUS through CO₂ EOR? What is the potential public perception of those risks? What information could be used to respond to public concern? To address these questions, this study aims to: 1) providemore » a framework for understanding the nature of onshore well blowouts, 2) quantify the incidence of such events for three specific geographic regions of Texas, 3) relate this data to CCUS and findings from other studies, and 4) explore the potential implications for public perception of this risk associated with CCUS projects. While quantifying answers to these questions proved to be challenging, the results from this study suggest that (1) the perceived risk of CO₂ well blowouts may exceed the statistical risk and (2) information that could be used to address this gap could be made more readily available to the greater benefit of industry and stakeholders who support the development of CCUS as an option for addressing anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. The study also suggests approaches to best conduct such data inquiries.« less

  9. Seed bank dynamics of blowout penstemon in relation to local patterns of sand movement on the Ferris Dunes, south-central Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Kassie L. Tilini; Susan E. Meyer; Phil S. Allen

    2017-01-01

    Plants restricted to active sand dunes possess traits that enable both survival in a harsh environment and local migration in response to a shifting habitat mosaic. We examined seed bank dynamics of Penstemon haydenii S. Watson (blowout penstemon) in relation to local sand movement. We measured within-year sand movement along a 400 m transect and examined plant density...

  10. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of Los Alamos National Laboratory Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Jason P.

    2005-09-01

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  11. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  12. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...

  13. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  14. Fracture types (1) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fracture which goes at an angle to the axis Comminuted - a fracture of many relatively small fragments Spiral - a fracture which runs around the axis of the bone Compound - a fracture (also called ...

  15. Galeazzi fracture.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2011-10-01

    Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.

  16. [Clinical application of transconjunctival approach to treat orbitozygomatic complex fractures].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenzhi; Chen, Yong; Luo, Qi; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Li

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effective of transconjunctival approach in treating orbitozygomatic complex fractures. Fifty-four transconjunctival incisions were applied to correct enophthalmos and face collapse in 46 patients who suffered by orbitozygomatic complex fractures. All operative procedures were performed with an additional lateral canthotomy (5-10 mm) and 43 of them with gingivobuccal sulcus incisions simultaneously. The infraorbital rim and lateral orbital wall were stabilized with titanium plates. Titanium nets were used to reconstruct the comminuted orbit floor fractures. The bilateral zygomaticas of 46 cases with orbitozygomatic complex fractures were basically symmetric, and the eyeball positions were reset anatomically. The treatment effectiveness were satisfactory. There were no obvious postoperative complications, except one corneal epithelium stripped on the right side and one overtime swelling of conjunctiva which cured after relevant treatments. The transconjunctival approach has good exposure to the orbital floor without visible scar and injury to facial nerve branches, it is a preferable procedure to reconstruct orbitozygomatic fractures.

  17. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  18. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  19. Relative Dating Via Fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image of the eastern part of the Tharsis region illustrates how fractures can be used in relative dating of a surface. The fractured materials on the right side of the image are embayed by younger volcanic flows originating to the west of the image. Note how the younger flows cover the ends of the fractures, and are not at all fractured themselves.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Relative Dating Via Fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image of the eastern part of the Tharsis region illustrates how fractures can be used in relative dating of a surface. The fractured materials on the right side of the image are embayed by younger volcanic flows originating to the west of the image. Note how the younger flows cover the ends of the fractures, and are not at all fractured themselves.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Cemented Fractures in Mountain Inside Gale Crater on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    One type of feature of scientific interest on the mountain inside Gale crater is exposure of cemented fractures, evidence that groundwater once reached to at least that height of the mountain. This image is from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  2. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part II: Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Schreurs, Ruud; Jansen, Jesper; Maal, Thomas J J; Essig, Harald; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more predictable than traditional orbital reconstruction for optimal implant placement. Pre-injury computed tomography scans were obtained for 10 cadaver heads (20 orbits). Complex orbital fractures (Class III-IV) were created in all orbits, which were reconstructed using a transconjunctival approach with and without navigation. The best possible fit of the stereolithographic file of a preformed orbital mesh plate was used as the optimal position for reconstruction. The accuracy of the implant positions was evaluated using iPlan software. The consistency of orbital reconstruction was lower in the traditional reconstructions than in the navigation group in the parameters of translation and rotation. Implant position also differed significantly in the parameters of translation (p = 0.002) and rotation (pitch: p = 0.77; yaw: p < 0.001; roll: p = 0.001). Compared with traditional orbital reconstruction, navigation-assisted reconstruction provides more predictable anatomical reconstruction of complex orbital defects and significantly improves orbital implant position.

  3. Orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  4. Condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, Raja; Brown, Ryan; Ducic, Yadranko

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic indications for different treatments of condylar and subcondylar fractures. It also reviews the steps of different surgical approaches to access the surgical area and explains the pros and cons of each procedure.

  5. Rib Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Damage in Boxers (News) Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? Additional Content Medical News Rib Fractures By Thomas ... often... More News News HealthDay Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Female soccer ...

  6. Patterns of fracture and tidal stresses on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of dark band, triple band, and cuspate ridge orientations with the fracture patterns predicted for tidal distortion due to orbital recession and eccentricity is undertaken, to test the hypothesized identification of Europa's lineaments as tidal distortion and planetary volume change fractures. Short, reticule dark bands near the anti-Jove point could be tension cracks caused by orbital eccentricity. Long, arcuate dark bands and triple bands peripheral to the anti-Jove point may be strike-slip faults due to orbital recession. The orientation and distribution of cuspate ridges, if they are compressional, suggests their formation in response to a combination of orbital recession and planetary volume decrease. If surface fracturing is due to tidal deformation, important constraints are exerted by it on Europa's orbital evolution.

  7. Patterns of fracture and tidal stresses on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of dark band, triple band, and cuspate ridge orientations with the fracture patterns predicted for tidal distortion due to orbital recession and eccentricity is undertaken, to test the hypothesized identification of Europa's lineaments as tidal distortion and planetary volume change fractures. Short, reticule dark bands near the anti-Jove point could be tension cracks caused by orbital eccentricity. Long, arcuate dark bands and triple bands peripheral to the anti-Jove point may be strike-slip faults due to orbital recession. The orientation and distribution of cuspate ridges, if they are compressional, suggests their formation in response to a combination of orbital recession and planetary volume decrease. If surface fracturing is due to tidal deformation, important constraints are exerted by it on Europa's orbital evolution.

  8. Experimental data regarding the characterization of the flame behavior near lean blowout in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, Maria Grazia; Sciolti, Aldebara; Campilongo, Stefano; Ficarella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the data related to the flame acquisitions in a liquid-fuel gas turbine derived burner operating in non-premixed mode under three different equivalence fuel/air ratio, which corresponds to a richer, an intermediate, and an ultra-lean condition, near lean blowout (LBO). The data were collected with two high speed visualization systems which acquired in the visible (VIS) and in the infrared (NIR) spectral region. Furthermore chemiluminescence measurements, which have been performed with a photomultiplier (PMT), equipped with an OH* filter, and gas exhaust measurements were also given. For each acquisition the data were related to operating parameters as pressure, temperature and equivalent fuel/air ratio. The data are related to the research article “Image processing for the characterization of flame stability in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner near lean blowout” in Aerospace Science and Technology [1]. PMID:26862557

  9. Real-Time Control of Lean Blowout in a Turbine Engine for Minimizing No(x) Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Ben

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research on the development and demonstration of a controlled combustor operates with minimal NO, emissions, thus meeting one of NASA s UEET program goals. NO(x) emissions have been successfully minimized by operating a premixed, lean burning combustor (modeling a lean prevaporized, premixed LPP combustor) safely near its lean blowout (LBO) limit over a range of operating conditions. This was accomplished by integrating the combustor with an LBO precursor sensor and closed-loop, rule-based control system that allowed the combustor to operate far closer to the point of LBO than an uncontrolled combustor would be allowed to in a current engine. Since leaner operation generally leads to lower NO, emissions, engine NO, was reduced without loss of safety.

  10. High quality electron bunch generation using a longitudinal density-tailored plasma-based accelerator in the blowout regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xinlu; Li, Fei; An, Weiming; Yu, Peicheng; Lu, Wei; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren

    2016-10-01

    The generation of very high quality electron bunches (high brightness and low energy spread) from a plasma-based accelerator in the blowout regime using self-injection in tailored plasma density profiles is analyzed theoretically and with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The underlying physical mechanism that leads to the generation of high quality electrons is uncovered by tracking the particle trajectories of the electrons as they cross the sheath and are trapped by the wake. Details on how the intensity of the driver and the density scale length controls the ultimate beam quality are described.Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that this concept has the potential to produce beams with 0.5 nC of charge, peak brightnesses of 0.5 ×1020A /m2 /rad2 and with absolute projected energy spreads of < 0.5 MeV using existing lasers or electron beams to drive nonlinear wakefields.

  11. Control of an innovative super-capacitor-powered shape-memory-alloy actuated accumulator for blowout preventer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Peng; Song, Gangbing; Ren, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The design of a super-capacitor-powered shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuated accumulator for blowout preventer (BOP) presented in this paper featured several advantages over conventional hydraulic accumulators including instant large current drive, quick system response and elimination of need for the pressure conduits. However, the mechanical design introduced two challenges, the nonlinear nature of SMA actuators and the varying voltage provided by a super capacitor, for control system design. A cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) feedforward plus PID controller was developed with the aim of compensation for these adverse effects. Experiments were conducted on a scaled down model and experimental results show that precision control can be achieved with the proposed configurations and algorithms.

  12. Emissions due to the natural gas storage well-casing blowout at Aliso Canyon/SS-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Scott; Daube, Conner; Jervis, Dylan; Yacovitch, Tara; Roscioli, Joseph; Curry, Jason; Nelson, David; Knighton, Berk

    2017-04-01

    The pronounced increase in unconventional gas production in North America over the last fifteen years has intensified interest in understanding emissions and leaks in the supply chain from well pad to end use. Los Angeles, California is home 19 million consumers of natural gas in both industry and domestic end use. The well blowout at Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Storage Facility in the greater Los Angeles area was quantified using the tracer flux ratio method (TFR). Over 400 tracer plume transects were collected, each lasting 15-300 seconds, using instrumentation aboard a mobile platform on 25 days between December 21, 2015 and March 9, 2016. The leak rate from October 23rd to February 11th has been estimated here using a combination of this work (TFR) and the flight mass balance (FMB) data [Conley et al., 2016]. This estimate relies on the TFR data as the most specific SS-25 emission dataset. Scaling the FMB dataset, the leak rate is projected from Oct 23rd to December 21th. Adding up the emissions inferred and measured suggests a total leak burden of 86,022 ± 8,393 metric tons of methane. This work quantified the emissions during the "bottom kill" procedure which halted the primary emission leak. The ethane to methane enhancement ratio observed downwind of the leak site is consistent with the content of ethane in the natural gas at this site and provides definitive evidence that the methane emission rate quantified via tracer flux ratio is not due to a nearby landfill or other potential biogenic sources. Additionally, the TFR approach employed here is assessing only the leaks due to the SS-25 well blowout and excludes other possible emissions at the facility.

  13. Fibrillar Chromospheric Spicule-Like Counterparts to an EUV and Soft X-Ray Blowout Coronal Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Harra, Louise K.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    We observe an erupting jet feature in a solar polar coronal hole, using data from Hinode/SOT, EIS, and XRT, with supplemental data from STEREO/EUVI. From EUV and soft X-ray (SXR) images we identify the erupting feature as a blowout coronal jet: in SXRs it is a jet with bright base, and in EUV it appears as an eruption of relatively cool (approximately 50,000 K) material of horizontal size scale approximately 30" originating from the base of the SXR jet. In SOT Ca II H images the most pronounced analog is a pair of thin (approximately 1") ejections, at the locations of either of the two legs of the erupting EUV jet. These Ca II features eventually rise beyond 45", leaving the SOT field of view, and have an appearance similar to standard spicules except that they are much taller. They have velocities similar to that of "type II" spicules, approximately 100 kilometers per second, and they appear to have spicule-like substructures splitting off from them with horizontal velocity approximately 50 kilometers per second, similar to the velocities of splitting spicules measured by Sterling et al. (2010). Motions of splitting features and of other substructures suggest that the macroscopic EUV jet is spinning or unwinding as it is ejected. This and earlier work suggests that a sub-population of Ca II type II spicules are the Ca II manifestation of portions of larger-scale erupting magnetic jets. A different sub-population of type II spicules could be blowout jets occurring on a much smaller horizontal size scale than the event we observe here.

  14. Evolution of the Macondo well blowout: simulating the effects of the circulation and synthetic dispersants on the subsea oil transport.

