Science.gov

Sample records for orbital population analysis

  1. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  2. Orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  3. Analysis of Bonding between Conjugated Organic Molecules and Noble Metal Surfaces Using Orbital Overlap Populations.

    PubMed

    Rangger, Gerold M; Romaner, Lorenz; Hofmann, Oliver T; Heimel, Georg; Ramsey, Michael G; Zojer, Egbert

    2010-11-09

    The electronic structure of metal-organic interfaces is of paramount importance for the properties of organic electronic and single-molecule devices. Here, we use so-called orbital overlap populations derived from slab-type band-structure calculations to analyze the covalent contribution to the bonding between an adsorbate layer and a metal. Using two prototypical molecules, the strong acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) on Ag(111) and the strong donor 1H,1'H-[4,4']bipyridinylidene (HV0) on Au(111), we present overlap populations as particularly versatile tools for describing the metal-organic interaction. Going beyond traditional approaches, in which overlap populations are represented in an atomic orbital basis, we also explore the use of a molecular orbital basis to gain significant additional insight. On the basis of the derived quantities, it is possible to identify the parts of the molecules responsible for the bonding and to analyze which of the molecular orbitals and metal bands most strongly contribute to the interaction and where on the energy scale they interact in bonding or antibonding fashion.

  4. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) Population Analysis, First Order Hyperpolarizabilities and Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Rubarani P; Krishnan, S Sampath

    2015-06-01

    The molecular structure of cyclohexanone was calculated by the B3LYP density functional model with 6-31G(d, p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian program. The results from natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis have been analyzed in terms of the hybridization of atoms and the electronic structure of the title molecule. The electron density based local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions were calculated. The dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (a), anisotropy polarizability (Δα) and first order hyperpolarizability (β(tot)) of the molecule have been reported. Thermodynamic properties of the title compound were calculated at different temperatures.

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  6. Modeling of LEO orbital debris populations for ORDEM2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J.-C.; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

    2009-03-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM2000, is in the process of being updated to a new version: ORDEM2008. The data-driven ORDEM covers a spectrum of object size from 10 μm to greater than 1 m, and ranging from LEO (low Earth orbit) to GEO (geosynchronous orbit) altitude regimes. ORDEM2008 centimeter-sized populations are statistically derived from Haystack and HAX (the Haystack Auxiliary) radar data, while micron-sized populations are estimated from shuttle impact records. Each of the model populations consists of a large number of orbits with specified orbital elements, the number of objects on each orbit (with corresponding uncertainty), and the size, type, and material assignment for each object. This paper describes the general methodology and procedure commonly used in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2008 LEO debris populations. Major steps in the population derivations include data analysis, reference-population construction, definition of model parameters in terms of reference populations, linking model parameters with data, seeking best estimates for the model parameters, uncertainty analysis, and assessment of the outcomes. To demonstrate the population-derivation process and to validate the Bayesian statistical model applied in the population derivations throughout, this paper uses illustrative examples for the special cases of large-size (>1 m, >32 cm, and >10 cm) populations that are tracked by SSN (the Space Surveillance Network) and also monitored by Haystack and HAX radars operating in a staring mode.

  7. Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, D. Phillip

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.

  8. Exploratory orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  9. Viking orbiter attitude control analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two Viking orbiters are currently in Mars orbit. In the nearly two years since they were launched, the orbiters have successfully performed many functions including transportation of the Viking landers to Mars. The orbiters have for the last year provided relay links for lander-earth communications, and they have carried out from orbit their own scientific exploration of the planet. Crucial to the success of the orbiters has been the performance of the on-board attitude control system, which has provided the required orbiter stabilization and orientation throughout the missions. A comprehensive spacecraft and attitude control system dynamic analysis was necessary to certify the control system before launch and to evaluate its flight performance. This paper contains an outline of the analysis and of some of its results.

  10. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    LRO definitive and predictive accuracy requirements were easily met in the nominal mission orbit, using the LP150Q lunar gravity model. center dot Accuracy of the LP150Q model is poorer in the extended mission elliptical orbit. center dot Later lunar gravity models, in particular GSFC-GRAIL-270, improve OD accuracy in the extended mission. center dot Implementation of a constrained plane when the orbit is within 45 degrees of the Earth-Moon line improves cross-track accuracy. center dot Prediction accuracy is still challenged during full-Sun periods due to coarse spacecraft area modeling - Implementation of a multi-plate area model with definitive attitude input can eliminate prediction violations. - The FDF is evaluating using analytic and predicted attitude modeling to improve full-Sun prediction accuracy. center dot Comparison of FDF ephemeris file to high-precision ephemeris files provides gross confirmation that overlap compares properly assess orbit accuracy.

  11. Study of Electron Delocalization in 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-Azaborines Based on the Canonical Molecular Orbital Contributions to the Induced Magnetic Field and Polyelectron Population Analysis.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Anastasios G; Charistos, Nickolas D; Kyriakidou, Katerina; Sigalas, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The electron delocalization in 1,2-azaborine, 1,3-azaborine, and 1,4-azaborine is studied using canonical molecular orbital contributions to the induced magnetic field (CMO-IMF) method and polyelectron population analysis (PEPA). Contour maps of the out-of-plane component of the induced magnetic field (Bz(ind)) of the π system show that the three azaborines, in contrast with borazine, sustain much of benzene's π-aromatic character. Among them, 1,3-azaborine exhibits the strongest π delocalization, while 1,4-azaborine is the weakest. Contour maps of Bz(ind) for individual π orbitals reveal that the differentiation of the magnetic response among the three isomers originates from the π-HOMO orbitals, whose magnetic response is governed by rotational allowed transitions to unoccupied orbitals. The low symmetry of azaborines enables a paratropic response from HOMO to unoccupied orbitals excitations, with their magnitude depending on the shape of interacting orbitals. 1,3-Azaborine presents negligible paratropic contributions to Bz(ind) from HOMO to unoccupied orbitals transitions, where 1,2- and 1,4-azaborine present substantial paratropic contributions, which lead to reduced diatropic response. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis employing PEPA shows that only the 1,3-azaborine contains π-electron fully delocalized resonance structures.

  12. Value analysis for orbital debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Leonard; Mense, Allan

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents methods for deriving first order monetary benefits from removing individual debris objects in high value sun-synchronous orbits. These analyses are intended to serve as an economic metric by which competing debris removal methods can be evaluated. Orbital debris flux level estimates from NASA’s updated ORDEM2000 model are used to establish small debris population estimates. When combined with the replacement cost of satellites in sun-synchronous orbit, the present value of removing individual small (0.5 cm-2.0 cm) objects from orbit is derived. Large object removal value is more complicated due to the necessity of incorporating effects of impact fragmentation observed with any object about 10 cm or larger. Breakup models published by NASA (Johnson, N.L., Krisko, P.H., Liou, J.C., Anz-Meador, P.D. NASA’s new breakup model of evolve 4.0. Adv. Space Res. 28 (9), 1377-1384, 2001.) provide a basis for establishing fragmentation statistics. Assuming the current population of operational sun-synchronous satellites, removal value is then derived via present value analysis.

  13. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the orbital maneuvering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prust, C. D.; Paul, D. J.; Burkemper, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) hardware are documented. The OMS provides the thrust to perform orbit insertion, orbit circularization, orbit transfer, rendezvous, and deorbit. The OMS is housed in two independent pods located one on each side of the tail and consists of the following subsystems: Helium Pressurization; Propellant Storage and Distribution; Orbital Maneuvering Engine; and Electrical Power Distribution and Control. The IOA analysis process utilized available OMS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluted and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was asigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  14. On-Orbit Software Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne I.

    2004-01-01

    The On-Orbit Software Analysis Research Infusion Project was done by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC). The Project was a joint collaborative effort between NASA Codes IC and SL, Kestrel Technology (Kestrel), and Intrinsyx. The primary objectives of the Project were: Discovery and verification of software program properties and dependencies, Detection and isolation of software defects across different versions of software, and Compilation of historical data and technical expertise for future applications

  15. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  16. Surgical Outcomes of Balanced Deep Lateral and Medial Orbital Wall Decompression in Korean Population: Clinical and Computed Tomography-based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Uk; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression and to estimate surgical effects using computed tomography (CT) images in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods Retrospective chart review was conducted in TAO patients with exophthalmos who underwent balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression. Exophthalmos was measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 and 3 months. Postoperative complications were evaluated in all study periods. In addition, decompressed bone volume was estimated using CT images. Thereafter, decompression volume in each decompressed orbital wall was analyzed to evaluate the surgical effect and predictability. Results Twenty-four patients (48 orbits) with an average age of 34.08 ± 7.03 years were evaluated. The mean preoperative and postoperative exophthalmos at 1 and 3 months was 18.91 ± 1.43, 15.10 ± 1.53, and 14.91 ± 1.49 mm, respectively. Bony decompression volume was 0.80 ± 0.29 cm3 at the medial wall and 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3 at the deep lateral wall. Postoperative complications included strabismus (one patient, 2.08%), upper eyelid fold change (four patients, 8.33%), and dysesthesia (four patients, 8.33%). Postsurgical exophthalmos reduction was more highly correlated with the deep lateral wall than the medial wall. Conclusions In TAO patients with exophthalmos, balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression is a good surgical method with a low-risk of complications. In addition, deep lateral wall decompression has higher surgical predictability than medial wall decompression, as seen with CT analysis. PMID:27051255

  17. Collisional cascading - The limits of population growth in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Random collisions between made-made objects in earth orbit will lead to a significant source of orbital debris, but there are a number of uncertainties in these models, and additional analysis and data are required to fully characterize the future environment. However, the nature of these uncertainties are such that while the future environment is uncertain, the fact that collisions will control the future environment is less uncertain. The data that already exist is sufficient to show that cascading collisions will control the future debris environment with no, or very minor increases in the current low-earth-orbit population. Two populations control this process: explosion fragments and expended rocket bodies and payloads. Practices are already changing to limit explosions in low earth orbit; it is necessary to begin limiting the number of expended rocket bodies and payloads in orbit.

  18. Secondary impact generated particles: implications for the orbital debris population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Rival, M.; Alby, F.

    1999-01-01

    Every time a debris or a meteoroid hits a part of a satellite in orbit, a great amount of secondary particles is ejected in the neighborhood of the impact site. This phenomenon is important for brittle materials, such as used for solar generators. The secondary particles that do not impact other parts of the spacecraft are added to the primary debris population and increase the small debris flux. We present an ejecta production model that gives the size and the velocity distribution of ejected particles as a function of primary impact parameters. We derive the parameters of all ejecta created during one orbital revolution of a satellite. An orbital evolution program is used to extrapolate the secondary debris position at later times. Preliminary results show that spall fragments ejected at low velocities remain in the vicinity of the parent satellite. The ejecta trajectories are similar and their inclination is very close to those of the parent satellite. Their orbital evolution depends mainly on the size of the debris and on the altitude of the parent body: the smallest particles in low earth orbit quickly reenter the earth atmosphere, while the largest spalls have a very slow decay. The antagonistic action of debris production and debris decay by drag leads to an equilibrium for particles within a given size range. Quantitative results on densities and fluxes compared to the primary debris population are presented for the peculiar case of heliosynchronous orbits.

  19. Analysis of initial orbit determination accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vananti, Alessandro; Schildknecht, Thomas

    The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) is conducting several search campaigns for orbital debris. The debris objects are discovered during systematic survey observations. In general only a short observation arc, or tracklet, is available for most of these objects. From this discovery tracklet a first orbit determination is computed in order to be able to find the object again in subsequent follow-up observations. The additional observations are used in the orbit improvement process to obtain accurate orbits to be included in a catalogue. In this paper, the accuracy of the initial orbit determination is analyzed. This depends on a number of factors: tracklet length, number of observations, type of orbit, astrometric error, and observation geometry. The latter is characterized by both the position of the object along its orbit and the location of the observing station. Different positions involve different distances from the target object and a different observing angle with respect to its orbital plane and trajectory. The present analysis aims at optimizing the geometry of the discovery observations depending on the considered orbit.

  20. Space Shuttle Orbiter windshield bird impact analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Karen S.; Mccarty, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter's windshield employs three glass panes separated by air gaps. The brittleness of the glass offers much less birdstrike energy-absorption capability than the laminated polycarbonate windshields of more conventional aircraft; attention must accordingly be given to the risk of catastrophic bird impact, and to methods of strike prevention that address bird populations around landing sites rather than the modification of the window's design. Bird populations' direct reduction, as well as careful scheduling of Orbiter landing times, are suggested as viable alternatives. The question of birdstrike-resistant glass windshield design for hypersonic aerospacecraft is discussed.

  1. Disentangling satellite galaxy populations using orbit tracking in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Kyle A.; Hudson, Michael J.; Behroozi, Peter S.

    2013-05-01

    Physical processes regulating star formation in satellite galaxies represent an area of ongoing research, but the projected nature of observed coordinates makes separating different populations of satellites (with different processes at work) difficult. The orbital history of a satellite galaxy leads to its present-day phase space coordinates; we can also work backwards and use these coordinates to statistically infer information about the orbital history. We use merger trees from the MultiDark Run 1 N-body simulation to compile a catalogue of the orbits of satellite haloes in cluster environments. We parametrize the orbital history by the time since crossing within 2.5 rvir of the cluster centre and use our catalogue to estimate the probability density over a range of this parameter given a set of present-day projected (i.e. observable) phase space coordinates. We show that different populations of satellite haloes, e.g. infalling, backsplash and virialized, occupy distinct regions of phase space and semidistinct regions of projected phase space. This will allow us to probabilistically determine the time since infall of a large sample of observed satellite galaxies, and ultimately to study the effect of orbital history on star formation history (the topic of a future paper). We test the accuracy of our method and find that we can reliably recover this time within ±2.58 Gyr in 68 per cent of cases by using all available phase space coordinate information, compared to ±2.64 Gyr using only position coordinates and ±3.10 Gyr guessing `blindly', i.e. using no coordinate information, but with knowledge of the overall distribution of infall times. In some regions of phase space, the accuracy of the infall time estimate improves to ±1.85 Gyr. Although we focus on time since infall, our method is easily generalizable to other orbital parameters (e.g. pericentric distance and time).

  2. Statistical Estimation of Orbital Debris Populations with a Spectrum of Object Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu-Lin; Horstman, Matthew; Krisko, Paula; Liou, J.-C.; Matney, Mark; Stansbery, Eugene; Stokely, Christopher; Whitlock, David

    Orbital debris is a real concern for the safe operations of satellites. In general, the hazard of debris impact is a function of the size and spatial distributions of the debris populations. To describe and characterize the debris environment as reliably as possible, the current NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2000) is being upgraded to a new version based on new and better-quality data. The data-driven ORDEM model covers a wide range of object sizes from 10 microns to greater than 1 meter. This paper reviews the statistical process for the estimation of the debris populations in the new ORDEM upgrade, and discusses the representation of large-size (≥1 m and ≥10 cm) populations by SSN catalog objects and the validation of the statistical approach. Also, it presents results for the populations with sizes of ≥3.3 cm, ≥1 cm, ≥100 µm, and ≥10 µm. The orbital debris populations used in the new version of ORDEM are inferred from data based upon appropriate reference (or benchmark) populations instead of the binning of the multi-dimensional orbital-element space. This paper describes all of the major steps used in the population-inference procedure for each size-range. Detailed discussions on data analysis, parameter definition, the correlation between parameters and data, and uncertainty assessment are included.

  3. Statistical Estimation of Orbital Debris Populations with a Spectrum of Object Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. -l; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J. -C; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital debris is a real concern for the safe operations of satellites. In general, the hazard of debris impact is a function of the size and spatial distributions of the debris populations. To describe and characterize the debris environment as reliably as possible, the current NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2000) is being upgraded to a new version based on new and better quality data. The data-driven ORDEM model covers a wide range of object sizes from 10 microns to greater than 1 meter. This paper reviews the statistical process for the estimation of the debris populations in the new ORDEM upgrade, and discusses the representation of large-size (greater than or equal to 1 m and greater than or equal to 10 cm) populations by SSN catalog objects and the validation of the statistical approach. Also, it presents results for the populations with sizes of greater than or equal to 3.3 cm, greater than or equal to 1 cm, greater than or equal to 100 micrometers, and greater than or equal to 10 micrometers. The orbital debris populations used in the new version of ORDEM are inferred from data based upon appropriate reference (or benchmark) populations instead of the binning of the multi-dimensional orbital-element space. This paper describes all of the major steps used in the population-inference procedure for each size-range. Detailed discussions on data analysis, parameter definition, the correlation between parameters and data, and uncertainty assessment are included.

  4. Modeling of the Orbital Debris Population of RORSAT Sodium-Potassium Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Krisko, P. H.; Matney, Mark; Stansbery, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    A large population resident in the orbital debris environment is composed of eutectic sodium-potassium (NaK) droplets, released during the reactor core ejection of 16 nuclear-powered Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellites (RORSATs) launched in the 1980s by the former Soviet Union. These electrically conducting RORSAT debris objects are spherical in shape, generating highly polarized radar returns. Their diameters are mostly in the centimeter and millimeter size regimes. Since the Space Surveillance Network catalog is limited to objects greater than 5 cm in low Earth orbit, our current knowledge about this special class of orbital debris relies largely on the analysis of Haystack radar data. This paper elaborates the simulation of the RORSAT debris populations in the new NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM2010, which replaces ORDEM2000. The estimation of the NaK populations uses the NASA NaK-module as a benchmark. It follows the general statistical approach to developing all other ORDEM2010-required LEO populations (for various types of debris and across a wide range of object sizes). This paper describes, in detail, each major step in the NaK-population derivation, including a specific discussion on the conversion between Haystack-measured radar-cross-sections and object-size distribution for the NaK droplets. Modeling results show that the RORSAT debris population is stable for the time period under study and that Haystack data sets are fairly consistent over the observations of multiple years.

  5. Theoretical analysis (NBO, NPA, Mulliken Population Method) and molecular orbital studies (hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity and Fukui function analysis) of (E)-2-((4-hydroxy-2-methylphenylimino)methyl)-3-methoxyphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demircioğlu, Zeynep; Kaştaş, Çiğdem Albayrak; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2015-07-01

    The molecular structure and spectroscopic properties of (E)-2-((4-hydroxy-2-methylphenylimino)methyl)-3-methoxyphenol, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. All of theoretical calculations and optimized geometric parameters have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) with hybrid method B3LYP by 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The title compound of C15H15N1O3 have been analyzed according to electronic and energetics behaviors for enol-imine and keto-amine tautomers. Both these tautomers engender six-membered ring due to intramolecular hydrogen bonded interactions. Two types of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (a) strong O-H⋯N interactions in enol-imine form and (b) N-H⋯O interactions in keto-amine form are compared particularly. The theoretical vibrational frequencies have been found in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. A study on the electronic and optical properties, absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbital energies are performed using DFT method. Additionally, geometry optimizations in solvent media were performed with the same level of theory by the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The effect of solvents on the tautomeric stability has been investigated. Mulliken Population Method and natural population analysis (NPA) have been studied. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the charge transfer between the localized bonds and lone pairs. The local reactivity of the molecule has been studied using the Fukui function. NLO properties related to polarizability and hyperpolarizability are also discussed.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  7. Stochastic Analysis of Orbital Lifetimes of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasamoto, Washito; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses (1) a Monte-Carlo-based methodology for probabilistic prediction and analysis of orbital lifetimes of spacecraft and (2) Orbital Lifetime Monte Carlo (OLMC)--a Fortran computer program, consisting of a previously developed long-term orbit-propagator integrated with a Monte Carlo engine. OLMC enables modeling of variances of key physical parameters that affect orbital lifetimes through the use of probability distributions. These parameters include altitude, speed, and flight-path angle at insertion into orbit; solar flux; and launch delays. The products of OLMC are predicted lifetimes (durations above specified minimum altitudes) for the number of user-specified cases. Histograms generated from such predictions can be used to determine the probabilities that spacecraft will satisfy lifetime requirements. The document discusses uncertainties that affect modeling of orbital lifetimes. Issues of repeatability, smoothness of distributions, and code run time are considered for the purpose of establishing values of code-specific parameters and number of Monte Carlo runs. Results from test cases are interpreted as demonstrating that solar-flux predictions are primary sources of variations in predicted lifetimes. Therefore, it is concluded, multiple sets of predictions should be utilized to fully characterize the lifetime range of a spacecraft.

  8. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  9. Subsatellite Orbital Analysis Program (SOAP) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. G.; Voss, J. M.; Gibson, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The features and use of the subsatellite operational analysis are examined. The model simulates several Earth-orbiting vehicles, their pilots, control systems, and interaction with the environment. The use of the program, input and output capabilities, executive structures, and properties of the vehicles and environmental effects which it models are described.

  10. Analytic closed orbit analysis for RHIC insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y. . Dept. of Physics); Tepikian, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Analytic closed orbit analysis is performed to evaluate the tolerance of quadrupole misalignment and dipole errors (b{sub 0},a{sub 0}) in the RHIC insertion. Sensitivity coefficients of these errors are tabulated for different {beta}{sup 0} values. Using these sensitivity tables, we found that the power supplies ripple of 10{sup {minus}4} can cause closed orbit motion of 0.05 mm at the IP in comparison with the rms beam size of 0.3 mm. It is desirable to have the power supply ripple less than 10{sup {minus}5}. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Characterizing the population of Asteroids in Cometary Orbits (ACOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; Licandro, Javier; Alí-Lagoa, Victor; Martino, Silvia; Vieira Monteiro, Filipe; Silva, Jose Sergio; Lazzaro, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    The classification criterion between asteroids and comets has evolved in recent decades, but the main phenomenological distinction remains unchanged: comets are active objects as they present gas and dust ejection from the surface at some point of their orbits, while asteroids are inert objects as they do not show any kind of large scale gas and dust ejection.To identify the transitional objects several classification schemes based on the orbital elements have been used. They are usually based on the Tisserand’s parameter (TJ). Tancredi (2014) presents a much more restrictive criterion to identify ACOs that ensured that the objects have a dynamical evolution similar to the population of periodic comets. After applying the criteriaa to the sample of over half a million asteroids already discovered, we obtain 316 ACOs that are further classified in subclasses similar to the cometary classification: 203 objects belong to the Jupiter Family group; 72 objects are classified as Centaurs; and 56 objects have Halley Type Orbits (also known as Damocloids). These are the best-known extinct/dormant comets candidates from a dynamical point of view.We study the physical properties of this sample of ACOs. Two results will be presented:- We look for the ACOs detected by the NASA’s WISE and by fitting a thermal model to their observations, we derive: the effective diameter, beaming parameter and the visible geometric albedo, using the method described in Al-Lagoa et al (2013). We obtain these parameters for 37 of 203 ACOs in JFC orbits and 13 of 56 Damocloids. We also compute the Cumulative Size Distribution (CSDs) of these populations and compare them with the CSDs of JF Comets and Centaurs.- We have been monitoring the observable ACOs since 12/2014 up to 06/2015. Every other month we select all the ACOs with elongations >90deg and estimated magnitudes V<21. We try to observe them with the 1m IMPACTON telescope of the Observatório Astronômico do Sertão de Itaparica (OASI

  12. Closed orbit related problems: Correction, feedback, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, E.S.

    1995-02-01

    Orbit correction - moving the orbit to a desired orbit, orbit stability - keeping the orbit on the desired orbit using feedback to filter out unwanted noise, and orbit analysis - to learn more about the model of the machine, are strongly interrelated. They are the three facets of the same problem. The better one knows the model of the machine, the better the predictions that can be made on the behavior of the machine (inverse modeling) and the more accurately one can control the machine. On the other hand, one of the tools to learn more about the machine (modeling) is to study and analyze the orbit response to {open_quotes}kicks.{close_quotes}

  13. Topological analysis of chaotic orbits: Revisiting Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Patricia T.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.; Gilmore, Robert; Solari, Hernan G.

    1994-01-01

    There is emerging interest in the possibility of chaotic evolution in astrophysical systems. To mention just one example, recent well-sampled ground-based observations of the Saturian satellite Hyperion strongly suggest that it is exhibiting chaotic behavior. We present a general technique, the method of close returns, for the analysis of data from astronomical objects believed to be exhibiting chaotic motion. The method is based on the extraction of pieces of the evolution that exhibit nearly periodic behavior-episodes during which the object stays near in phase space to some unstable periodic orbit. Such orbits generally act as skeletal features, tracing the topological organization of the manifold on which the chaotic dynamics takes place. This method does not require data sets as lengthy as other nonlinear analysis techniques do and is therefore well suited to many astronomical observing programs. Well sampled data covering between twenty and forty characteristic periods of the system have been found to be sufficient for the application of this technique. Additional strengths of this method are its robustness in the presence of noise and the ability for a user to clearly distinguish between periodic, random, and chaotic behavior by inspection of the resulting two-dimensional image. As an example of its power, we analyze close returns in a numerically generated data set, based on a model for Hyperion extensively studied in the literature, corresponding to nightly observations of the satellite. We show that with a small data set, embedded unstable periodic orbits can be extracted and that these orbits can be responsible for nearly periodic behavior lasting a substantial fraction of the observing run.

  14. OASIS - ORBIT ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software, OASIS, is a software system developed for covariance and simulation analyses of problems involving earth satellites, especially the Global Positioning System (GPS). It provides a flexible, versatile and efficient accuracy analysis tool for earth satellite navigation and GPS-based geodetic studies. To make future modifications and enhancements easy, the system is modular, with five major modules: PATH/VARY, REGRES, PMOD, FILTER/SMOOTHER, and OUTPUT PROCESSOR. PATH/VARY generates satellite trajectories. Among the factors taken into consideration are: 1) the gravitational effects of the planets, moon and sun; 2) space vehicle orientation and shapes; 3) solar pressure; 4) solar radiation reflected from the surface of the earth; 5) atmospheric drag; and 6) space vehicle gas leaks. The REGRES module reads the user's input, then determines if a measurement should be made based on geometry and time. PMOD modifies a previously generated REGRES file to facilitate various analysis needs. FILTER/SMOOTHER is especially suited to a multi-satellite precise orbit determination and geodetic-type problems. It can be used for any situation where parameters are simultaneously estimated from measurements and a priori information. Examples of nonspacecraft areas of potential application might be Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) geodesy and radio source catalogue studies. OUTPUT PROCESSOR translates covariance analysis results generated by FILTER/SMOOTHER into user-desired easy-to-read quantities, performs mapping of orbit covariances and simulated solutions, transforms results into different coordinate systems, and computes post-fit residuals. The OASIS program was developed in 1986. It is designed to be implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer using VAX VMS 3.7 or higher. It can also be implemented on a Micro VAX II provided sufficient disk space is available.

  15. Spacecraft Orbital Debris Reentry: Aerothermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, Wm. C.; Kinsey, Robin E.; Reid, Ethan A.; Reynolds, Robert C.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    1997-01-01

    In the past 40 years, thousands of objects have been placed in Earth orbit and are being tracked. Space hardware reentry survivability must be evaluated to assess risks to human life and property on the ground. The objective of this paper is to present results of a study to determine altitude of demise (burn-up) or survivability of reentering objects. Two NASA/JSC computer codes - Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) and Miniature ORSAT (MORSAT) were used to determine trajectories, aerodynamic aerothermal environment, and thermal response of selected spacecraft components. The methodology of the two codes is presented, along with results of a parametric study of reentering objects modeled as spheres and cylinders. Parameters varied included mass, diameter, wall thickness, ballistic coefficient, length, type of material, and mode of tumbling/spinning. Two fragments of a spent Delta second stage undergoing orbital decay, stainless steel cylindrical propellant tank and titanium pressurization sphere, were evaluated with ORSAT and found to survive entry, as did the actual objects. Also, orbital decay reentry predictions of the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) aluminum and nickel box-type components and the Russian COSMOS 954 satellite beryllium cylinders were made with MORSAT. These objects were also shown to survive reentry.

  16. Orion Orbit Control Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Gonzalez, Rodolfo; Sims, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of candidate thruster configurations for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is presented. Six candidate configurations were considered for the prime contractor baseline design. The analysis included analytical assessments of control authority, control precision, efficiency and robustness, as well as simulation assessments of control performance. The principles used in the analytic assessments of controllability, robustness and fuel performance are covered and results provided for the configurations assessed. Simulation analysis was conducted using a pulse width modulated, 6 DOF reaction system control law with a simplex-based thruster selection algorithm. Control laws were automatically derived from hardware configuration parameters including thruster locations, directions, magnitude and specific impulse, as well as vehicle mass properties. This parameterized controller allowed rapid assessment of multiple candidate layouts. Simulation results are presented for final phase rendezvous and docking, as well as low lunar orbit attitude hold. Finally, on-going analysis to consider alternate Service Module designs and to assess the pilot-ability of the baseline design are discussed to provide a status of orbit control design work to date.

  17. Female and male orbit asymmetry: Digital analysis.

    PubMed

    Lepich, Tomasz; Dąbek, Józefa; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Bajor, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Standard anthropometric methods applied to measurements of the skull differentials are laden with mistakes stemming from the way the measuring devices are built and from a lack of experience on the part of the researchers. To increase objectivity, digital imaging measurements via computer systems were introduced. The aim of this research was to assess the asymmetry of the male and female orbit with the application of the new graphic methods: raster graphics and vector graphics. The examination was conducted on 184 well-preserved skulls. The photos were taken by a digital camera with high definition. Orbit asymmetry was examined by determining the distance between the centers of gravity of both orbits and the frontal median line d1 and d2. Then angles α and β were appointed. They are defined as angles between the line that runs through craniometrical points mf and ek on the right side (angle α) and on the left side (angle β), and the frontal median line at their crossing point. Distances r2 and r1, which are allocated points between the frontal median lines (LPP), were also set. Angles α and β were also analyzed while comparing the skulls of both genders. Statistically significant differences were only observed in male skulls. However, differences for both genders were noted in parameters d1 and d2. No statistically significant differences were discovered between men and women for parameters r1 and r2. The groups of women and men were merged, being treated as a population; which resulted in the conclusion that there are no statistically significant differences between these parameters. The skull's asymmetry connected to gender and the asymmetry of the right and left sides of examined craniums can be used in criminal examinations as well as in facial reconstructive surgeries.

  18. Reentry analysis for low Earth orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Folta, David C.; Ross, Brian P.; Bouslog, Stanley A.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Management Instruction (NMI), NASA spacecraft programs must limit orbital debris by design and/or by operational procedures. To fulfill this requirement, spacecraft may be required to be removed from their operational orbit after mission completion. Spacecraft disposal by atmospheric reentry is a means to accomplish this task. To assess the risk to man, an analysis must be done to determine which parts of the spacecraft are likely to survive a reentry of the Earth's atmosphere and where those parts will land. These issues are currently being examined for the Earth Observing System (EOS-AM1). The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Aeroscience Branch, supported by the Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., has developed a tool which permits the analysis of the thermal effects of reentry on individual spacecraft components to determine which components are expected to survive reentry. This paper presents an examination of the burnup and reentry of EOS-AM1 and describes a method for other spacecraft to use in analyzing similar reentry issues.