    PubMed

    Paris, Claire B; Hénaff, Matthieu Le; Aman, Zachary M; Subramaniam, Ajit; Helgers, Judith; Wang, Dong-Ping; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H; Srinivasan, Ashwanth

    2012-12-18

    During the Deepwater Horizon incident, crude oil flowed into the Gulf of Mexico from 1522 m underwater. In an effort to prevent the oil from rising to the surface, synthetic dispersants were applied at the wellhead. However, uncertainties in the formation of oil droplets and difficulties in measuring their size in the water column, complicated further assessment of the potential effect of the dispersant on the subsea-to-surface oil partition. We adapted a coupled hydrodynamic and stochastic buoyant particle-tracking model to the transport and fate of hydrocarbon fractions and simulated the far-field transport of the oil from the intrusion depth. The evaluated model represented a baseline for numerical experiments where we varied the distributions of particle sizes and thus oil mass. The experiments allowed to quantify the relative effects of chemical dispersion, vertical currents, and inertial buoyancy motion on oil rise velocities. We present a plausible model scenario, where some oil is trapped at depth through shear emulsification due to the particular conditions of the Macondo blowout. Assuming effective mixing of the synthetic dispersants at the wellhead, the model indicates that the submerged oil mass is shifted deeper, decreasing only marginally the amount of oil surfacing. In this scenario, the oil rises slowly to the surface or stays immersed. This suggests that other mechanisms may have contributed to the rapid surfacing of oil-gas mixture observed initially. The study also reveals local topographic and hydrodynamic processes that influence the oil transport in eddies and multiple layers. This numerical approach provides novel insights on oil transport mechanisms from deep blowouts and on gauging the subsea use of synthetic dispersant in mitigating coastal damage.

  15. FIBRILLAR CHROMOSPHERIC SPICULE-LIKE COUNTERPARTS TO AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET AND SOFT X-RAY BLOWOUT CORONAL JET

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Harra, Louise K. E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.go

    2010-10-20

    We observe an erupting jet feature in a solar polar coronal hole, using data from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and X-Ray Telescope (XRT), with supplemental data from STEREO/EUVI. From extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) images we identify the erupting feature as a blowout coronal jet: in SXRs it is a jet with a bright base, and in EUV it appears as an eruption of relatively cool ({approx}50,000 K) material of horizontal size scale {approx}30'' originating from the base of the SXR jet. In SOT Ca II H images, the most pronounced analog is a pair of thin ({approx}1'') ejections at the locations of either of the two legs of the erupting EUV jet. These Ca II features eventually rise beyond 45'', leaving the SOT field of view, and have an appearance similar to standard spicules except that they are much taller. They have velocities similar to that of 'type II' spicules, {approx}100 km s{sup -1}, and they appear to have spicule-like substructures splitting off from them with horizontal velocity {approx}50 km s{sup -1}, similar to the velocities of splitting spicules measured by Sterling et al. Motions of splitting features and of other substructures suggest that the macroscopic EUV jet is spinning or unwinding as it is ejected. This and earlier work suggest that a subpopulation of Ca II type II spicules are the Ca II manifestation of portions of larger scale erupting magnetic jets. A different subpopulation of type II spicules could be blowout jets occurring on a much smaller horizontal size scale than the event we observe here.

  16. Frontal Sinus Fractures: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Strong, E. Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Frontal sinus injuries may range from isolated anterior table fractures resulting in a simple aesthetic deformity to complex fractures involving the frontal recess, orbits, skull base, and intracranial contents. The risk of long-term morbidity can be significant. Optimal treatment strategies for the management of frontal sinus fractures remain controversial. However, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of frontal sinus anatomy as well as the current treatment strategies used to manage these injuries. A thorough physical exam and thin-cut, multiplanar (axial, coronal, and sagittal) computed tomography scan should be performed in all patients suspected of having a frontal sinus fracture. The most appropriate treatment strategy can be determined by assessing five anatomic parameters including the: frontal recess, anterior table integrity, posterior table integrity, dural integrity, and presence of a cerebrospinal fluid leak. A well thought out management strategy and meticulous surgical techniques are critical to success. The primary surgical goal is to provide a safe sinus while minimizing patient morbidity. This article offers an anatomically based treatment algorithm for the management of frontal sinus fractures and highlights the key steps to surgical repair. PMID:22110810

  17. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part I: Endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Leander; Jansen, Jesper; Schreurs, Ruud; Saeed, Perooz; Beenen, Ludo; Maal, Thomas J J; Gooris, Peter J J; Becking, Alfred G

    2015-12-01

    In the treatment of orbital defects, surgeon errors may lead to incorrect positioning of orbital implants and, consequently, poor clinical outcomes. Endoscopy can provide additional visualization of the orbit through the transantral approach. We aimed to evaluate whether endoscopic guidance during orbital reconstruction facilitates optimal implant placement and can serve as a convenient alternative for navigation and intra-operative imaging. Ten human cadaveric heads were subjected to thin-slice computed tomography (CT). Complex orbital fractures (Class III/IV) were created in all eligible orbits (n = 19), which were then reconstructed using the conventional transconjunctival approach with or without endoscopic guidance. The ideal implant location was digitally determined using pre-operative CT images, and the accuracy of implant placement was evaluated by comparing the planned implant location with the postoperative location. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the degree of implant dislocation (translation and rotation) between the transconjunctival orbital reconstruction and the endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction groups. Endoscopic-assisted orbital reconstruction may facilitate the visualization of orbital defects and is particularly useful for training purposes; however, it offers no additional benefits in terms of accurate implant positioning during the anatomical reconstruction of complex orbital defects.

  18. Pearls of Orbital Trauma Management

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Forrest S.; Koshy, John C.; Goldberg, Jonathan S.; Soparkar, Charles N.S.

    2010-01-01

    Orbital fractures account for a significant portion of traumatic facial injuries. Although plastic surgery literature is helpful, additional pearls and insights are provided in this article from the experience of an oculoplastic surgeon. The fundamentals remain the same, but the perceptions differ and provide a healthy perspective on a long-standing issue. The most important thing to remember is that the optimal management plan is often variable, and the proper choice regarding which plan to choose rests upon the clinical scenario and the surgeon having an honest perception of his or her level of expertise and comfort level. PMID:22550464

  19. Orbital Winch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert (Inventor); Slostad, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Frank, Scott (Inventor); Barnes, Ian M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Orbital winch having: lower and upper frames; spool having upper and lower flanges with lower flange attached to lower frame; axial tether guide mounted to upper frame; secondary slewing ring coaxial with spool and rotatably mounted to upper frame, wherein secondary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; upper tether guide mounted to inner surface of secondary slewing ring; linear translation means having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted on lower frame; primary slewing ring rotatably mounted within linear translation means allowing translation axially between flanges, wherein primary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; lower tether guide mounted on primary slewing ring's inner surface; pinion rod having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted to lower frame, wherein pinion rod's teeth engage primary and secondary slewing rings' outer surface teeth; and tether passing through axial, upper, and lower tether guides and winding around spool.

  20. Orbital liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Borbolla-Pertierra, A M; Morales-Baños, D R; Martínez-Nava, L R; Garrido-Sánchez, G A; López-Hernández, C M; Velasco-Ramos, P

    2017-02-01

    The case is presented of a 46-year-old male with right eye proptosis and conjunctival hyperaemia, of 18 months onset. A well-defined intraconal mass was found in the computed tomography. In magnetic resonance this was hypo-intense on T1, enhanced with gadolinium and hyperintense on T2. Excisional biopsy was performed, which was reported as a well-differentiated liposarcoma in the histopathology study. Liposarcoma is a malignant adipose tissue tumour. It is very rare in the orbit, with 5 histological types, the most common being myxoid. The treatment of choice is wide surgical excision and may be accompanied with radiotherapy. As it is an infiltrative tumour, It has a high rate of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Facial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    White, Lawrence M.; Marotta, Thomas R.; McLennan, Michael K.; Kassel, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate clinical radiographic investigation, together with an understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the facial skeleton, allows for precise delineation of facial fracutres and associated soft tissue injuries encountered in clinical practice. A combination of multiple plain radiographic views and coronal and axial computed tomographic images allow for optimal delineation of fracture patterns. This information is beneficial in the clinical and surgical management patients with facial injuries

  2. Orbital Compartment Syndrome Leading to Visual Loss following Orbital Floor Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Nam, Arthur J; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2016-06-01

    Reconstruction of posttraumatic orbital defects carries the attendant risk of injury to the ocular adnexa, globe, and associated neurovascular structures. Blindness following repair of orbital fractures is an infrequent but well-documented phenomenon. Visual acuity loss can be related to direct intraoperative injury to the optic nerve, retinal arterial occlusion, or delayed presentation of acute optic nerve injury. In this report, we document a unique case of acute optic nerve infarction occurring 14 hours following orbital floor exploration and repair in a 56-year-old man.

  3. The Coronal-Dimming Footprint of a Streamer-Puff Coronal Mass Ejection: Confirmation of the Magnetic-Arch-Blowout Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2006-01-01

    A streamer puff is a recently discovered variety of coronal mass ejection (CME) of narrow to moderate width. It (1) travels out along a streamer, transiently inflating the streamer but leaving it largely intact, and (2) occurs in step with a compact ejective flare in an outer flank of the base of the streamer. These aspects suggest the following magnetic-arch-blowout scenario for the production of these CMEs: the flare eruption expels a plasmoid that explodes up the leg of an outer loop of the arcade base of the streamer, blows out the top of this loop, and becomes the core of the CME. In this paper, we present a streamer-puff CME that produced a coronal dimming footprint. The coronal dimming, its magnetic setting, and the timing and magnetic setting of a strong compact ejective flare within the dimming footprint nicely confirm the magnetic-arch-blowout model. From these observations, together with several published cases of a trans-equatorial CME produced in tandem with an ejective flare or filament eruption that was far offset from directly under the CME, we propose that streamer-puff CMEs belong to a large class of "over-and-out" CMEs that are often much larger than streamer puffs but are similar to them in that they are produced by the blowout of a large quasi-potential magnetic arch by an ejective flare or filament eruption in one foot.

  4. Comparing 3d and 2d computational modeling of an oil well blowout using MOHID platform - A case study in the Campos Basin.

    PubMed

    Paiva, P M; Lugon Junior, J; Barreto, A N; Silva, J A F; Silva Neto, A J

    2017-10-01

    The oil well blowout releases hydrocarbons into the marine environment as an oil droplets and gas bubbles dispersion. The oil trajectory is strongly influenced by physical, chemical and biological processes. In general, the ocean oil drift studies are based on a two-dimensional approach, whereas the whole oil from a well blowout can be represented by a surface oil leak in the same geographical coordinates. This work is a case study, where MOHID software is used at the Campos Basin region, in which the Lagrangian results of the surface oil leaks were confronted to their well blowout scenarios in different conditions of depth, seasonality (summer and winter), and use of dispersants at the source of the leak. The research results reinforced the importance of the three-dimensional approach to the scenario of deep and ultra-deep waters, especially for cases in which the dispersant injection into the source of the leak was considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron self-injection due to a plasma density downramp and gas ionization in a plasma wakefield accelerator in the blowout regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. A.; D'Avignon, E. C.; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2010-11-01

    We study self-injection into a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) in the blowout regime analytically and through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We propose a new injection mechanism into a plasma wakefield accelerator, where growth of the blowout region is enabled through a slow decrease in background plasma density along the direction of propagation. Deepening of the potential well due to this growth causes a reduction of electron Hamiltonian in the co-moving frame. This reduction depends on the shape of the blowout region, its growth rate, and impact parameter of the electron. When the reduction is greater than mc^2 [1,2], the electron becomes trapped inside the bubble. We demonstrate this effect using analytic expressions for the bubble potentials [3], and estimate plasma density gradients, and beam charge and size required for injection. We also apply the injection criterion to electron trapping through gas ionization. This work is supported by the US DOE grants DE-FG02-04ER41321 and DE-FG02-07ER54945. [1] S. Kalmykov, S.A. Yi, V. Khudik, and G. Shvets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135004 (2009). [2] S.A. Yi, V. Khudik, S. Kalmykov, and G. Shvets, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus., in press. [3] W. Lu, C. Huang, M. Zhou, M. Tzoufras et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056709 (2006).