  19. Modeling of LEO Orbital Debris Populations in Centimeter and Millimeter Size Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Hill, . M.; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J.-C.; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The building of the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, whether ORDEM2000 or its recently updated version ORDEM2010, uses as its foundation a number of model debris populations, each truncated at a minimum object-size ranging from 10 micron to 1 m. This paper discusses the development of the ORDEM2010 model debris populations in LEO (low Earth orbit), focusing on centimeter (smaller than 10 cm) and millimeter size regimes. Primary data sets used in the statistical derivation of the cm- and mm-size model populations are from the Haystack radar operated in a staring mode. Unlike cataloged objects of sizes greater than approximately 10 cm, ground-based radars monitor smaller-size debris only in a statistical manner instead of tracking every piece. The mono-static Haystack radar can detect debris as small as approximately 5 mm at moderate LEO altitudes. Estimation of millimeter debris populations (for objects smaller than approximately 6 mm) rests largely on Goldstone radar measurements. The bi-static Goldstone radar can detect 2- to 3-mm objects. The modeling of the cm- and mm-debris populations follows the general approach to developing other ORDEM2010-required model populations for various components and types of debris. It relies on appropriate reference populations to provide necessary prior information on the orbital structures and other important characteristics of the debris objects. NASA's LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris (LEGEND) model is capable of furnishing such reference populations in the desired size range. A Bayesian statistical inference process, commonly adopted in ORDEM2010 model-population derivations, changes a priori distribution into a posteriori distribution and thus refines the reference populations in terms of data. This paper describes key elements and major steps in the statistical derivations of the cm- and mm-size debris populations and presents results. Due to lack of data for near 1-mm sizes, the model populations of 1- to 3.16-mm

  20. Modeling of LEO Orbital Debris Populations in Centimeter and Millimeter Size Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Hill, . M.; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J.-C.; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The building of the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, whether ORDEM2000 or its recently updated version ORDEM2010, uses as its foundation a number of model debris populations, each truncated at a minimum object-size ranging from 10 micron to 1 m. This paper discusses the development of the ORDEM2010 model debris populations in LEO (low Earth orbit), focusing on centimeter (smaller than 10 cm) and millimeter size regimes. Primary data sets used in the statistical derivation of the cm- and mm-size model populations are from the Haystack radar operated in a staring mode. Unlike cataloged objects of sizes greater than approximately 10 cm, ground-based radars monitor smaller-size debris only in a statistical manner instead of tracking every piece. The mono-static Haystack radar can detect debris as small as approximately 5 mm at moderate LEO altitudes. Estimation of millimeter debris populations (for objects smaller than approximately 6 mm) rests largely on Goldstone radar measurements. The bi-static Goldstone radar can detect 2- to 3-mm objects. The modeling of the cm- and mm-debris populations follows the general approach to developing other ORDEM2010-required model populations for various components and types of debris. It relies on appropriate reference populations to provide necessary prior information on the orbital structures and other important characteristics of the debris objects. NASA's LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris (LEGEND) model is capable of furnishing such reference populations in the desired size range. A Bayesian statistical inference process, commonly adopted in ORDEM2010 model-population derivations, changes a priori distribution into a posteriori distribution and thus refines the reference populations in terms of data. This paper describes key elements and major steps in the statistical derivations of the cm- and mm-size debris populations and presents results. Due to lack of data for near 1-mm sizes, the model populations of 1- to 3.16-mm

  1. Robustness analysis method for orbit control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Yang, Keying; Qi, Rui; Zhao, Shuge; Li, Yanyan

    2017-08-01

    Satellite orbits require periodical maintenance due to the presence of perturbations. However, random errors caused by inaccurate orbit determination and thrust implementation may lead to failure of the orbit control strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the robustness of the orbit control methods. Feasible strategies which are tolerant to errors of a certain magnitude can be developed to perform reliable orbit control for the satellite. In this paper, first, the orbital dynamic model is formulated by Gauss' form of the planetary equation using the mean orbit elements; the atmospheric drag and the Earth's non-spherical perturbations are taken into consideration in this model. Second, an impulsive control strategy employing the differential correction algorithm is developed to maintain the satellite trajectory parameters in given ranges. Finally, the robustness of the impulsive control method is analyzed through Monte Carlo simulations while taking orbit determination error and thrust error into account.

  2. Orbit decay analysis of STS upper stage boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, O. F., Jr.; Mueller, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    An orbit decay analysis of the space transportation system upper stage boosters is presented. An overview of the computer trajectory programs, DSTROB, algorithm is presented. Atmospheric drag and perturbation models are described. The development of launch windows, such that the transfer orbit will decay within two years, is discussed. A study of the lifetimes of geosynchronous transfer orbits is presented.

  3. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Uplink Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; Hwang, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    This software analyzes Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) orbital geometry with respect to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) contact windows, and is the first tool of its kind designed specifically to support MRO-MER interface coordination. Prior to this automated tool, this analysis was done manually with Excel and the UNIX command line. In total, the process would take approximately 30 minutes for each analysis. The current automated analysis takes less than 30 seconds. This tool resides on the flight machine and uses a PHP interface that does the entire analysis of the input files and takes into account one-way light time from another input file. Input flies are copied over to the proper directories and are dynamically read into the tool s interface. The user can then choose the corresponding input files based on the time frame desired for analysis. After submission of the Web form, the tool merges the two files into a single, time-ordered listing of events for both spacecraft. The times are converted to the same reference time (Earth Transmit Time) by reading in a light time file and performing the calculations necessary to shift the time formats. The program also has the ability to vary the size of the keep-out window on the main page of the analysis tool by inputting a custom time for padding each MRO event time. The parameters on the form are read in and passed to the second page for analysis. Everything is fully coded in PHP and can be accessed by anyone with access to the machine via Web page. This uplink tool will continue to be used for the duration of the MER mission's needs for X-band uplinks. Future missions also can use the tools to check overflight times as well as potential site observation times. Adaptation of the input files to the proper format, and the window keep-out times, would allow for other analyses. Any operations task that uses the idea of keep-out windows will have a use for this program.

  4. Aerothermal analysis for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Hermina, Wahid L.; Chapel, James D.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2004-06-01

    The force on and the heat flux to the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during drag passes are analyzed. Aerobraking takes place in the higher/rarefied levels of the Martian atmosphere, where traditional continuum flui d dynamics methods cannot be applied. Therefore, molecular gas dynamics simulations such as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method are used to calculate these flow fields and provide heating and aerodynamic predictions for the vehicles. The heating and aerodynamic predictions calculated for the MRO include the heat transfer coefficient (C{sub h}), calculated for a number of angles of attack and the drag coefficient (C{sub D}) calculated for a number of altitudes and velocities. Bridging relations are sought that are applicable over the range of conditions of interest. A sensitivity analysis of the results to the chemical reaction rates, surface accommodation and temperature is also performed.

  5. Ionospheric refraction effects on orbit determination using the orbit determination error analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, C. P.; Kelbel, D. A.; Lee, T.; Dunham, J. B.; Mistretta, G. D.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of ionospheric refraction on orbit determination was studied through the use of the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS). The results of a study of the orbital state estimate errors due to the ionospheric refraction corrections, particularly for measurements involving spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking links, are presented. In current operational practice at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF), the ionospheric refraction effects on the tracking measurements are modeled in the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) using the Bent ionospheric model. While GTDS has the capability of incorporating the ionospheric refraction effects for measurements involving ground-to-spacecraft tracking links, such as those generated by the Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (GSTDN), it does not have the capability to incorporate the refraction effects for spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking links for measurements generated by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The lack of this particular capability in GTDS raised some concern about the achievable accuracy of the estimated orbit for certain classes of spacecraft missions that require high-precision orbits. Using an enhanced research version of GTDS, some efforts have already been made to assess the importance of the spacecraft-to-spacecraft ionospheric refraction corrections in an orbit determination process. While these studies were performed using simulated data or real tracking data in definitive orbit determination modes, the study results presented here were obtained by means of covariance analysis simulating the weighted least-squares method used in orbit determination.

  6. Asteroid orbital error analysis: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muinonen, K.; Bowell, Edward

    1992-01-01

    We present a rigorous Bayesian theory for asteroid orbital error estimation in which the probability density of the orbital elements is derived from the noise statistics of the observations. For Gaussian noise in a linearized approximation the probability density is also Gaussian, and the errors of the orbital elements at a given epoch are fully described by the covariance matrix. The law of error propagation can then be applied to calculate past and future positional uncertainty ellipsoids (Cappellari et al. 1976, Yeomans et al. 1987, Whipple et al. 1991). To our knowledge, this is the first time a Bayesian approach has been formulated for orbital element estimation. In contrast to the classical Fisherian school of statistics, the Bayesian school allows a priori information to be formally present in the final estimation. However, Bayesian estimation does give the same results as Fisherian estimation when no priori information is assumed (Lehtinen 1988, and reference therein).

  7. Orbit Determination Analysis Utilizing Radiometric and Laser Ranging Measurements for GPS Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2007-01-01

    While navigation systems for the determination of the orbit of the Global Position System (GPS) have proven to be very effective, the current issues involve lowering the error in the GPS satellite ephemerides below their current level. In this document, the results of an orbit determination covariance assessment are provided. The analysis is intended to be the baseline orbit determination study comparing the benefits of adding laser ranging measurements from various numbers of ground stations. Results are shown for two starting longitude assumptions of the satellite location and for nine initial covariance cases for the GPS satellite state vector.

  8. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  9. Long arc analysis of GPS orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, B.; Froideval, L.

    The influence of gravitational and nongravitational forces on the orbits of GPS satellites is well known. Although the gravitational forces are the dominant factors in characterizing long term orbital evolution, the uncertainties associated with modeling nongravitational forces are the dominant factors that limit the accuracy of long term predictions of GPS satellite positions. Even though the GPS satellites are in deep resonance with the gravity field of the Earth, which in turn produces secular changes in the semimajor axis, the uncertainties in the gravity field model are not limiting factors in long term prediction accuracy. In the case of nongravitational forces, a simple Lageos-like (cannonball) solar radiation pressure model produces few decimeter accuracy when used in conjunction with other forces, such as y-bias, in the determination of GPS orbits over time intervals of a few days. Furthermore, the cannonball model, with y-bias, performs as well as the ROCK42 model (with y-bias) over a one year estimation arc after solving for epoch state, y-bias and a scale factor for solar radiation pressure (8 parameters). In this case, a one year arc exhibits approximately 30 meter RMS differences with either model compared to the daily IGS orbits. On the other hand, the Berne ECOM model under the same conditions shows < 5 meters for most satellites, but some satellites are a factor of three worse. Estimation of scale parameters with higher resolution (for example, daily or less) provides some insight into the nature of the nongravitational forces and correlations with other factors, such as eclipse seasons. Further model evaluation can be obtained from predictions, but such cases are limited by the ability to choose appropriate parameters to use in the prediction. The observed characteristics may have implications for future navigation satellite systems.

  10. Orbital operations study. Appendix A: Interactivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Supplemental analyses conducted to verify that safe, feasible, design concepts exist for accomplishing the attendant interface activities of the orbital operations mission are presented. The data are primarily concerned with functions and concepts common to more than one of the interfacing activities or elements. Specific consideration is given to state vector update, payload deployment, communications links, jet plume impingement, attached element operations, docking and structural interface assessment, and propellant transfer.

  11. Orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2003-06-01

    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  12. Effects of Orbital Lifetime Reduction on the Long-Term Earth Satellite Population as Modeled by EVOLVE 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Opiela, John N.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Theall, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    The latest update of the NASA orbital debris environment model, EVOLVE 4.0, has been used to study the effect of various proposed debris mitigation measures, including the NASA 25-year guideline. EVOLVE 4.0, which includes updates of the NASA breakup, solar activity, and the orbit propagator models, a GEO analysis option, and non-fragmentation debris source models, allows for the statistical modeling and predicted growth of the particle population >1 mm in characteristic length in LEO and GEO orbits. The initial implementation of this &odel has been to study the sensitivity of the overall LEO debris environment to mitigation measures designed to limit the lifetime of intact objects in LEO orbits. The mitigation measures test matrix for this study included several commonly accepted testing schemes, i.e., the variance of the maximum LEO lifetime from 10 to 50 years, the date of the initial implementation of this policy, the shut off of all explosions at some specified date, and the inclusion of disposal orbits. All are timely studies in that all scenarios have been suggested by researchers and satellite operators as options for the removal of debris from LEO orbits.

  13. Resolving LDEF's flux distribution: Orbital (debris?) and natural meteoroid populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    A consistent methodology for the collation of data from both penetration and perforation experiments and from data in the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigator Group (M-D SIG) data-base has led to the derivation of the average impact flux over LDEF's exposure history 1984-1990. Data are first presented for LDEF's N,S,E,W and Space faces ('offset' by 8 deg and 'tilted' by 1 deg respectively). A model fit is derived for ballistic limits of penetration from 1 micron to 1mm of aluminium target, corresponding to impactor masses from 10(exp -18) kg (for rho sub p = 2g/cu cm) to 10(exp -10) kg (for rho sub p = 1g/cu cm). A second order harmonic function is fitted to the N,S,E, and W fluxes to establish the angular distribution at regular size intervals; this fit is then used to provide 'corrected' data corresponding to fluxes applicable to true N,S,E,W and Space directions for a LEO 28.5 degree inclination orbit at a mean altitude of 465 km.

  14. Instability of the Current Space Debris Population in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniwa, Kazuaki; Hanada, Toshiya; Kawamoto, Satomi

    Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, it is expected that a great deal of fragments will be created by explosions and collisions. Thus, the number of space debris may increase exponentially (Kessler Syndrome). This paper analyzes the Kessler Syndrome using the Low Earth Orbital Debris Environmental Evolutionary Model (LEODEEM) developed at Kyushu University with collaboration from JAXA. The purpose of the study aims at understanding the issues related to space environment conservation. The results provide effective conditions of Active Debris Removal which is one of the space debris mitigation procedures.

  15. Jason-2 systematic error analysis in the GPS derived orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melachroinos, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Luthcke, S. B.; Chinn, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Several results related to global or regional sea level changes still too often rely on the assumption that orbit errors coming from station coordinates adoption can be neglected in the total error budget (Ceri et al. 2010). In particular Instantaneous crust-fixed coordinates are obtained by adding to the linear ITRF model the geophysical high-frequency variations. In principle, geocenter motion should also be included in this computation, in order to reference these coordinates to the center of mass of the whole Earth. This correction is currently not applied when computing GDR orbits. Cerri et al. (2010) performed an analysis of systematic errors common to all coordinates along the North/South direction, as this type of bias, also known as Z-shift, has a clear impact on MSL estimates due to the unequal distribution of continental surface in the northern and southern hemispheres. The goal of this paper is to specifically study the main source of errors which comes from the current imprecision in the Z-axis realization of the frame. We focus here on the time variability of this Z-shift, which we can decompose in a drift and a periodic component due to the presumably omitted geocenter motion. A series of Jason-2 GPS-only orbits have been computed at NASA GSFC, using both IGS05 and IGS08. These orbits have been shown to agree radially at less than 1 cm RMS vs our SLR/DORIS std0905 and std1007 reduced-dynamic orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by other analysis centers (Melachroinos et al. 2011). Our GPS-only JASON-2 orbit accuracy is assessed using a number of tests including analysis of independent SLR and altimeter crossover residuals, orbit overlap differences, and direct comparison to orbits generated at GSFC using SLR and DORIS tracking, and to orbits generated externally at other centers. Tests based on SLR-crossover residuals provide the best performance indicator for independent validation of the NASA/GSFC GPS-only reduced dynamic orbits. Reduced

  16. Orbiter CCTV video signal noise analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R. M.; Blanke, L. R.; Pannett, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of steady state and transient noise which will couple to orbiter CCTV video signal wiring is predicted. The primary emphasis is on the interim system, however, some predictions are made concerning the operational system wiring in the cabin area. Noise sources considered are RF fields from on board transmitters, precipitation static, induced lightning currents, and induced noise from adjacent wiring. The most significant source is noise coupled to video circuits from associated circuits in common connectors. Video signal crosstalk is the primary cause of steady state interference, and mechanically switched control functions cause the largest induced transients.

  17. Analysis of Transfer Maneuvers from Initial Circular Orbit to a Final Circular or Elliptic Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaf, M. A.; Saad, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper an analysis of the transfer maneuvers from initial circular orbit to a final circular or elliptic orbit was developed to study the problem of impulsive transfers for space missions. It considers planar maneuvers using newly derived equations. With these equations, comparisons of circular and elliptic maneuvers are made. This comparison is important for the mission designers to obtain useful mappings showing where one maneuver is better than the other. In this aspect, we developed this comparison throughout ten results, together with some graphs to show their meaning.

  18. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the Orbiter Experiment (OEX) subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Experiments hardware. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. The Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program consists of a multiple set of experiments for the purpose of gathering environmental and aerodynamic data to develop more accurate ground models for Shuttle performance and to facilitate the design of future spacecraft. This assessment only addresses currently manifested experiments and their support systems. Specifically this list consists of: Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS); Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS); Forward Fuselage Support System for OEX (FFSSO); Shuttle Infrared Laced Temperature Sensor (SILTS); Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (ACIP); and Support System for OEX (SSO). There are only two potential critical items for the OEX, since the experiments only gather data for analysis post mission and are totally independent systems except for power. Failure of any experiment component usually only causes a loss of experiment data and in no way jeopardizes the crew or mission.

  19. Extracting Binary Orbital Periods Using Timing Analysis of Microlensing Lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Esin, A.; Di Stefano, R.

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events provide unique opportunities to discover and study binaries. A large number of binary lenses have already been found by the microlensing surveys. For the majority of these systems, the binary orbital period is much longer than the duration of the lensing event, so orbital motion can be safely ignored. However, a few lenses have already been discovered that show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more such systems will be seen in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such lightcurves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. Those repeated features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, we immediately learn a lot about the lensing system even without performing the detailed lightcurve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification to the standard Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for 6 representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods.

  20. Analysis of orbital malignancies presenting in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asad Aslam; Sarwar, Suhail; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali A; Ahmad, Imran; Tariq, Nayab; Sibghat-ul-Noor

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequencies of various orbital malignancies amongst orbital lesions in patients presenting in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 666 orbital cases with an established histopathological diagnosis of malignant tumors treated in Mayo Hospital Lahore from 1996 to 2015 (20 years). Results: About 66% of the malignant tumors were primary, 25% secondary, 8% haematopoietic and 1% metastatic. Almost 50% of the cases were children. Retinoblastoma is the commonest tumor (43% overall and 87% among children). Squamous cell carcinoma is the second commonest (15.6% overall and 31% among adults). These are then followed by Adenoid cystic carcinoma of Lacrimal Gland (9%), Lymphoma/Leukaemia (8%) and Rhabdomyosarcoma (6.3%). Conclusion: Frequencies of various orbital malignancies show geographical variation in both paediatric and adult population. PMID:28367175

  1. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the orbiter main propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnicoll, W. J.; Mcneely, M.; Holden, K. A.; Emmons, T. E.; Lowery, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) hardware are documented. The Orbiter MPS consists of two subsystems: the Propellant Management Subsystem (PMS) and the Helium Subsystem. The PMS is a system of manifolds, distribution lines and valves by which the liquid propellants pass from the External Tank (ET) to the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) and gaseous propellants pass from the SSMEs to the ET. The Helium Subsystem consists of a series of helium supply tanks and their associated regulators, check valves, distribution lines, and control valves. The Helium Subsystem supplies helium that is used within the SSMEs for inflight purges and provides pressure for actuation of SSME valves during emergency pneumatic shutdowns. The balance of the helium is used to provide pressure to operate the pneumatically actuated valves within the PMS. Each component was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticalities were assigned based on the worst possible effect of each failure mode. Of the 690 failure modes analyzed, 349 were determined to be PCIs.

  2. SMILE: Orbital analysis and Schwarzschild modeling of triaxial stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Eugene

    2013-08-01

    SMILE is interactive software for studying a variety of 2D and 3D models, including arbitrary potentials represented by a basis-set expansion, a spherical-harmonic expansion with coefficients being smooth functions of radius (splines), or a set of fixed point masses. Its main features include: orbit integration in various 2d and 3d potentials (including N-body and basis-set representations of an arbitrary potential);methods for analysis of orbital class, fundamental frequencies, regular or chaotic nature of an orbit, computation of Lyapunov exponents;Poincaré sections (in 2d) and frequency maps (in 3d) for analyzing orbital structure of potential;construction of self-consistent Schwarzschild models; andconvenient visualization and integrated GUI environment, and a console scriptable version.SMILE is portable to different platforms including MS Windows, Linux and Mac.

  3. Simulation of Micron-Sized Debris Populations in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu-Lin; Matney, Mark; Liou, J.-C.; Hyde, James; Prior, Thomas G.

    The update of ORDEM2000, the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, to its new version -ORDEM2010, is nearly complete. As a part of the ORDEM upgrade, this paper addresses the simulation of micro-debris (greater than 10 µm and smaller than 1 mm in size) populations in low Earth orbit. The principal data used in the modeling of the micron-sized debris popu-lations are in-situ hypervelocity impact records, accumulated in post-flight damage surveys on the space-exposed surfaces of returned spacecrafts. The development of the micro-debris model populations follows the general approach to deriving other ORDEM2010-required input popu-lations for various components and types of debris. This paper describes the key elements and major steps in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2010 micro-debris populations. A crucial step is the construction of a degradation/ejecta source model to provide prior information on the micron-sized objects (such as orbital and object-size distributions). Another critical step is to link model populations with data, which is rather involved. It demands detailed information on area-time/directionality for all the space-exposed elements of a shuttle orbiter and damage laws, which relate impact damage with the physical properties of a projectile and impact con-ditions such as impact angle and velocity. Also needed are model-predicted debris fluxes as a function of object size and impact velocity from all possible directions. In spite of the very limited quantity of the available shuttle impact data, the population-derivation process is satis-factorily stable. Final modeling results obtained from shuttle window and radiator impact data are reasonably convergent and consistent, especially for the debris populations with object-size thresholds at 10 and 100 µm.

  4. Simulation of Micron-Sized Debris Populations in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Hyde, J. L.; Prior, T.; Matney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The update of ORDEM2000, the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, to its new version ORDEM2010, is nearly complete. As a part of the ORDEM upgrade, this paper addresses the simulation of micro-debris (greater than 10 m and smaller than 1 mm in size) populations in low Earth orbit. The principal data used in the modeling of the micron-sized debris populations are in-situ hypervelocity impact records, accumulated in post-flight damage surveys on the space-exposed surfaces of returned spacecrafts. The development of the micro-debris model populations follows the general approach to deriving other ORDEM2010-required input populations for various components and types of debris. This paper describes the key elements and major steps in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2010 micro-debris populations. A crucial step is the construction of a degradation/ejecta source model to provide prior information on the micron-sized objects (such as orbital and object-size distributions). Another critical step is to link model populations with data, which is rather involved. It demands detailed information on area-time/directionality for all the space-exposed elements of a shuttle orbiter and damage laws, which relate impact damage with the physical properties of a projectile and impact conditions such as impact angle and velocity. Also needed are model-predicted debris fluxes as a function of object size and impact velocity from all possible directions. In spite of the very limited quantity of the available shuttle impact data, the population-derivation process is satisfactorily stable. Final modeling results obtained from shuttle window and radiator impact data are reasonably convergent and consistent, especially for the debris populations with object-size thresholds at 10 and 100 m.

  5. Simulation of Micron-Sized Debris Populations in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Hyde, J. L.; Prior, T.; Matney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The update of ORDEM2000, the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, to its new version ORDEM2010, is nearly complete. As a part of the ORDEM upgrade, this paper addresses the simulation of micro-debris (greater than 10 m and smaller than 1 mm in size) populations in low Earth orbit. The principal data used in the modeling of the micron-sized debris populations are in-situ hypervelocity impact records, accumulated in post-flight damage surveys on the space-exposed surfaces of returned spacecrafts. The development of the micro-debris model populations follows the general approach to deriving other ORDEM2010-required input populations for various components and types of debris. This paper describes the key elements and major steps in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2010 micro-debris populations. A crucial step is the construction of a degradation/ejecta source model to provide prior information on the micron-sized objects (such as orbital and object-size distributions). Another critical step is to link model populations with data, which is rather involved. It demands detailed information on area-time/directionality for all the space-exposed elements of a shuttle orbiter and damage laws, which relate impact damage with the physical properties of a projectile and impact conditions such as impact angle and velocity. Also needed are model-predicted debris fluxes as a function of object size and impact velocity from all possible directions. In spite of the very limited quantity of the available shuttle impact data, the population-derivation process is satisfactorily stable. Final modeling results obtained from shuttle window and radiator impact data are reasonably convergent and consistent, especially for the debris populations with object-size thresholds at 10 and 100 m.

  6. Simulation of Micron-Sized Debris Populations in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Matney, M.; Liou, J.-C.; Hyde, J. L.; Prior, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The update of ORDEM2000, the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, to its new version . ORDEM2010, is nearly complete. As a part of the ORDEM upgrade, this paper addresses the simulation of micro-debris (greater than 10 micron and smaller than 1 mm in size) populations in low Earth orbit. The principal data used in the modeling of the micron-sized debris populations are in-situ hypervelocity impact records, accumulated in post-flight damage surveys on the space-exposed surfaces of returned spacecrafts. The development of the micro-debris model populations follows the general approach to deriving other ORDEM2010-required input populations for various components and types of debris. This paper describes the key elements and major steps in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2010 micro-debris populations. A crucial step is the construction of a degradation/ejecta source model to provide prior information on the micron-sized objects (such as orbital and object-size distributions). Another critical step is to link model populations with data, which is rather involved. It demands detailed information on area-time/directionality for all the space-exposed elements of a shuttle orbiter and damage laws, which relate impact damage with the physical properties of a projectile and impact conditions such as impact angle and velocity. Also needed are model-predicted debris fluxes as a function of object size and impact velocity from all possible directions. In spite of the very limited quantity of the available shuttle impact data, the population-derivation process is satisfactorily stable. Final modeling results obtained from shuttle window and radiator impact data are reasonably convergent and consistent, especially for the debris populations with object-size thresholds at 10 and 100 micron.

  7. New orbital analysis of stars at the Galactic center using speckle holography and orbital priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehle, Anna; Schödel, Rainer; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, Andrea M.

    2014-05-01

    We present initial results of a study that has more than doubled the time baseline for astrometric measurements of faint stars orbiting the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the Galactic center. The advent of adaptive optics has enabled stars as faint as K = 19 mag to be tracked at 50 mas resolution for the last decade. While similar resolution images exist from the prior decade, they were obtained from speckle imaging data analyzed with the technique of shift-and-add, which limited detections to stars brighter than K = 16 mag. By improving the speckle data analysis technique with speckle holography and using prior orbital knowledge, we are now able to track stars as faint as ˜18 mag at 50 mas resolution through the early Keck speckle data sets (1995-2005). This methodology has already led to the detection of two short-period stars never previously seen in speckle images, such that our data now spans their full orbits. We can now better constrain the orbital parameters of all stars in the intriguing "S-star cluster," which will ultimately give us insight into the origin of these stars and be used to probe the curvature of space-time in the unexplored regime near a SMBH.

  8. Primary orbital fracture repair: development and validation of tools for morphologic and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Hontscharuk, Rayisa; Fialkov, Jeffrey A; Binhammer, Paul A; McMillan, Catherine R; Antonyshyn, Oleh

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a technique for objective quantitative evaluation of outcomes of orbital reconstruction. Facial three-dimensional images were captured using a Vectra three-dimensional camera. Morphometric analysis was based on interactive anthropometric identification. The analysis was applied to a population of healthy adults (n = 13) and a population of patients following primary repair of unilateral orbital fractures (n = 13). Morphologic results following reconstruction were evaluated by identifying residual asymmetries. All subjects further completed the Derriford Appearance Questionnaire and the Orbital Appearance and Function Questionnaire.Normative reference values for periorbital asymmetry were determined in a reference population. The mean asymmetry was less than 1.6 mm for each measured morphologic feature. In the trauma population, primary orbital reconstruction effectively restored normal periorbital symmetry in 16 of 20 measured parameters. The fracture population showed no significant differences in the degree of asymmetry in globe projection, lower eyelid position, or ciliary margin length.The overall DAS59 scores were significantly higher in the fracture population (P = 0.04). This was due to significantly higher physical distress and dysfunction scores (P = 0.02), as well as a trend toward higher general and social self-consciousness scores (P = 0.06). No significant difference in facial self-consciousness was noted (P = 0.21). Thus, although primary orbital reconstruction was effective in restoring periorbital morphology, patients still experienced a higher level of physical distress and dysfunction than their nontraumatized counterparts. This was in accordance with patient self-report, which indicated that a greater percentage of patients were significantly bothered by functional outcomes postoperatively as opposed to appearance.

  9. No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Skowron, Jan; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Szymański, Michał K; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2017-08-10

    Planet formation theories predict that some planets may be ejected from their parent systems as result of dynamical interactions and other processes. Unbound planets can also be formed through gravitational collapse, in a way similar to that in which stars form. A handful of free-floating planetary-mass objects have been discovered by infrared surveys of young stellar clusters and star-forming regions as well as wide-field surveys, but these studies are incomplete for objects below five Jupiter masses. Gravitational microlensing is the only method capable of exploring the entire population of free-floating planets down to Mars-mass objects, because the microlensing signal does not depend on the brightness of the lensing object. A characteristic timescale of microlensing events depends on the mass of the lens: the less massive the lens, the shorter the microlensing event. A previous analysis of 474 microlensing events found an excess of ten very short events (1-2 days)-more than known stellar populations would suggest-indicating the existence of a large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets (reported to be almost twice as common as main-sequence stars). These results, however, do not match predictions of planet-formation theories and surveys of young clusters. Here we analyse a sample of microlensing events six times larger than that of ref. 11 discovered during the years 2010-15. Although our survey has very high sensitivity (detection efficiency) to short-timescale (1-2 days) microlensing events, we found no excess of events with timescales in this range, with a 95 per cent upper limit on the frequency of Jupiter-mass free-floating or wide-orbit planets of 0.25 planets per main-sequence star. We detected a few possible ultrashort-timescale events (with timescales of less than half a day), which may indicate the existence of Earth-mass and super-Earth-mass free-floating planets, as predicted by planet-formation theories.

  10. No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Skowron, Jan; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Szymański, Michał K.; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2017-08-01

    Planet formation theories predict that some planets may be ejected from their parent systems as result of dynamical interactions and other processes. Unbound planets can also be formed through gravitational collapse, in a way similar to that in which stars form. A handful of free-floating planetary-mass objects have been discovered by infrared surveys of young stellar clusters and star-forming regions as well as wide-field surveys, but these studies are incomplete for objects below five Jupiter masses. Gravitational microlensing is the only method capable of exploring the entire population of free-floating planets down to Mars-mass objects, because the microlensing signal does not depend on the brightness of the lensing object. A characteristic timescale of microlensing events depends on the mass of the lens: the less massive the lens, the shorter the microlensing event. A previous analysis of 474 microlensing events found an excess of ten very short events (1-2 days)—more than known stellar populations would suggest—indicating the existence of a large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets (reported to be almost twice as common as main-sequence stars). These results, however, do not match predictions of planet-formation theories and surveys of young clusters. Here we analyse a sample of microlensing events six times larger than that of ref. 11 discovered during the years 2010-15. Although our survey has very high sensitivity (detection efficiency) to short-timescale (1-2 days) microlensing events, we found no excess of events with timescales in this range, with a 95 per cent upper limit on the frequency of Jupiter-mass free-floating or wide-orbit planets of 0.25 planets per main-sequence star. We detected a few possible ultrashort-timescale events (with timescales of less than half a day), which may indicate the existence of Earth-mass and super-Earth-mass free-floating planets, as predicted by planet-formation theories.

  11. Extensive Radiation Shielding Analysis for Different Spacecraft Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çay, Yiǧit; Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    Radiation environment around Earth poses a great danger for spacecraft and causes immature de-orbiting or loss of the spacecraft in near Earth space environment. In this study, a student project has been designed to build a CubeSat, PolarBeeSail (PBS), with an orbit having inclination of 80°, 4 Re in perigee and 20 Re in apogee to study the polar magnetospheric environment. An extensive radiation dose analyses were carried out for PBS orbit, and integral and differential fluxes were calculated using SPENVIS tools. A shielding analysis was performed and an optimum Aluminum thickness, 3 mm, was obtained. These results for PBS were then compared for other orbits at different altitudes both for polar and equatorial orbits. For this purpose, orbital characteristics of POES-19 and GOES-15 were used. The resulting proton flux analyses, TID analyses, and further shielding studies were conducted; comparisons and recommendations were made for future design of spacecraft that will use these environments.

  12. An Analysis of Journal Orbits for Nonlinear Dynamic Bearing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. K.

    An analysis of journal centre orbits is presented in this paper based on a non-isothermal non-Newtonian fluid model for dynamically loaded bearing systems. A spectral element approach is used to solve a full set of coupled equations (kinematics and constitutive) governing the flow of the lubricant, and an operator-splitting spectral element technique is used to evaluate the dynamic energy equation. The motion of the journal is calculated on the basis of Newtonian mechanics incorporated with a simple cavitation model. The stability of the journal orbits is investigated under a wide range of the rotation speeds of journal. The unstable orbits arise as a sub-harmonic motion when the journal rotation speed is increased beyond a critical value. The influences of the oscillation speeds of the applied loads on the journal orbits are examined. The numerical simulations demonstrate that both the rotation speed of the journal and the oscillation speed of the applied load play an important role in determining the pattern of the journal orbits. The effects of square-wave and rotating applied loads on the journal orbits are also investigated.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously. PMID:27598168

  14. Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao

    2016-09-02

    The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously.

  15. Population Analysis: Communicating in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Providing accommodation to a widely varying user population presents a challenge to engineers and designers. It is often even difficult to quantify who is accommodated and who is not accommodated by designs, especially for equipment with multiple critical anthropometric dimensions. An approach to communicating levels of accommodation referred to as population analysis applies existing human factors techniques in novel ways. This paper discusses the definition of population analysis as well as major applications and case studies. The major applications of population analysis consist of providing accommodation information for multivariate problems and enhancing the value of feedback from human-in-the-loop testing. The results of these analyses range from the provision of specific accommodation percentages of the user population to recommendations of design specifications based on quantitative data. Such feedback is invaluable to designers and results in the design of products that accommodate the intended user population.

  16. An Analysis of the Orbital Distribution of Solid Rocket Motor Slag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Matthew F.; Mulrooney, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The contribution made by orbiting solid rocket motors (SRMs) to the orbital debris environment is both potentially significant and insufficiently studied. A combination of rocket motor design and the mechanisms of the combustion process can lead to the emission of sufficiently large and numerous by-products to warrant assessment of their contribution to the orbital debris environment. These particles are formed during SRM tail-off, or the termination of burn, by the rapid expansion, dissemination, and solidification of the molten Al2O3 slag pool accumulated during the main burn phase of SRMs utilizing immersion-type nozzles. Though the usage of SRMs is low compared to the usage of liquid fueled motors, the propensity of SRMs to generate particles in the 100 m and larger size regime has caused concern regarding their contributing to the debris environment. Particle sizes as large as 1 cm have been witnessed in ground tests conducted under vacuum conditions and comparable sizes have been estimated via ground-based telescopic and in-situ observations of sub-orbital SRM tail-off events. Using sub-orbital and post recovery observations, a simplistic number-size-velocity distribution of slag from on-orbit SRM firings was postulated. In this paper we have developed more elaborate distributions and emission scenarios and modeled the resultant orbital population and its time evolution by incorporating a historical database of SRM launches, propellant masses, and likely location and time of particulate deposition. From this analysis a more comprehensive understanding has been obtained of the role of SRM ejecta in the orbital debris environment, indicating that SRM slag is a significant component of the current and future population.

  17. Investigation of Orbital Debris: Mitigation, Removal, and Modeling the Debris Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotten, Joel

    The population of objects in orbit around Earth has grown since the late 1950s. Today there are over 21,000 objects over 10 cm in length in orbit, and an estimated 500,000 more between 1 and 10 cm. Only a small fraction of these objects are operational satellites. The rest are debris: old derelict spacecraft or rocket bodies, fragments created as the result of explosions or collisions, discarded objects, slag from solid rockets, or even flaked off paint. Traveling at up to 7 km/s, a collision with even a 1 cm piece of debris could severely damage or destroy a satellite. This dissertation examines three aspects of orbital debris. First, the concept of a self-consuming satellite is explored. This nanosatellite would use its own external structure as propellant to execute a deorbit maneuver at the end of its operational life, thus allowing it to meet current debris mitigation standards. Results from lab experiments examining potential materials for this concept have shown favorable results. Second, Particle in Cell techniques are modified and used to model the plasma plume from a micro-cathode arc thruster. This model is then applied to the concept of an ion beam shepherd satellite. This satellite would use its plasma plume to deorbit another derelict satellite. Results from these simulations indicate the micro-cathode arc thruster could potentially deorbit a derelict CubeSat in a matter of a few weeks. Finally, the orbital debris population at geosynchronous orbit is examined, focusing on variations in the density of the population as a function of longitude. New insights are revealed demonstrating that the variation in population density is slightly less than previously reported.

  18. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). The APUs are required to provide power to the Orbiter hydraulics systems during ascent and entry flight phases for aerosurface actuation, main engine gimballing, landing gear extension, and other vital functions. For analysis purposes, the APU system was broken down into ten functional subsystems. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. A preponderance of 1/1 criticality items were related to failures that allowed the hydrazine fuel to escape into the Orbiter aft compartment, creating a severe fire hazard, and failures that caused loss of the gas generator injector cooling system.

  19. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the pyrotechnics subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Pyrotechnics hardware. The IOA analysis process utilized available pyrotechnics hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  20. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the crew equipment subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Susan; Graham, L.; Richard, Bill; Saxon, H.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical (PCIs) items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results coresponding to the Orbiter crew equipment hardware are documented. The IOA analysis process utilized available crew equipment hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 352 failure modes analyzed, 78 were determined to be PCIs.

  1. Space Station polar orbiting platform - Mission analysis and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Polar Orbiting Platform will be a serviceable spacecraft supporting a range of missions. The planning and analysis of these missions is investigated. The subjects of STS compatibility, rendezvous strategy, and requisite launch windows are addressed. General, as well as, two specific cases are detailed with respect to their incremental velocity requirements.

  2. Natural atomic orbital based energy density analysis: Implementation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Mari; Nakai, Hiromi

    2006-06-01

    We present an improvement of energy density analysis (EDA), which partitions the total energy obtained by Hartree-Fock and/or density functional theory calculations, with the use of the natural atomic orbital (NAO) [A.E. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 83 (1985) 735] and Löwdin's symmetric-orthogonal orbital (LSO). The present NAO- and LSO-EDA schemes are applied to analyses of CO 2 and Li9+ with various basis sets. Numerical results confirm that NAO-EDA exhibits less basis-set dependence, while the conventional results are very sensitive to the adopted basis sets.

  3. Analysis of missed diagnosis of orbital foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Su-Yan; Cui, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Yang; Guan, Li-Na

    2017-01-01

    A clinical analysis of diagnosis was performed as well as the management of orbital foreign bodies, to investigate the methods to avoid missed diagnosis. A total of 15 cases of an orbital foreign body was reviewed, and for these cases, the clinical manifestation, imaging data and operative situation were studied. Among the patients, 4 cases turned out to have wooden, 3 metallic, 2 glass, 2 bones, and 4 other foreign bodies. Twelve cases had received debridement and suture before our management, and 1 foreign body was treated more than once. In conclusion, detailed traumatic history and imaging examination are necessary for the diagnosis of orbital foreign bodies, while prompt diagnosis, accurate location and professional surgical skills are important for the treatment. PMID:28413466

  4. Atmospheric gravitational influence on geodetic satellite orbits - Starlette analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Chan, Joseph C.

    1992-01-01

    The atmosphere is constantly in motion. The changing gravitational force due to the air mass movement will slightly perturb the orbit of a satellite. As the instrument accuracy for geodetic satellites improves, failure to model this perturbation can result in significant systematic errors in the orbit determination. The latter, in turn, will degrade the Earth's gravity solutions. A direct modeling technique to analyze the atmospheric gravitational influence on geodetic satellite is developed. We use the global surface pressure data from the ECMWF Initial Analysis Database to compute the gravitational force due to atmospheric perturbation exerted on given satellite as a function of time during selected orbital arcs. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking data for selected Starlette (altitude 900 km) orbital arcs are used to test the computed force model. Although only a slight reduction in the rms residuals is observed when the atmospheric gravitational perturbation is included in the force model for data reduction of the SLR data, significant improvement is obtained in the predictability of the satellite orbit. Comprehensive studies involving more definitive test criteria and more refined models are still needed.

  5. Analysis on high-altitude earth Orbit Satellite Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Hou, Y. W.; Yang, L.

    2016-02-01

    The difference is introduced between approx circular apogee orbit and approx circular perigee one by error transmitting at first. Then the characteristic of secant compensation is analysed when radar tracking object with high elevation. And two kinds of orbit force be pressed to, their perturbation influence and their earth-core angles are explained. And then the series of emulation results are shown including error data emulated with Monte Carlo method, the influence of the velocity increment from the ejecting force of spring while satellite-rocket separating and their perturbation influence and the length of influence of the data arc. Then decision analysis of Wald method and Bayesian statistics rule and the results from the two rule are introduced. So the suitable orbit determination decision is put forward from the decision method. Finally the result is tested reasonable and feasible via the real data. In the end it is useful to reference to make orbit decision in short injection of circular orbit far from the earth for calculating concurrently precise and timely.

  6. Solar Thermal : Solar Electric Propulsion Hybrid Orbit Transfer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, Keith A.

    2000-07-01

    This effort examined the payoffs associated with the joint application of solar thermal propulsion (STP) and electric propulsion (EP) for orbit raising. The combined use of STP (800 second specific impulse) and EP (1800 second specific impulse) for a single orbit transfer mission is motivated by the desire to leverage the higher thrust of STP with the higher specific impulse of EP to maximize mission capability. The primary objectives of this analysis were to quantify the payload, mission duration, and hydrogen propellant to payload mass ratio for a range of combined STP and EP orbit transfer missions to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), and contrast them to results for STP only. For STP, the hydrogen propellant to payload mass ratio is of particular interest due to payload fairing size constraints and the relatively low density of liquid hydrogen, which limit the mass of the STP propellant, and therefore the amount of payload that can be delivered. The results of the analysis include an 18% payload improvement associated with STP-EP hybrid propulsion over STP alone. The trip time needed for the STP-EP transfer varied from 101 to 143 days, compared to 41 days for the Solar only case. In addition, the amount of hydrogen propellant needed to accomplish the orbit raising to GEO per unit mass of payload decreased by 29% when the Solar Thermal - Solar Electric hybrid was used. While comprehensive comparisons of STP-EP to chemical propulsion (CP) only and to CP with EP orbit topping were also of interest, they were beyond the scope of this effort. However, a comparison of reference missions was performed. In comparison to the reference CP (328 second specific impulse) and CP-EP missions the STP-EP system provided 67% and 39% payload increases. respectively. The trip time for the CP-EP cases varied from 55 to 106 days.

  7. Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS) requirements definition and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, S. R.; Goorevich, C. E.; Teles, J.; Pajerski, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements definition for the prototype version of the automated orbit determination system (AODS) is presented including the AODS requirements at all levels, the functional model as determined through the structured analysis performed during requirements definition, and the results of the requirements analysis. Also specified are the implementation strategy for AODS and the AODS-required external support software system (ADEPT), input and output message formats, and procedures for modifying the requirements.

  8. Probabilistic Thermal Analysis During Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for performing a probabilistic thermal analysis during aerobraking has been developed. The analysis is performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter solar array during aerobraking. The methodology makes use of a response surface model derived from a more complex finite element thermal model of the solar array. The response surface is a quadratic equation which calculates the peak temperature for a given orbit drag pass at a specific location on the solar panel. Five different response surface equations are used, one of which predicts the overall maximum solar panel temperature, and the remaining four predict the temperatures of the solar panel thermal sensors. The variables used to define the response surface can be characterized as either environmental, material property, or modeling variables. Response surface variables are statistically varied in a Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo simulation produces mean temperatures and 3 sigma bounds as well as the probability of exceeding the designated flight allowable temperature for a given orbit. Response surface temperature predictions are compared with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter flight temperature data.

  9. A consistent orbital stability analysis for the GJ 581 system

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, David A.; Sul, Cesar; Kress, Monika E.; Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.

    2014-06-20

    We apply a combination of N-body modeling techniques and automated data fitting with Monte Carlo Markov Chain uncertainty analysis of Keplerian orbital models to RV data to determine long-term stability of the planetary system GJ 581. We find that while there are stability concerns with the four-planet model as published by Forveille et al., when uncertainties in the system are accounted for, particularly stellar jitter, the hypothesis that the four-planet model is gravitationally unstable is not statistically significant. Additionally, the system including proposed planet g by Vogt et al. also shows some stability concerns when eccentricities are allowed to float in the orbital fit, yet when uncertainties are included in the analysis, the system including planet g also cannot be proven to be unstable. We present revised reduced χ{sup 2} values for Keplerian astrocentric orbital fits assuming four-planet and five-planet models for GJ 581 under the condition that best fits must be stable, and we find no distinguishable difference by including planet g in the model. Additionally, we present revised orbital element estimates for each, assuming uncertainties due to stellar jitter under the constraint of the system being gravitationally stable.

  10. A Consistent Orbital Stability Analysis for the GJ 581 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiner, David A.; Sul, Cesar; Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.; Kress, Monika E.

    2014-06-01

    We apply a combination of N-body modeling techniques and automated data fitting with Monte Carlo Markov Chain uncertainty analysis of Keplerian orbital models to RV data to determine long-term stability of the planetary system GJ 581. We find that while there are stability concerns with the four-planet model as published by Forveille et al., when uncertainties in the system are accounted for, particularly stellar jitter, the hypothesis that the four-planet model is gravitationally unstable is not statistically significant. Additionally, the system including proposed planet g by Vogt et al. also shows some stability concerns when eccentricities are allowed to float in the orbital fit, yet when uncertainties are included in the analysis, the system including planet g also cannot be proven to be unstable. We present revised reduced χ2 values for Keplerian astrocentric orbital fits assuming four-planet and five-planet models for GJ 581 under the condition that best fits must be stable, and we find no distinguishable difference by including planet g in the model. Additionally, we present revised orbital element estimates for each, assuming uncertainties due to stellar jitter under the constraint of the system being gravitationally stable.

  11. Determination of LAGEOS satellite's precise orbits and residual analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, C. G.; Zhang, F. P.; Zhu, Y. L.

    2003-02-01

    Determination of LAGEOS satellite's precise orbits based on an analysis residual error of SLR data are introduced in detail. The method analyzing the data of satellite laser ranging (SLR)?the dynamical models used and the number of parameters estimated should be changed with the different purposes. The schemes were compared with each other and were analyzed with the number of parameters estimated and the residual errors in detail. The determination of precise orbits is the key of these. To acquire a precise orbit, the models determining the EOP were modified. The scheme being used by SHAO was selected from the several schemes. In this paper, the results of LAGEOS satellite's precise orbits from Dec. 31, 1998 to Jun. 29, 2001 are set out only. The results show that the root-mean square value of the residuals are less than 2cm. SHAO has begun the service of LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 quick-look residual analysis since Oct.1, 1999. The results can be find on the intent address: http://center.shao.ac.cn/APSG/result

  12. Orbit uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis with separated representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, Marc; Jones, Brandon; Doostan, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Most approximations for stochastic differential equations with high-dimensional, non-Gaussian inputs suffer from a rapid (e.g., exponential) increase of computational cost, an issue known as the curse of dimensionality. In astrodynamics, this results in reduced accuracy when propagating an orbit-state probability density function. This paper considers the application of separated representations for orbit uncertainty propagation, where future states are expanded into a sum of products of univariate functions of initial states and other uncertain parameters. An accurate generation of separated representation requires a number of state samples that is linear in the dimension of input uncertainties. The computation cost of a separated representation scales linearly with respect to the sample count, thereby improving tractability when compared to methods that suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In addition to detailed discussions on their construction and use in sensitivity analysis, this paper presents results for three test cases of an Earth orbiting satellite. The first two cases demonstrate that approximation via separated representations produces a tractable solution for propagating the Cartesian orbit-state uncertainty with up to 20 uncertain inputs. The third case, which instead uses Equinoctial elements, reexamines a scenario presented in the literature and employs the proposed method for sensitivity analysis to more thoroughly characterize the relative effects of uncertain inputs on the propagated state.

  13. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the body flap subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbiter Body Flap (BF) subsystem hardware are documented. The BF is a large aerosurface located at the trailing edge of the lower aft fuselage of the Orbiter. The proper function of the BF is essential during the dynamic flight phases of ascent and entry. During the ascent phase of flight, the BF trails in a fixed position. For entry, the BF provides elevon load relief, trim control, and acts as a heat shield for the main engines. Specifically, the BF hardware comprises the following components: Power Drive Unit (PDU), rotary actuators, and torque tubes. The IOA analysis process utilized available BF hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 35 failure modes analyzed, 19 were determined to be PCIs.

  14. Probing the population of the spin-orbit split levels in the actinide 5f states.

    PubMed

    Moore, K T; van der Laan, G; Tobin, J G; Chung, B W; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2006-03-01

    Spin-orbit interaction in the 5f states is believed to strongly influence exotic behaviors observed in actinide metals and compounds. Understanding these interactions and how they relate to the actinide series is of considerable importance. To address this issue, the branching ratio of the white-line peaks of the N4,5 edge for the light actinide metals, alpha-Th, alpha-U, and alpha-Pu were recorded using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Using the spin-orbit sum rule and the branching ratios from both experimental spectra and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, accurate values of the spin-orbit interaction, and thus the relative occupation of the j = 5/2 and 7/2 levels, are determined for the actinide 5f states. Results show that the spin-orbit sum rule works very well with both EELS and XAS spectra, needing little or no correction. This is important, since the high spatial resolution of a TEM can be used to overcome the problems of single-crystal growth often encountered with actinide metals, allowing acquisition of EELS spectra, and subsequent spin-orbit analysis, from nm-sized regions. The relative occupation numbers obtained by our method have been compared with recent theoretical results and they show a good agreement in their trend.

  15. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelli, Gary G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. The EMU is an independent anthropomorphic system that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for the Shuttle crewmember to perform Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in Earth orbit. Two EMUs are included on each baseline Orbiter mission, and consumables are provided for three two-man EVAs. The EMU consists of the Life Support System (LSS), Caution and Warning System (CWS), and the Space Suit Assembly (SSA). Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. The majority of these PCIs are resultant from failures which cause loss of one or more primary functions: pressurization, oxygen delivery, environmental maintenance, and thermal maintenance. It should also be noted that the quantity of PCIs would significantly increase if the SOP were to be treated as an emergency system rather than as an unlike redundant element.

  16. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the DPS subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, H. J.; Haufler, W. A.; Pietz, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis/Critical Items List (FMEA/CIL) is presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to independently determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Data Processing System (DPS) hardware are documented. The DPS hardware is required for performing critical functions of data acquisition, data manipulation, data display, and data transfer throughout the Orbiter. Specifically, the DPS hardware consists of the following components: Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM); General Purpose Computer (GPC); Multifunction CRT Display System (MCDS); Data Buses and Data Bus Couplers (DBC); Data Bus Isolation Amplifiers (DBIA); Mass Memory Unit (MMU); and Engine Interface Unit (EIU). The IOA analysis process utilized available DPS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Due to the extensive redundancy built into the DPS the number of critical items are few. Those identified resulted from premature operation and erroneous output of the GPCs.

  17. To Preserve or Not to Preserve the Orbit in Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Camilo; Mason, Eric; Solares, C. Arturo; Bush, Carrie; Carrau, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Context The effect on survival of orbital evisceration on patients with paranasal sinus neoplasms has not been well established. Objective To review systematically the available literature concerning survival in patients who undergo surgery for paranasal sinus neoplasm with and without preservation of the eye. Data Source A retrospective meta-analysis of English and non-English articles using Medline and the Cochrane database. Eligibility Criteria Studies analyzing 5-year survival rates in patients who had orbital evisceration compared with orbital preservation for the treatment of paranasal sinus neoplasms were included in the final analysis. Data Extraction Independent review by two authors using predefined data fields. Data Synthesis A meta-analysis of four articles involving 443 patients was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects method. Results Our analysis revealed a total effect size of 0.964 in favor of preservation of the eye; however, these results are not robust, having a true effect size anywhere from 0.785 to 1.142 with a 95% confidence interval. Limitations Only retrospective observational studies were included because a prospective randomized study cannot be performed in this population. Conclusion Our study supports the notion that in select patients preservation of the eye may yield a different outcome when compared with orbital evisceration. PMID:25844298

  18. Preliminary Analysis of IGS Reprocessed Orbit and Polar Motion Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. R.; Griffiths, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) are reanalyzing the history of global network GPS data collected since 1994 in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. This is the first reprocessing by the IGS, but it is expected to be repeated in the future as further analysis and reference frame changes occur. All eight final-product ACs are participating, together with three other related groups. First partial results consisting of IGS combined weekly SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2008. A snapshot of the available AC weekly SINEX files was used covering the reprocessed years 2000 through 2007 plus the IGS regular operational solutions for 2008 (from week 1460 onward). Meanwhile, the full reprocessing campaign will continue to completion by about the end of 2009 and will cover the period 1994 to present with long-term consistent, combined SINEX, orbit, and clock products. We have examined the reprocessed AC orbit and polar motion (PM) estimates from the 1024 days (or 1025 for differences) of results till the end of 2007. These parameters are linked since PM is sensed in the GPS modeling as a global diurnal sinusoidal motion of the terrestrial frame relative to the satellite frame. Any similar type errors in the orbital frame can bias the PM and PM rate estimates. For the orbits, each daily AC satellite ephemeris for each pair of consecutive days has been fit to the extended CODE orbit model, extrapolated to the mid-point epoch between the days, and the geocentric satellite position differences computed to give time series of orbit repeatabilities. Occasional data gaps have been filled by linear interpolation, FFT power spectra computed, and the spectra stacked over the full GPS constellation and lightly smoothed. Our analysis reveals considerable diversity among AC orbits. Several show broad semi-annual (probably related mostly to eclipsing) and fortnightly spectral peaks, as well as

  19. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.

  20. Mission Analysis and Orbit Control of Interferometric Wheel Formation Flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourcade, J.

    Flying satellite in formation requires maintaining the specific relative geometry of the spacecraft with high precision. This requirement raises new problem of orbit control. This paper presents the results of the mission analysis of a low Earth observation system, the interferometric wheel, patented by CNES. This wheel is made up of three receiving spacecraft, which follow an emitting Earth observation radar satellite. The first part of this paper presents trades off which were performed to choose orbital elements of the formation flying which fulfils all constraints. The second part presents orbit positioning strategies including reconfiguration of the wheel to change its size. The last part describes the station keeping of the formation. Two kinds of constraints are imposed by the interferometric system : a constraint on the distance between the wheel and the radar satellite, and constraints on the distance between the wheel satellites. The first constraint is fulfilled with a classical chemical station keeping strategy. The second one is fulfilled using pure passive actuators. Due to the high stability of the relative eccentricity of the formation, only the relative semi major axis had to be controlled. Differential drag due to differential attitude motion was used to control relative altitude. An autonomous orbit controller was developed and tested. The final accuracy is a relative station keeping better than few meters for a wheel size of one kilometer.

  1. Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yap, Keng C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge. The Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLE IDS) and the Impact Analysis Process are also described to monitor WLE debris threats. The contents include: 1) Risk Management via SHM; 2) Hardware Overview; 3) Instrumentation; 4) Sensor Configuration; 5) Debris Hazard Monitoring; 6) Ascent Response Summary; 7) Response Signal; 8) Distribution of Flight Indications; 9) Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA); 10) Model Correlation; 11) Impact Tests; 12) Wing Leading Edge Modeling; 13) Ascent Debris PRA Results; and 14) MM/OD PRA Results.

  2. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the instrumentation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, B. S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Instrumentation Subsystem are documented. The Instrumentation Subsystem (SS) consists of transducers, signal conditioning equipment, pulse code modulation (PCM) encoding equipment, tape recorders, frequency division multiplexers, and timing equipment. For this analysis, the SS is broken into two major groupings: Operational Instrumentation (OI) equipment and Modular Auxiliary Data System (MADS) equipment. The OI equipment is required to acquire, condition, scale, digitize, interleave/multiplex, format, and distribute operational Orbiter and payload data and voice for display, recording, telemetry, and checkout. It also must provide accurate timing for time critical functions for crew and payload specialist use. The MADS provides additional instrumentation to measure and record selected pressure, temperature, strain, vibration, and event data for post-flight playback and analysis. MADS data is used to assess vehicle responses to the flight environment and to permit correlation of such data from flight to flight. The IOA analysis utilized available SS hardware drawings and schematics for identifying hardware assemblies and components and their interfaces. Criticality for each item was assigned on the basis of the worst-case effect of the failure modes identified.

  3. A population of Main Belt Asteroids co-orbiting with Ceres and Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos A.; Wiegert, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out a search for Main Belt Asteroids (MBAs) co-orbiting with the large MBA Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. Through improving the search criteria used in Christou (Christou, A.A. [2000b]. Astron. Astrophys. 356, L71-L74) and numerical integrations of candidate coorbitals, we have identified approximately 51 (44) objects currently in co-orbital libration with Ceres (Vesta). We show that these form part of a larger population of transient coorbitals; 129 (94) MBAs undergo episodes of co-orbital libration with Ceres (Vesta) within a 2 Myr interval centred on the present. The lifetime in the resonance is typically a few times ˜10 5 yr but can exceed 2 × 10 6 yr. The variational properties of the orbits of several co-orbitals were examined. It was found that their present states with respect to the secondary are well determined but knowledge of it is lost typically after ˜2 × 10 5 yr. Objects initially deeper into the coorbital region maintain their coorbital state for longer. Using the model of Namouni et al. (Namouni, F., Christou, A.A., Murray, C.D. [1999]. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2506-2509) we show that their dynamics are similar to those of temporary coorbital NEAs of the Earth and Venus. As in that case, the lifetime of resonant libration is dictated by planetary secular perturbations, the inherent chaoticity of the orbits and close encounters with massive objects other than the secondary. In particular we present evidence that, while in the coorbital state, close encounters with the secondary are generally avoided and that Ceres affects the stability of tadpole librators of Vesta. Finally we demonstrate the existence of Quasi-Satellite orbiters of both Ceres and Vesta and conclude that decametre-sized objects detected in the vicinity of Vesta by the DAWN mission may, in fact, belong to this dynamical class rather than be bona-fide (i.e. Keplerian) satellites of Vesta.

  4. Mission analysis data for inclined geosynchronous orbits, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, O. F., Jr.; Wang, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    Data needed for preliminary design of inclined geosynchronous missions are provided. The inertial and Earth fixed coordinate systems are described, as well as orbit parameters and elements. The complete family of geosynchronous orbits is discussed. It is shown that circular inclined geosynchronous orbits comprise only one set in this family. The major orbit perturbation and their separate effects on the geosynchronous orbit are discussed. Detailed information on the orbit perturbation of inclined circular geosynchronous orbits is given, with emphasis on time history data of certain orbital elements. Orbit maintenance delta velocity (V) requirements to counteract the major orbit perturbations are determined in order to provide order of magnitude estimates and to show the effects of orbit inclination on delta V. Some of the considerations in mission design for a multisatellite system, such as a halo orbit constellation, are discussed.

  5. Analysis of orbit determination from Earth-based tracking for relay satellites in a perturbed areostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, P.; Pablos, B.; Barderas, G.

    2017-07-01

    Areostationary satellites are considered a high interest group of satellites to satisfy the telecommunications needs of the foreseen missions to Mars. An areostationary satellite, in an areoequatorial circular orbit with a period of 1 Martian sidereal day, would orbit Mars remaining at a fixed location over the Martian surface, analogous to a geostationary satellite around the Earth. This work addresses an analysis of the perturbed orbital motion of an areostationary satellite as well as a preliminary analysis of the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy based on Earth tracking observations. First, the models for the perturbations due to the Mars gravitational field, the gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, and solar radiation pressure are described. Then, the observability from Earth including possible occultations by Mars of an areostationary satellite in a perturbed areosynchronous motion is analyzed. The results show that continuous Earth-based tracking is achievable using observations from the three NASA Deep Space Network Complexes in Madrid, Goldstone and Canberra in an occultation-free scenario. Finally, an analysis of the orbit determination accuracy is addressed considering several scenarios including discontinuous tracking schedules for different epochs and different areoestationary satellites. Simulations also allow to quantify the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy for various tracking series durations and observed orbit arc-lengths.