  6. The Coronal-Dimming Footprint of a Streamer-Puff Coronal Mass Ejection: Confirmation of the Magnetic-Arch-Blowout Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2006-01-01

    A streamer puff is a recently discovered variety of coronal mass ejection (CME) of narrow to moderate width. It (1) travels out along a streamer, transiently inflating the streamer but leaving it largely intact, and (2) occurs in step with a compact ejective flare in an outer flank of the base of the streamer. These aspects suggest the following magnetic-arch-blowout scenario for the production of these CMEs: the flare eruption expels a plasmoid that explodes up the leg of an outer loop of the arcade base of the streamer, blows out the top of this loop, and becomes the core of the CME. In this paper, we present a streamer-puff CME that produced a coronal dimming footprint. The coronal dimming, its magnetic setting, and the timing and magnetic setting of a strong compact ejective flare within the dimming footprint nicely confirm the magnetic-arch-blowout model. From these observations, together with several published cases of a trans-equatorial CME produced in tandem with an ejective flare or filament eruption that was far offset from directly under the CME, we propose that streamer-puff CMEs belong to a large class of "over-and-out" CMEs that are often much larger than streamer puffs but are similar to them in that they are produced by the blowout of a large quasi-potential magnetic arch by an ejective flare or filament eruption in one foot.

  7. Orbiter/launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Weidner, J. P.; Small, W. J.; Martin, J. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The system includes reusable turbojet propelled booster vehicles releasably connected to a reusable rocket powered orbit vehicle. The coupled orbiter-booster combination takes off horizontally and ascends to staging altitude and speed under booster power with both orbiter and booster wings providing lift. After staging, the booster vehicles fly back to Earth for horizontal landing and the orbiter vehicle continues ascending to orbit.

  8. Secondary Reconstruction of Posttraumatic Enophthalmos with Titanium Mesh and Buccal Fat Pad Graft: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gaffrée, Gustavo; Santos, Roberto; Cupello, Viviane; Polinati, José Emilio; Paredes, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Secondary enophthalmos caused by an untreated orbital blowout fracture can cause esthetic and functional disturbances. The esthetic defect is manifested by sinking of the superior sulcus and the hypophthalmic globe. Functional impairment of the eye can usually be a common complaint with restriction of eye motion and diplopia. Early diagnosis followed by repair of surgically correctable fractures is the most acceptable procedure. Failure in the primary treatment may cause scar contraction and fat atrophy. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a late treatment of blowout orbital floor fracture with secondary enophthalmos using titanium mesh and buccal fat pad graft. PMID:28825031

  9. Fracture Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-31

    2219 -T851 aluminum (fractures at low stresses). The parameter KF is alloy compact specimens 1 2 and demonstrate consistent a function of specimen...Congress of 20. Walker, E. K., "The Effect of Stress Ratio Applied Mechanics, 1924. During Crack Propagation and Fatigue for 2024-T3 and 7015- T6 Aluminum ...34Stress- Corrosion Cracking in 12. Kaufman, J. G., and Nelson, F. G., "More Ti-6A1-4V Titanium Alloy in Nitrogen Tetroxide," on Specimen Size Effect in 2219

  10. Growth Plate Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  11. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of Hand Fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  12. Kasei Valles Fractures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-27

    The fracture system shown in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey is on the northern margin of the Kasei Valles lowland. Fractures like this can become chaos with continued downdropping of blocks and widening fractures.

  13. ‘Sutureless’ transconjunctival approach for infraorbital rim fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vaibhav; Ghosh, Abhishek; Nanjappa, Madan; Ramesh, Keerthi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the ease and surgical outcome of using sutureless transconjunctival approach for repair of infra-orbital fractures. Design: Prospective clinical case series. Materials and Methods: Totally 5 patients with infra-orbital rim or orbital floor fractures were selected and the fractures were accessed through a pre-septal transconjunctival incision. After reduction and fixation, the conjunctiva was just re-approximated and re-draped into position. Incidence of post-operative complications such as diplopia, lid retraction, eyelid dystopia, foreign body granuloma and poor conjunctival healing was assessed at intervals of 1 week, 15 days and a month post-operatively. Results: No complications were observed in any of the 5 patients. Healing was satisfactory in all patients. Conclusion: The sutureless technique appears to be a time saving and technically simpler viable alternative to multilayered suturing in orbital trauma with minimal post-operative complications. PMID:25821377

  14. The Revised Direct Transconjunctival Approach to the Orbital Floor.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Francesco P; Nerad, Jeffrey; Fay, Aaron; Zambelli, Alessandra; Cruz, Antonio Augusto V

    To review common surgical approaches to the orbital floor and to evaluate the utility of canthal-sparing, single incision transconjunctival method. A retrospective chart review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent transconjunctival, direct incision surgery without eyelid dissection or lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis and review of the literature were conducted. Twenty-three consecutive patients (33 orbits) were operated using a canthal-sparing direct single cut approach, including 10 unilateral pediatric orbital floor fractures, 1 orbital floor implant removal, 2 unilateral post-traumatic enophthalmos repairs, and 10 bilateral orbital floor decompressions. Surgical exposure was adequate to complete the surgical objective in each patient. Mean follow up was 13 months and no complications were observed. The transconjunctival approach to the orbital floor can be performed using a pre- or post-septal dissection, with infratarsal or fornix incision commonly associated with lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. The direct approach spares the lateral canthus, minimizes lower eyelid dissection, and provides rapid and effective access to the inferior orbital rim and orbital floor. It offers sufficient exposure to allow insertion of large floor implants even in children. Although apparently abandoned in the recent literature, canthal-sparing technique is a useful method for the management of orbital floor fractures, enophthalmos correction, implant removal, and orbital decompression.

  15. NASGRO(registered trademark): Fracture Mechanics and Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Royce; Shivakumar, V.; Mettu, Sambi; Beek, Joachim; Williams, Leonard; Yeh, Feng; McClung, Craig; Cardinal, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASGRO, which is a fracture mechanics and fatigue crack growth analysis software package that is used to reduce risk of fracture in Space Shuttles. The contents include: 1) Consequences of Fracture; 2) NASA Fracture Control Requirements; 3) NASGRO Reduces Risk; 4) NASGRO Use Inside NASA; 5) NASGRO Components: Crack Growth Module; 6) NASGRO Components:Material Property Module; 7) Typical NASGRO analysis: Crack growth or component life calculation; and 8) NASGRO Sample Application: Orbiter feedline flowliner crack analysis.

  16. Chopart fractures.

    PubMed

    Klaue, Kaj

    2004-09-01

    The Chopart articular space was described by François Chopart (1743-1795) as a practical space for amputations in cases of distal foot necrosis. It corresponds to the limit between the anatomical hind-foot and the mid-foot. The bones involved are the talus and the calcaneus proximally, and the navicular and the cuboid distally. This space thus holds two functionally distinct entities, the anterior part of the coxa pedis (an essential functional joint) and the calcaneo-cuboidal joint,which can be considered to be an "adaptive joint" within a normal foot. Trauma to this region may cause fractures and/or dislocations and, in high energy trauma,compartment syndromes. Principles of treatment are immediate reduction of dislocations and realignment of the medial and lateral column of the foot in length and orientation. Open reduction and internal fixation of talus and navicular fractures are often indicated to restore the "coxa pedis". Open reconstruction or fusion in correct length of the calcaneo-cuboidal joint is occasionally indicated. Salvage procedures in malunions include navicular osteotomies and calcaneo-cuboidal bone block fusions. Treatment of joint destructions, especially involving the talo-navicular joint, include triple arthrodesis.

  17. Modeling the key factors that could influence the diffusion of CO2 from a wellbore blowout in the Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Shi, Hui; Yang, Duoxing; Wei, Xiaochen

    2017-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) blowout from a wellbore is regarded as a potential environment risk of a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) project. In this paper, an assumed blowout of a wellbore was examined for China's Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The significant factors that influenced the diffusion of CO2 were identified by using a response surface method with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The numerical simulations showed that the mass emission rate of CO2 from the source and the ambient wind speed have significant influence on the area of interest (the area of high CO2 concentration above 30,000 ppm). There is a strong positive correlation between the mass emission rate and the area of interest, but there is a strong negative correlation between the ambient wind speed and the area of interest. Several other variables have very little influence on the area of interest, e.g., the temperature of CO2, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and stability class values. Due to the weather conditions at the Shenhua CCS demonstration site at the time of the modeled CO2 blowout, the largest diffusion distance of CO2 in the downwind direction did not exceed 200 m along the centerline. When the ambient wind speed is in the range of 0.1-2.0 m/s and the mass emission rate is in the range of 60-120 kg/s, the range of the diffusion of CO2 is at the most dangerous level (i.e., almost all Grade Four marks in the risk matrix). Therefore, if the injection of CO2 takes place in a region that has relatively low perennial wind speed, special attention should be paid to the formulation of pre-planned, emergency measures in case there is a leakage accident. The proposed risk matrix that classifies and grades blowout risks can be used as a reference for the development of appropriate regulations. This work may offer some indicators in developing risk profiles and emergency responses for CO2 blowouts.

  18. Characterization of midface fractures incurred in recent wars.

    PubMed

    Kittle, Christopher P; Verrett, Adam J; Wu, Jesse; Mellus, Davin E; Hale, Robert G; Chan, Rodney K

    2012-11-01

    Facial injuries sustained by US military personnel during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have increased compared with past conflicts. Characterization of midface fractures (orbits, maxilla, zygoma, and nasal bones) sustained on the battlefield is needed to improve our understanding of these injuries, to optimize treatment, and to potentially direct strategic development of protective equipment in the future. The military's Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried for midface fractures from 2001 to 2011 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes. Stratification was then performed, and individual treatment records from Brooke Army Medical Center were reviewed. Analysis of the fracture pattern, treatment, and complications was performed. One thousand seven hundred sixty individuals with midface fractures were identified. Those fractures sustained in battle were characterized by a predominance of open fractures, blast etiology, and associated injuries. Detailed record reviews of the patients treated at our institution revealed 45% of all midface fractures as operative. Thirty-one percent of these were treated at levels III and IV facilities outside the continental United States before arrival at our institution. Patients with midface fractures underwent multiple operations. There was a 30% rate of complication among operative fractures characterized by malalignment, implant exposure, and infection. Midface battle injuries also had a high incidence of orbital fractures and severe globe injuries. Midface fractures sustained in the battlefield have a high complication rate, likely as a result of the blast mechanism of injury with associated open fractures, multiple fractures, and associated injuries. These cases present unique challenges, often requiring both soft tissue and skeletal reconstruction.

  19. Scientific basis for safely shutting in the Macondo Well after the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Stephen H.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Mooney, Walter D.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Nelson, Philip H.; Mayer, Larry A.; Weber, Thomas C.; Moran, Kathryn; Flemings, Peter B.; McNutt, Marcia K.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the government response to the Deepwater Horizon blowout, a Well Integrity Team evaluated the geologic hazards of shutting in the Macondo Well at the seafloor and determined the conditions under which it could safely be undertaken. Of particular concern was the possibility that, under the anticipated high shut-in pressures, oil could leak out of the well casing below the seafloor. Such a leak could lead to new geologic pathways for hydrocarbon release to the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluating this hazard required analyses of 2D and 3D seismic surveys, seafloor bathymetry, sediment properties, geophysical well logs, and drilling data to assess the geological, hydrological, and geomechanical conditions around the Macondo Well. After the well was successfully capped and shut in on July 15, 2010, a variety of monitoring activities were used to assess subsurface well integrity. These activities included acquisition of wellhead pressure data, marine multichannel seismic profiles, seafloor and water-column sonar surveys, and wellhead visual/acoustic monitoring. These data showed that the Macondo Well was not leaking after shut in, and therefore, it could remain safely shut until reservoir pressures were suppressed (killed) with heavy drilling mud and the well was sealed with cement. PMID:23213217

  20. Oil Biodegradation and Oil-Degrading Microbial Populations in Marsh Sediments Impacted by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Well Blowout.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald M; Stoeckel, Donald M; Faith, Seth A; Minard-Smith, Angela; Thorn, Jonathan R; Benotti, Mark J

    2015-07-21

    To study hydrocarbon biodegradation in marsh sediments impacted by Macondo oil from the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, we collected sediment cores 18-36 months after the accident at the marshes in Bay Jimmy (Upper Barataria Bay), Louisiana, United States. The highest concentrations of oil were found in the top 2 cm of sediment nearest the waterline at the shorelines known to have been heavily oiled. Although petroleum hydrocarbons were detectable, Macondo oil could not be identified below 8 cm in 19 of the 20 surveyed sites. At the one site where oil was detected below 8 cm, concentrations were low. Residual Macondo oil was already highly weathered at the start of the study, and the concentrations of individual saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons continued to decrease over the course of the study due to biodegradation. Desulfococcus oleovorans, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, and related mycobacteria were the most abundant oil-degrading microorganisms detected in the top 2 cm at the oiled sites. Relative populations of these taxa declined as oil concentrations declined. The diversity of the microbial community was low at heavily oiled sites compared to that of the unoiled reference sites. As oil concentrations decreased over time, microbial diversity increased and approached the diversity levels of the reference sites. These trends show that the oil continues to be biodegraded, and microbial diversity continues to increase, indicating ongoing overall ecological recovery.