  6. Stability Analysis of the Planetary System Orbiting Upsilon Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Rivera, Eugenio J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present results of long-term numerical orbital integrations designed to test the stability of the three-planet system orbiting Upsilon Andromedae and short-term integrations to test whether mutual perturbations among the planets can be used to determine planetary masses. Our initial conditions are based on the latest fits to the radial velocity data obtained by the planet-search group at Lick Observatory. The new fits result in significantly more stable systems than did the initially announced planetary parameters. An analytic analysis of the star and the two outer planets shows that this subsystem is Hill stable up to five. Our integrations involving all three planets show that the system is stable for at least 100 Myr for up to four. In our simulations, we still see a secular resonance between the outer two planets and in some cases large oscillations in the eccentricity of the inner planet.

  7. Space Shuttle Orbiter entry guidance and control system sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    An approach has been developed to determine the guidance and control system sensitivity to off-nominal aerodynamics for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry. This approach, which uses a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom interactive, digital simulation, has been applied to both the longitudinal and lateral-directional axes for a portion of the orbiter entry. Boundary values for each of the aerodynamic parameters have been identified, the key parameters have been determined, and system modifications that will increase system tolerance to off-nominal aerodynamics have been recommended. The simulations were judged by specified criteria and the performance was evaluated by use of key dependent variables. The analysis is now being expanded to include the latest shuttle guidance and control systems throughout the entry speed range.

  8. Analysis of Errors in a Special Perturbations Satellite Orbit Propagator

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.; Jones, J.P.

    1999-02-01

    We performed an analysis of error densities for the Special Perturbations orbit propagator using data for 29 satellites in orbits of interest to Space Shuttle and International Space Station collision avoidance. We find that the along-track errors predominate. These errors increase monotonically over each 36-hour prediction interval. The predicted positions in the along-track direction progressively either leap ahead of or lag behind the actual positions. Unlike the along-track errors the radial and cross-track errors oscillate about their nearly zero mean values. As the number of observations per fit interval decline the along-track prediction errors, and amplitudes of the radial and cross-track errors, increase.

  9. Forecast analysis on satellites that need de-orbit technologies: future scenarios for passive de-orbit devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Chiara; Kingston, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Propulsion-based de-orbit is a space-proven technology; however, this strategy can strongly limit operational lifetime, as fuel mass is dedicated to the de-orbiting. In addition previous reliability studies have identified the propulsion subsystem as one of the major contributors driving satellite failures. This issue brings the need to develop affordable de-orbit technologies with a limited reliance on the system level performance of the host satellite, ideally largely passive methods. Passive disposal strategies which take advantage of aerodynamic drag as the de-orbit force are particularly attractive because they are independent of spacecraft propulsion capabilities. This paper investigates the future market for passive de-orbit devices in LEO to aid in defining top-level requirements for the design of such devices. This is performed by considering the compliances of projected future satellites with the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee de-orbit time, to quantify the number of spacecraft that are compliant or non-compliant with the guidelines and, in this way, determine their need for the previously discussed devices. The study is performed by using the SpaceTrak™ database which provides future launch schedules, and spacecraft information; the de-orbit analysis is carried out by means of simulations with STELA. A case study of a passive strategy is given by the de-orbit mechanism technological demonstrator, which is currently under development at Cranfield University and designed to deploy a drag sail at the end of the ESEO satellite mission.

  10. New osculating orbits for 110 comets and analysis of original orbits for 200 comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, B. G.; Sekanina, Z.; Everhart, E.

    1978-01-01

    Osculating orbits are presented for 110 nearly parabolic comets. Combining these with selected orbit determinations from other sources, a total of 200 orbits are considered where the available observations yield a result of very good (first-class) or good (second-class) quality. For each of these, the original and future orbits (referred to the barycenter of the solar system) are calculated. The Oort effect (a tendency for original reciprocal semimajor axis values to range from zero to +100 millionths per AU) is clearly seen among the first-class orbits but not among the second-class orbits. Modifications in original reciprocal semimajor axis values due to the effects of nongravitational forces are considered.

  11. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangorra, F.; Grasmeder, R. F.; Montgomery, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbiter Remote Manipulator System (RMS) are documented. The RMS hardware and software are primarily required for deploying and/or retrieving up to five payloads during a single mission, capture and retrieve free-flying payloads, and for performing Manipulator Foot Restraint operations. Specifically, the RMS hardware consists of the following components: end effector; displays and controls; manipulator controller interface unit; arm based electronics; and the arm. The IOA analysis process utilized available RMS hardware drawings, schematics and documents for defining hardware assemblies, components and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 574 failure modes analyzed, 413 were determined to be PCIs.

  12. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the mechanical actuation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacher, J. L.; Montgomery, A. D.; Bradway, M. W.; Slaughter, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Mechanical Actuation System (MAS) hardware. Specifically, the MAS hardware consists of the following components: Air Data Probe (ADP); Elevon Seal Panel (ESP); External Tank Umbilical (ETU); Ku-Band Deploy (KBD); Payload Bay Doors (PBD); Payload Bay Radiators (PBR); Personnel Hatches (PH); Vent Door Mechanism (VDM); and Startracker Door Mechanism (SDM). The IOA analysis process utilized available MAS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  13. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the backup flight system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prust, E. E.; Mielke, R. W.; Hinsdale, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Backup Flight System (BFS) hardware. The BFS hardware consists of one General Purpose Computer (GPC) loaded with backup flight software and the components used to engage/disengage that unique GPC. Specifically, the BFS hardware includes the following: DDU (Display Driver Unit), BFC (Backup Flight Controller), GPC (General Purpose Computer), switches (engage, disengage, GPC, CRT), and circuit protectors (fuses, circuit breakers). The IOA analysis process utilized available BFS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the failure modes analyzed, 19 could potentially result in a loss of life and/or loss of vehicle.

  14. Scout: orbit analysis and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Chamberlin, Alan B.

    2016-10-01

    It typically takes a few days for a newly discovered asteroid to be officially recognized as a real object. During this time, the tentative discovery is published on the Minor Planet Center's Near-Earth Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP) until additional observations confirm that the object is a real asteroid rather than an observational artifact or an artificial object. Also, NEOCP objects could have a limited observability window and yet be scientifically interesting, e.g., radar and lightcurve targets, mini-moons (temporary Earth captures), mission accessible targets, close approachers or even impactors. For instance, the only two asteroids discovered before an impact, 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, both reached the Earth less than a day after discovery. For these reasons we developed Scout, an automated system that provides an orbital and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects within minutes after the observations are available. Scout's rapid analysis increases the chances of securing the trajectory of interesting NEOCP objects before the ephemeris uncertainty grows too large or the observing geometry becomes unfavorable. The generally short observation arcs, perhaps only a few hours or even less, lead severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. To overcome these degeneracies Scout relies on systematic ranging, a technique that derives possible orbits by scanning a grid in the poorly constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane-of-sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to derive a distribution of the possible orbits and in turn identify the NEOCP objects of most interest to prioritize followup efforts. In particular, Scout ranks objects according to the likelihood of an impact, estimates the close approach distance, the Earth-relative minimum orbit intersection distance and v-infinity, and computes scores to identify objects more likely to be an NEO, a km-sized NEO, a Potentially

  15. ORAN- ORBITAL AND GEODETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION ERROR ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putney, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital and Geodetic Parameter Estimation Error Analysis program, ORAN, was developed as a Bayesian least squares simulation program for orbital trajectories. ORAN does not process data, but is intended to compute the accuracy of the results of a data reduction, if measurements of a given accuracy are available and are processed by a minimum variance data reduction program. Actual data may be used to provide the time when a given measurement was available and the estimated noise on that measurement. ORAN is designed to consider a data reduction process in which a number of satellite data periods are reduced simultaneously. If there is more than one satellite in a data period, satellite-to-satellite tracking may be analyzed. The least squares estimator in most orbital determination programs assumes that measurements can be modeled by a nonlinear regression equation containing a function of parameters to be estimated and parameters which are assumed to be constant. The partitioning of parameters into those to be estimated (adjusted) and those assumed to be known (unadjusted) is somewhat arbitrary. For any particular problem, the data will be insufficient to adjust all parameters subject to uncertainty, and some reasonable subset of these parameters is selected for estimation. The final errors in the adjusted parameters may be decomposed into a component due to measurement noise and a component due to errors in the assumed values of the unadjusted parameters. Error statistics associated with the first component are generally evaluated in an orbital determination program. ORAN is used to simulate the orbital determination processing and to compute error statistics associated with the second component. Satellite observations may be simulated with desired noise levels given in many forms including range and range rate, altimeter height, right ascension and declination, direction cosines, X and Y angles, azimuth and elevation, and satellite-to-satellite range and

  16. ORAN- ORBITAL AND GEODETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION ERROR ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putney, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital and Geodetic Parameter Estimation Error Analysis program, ORAN, was developed as a Bayesian least squares simulation program for orbital trajectories. ORAN does not process data, but is intended to compute the accuracy of the results of a data reduction, if measurements of a given accuracy are available and are processed by a minimum variance data reduction program. Actual data may be used to provide the time when a given measurement was available and the estimated noise on that measurement. ORAN is designed to consider a data reduction process in which a number of satellite data periods are reduced simultaneously. If there is more than one satellite in a data period, satellite-to-satellite tracking may be analyzed. The least squares estimator in most orbital determination programs assumes that measurements can be modeled by a nonlinear regression equation containing a function of parameters to be estimated and parameters which are assumed to be constant. The partitioning of parameters into those to be estimated (adjusted) and those assumed to be known (unadjusted) is somewhat arbitrary. For any particular problem, the data will be insufficient to adjust all parameters subject to uncertainty, and some reasonable subset of these parameters is selected for estimation. The final errors in the adjusted parameters may be decomposed into a component due to measurement noise and a component due to errors in the assumed values of the unadjusted parameters. Error statistics associated with the first component are generally evaluated in an orbital determination program. ORAN is used to simulate the orbital determination processing and to compute error statistics associated with the second component. Satellite observations may be simulated with desired noise levels given in many forms including range and range rate, altimeter height, right ascension and declination, direction cosines, X and Y angles, azimuth and elevation, and satellite-to-satellite range and

  17. Uncertainty Requirement Analysis for the Orbit, Attitude, and Burn Performance of the 1st Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the uncertainty requirements for orbit, attitude, and burn performance were estimated and analyzed for the execution of the 1st lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) mission. During the early design phase of the system, associate analysis is an essential design factor as the 1st LOI maneuver is the largest burn that utilizes the onboard propulsion system; the success of the lunar capture is directly affected by the performance achieved. For the analysis, the spacecraft is assumed to have already approached the periselene with a hyperbolic arrival trajectory around the moon. In addition, diverse arrival conditions and mission constraints were considered, such as varying periselene approach velocity, altitude, and orbital period of the capture orbit after execution of the 1st LOI maneuver. The current analysis assumed an impulsive LOI maneuver, and two-body equations of motion were adapted to simplify the problem for a preliminary analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the statistical analysis to analyze diverse uncertainties that might arise at the moment when the maneuver is executed. As a result, three major requirements were analyzed and estimated for the early design phase. First, the minimum requirements were estimated for the burn performance to be captured around the moon. Second, the requirements for orbit, attitude, and maneuver burn performances were simultaneously estimated and analyzed to maintain the 1st elliptical orbit achieved around the moon within the specified orbital period. Finally, the dispersion requirements on the B-plane aiming at target points to meet the target insertion goal were analyzed and can be utilized as reference target guidelines for a mid-course correction (MCC) maneuver during the transfer. More detailed system requirements for the KPLO mission, particularly for the spacecraft bus itself and for the flight dynamics subsystem at the ground control center

  18. Enhanced orbit determination filter sensitivity analysis: Error budget development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.; Burkhart, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    An error budget analysis is presented which quantifies the effects of different error sources in the orbit determination process when the enhanced orbit determination filter, recently developed, is used to reduce radio metric data. The enhanced filter strategy differs from more traditional filtering methods in that nearly all of the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data are represented as filter parameters. Error budget computations were performed for a Mars Observer interplanetary cruise scenario for cases in which only X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were used to determine the spacecraft's orbit, X-band ranging data were used exclusively, and a combined set in which the ranging data were used in addition to the Doppler data. In all three cases, the filter model was assumed to be a correct representation of the physical world. Random nongravitational accelerations were found to be the largest source of error contributing to the individual error budgets. Other significant contributors, depending on the data strategy used, were solar-radiation pressure coefficient uncertainty, random earth-orientation calibration errors, and Deep Space Network (DSN) station location uncertainty.

  19. Analysis of GOCE data after each orbit reduction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, S.; Marty, J.; Foerste, C.; Abrykosov, O.; Bonvalot, S.

    2013-12-01

    The GOCE mission has been in science operation since November 2009. For the entire nominal and extended mission, the orbit altitude has been kept constant at 255 km thanks to the ion propulsion. More than two years of mission data were collected from November 2009 through July 2012 at that altitude. On the recommendation of ESA's Scientific Advisory Committee, ESA decided to decrease the altitude by 20 km in three stages, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the gradiometer to the gravity signal. Lowering of the orbit took place in August 2012, November 2012, and February 2013. In between the maneuvers, two 61-day cycles of data are collected at altitudes that are 8.6 and 15 km lower than the nominal altitude, respectively, followed by a 70-day cycle 20 km lower. In May 2013, after a quick internal evaluation, ESA performed a fourth and final orbit lowering of 10 km (i.e. altitude of 225 km), and a 143-day repeat cycle with 56 days sub-cycles started on 29 May. An analysis of the data quality is given for this last phase of the GOCE mission, or its second mission as ESA calls it, and gravity field models obtained with data before and after August 2012 are compared. The impact of the lower orbit altitudes is clearly visible, in particular over oceans, for which noise levels at equivalent resolution are significantly lower. We also assess the differences over areas with steep gradients, e.g. over mountain ranges, subduction trenches, shallow seas. Determining the small-scale signals over such areas requires maximum resolution with the least possible noise. This is partly achieved through regularization of the solution.

  20. Orbiter Repair Maneuver Contingency Separation Methods and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machula, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Repairing damaged thermal protection system tile requires the Space Shuttle to be oriented such that repair platform access from the International Space Station (ISS) is possible. To do this, the Space Shuttle uses the Orbiter Repair Maneuver (ORM), which utilizes the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) to rotate the Space Shuttle in relation to the ISS, for extended periods of time. These positions cause difficulties and challenges to performing a safe separation (no collision or thruster plume damage to sensitive ISS structures) should an inadvertent release occur or a contingency procedure require it. To help protect for an SRMS failure or other failures, a method for separating without collision and the ability to redock to ISS from the ORM configuration was needed. The contingency ORM separation solution elegantly takes advantage of orbital mechanics between ISS and the separating Space Shuttle. By pitching the ISS down approximately 45 degrees, in a majority of the ORM repair positions, the altitude difference between the ISS and Space Shuttle center of gravity is maximized. This altitude difference results in different orbital energies (orbital periods) causing objects to separate from each other without requiring translational firings. Using this method, a safe contingency ORM separation is made possible in many odd positions even though some separation positions point high powered thrusters directly at fragile ISS and Soyuz solar arrays. Documented in this paper are the development simulations and procedures of the contingency ORM separation and the challenges encountered with large constraints to work around. Lastly, a method of returning to redock with the ISS to pick up the stranded crew members (or transfer the final crew members) is explained as well as the thruster and ISS loads analysis.

  1. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the elevon subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results for the Orbiter Elevon system hardware. The elevon actuators are located at the trailing edge of the wing surface. The proper function of the elevons is essential during the dynamic flight phases of ascent and entry. In the ascent phase of flight, the elevons are used for relieving high wing loads. For entry, the elevons are used to pitch and roll the vehicle. Specifically, the elevon system hardware comprises the following components: flow cutoff valve; switching valve; electro-hydraulic (EH) servoactuator; secondary delta pressure transducer; bypass valve; power valve; power valve check valve; primary actuator; primary delta pressure transducer; and primary actuator position transducer. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 25 failure modes analyzed, 18 were determined to be PCIs.

  2. Analysis of Satellite and Sub-Orbital Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James (Technical Monitor); Martin, Randall V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is to support the INTEX aircraft mission by developing experience in the integrated analysis of existing sub-orbital observations and satellite observations with numerical models. Specific tasks include providing guidance to INTEX by identifying discrepancies in satellite observations with (1) in situ measurements, (2) bottom-up emission inventories of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, and (3) model calculations of the export of pollution from North America to the global atmosphere. An important focus area is developing and improving bottom-up emission inventories by combining top-down and bottom-up information.

  3. Orbital flight test Shuttle External Tank flowfield and aerothermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Foster, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ET). These ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight including heat transfer, pressure and structural temperature. The flight data were reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base, but has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications.

  4. A Complete Binary Orbit of Cygnus X-1: Spectroscopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Javier; Uttley, Phil; Wilms, Joern; Grinberg, Victoria; Pottschmidt, Katja; Dauser, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In 2016 we observed the canonical black hole binary system Cyg X-1/HDE226868 for a full 5.6-day orbit. We present preliminary results of the ionization state and composition of the plasma surrounding the black hole by looking at the XMM-Newton RGS spectra. Using newly improved reflection models, which include a Comptonization continuum, density and radial ionization effects; we also present an analysis of the reflected spectra observed simultaneously with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, effectively covering the 0.3-50 keV energy range.

  5. Orbital flight test Shuttle External Tank flowfield and aerothermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Foster, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ET). These ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight including heat transfer, pressure and structural temperature. The flight data were reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base, but has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications.

  6. Filter parameter tuning analysis for operational orbit determination support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J.; Cox, C.; Niklewski, D.; Mistretta, G.; Hart, R.

    1994-01-01

    The use of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for operational orbit determination support is being considered by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). To support that investigation, analysis was performed to determine how an EKF can be tuned for operational support of a set of earth-orbiting spacecraft. The objectives of this analysis were to design and test a general purpose scheme for filter tuning, evaluate the solution accuracies, and develop practical methods to test the consistency of the EKF solutions in an operational environment. The filter was found to be easily tuned to produce estimates that were consistent, agreed with results from batch estimation, and compared well among the common parameters estimated for several spacecraft. The analysis indicates that there is not a sharply defined 'best' tunable parameter set, especially when considering only the position estimates over the data arc. The comparison of the EKF estimates for the user spacecraft showed that the filter is capable of high-accuracy results and can easily meet the current accuracy requirements for the spacecraft included in the investigation. The conclusion is that the EKF is a viable option for FDD operational support.

  7. SPICE Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggi, John; Carnright, Robert; Hildebrand, Claude

    2008-01-01

    A SPICE module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) precisely represents complex motion and maneuvers in an interactive, 3D animated environment with support for user-defined quantitative outputs. (SPICE stands for Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, and Events). This module enables the SOAP software to exploit NASA mission ephemeris represented in the JPL Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE formats. Ephemeris types supported include position, velocity, and orientation for spacecraft and planetary bodies including the Sun, planets, natural satellites, comets, and asteroids. Entire missions can now be imported into SOAP for 3D visualization, playback, and analysis. The SOAP analysis and display features can now leverage detailed mission files to offer the analyst both a numerically correct and aesthetically pleasing combination of results that can be varied to study many hypothetical scenarios. The software provides a modeling and simulation environment that can encompass a broad variety of problems using orbital prediction. For example, ground coverage analysis, communications analysis, power and thermal analysis, and 3D visualization that provide the user with insight into complex geometric relations are included. The SOAP SPICE module allows distributed science and engineering teams to share common mission models of known pedigree, which greatly reduces duplication of effort and the potential for error. The use of the software spans all phases of the space system lifecycle, from the study of future concepts to operations and anomaly analysis. It allows SOAP software to correctly position and orient all of the principal bodies of the Solar System within a single simulation session along with multiple spacecraft trajectories and the orientation of mission payloads. In addition to the 3D visualization, the user can define numeric variables and x-y plots to quantitatively assess metrics of interest.

  8. Orbit Response Matrix Analysis Applied at PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Wolski, A.; Ecklund, S.; Safranek, J.A.; Tenenbaum, P.; Terebilo, A.; Turner, J.L.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2005-05-17

    The analysis of orbit response matrices has been used very successfully to measure and correct the gradient and skew gradient distribution in many accelerators. It allows determination of an accurately calibrated model of the coupled machine lattice, which then can be used to calculate the corrections necessary to improve coupling, dynamic aperture and ultimately luminosity. At PEP-II, the Matlab version of LOCO has been used to analyze coupled response matrices for both the LER and the HER. The large number of elements in PEP-II and the very complicated interaction region present unique challenges to the data analysis. All necessary tools to make the analysis method useable at PEP-II have been implemented and LOCO can now be used as a routine tool for lattice diagnostic.

  9. Analysis of filter tuning techniques for sequential orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T.; Yee, C.; Oza, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines filter tuning techniques for a sequential orbit determination (OD) covariance analysis. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in sequential OD, primarily due to the successful flight qualification of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) using Doppler data extracted onboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft. TONS computes highly accurate orbit solutions onboard the spacecraft in realtime using a sequential filter. As the result of the successful TONS-EUVE flight qualification experiment, the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Project has selected TONS as the prime navigation system. In addition, sequential OD methods can be used successfully for ground OD. Whether data are processed onboard or on the ground, a sequential OD procedure is generally favored over a batch technique when a realtime automated OD system is desired. Recently, OD covariance analyses were performed for the TONS-EUVE and TONS-EOS missions using the sequential processing options of the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS). ODEAS is the primary covariance analysis system used by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). The results of these analyses revealed a high sensitivity of the OD solutions to the state process noise filter tuning parameters. The covariance analysis results show that the state estimate error contributions from measurement-related error sources, especially those due to the random noise and satellite-to-satellite ionospheric refraction correction errors, increase rapidly as the state process noise increases. These results prompted an in-depth investigation of the role of the filter tuning parameters in sequential OD covariance analysis. This paper analyzes how the spacecraft state estimate errors due to dynamic and measurement-related error sources are affected by the process noise level used. This information is then used to establish

  10. An analysis of the orbital distribution of solid rocket motor slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstman, Matthew F.; Mulrooney, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The contribution by solid rocket motors (SRMs) to the orbital debris environment is potentially significant and insufficiently studied. Design and combustion processes can lead to the emission of enough by-products to warrant assessment of their contribution to orbital debris. These particles are formed during SRM tail-off, or burn termination, by the rapid solidification of molten Al2O3 slag accumulated during the burn. The propensity of SRMs to generate particles larger than 100μm raises concerns regarding the debris environment. Sizes as large as 1 cm have been witnessed in ground tests, and comparable sizes have been estimated via observations of sub-orbital tail-off events. Utilizing previous research we have developed more sophisticated size distributions and modeled the time evolution of resultant orbital populations using a historical database of SRM launches, propellant, and likely location and time of tail-off. This analysis indicates that SRM ejecta is a significant component of the debris environment.

  11. Expressions Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    The Expressions Module is a software module that has been incorporated into the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP). The module includes an expressions- parser submodule built on top of an analytical system, enabling the user to define logical and numerical variables and constants. The variables can capture output from SOAP orbital-prediction and geometric-engine computations. The module can combine variables and constants with built-in logical operators (such as Boolean AND, OR, and NOT), relational operators (such as >, <, or =), and mathematical operators (such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, modulus, exponentiation, differentiation, and integration). Parentheses can be used to specify precedence of operations. The module contains a library of mathematical functions and operations, including logarithms, trigonometric functions, Bessel functions, minimum/ maximum operations, and floating- point-to-integer conversions. The module supports combinations of time, distance, and angular units and has a dimensional- analysis component that checks for correct usage of units. A parser based on the Flex language and the Bison program looks for and indicates errors in syntax. SOAP expressions can be built using other expressions as arguments, thus enabling the user to build analytical trees. A graphical user interface facilitates use.

  12. Dynamical modeling and lifetime analysis of geostationary transfer orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Gurfil, Pini

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics and lifetime reduction of geostationary transfer orbits (GTOs) are of great importance to space debris mitigation. The orbital dynamics, subjected to a complex interplay of multiple perturbations, are complicated and sensitive to the initial conditions and model parameters. In this paper, a simple but effective non-singular orbital dynamics model in terms of Milankovitch elements is derived. The orbital dynamics, which include the Earth oblateness, luni-solar perturbations, and atmospheric drag, are averaged over the orbital motion of the GTO object, or, as needed, also over the orbital motions of the Moon and Sun, to eliminate the short-period terms. After the averaging process, the effect of the atmospheric drag assumes a simple analytical form. The averaged orbital model is verified through a numerical simulation compared with commercial orbit propagators. GTO lifetime reduction by using the luni-solar perturbations is studied. It is shown that the long-period luni-solar perturbation is induced by the precession of the GTO orbital plane and apsidal line, whereas the short-period perturbation is induced by the periodic luni-solar orbital motions. The long- and short-period perturbations are isolated and studied separately, and their global distribution with respect to the orbital geometry is given. The desired initial orbital geometry with a short orbital lifetime is found and verified by a numerical simulation.

  13. Orbital nematic instability in the two-orbital Hubbard model: renormalization-group + constrained RPA analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Ohno, Yusuke; Onari, Seiichiro; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-08-02

    Motivated by the nematic electronic fluid phase in Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), we develop a combined scheme of the renormalization-group method and the random-phase-approximation-type method, and analyze orbital susceptibilities of the (d(xz), d(yz))-orbital Hubbard model with high accuracy. It is confirmed that the present model exhibits a ferro-orbital instability near the magnetic or superconducting quantum criticality, due to the Aslamazov-Larkin-type vertex corrections. This mechanism of orbital nematic order presents a natural explanation for the nematic order in Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), and is expected to be realized in various multiorbital systems, such as Fe-based superconductors.

  14. Model of orbital populations for voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in transition-metal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Lukashev, Pavel V.; Jaswal, Sitaram S.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) is an efficient way to manipulate the magnetization states in nanomagnets and is promising for low-power spintronic applications. The underlying physical mechanism for VCMA is known to involve a change in the d orbital occupation on the transition-metal interface atoms with an applied electric field. However, a simple qualitative picture of how this occupation controls the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) and even why in certain cases the MCA has the opposite sign remains elusive. In this paper, we exploit a simple model of orbital populations to elucidate a number of features typical for the interface MCA, and the effect of the electric field on it, for 3 d transition-metal thin films used in magnetic tunnel junctions. We find that in all considered cases, including the Fe(001) surface, clean F e1 -xC ox(001 ) /MgO interface, and oxidized Fe(001)/MgO interface, the effects of alloying and the electric field enhance the MCA energy with electron depletion, which is largely explained by the occupancy of the minority-spin dx z ,y z orbitals. However, the hole-doped Fe(001) exhibits an inverse VCMA in which the MCA enhancement is achieved when electrons are accumulated at the Fe (001)/MgO interface with the applied electric field. In this regime, we predict a significantly enhanced VCMA that exceeds 1 pJ/Vm. Realizing this regime experimentally may be favorable for the practical purpose of voltage-driven magnetization reversal.

  15. Orbital stress analysis, part V: systematic approach to validate a finite element model of a human orbit.

    PubMed

    Al-sukhun, Jehad; Penttilä, Heikki; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2012-05-01

    The progress in computer technology and the increased use of finite element analysis in the medical field by nonengineers and medical researchers lead us to believe that there is a need to develop a systematic approach to validate a finite element model (FEM), of a human orbit, that simulates part of the maxillofacial skeleton and to investigate the effects and the clinical significance of changing the geometry, boundary conditions, that is, muscle forces, and orthotropic material properties on the predictive outcome of an FEM of a human orbit. Forty-seven variables affecting the material properties, boundary conditions, and the geometry of an FEM of a human orbit including the globe were systematically changed, creating a number of FEMs of the orbit. The effects of the variations were quantified as differences in the principal strain magnitudes modeled by the original FEM (criterion standard), before the sensitivity analyses, and those generated by the changed FEMs. The material properties that had the biggest impact on the predicted principal strains were the shear moduli (up to 21%) and the absence of fatty tissue (up to 75%). The boundary condition properties that had the biggest impact on the predicted principal strains were the superior rectus muscle and canthal ligaments (up to 18% and 23%, respectively). Alterations to the geometry of the orbit, such as an increase in its volume, had the greatest effect on principal strain magnitudes (up to 52%). Changes in geometry, boundary conditions, and orthotropic material properties can induce significant changes in strain patterns. These values must therefore be chosen with care when using finite element modeling techniques. This study also highlights the importance of restoring the orbital fat and volume when reconstructing the orbital floor following a blunt injury. The possibility that the unrestored increase in the orbital volume and the resulting stresses may be a source of globe injuries, causing diplopia

  16. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the manned maneuvering unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve indepedence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) hardware. The MMU is a propulsive backpack, operated through separate hand controllers that input the pilot's translational and rotational maneuvering commands to the control electronics and then to the thrusters. The IOA analysis process utilized available MMU hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware subsystems, assemblies, components, and hardware items. Final levels of detail were evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the worst case severity of the effect for each identified failure mode. The IOA analysis of the MMU found that the majority of the PCIs identified are resultant from the loss of either the propulsion or control functions, or are resultant from inability to perform an immediate or future mission. The five most severe criticalities identified are all resultant from failures imposed on the MMU hand controllers which have no redundancy within the MMU.

  17. Space Debris Attitude Simulation - IOTA (In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzler, R.; Schildknecht, T.; Lips, T.; Fritsche, B.; Silha, J.; Krag, H.

    Today, there is little knowledge on the attitude state of decommissioned intact objects in Earth orbit. Observational means have advanced in the past years, but are still limited with respect to an accurate estimate of motion vector orientations and magnitude. Especially for the preparation of Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions as planned by ESA's Clean Space initiative or contingency scenarios for ESA spacecraft like ENVISAT, such knowledge is needed. The In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis tool (IOTA) is a prototype software, currently in development within the framework of ESA's “Debris Attitude Motion Measurements and Modelling” project (ESA Contract No. 40000112447), which is led by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The project goal is to achieve a good understanding of the attitude evolution and the considerable internal and external effects which occur. To characterize the attitude state of selected targets in LEO and GTO, multiple observation methods are combined. Optical observations are carried out by AIUB, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is performed by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IWF) and radar measurements and signal level determination are provided by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR). Developed by Hyperschall Technologie Göttingen GmbH (HTG), IOTA will be a highly modular software tool to perform short- (days), medium- (months) and long-term (years) propagation of the orbit and attitude motion (six degrees-of-freedom) of spacecraft in Earth orbit. The simulation takes into account all relevant acting forces and torques, including aerodynamic drag, solar radiation pressure, gravitational influences of Earth, Sun and Moon, eddy current damping, impulse and momentum transfer from space debris or micro meteoroid impact, as well as the optional definition of particular spacecraft specific influences like tank sloshing, reaction wheel behaviour

  18. Secondary Eclipse Observations and Orbital Analysis of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2016-01-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 MJ a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 RJ and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 μm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 μm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 μm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  19. Network analysis of chaotic systems through unstable periodic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Miki U.; Saiki, Yoshitaka

    2017-08-01

    A chaotic motion can be considered an irregular transition process near unstable periodic orbits embedded densely in a chaotic set. Therefore, unstable periodic orbits have been used to characterize properties of chaos. Statistical quantities of chaos such as natural measures and fractal dimensions can be determined in terms of unstable periodic orbits. Unstable periodic orbits that can provide good approximations to averaged quantities of chaos or turbulence are also known to exist. However, it is not clear what type of unstable periodic orbits can capture them. In this paper, a model for an irregular transition process of a chaotic motion among unstable periodic orbits as nodes is constructed by using a network. We show that unstable periodic orbits which have lots of links in the network tend to capture time averaged properties of chaos. A scale-free property of the degree distribution is also observed.