  1. Effects of oil from the 2010 Macondo well blowout on marsh foraminifera of Mississippi and Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Charlotte A; Yeager, Kevin M; Hatch, Rachel; Simpson, Sondra; Keim, Joseph; Briggs, Kevin B; Louchouarn, Patrick

    2013-08-20

    Foraminifera responded to both heavy and light oiling of marshes relative to unoiled control sites by changes to both standing stock and depth of habitation (DOH) in sediment following the 2010 Macondo well blowout. Push cores were taken from the middle marsh at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH]). Cores were sliced and stained with rose Bengal to detect live specimens of foraminifera. Short-term, sediment-mixing depths were determined using the penetration depths of excess (234)Th, and sedimentary organic carbon and carbonate were measured to distinguish depositional environments. Marsh foraminifera reacted to the highest oil concentration (5,000-18,000 ng/g of TPAH) by reducing standing stock and shortening the DOH compared with the control sites. At a second, less heavily oiled site, foraminifera responded with a shallower DOH, but with a boom in standing stock. Deformed, dead foraminifera occurred in all heavily oiled cores-but not elsewhere. Live foraminifera responded with a population boom at lightly oiled sites with [TPAH] near 1,100 ng/g. Changes in standing stock and DOH with [TPAH] suggest disturbance to the marsh food web, apparently due to oil pollution, and support the use of foraminifera as sentinel species.

  2. Scientific basis for safely shutting in the Macondo Well after the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Stephen H; Hsieh, Paul A; Mooney, Walter D; Enomoto, Catherine B; Nelson, Philip H; Mayer, Larry A; Weber, Thomas C; Moran, Kathryn; Flemings, Peter B; McNutt, Marcia K

    2012-12-11

    As part of the government response to the Deepwater Horizon blowout, a Well Integrity Team evaluated the geologic hazards of shutting in the Macondo Well at the seafloor and determined the conditions under which it could safely be undertaken. Of particular concern was the possibility that, under the anticipated high shut-in pressures, oil could leak out of the well casing below the seafloor. Such a leak could lead to new geologic pathways for hydrocarbon release to the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluating this hazard required analyses of 2D and 3D seismic surveys, seafloor bathymetry, sediment properties, geophysical well logs, and drilling data to assess the geological, hydrological, and geomechanical conditions around the Macondo Well. After the well was successfully capped and shut in on July 15, 2010, a variety of monitoring activities were used to assess subsurface well integrity. These activities included acquisition of wellhead pressure data, marine multichannel seismic profiles, seafloor and water-column sonar surveys, and wellhead visual/acoustic monitoring. These data showed that the Macondo Well was not leaking after shut in, and therefore, it could remain safely shut until reservoir pressures were suppressed (killed) with heavy drilling mud and the well was sealed with cement.

  3. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune

  4. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  5. Imaging of insufficiency fractures.

    PubMed

    Krestan, Christian R; Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    This review article focuses on occurrence, imaging, and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence and the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures are due to normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Most commonly postmenopausal osteoporosis is the cause for insufficiency fractures. Additional conditions affecting bone turnover include osteomalacia, chronic renal failure, and high-dose corticosteroid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures as well as to differentiate them from malignant fractures. Radiographs are the basic modality used for screening of insufficiency fractures, yet depending on the location of the fractures, sensitivity is limited. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures and allows differentiation of benign versus malignant fractures. Thin section multidetector computed tomography (CT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Dedicated Mikro-CTs (Xtreme-CT) can detect subtle fractures reaching an in-plane resolution of 80 μm. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but unsatisfactory specificity. Positron emission tomography-CT with hybrid-scanners has been the upcoming modality for the differentiation of benign from malignant fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical fracture history may determine the future risk of possible insufficiency fractures. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Fracture channel waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  7. Sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2006-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl referred for orbital cellulitis was found to have a right orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass occupying the inferotemporal orbit, extending into the maxillary sinus. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation. She was successfully treated with prednisone.

  8. [Periprosthetic Acetabulum Fractures].

    PubMed

    Schreiner, A J; Stuby, F; de Zwart, P M; Ochs, B G

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to periprosthetic fractures of the femur, periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are rare complications - both primary fractures and fractures in revision surgery. This topic is largely under-reported in the literature; there are a few case reports and no long term results. Due to an increase in life expectancy, the level of patients' activity and the number of primary joint replacements, one has to expect a rise in periprosthetic complications in general and periprosthetic acetabular fractures in particular. This kind of fracture can be intra-, peri- or postoperative. Intraoperative fractures are especially associated with insertion of cementless press-fit acetabular components or revision surgery. Postoperative periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are usually related to osteolysis, for example, due to polyethylene wear. There are also traumatic fractures and fractures missed intraoperatively that lead to some kind of insufficiency fracture. Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are treated conservatively if the implant is stable and the fracture is not dislocated. If surgery is needed, there are many possible different surgical techniques and challenging approaches. That is why periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum should be treated by experts in pelvic surgery as well as revision arthroplasty and the features specific to the patient, fracture and prosthetic must always be considered. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Transfer orbit determination accuracy for orbit maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Mery Passos

    This work intends to show the accuracy of the orbital elements determined during transfer orbit as a function of data span, as well as the feasibility of performance maneuvers. The orbit estimator used is a weighted least squares algorithm. The observation vector is composed of angle data (azimuth and elevation) and range data and are from the Astra IC mission. The state vector is either propagated by Brower model or numerical integration (for small eccentricities and inclination). The complete software to determine the orbit has been developed by Hughes Aircraft and been used for all Hughes satellite mission.

  10. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  11. Paratrooper's ankle fracture: posterior malleolar fracture.

    PubMed

    Young, Ki Won; Kim, Jin-su; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were compound fractures, most cases had to

  12. Paratrooper's Ankle Fracture: Posterior Malleolar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ki Won; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Methods Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. Results The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Conclusions Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were

  13. The Coronal-Dimming Footprint of a Streamer-Puff Coronal Mass Ejection: Confirmation of the Magnetic-Arch-Blowout Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2007-01-01

    A streamer puff is a recently identified variety of coronal mass ejection (CME) of narrow to moderate width. It (1) travels our along a streamer, transiently inflating the streamer but leaving it largely intact, and (2) occurs in step with a compact ejective flare in an outer flank of the base of the streamer. These aspects suggest the following magnetic-arch-blowout scenario for the production of these CMEs: the magnetic explosion that produces the flare also produces a plasmoid that explodes up the leg of an outer loop of the arcade base of the streamer, blows out the top of this loop, and becomes the core of the CME. In this paper, we present a streamer-puff CME that produced a coronal-dimming footprint. The coronal dimming, its magnetic setting, and the timing and magnetic setting of a strong compact ejective flare within the dimming footprint nicely confirm the magnetic-arch-blowout scenario. From these observations, together with several published cases of a trans-equatorial CME produced in tandem with an ejective flare or filament eruption that was far offset from directly under the CME, we propose the following. Streamer-puff CMEs are a subclass (one variety) of a broader class of "over-and-out" CMEs that are often much larger than streamer puffs but are similar to them in that they are produced by the blowout of a large quasi-potential magnetic arch by a magnetic explosion that erupts from one foot of the large arch, where it is marked by a filament eruption and/or an ejective flare.

  14. Orbits: Computer simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, A.

    1985-01-01

    In rotating machinery dynamics an orbit (Lissajous curve) represents the dynamic path of the shaft centerline motion during shaft rotation and resulting precession. The orbit can be observed with an oscilloscope connected to XY promixity probes. The orbits can also be simulated by a computer. The software for HP computer simulates orbits for two cases: (1) Symmetric orbit with four frequency components with different radial amplitudes and relative phase angles; and (2) Nonsymmetric orbit with two frequency components with two different vertical/horizontal amplitudes and two different relative phase angles. Each orbit carries a Keyphasor mark (one-per-turn reference). The frequencies, amplitudes, and phase angles, as well as number of time steps for orbit computation, have to be chosen and introduced to the computer by the user. The orbit graphs can be observed on the computer screen.

  15. Predicting zygoma fractures from baseball impact.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Joseph M; Stitzel, Joel D; Hurst, William J; Porta, David J; Jones, Jeryl; Duma, Stefan M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop injury risk functions that predict zygoma fracture based on baseball type and impact velocity. Zygoma fracture strength data from published experiments were mapped with the force exerted by a baseball on the orbit as a function of ball velocity. Using a normal distribution, zygoma fracture risk functions were developed. Experimental evaluation of these risk functions was performed using six human cadaver tests and two baseballs of different stiffness values. High speed video measured the baseball impact velocity. Post test analysis of the cadaver skulls was performed using CT imaging including three-dimensional reconstruction as well as autopsy. The developed injury risk functions accurately identify the risk of zygoma fracture as a result of baseball impact. The experimental results validated the zygoma risk functions at the lower and upper levels. The injuries observed in the post test analysis included fractures of the zygomatic arch, frontal process and the maxilla, zygoma suture, with combinations of these creating comminuted, tripod fractures of the zygoma. Tests with a softer baseball did result in injury but these had fewer resulting zygoma bone fragments and occurred at velocities 50% higher than the major league ball.

  16. Facial fractures from dog bite injuries.

    PubMed

    Tu, Alexander H; Girotto, John A; Singh, Navin; Dufresne, Craig R; Robertson, Bradley C; Seyfer, Alan E; Manson, Paul N; Iliff, Nicholas

    2002-04-01

    Dog bites are commonly associated with soft-tissue injury to the face but rarely result in facial fractures. This article reports six new cases of facial fractures associated with dog bites and reviews additional cases reported in the literature. The demographics of the patients attacked, the location of facial fractures, and the characteristics of associated soft-tissue injuries or complications developing from the dog bite are described. With six new cases and 10 from the literature, this article reviewed a total of 16 cases involving 27 facial fractures. Eighty-seven percent of the cases involved children less than 16 years of age. The periorbital or nasal bones were involved in 69 percent of the cases. Lacerations were the most frequently associated soft-tissue injury. Additional injuries included facial nerve damage, lacrimal duct damage requiring stenting and reconstruction, ptosis from levator transection, and blood loss requiring transfusion. Although facial fractures are not commonly considered to be associated with dog bite injuries, the index of suspicion for a fracture should be raised when the injury occurs in a child, particularly when injury occurs near the orbit, nose, and cheek.

  17. [Fractures of the forefoot].

    PubMed

    Richter, M

    2011-10-01

    Fractures of the forefoot are common and comprise approximately two thirds of all foot fractures. Forefoot fractures are caused by direct impact or the effect of indirect force. The forces exerted can range from repetitive minor load (stress fractures) to massive destructive forces (complex trauma). The clinical course in forefoot fractures is typically more favourable than in fractures of the mid- and hindfoot. The incidence of complications like infection or pseudarthrosis is low. Exceptions are rare fractures of the proximal shaft of the fifth metatarsal and the sesamoids with higher pseudarthrosis rates. Malunited metatarsal fractures can cause painful conditions that should even be treated operatively. Differences in structure and function of the different forefoot areas and specific fracture types require an adapted management of these special injuries.

  18. Management of metacarpal fractures.

    PubMed

    McNemar, Thomas B; Howell, Julianne Wright; Chang, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Fractures of the hand are the most common fractures of the human skeleton. Metacarpal fractures account for 30% to 50% of all of hand fractures. The mechanisms of these injuries vary from axial loading forces to direct blows to the dorsal hand. Resulting deformities include malrotation, angulation, and shortening. Treatment modalities vary from nonoperative reduction to open reduction and internal fixation. The treatment algorithm is guided by the location of the fracture, the stability of the fracture, and the resultant deformity. Operative procedures, although they may lead to excellent radiographic reduction of fractures, often lead to debilitating stiffness from the inflammatory reaction of the surgical procedure. Operative fixation must be employed judiciously and offered only when confident that non-operative therapy can be improved on with operative intervention. This article reviews the various types of metacarpal fractures, with the treatment options available for each fracture. The indications for each treatment modality, postoperative care, and rehabilitation are presented.