  20. Angles-Only Initial Relative Orbit Determination Performance Analysis using Cylindrical Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, David K.; Lovell, T. Alan

    2017-03-01

    The solution of the initial relative orbit determination problem using angles-only measurements is important for orbital proximity operations, satellite inspection and servicing, and the identification of unknown space objects in similar orbits. In this paper, a preliminary relative orbit determination performance analysis is conducted utilizing the linearized relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates. The relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates are rigorously derived in several forms included the exact nonlinear two-body differential equations of motion, the linear-time-varying differential equations of motion for an elliptical orbit chief, and the linear-time-invariant differential equations of motion for a circular orbit chief. Using the nonlinear angles-only measurement equation in cylindrical coordinates, evidence of full-relative-state observability is found, contrary to the range observability problem exhibited in Cartesian coordinates. Based on these results, a geometric approach to assess initial relative orbit determination performance is formulated. To facilitate a better understanding of the problem, the focus is on the 2-dimensional initial orbit determination problem. The results clearly show the dependence of the relative orbit determination performance on the geometry of the relative motion and on the time-interval between observations. Analysis is conducted for leader-follower orbits and flyby orbits where the deputy passes directly above or below the chief.

  1. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of bisoprolol.

    PubMed

    Grevel, J; Thomas, P; Whiting, B

    1989-07-01

    The technique of population pharmacokinetic analysis was employed to study the variability in the dose concentration relationship of bisoprolol during its clinical development. The influence of demographic factors on the variability of clearance was investigated in 3 different populations: group I, patients (including an elderly group) with essential hypertension receiving multiple oral doses of bisoprolol 10 or 20mg for 3 months; group II, patients with different degrees of renal impairment and healthy controls; and group III, patients with different types of hepatic impairment and healthy controls. Patients and controls in groups II and III received only a single oral dose of bisoprolol 10mg. The 3 data sets were analysed separately, using a non-linear mixed effects model (the NONMEM program). A 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption described the data adequately. The typical values of volume of central compartment, volume of distribution at steady-state and the absorption rate constant for the 3 populations were: for group I, 68L, 235L, and 0.7h-1; for group II, 28L, 179L, and 0.3h-1; and for group III, 55L, 256L, and 0.4h-1, respectively. Plasma clearance was related to age in group I, to serum creatinine in group II and to aspartate transaminase activity in group III. The 68% confidence limits for clearance and elimination half-life were 8.2 to 21.5 L/h and 7.6 to 19.7h, respectively, for 50-year-old patients in group I. The analysis predicted that progressive increases in serum creatinine or aspartate transaminase activity will result in only a 50% reduction of clearance.

  2. Physiological and lifestyle factors contributing to risk and severity of peri-orbital dark circles in the Brazilian population*

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S; Schalka, Sérgio; Vanderover, Garrett; Fthenakis, Christina G.; Christopher, J; Bombarda, Patricia Camarano Pinto; Bueno, Juliana Regina; Viscomi, Bianca Lenci Inácio; Bombarda Júnior, Mário Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peri-orbital dark circles are a cosmetic concern worldwide, and have been attributed to hyperpigmentation from allergy or atopic dermatitis, blood stasis, structural shadowing effects, and a thin epidermis/dermis under the eye. It is of interest to better understand lifestyle and demographic risk factors and the relative impact of melanin, blood and epidermal/dermal factors on the severity of Peri-orbital dark circles. OBJECTIVE To compare by non-invasive imaging the impact of biological factors to a visual grading scale for Peri-orbital dark circles, and test the correlation of various demographic factors with Peri-orbital dark circles. METHODS Subjects completed a lifestyle and health survey, and Peri-orbital dark circles severity was evaluated using standardized photographs. Hyperspectral image analysis was used to assess the contributions of melanin, blood volume, degree of blood oxygen saturation, and dermal scattering. RESULTS Family history was the most significant risk factor for Peri-orbital dark circles. The average age of onset was 24 years, and earlier onset correlated with higher severity scores. Asthma was significantly associated with Peri-orbital dark circles scores, but self-reported allergy was not. In this study, sleep was not correlated with Peri-orbital dark circles scores. Hyperspectral imaging indicated that melanin was the dominant correlate for Peri-orbital dark circles severity, while oxygen saturation was secondary. The difference between under-eye and cheek measurements for ∆L*and ∆E* were the most significant instrumental parameters correlated with visual assessment of Peri-orbital dark circles severity. CONCLUSION Although typically associated with lack of sleep, risk of Peri-orbital dark circles is primarily hereditary. The main factors contributing to the appearance of Peri-orbital dark circles are melanin and (deoxygenated) blood. PMID:26375218

  3. Orbit Determination Covariance Analysis for the Europa Clipper Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionasescu, Rodica; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Valerino, Powtawche; Criddle, Kevin; Buffington, Brent; McElrath, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A new Jovian satellite tour is proposed by NASA, which would include numerous flybys of the moon Europa, and would explore its potential habitability by characterizing the existence of any water within and beneath Europa's ice shell. This paper describes the results of a covariance study that was undertaken on a sample tour to assess the navigational challenges and capabilities of such a mission from an orbit determination (OD) point of view, and to help establish a delta V budget for the maneuvers needed to keep the spacecraft on the reference trajectory. Additional parametric variations from the baseline case were also investigated. The success of the Europa Clipper mission will depend on the science measurements that it will enable. Meeting the requirements of the instruments onboard the spacecraft is an integral part of this analysis.

  4. Orbit Determination Covariance Analysis for the Europa Clipper Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionasescu, Rodica; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Valerino, Powtawche; Criddle, Kevin; Buffington, Brent; McElrath, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A new Jovian satellite tour is proposed by NASA, which would include numerous flybys of the moon Europa, and would explore its potential habitability by characterizing the existence of any water within and beneath Europa's ice shell. This paper describes the results of a covariance study that was undertaken on a sample tour to assess the navigational challenges and capabilities of such a mission from an orbit determination (OD) point of view, and to help establish a delta V budget for the maneuvers needed to keep the spacecraft on the reference trajectory. Additional parametric variations from the baseline case were also investigated. The success of the Europa Clipper mission will depend on the science measurements that it will enable. Meeting the requirements of the instruments onboard the spacecraft is an integral part of this analysis.

  5. Singular perturbation analysis of the atmospheric orbital plane change problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    A three-state model is presented for the aeroassisted orbital plane change problem. A further model order reduction to a single state model is examined using singular perturbation theory. The optimal solution for this single state model compares favorably with the exact numerical solution using a four-state model; however, a separate boundary layer solution is required to satisfy the terminal constraint on altitude. This, in general, involves the solution of a two-point boundary value problem, but for a two-state model. An approximation is introduced to obtain an analytical control solution for lift and bank angle. Included are numerical simulation results of a guidance law derived from this analysis, along with comparison to earlier work by other researchers.

  6. Preliminary radar systems analysis for Venus orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburg, R. K.; Spadoni, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    A short, preliminary analysis is presented of the problems involved in mapping the surface of Venus with radar from an orbiting spacecraft. Two types of radar, the noncoherent sidelooking and the focused synthetic aperture systems, are sized to fulfill two assumed levels of Venus exploration. The two exploration levels, regional and local, assumed for this study are based on previous Astro Sciences work (Klopp 1969). The regional level is defined as 1 to 3 kilometer spatial and 0.5 to 1 km vertical resolution of 100 percent 0 of the planet's surface. The local level is defined as 100 to 200 meter spatial and 50-10 m vertical resolution of about 100 percent of the surfAce (based on the regional survey). A 10cm operating frequency was chosen for both radar systems in order to minimize the antenna size and maximize the apparent radar cross section of the surface.

  7. Theoretical analysis of the density within an orbiting molecular shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueser, J. E.; Brock, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical model based on the kinetic theory of a drifting Maxwellian gas is used to determine the nonequilibrium molecular density distribution within a hemispherical shell open aft with its axis parallel to its velocity. Separate numerical results are presented for the primary and secondary density distribution components due to the drifting Maxwellian gas for speed ratios between 2.5 and 10. An analysis is also made of the density component due to gas desorbed from the wall of the hemisphere, and numerical results are presented for the density distribution. It is shown that the adsorption process may be completely ignored. The results are applicable to orbital trajectories in any planet-atmosphere system and interplanetary transfer trajectories. Application to the earth's atmosphere is mentioned briefly.

  8. Orbital Transfer Vehicle: Concept definition and system analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Findings and recommendations from the second extension of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept definition and system analysis study are outlined. The extension study opens the scope of potential recommendations by introducing a variety of ambitious programs, and by making the large cargo vehicle recommended by the Space Transportation Architecture Studies available at no acquisition cost to the OTV program. It is a further objective of the extension study to evaluate the sensitivity of OTV program recommendations to scenario variations such as different mission models, different launch vehicle availability, and different space station availability. Program/mission issues are addressed including safety considerations for the Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) OTV. Design issues related to the development of a near-term expendable OTV, engine configuration tradeoffs, lunar missions, and program evolution are discussed. Finally, aeroassist considerations for a manned Mars mission and high speed entries are presented.

  9. Theoretical analysis of the density within an orbiting molecular shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueser, J. E.; Brock, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical model based on the kinetic theory of a drifting Maxwellian gas is used to determine the nonequilibrium molecular density distribution within a hemispherical shell open aft with its axis parallel to its velocity. Separate numerical results are presented for the primary and secondary density distribution components due to the drifting Maxwellian gas for speed ratios between 2.5 and 10. An analysis is also made of the density component due to gas desorbed from the wall of the hemisphere, and numerical results are presented for the density distribution. It is shown that the adsorption process may be completely ignored. The results are applicable to orbital trajectories in any planet-atmosphere system and interplanetary transfer trajectories. Application to the earth's atmosphere is mentioned briefly.

  10. Orbit determination error analysis and comparison of station-keeping costs for Lissajous and halo-type libration point orbits and sensitivity analysis using experimental design techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft in orbit near libration point L1 in the Sun-Earth system are excellent platforms for research concerning solar effects on the terrestrial environment. One spacecraft mission launched in 1978 used an L1 orbit for nearly 4 years, and future L1 orbital missions are also being planned. Orbit determination and station-keeping are, however, required for these orbits. In particular, orbit determination error analysis may be used to compute the state uncertainty after a predetermined tracking period; the predicted state uncertainty levels then will impact the control costs computed in station-keeping simulations. Error sources, such as solar radiation pressure and planetary mass uncertainties, are also incorporated. For future missions, there may be some flexibility in the type and size of the spacecraft's nominal trajectory, but different orbits may produce varying error analysis and station-keeping results. The nominal path, for instance, can be (nearly) periodic or distinctly quasi-periodic. A periodic 'halo' orbit may be constructed to be significantly larger than a quasi-periodic 'Lissajous' path; both may meet mission requirements, but perhaps the required control costs for these orbits are probably different. Also for this spacecraft tracking and control simulation problem, experimental design methods can be used to determine the most significant uncertainties. That is, these methods can determine the error sources in the tracking and control problem that most impact the control cost (output); it also produces an equation that gives the approximate functional relationship between the error inputs and the output.

  11. Contribution Analysis of BDS/GPS Combined Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin

    2016-07-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) does not have the ability of global navigation and positioning currently. The whole tracking observation of satellite orbit and the geometry of reference station are not perfect. These situations influence the accuracy of satellite orbit determination. Based on the theory and method of dynamic orbit determination, the analytical contribution of multi-GNSS combined orbit determination to the solution precision of parameters was derived. And using the measured data, the statistical contribution of BDS/GPS combined orbit determination to the solution precision of orbit and clock error was analyzed. The results show that the contribution of combined orbit determination to the solution precision of the common parameters between different systems was significant. The solution precisions of the orbit and clock error were significantly improved except GEO satellites. The statistical contribution of BDS/GPS combined orbit determination to the precision of BDS satellite orbit, the RMS of BDS satellite clock error and the RMS of receiver clock error were 36.21%, 26.88% and 20.88% respectively. Especially, the contribution to the clock error of receivers which were in the area with few visible satellites was particularly significant. And the statistical contribution was 45.95%.

  12. MSFC Skylab Orbital Workshop, volume 1. [systems analysis and equipment specifications for orbital laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The technical aspects of the Skylab-Orbital Workshop are discussed. Original concepts, goals, design philosophy, hardware, and testing are reported. The final flight configuration, overall test program, and mission performance are analyzed. The systems which are examined are: (1) the structural system, (2) the meteoroid shield systems, and (3) the environmental/thermal control subsystem.

  13. Analysis of the orbital motion of the asteroid Apophis' satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashkin, V. V.; Lang, A.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed the orbital disturbed spacecraft motion near an asteroid. The equations of the asteroidocentric spacecraft motion have been used with regard to three perturbations from celestial bodies, the asteroid's nonsphericity, and solar radiation pressure. It has been shown that the orbital parameters of the main spacecraft and a small satellite with a radio beacon can be selected such that the orbits are rather stable for a fairly long period of time, i.e., a few weeks for the main spacecraft with an orbit initial radius of 0.5 km and a few years before approaching Apophis with the Earth in 2029, for a small satellite at an orbit initial radius of 1.5 km. The initial orientation of the spacecraft orbital plane perpendicular to the sunward direction is optimal from the point of view of the stability of the spacecraft flight near an asteroid.

  14. Error Analysis and Trajectory Correction Maneuvers of Lunar Transfer Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-hui; Hou, Xi-yun; Liu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    For a returnable lunar probe, this paper studies the characteristics of both the Earth-Moon transfer orbit and the return orbit. On the basis of the error propagation matrix, the linear equation to estimate the first midcourse trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) is figured out. Numerical simulations are performed, and the features of error propagation in lunar transfer orbit are given. The advantages, disadvantages, and applications of two TCM strategies are discussed, and the computation of the second TCM of the return orbit is also simulated under the conditions at the reentry time.

  15. Early Mission Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for Low-Earth Orbiting Missions using TDRSS Differenced One-way Doppler Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    Differencing multiple, simultaneous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) one-way Doppler passes can yield metric tracking data usable for orbit determination for (low-cost) spacecraft which do not have TDRSS transponders or local oscillators stable enough to allow the one-way TDRSS Doppler tracking data to be used for early mission orbit determination. Orbit determination error analysis results are provided for low Earth orbiting spacecraft for various early mission tracking scenarios.

  16. Impact risk analysis for a spacecraft in Cosmo-Skymed orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomuzzo, Cinzia; Francesconi, Alessandro; Anselmo, Luciano

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a case study of Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris risk assessment for a spacecraft flying in an orbit close to that of the Italian Cosmo-Skymed constellation. The aim of the analysis was to calculate the failure flux impinging on the satellite external shell, taking into account both geometry and materials of satellite surfaces. Furthermore the analysis included the evaluation of the contribution to debris population at the selected orbit of the fragments produced by a Chinese Anti-SATellite experiment, which caused the catastrophic break-up of the satellite Fengyun 1C in January 2007. A first computation was carried out using ESABASE2/Debris v.1.4.2. This software made it possible to perform geometrical analysis of a satellite subjected to a given debris environment, but the most up to date available models, ORDEM2000 and MASTER2001, gave significantly different results. An independent procedure for risk assessment analysis was implemented to further analyse such issue and to provide damage equation adequate to represent the behaviour of the selected structural aluminium honeycomb sandwich panels covered by Multi-Layer Insulation. Debris fluxes were calculated applying MASTER2005 and ORDEM2000 environment models, then results were compared to those of ESABASE2. Failure fluxes were calculated implementing special damage equations for honeycomb structures available from the open technical literature. The expected flux contribution of catalogued debris from the Chinese Anti-SATellite (ASAT) experiment was estimated independently using the code SDIRAT (Space Debris Impact Risk Analysis Tool) developed at the Institute of Information Science and Technologies (ISTI).

  17. Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. R.; Wright, Cinnamon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the missions commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.

  18. Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Wright, Cinnamon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the mission's commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.

  19. Analysis on the long term orbital evolution of Molniya satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Long term evolution of the Molniya satellites are investigated by means of historical data analysis, theoretical analysis and numerical integration. Both the mean motion resonance problem and the critical inclination problem are studied. The period and the amplitude of the semi-major axis for each satellite are obtained analytically and compared with the observational data. In addition, the reason of the observed sudden changes in the center and the amplitude of the oscillating semi-major axes is determined as the effect of the atmosphere drag. For the long period perigee motion, the dominant perturbations come from the luni-solar gravity. A two-degree-of freedom system is established by adding the two periodic terms of the neighbor resonances to the Hamiltonian of the classical single resonance model. In theory, the resulting resonance overlap model is responsible for the chaotic layer between the libration region and the circulation region. In practice, it is applied to explain the quick decay of the earliest Molniya satellites and to study the satellites that still orbiting the Earth at present.

  20. Analysis of magnetic field data from Pioneer Venus orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    The subject grant (NAG 2-501) supported the analysis of magnetic field data from the Pioneer Venus orbiter for the period 10/1/87 to 9/30/94. During that period, 188 papers were contributed to scientific meetings that either analyzed the magnetometer data or used the data as part of the analysis of a scientific problem. Further, 107 papers were published in research journals and books. The magnetic moment of Venus was described. Venus was found to be essentially devoid of any intrinsic magnetic field. There was evidence though for the presence of lightning in the Venus atmosphere. The altitude distribution of impulsive signals in the night atmosphere was mapped and geographic clusters were found, most probably associated with local time ordering. A new means to create flux ropes in the ionosphere was postulated. On the nightside, ionospheric holes, ionospheric clouds, and tail rays were studied. The subsolar ionopause and the magnetic barrier were examined as was the altitude asymmetry of the ionopause, properties of the magnetosheath, and location of the bow shock upstream waves.

  1. Orbiter subsystem hardware/software interaction analysis. Volume 8: Forward reaction control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the orbiter hardware/software interaction analysis for the AFT reaction control system are presented. The interaction between hardware failure modes and software are examined in order to identify associated issues and risks. All orbiter subsystems and interfacing program elements which interact with the orbiter computer flight software are analyzed. The failure modes identified in the subsystem/element failure mode and effects analysis are discussed.

  2. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  3. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  4. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter interplanetary injection period analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Kangas, Julie A.; Parcher, Daniel W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the sensitivity of the planned Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter mission to variations in interplanetary injection date, magnitude, and direction, starting in a low-Earth assembly orbit. These results are used to determine the frequency and number of injection opportunities from a processing assembly obit. It is shown that the use of a low-thrust propulsion system with a nuclear-electric power source would allow the interplanetary trajectory performance to be relatively insensitive to variations in injection conditions. This result yields many injection opportunities due to the long injection period and consecutive orbits with favorable geometry.

  5. Orbit determination for low-thrust spacecraft: Concepts and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanell, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Earth-based orbit determination capability for SEP spacecraft in multistation tracking and in thrust subsystem error modeling is described. Five different tracking strategies are applied to a 15 day segment of an Encke rendezvous mission. Both optimal and suboptimal orbit determination performance are determined for a wide range of process noise parameter values. The multi-station tracking techniques are found to be extremely effective, reducing orbit determination errors by orders of magnitude over that obtained with conventional single-station tracking. Explicitly differenced multistation data (QVLBI) is found to be least sensitive to gross modeling errors, but if a reasonably good process noise model is available, explicit differencing is not required.

  6. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    This software implements penetration limit equations for common micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems. Allowable MMOD risk is formulated in terms of the probability of penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft pressure hull. For calculating the risk, spacecraft geometry models, mission profiles, debris environment models, and penetration limit equations for installed shielding configurations are required. Risk assessment software such as NASA's BUMPERII is used to calculate mission PNP; however, they are unsuitable for use in shield design and preliminary analysis studies. The software defines a single equation for the design and performance evaluation of common MMOD shielding configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems, along with a description of their validity range and guidelines for their application. Recommendations are based on preliminary reviews of fundamental assumptions, and accuracy in predicting experimental impact test results. The software is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks.

  7. Light Curve and Orbital Period Analysis of VX Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, M.; Nelson, R. H.; Şenavcı, H. V.; İzci, D.; Özavcı, İ.; Gümüş, D.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we performed simultaneously light curve and radial velocity, and also period analyses of the eclipsing binary system VX Lac. Four color (BVRI) light curves of the system were analysed using the W-D code. The results imply that VX Lac is a classic Algol-type binary with a mass ratio of q=0.27, of which the less massive secondary component fills its Roche lobe. The orbital period behaviour of the system was analysed by assuming the light time effect (LITE) from a third body. The O-C analysis yielded a mass transfer rate of dM/dt=1.86×10-8M⊙yr-1 and the minimal mass of the third body to be M3=0.31M⊙. The residuals from mass transfer and the third body were also analysed because another cyclic variation is seen in O-C diagram. This periodic variation was examined under the hypotheses of stellar magnetic activity and fourth body.

  8. Analysis of orbital T cells in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Förster, G; Otto, E; Hansen, C; Ochs, K; Kahaly, G

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) has a major effect on the two compartments of the retro-orbital (RO) space, leading to enlargement of the extraocular muscles and other RO tissues. T lymphocyte infiltration of RO tissue is a characteristic feature of TAO and there is current interest in whether these T cells are specifically and selectively reactive to RO tissue itself. We recently established 18 T cell lines (TCL) from RO adipose/connective tissue of six patients with severe TAO by using IL-2, anti-CD3 antibodies and irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to maintain the growth of T cells reactive to autologous RO tissue protein fractions. Here we report on the phenotype characteristics and cytokine gene expression profiles of these orbital TCL and on their immunoreactivity to the organ-specific thyroid antigens thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R), thyroidal peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG). Flow cytometry revealed that 10 TCL were predominantly of CD4+ phenotype, three being mostly CD8+ and five neither CD4+ nor CD8+. Analysis with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of cytokine gene expression revealed both Th1- and Th2-like products in all TCL: IL-2 product (in 17 TCL), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) (n = 10), tumour necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) (n = 15), IL-4 (n = 12), IL-5 (n = 17), IL-6 (n = 13), TNF-α (n = 12) and IL-10 (n = 4). Reactivity to thyroid antigens was observed only in two TCL, the other 16 being uniformly unreactive. Although 10 out of 18 RO tissue-reactive TCL were predominantly CD4+ there were no significant relationships between TCL phenotype, cytokine gene profile, magnitude of reactivity to RO tissue protein or the (rare) occurrence of thyroid reactivity. The findings of both Th1- and Th2-like cytokine gene expression in all RO tissue-reactive TCL support the concept that TAO is a tissue-specific autoimmune disease, distinct immunologically from the thyroid, and involving both T cell and B

  9. Scripting Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Paget, Jim; Coggi, John; Stodden, David

    2008-01-01

    This add-on module to the SOAP software can perform changes to simulation objects based on the occurrence of specific conditions. This allows the software to encompass simulation response of scheduled or physical events. Users can manipulate objects in the simulation environment under programmatic control. Inputs to the scripting module are Actions, Conditions, and the Script. Actions are arbitrary modifications to constructs such as Platform Objects (i.e. satellites), Sensor Objects (representing instruments or communication links), or Analysis Objects (user-defined logical or numeric variables). Examples of actions include changes to a satellite orbit ( v), changing a sensor-pointing direction, and the manipulation of a numerical expression. Conditions represent the circumstances under which Actions are performed and can be couched in If-Then-Else logic, like performing v at specific times or adding to the spacecraft power only when it is being illuminated by the Sun. The SOAP script represents the entire set of conditions being considered over a specific time interval. The output of the scripting module is a series of events, which are changes to objects at specific times. As the SOAP simulation clock runs forward, the scheduled events are performed. If the user sets the clock back in time, the events within that interval are automatically undone. This script offers an interface for defining scripts where the user does not have to remember the vocabulary of various keywords. Actions can be captured by employing the same user interface that is used to define the objects themselves. Conditions can be set to invoke Actions by selecting them from pull-down lists. Users define the script by selecting from the pool of defined conditions. Many space systems have to react to arbitrary events that can occur from scheduling or from the environment. For example, an instrument may cease to draw power when the area that it is tasked to observe is not in view. The contingency

  10. Information services platforms at geosynchronous earth orbit: A requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The potential user requirements for Information Services Platforms at geosynchronous orbits were investigated. A rationale for identifying the corollary system requirements and supporting research and technology needs was provided.

  11. Modelling of orbital deformation using finite-element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sukhun, Jehad; Lindqvist, Christian; Kontio, Risto

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional finite-element model (FEM) of the human orbit, containing the globe, to predict orbital deformation in subjects following a blunt injury. This study investigated the hypothesis that such deformation could be modelled using finite-element techniques. One patient who had CT-scan examination to the maxillofacial skeleton including the orbits, as part of her treatment, was selected for this study. A FEM of one of the orbits containing the globe was constructed, based on CT-scan images. Simulations were performed with a computer using the finite-element software NISA (EMRC, Troy, USA). The orbit was subjected to a blunt injury of a 0.5 kg missile with 30 m s−1 velocity. The FEM was then used to predict principal and shear stresses or strains at each node position. Two types of orbital deformation were predicted during different impact simulations: (i) horizontal distortion and (ii) rotational distortion. Stress values ranged from 213.4 to 363.3 MPa for the maximum principal stress, from −327.8 to −653.1 MPa for the minimum principal stress, and from 212.3 to 444.3 MPa for the maximum shear stress. This is the first finite-element study, which demonstrates different and concurrent patterns of orbital deformation in a subject following a blunt injury. Finite element modelling is a powerful and invaluable tool to study the multifaceted phenomenon of orbital deformation. PMID:16849235

  12. Analysis of spacecraft on-orbit anomalies and lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C.; Graham, W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of the on-orbit performance of forty-four unmanned NASA spacecraft are presented. Included are detailed descriptions and classifications of over 600 anomalies; each anomalous incident represents one reported deviation from expected spacecraft performance. Charts depicting satellite lifetimes and the performance of their major subsystems are included. Engineering analyses to further investigate the kinds and frequencies of various classes of anomalies have been conducted. An improved method for charting spacecraft capability as a function of time on orbit is explored.

  13. X-ray atomic orbital analysis of 4f and 5d electron configuration of SmB6 at 100, 165, 230 and 298 K.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Shiro; Tanaka, Kiyoaki; Iga, Fumitoshi

    2010-06-01

    Accurate electron-density measurement of SmB(6) at 100, 165, 230 and 298 K, and X-ray atomic orbital (XAO) analysis were carried out. The 4f-electron density around Sm and 5d electron density at approximately 1 A from Sm were analysed by XAO analysis. The 5d electron density is due to the electrons of the 5d(J = 5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals which stem from the e(g) orbitals in the strong field approximation. The change in electron populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals with temperature is similar to that of the resistivity. Since the conduction band consists of 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) and B-2p orbitals according to band theory, this indicates that the larger populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals correspond to the larger number of localized electrons and are correlated to the resistivity of SmB(6). The occupation of the bulky 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals may be the reason for the elongation of the lattice parameter below 150 K. The 4f(7/2)Gamma(6) orbitals are obviously occupied except at 100 K, which seems to be caused by the energy gap between 4f(5/2) and 4f(7/2) states, which begins to exist between 100 and 150 K, and may represent one of the properties of a Kondo insulator.

  14. Unmanned, space-based, reusable orbital transfer vehicle, DARVES. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The design of an unmanned, space-based, reusable Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is presented. This OTV will be utilized for the delivery and retrieval of satellites from geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) in conjunction with a space station assumed to be in existence in low Earth orbit (LEO). The trade analysis used to determine the vehicle design is presented, and from this study a vehicle definition is given.

  15. Mission analysis to define satellite orbits for earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. F.; Brooks, D. R.; Gibson, G. G.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the number of satellites, the orbit altitude, and the inclinations which will provide the spatial and temporal earth coverage required for accurate radiation measurements on regional, zonal, and global scales. Measurement considerations are discussed and an analysis is conducted regarding the selection of suitable orbit parameters. Attention is also given to the results of a simulation model study for the determination of the radiation which can be measured by satellite sensors in different orbits.

  16. Analysis of periodic orbits about the Martian moons by continuation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, Frank

    1990-12-01

    From a few known periodic orbits of Phobos and Deimos, continuation techniques were used to find entire families of stable orbits. These techniques involved varying a parameter, the Hamiltonian, of the system and analyzing how the orbital behavior changed with the parameter. Floquet multipliers, for stability analysis, were also computed. AUTO86, a continuation/bifurcation software package, was used in this study. Artificial energy dissipation had to be added to the conservative Hamiltonian system to enable use of AUTO.

  17. Analysis of unstable periodic orbits and chaotic orbits in the one-dimensional linear piecewise-smooth discontinuous map

    SciTech Connect

    Rajpathak, Bhooshan Pillai, Harish K.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we analytically examine the unstable periodic orbits and chaotic orbits of the 1-D linear piecewise-smooth discontinuous map. We explore the existence of unstable orbits and the effect of variation in parameters on the coexistence of unstable orbits. Further, we show that this structuring is different from the well known period adding cascade structure associated with the stable periodic orbits of the same map. Further, we analytically prove the existence of chaotic orbit for this map.

  18. Exoplanet orbital eccentricities derived from LAMOST-Kepler analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, Peter; Fu, Jianning; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-11

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity [Formula: see text]) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination [Formula: see text]) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits ([Formula: see text]). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with [Formula: see text] 0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular [Formula: see text] and coplanar [Formula: see text] degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [[Formula: see text](1-2)[Formula: see text

  19. Orbit Analysis Tools Software (Version 1.0) User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington. DC 20375-5320 AD-A265 012 NRL/MR/8103--93-73071111111111111 ilIl I! f111t l11,!If Orbit Analysis Tools Software ...DATES COVERED April 13, 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 6. FUNDING NUMBERS Orbit Analysis Tools Software (Version 1.0) Users Manual 6. AUTHOR(S) Alan S. Hope...fhbxiWn 200 word) A program to perform satellite mission and coverage analysis has been written. The Orbit Analysis Tools Software (OATS) program uses

  20. Exoplanet orbital eccentricities derived from LAMOST–Kepler analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, Peter; Fu, Jianning; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity e¯≈0.06) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination i¯≈3°) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits (e¯≈0.3). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with e¯≈ 0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular (e¯=0.04−0.04+0.03) and coplanar (i¯=1.4−1.1+0.8 degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [e¯≈(1–2)×i¯] between mean eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The prevalence of circular orbits and the common relation may imply that the solar system is not so atypical in the galaxy after all. PMID:27671635

  1. Exoplanet orbital eccentricities derived from LAMOST-Kepler analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, Peter; Fu, Jianning; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity e¯≈0.06) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination i¯≈3°) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits (e¯≈0.3). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with e¯≈0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular (e¯=0.04-0.04+0.03) and coplanar (i¯=1.4-1.1+0.8 degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [×i¯] between mean eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The prevalence of circular orbits and the common relation may imply that the solar system is not so atypical in the galaxy after all.