  19. Pediatric Phalanx Fractures.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua M; Dua, Karan; Bauer, Andrea Sesko; Cornwall, Roger; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2016-11-01

    Phalangeal fractures are the most common type of hand fracture that occurs in the pediatric population and account for the second highest number of emergency department visits for fractures in the United States. The incidence of phalangeal fractures is the highest in children aged 10 to 14 years, which coincides with the time that most children begin playing contact sports. Younger children are more likely to sustain a phalangeal fracture in the home setting as a result of crush and laceration injuries. Salter-Harris type II fractures of the proximal phalanx are the most common type of finger fracture. An unmineralized physis is biomechanically weaker compared with the surrounding ligamentous structures and mature bone, which makes fractures about the physis likely. A thorough physical examination is necessary to assess the digital cascade for signs of rotational deformity and/or coronal malalignment. Plain radiographs of the hand and digits are sufficient to confirm a diagnosis of a phalangeal fracture. The management of phalangeal fractures is based on the initial severity of the injury and depends on the success of closed reduction techniques. Nondisplaced phalanx fractures are managed with splint immobilization. Stable, reduced phalanx fractures are immobilized but require close monitoring to ensure maintenance of fracture reduction. Unstable, displaced phalanx fractures require surgical management, preferably via closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.

  20. Pediatric Phalanx Fractures.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua M; Dua, Karan; Sesko Bauer, Andrea; Cornwall, Roger; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2017-02-15

    Phalangeal fractures are the most common type of hand fracture that occurs in the pediatric population and account for the second highest number of emergency department visits in the United States for fractures. The incidence of phalangeal fractures is the highest in children aged 10 to 14 years, which coincides with the time that most children begin playing contact sports. Younger children are more likely to sustain a phalangeal fracture in the home setting as a result of crush and laceration injuries. Salter-Harris type II fractures of the proximal phalanx are the most common type of finger fracture. An unmineralized physis is biomechanically weaker compared with the surrounding ligamentous structures and mature bone, which make fractures about the physis likely. A thorough physical examination is necessary to assess the digital cascade for signs of rotational deformity and/or coronal malalignment. Plain radiographs of the hand and digits are sufficient to confirm a diagnosis of a phalangeal fracture. The management of phalangeal fractures is based on the initial severity of the injury and depends on the success of closed reduction techniques. Nondisplaced phalanx fractures are managed with splint immobilization. Stable, reduced phalanx fractures are immobilized but require close monitoring to ensure maintenance of fracture reduction. Unstable, displaced phalanx fractures require surgical management, preferably via closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.

  1. Pulsed blooms and persistent oil-degrading bacterial populations in the water column during and after the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tingting; Nigro, Lisa M.; Gutierrez, Tony; D`Ambrosio, Lindsay; Joye, Samantha B.; Highsmith, Raymond; Teske, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    One of the defining features of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the rapid formation and persistence of a hydrocarbon plume in deep water. Here we use 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments to outline the temporal dynamics of the bacterial community in the water column near the Macondo wellhead. Our timeline starts with the pre-spill (March 2010) status of the water column bacterial community, continues through the bacterial enrichments dominating the hydrocarbon plume after the blowout (DWH Oceanospirillales, Cycloclasticus, Colwellia in late May 2010), and leads towards post-spill bacterial communities with molecular signatures related to degradation of phytoplankton pulses (September and October 2010; July 2011) in the water column near the Macondo wellhead. We document a dramatic transition as the complex bacterial community before the oil spill was temporarily overwhelmed by a few specialized bacterial groups responding to the massive influx of hydrocarbons in May 2010. In September and October 2010, this bacterial bloom had been replaced by a diversified bacterial community which resembled its predecessor prior to the spill. Notably, the post-plume 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and pyrosequencing datasets illustrated the continued presence of oil-degrading bacteria in the water column near the Macondo wellhead which we posit to represent an inherent signature of hydrocarbon catabolic potential to the Gulf of Mexico. The pyroseqencing results detected and tracked minority bacterial populations that were not visible in the conventional 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and allowed us to identify natural reservoirs of the Deepwater Horizon Oceanospirillales within and outside of the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Manned Venus Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

  3. Primary orbital melanoma associated with orbital melanocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rice, C D; Brown, H H

    1990-08-01

    We report a case of primary orbital melanoma in a 17-year-old girl. The patient presented with painless proptosis during the first trimester of pregnancy. Computed tomography demonstrated a well-circumscribed mass located infra-temporally in the right orbit. The tumor was bluish-black, grossly encapsulated, and associated with orbital blue nevi. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a pigmented spindle-cell neoplasm. On electron microscopy, the presence of premelanosomes and the absence of basal lamina supported the diagnosis of melanoma. Malignant transformation of a preexisting nevus is postulated since perineural foci of benign dendritic melanocytes were seen within the melanoma. There has been no recurrence or metastasis in a 2-year follow-up. Of 30 primary orbital melanomas reviewed, 12 (40%) were associated with periorbital pigmentary disorders, such as oculodermal melanocytosis, blue nevus, and ocular melanocytosis. Our case is unique since the pigmentary lesions were limited to the orbital tissues.

  4. On material fracture criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremnev, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear mechanics of material fracture, a model of the fracture of materials with actual (discrete) structures has been constructed. The model is supported by proofs that crack resistance K 1 c and fracture toughness G 1 c obtained from the energy conservation law without using the assumptions adopted in the linear material fracture mechanics serve as the force and energy criteria in the nonlinear fracture mechanics. It has been shown that energy criterion G 1 c in the nonlinear mechanics is much greater than G 1 c in the linear fracture mechanics.

  5. A Single-Center Review of Radiologically Diagnosed Maxillofacial Fractures: Etiology and Distribution.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Jordan N; Hoppe, Ian C; Granick, Mark S; Lee, Edward S

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton varies among studies, with motor vehicle accidents and assaults oftentimes the most common. The number of males outnumbers females throughout most studies. Fractures of the zygoma, orbit, and mandible are usually cited as most common fracture types. This study examines a single center's experience with regards to etiology and distribution of fractures. A retrospective review of all radiologically confirmed facial fractures in a level 1 trauma center in an urban environment was performed for the years 2000 to 2012. Patient demographics, etiology of injury, and location of fractures were collected. During this time period, 2,998 patients were identified as having sustained a fracture of the facial skeleton. The average age was 36.9 years, with a strong male predominance (81.5%). The most common etiologies of injury were assault (44.9%) and motor vehicle accidents (14.9%). Throughout the study period, the number of fractures as a result of assault remained relatively constant, whereas the number as a result of motor vehicle accidents decreased slightly. The most common fracture observed was of the orbit, followed by mandible, nasal bones, zygoma, and frontal sinus. Patients sustaining a fracture as a result of assault were more likely to have a mandible fracture. Patients in motor vehicle accidents were more likely to suffer fractures of the maxilla, orbit, and frontal sinus. Mandible fractures are more common in cases of assault. Motor vehicle accidents convey a large force, which, when directed at the craniofacial skeleton, can cause a variety of fracture patterns. The decreasing number of fractures as a result of motor vehicle accidents may represent improved safety devices such as airbags.

  6. Permeability of displaced fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Christian; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Flow along fractures or in fissured systems becomes increasingly important in the context of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), shale gas recovery or nuclear waste deposit. Commonly, the permeability of fractures is approximated using the Hagen-Poiseuille solution of Navier Stokes equation. Furthermore, the flow in fractures is assumed to be laminar flow between two parallel plates and the cubic law for calculating the velocity field is applied. It is a well-known fact, that fracture flow is strongly influenced by the fracture surface roughness and the shear displacement along the fracture plane. Therefore, a numerical approach was developed which calculates the flow pattern within a fracture-matrix system. The flow in the fracture is described by a free fluid flow and the flow in the matrix is assumed to be laminar and therefore validates Darcy's law. The presented approach can be applied for artificially generated fractures or real fractures measured by surface scanning. Artificial fracture surfaces are generated using the power spectral density of the surface height random process with a spectral exponent to define roughness. For calculating the permeability of such fracture-matrix systems the mean fracture aperture, the shear displacement and the surface roughness are considered by use of a 3D numerical simulator. By use of this approach correlation between shear displacement and mean aperture, shear displacement and permeability, as well as surface roughness and permeability can be obtained. Furthermore, the intrinsic measured permeability presents a combination of matrix and fracture permeability. The presented approach allows the separation and quantification of the absolute magnitudes of the matrix and the fracture permeability and the permeability of displaced fractures can be calculated. The numerical approach which is a 3D numerical simulation of the fracture-matrix system can be applied for artificial as well as real systems.

  7. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  8. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young Physicians Annual Scientific Meeting Webinars Careers in Podiatry APMA 2040 Student Profiles CPME REdRC Manage Your ... and fractures. Many fractures and sprains occur during sports. Football players are particularly vulnerable to foot and ...

  9. Infant skull fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. Although the skull is both tough and resilient and provides excellent ... or blow can result in fracture of the skull and may be accompanied by injury to the ...

  10. Everted skull fracture.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V

    2011-11-01

    Skull bone fractures are common in trauma. They are usually linear undisplaced or depressed; however, a distinct possibility of elevated fracture remains. We describe an entity of everted fracture skull in which the fracture segment is totally everted. The nature of trauma, management, and complications of this unique case are discussed. A 21-year-old woman involved in a railway accident presented to us with a primary dressing on her wound. Investigations revealed an everted fracture skull. She underwent surgery with good results. We would like to add everted fracture skull to the nomenclature describing skull fractures in addition to elevated compound fracture skull as a new entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000553.htm Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  12. Fractures in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Siyi

    Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The

  13. Forearm Fractures in Children

    MedlinePlus

    .org Forearm Fractures in Children The forearm is the part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. It is ... two bones: the radius and the ulna. Forearm fractures are common in childhood, accounting for more than ...

  14. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  15. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  16. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000166.htm Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  17. Fractures and Channels

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-22

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft of the Claritas Fossae region illustrates how fractures affect other features. In this instance, the fractures control the path of several channels from upper right towards lower left.

  18. Periprosthetic acetabular fractures.

    PubMed

    Benazzo, Francesco; Formagnana, Mario; Bargagliotti, Marco; Perticarini, Loris

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the acetabular periprosthetic fractures. This article explores the current literature on the epidemiology, causes and classification of periprosthetic acetabular fractures. Integrating data with the experience of the authors, it offers a guide to diagnosis and possible therapeutic strategies. Intra-operative fractures can occur during rasping, reaming or implant impaction, and they must be treated immediately if the component(s) is (are) unstable. Post-operative fractures can be due to major trauma (acute fractures) or minor forces in bone osteolysis; it is possible to plan reconstruction and fixation according to fracture characteristics. Treatment choice depends upon fracture site and implant stability. Periprosthetic acetabular fractures are uncommon complications that can occur intra-operatively or post-operatively, and a reconstructive surgeon must be able to manage the procedure. Accurate planning and reconstruction implant are necessary to achieve good cup stability.

  19. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  1. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  2. SEASAT B orbit synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

  3. [Potentials of 3D-modeling in reconstructive orbital surgery].

    PubMed

    Butsan, S B; Khokhlachev, S B; Ĭigitaliev, Sh N; Zaiakin, Ia A

    2012-01-01

    A technique of bone reconstructive surgery of orbitofrontonasomalar region using 3D-modeling based on multispiral computer tomography data is presented. The efficacy of intraoperative templates created using 3D-modeling was showed for harvesting and modeling of bone calvarial autografts. The steps of reconstructive procedure are explained in details for repair of medial and inferior orbital fractures.

  4. [Epidemiological view of fracture risk].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-09-01

    Incidence of hip fracture increases exponentially with age. Women had two times higher hip fracture incidence than men. Major risk factors for the hip fracture are age, sex, bone mineral density, and previous fracture and others, but each risk factor contributes differently to development of the fracture by sites. Factors related to fall are important role in developing hip fracture.

  5. Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure atomizing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental tests with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels were conducted in a combustor segment to obtain comparative data on exhaust emissions and blowout limits. An air-atomizing nozzle was used to inject the fuels. Tests were also made with diesel number 2 fuel using a pressure-atomizing nozzle to determine the effectiveness of the air-atomizing nozzle in reducing exhaust emissions. Test conditions included fuel-air ratios of 0.008 to 0.018, inlet-air total pressures and temperatures of 41 to 203 newtons per square centimeter and 477 to 811 K, respectively, and a reference velocity of 21.3 meters per second. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons were twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel. This was attributed to diesel number 2 having a higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility than Jet A fuel. Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and blowout limits were approximately the same for the two fuels. The air-atomizing nozzle, as compared with the pressure-atomizing nozzle, reduced oxides-of-nitrogen by 20 percent, smoke number by 30 percent, carbon monoxide by 70 percent, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50 percent when used with diesel number 2 fuel.

  6. Fracture Education in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidey, D.; And Others

    Fracture mechanics is a multidisciplinary topic which is being introduced to undergraduate engineering students in such courses as materials engineering. At a recent Conference on Fracture held at the University of Waterloo, a session was devoted to fracture education. Some of the ideas presented at that session are included and discussed here.…

  7. [Osteoporosis and Colles' fracture].

    PubMed

    Hindsø, K; Lauritzen, J B

    2001-10-01

    We describe the connection between osteoporosis and Colles' fractures of the distal radius from an epidemiological and aetiological point of view. In addition, the value of these fractures as markers of osteoporosis and future risk of fracture is assessed. Several studies have clearly shown an epidemiological association between osteoporosis and fractures of the distal radius, with the association strongest for women up to 65 years of age and for osteoporosis located in the forearm. The association weakens for other locations and for older women. Osteoporosis may have some aetiologic significance for the development of Colles' fractures, but several extraskeletal factors are of equal or further importance. The occurrence of a Colles' fracture in the first 10-15 years after the postmenopause indicates an increased relative risk of sustaining another fracture in the future. However the relative risk approaches one after a few years and, because of the comparatively low absolute risk in this age-group, Colles' fracture as a risk factor contributes little to an assessment of the lifetime fracture risk. In a few longitudinal studies, Colles' fractures could not predict the long-term risk of osteoporosis. The presence of a Colles' fracture should lead to considerations concerning the skeletal and extraskeletal causes of the fracture for the purpose of initiating preventive and therapeutic measures.

  8. Elbow fractures and dislocations.

    PubMed

    Little, Kevin J

    2014-07-01

    Elbow fractures are common in pediatric patients. Most injuries to the pediatric elbow are stable and require simple immobilization; however, more severe fractures can occur, often requiring operative stabilization and/or close monitoring. This article highlights the common fractures and dislocations about the pediatric elbow and discusses the history, evaluation, and treatment options for specific injuries.

  9. [Treatment of enophthalmos after severe malar-maxillary complex fracture with titanium mesh and high density polyethylene (Medpor)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-feng; Lu, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-nan; Qu, Chang-feng

    2010-03-01

    To study the surgical management of enophthalmos after severe malar maxillary complex fracture. The X-ray and CT examination were performed before operation to diagnose the orbital fracture and intraorbital tissue displacement. The fractured orbital rim was repositioned intraoperatively, followed by implantation of shaped titanium mesh to rebuild the orbital floor. The Medpor was inserted above the titanium mesh to correct the enophthalmos. From Sept. 2007 to Jan. 2009, 6 cases of enophthalmos after severe malar-maxillary complex fracture were treated. The enophthalmos was corrected or improved obviously in all the patients. The enophthalmos after severe malar-maxillary complex fracture can be corrected or obviously improved. Shaped titanium mesh can be used to rebuild the orbital floor with the Medpor to reconstruct the intraorbital tissue volume.

  10. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.

  11. Orbital Plasmacytoma Mimicking an Orbital Abscess.

    PubMed

    Russell, David J; Seiff, Stuart R

    An 83-year-old male with a 15-month history of multiple myeloma presented with acute onset of swelling, redness, and pain around his right eye. CT scan was consistent with an orbital abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for drainage of the orbital abscess. Abnormal tissue was encountered intraoperatively so biopsies were taken. His cultures grew only one colony of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus. The histopathology from the biopsies showed a CD-138 positive plasma cell neoplasia consistent with a plasmacytoma. Plasmacytomas have been reported to present as orbital cellulitis and as abscesses in other locations in the body, but to our knowledge, this is the first case of a plasmacytoma presenting as an orbital abscess.

  12. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  13. The North Sea Blowout: A gas bubble megaplume with spiral vortex motion and why it might, or might not, contribute much to the atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Leifer, Ira; Schmidt, Mark; Rehder, Gregor; Linke, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In the Central North Sea, during drilling operations, a gas blowout accident happened in 1990. Thereafter, natural gas has leaked prodigiously from a 60 m diameter and 20 m deep crater located at 95 m depth into the water column and to the sea surface. A series of field studies was carried out at this site since 2005 evidencing ongoing intense seepage activity. Three gas bubble megaplumes and dozens of minor to major bubble seeps were observed in the crater during a manned submersible dive, ROV mapped hundreds. Analysis of gas bubbles captured at 118 m water depth revealed concentrations between 88-90%Vol CH4 with δ 13C-CH4 values around -74‰ VPDB, consistent with a biogenic origin. Blowout site flux estimates derived from ROV video show the site's emissions are the strongest and most intense marine methane seepage quantified to date with seabed emissions of ~32.6 kt/y. Based on previous research suggesting greater flux correlates with greater transport efficiency, the direct bubble-mediated atmospheric flux to the atmosphere was estimated at a surprisingly low 0.7kt/y. This is orders of magnitude smaller compared to the seabed flux, thus the bulk methane dissolves before reaching the atmosphere, suggesting enhanced bubble dissolution rates for megaplumes. Analysis of more than 120 water samples from near the blowout plume showed dissolved methane concentration distributions consistent with enhanced bubble dissolution at depth. CH4 concentrations ranged from 0.2 µmol/L at 20 m depth to a peak in the crater of an extraordinary 400 µmol/L. To evaluate further the controlling factors on the rising bubble plume, multibeam water column data were analyzed. The bubble plume spatial distribution revealed a horizontal intrusion of gas bubbles just below the thermocline. This pronounced pattern was traced 200 m horizontally with a downflow plume orientation suggesting trapping of methane-enriched fluids at depth. A numerical bubble propagation model was used to simulate

  14. Facial fractures with concomitant open globe injury: mechanisms and fracture patterns associated with blindness.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Elbert E; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Kelamis, Joseph A; Dorafshar, Amir H; Christy, Michael R; Manson, Paul N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2013-06-01

    Treatment of facial fractures in the setting of open-globe injuries poses a management dilemma because of the often disparate treatment priorities of multidisciplinary trauma teams and the lack of prognostic data regarding visual outcomes. Patients in the University of Maryland Shock Trauma Registry sustaining facial fractures with concomitant open-globe injuries from January of 1998 to August of 2010 were identified. Odds ratios were calculated to identify demographic and clinical variables associated with blindness, and multivariate regression analysis was performed. A total of 99 patients were identified with 105 open-globe injuries. Seventy-nine percent of injuries were blinding, whereas 4.8 percent of globes achieved a final visual acuity greater than or equal to 20/400. Blindness was associated with penetrating injury, increasing number of facial fractures, zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score less than or equal to 8, and globe injury spanning all three eye zones. Fracture repair was performed more frequently (62.5 percent) and more quickly (average time to fracture repair, 4.5 days) in cases of primary globe enucleation/evisceration when compared with complete (21.2 percent; 8 days; p=0.35) or incomplete (42.9 percent; 11 days; p=0.058) primary globe repair. Penetrating injury mechanism and zone of eye injury appear to be better indicators of visual prognosis than facial fracture patterns. Given the high rates of blindness, secondary enucleation, and delay of fracture repair in patients that were not primarily enucleated, the authors recommend that orbital fracture repair not be delayed in the hopes of eventual visual recovery in cases of high-velocity projectile trauma. Risk, III.

  15. Painless orbital myositis.

    PubMed

    Chakor, Rahul T; Santhosh, N S

    2012-07-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  16. Fracture toughness of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a study to determine the fracture toughness and to characterize fracture modes of silicon as a function of the orientation of single-crystal and polycrystalline material. It is shown that bar specimens cracked by Knoop microhardness indentation and tested to fracture under four-point bending at room temperature were used to determine the fracture toughness values. It is found that the lowest fracture toughness value of single crystal silicon was 0.82 MN/m to the 3/2 in the 111 plane type orientation, although the difference in values in the 111, 110, and 100 planes was small.

  17. Proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew C; Horn, Pamela L; Latshaw, James C

    2013-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes.

  18. Stress fractures in runners.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Provencher, Matthew T

    2012-04-01

    Stress fractures are a relatively common entity in athletes, in particular, runners. Physicians and health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for stress fractures in runners presenting with insidious onset of focal bone tenderness associated with recent changes in training intensity or regimen. It is particularly important to recognize “high-risk” fractures, as these are associated with an increased risk of complication. A patient with confirmed radiographic evidence of a high-risk stress fracture should be evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon. Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention.

  19. [Rarely seen fractures].

    PubMed

    Subaşi, M; Kapukaya, A; Kesemenli, C; Coban, V

    2001-10-01

    Rarely seen fractures are presented in this study. One case was a calcaneal spur, 2 cases osteochondroma pedicule fractures and talus posteromedial tubercle fracture due to direct trauma. Calcaneal spur and osteochondromas were removed surgically and posteromedial tubercle was treated by short-leg cast immobilization. In conclusion, we think that fractures of osteochondroma and calcaneal spur may be treated by surgical removal which do not cause any functional disorders after this operation, but fractures like the talus posteromedial tubercle should be treated conservatively by short-leg immobilization in the early period.

  20. Solar Sail Optimal Orbit Transfers to Synchronous Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Robert B.; Coverstone, Victoria; Prussing, John E.; Lunney, Bryan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    A constant outward radial thrust acceleration can be used to reduce the radius of a circular orbit of specified period. Heliocentric circular orbits are designed to match the orbital period of Earth or Mars for various radial thrust accelerations and are defined as synchronous orbits. Minimum-time solar sail orbit transfers to these synchronous heliocentric orbits are presented.

  1. Determination of Space Station on-orbit nondestructive evaluation requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkowski, Charles

    1995-07-01

    NASA has recently initiated a reassessment of requirements for the performance of in-space nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) while on- orbit. given the on-orbit operating environment, there is a powerful motivation for avoiding inspection requirements. For example the ISSA maintenance philosophy includes the use of orbital replacement units (ORUs); hardware that is designed to fail without impact on mission assurance or safety. Identification of on-orbit inspection requirements involves review of a complex set of disciplines and considerations such as fracture control, contamination, safety, mission assurance, electrical power, and cost. This paper presents background discussion concerning on-orbit NDE and a technical approach for separating baseline requirements from opportunities.

  2. The radiation dose to the lens in radiology of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Montanara, A; Pani, R; Pellegrini, R; Polli, N S; Soluri, S

    1986-12-01

    This paper describes research into measurement and reduction of the radiation dose to the lens during various examinations, namely skull and orbit, optic canal and optic strut, superior and inferior orbital fissure, localisation of foreign bodies in the eye, calcifications, orbital fractures, macrodacryography and orbital venography. Using rare-earth screens and high-sensitivity films, without an antiscattering grid, and with an added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu, it is possible to reduce the radiological risk during all investigations involving skull, orbit and eyeballs, while maintaining a good image quality. Particularly in those examinations with direct magnification (macrodacryography and venography, foreign bodies in the eye, orbital fractures), the dose to the lens is very low: less than 0.2 mGy/radiograph.

  3. Transconjunctival orbital emphysema caused by compressed air injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Usha; Francis, Febson; Nazareth, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Orbital emphysema following conjunctival tear in the absence of orbital wall fracture, caused by air under pressure is rare. Usually orbital emphysema is seen in facial trauma associated with damage to the adjacent paranasal sinuses or facial bones. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only eight reports of orbital emphysema following use of compressed air during industrial work. The air under pressure is pushed through the subconjunctival space into the subcutaneous and retrobulbar spaces. We present here a rare cause of orbital emphysema in a young man working with compressed air gun. Although the emphysema was severe, there were no orbital bone fracture and the visual recovery of the patient was complete without attendant complications. PMID:18417833

  4. Subsurface fracture spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C. ); Hill, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Fracture interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Boliang; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    1996-01-01

    Interface waves on a single fracture in an elastic solid are investigated theoretically and numerically using plane wave analysis and a boundary element method. The finite mechanical stiffness of a fracture is modeled as a displacement discontinuity. Analysis for inhomogeneous plane wave propagation along a fracture yields two dispersive equations for symmetric and antisymmetric interface waves. The basic form of these equations are similar to the classic Rayleigh equation for a surface wave on a half-space, except that the displacements and velocities of the symmetric and antisymmetric fracture interface waves are each controlled by a normalized fracture stiffness. For low values of the normalized fracture stiffness, the symmetric and antisymmetric interface waves degenerate to the classic Rayleigh wave on a traction-free surface. For large values of the normalized fracture stiffness, the antisymmetric and symmetric interface waves become a body S wave and a body P wave, respectively, which propagate parallel to the fracture. For intermediate values of the normalized fracture stiffness, both interface waves are dispersive. Numerical modeling performed using a boundary element method demonstrates that a line source generates a P-type interface wave, in addition to the two Rayleigh-type interface waves. The magnitude of the normalized fracture stiffness is observed to control the velocities of the interface waves and the partitioning of seismic energy among the various waves near the fracture.