  2. Analysis of the Orbital Elements of Binary Black Hole in the Quasar 3C380

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, T.; Kameno, S.; Nakamura, K.; Namikawa, D.; Ekawa, T.

    2009-08-01

    Binary black holes (BBHs) are considered to be at a stage of massive black hole (MBH) formation in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The orbital motion of BBHs produces relativistic aberration of the jets emanating from an AGN. This relativistic aberration causes a helical structure in jets, and analysis of the helical structure can determine BBH orbital parameters. The superluminal quasar 3C 380 exhibits a helical jet structure that may be caused by the orbital motion of BBHs. We attempt to determine the orbital elements by analyzing the structure and motion of the jets in 3C 380 from multi-epoch VSOP and VLBA images at 4.8 GHz. We compare the images with jet models that were calculated based on BBH orbits with various parameters, and determine the best-fit orbital elements.

  3. IgG4-related Orbital Disease and Its Mimics in a Western Population.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Judith A; Klepeis, Veronica; Sohani, Aliyah R; Harris, Nancy Lee; Preffer, Frederic I; Stone, John H; Grove, Arthur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Although chronic inflammatory disorders of the ocular adnexa are relatively common, their pathogenesis is in many cases poorly understood. Recent investigation suggests that many cases of sclerosing orbital inflammation are a manifestation of IgG4-related disease; however, most patients reported have been Asian, and it is not clear whether the results of studies from the Far East can be reliably extrapolated to draw conclusions about Western patients. We evaluated 38 cases previously diagnosed as orbital inflammatory pseudotumor or chronic dacryoadenitis to determine whether our cases fulfill the criteria for IgG4-RD (IgG4-related dacryoadenitis when involving the lacrimal gland, and IgG4-related sclerosing orbital inflammation when involving orbital soft tissue). Fifteen patients had IgG4-related dacryoadenitis or orbital inflammation. These patients included 9 men and 6 women, aged 24 to 77 years (median, 64 y). Lesions involved orbital soft tissue (8 cases), lacrimal gland (6 cases), and canthus (1 case). In 1 case, focal in situ follicular neoplasia was seen in a background of IgG4-RD. In another case, a clonal IGH gene rearrangement was detected. Four patients with IgG4-RD had evidence of IgG4-RD in other anatomic sites. Five patients, 1 man and 4 women, aged 26 to 74 years (median 50 y) had orbital lesions (2 involving lacrimal gland, 3 involving soft tissue) suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, IgG4-RD. Of 16 patients with IgG4-RD or probable IgG4-RD with information available regarding the course of their disease, 11 patients experienced recurrent or persistent orbital disease. However, no patient developed lymphoma, and no patient died of complications of IgG4-RD. Eighteen patients had lesions not representing IgG4-RD. They included 6 male and 12 female individuals aged 6 to 77 years (median, 47 y). These patients had a variety of diseases, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (3 cases), Rosai-Dorfman disease (1 case), nonspecific chronic

  4. Mars Science and Telecommunications Orbiter: Report of the Science Analysis Group, March 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton Barney; Calvin, Wendy M.; Campbell, Bruce; Fox, Jane; Haberle, Bob; Kasting, Jim; Luhmann, Janet; Nagy, Andy; Allen, Mark; Winterhalter, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This document reports the findings of the Mars Science and Telecommunications Orbiter (MSTO) Science Advocacy Group (SAG), which was convened by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) and the Mars Exploration Office at JPL to identify and prioritize areas of Mars atmospheric and surface science objectives for Mars that can be accomplished from orbit on a MSTO like mission.

  5. Mars Science and Telecommunications Orbiter: Report of the Science Analysis Group, March 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton Barney; Calvin, Wendy M.; Campbell, Bruce; Fox, Jane; Haberle, Bob; Kasting, Jim; Luhmann, Janet; Nagy, Andy; Allen, Mark; Winterhalter, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This document reports the findings of the Mars Science and Telecommunications Orbiter (MSTO) Science Advocacy Group (SAG), which was convened by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) and the Mars Exploration Office at JPL to identify and prioritize areas of Mars atmospheric and surface science objectives for Mars that can be accomplished from orbit on a MSTO like mission.

  6. Microsatellite data analysis for population genetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Theories and analytical tools of population genetics have been widely applied for addressing various questions in the fields of ecological genetics, conservation biology, and any context where the role of dispersal or gene flow is important. Underlying much of population genetics is the analysis of variation at selectively neutral marker loci, and microsatellites continue to be a popular choice of marker. In recent decades, software programs to estimate population genetics parameters have been developed at an increasing pace as computational science and theoretical knowledge advance. Numerous population genetics software programs are presently available to analyze microsatellite genotype data, but only a handful are commonly employed for calculating parameters such as genetic variation, genetic structure, patterns of spatial and temporal gene flow, population demography, individual population assignment, and genetic relationships within and between populations. In this chapter, we introduce statistical analyses and relevant population genetic software programs that are commonly employed in the field of population genetics and molecular ecology.

  7. Analysis of Orbital Lifetime Prediction Parameters in Preparation for Post-Mission Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ha-Yeon; Kim, Hae-Dong; Seong, Jae-Dong

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric drag force is an important source of perturbation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) orbit satellites, and solar activity is a major factor for changes in atmospheric density. In particular, the orbital lifetime of a satellite varies with changes in solar activity, so care must be taken in predicting the remaining orbital lifetime during preparation for post-mission disposal. In this paper, the System Tool Kit (STK®) Long-term Orbit Propagator is used to analyze the changes in orbital lifetime predictions with respect to solar activity. In addition, the STK® Lifetime tool is used to analyze the change in orbital lifetime with respect to solar flux data generation, which is needed for the orbital lifetime calculation, and its control on the drag coefficient control. Analysis showed that the application of the most recent solar flux file within the Lifetime tool gives a predicted trend that is closest to the actual orbit. We also examine the effect of the drag coefficient, by performing a comparative analysis between varying and constant coefficients in terms of solar activity intensities.

  8. Analysis of orbit determination for space based optical space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciré, Gioacchino; Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The detection capability and orbit determination performance of a space based optical observation system exploiting the visible band is analyzed. The sensor characteristics, in terms of sensitivity and resolution are those typical of present state of the art star trackers. A mathematical model of the system has been built and the system performance assessed by numerical simulation. The selection of the observer satellite's has been done in order to maximize the number of observed objects in LEO, based on a statistical analysis of the space debris population in this region. The space objects' observability condition is analyzed and two batch estimator based on the Levenberg-Marquardt and on the Powell dog-leg algorithms have been implemented and their performance compared. Both the algorithms are sensitive to the initial guess. Its influence on the algorithms' convergence is assessed, showing that the Powell dog-leg, which is a trust region method, performs better.

  9. Orbital lymphangioma: an analysis of 26 patients

    PubMed Central

    Tunc, M.; Sadri, E.; Char, D.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate retrospective data on the clinical findings, histological features, radiological diagnosis, and management outcomes in orbital lymphangioma.
METHODS—Data on 26 orbital lymphangioma patients managed over 16 years were re-evaluated. The computed tomograph and magnetic resonance scans and histological slides were reviewed. Parametric techniques were used to assess correlations among clinical, radiological, and histopathological factors.
RESULTS—At presentation proptosis was present in 85%, ptosis in 73%, and restrictive eye movements in 46% of patients. The accuracy of the initial radiology interpretations was 77%. 24 cases required one or more surgeries. The mean follow up was 9.2 years (range 1-14 years). 58% of patients developed recurrences. In cases that recurred, motility restriction was significantly more frequent at initial examination than cases without recurrence (p<0.05). After therapy, 75% of patients were satisfied with their visual function and cosmetic appearance.
CONCLUSIONS—Conservative management of orbital lymphangioma with multiple partial resections may achieve satisfactory results.

 Keywords: orbital lymphangioma PMID:10209440

  10. Risk Analysis of On-Orbit Spacecraft Refueling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    On-orbit refueling of spacecraft has been proposed as an alternative to the exclusive use of Heavy-lift Launch Vehicles to enable human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In these scenarios, beyond LEO spacecraft are launched dry (without propellant) or partially dry into orbit, using smaller or fewer element launch vehicles. Propellant is then launched into LEO on separate launch vehicles and transferred to the spacecraft. Refueling concepts are potentially attractive because they reduce the maximum individual payload that must be placed in Earth orbit. However, these types of approaches add significant complexity to mission operations and introduce more uncertainty and opportunities for failure to the mission. In order to evaluate these complex scenarios, the authors developed a Monte Carlo based discrete-event model that simulates the operational risks involved with such strategies, including launch processing delays, transportation system failures, and onorbit element lifetimes. This paper describes the methodology used to simulate the mission risks for refueling concepts, the strategies that were evaluated, and the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that scenarios that employ refueling concepts will likely have to include long launch and assembly timelines, as well as the use of spare tanker launch vehicles, in order to achieve high levels of mission success through Trans Lunar Injection.

  11. Application and analysis of satellite orbit prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The numerical accuracy of a satellite orbit computation program was investigated. The effects of roundoff and truncation errors on the solution were determined. New formulations that have the mean motion based on the total energy are compared to the more classical formulations and evaluated via numerical experiments.

  12. Orbiter subsystem hardware/software interaction analysis. Volume 8: AFT reaction control system, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The orbiter subsystems and interfacing program elements which interact with the orbiter computer flight software are analyzed. The failure modes identified in the subsystem/element failure mode and effects analysis are examined. Potential interaction with the software is examined through an evaluation of the software requirements. The analysis is restricted to flight software requirements and excludes utility/checkout software. The results of the hardware/software interaction analysis for the forward reaction control system are presented.

  13. Analysis of a Large Orbit Backward Wave Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choyal, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Minami, K.; Granatstein, V. L.

    2003-12-01

    The effect of the finite axial magnetic field on the excitation of a backward wave oscillator (BWO) is investigated. The driver beam is assumed to be mono-energetic helical electron beam such that all the constituent electrons have their gyration centers on the axis of the slow wave structure (SWS). Such a beam supports negative energy fast and slow cyclotron modes (FCM and SCM) that can excite the structure modes in the SWS. This may contribute to the microwave generation in BWO. All the previous analyses on BWO have assumed the electrons without the initial perpendicular velocity component. The formulation is as follows: The thin annular large orbit beam is perturbed and the first order perturbations in velocity and density are obtained. Integrating radially across the beam, we derive the expression for surface current density. It can be expressed in terms of the azimuthal and axial components of the perturbed electric field. The boundary conditions on the beam surface are as follows. (a) Matching of the continuous axial and azimuthal components of electric field and (b) Matching of the discontinuous axial and azimuthal magnetic fields across the beam by the presence of surface current density. They are augmented by the requirement of Floquet periodicity on the RF fields and the boundary conditions that the tangential electric field should vanish on the metal SWS surface, 6(2N+1) × 6(2N+1) order determinant that must to be zero and this is the dispersion relation of the system. Here, 2N+1 is the number of Floquet harmonics involved. Numerical analysis is made assuming N=4 and appropriate practical experimental parameters. The excitations of the unstable non-axisymmetric Q-TE11 and Q-TM11 modes caused by negative energy FCM in addition to unstable axisymmetric Q-TM01 mode caused by slow beam mode that is identical to conventional BWOs are observed. Defining α as the ratio of the transverse to the longitudinal velocity components of the beam electrons, it is

  14. Digital analysis of the orbit using the non-referring method

    PubMed Central

    Dąbek, Józefa; Piechota, Mieczysław; Bajor, Grzegorz; Aniszewski, Łukasz; Markowski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Anthropological analysis of the orbits using classic anthropometric instruments based on width and height measurements as well as orbital index allows for classification of orbits in terms of their shape, yet it has poor clinical application. Nowadays computer graphics enables a precise research technique implementing the latest achievements in digital technology and data recording. The aim of the study was to compare in let parameters of left and right orbits in male and female skulls by means of digital analysis techniques. Material and methods The analysis was carried out on 184 early medieval well-preserved skulls. The examined crania were fixed into Molisson's craniost at in the author's own modification. They were directed in space towards the Frankfurt plane and photographed in a frontal norm. Parameters describing the plane structure of the orbits were obtained through computer analysis, integrating raster and vector graphics of mathematical recordings of craniofacial structures. Results The research demonstrated some differences between male and female skulls. Parameters of right orbit like area, circumference, radius, excavation, circularity deviation and functional were statistically significant higher values in male skull. The following parameters of left orbit: area, circumference, reference circle radius, parameter describing height between two point (mf-ek), maximal width, maximal excavation in relation to median and mean, circularity deviation and functional were statistically significant higher parameter in the male group. Conclusions Orbit shape variability, and especially variability of the orbit in let, are highly important features for anthropologists and maxillofacial surgeons, hence the usefulness of the in let orbit shape digital analysis. PMID:24701232

  15. Orbital debris and meteoroid population as estimated from LDEF impact data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Kessler, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Examination of LDEF`s various surfaces shows numerous craters and holes due to hypervelocity impacts of meteoroids and man-made orbital debris. In this paper, the crater numbers as reported by Humes have been analyzed in an effort to understand the orbital debris and natural meteoroid environment in LEO. To determine the fraction of man-made to natural impacts, the side to top ratio of impacts and results of the Chemistry of Micrometeoroids Experiment are used. For craters in the 100 micron to 500 micron size range, about 25 percent to 30 percent of the impacts on the forward-facing surfaces and about 10 percent of the impacts on the trailing surfaces were estimated due to man-made orbital debris. A technique has been developed to convert crater numbers to particle fluxes, taking the fact into account that the distributions of impact velocity and incidence angle vary over the different surfaces of LDEF, as well as the ratio of the surface area flux to the cross-sectional area flux. Applying this technique, Humes` data concerning craters with limiting lip diameters of 100 micron, 200 micron and 500 micron have been converted into orbital debris and meteoroid fluxes ranging from about 20 micron to 200 micron particle diameter. The results exhibit good agreement with orbital debris model and meteoroid model. The converted meteoroid flux is slightly larger than Grun`s model (by 40 to 70 percent). The converted orbital debris flux is slightly lower than Kessler`s model for particle diameter smaller than about 30 micron and slightly larger than the model for particle diameter larger than about 40 micron. Taking also into account the IDE data point at about 0.8 micron particle diameter, it suggests to change the slope log (flux) versus log (diameter) of orbital debris flux in the 1 micron to 100 micron particle diameter range from 2.5 to 1.9.

  16. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fields, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite-element computer program and NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite-element computer programs were used in the thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating. A SPAR structural model was set up for the entire left wing of the orbiter, and NASTRAN structural models were set up for: (1) a wing segment located at midspan of the orbiter left wing, and (2) a fuselage segment located at midfuselage. The thermal stress distributions in the orbiter structure were obtained and the critical high thermal stress regions were identified. It was found that the thermal stresses induced in the orbiter structure during reentry were relatively low. The thermal stress predictions from the whole wing model were considered to be more accurate than those from the wing segment model because the former accounts for temperature and stress effects throughout the entire wing.

  17. Dispersion analysis for baseline reference mission 1. [flight simulation and trajectory analysis for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering 3 sigma uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for the baseline reference mission (BRM) 1 of the space shuttle orbiter. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for the BRM 1. State vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated 3 sigma uncertainties were studied. The dispersions were determined at major mission events and fixed times from lift-off (time slices) and the results will be used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a 3 sigma level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves. A computer program is given that was used for dynamic flight simulations of the space shuttle orbiter.

  18. A general methodology for population analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazov, Petar; Lazov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    For a given population with N - current and M - maximum number of entities, modeled by a Birth-Death Process (BDP) with size M+1, we introduce utilization parameter ρ, ratio of the primary birth and death rates in that BDP, which, physically, determines (equilibrium) macrostates of the population, and information parameter ν, which has an interpretation as population information stiffness. The BDP, modeling the population, is in the state n, n=0,1,…,M, if N=n. In presence of these two key metrics, applying continuity law, equilibrium balance equations concerning the probability distribution pn, n=0,1,…,M, of the quantity N, pn=Prob{N=n}, in equilibrium, and conservation law, and relying on the fundamental concepts population information and population entropy, we develop a general methodology for population analysis; thereto, by definition, population entropy is uncertainty, related to the population. In this approach, what is its essential contribution, the population information consists of three basic parts: elastic (Hooke's) or absorption/emission part, synchronization or inelastic part and null part; the first two parts, which determine uniquely the null part (the null part connects them), are the two basic components of the Information Spectrum of the population. Population entropy, as mean value of population information, follows this division of the information. A given population can function in information elastic, antielastic and inelastic regime. In an information linear population, the synchronization part of the information and entropy is absent. The population size, M+1, is the third key metric in this methodology. Namely, right supposing a population with infinite size, the most of the key quantities and results for populations with finite size, emerged in this methodology, vanish.

  19. Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer: Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, A. I. F.

    1997-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer investigation on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter mission was extremely successful. The instrument was designed, built and tested at CU/LASP and delivered on time and within budget. The spacecraft and its instruments were required to operate for 243 days in Venus orbit. OUVS operated successfully for a further 13 years with only minor problems. The major scientific results listed above that deal with Venus were all unexpected and significant discoveries. The Comet Halley observations came about because of a favorable alignment of Halley, the Sun, and Venus, and were an important contribution to the international study of this comet. The scientific results of the OUVS investigation are to be found in the 41 papers listed in section 4 below. OUVS data provided material for 6 PhD and one MS dissertations, listed in section 5 below.

  20. Orbiter entry leeside heat-transfer data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Zoby, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    Heat-transfer data measured along the Space Shuttle Orbiter's leeward centerline and over the wing leeside surface during the STS-2 and STS-3 mission entries are presented. The flight data are compared with available wind-tunnel results. Flight heating levels are, in general, lower than those which are inferred from the wind-tunnel results. This result is apparently due to the flight leeside flowfield remaining laminar over a larger Reynolds number range than that of corresponding ground test results. The flight/wind-tunnel data comparisons confirm the adequacy of, and conservatism embodied in, the direct application of wind-tunnel data at flight conditions for the design of Orbiter leeside thermal protection.

  1. Geostationary Orbital Crowding: An Analysis of Problems and Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-16

    his famous Wireless World article of 1945, entitled ’Extraterrestrial Relays,’ Arthur C. Clarke suggested that a true broadcast service giving...following paragraph as Article 33, and titled "Rational Use of the Radio Frequency Spectrum and of the Geostationary Satellite Orbit," to the ITU Convention...Books, 1988), p. 5. Figure 3.4. Regions of the International Telecomunications Union 96 Space WARC-1979 Convening in Geneva, Switzerland on the 24th of

  2. Orbital period analysis of some classical Algols with pulsating components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soydugan, F.; Kacar, Y.; Soydugan, E.; Bakıs, V.; Tuysuz, M.; Senyuz, T.; Donmez, A.; Bilir, S.; Erdem, A.; Cicek, C.; Demircan, C.

    2008-12-01

    The long-term orbital period variations of the Algol-type binaries with δ Scuti compo- nent(oEA) AB Cas, CT Her, and TW Dra are investigated. An upward parabola is seen in all of these systems O-C diagrams, as is expected from the evolutionary scenario of clas- sical Algols. In addition to parabolic variations, the periodic variations on the parabola were explained with light-time effect due to probable unseen components around the eclipsing pairs.

  3. Cryogenic thermal system analysis for orbital propellant depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2014-09-01

    In any manned mission architecture, upwards of seventy percent of all payload delivered to orbit is propellant, and propellant mass fraction dominates almost all transportation segments of any mission requiring a heavy lift launch system like the Saturn V. To mitigate this, the use of an orbital propellant depot has been extensively studied. In this paper, a thermal model of an orbital propellant depot is used to examine the effects of passive and active thermal management strategies. Results show that an all passive thermal management strategy results in significant boil-off for both hydrogen and oxygen. At current launch vehicle prices, these boil-offs equate to millions of dollars lost per month. Zero boil-off of propellant is achievable with the use of active cryocoolers; however, the cooling power required to produce zero-boil-off is an order of magnitude higher than current state-of-the-art cryocoolers. This study shows a zero-boil-off cryocooler minimum power requirement of 80-100 W at 80 K for liquid oxygen, and 100-120 W at 20 K for liquid hydrogen for a representative Near-Earth Object mission. Research and development effort is required to improve the state-of-the-arts in-space cryogenic thermal management.

  4. Analysis of the SPS Long Term Orbit Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Velotti, Francesco; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel; Drøsdal, Lene; Fraser, Matthew; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika

    2016-06-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is the last accelerator in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain, and has to deliver the two high-intensity 450 GeV proton beams to the LHC. The transport from SPS to LHC is done through the two Transfer Lines (TL), TI2 and TI8, for Beam 1 (B1) and Beam 2 (B2) respectively. During the first LHC operation period Run 1, a long term drift of the SPS orbit was observed, causing changes in the LHC injection due to the resulting changes in the TL trajectories. This translated into longer LHC turnaround because of the necessity to periodically correct the TL trajectories in order to preserve the beam quality at injection into the LHC. Different sources for the SPS orbit drifts have been investigated: each of them can account only partially for the total orbit drift observed. In this paper, the possible sources of such drift are described, together with the simulated and measured effect they cause. Possible solutions and countermeasures are also discussed.

  5. Precise Tracking of the Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiters by Same-Beam Interferometry. Part 2: Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Border, J. S.; Nandi, S.; Zukor, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    A new radio metric positioning technique has demonstrated improved orbit determination accuracy for the Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiter orbiters. The new technique, known as Same-Beam Interferometry (SBI), is applicable to the positioning of multiple planetary rovers, landers, and orbiters which may simultaneously be observed in the same beamwidth of Earth-based radio antennas. Measurements of carrier phase are differenced between spacecraft and between receiving stations to determine the plane-of-sky components of the separation vector(s) between the spacecraft. The SBI measurements complement the information contained in line-of-sight Doppler measurements, leading to improved orbit determination accuracy. Orbit determination solutions have been obtained for a number of 48-hour data arcs using combinations of Doppler, differenced-Doppler, and SBI data acquired in the spring of 1991. Orbit determination accuracy is assessed by comparing orbit solutions from adjacent data arcs. The orbit solution differences are shown to agree with expected orbit determination uncertainties. The results from this demonstration show that the orbit determination accuracy for Magellan obtained by using Doppler plus SBI data is better than the accuracy achieved using Doppler plus differenced-Doppler by a factor of four and better than the accuracy achieved using only Doppler by a factor of eighteen. The orbit determination accuracy for Pioneer Venus Orbiter using Doppler plus SBI data is better than the accuracy using only Doppler data by 30 percent.

  6. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 4: 747/orbiter aeroelastic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A quasi-steady analysis of the aeroelastic stability of the lateral (antisymmetric) modes of the 747/orbiter vehicle was accomplished. The interference effect of the orbiter wake on the 747 tail furnishes an aerodynamic undamping contribution to the elastic modes. Likewise, the upstream influence of the 747 tail and aft fuselage on the orbiter beaver-tail rail fairing also is undamping. Fortunately these undamping effects cannot overpower the large damping contribution of the 747 tail and the modes are damped for the configurations analyzed. However, significant interference effects of the orbiter on the 747 tail have been observed in the pitch plane. The high response of the 747 vertical tail in the orbiter wave was also considered. Wind tunnel data points to flapping of the OMS pod wakes as the source of the wake resonance phenomenon.

  7. Microsatellite data analysis for population genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theories and analytical tools of population genetics have been widely applied for addressing various questions in the fields of ecological genetics, conservation biology, and any context where the role of dispersal or gene flow is important. Underlying much of population genetics is the analysis of ...

  8. Anatomic analysis specific for the endoscopic approach to the inferior, medial and lateral orbit.

    PubMed

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Bush, Carrie; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-04-01

    The endoscopic approaches to the medial and inferior orbital walls have continued to grow in popularity. The ability to provide a safe approach to the orbit through this technique has been described in a handful of studies. Even though metric analyses have been conducted on orbital anatomy, few have outlined the anatomical relations pertinent to endoscopic surgery. The goal is to provide improved understanding of the complex anatomy encountered through anatomical dissections and metric analysis of the orbit. This information could assist in approach selection during preoperative planning. Anatomical dissections via transantral and endonasal approaches were used to define the limits with current endoscopic sinus surgery instrumentation. The surface area was then calculated of the floor and medial wall to assess access created by the approaches. The path of the infraorbital canal was conducted to assess its placement within the orbital floor. The transantral and endonasal approaches to the orbit provided an adequate surgical window inferiorly and medially. This was confirmed by the surface area calculations. Access laterally was also possible, however, it became limited as dissection advanced superior to the lateral rectus muscle. The infraorbital canal was located consistently at midline on the orbital floor. Endoscopic access to the medial and inferior parts of the orbit is feasible and creates adequate access with current instrumentation. Knowing the surgical boundaries and the amount of exposure created can assist the surgeon in deciding a minimally invasive approach.

  9. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Hypersonic Trim Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paulson, John W., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. James

    1995-01-01

    During the high-Mach-number, high-altitude portion of the first entry of the Shuttle Orbiter, the vehicle exhibited a nose-up pitching moment relative to preflight prediction of approximately Delta Cm = 0.03. This trim anomaly has been postulated to be due to compressibility, viscous, and/or real-gas (lowered specific heat ratio gamma) effects on basic body pitching moment, body-flap effectiveness, or both. In order to assess the relative contribution of each of these effects, an experimental study was undertaken to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and ratio of specific heats. Complementary computational solutions were obtained for wind-tunnel and flight conditions. The primary cause of the anomaly was determined to be lower pressures on the aft windward surface of the Orbiter than deduced from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests with ideal- or near-ideal-gas test flow. The lower pressure levels are a result of the lowering of the flowfield gamma due to high-temperature effects. This phenomenon was accurately simulated in a hypersonic wind tunnel using a heavy gas, which provided a lower, gamma, and was correctly predicted by Navier-Stokes computations using nonequilibrium chemistry.

  10. Population Analysis: Communicating About Anthropometry in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of communications about anthropometry and population analysis in particular for the design of aerospace systems. The difficulty of providing anthropometric accomodation an entire range of the population is reviewed, and the importance of communication of the issues with human system integration is emphasized, and the analysis of population as it applies to existing human factors methodologies is a novel way to assist with the communication. The issues of space suit design and anthropometry is reviewed as an example.

  11. Study of geopotential error models used in orbit determination error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, C.; Kelbel, D.; Lee, T.; Samii, M. V.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The uncertainty in the geopotential model is currently one of the major error sources in the orbit determination of low-altitude Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The results of an investigation of different geopotential error models and modeling approaches currently used for operational orbit error analysis support at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are presented, with emphasis placed on sequential orbit error analysis using a Kalman filtering algorithm. Several geopotential models, known as the Goddard Earth Models (GEMs), were developed and used at GSFC for orbit determination. The errors in the geopotential models arise from the truncation errors that result from the omission of higher order terms (omission errors) and the errors in the spherical harmonic coefficients themselves (commission errors). At GSFC, two error modeling approaches were operationally used to analyze the effects of geopotential uncertainties on the accuracy of spacecraft orbit determination - the lumped error modeling and uncorrelated error modeling. The lumped error modeling approach computes the orbit determination errors on the basis of either the calibrated standard deviations of a geopotential model's coefficients or the weighted difference between two independently derived geopotential models. The uncorrelated error modeling approach treats the errors in the individual spherical harmonic components as uncorrelated error sources and computes the aggregate effect using a combination of individual coefficient effects. This study assesses the reasonableness of the two error modeling approaches in terms of global error distribution characteristics and orbit error analysis results. Specifically, this study presents the global distribution of geopotential acceleration errors for several gravity error models and assesses the orbit determination errors resulting from these error models for three types of spacecraft - the Gamma Ray Observatory, the Ocean Topography Experiment, and the Cosmic

  12. A Monte Carlo error analysis program for near-Mars, finite-burn, orbital transfer maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.; Hoffman, L. H.; Young, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program was developed which performs an error analysis of a minimum-fuel, finite-thrust, transfer maneuver between two Keplerian orbits in the vicinity of Mars. The method of analysis is the Monte Carlo approach where each off-nominal initial orbit is targeted to the desired final orbit. The errors in the initial orbit are described by two covariance matrices of state deviations and tracking errors. The function of the program is to relate these errors to the resulting errors in the final orbit. The equations of motion for the transfer trajectory are those of a spacecraft maneuvering with constant thrust and mass-flow rate in the neighborhood of a single body. The thrust vector is allowed to rotate in a plane with a constant pitch rate. The transfer trajectory is characterized by six control parameters and the final orbit is defined, or partially defined, by the desired target parameters. The program is applicable to the deboost maneuver (hyperbola to ellipse), orbital trim maneuver (ellipse to ellipse), fly-by maneuver (hyperbola to hyperbola), escape maneuvers (ellipse to hyperbola), and deorbit maneuver.

  13. On protection of Freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. I - Preliminary analysis and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Fleming, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis was performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration was found to depend upon mission specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. An approach is described which was developed to assess on-orbit survivability of the solar dynamic radiator due to micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Preliminary analyses are presented to quantify the solar dynamic radiator survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented.

  14. On protection of Freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 1; Preliminary analysis and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rhatigan, J.L. . Lewis Research Center); Christiansen, E.L. . Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center); Fleming, M.L. )

    1992-08-01

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis has been performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration has been found to depend upon mission-specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density, and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. This paper describes the approach developed to assess on-orbit survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented. Plans for further analyses and testing are discussed. These efforts are expected to lead to a radiator design which will perform to Space Station Freedom requirements over the expected lifetime.

  15. On protection of Freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. I - Preliminary analysis and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Fleming, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis was performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration was found to depend upon mission specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. An approach is described which was developed to assess on-orbit survivability of the solar dynamic radiator due to micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Preliminary analyses are presented to quantify the solar dynamic radiator survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented.

  16. On protection of Freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. I - Preliminary analysis and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Fleming, Michael L.

    1992-08-01

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis was performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration was found to depend upon mission specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. An approach is described which was developed to assess on-orbit survivability of the solar dynamic radiator due to micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Preliminary analyses are presented to quantify the solar dynamic radiator survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented.

  17. Electronic structure of polymeric KC 60 - a crystal orbital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Joachim; Böhm, Michael C.