  6. Chemosis as complication in transconjunctival approach for orbital trauma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this report was to discuss a complication resulting from a transconjunctival approach to treating an orbital fracture. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a fracture to the zygomatic orbital complex. He was treated with transconjunctival conventional surgical treatment. Two days after surgical treatment, the patient presented with secondary chemosis which was initially slight and then subsequently worsened. The clinical situation was managed with topical and systemic corticosteroids and resolved within one postoperative month. Two-year follow-up showed ptosis of the upper eyelid and limited infraversion in the affected eye. This unusual complication associated with an orbital trauma was resolved with minor functional alterations, although the consequences observed after 2 years were not completely satisfactory. PMID:28280709

  7. Chemosis as complication in transconjunctival approach for orbital trauma.

    PubMed

    Olate, Sergio; Palmieri, Celso; de Moraes, Márcio

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this report was to discuss a complication resulting from a transconjunctival approach to treating an orbital fracture. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a fracture to the zygomatic orbital complex. He was treated with transconjunctival conventional surgical treatment. Two days after surgical treatment, the patient presented with secondary chemosis which was initially slight and then subsequently worsened. The clinical situation was managed with topical and systemic corticosteroids and resolved within one postoperative month. Two-year follow-up showed ptosis of the upper eyelid and limited infraversion in the affected eye. This unusual complication associated with an orbital trauma was resolved with minor functional alterations, although the consequences observed after 2 years were not completely satisfactory.

  8. Atraumatic sternum fracture

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, Sebastian Ørskov; Madsen, Christina Friis

    2014-01-01

    The spine, pelvic bones and long bones of the lower extremities are common sites for insufficiency fractures. Cases of sternum insufficiency fractures have rarely been reported among elderly patients. Insufficiency fractures tend to occur in bones with decreased mechanical strength especially among elderly patients, in postmenopausal women and patients with underlying diseases. We describe a case of spontaneous sternum insufficiency fracture in a healthy man, with no known risk factors to fracture, or previous history of fractures. Sternum insufficiency fracture is a rare cause of chest pain. This case serves to remind the emergency physician to remain vigilant for other non-cardiac, non-pulmonary and non-traumatic causes of chest pain, especially among patients with known risk factors such as osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and patients on long-term steroid treatment. If diagnosed correctly, these patients can be discharged and treated as outpatients as this case emphasises. PMID:25326566

  9. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  10. Low-Cost 3D Printing Orbital Implant Templates in Secondary Orbital Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Alison B; Campbell, Ashley A; Petris, Carisa; Kazim, Michael

    Despite its increasing use in craniofacial reconstructions, three-dimensional (3D) printing of customized orbital implants has not been widely adopted. Limitations include the cost of 3D printers able to print in a biocompatible material suitable for implantation in the orbit and the breadth of available implant materials. The authors report the technique of low-cost 3D printing of orbital implant templates used in complex, often secondary, orbital reconstructions. A retrospective case series of 5 orbital reconstructions utilizing a technique of 3D printed orbital implant templates is presented. Each patient's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were uploaded and processed to create 3D renderings upon which a customized implant was designed and sent electronically to printers open for student use at our affiliated institutions. The mock implants were sterilized and used intraoperatively as a stencil and mold. The final implant material was chosen by the surgeons based on the requirements of the case. Five orbital reconstructions were performed with this technique: 3 tumor reconstructions and 2 orbital fractures. Four of the 5 cases were secondary reconstructions. Molded Medpor Titan (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) implants were used in 4 cases and titanium mesh in 1 case. The stenciled and molded implants were adjusted no more than 2 times before anchored in place (mean 1). No case underwent further revision. The technique and cases presented demonstrate 1) the feasibility and accessibility of low-cost, independent use of 3D printing technology to fashion patient-specific implants in orbital reconstructions, 2) the ability to apply this technology to the surgeon's preference of any routinely implantable material, and 3) the utility of this technique in complex, secondary reconstructions.

  11. Orbital emphysema following nose blowing as a sequel of a snowboard related head injury.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Y; Sakakibara, Y; Uchida, K; Kishi, H

    2004-10-01

    A case of orbital emphysema as a sequel of a snowboard related head injury is reported. It is believed that a fracture of the medial orbital wall was caused by the increased intraorbital pressure when the patient hit his forehead on the snowy ground, allowing air to enter the orbit when he blew his nose. Wearing goggles may prevent this type of sports related injury.

  12. Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.

  13. Medial Orbital Wall Reconstruction With Porous Polyethylene by Using a Transconjunctival Approach With a Caruncular Extension.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chieh; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chen, Chien-Chang; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lee, Su-Shin

    2017-03-01

    The reported rate of isolated medial orbital wall fractures varies widely but has been found to be as high as 55% of all orbital fractures. Identifying and repairing medial orbital wall defects by using appropriate materials improves patient outcome considerably; however, most related research has focused on orbital floor defect management rather than medial orbital wall treatment, and no consensus on repairing medial orbital wall fractures exists. Furthermore, medial orbital wall fracture is a main cause of posttraumatic enophthalmos. In this study, we introduce a modified surgical technique for repairing large medial wall fractures stably, also reviewed relevant literature and established an algorithm for managing medial orbital wall fractures. We reviewed the outcomes of facial trauma patients who underwent facial bone reduction and internal fixation surgery in our hospital between October 1, 2010, and October 1, 2013. The patients were all treated medial orbital wall reconstruction with porous polyethylene by using a transconjunctival approach with a caruncular extension for large medial orbital wall fractures. Medical records and radiologic images of the patients were reviewed retrospectively. The outcomes evaluated were trauma mechanism, clinical findings of ocular injury, preoperative and postoperative ocular symptoms, degree of enophthalmos, and orbital volume restoration after surgery. Transconjunctival approach with a caruncular extension was performed without any complications. The incidence of diplopia was 47.4% and enophthalmos (>2 mm) was 31.6%, with no significant diplopia and enophthalmos after surgery. Patients were symptom-free on follow-up. The average enophthalmos was successfully corrected from 0.88 mm preoperatively to 0.26 mm and orbital volume was corrected from 26.22 to 22.99 cm after surgery; these results also showed P less than 0.001. The current results suggest that the proposed method of medial orbital wall reconstruction, in which

  14. Telescope in lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, T.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a large telescope in high lunar orbit 4000 km above the Moon's equator is proposed. It is recognized that the Hubble Space Telescope (ST), will provide the necessary capabilities if it can be transferred to lunar orbit. The Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), will be able to scan the lunar surface, locate small outcrops of minerals important to base development, support early base operations and undertake detailed geophysical exploration of the whole lunar surface.

  15. Saturn orbiter mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. C.; Sullivan, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the important aspects of missions orbiting the planet Saturn is provided. Orbital missions to Saturn is given serious consideration for the 1980's, or after flybys by Pioneer 10/G and Mariner Jupiter-Saturn 1977. An attempt is made to characterize Saturn orbiters in detail so that comparisons with Jupiter missions can be made. The scientific objectives of Saturn exploration are grouped under four topics: (1) the atmosphere, (2) the magnetosphere, (3) the rings, and (4) the satellites.

  16. Orbital angioleiomyoma: A rare orbital neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Shahid; Subramanian, Nirmala; Koka, Kirthi; Subramanian, Krishnakumar

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient presented with painless progressive proptosis of left eye for the last 20 years. Examination revealed a purplish vascular mass extending from the medial orbital region to the surface of the globe. He underwent complete excision of the mass via an anterior orbitotomy approach. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a diagnosis of angioleiomyoma. No recurrence was noted at 1 year of follow-up. Angioleiomyomas are benign smooth muscle tumors with an additional vascular component. Their occurrence in the orbit is extremely rare with only three cases reported in literature till date. We report a fourth case of angioleiomyoma of the orbit with the longest duration of presentation of 20 years.

  17. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, a Solar-Terrestrial Probe mission comprising of four identically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth's magn...

  18. Orbital Debris: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, Davis S. F. (Editor); Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This chronology covers the 37-year history of orbital debris concerns. It tracks orbital debris hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy. Included are debris-producing, events; U.N. orbital debris treaties, Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; ASAT tests; milestones in theory and modeling; uncontrolled reentries; detection system development; shielding development; geosynchronous debris issues, including reboost policies: returned surfaces studies, seminar papers reports, conferences, and studies; the increasing effect of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  19. Family of Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time.

    All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet.

    Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.

  1. Fractures in Carbonate-Bearing Rocks at Mars Huygens Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-08

    This false-color image NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows that fractures and possible layers are visible in the light-toned rock exposure containing the carbonates. The location is inside an unnamed crater on the uplifted rim of Huygens crater.

  2. [Epidemiology of hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Age- and gender-specific numbers of patients with hip fracture increase with age and peaked at the age 80-84; however, age- and gender-specific incidences increase exponentially with age. According to the recent nation-wide survey, the most common cause of hip fractures was a simple fall, 68.8% sustained fractures in-doors, and the incidences were higher in the winter than the summer period. More than 90% of patients with hip fracture were treated surgically and about 3/4 of patients with femoral neck fractures were treated with hemi-arthroplasty. Hip fractures for Asian people including Japanese are lower than those for Caucasians living in Northern Europe and North America; however, recent reports from the Asian area indicated an increase in the incidence with time.

  3. Dementia and Hip Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Susan M.; Menzies, Isaura B.; Bukata, Susan V.; Mendelson, Daniel A.; Kates, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    Dementia and hip fractures are 2 conditions that are seen primarily in older adults, and both are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. An individual with dementia is up to 3 times more likely than a cognitively intact older adult to sustain a hip fracture. This may occur via several mechanisms, including (1) risk factors that are common to both outcomes; (2) the presence of dementia increasing hip fracture incidence via intermediate risk factors, such as falls, osteoporosis, and vitamin D; and (3) treatment of dementia causing side effects that increase hip fracture risk. We describe a model that applies these 3 mechanisms to explain the relationship between dementia and hip fractures. Comprehensive understanding of these pathways and their relative influence on the outcome of hip fracture will guide the development of effective interventions and potentially improve prevention efforts. PMID:23569663

  4. Dyslipidemia and sternum fracture.

    PubMed

    Can, Cagdas; Gulactı, Umut; Sarıhan, Aydin; Topacoglu, Hakan

    2013-06-01

    Tenderness over the sternum is a clue for possible sternal fracture. Sternal fractures usually occur at the body or manubrium. Lateral chest radiography could detect a sternum fracture, but the diagnosis is usually made by chest tomography. Traumatic sternum fracture considered as a marker of seriously life-threatening, high-energy injury. In hyperlipidemia, oxidized lipids accumulate in vascular tissues and trigger atherosclerosis. Such lipids also deposit in bone tissues where they may promote osteoporosis. In the literature, there is no previously reported traumatic sternal fracture due to hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis. Here, we report a case of a combined mixed type familial hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in which the patient having seat belt on had an unexpected sternum fracture in a low-energy motor vehicle accident.

  5. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stockl, F.; Dolmetsch, A.; Saornil, M; Font, R.; Burnier, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localised tumour composed of cells of myeloid origin. Histological diagnosis can be difficult in patients with poorly differentiated orbital tumours and no evidence of systemic leukaemia. The naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase (Leder stain) and immunohistochemical stains for lysozyme and MAC387 were used to determine the staining characteristics of these tumours. A case series of seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma is presented.
METHODS—Seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma were studied. Haematoxylin and eosin, Leder, and lysozyme stained sections were available in seven cases. Unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of seven cases were available for immunohistochemical evaluation using the avidin-biotin-complex technique for MAC387.
RESULTS—The mean age of presentation of the orbital tumour was 8.8 years. Four patients presented with an orbital tumour before any systemic manifestations of leukaemia. In two cases the diagnosis of the orbital tumour and systemic leukaemia was made simultaneously. There was one case of established systemic myeloid leukaemia in remission with the subsequent development of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. Six of seven cases (86%) were positive for the Leder stain. Five of seven cases (71%) showed positive immunoreactivity with lysozyme. The immunohistochemical stain for MAC387 was positive in all seven cases (100%) including one case that was negative for both lysozyme and Leder stains.
CONCLUSIONS—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a tumour that affects children and can present with rapidly progressive proptosis. This tumour may develop before, during, or after the occurrence of systemic leukaemia. The combination of Leder and lysozyme stains is useful in the diagnosis of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. MAC387 may be a more reliable marker for orbital granulocytic sarcoma.