    1996-04-01

    The band structure of orthorhombic KC 60 is investigated by a crystal approach based on an intermediate neglect of differential orbital Hamiltonian. The title compound crystallizes in the space group Pnnm with covalent intermolecular carboncarbon bonds. Polymeric KC 60 is a metal with a low electronic density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy ɛF. This metallic behaviour differs from the electronic ground state calculated for isotropic fcc KC 60 with potassium occupying the octahedral intersitial site. The reduced width of the conduction band in the fcc structure favours an insulating Mott state relative to the metallic configuration. The dimensionality of the title compound is discussed on the basis of intercell energies, the DOS profile and dispersion curves. The theoretical results are compared with experimental observations. Wiberg bond-indices are employed to describe the chemical bonding within the distorted C 60 soccerball.

  18. Orbital angular momentum analysis of high-dimensional entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, W. H.; Exter, M. P. van; Verstegen, E. J. K.

    2007-10-15

    We describe a simple experiment that is ideally suited to analyze the high-dimensional entanglement contained in the orbital angular momenta (OAM) of entangled photon pairs. For this purpose we use a two-photon interferometer with a built-in image rotator and measure the two-photon visibility versus rotation angle. Mode selection with apertures allows one to tune the dimensionality of the entanglement; mode selection with spiral phase plates and fibers allows detection of a single OAM mode. The experiment is analyzed in two different ways: either via the continuous two-photon amplitude function or via a discrete modal (Schmidt) decomposition of this function. The latter approach proves to be very fruitful, as it provides a complete characterization of the OAM entanglement.

  19. Comet Tempel 2: Orbit, ephemerides and error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of comet Tempel 2 is investigated and the comet is found to be very well behaved and easily predictable. The nongravitational forces affecting the motion of this comet are the smallest of any comet that is affected by nongravitational forces. The sign and time history of these nongravitational forces imply (1) a direct rotation of the comet's nucleus and (2) the comet's ability to outgas has not changed substantially over its entire observational history. The well behaved dynamical motion of the comet, the well observed past apparitions, the small nongravitational forces and the excellent 1988 ground based observing conditions all contribute to relatively small position and velocity errors in 1988 -- the year of a proposed rendezvous space mission to this comet. To assist in planned ground based and earth orbital observations of this comet, ephemerides are given for the 1978-79, 1983-84 and 1988 apparitions.

  20. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the Electrical Power Distribution and Control Subsystem, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeckpeper, K. R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C) hardware. The EPD and C hardware performs the functions of distributing, sensing, and controlling 28 volt DC power and of inverting, distributing, sensing, and controlling 117 volt 400 Hz AC power to all Orbiter subsystems from the three fuel cells in the Electrical Power Generation (EPG) subsystem. Volume 2 continues the presentation of IOA analysis worksheets and contains the potential critical items list.

  1. An analysis of the low-earth-orbit communications environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diersing, Robert Joseph

    Advances in microprocessor technology and availability of launch opportunities have caused interest in low-earth-orbit satellite based communications systems to increase dramatically during the past several years. In this research the capabilities of two low-cost, store-and-forward LEO communications satellites operating in the public domain are examined--PACSAT-1 (operated by the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation) and UoSAT-3 (operated by the University of Surrey, England, Electrical Engineering Department). The file broadcasting and file transfer facilities are examined in detail and a simulation model of the downlink traffic pattern is developed. The simulator will aid the assessment of changes in design and implementation for other systems. The development of the downlink traffic simulator is based on three major parts. First, is a characterization of the low-earth-orbit operating environment along with preliminary measurements of the PACSAT-1 and UoSAT-3 systems including: satellite visibility constraints on communications, monitoring equipment configuration, link margin computations, determination of block and bit error rates, and establishing typical data capture rates for ground stations using computer-pointed directional antennas and fixed omni-directional antennas. Second, arrival rates for successful and unsuccessful file server connections are established along with transaction service times. Downlink traffic has been further characterized by measuring: frame and byte counts for all data-link layer traffic; 30-second interval average response time for all traffic and for file server traffic only; file server response time on a per-connection basis; and retry rates for information and supervisory frames. Finally, the model is verified by comparison with measurements of actual traffic not previously used in the model building process. The simulator is then used to predict operation of the PACSAT-1 satellite with modifications to the original design.

  2. An Analysis of Debris Orbit Prediction Accuracy from Short-arc Orbit Determination Using Optical and Laser Tracking Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.; Sang, J.; Smith, C.; Zhang, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper results are presented from a short-arc orbit determination study using optical and laser tracking data from the Space Debris Tracking System located at Mount Stromlo, Australia. Fifteen low-Earth orbit debris objects were considered in the study with perigee altitudes in the range 550850 km. In most cases, a 2-day orbit determination was considered using 2 passes of optical and 2 passes of laser tracking data. A total of 33 1-day and 26 2-day orbit prediction cases were compared with residuals obtained by comparing the orbit prediction with subsequent tracking data. A comparison was made between the orbit prediction accuracies for 2 orbit determination variants: (1) Entire passes are used during the orbit determination process; (2) Only 5 seconds is used from the beginning of each pass. Overall, the short-arc orbit determination results in (slightly) worse 1 and 2 day orbit prediction accuracies when compared to using the full observation arcs; however, the savings in tracking load outweighs the reduction in accuracy. If the optical or laser data is left out of the 5-second pass orbit determination process, most cases diverged which shows the importance of 3-dimenional positioning. Two-line element data was used to constrain the orbit determination process resulting in better convergence rates, but the resulting orbit prediction accuracy was much worse. The results have important implications for an optical and laser debris tracking network with potential savings in tracking load. An experimental study will be needed to verify this statement.

  3. Evaluation and analysis of the orbital maneuvering vehicle video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Robert J., II

    1989-12-01

    The work accomplished in the summer of 1989 in association with the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Research Fellowship Program at Marshall Space Flight Center is summarized. The task involved study of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) Video Compression Scheme. This included such activities as reviewing the expected scenes to be compressed by the flight vehicle, learning the error characteristics of the communication channel, monitoring the CLASS tests, and assisting in development of test procedures and interface hardware for the bit error rate lab being developed at MSFC to test the VCU/VRU. Numerous comments and suggestions were made during the course of the fellowship period regarding the design and testing of the OMV Video System. Unfortunately from a technical point of view, the program appears at this point in time to be trouble from an expense prospective and is in fact in danger of being scaled back, if not cancelled altogether. This makes technical improvements prohibitive and cost-reduction measures necessary. Fortunately some cost-reduction possibilities and some significant technical improvements that should cost very little were identified.

  4. Evaluation and analysis of the orbital maneuvering vehicle video system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Robert J., II

    1989-01-01

    The work accomplished in the summer of 1989 in association with the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Research Fellowship Program at Marshall Space Flight Center is summarized. The task involved study of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) Video Compression Scheme. This included such activities as reviewing the expected scenes to be compressed by the flight vehicle, learning the error characteristics of the communication channel, monitoring the CLASS tests, and assisting in development of test procedures and interface hardware for the bit error rate lab being developed at MSFC to test the VCU/VRU. Numerous comments and suggestions were made during the course of the fellowship period regarding the design and testing of the OMV Video System. Unfortunately from a technical point of view, the program appears at this point in time to be trouble from an expense prospective and is in fact in danger of being scaled back, if not cancelled altogether. This makes technical improvements prohibitive and cost-reduction measures necessary. Fortunately some cost-reduction possibilities and some significant technical improvements that should cost very little were identified.

  5. A photometric and orbital analysis of GT MUSCAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, K. A.; Hearnshaw, J. B.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Gilmore, A. C.

    1995-10-01

    GT Mus is a quadruple system comprising a long-period RS CVn-type binary (HD 101379) and a pair of eclipsing A dwarfs (HD 101380). Six and a half years of UBV (RI)_C photometry obtained at the Mt John University Observatory has enabled identification of four distinct types of photometric variability in this system. These are (1) a slowly changing mean magnitude, which probably arises from an activity-cycle-like effect in the active component of HD 101379, (2) a periodic variation (P_rot~64d), which is attributed to rotational modulation due to spots on the active star, (3) a periodic variation (P_eclipse=2.7546d) due to the eclipses of HD 101380, and (4) an excess in the I band, which occurs on a short time-scale (<1d) and is probably associated with HD 101379 activity. The evolution of the light curve of HD 101379 is fast with respect to the rotational period, suggesting rapid spot evolution for which we anticipate a possible model. The colours of HD 101379, even at maximum brightness, are excessively red for its spectral type, unless there is significant reddening by dust. Radial velocity measurements of HD 101379 are also presented, along with an improved determination of the orbit of this somewhat long-period (P_orb=61.448d) system.

  6. Dynamical analysis of an orbiting three-rigid-body system

    SciTech Connect

    Pagnozzi, Daniele E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk; Biggs, James D. E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk

    2014-12-10

    The development of multi-joint-spacecraft mission concepts calls for a deeper understanding of their nonlinear dynamics to inform and enhance system design. This paper presents a study of a three-finite-shape rigid-body system under the action of an ideal central gravitational field. The aim of this paper is to gain an insight into the natural dynamics of this system. The Hamiltonian dynamics is derived and used to identify relative attitude equilibria of the system with respect to the orbital reference frame. Then a numerical investigation of the behaviour far from the equilibria is provided using tools from modern dynamical systems theory such as energy methods, phase portraits and Poincarè maps. Results reveal a complex structure of the dynamics as well as the existence of connections between some of the equilibria. Stable equilibrium configurations appear to be surrounded by very narrow regions of regular and quasi-regular motions. Trajectories evolve on chaotic motions in the rest of the domain.

  7. TSS tether cable meteoroid/orbital debris damage analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the damage analyses performed on the tether cable used for the tethered satellite system (TSS), for the damage that could be caused by meteoroid or orbital debris impacts. The TSS consists of a tethered satellite deployer and a tethered satellite. The analytical studies were performed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with the results from the following tests: (1) hypervelocity impact tests to determine the 'critical' meteoroid particle diameter, i.e., the maximum size of a meteoroid particle which can impact the tether cable without causing 'failure'; (2) electrical resistance tests on the damaged and undamaged tether cable to determine if degradation of current flow occurred through the damaged tether cables; and (3) tensile load tests to verify the load carrying capability of the damaged tether cables. Finally, the HULL hydrodynamic computer code was used to simulate the hypervelocity impact of the tether cable by particles at velocities higher than can be tested, to determine the extent of the expected tether damage.

  8. Lunar impact basins: Stratigraphy, sequence and ages from superposed impact crater populations measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-02-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D ≥ 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  9. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  10. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 1: Orbiter aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of the space shuttle orbiter has been performed. It is shown that slender wing theory can be modified to account for the effect of Mach number and leading edge roundness on both attached and separated flow loads. The orbiter unsteady aerodynamics can be computed by defining two equivalent slender wings, one for attached flow loads and another for the vortex-induced loads. It is found that the orbiter is in the transonic speed region subject to vortex-shock-boundary layer interactions that cause highly nonlinear or discontinuous load changes which can endanger the structural integrity of the orbiter wing and possibly cause snap roll problems. It is presently impossible to simulate these interactions in a wind tunnel test even in the static case. Thus, a well planned combined analytic and experimental approach is needed to solve the problem.

  11. The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): A New Resource for Supporting Debris Orbit Determination, Tracking and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jah, Moriba; Huges, Steven; Wilkins, Matthew; Kelecy, Tom

    2009-03-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) was initially developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as a high accuracy orbital analysis tool to support a variety of space missions. A formal agreement has recently been established between NASA and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to further develop GMAT to include orbit determination (OD) capabilities. A variety of estimation strategies and dynamic models will be included in the new version of GMAT. GMAT will accommodate orbit determination, tracking and analysis of orbital debris through a combination of model, processing and implementation requirements. The GMAT processing architecture natively supports parallel processing such that allow it can efficiently accommodate the OD and tracking of numerous objects resulting from breakups. A full first release of the augmented GMAT capability is anticipated in September 2009 and it will be available for community use at no charge.

  12. An Improved Distance and Mass Estimate for Sgr A* from a Multistar Orbit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehle, A.; Ghez, A. M.; Schödel, R.; Meyer, L.; Yelda, S.; Albers, S.; Martinez, G. D.; Becklin, E. E.; Do, T.; Lu, J. R.; Matthews, K.; Morris, M. R.; Sitarski, B.; Witzel, G.

    2016-10-01

    We present new, more precise measurements of the mass and distance of our Galaxy’s central supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. These results stem from a new analysis that more than doubles the time baseline for astrometry of faint stars orbiting Sgr A*, combining 2 decades of speckle imaging and adaptive optics data. Specifically, we improve our analysis of the speckle images by using information about a star’s orbit from the deep adaptive optics data (2005-2013) to inform the search for the star in the speckle years (1995-2005). When this new analysis technique is combined with the first complete re-reduction of Keck Galactic Center speckle images using speckle holography, we are able to track the short-period star S0-38 (K-band magnitude = 17, orbital period = 19 yr) through the speckle years. We use the kinematic measurements from speckle holography and adaptive optics to estimate the orbits of S0-38 and S0-2 and thereby improve our constraints of the mass (M bh) and distance (R o ) of Sgr A*: M bh = (4.02 ± 0.16 ± 0.04) × 106 M ⊙ and 7.86 ± 0.14 ± 0.04 kpc. The uncertainties in M bh and R o as determined by the combined orbital fit of S0-2 and S0-38 are improved by a factor of 2 and 2.5, respectively, compared to an orbital fit of S0-2 alone and a factor of ˜2.5 compared to previous results from stellar orbits. This analysis also limits the extended dark mass within 0.01 pc to less than 0.13 × 106 M ⊙ at 99.7% confidence, a factor of 3 lower compared to prior work.

  13. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  14. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the reaction control system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkemper, V. J.; Haufler, W. A.; Odonnell, R. A.; Paul, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results for the Reaction Control System (RCS). The purpose of the RCS is to provide thrust in and about the X, Y, Z axes for External Tank (ET) separation; orbit insertion maneuvers; orbit translation maneuvers; on-orbit attitude control; rendezvous; proximity operations (payload deploy and capture); deorbit maneuvers; and abort attitude control. The RCS is situated in three independent modules, one forward in the orbiter nose and one in each OMS/RCS pod. Each RCS module consists of the following subsystems: Helium Pressurization Subsystem; Propellant Storage and Distribution Subsystem; Thruster Subsystem; and Electrical Power Distribution and Control Subsystem. Of the failure modes analyzed, 307 could potentially result in a loss of life and/or loss of vehicle.

  15. Orbit Processing and Analysis of a GEO Class of High Area-to-Mass Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Tom; Payne, Tim; Thurston, Robin; Stansbery, Gene

    2007-01-01

    A population of recently discovered deep space objects is thought to be debris having origins from sources in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) belt. Observations have been presented indicating that these objects have area-to-mass ratios (AMR's) of anywhere from 1's to 10's of m(exp 2)/kg, and thus would explain the observed migration of eccentricity (0.1-0.6) and inclination that distinguishes their orbital characteristics. The solar radiation perturbations on orbital period, inclination and eccentricity over a 20 year period for AMR's of 0.01, 1, 10 and 20 m(exp 2)/kg, are shown in the figures. There is a heightened interest in the international community due to the large number and small size of these objects, as they pose a hazard to active satellites operating in the vicinity of the GEO belt.

  16. Analysis and optimization of low-earth-orbit communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corynen, G. C.; Glaser, R. E.

    1992-04-01

    We have completed the development and testing of an algorithm for modeling, analyzing, and optimizing physical aspects of individual laser links in a low-earth-orbit (LEO) communication system. Called NETLINK, the algorithm provides a highly parametrized test bed for confirming system requirements and exploring design alternatives. Although NETLINK is currently configured as a probability processor that computes and propagates probabilities and statistical parameters directly, with minor modifications it can serve as a Monte Carlo simulator where only individual random samples are processed. A simplified form of the algorithm is also intended as a prototype for producing onboard real-time link performance predictions that will be required at the network level to achieve optimal routing and configuration protocols. Our NETLINK software is implemented in the C language, in which network nodes are conventionally represented as structures. These are used to account for detailed dynamic, geometric, and statistical attributes of individual network nodes and for various random and systematic (bias) errors in the associated acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) system. To achieve both mathematical rigor and computational efficiency, we incorporated advanced numerical techniques. We have obtained useful results with NETLINK. For example, a laser peak power of about 40 watts seems adequate to achieve a link reliability of 0.999 (i.e., a message error rate of 0.001) over a communication range of 10 to 2000 km. Moreover, link reliability inside the acceptable range interval also appears better than currently believed. Our results also show that on-line detector threshold optimization is both practical and useful, although it is not necessary if communication distances are limited to the interval 20 to 200 km, in which the optimal threshold is 2960 counts. In using the algorithm to optimize message header structure, we found the optimal header length to be four frames.

  17. Screening charged impurities and lifting the orbital degeneracy in graphene by populating Landau levels.

    PubMed

    Luican-Mayer, Adina; Kharitonov, Maxim; Li, Guohong; Lu, Chih-Pin; Skachko, Ivan; Gonçalves, Alem-Mar B; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Andrei, Eva Y

    2014-01-24

    We report the observation of an isolated charged impurity in graphene and present direct evidence of the close connection between the screening properties of a 2D electron system and the influence of the impurity on its electronic environment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau level spectroscopy, we demonstrate that in the presence of a magnetic field the strength of the impurity can be tuned by controlling the occupation of Landau-level states with a gate voltage. At low occupation the impurity is screened, becoming essentially invisible. Screening diminishes as states are filled until, for fully occupied Landau levels, the unscreened impurity significantly perturbs the spectrum in its vicinity. In this regime we report the first observation of Landau-level splitting into discrete states due to lifting the orbital degeneracy.

  18. An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

  19. A Ballistic Limit Analysis Program for Shielding Against Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Erie

    2010-01-01

    A software program has been developed that enables the user to quickly and simply perform ballistic limit calculations for common spacecraft structures that are subject to hypervelocity impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) projectiles. This analysis program consists of two core modules: design, and; performance. The design module enables a user to calculate preliminary dimensions of a shield configuration (e.g., thicknesses/areal densities, spacing, etc.) for a ?design? particle (diameter, density, impact velocity, incidence). The performance module enables a more detailed shielding analysis, providing the performance of a user-defined shielding configuration over the range of relevant in-orbit impact conditions.

  20. Orbiter Trajectory Analysis for a Two-Stage Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowling, Adam L.

    2011-01-01

    Trajectory analysis performed on NASA's reference two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle upper stage will be presented. The work was completed in support of the Hypersonics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization effort for the NASA-Air Force Joint System Study. Three degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) untrimmed trajectory analysis was performed for the orbiter ascent, closure and re-entry. An iterative closure process resulted in a 333,000 lb initial mass for the orbiter. The re-entry trajectory satisfied heating constraints for all payload out cases and met the constraints with reduced margins for payload in cases. Abort trajectories for engine out at staging, engine out during ascent, and failure to circularize in orbit, gave insight to the robustness of the orbiter. A trimmed ascent trajectory defined an engine gimbal location and the body flap angle best suited for maximizing injected mass. A trimmed re-entry trajectory revealed a need to update the trim routine to accommodate full flap aerodynamic data.

  1. [Population and environment. Requests for interdisciplinary analysis].

    PubMed

    Tudela, F

    1991-01-01

    Serious difficulties impede interdisciplinary research involving demographers, ecologists, and other students of the environment. The 1st problem concerns definitions of the different subject areas. Demographers have focused on the dynamics of some indicators that reflect complex and heterogeneous population processes. The relative autonomy of demography as a discipline was gained through an empirical orientation reflected in the statistical treatment of causality. But the traditional demographic paradigm is insufficient for untangling the causal mechanisms underlying population dynamics. Environmental disciplines on the other hand face methodologic difficulties in transcending a strictly biological focus to incorporate aspects of cultural and social influence on ecological processes. "Human ecology", a possible meeting ground for ecological and demographic studies, is more of an ambitious program of transdisciplinary research than an independent discipline. Relations between the environment and development processes, including population aspects, are of increasing international concern. A conceptual base has developed in Latin America which emphasizes the global and structural aspects of the environment and of development styles. It has been extremely difficult to apply the entire conceptualization to the concrete environmental problems that are of current interest to both civil society and governments. It may be time to replace the umbrella term "environment", defining it in more specific, systemic, and operational terms. It is time to delimit study topics in terms of concrete problems. A good example would be the situation of Lake Chapala, the largest lake in Mexico. Damage caused to it cannot be assessed by referring to the "population explosion" or an "overall development style". Environmental, economic, and sociodemographic aspects will however necessarily enter the analysis. Fragile and unstable situations are of special interest in the study of relations

  2. Orbit Determination Analysis for a Joint UK-Australian Space Surveillance Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, M.; Harwood, N.; Bennett, J.; Donnelly, P.; Ash, A.; Eastment, J.; Ladd, D.; Gordon, N.; Bessell, T.; Smith, C.; Ritchie, I.

    2014-09-01

    In February 2014 the UK and Australia carried out a joint space surveillance target tracking, cueing, and sensor data fusion experiment involving the STFC Chilbolton Observatory radar in the UK, the EOS laser-ranging system in Australia and a small telescope operated by DSTO, also in Australia. The experiment, coordinated by DSTL (UK) and DSTO (Aus), was designed to explore the combination of several different, geographically separated sensors for space situational awareness. The primary goal of the experiment was to use data from the radar in the UK to generate an orbital cue to the EOS SLR. A variety of targets sizes and orbits were chosen, under the limitations of observability by both the radar and EOS SLR, in order to explore the variation of cueing accuracy with amount of data incorporated and timeliness from generation. As a secondary objective the effect on cue accuracy of targets in lower orbital regimes was examined. This paper examines the orbit determination techniques used to generate cues from radar and the refined orbits resulting from accumulating SLR data. The construction of tracks using data from all three sensors is explored. Analysis of the accuracy of the orbital reconstructions is made based on comparisons with the measured data and accurate ephemerides provided by the ILRS. The accuracy is tested against the cueing precision requirements for each sensor. Two companion papers describe the experimental goals, execution and achievements (Harwood et. al.) and the sensor aspects of the experiment (Eastment et al.).

  3. Population viability analysis for endangered Roanoke logperch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul; Anderson, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    A common strategy for recovering endangered species is ensuring that populations exceed the minimum viable population size (MVP), a demographic benchmark that theoretically ensures low long-term extinction risk. One method of establishing MVP is population viability analysis, a modeling technique that simulates population trajectories and forecasts extinction risk based on a series of biological, environmental, and management assumptions. Such models also help identify key uncertainties that have a large influence on extinction risk. We used stochastic count-based simulation models to explore extinction risk, MVP, and the possible benefits of alternative management strategies in populations of Roanoke logperch Percina rex, an endangered stream fish. Estimates of extinction risk were sensitive to the assumed population growth rate and model type, carrying capacity, and catastrophe regime (frequency and severity of anthropogenic fish kills), whereas demographic augmentation did little to reduce extinction risk. Under density-dependent growth, the estimated MVP for Roanoke logperch ranged from 200 to 4200 individuals, depending on the assumed severity of catastrophes. Thus, depending on the MVP threshold, anywhere from two to all five of the logperch populations we assessed were projected to be viable. Despite this uncertainty, these results help identify populations with the greatest relative extinction risk, as well as management strategies that might reduce this risk the most, such as increasing carrying capacity and reducing fish kills. Better estimates of population growth parameters and catastrophe regimes would facilitate the refinement of MVP and extinction-risk estimates, and they should be a high priority for future research on Roanoke logperch and other imperiled stream-fish species.

  4. Vibration and Modal Analysis of Low Earth Orbit Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israr, Asif

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents design, modeling, and analysis of satellite model used for remote sensing. A detailed study is carried out for the design and modeling of the satellite structure focusing on the factors such as the selection of material, optimization of shape and geometry, and accommodation of different subsystems and payload. The center of mass is required to be kept within the range of (1-2) cm from its geometric center. Once the model is finalized it is required to be analyzed by the use of Ansys, a tool for finite element analysis (FEA) under given loading and boundary conditions. Static, modal, and harmonic analyses in Ansys are performed at the time of ground testing and launching phase. The finite element analysis results are also validated and compared with the theoretical predictions. These analyses are quite helpful and suggest that the satellite structure does not fail and retains its structural integrity during launch environment.

  5. Failure Analysis of Space Shuttle Orbiter Valve Poppet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The poppet failed during STS-126 due to fatigue cracking that most likely was initiated during MDC ground-testing. This failure ultimately led to the discovery that the cracking problem was a generic issue effecting numerous poppets throughout the Shuttle program's history. This presentation has focused on the laboratory analysis of the failed hardware, but this analysis was only one aspect of a comprehensive failure investigation. One critical aspect of the overall investigation was modeling of the fluid flow through this valve to determine the possible sources of cyclic loading. This work has led to the conclusion that the poppets are failing due to flow-induced vibration.

  6. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 3: PEP analysis and tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The objectives, conclusions, and approaches for accomplishing 19 specific design and analysis activities related to the installation of the power extension package (PEP) into the Orbiter cargo bay are described as well as those related to its deployment, extension, and retraction. The proposed cable handling system designed to transmit power from PEP to the Orbiter by way of the shuttle remote manipulator system is described and a preliminary specification for the gimbal assembly, solar array drive is included.

  7. Space Trajectory Error Analysis Program (STEAP) for halo orbit missions. Volume 2: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, D. V.; Carney, P. C.; Underwood, J. W.; Vogt, E. D.

    1974-01-01

    The six month effort was responsible for the development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part of the Space Trajectories Error Analysis Programs. The program NOMNAL targets a transfer trajectory from earth on a given launch date to a specified halo orbit on a required arrival date. Either impulsive or finite thrust insertion maneuvers into halo orbit are permitted by the program. The transfer trajectory is consistent with a realistic launch profile input by the user. The second program ERRAN conducts error analyses of the targeted transfer trajectory. Measurements including range, doppler, star-planet angles, and apparent planet diameter are processed in a Kalman-Schmidt filter to determine the trajectory knowledge uncertainty.

  8. Effective field analysis using the full angular spin-orbit torque magnetometry dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Krüger, Benjamin; Lo Conte, Roberto; Karnad, Gurucharan V.; Garcia, Karin; Vila, Laurent; Ocker, Berthold; Ravelosona, Dafiné; Kläui, Mathias

    2017-06-01

    Spin-orbit torques promise ultraefficient magnetization switching used for advanced devices based on emergent quasiparticles such as domain walls and skyrmions. Recently, the spin structure dynamics, materials, and systems with tailored spin-orbit torques are being developed. A method, which allows one to detect the acting torques in a given system as a function of the magnetization direction is the torque magnetometry method based on a higher harmonics analysis of the anomalous Hall effect. Here we show that the effective fields acting on magnetic domain walls that govern the efficiency of their dynamics require a sophisticated analysis taking into account the full angular dependence of the torques. Using a one-dimensional model, we compared the spin-orbit torque efficiencies by depinning measurements and spin torque magnetometry. We show that the effective fields can be accurately determined and we find good agreement. Thus, our method allows us now to rapidly screen materials and predict the resulting quasiparticle dynamics.

  9. Conducting On-orbit Gene Expression Analysis on ISS: WetLab-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Jung, Jimmy; Lera, Matthew P.; Ricco, Antonio; Souza, Kenneth; Wu, Diana; Richey, C. Scott

    2013-01-01

    WetLab-2 will enable expanded genomic research on orbit by developing tools that support in situ sample collection, processing, and analysis on ISS. This capability will reduce the time-to-results for investigators and define new pathways for discovery on the ISS National Lab. The primary objective is to develop a research platform on ISS that will facilitate real-time quantitative gene expression analysis of biological samples collected on orbit. WetLab-2 will be capable of processing multiple sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on orbit. WetLab-2 will significantly expand the analytical capabilities onboard ISS and enhance science return from ISS.

  10. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  11. Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

  12. Analysis of GaAs and Si solar cell arrays for earth orbital and orbit transfer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon and gallium arsenide arrays were studied and compared for low earth orbit (LE), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), and LEO to GEO electric propulsion orbit transfer missions. The sensitivities of total cost to parameters such as mission duration, array cost, cover glass thickness, and concentration ratio were determined along with cost tradeoffs between silicon and gallium arsenide arrays for selected mission classes. Results indicate that development of the technology for low cost, light weight concentrators should be increased and that cost reduction efforts for gallium arsenide cells be pursued.

  13. Orbital Injection of the SEDSAT Satellite: Tethered Systems Dynamics and Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gullahorn, Gordon E.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Ruiz, Manuel; Pelaez, Jesus

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with the following topics which are all related to the orbital injection of the SEDSAT satellite: Dynamics and Stability of Tether Oscillations after the First Cut. The dynamics of the tether after the first cut (i.e., without the Shuttle attached to it) is investigated. The tether oscillations with the free end are analyzed in order to assess the stability of the rectilinear configuration in between the two tether cuts; analysis of Unstable Modes. The unstable modes that appear for high libration angles are further investigated in order to determine their occurrences and the possible transition from bound librations to rotations; Orbital Release Strategies for SEDSAT. A parametric analysis of the orbital decay rate of the SEDSAT satellite after the two tether cuts has been carried out as a function of the following free parameters: libration amplitude at the end of deployment, deviation angle from LV at the first cut, and orbital anomaly at the second cut. The values of these parameters that provide a minimum orbital decay rate of the satellite (after the two cuts) have been computed; and Dynamics and Control of SEDSAT. The deployment control law has been modified to cope with the new ejection velocity of the satellite from the Shuttle cargo bay. New reference profiles have been derived as well as new control parameters. Timing errors at the satellite release as a function of the variations of the initial conditions and the tension model parameters have been estimated for the modified control law.

  14. Physiogenomic analysis of the Puerto Rican population

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Duconge, Jorge; Windemuth, Andreas; Cadilla, Carmen L; Kocherla, Mohan; Villagra, David; Renta, Jessica; Holford, Theodore; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    Aims Admixture in the population of the island of Puerto Rico is of general interest with regards to pharmacogenetics to develop comprehensive strategies for personalized healthcare in Latin Americans. This research was aimed at determining the frequencies of SNPs in key physiological, pharmacological and biochemical genes to infer population structure and ancestry in the Puerto Rican population. Materials & methods A noninterventional, cross-sectional, retrospective study design was implemented following a controlled, stratified-by-region, random sampling protocol. The sample was based on birthrates in each region of the island of Puerto Rico, according to the 2004 National Birth Registry. Genomic DNA samples from 100 newborns were obtained from the Puerto Rico Newborn Screening Program in dried-blood spot cards. Genotyping using a physiogenomic array was performed for 332 SNPs from 196 cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes. Population structure was examined using a Bayesian clustering approach as well as by allelic dissimilarity as a measure of allele sharing. Results The Puerto Rican sample was found to be broadly heterogeneous. We observed three main clusters in the population, which we hypothesize to reflect the historical admixture in the Puerto Rican population from Amerindian, African and European ancestors. We present evidence for this interpretation by comparing allele frequencies for the three clusters with those for the same SNPs available from the International HapMap project for Asian, African and European populations. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that population analysis can be performed with a physiogenomic array of cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine genes to facilitate the translation of genome diversity into personalized medicine. PMID:19374515

  15. Collection of cosmic dust in earth orbit for exobiological analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogleman, Guy; Huntington, Judith L.; Carle, Glenn C.