 PMID:9497470

  6. [Nasal fractures in adults].

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Sannia; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-03-07

    The risk of complications warrants treatment of most dislocated nasal fractures. Other injuries including other facial fractures and septal haematoma must be treated if present at the initial presentation. The usual treatment for a simple nasal fracture is closed reduction in local anaesthesia after five to seven days. Complicated cases require open reduction in general anaesthesia. Later revision of the deviated nose may become necessary in patients suffering from complications such as persistent nasal stenosis and/or deformity.

  7. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization of Fractured Shale Reservoirs with Implications to Hydraulic Fracturing Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.

    2016-12-01

    Shales are important petroleum source rocks and reservoir seals. Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing technology have facilitated high gas production rates from shale and have had a strong impact on the U.S. gas supply and markets. Modeling of effective permeability for fractured shale reservoirs has been challenging because the presence of a fracture network significantly alters the reservoir hydrologic properties. Due to the frequent occurrence of fracture networks, it is of vital importance to characterize fracture networks and to investigate how these networks can be used to optimize the hydraulic fracturing. We have conducted basic research on 3-D fracture permeability characterization and compartmentization analyses for fractured shale formations, which takes the advantages of the discrete fracture networks (DFN). The DFN modeling is a stochastic modeling approach using the probabilistic density functions of fractures. Three common scenarios of DFN models have been studied for fracture permeability mapping using our previously proposed techniques. In DFN models with moderately to highly concentrated fractures, there exists a representative element volume (REV) for fracture permeability characterization, which indicates that the fractured reservoirs can be treated as anisotropic homogeneous media. Hydraulic fracturing will be most effective if the orientation of the hydraulic fracture is perpendicular to the mean direction of the fractures. A DFN model with randomized fracture orientations, on the other hand, lacks an REV for fracture characterization. Therefore, a fracture permeability tensor has to be computed from each element. Modeling of fracture interconnectivity indicates that there exists no preferred direction for hydraulic fracturing to be most effective oweing to the interconnected pathways of the fracture network. 3-D fracture permeability mapping has been applied to the Devonian Chattanooga Shale in Alabama and the results suggest that an

  8. Sphenoid Sinus and Sphenoid Bone Fractures in Patients with Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cantini Ardila, Jorge Ernesto; Mendoza, Miguel Ángel Rivera; Ortega, Viviana Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sphenoid bone fractures and sphenoid sinus fractures have a high morbidity due to its association with high-energy trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe individuals with traumatic injuries from different mechanisms and attempt to determine if there is any relationship between various isolated or combined fractures of facial skeleton and sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus fractures. Methods We retrospectively studied hospital charts of all patients who reported to the trauma center at Hospital de San José with facial fractures from December 2009 to August 2011. All patients were evaluated by computed tomography scan and classified into low-, medium-, and high-energy trauma fractures, according to the classification described by Manson. Design This is a retrospective descriptive study. Results The study data were collected as part of retrospective analysis. A total of 250 patients reported to the trauma center of the study hospital with facial trauma. Thirty-eight patients were excluded. A total of 212 patients had facial fractures; 33 had a combination of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures, and facial fractures were identified within this group (15.5%). Gender predilection was seen to favor males (77.3%) more than females (22.7%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. Orbital fractures (78.8%) and maxillary fractures (57.5%) were found more commonly associated with sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. Conclusions High-energy trauma is more frequently associated with sphenoid fractures when compared with medium- and low-energy trauma. There is a correlation between facial fractures and sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. A more exhaustive multicentric case-control study with a larger sample and additional parameters will be essential to reach definite conclusions regarding the spectrum of fractures of the sphenoid bone associated with facial fractures. PMID:24436756

  9. Facial trauma in a softball player.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brian L; Anan, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Facial trauma frequently results in fracture of the facial bones. A blowout fracture involves the eye orbit and usually transpires when the object hitting the eye (eg, baseball, softball, fist, elbow) is larger than the orbit itself. The mechanism of injury will provide the physician with a clue to the diagnosis. Prompt recognition of any significant complications, proper imaging, and referral to an ophthalmology specialist are usually required. Facial reconstruction by a plastic surgeon may also be necessary.

  10. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  11. Pediatric Hand Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nellans, Kate W.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pediatric hand fractures are common childhood injuries. Identification of the fractures in the emergency room setting can be challenging owing to the physes and incomplete ossification of the carpus that are not revealed in the xrays. Most simple fractures can be treated with appropriate immobilization through buddy taping, finger splints, or casting. If correctly diagnosed, reduced and immobilized, these fractures usually result in excellent clinical outcomes. However, fractures may require operative stabilization if they have substantial angulation or rotation, extend into the joint, or cannot be held in a reduced position with splinting alone. Most fractures can be treated operatively with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning if addressed within the first week following the injury. In children, the thick, vascular-rich periosteum and bony remodeling potential make anatomic reductions and internal fixation rarely necessary. Most fractures complete bony healing in 3-4 weeks, with the scaphoid being a notable exception. Following immobilization, children rarely develop hand stiffness and formal occupational therapy is usually not necessary. Despite the high potential for excellent outcomes in pediatric hand fractures, some fractures remain difficult to diagnose and treat. PMID:24209954

  12. Natural fracture systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this program are (1) to develop a basinal-analysis methodology for natural fracture exploration and exploitation, and (2) to determine the important characteristics of natural fracture systems for use in completion, stimulation, and production operations. Natural-fracture basinal analysis begins with studies of fractures in outcrop, core and logs in order to determine the type of fracturing and the relationship of the fractures to the lithologic environment. Of particular interest are the regional fracture systems that are pervasive in western US tight sand basins. A Methodology for applying this analysis is being developed, with the goal of providing a structure for rationally characterizing natural fracture systems basin-wide. Such basin-wide characterizations can then be expanded and supplemented locally, at sites where production may be favorable. Initial application of this analysis is to the Piceance basin where there is a wealth of data from the Multiwell Experiment (MWX), DOE cooperative wells, and other basin studies conducted by Sandia, CER Corporation, and the USGS (Lorenz and Finley, 1989, Lorenz et aI., 1989, and Spencer and Keighin, 1984). Such a basinal approach has been capable of explaining the fracture characteristics found throughout the southern part of the Piceance basin and along the Grand Hogback.

  13. Hip fracture after hemiplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Mulley, G.; Espley, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    In a series of 57 hemiplegic patients who subsequently fractured their hips, it was found that hip fracture occurred significantly more often on the hemiplegic side. Hip fracture was equally common in right- and left-sided hemiplegia, and often occurred within one year of the stroke. Two factors seem to be important in the genesis of hip fractures in hemiplegic patients: the tendency of stroke patients to fall to the affected side as a result of impaired locomotor function, and the development of disuse osteoporosis in the hemiplegic limb. PMID:471862

  14. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    PubMed

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  15. [Chondral and osteochondral fractures].

    PubMed

    Kayaoğlu, E Esin; Binnet, Mehmet S

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic chondral and osteochondral fractures and their role in the development of joint degeneration are not fully elucidated. While assessing traumatic knee injuries, one important criterion for the diagnosis of chondral fractures is to remember the possibility of a chondral or osteochondral fracture. Symptoms in osteochondral fractures are more obvious and cause severe pain and difficulty in movement of knee with hemarthrosis. The presence of hemarthrosis facilitates the diagnosis of an osteochondral fracture. Chondral and osteochondral fractures may be associated with other intra-articular pathologies. There are two main mechanisms of these fractures, including a direct effect causing avulsion or impaction and, a more common mechanism, flexion-rotation force to the knee, which is also the mechanism for an acute patellar dislocation. It is known that arthroscopic treatment is the best method for the diagnosis and treatment of chondral and osteochondral fractures. In osteochondral lesions, the aim of treatment is to restore the congruity of articular surfaces. In agreement with literature data, our clinical experience favors internal fixation as the most effective method for the treatment of osteochondral fractures.

  16. Assessment of Fracture Repair.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gillian E; Bates, Brent D; Tornetta, Paul; McKee, Michael D; Morshed, Saam; Slobogean, Gerard P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of fracture union is a critical concept in clinical orthopaedics; however, there is no established "gold standard" for fracture healing. This review provides an overview of the problems related to the assessment of fracture healing, examines currently available tools to determine union, discusses the role of functional outcomes in the assessment of fracture healing, and finally evaluates healing outcome measures as they pertain to fracture trials. Because there is no universally accepted method to determine fracture healing, orthopaedic surgeons must rely on a range of tools that can include: radiographic assessment, mechanical assessment, serologic markers, and clinical evaluation (including functional outcomes). When used in conjunction, these tools can help to improve the sensitivity and specificity of determining fracture union. This is furthermore relevant when conducting fracture healing trials, for which there is little consensus between surgeons or the Food and Drug Administration as to optimal study endpoints. Such studies should therefore include a composite outcome measure consisting of radiographic and functional assessments to increase the quality and consistency of fracture healing trials.

  17. SEGMENTAL CLAVICLE FRACTURE

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Evander Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    The aim here was to present an unusual case of segmental clavicle fracture associated with ipsilateral rib fracture. Although the clavicle is very superficial, undetected cases of both types of fracture may occur, because these patients usually suffer multiple trauma. The case of a patient with a fracture of the diaphysis and lateral extremity of the clavicle is described: the patient was treated surgically and an excellent result was achieved. Similar cases in the literature are reviewed and their management is discussed. PMID:27047835

  18. Delayed Development of Brain Abscesses Following Stent-Graft Placement in a Head and Neck Cancer Patient Presenting with Carotid Blowout Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Oweis, Yaseen; Gemmete, Joseph J. Chaudhary, Neeraj; Pandey, Aditya; Ansari, Sameer

    2011-02-15

    We describe the delayed development of intracranial abscesses following emergent treatment with a covered stent-graft for carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) in a patient with head and neck cancer. The patient presented with hemoptysis and frank arterial bleeding through the tracheostomy site. A self-expandable stent-graft was deployed across a small pseudoaneurysm arising from the right common carotid artery (RCCA) and resulted in immediate hemostasis. Three months later, the patient suffered a recurrent hemorrhage. CT of the neck demonstrated periluminal fluid around the caudal aspect of the stent-graft with intraluminal thrombus and a small pseudoaneurysm. Subsequently, the patient underwent a balloon test occlusion study and endovascular sacrifice of the RCCA and right internal carotid artery. MRI of the brain demonstrated at least four ring-enhancing lesions within the right cerebral hemisphere consistent with intracranial abscesses that resolved with broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage.

  19. Statistical initial orbit determination

    SciTech Connect

    Taff, L.G.; Belkin, B.; Schweiter, G.A.; Sommar, K. D.H. Wagner Associates, Inc., Paoli, PA )

    1992-02-01

    For the ballistic missile initial orbit determination problem in particular, the concept of 'launch folders' is extended. This allows to decouple the observational data from the initial orbit determination problem per se. The observational data is only used to select among the possible orbital element sets in the group of folders. Monte Carlo simulations using up to 7200 orbital element sets are described. The results are compared to the true orbital element set and the one a good radar would have been able to produce if collocated with the optical sensor. The simplest version of the new method routinely outperforms the radar initial orbital element set by a factor of two in future miss distance. In addition, not only can a differentially corrected orbital element set be produced via this approach - after only two measurements of direction - but also an updated, meaningful, six-dimensional covariance array for it can be calculated. This technique represents a significant advance in initial orbit determination for this problem, and the concept can easily be extended to minor planets and artificial satellites. 9 refs.

  20. Orbiting Rainbows Simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-22

    This simulated image shows how a cloud of glitter in geostationary orbit would be illuminated and controlled by two laser beams. As the cloud orbits Earth, grains scatter the sun's light at different angles like many tiny prisms, similar to how rainbows are produced from light being dispersed by water droplets. That is why the project concept is called "Orbiting Rainbows." The cloud functions like a reflective surface, allowing the exoplanet (displayed in the bottom right) to be imaged. The orbit path is shown in the top right. On the bottom left, Earth's image is seen behind the cloud. To image an exoplanet, the cloud would need to have a diameter of nearly 98 feet (30 meters). This simulation confines the cloud to a 3.3 x 3.3 x 3.3 foot volume (1 x 1 x 1 meter volume) to simplify the computations. The elements of the orbiting telescope are not to scale. Orbiting Rainbows is currently in Phase II development through the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program. It was one of five technology proposals chosen for continued study in 2014. In the current phase, Orbiting Rainbows researchers are conducting small-scale ground experiments to demonstrate how granular materials can be manipulated using lasers and simulations of how the imaging system would behave in orbit. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19318