    1989-01-01

    Two proposed NASA exobiology flight experiments are described in terms of the approaches to cosmic dust collection and the issues addressed by the analysis of the samples. A passive collector is planned for use with the Cosmic Dust Collection Facility, and an active system is described for attachment to the Space Station Freedom payload. Exobiological study of cosmic dust could provide insights on organic chemistry in the grains and on the relative abundances of biogenic elements in interstellar, cometary, and meteoric samples.

  16. Earth Orbit v2.1: a 3-D visualization and analysis model of Earth's orbit, Milankovitch cycles and insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Gilb, R.

    2014-06-01

    Milankovitch theory postulates that periodic variability of Earth's orbital elements is a major climate forcing mechanism, causing, for example, the contemporary glacial-interglacial cycles. There are three Milankovitch orbital parameters: orbital eccentricity, precession and obliquity. The interaction of the amplitudes, periods and phases of these parameters controls the spatio-temporal patterns of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the timing and duration of the seasons. This complexity makes Earth-Sun geometry and Milankovitch theory difficult to teach effectively. Here, we present "Earth Orbit v2.1": an astronomically precise and accurate model that offers 3-D visualizations of Earth's orbital geometry, Milankovitch parameters and the ensuing insolation forcing. The model is developed in MATLAB® as a user-friendly graphical user interface. Users are presented with a choice between the Berger (1978a) and Laskar et al. (2004) astronomical solutions for eccentricity, obliquity and precession. A "demo" mode is also available, which allows the Milankovitch parameters to be varied independently of each other, so that users can isolate the effects of each parameter on orbital geometry, the seasons, and insolation. A 3-D orbital configuration plot, as well as various surface and line plots of insolation and insolation anomalies on various time and space scales are produced. Insolation computations use the model's own orbital geometry with no additional a priori input other than the Milankovitch parameter solutions. Insolation output and the underlying solar declination computation are successfully validated against the results of Laskar et al. (2004) and Meeus (1998), respectively. The model outputs some ancillary parameters as well, e.g., Earth's radius-vector length, solar declination and day length for the chosen date and latitude. Time-series plots of the Milankovitch parameters and several relevant paleoclimatological data sets can be produced. Both

  17. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the reaction control system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkemper, V. J.; Haufler, W. A.; Odonnell, R. A.; Paul, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results for the Reaction Control System (RCS). The RCS is situated in three independent modules, one forward in the orbiter nose and one in each OMS/RCS pod. Each RCS module consists of the following subsystems: Helium Pressurization Subsystem; Propellant Storage and Distribution Subsystem; Thruster Subsystem; and Electrical Power Distribution and Control Subsystem. Volume 2 continues the presentation of IOA analysis worksheets.

  18. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the communication and tracking subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. R.; Robinson, W. M.; Trahan, W. H.; Daley, E. S.; Long, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Communication and Tracking hardware. The IOA analysis process utilized available Communication and Tracking hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  19. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the reaction control system, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkemper, V. J.; Haufler, W. A.; Odonnell, R. A.; Paul, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results for the Reaction Control System (RCS). The RCS is situated in three independent modules, one forward in the orbiter nose and one in each OMS/RCS pod. Each RCS module consists of the following subsystems: Helium Pressurization Subsystem; Propellant Storage and Distribution Subsystem; Thruster Subsystem; and Electrical Power Distribution and Control Subsystem. Volume 3 continues the presentation of IOA analysis worksheets and the potential critical items list.

  20. An orbit analysis approach to the study of superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, C. M. McLenaghan, R. G. Smirnov, R. G.

    2007-03-15

    We classify the superintegrable potentials in the Euclidean plane by means of an orbit analysis of the space of valence two Killing tensors under the action of the group of rigid motions. Our approach generalizes the classical approach of Winternitz and collaborators by considering pairs of Killing tensors that are not both in canonical form.

  1. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the nose wheel steering subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mediavilla, Anthony Scott

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbiter Nose Wheel Steering (NWS) hardware are documented. The NWS hardware provides primary directional control for the Orbiter vehicle during landing rollout. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. The original NWS design was envisioned as a backup system to differential braking for directional control of the Orbiter during landing rollout. No real effort was made to design the NWS system as fail operational. The brakes have much redundancy built into their design but the poor brake/tire performance has forced the NSTS to upgrade NWS to the primary mode of directional control during rollout. As a result, a large percentage of the NWS system components have become Potential Critical Items (PCI).

  2. Analysis and optimization of cyclic methods in orbit computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, S.

    1973-01-01

    The mathematical analysis and computation of the K=3, order 4; K=4, order 6; and K=5, order 7 cyclic methods and the K=5, order 6 Cowell method and some results of optimizing the 3 backpoint cyclic multistep methods for solving ordinary differential equations are presented. Cyclic methods have the advantage over traditional methods of having higher order for a given number of backpoints while at the same time having more free parameters. After considering several error sources the primary source for the cyclic methods has been isolated. The free parameters for three backpoint methods were used to minimize the effects of some of these error sources. They now yield more accuracy with the same computing time as Cowell's method on selected problems. This work is being extended to the five backpoint methods. The analysis and optimization are more difficult here since the matrices are larger and the dimension of the optimizing space is larger. Indications are that the primary error source can be reduced. This will still leave several parameters free to minimize other sources.

  3. The Laser Ranging Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five Years of Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 hours of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 centimeter precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 centimeter after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nomi- nally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of approximately 50 meters in total position, and approximately 20 centimeters in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to approximately 15 centimeters. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 milliseconds over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  4. The Laser Ranging Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five Years of Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; Golder, James E.; Barker, Michael K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 hours of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 centimeter precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 centimeter after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nomi- nally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of approximately 50 meters in total position, and approximately 20 centimeters in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to approximately 15 centimeters. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 milliseconds over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  5. The laser ranging experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five years of operations and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; Golder, James E.; Barker, Michael K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 h of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 cm precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 cm after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nominally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of ∼50 m in total position, and ∼20 cm in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to ∼15 cm. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 ms over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  6. Analysis of an Arctic Polesitter. [spacecraft in stationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The concept and rationale are presented and the fundamental dynamical requirements set forth for a spacecraft that remains stationary in space above the North or South Pole of the earth for an extended period of time. The mathematical basis and acceleration characteristics are shown. Performance capability using present day Ion Drive technology is evaluated in terms of stay time at the pole and imaging resolution as a function of viewing distance. The analysis shows that a Polesitter spacecraft can be maintained without difficulty for one or two years at several lunar distances from the earth, admitting large resolution visual imagery and some less useful measurements in the infra-red regime. Microwave measurements are not practical using today's technology. Sensitivity calculations show that substantial improvement in performance capability must await major advances in available technology.

  7. Cluster analysis in phenotyping a Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, C C; Sa-Couto, P; Todo-Bom, A; Bousquet, J

    2015-09-03

    Unbiased cluster analysis using clinical parameters has identified asthma phenotypes. Adding inflammatory biomarkers to this analysis provided a better insight into the disease mechanisms. This approach has not yet been applied to asthmatic Portuguese patients. To identify phenotypes of asthma using cluster analysis in a Portuguese asthmatic population treated in secondary medical care. Consecutive patients with asthma were recruited from the outpatient clinic. Patients were optimally treated according to GINA guidelines and enrolled in the study. Procedures were performed according to a standard evaluation of asthma. Phenotypes were identified by cluster analysis using Ward's clustering method. Of the 72 patients enrolled, 57 had full data and were included for cluster analysis. Distribution was set in 5 clusters described as follows: cluster (C) 1, early onset mild allergic asthma; C2, moderate allergic asthma, with long evolution, female prevalence and mixed inflammation; C3, allergic brittle asthma in young females with early disease onset and no evidence of inflammation; C4, severe asthma in obese females with late disease onset, highly symptomatic despite low Th2 inflammation; C5, severe asthma with chronic airflow obstruction, late disease onset and eosinophilic inflammation. In our study population, the identified clusters were mainly coincident with other larger-scale cluster analysis. Variables such as age at disease onset, obesity, lung function, FeNO (Th2 biomarker) and disease severity were important for cluster distinction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-06-28

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4).

  9. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-06-01

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF4).

  10. Analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter skin panels under simulated hydrodynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jones, Lisa E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter skin panels were analyzed under pressure loads simulating hydrodynamic loads to determine their capability to sustain a potential ditching and to determine pressures that typically would produce failures. Two Dynamic Crash Analysis of Structures (DYCAST) finite element models were used. One model was used to represent skin panels (bays) in the center body, while a second model was used to analyze a fuselage bay in the wing region of the orbiter. From an assessment of the DYCAST nonlinear computer results, it is concluded that the probability is extremely high that most, if not all, of the lower skin panels would rupture under ditching conditions. Extremely high pressure loads which are produced under hydrodynamic planning conditions far exceed the very low predicted failure pressures for the skin panels. Consequently, a ditching of the orbiter is not considered to have a high probability of success and should not be considered a means of emergency landing unless no other option exists.

  11. Late treatment of orbital fractures: a new analysis for surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Pagnoni, M; Marenco, M; Ramieri, V; Terenzi, V; Bartoli, D; Amodeo, G; Mazzoli, A; Iannetti, G

    2014-12-01

    Surgical treatment of orbital fractures should be performed without delay; in some cases acute management is not possible due to general conditions and might be delayed for weeks or months. In the latter case, the fractured fragments can consolidate improperly, causing secondary deformities of the orbital region with aesthetic and functional alteration. Surgical planning of secondary deformities is critical for adequate pre-operative planning. In the last decade an increasing number of dedicated software applications for surgical planning have been developed. Standard computed tomography (CT) or the relatively new cone beam CT can be used for diagnostic purposes, pre-surgical visual treatment outcome and virtual surgery. In this report, the authors propose their pre-operative planning analysis for surgical correction of secondary deformities of orbital fractures. The treatment of orbital fracture must, in fact, analyse not only the bone structures but the soft tissue and surrounding periorbital region. The position of the orbit in the space should be determined in relation to the surrounding structures compared to the contralateral side, if this is not affected by the trauma or pre-existing malformations.

  12. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the life support and airlock support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, Jim; Duffy, R.; Barickman, K.; Saiidi, Mo J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Life Support System (LSS) and Airlock Support System (ALSS). Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. The LSS provides for the management of the supply water, collection of metabolic waste, management of waste water, smoke detection, and fire suppression. The ALSS provides water, oxygen, and electricity to support an extravehicular activity in the airlock.

  13. Thermal Analysis Investigation of Dapoxetine and Vardenafil Hydrochlorides using Molecular Orbital Calculations.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Souaya, Eglal R; Soliman, Ethar A

    2015-11-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used to study the thermal behavior of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides and confirmed using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. Thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the drugs under investigation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated. Thermal behavior of DAP and VAR were confirmed using by semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. The purity values were found to be 99.97% and 99.95% for dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides, respectively. The purity of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides is similar to that found by reported methods according to DSC data. Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs.

  14. Does covalency really increase across the 5f series? A comparison of molecular orbital, natural population, spin and electron density analyses of AnCp3 (An = Th-Cm; Cp = η(5)-C5H5).

    PubMed

    Kirker, Ian; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2011-01-07

    The title compounds are studied with scalar relativistic, gradient-corrected (PBE) and hybrid (PBE0) density functional theory. The metal-Cp centroid distances shorten from ThCp(3) to NpCp(3), but lengthen again from PuCp(3) to CmCp(3). Examination of the valence molecular orbital structures reveals that the highest-lying Cp π(2,3)-based orbitals transform as 1e + 2e + 1a(1) + 1a(2). Above these levels come the predominantly metal-based 5f orbitals, which stabilise across the actinide series such that in CmCp(3) the 5f manifold is at more negative energy than the Cp π(2,3)-based levels. Mulliken population analysis shows metal d orbital participation in the e symmetry Cp π(2,3)-based orbitals. Metal 5f character is found in the 1a(1) and 1a(2) levels, and this contribution increases significantly from ThCp(3) to AmCp(3). This is in agreement with the metal spin densities, which are enhanced above their formal value in NpCp(3), PuCp(3) and especially AmCp(3) with both PBE and PBE0. However, atoms-in-molecules analysis of the electron densities indicates that the An-Cp bonding is very ionic, increasingly so as the actinide becomes heavier. It is concluded that the large metal orbital contributions to the Cp π(2,3)-based levels, and enhanced metal spin densities toward the middle of the actinide series arise from a coincidental energy match of metal and ligand orbitals, and do not reflect genuinely increased covalency (in the sense of appreciable overlap between metal and ligand levels and a build up of electron density in the region between the actinide and carbon nuclei).

  15. Analysis of Binary Multivariate Longitudinal Data via 2-Dimensional Orbits: An Application to the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Visaya, Maria Vivien; Sherwell, David; Sartorius, Benn; Cromieres, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    We analyse demographic longitudinal survey data of South African (SA) and Mozambican (MOZ) rural households from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa. In particular, we determine whether absolute poverty status (APS) is associated with selected household variables pertaining to socio-economic determination, namely household head age, household size, cumulative death, adults to minor ratio, and influx. For comparative purposes, households are classified according to household head nationality (SA or MOZ) and APS (rich or poor). The longitudinal data of each of the four subpopulations (SA rich, SA poor, MOZ rich, and MOZ poor) is a five-dimensional space defined by binary variables (questions), subjects, and time. We use the orbit method to represent binary multivariate longitudinal data (BMLD) of each household as a two-dimensional orbit and to visualise dynamics and behaviour of the population. At each time step, a point (x, y) from the orbit of a household corresponds to the observation of the household, where x is a binary sequence of responses and y is an ordering of variables. The ordering of variables is dynamically rearranged such that clusters and holes associated to least and frequently changing variables in the state space respectively, are exposed. Analysis of orbits reveals information of change at both individual- and population-level, change patterns in the data, capacity of states in the state space, and density of state transitions in the orbits. Analysis of household orbits of the four subpopulations show association between (i) households headed by older adults and rich households, (ii) large household size and poor households, and (iii) households with more minors than adults and poor households. Our results are compared to other methods of BMLD analysis. PMID:25919116

  16. Analysis of Binary Multivariate Longitudinal Data via 2-Dimensional Orbits: An Application to the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Visaya, Maria Vivien; Sherwell, David; Sartorius, Benn; Cromieres, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    We analyse demographic longitudinal survey data of South African (SA) and Mozambican (MOZ) rural households from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa. In particular, we determine whether absolute poverty status (APS) is associated with selected household variables pertaining to socio-economic determination, namely household head age, household size, cumulative death, adults to minor ratio, and influx. For comparative purposes, households are classified according to household head nationality (SA or MOZ) and APS (rich or poor). The longitudinal data of each of the four subpopulations (SA rich, SA poor, MOZ rich, and MOZ poor) is a five-dimensional space defined by binary variables (questions), subjects, and time. We use the orbit method to represent binary multivariate longitudinal data (BMLD) of each household as a two-dimensional orbit and to visualise dynamics and behaviour of the population. At each time step, a point (x, y) from the orbit of a household corresponds to the observation of the household, where x is a binary sequence of responses and y is an ordering of variables. The ordering of variables is dynamically rearranged such that clusters and holes associated to least and frequently changing variables in the state space respectively, are exposed. Analysis of orbits reveals information of change at both individual- and population-level, change patterns in the data, capacity of states in the state space, and density of state transitions in the orbits. Analysis of household orbits of the four subpopulations show association between (i) households headed by older adults and rich households, (ii) large household size and poor households, and (iii) households with more minors than adults and poor households. Our results are compared to other methods of BMLD analysis.

  17. 3D-Assisted Quantitative Assessment of Orbital Volume Using an Open-Source Software Platform in a Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Hsu, Chung-En; Chen, Chih-hao; Chen, Chien-Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Orbital volume evaluation is an important part of pre-operative assessments in orbital trauma and congenital deformity patients. The availability of the affordable, open-source software, OsiriX, as a tool for preoperative planning increased the popularity of radiological assessments by the surgeon. A volume calculation method based on 3D volume rendering-assisted region-of-interest computation was used to determine the normal orbital volume in Taiwanese patients after reorientation to the Frankfurt plane. Method one utilized 3D points for intuitive orbital rim outlining. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 24.3±1.51 ml and 24.7±1.17 ml in male and 21.0±1.21 ml and 21.1±1.30 ml in female subjects. Another method (method two) based on the bilateral orbital lateral rim was also used to calculate orbital volume and compared with method one. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 19.0±1.68 ml and 19.1±1.45 ml in male and 16.0±1.01 ml and 16.1±0.92 ml in female subjects. The inter-rater reliability and intra-rater measurement accuracy between users for both methods was found to be acceptable for orbital volume calculations. 3D-assisted quantification of orbital volume is a feasible technique for orbital volume assessment. The normal orbital volume can be used as controls in cases of unilateral orbital reconstruction with a mean size discrepancy of less than 3.1±2.03% in females and 2.7±1.32% in males. The OsiriX software can be used reliably by the individual surgeon as a comprehensive preoperative planning and imaging tool for orbital volume measurement and computed tomography reorientation. PMID:25774683

  18. 3D-assisted quantitative assessment of orbital volume using an open-source software platform in a Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Hsu, Chung-En; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chien-Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Orbital volume evaluation is an important part of pre-operative assessments in orbital trauma and congenital deformity patients. The availability of the affordable, open-source software, OsiriX, as a tool for preoperative planning increased the popularity of radiological assessments by the surgeon. A volume calculation method based on 3D volume rendering-assisted region-of-interest computation was used to determine the normal orbital volume in Taiwanese patients after reorientation to the Frankfurt plane. Method one utilized 3D points for intuitive orbital rim outlining. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 24.3±1.51 ml and 24.7±1.17 ml in male and 21.0±1.21 ml and 21.1±1.30 ml in female subjects. Another method (method two) based on the bilateral orbital lateral rim was also used to calculate orbital volume and compared with method one. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 19.0±1.68 ml and 19.1±1.45 ml in male and 16.0±1.01 ml and 16.1±0.92 ml in female subjects. The inter-rater reliability and intra-rater measurement accuracy between users for both methods was found to be acceptable for orbital volume calculations. 3D-assisted quantification of orbital volume is a feasible technique for orbital volume assessment. The normal orbital volume can be used as controls in cases of unilateral orbital reconstruction with a mean size discrepancy of less than 3.1±2.03% in females and 2.7±1.32% in males. The OsiriX software can be used reliably by the individual surgeon as a comprehensive preoperative planning and imaging tool for orbital volume measurement and computed tomography reorientation.

  19. Analysis of Periodic Orbits About the Martian Moons by Continuation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    44 I iii I I I Deimos ....... . 49 Stable Orbit Verification .......... 49 Complete Solutions ............. ... 49 Collision Orbits...rbits for Deimos 51 23. Orbits Closest to Deimos ........................ 52 24. Orbits Furthest From Deimos ..................... 54 25. Collision...Orbits of Deimos ...................... 55 26. Floquet Multipliers for Deimos Solutions ........ 57 Appendix B 27. Phobos Resonant Orbit, H= -6.852687

  20. Analysis of space environment effects on active fiber optic links orbited aboard the LDEF. [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monarski, T. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.; Taylor, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    The interim analysis correlates the results of the 'Preliminary Analysis of WL Experiment no. 701, Space Environment Effects on Operating Optic Systems' (NASA Report CP-3134) with space simulated post retrieval terrestrial studies performed on the M0004 experiment. Temperature cycling measurements were performed on the active optical data links for the purpose of assessing link signal to noise ratio and bit error rate performance some 69 months following the experiment deployment in low earth orbit. The early results indicate a high correlation between pre-orbit, orbit recorded, and post orbit functionality of the first known and longest space demonstration of operating optic fibers.

  1. Orbital stability analysis and chaotic dynamics of exoplanets in multi-stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyal, Suman

    -aperiodic orbits. The stability of the system is defined in terms of its lifetime and maximum eccentricity during the integration period then a regime is established for the known and injected planet's orbital parameters. The de-stabilizing resonances due to the outer planet extend by 1.36 AU towards the star, nonetheless, existence of two Earth-mass planets seems plausible. The radial velocity (RV) curves generated for the test planets reveals a weak RV signal that cannot be measured by currently available instruments. A theory has been developed by extrapolating the radio emission processes in the Jupiter-Io system, which could reveal the presence of exomoons around the giant exoplanets. Based on this theory, maximum distance, radius and masses of exoplanets and exomoons are calculated that could be detected by the available radio telescopes. Observation time at the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) radio telescope has been proposed to detect exomoon in five different stellar systems. Subjects of my future studies include analysis of the data from LOFAR, search for the additional transiting planets in Kepler 47 circumbinary system and observation at the Subaru telescope to verify the predicted planets in GJ 832 system by the method of direct imaging.

  2. Failure analysis of satellite subsystems to define suitable de-orbit devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Chiara; Peroni, Moreno; Kingston, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Space missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are severely affected by the build-up of orbital debris. A key practice, to be compliant with IADC (Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee) mitigation guidelines, is the removal of space systems that interfere with the LEO region not later than 25 years after the End of Mission. It is important to note that the current guidelines are not generally legally binding, even if different Space Agencies are now looking at the compliance for their missions. If the guidelines will change in law, it will be mandatory to have a postmission disposal strategy for all satellites, including micro and smaller classes. A potential increased number of these satellites is confirmed by different projections, in particular in the commercial sector. Micro and smaller spacecraft are, in general, not provided with propulsion capabilities to achieve a controlled re-entry, so they need different de-orbit disposal methods. When considering the utility of different debris mitigation methods, it is useful to understand which spacecraft subsystems are most likely to fail and how this may affect the operation of a de-orbit system. This also helps the consideration of which components are the most relevant or should be redundant depending on the satellite mass class. This work is based on a sample of LEO and MEO satellites launched between January 2000 and December 2014 with mass lower than 1000 kg. Failure analysis of satellite subsystems is performed by means of the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; the parametric fits are conducted with Weibull distributions. The study is carried out by using the satellite database SpaceTrak™ which provides anomalies, failures, and trends information for spacecraft subsystems and launch vehicles. The database identifies five states for each satellite subsystem: three degraded states, one fully operational state, and one failed state (complete failure). The results obtained can guide the identification of the

  3. Incorporating landscape stochasticity into population viability analysis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Wintle, Brendan A

    2007-03-01

    The importance of incorporating landscape dynamics into population viability analysis (PVA) has previously been acknowledged, but the need to repeat the landscape generation process to encapsulate landscape stochasticity in model outputs has largely been overlooked. Reasons for this are that (1) there is presently no means for quantifying the relative effects of landscape stochasticity and population stochasticity on model outputs, and therefore no means for determining how to allocate simulation time optimally between the two; and (2) the process of generating multiple landscapes to incorporate landscape stochasticity is tedious and user-intensive with current PVA software. Here we demonstrate that landscape stochasticity can be an important source of variance in model outputs. We solve the technical problems with incorporating landscape stochasticity by deriving a formula that gives the optimal ratio of population simulations to landscape simulations for a given model, and by providing a computer program that incorporates the formula and automates multiple landscape generation in a dynamic landscape metapopulation (DLMP) model. Using a case study of a bird population, we produce estimates of DLMP model output parameters that are up to four times more precise than those estimated from a single landscape in the same amount of total simulation time. We use the DLMP modeling software RAMAS Landscape to run the landscape and metapopulation models, though our method is general and could be applied to any PVA platform. The results of this study should motivate DLMP modelers to consider landscape stochasticity in their analyses.

  4. Orbital entanglement and CASSCF analysis of the Ru–NO bond in a Ruthenium nitrosyl complex

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Leon; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian F.; Delcey, Mickaël G.; Aquilante, Francesco; Bondo Pedersen, Thomas; Lindh, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wavefunctions and an orbital entanglement analysis obtained from a density-matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) calculation are used to understand the electronic structure, and, in particular, the Ru–NO bond of a Ru nitrosyl complex. Based on the configurations and orbital occupation numbers obtained for the CASSCF wavefunction and on the orbital entropy measurements evaluated for the DMRG wavefunction, we unravel electron correlation effects in the Ru coordination sphere of the complex. It is shown that Ru–NO π bonds show static and dynamic correlation, while other Ru–ligand bonds feature predominantly dynamic correlation. The presence of static correlation requires the use of multiconfigurational methods to describe the Ru–NO bond. Subsequently, the CASSCF wavefunction is analysed in terms of configuration state functions based on localised orbitals. The analysis of the wavefunctions in the electronic singlet ground state and the first triplet state provides a picture of the Ru–NO moiety beyond the standard representation based on formal oxidation states. A distinct description of the Ru and NO fragments is advocated. The electron configuration of Ru is an equally weighted superposition of RuII and RuIII configurations, with the RuIII configuration originating from charge donation mostly from Cl ligands. However, and contrary to what is typically assumed, the electronic configuration of the NO ligand is best described as electroneutral. PMID:25767830

  5. Orbital entanglement and CASSCF analysis of the Ru-NO bond in a Ruthenium nitrosyl complex.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Leon; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian F; Delcey, Mickaël G; Aquilante, Francesco; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Lindh, Roland; Reiher, Markus; González, Leticia

    2015-06-14

    Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wavefunctions and an orbital entanglement analysis obtained from a density-matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) calculation are used to understand the electronic structure, and, in particular, the Ru-NO bond of a Ru nitrosyl complex. Based on the configurations and orbital occupation numbers obtained for the CASSCF wavefunction and on the orbital entropy measurements evaluated for the DMRG wavefunction, we unravel electron correlation effects in the Ru coordination sphere of the complex. It is shown that Ru-NO π bonds show static and dynamic correlation, while other Ru-ligand bonds feature predominantly dynamic correlation. The presence of static correlation requires the use of multiconfigurational methods to describe the Ru-NO bond. Subsequently, the CASSCF wavefunction is analysed in terms of configuration state functions based on localised orbitals. The analysis of the wavefunctions in the electronic singlet ground state and the first triplet state provides a picture of the Ru-NO moiety beyond the standard representation based on formal oxidation states. A distinct description of the Ru and NO fragments is advocated. The electron configuration of Ru is an equally weighted superposition of Ru(II) and Ru(III) configurations, with the Ru(III) configuration originating from charge donation mostly from Cl ligands. However, and contrary to what is typically assumed, the electronic configuration of the NO ligand is best described as electroneutral.

  6. Space Trajectory Error Analysis Program (STEAP) for halo orbit missions. Volume 1: Analytic and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, D. V.; Carney, P. C.; Underwood, J. W.; Vogt, E. D.

    1974-01-01

    Development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system is reported. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part of the Space Trajectories Error Analysis Programs (STEAP). The program NOMNAL targets a transfer trajectory from Earth on a given launch date to a specified halo orbit on a required arrival date. Either impulsive or finite thrust insertion maneuvers into halo orbit are permitted by the program. The transfer trajectory is consistent with a realistic launch profile input by the user. The second program ERRAN conducts error analyses of the targeted transfer trajectory. Measurements including range, doppler, star-planet angles, and apparent planet diameter are processed in a Kalman-Schmidt filter to determine the trajectory knowledge uncertainty. Execution errors at injection, midcourse correction and orbit insertion maneuvers are analyzed along with the navigation uncertainty to determine trajectory control uncertainties and fuel-sizing requirements. The program is also capable of generalized covariance analyses.

  7. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the electrical power generation/fuel cell powerplant subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. L.; Bertsch, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Generation (EPG)/Fuel Cell Powerplant (FCP) hardware. The EPG/FCP hardware is required for performing functions of electrical power generation and product water distribution in the Orbiter. Specifically, the EPG/FCP hardware consists of the following divisions: (1) Power Section Assembly (PSA); (2) Reactant Control Subsystem (RCS); (3) Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS); and (4) Water Removal Subsystem (WRS). The IOA analysis process utilized available EPG/FCP hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  8. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the active thermal control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, S. K.; Parkman, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical (PCIs) items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) are documented. The major purpose of the ATCS is to remove the heat, generated during normal Shuttle operations from the Orbiter systems and subsystems. The four major components of the ATCS contributing to the heat removal are: Freon Coolant Loops; Radiator and Flow Control Assembly; Flash Evaporator System; and Ammonia Boiler System. In order to perform the analysis, the IOA process utilized available ATCS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 310 failure modes analyzed, 101 were determined to be PCIs.

  9. Computational study of glucosepane-water and hydrogen bond formation: an electron topology and orbital analysis.

    PubMed

    Nash, Anthony; Saßmannshausen, Jörg; Bozec, Laurent; Birch, Helen L; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2017-04-01

    The collagen protein provides tensile strength to the extracellular matrix in addition to localising cells, proteins and protein cofactors. Collagen is susceptible to a build up of glycation modifications as a result of an exceptionally long half-life. Glucosepane is a collagen cross-linking advanced glycation end product; the structural and mechanical effects of glucosepane are still the subjects of much debate. With the prospect of an ageing population, the management and treatment of age-related diseases is becoming a pressing concern. One area of interest is the isolation of hydrated glucosepane, which has yet to be reported at an atomistic level. This study presents a series of glucosepane-water complexes within an implicit aqueous environment. Electronic structure calculations were performed using density functional theory and a high level basis set. Hydrogen bonds between glucosepane and explicit water were identified by monitoring changes to covalent bonds, calculating levels of electron donation from Natural Bonding Orbital analysis and the detection of bond critical points. Hydrogen bond strength was calculated using second-order perturbation calculations. The combined results suggest that glucosepane is very hydrophilic, with the imidazole feature being energetically more attractive to water than either hydroxyl group, although all hydrogen bonds, regardless of bond strength, were electrostatic in nature. Our results are in growing support of an earlier hypothesis that cross-links may result in an increase in interstitial water retention, which would permit the collagen fibril to swell, thereby potentially affecting the tensile and compression properties and biological function of connective tissues.

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  11. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the landing/deceleration subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, J. M.; Beaird, H. G.; Weissinger, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Landing/Deceleration Subsystem hardware. The Landing/Deceleration Subsystem is utilized to allow the Orbiter to perform a safe landing, allowing for landing-gear deploy activities, steering and braking control throughout the landing rollout to wheel-stop, and to allow for ground-handling capability during the ground-processing phase of the flight cycle. Specifically, the Landing/Deceleration hardware consists of the following components: Nose Landing Gear (NLG); Main Landing Gear (MLG); Brake and Antiskid (B and AS) Electrical Power Distribution and Controls (EPD and C); Nose Wheel Steering (NWS); and Hydraulics Actuators. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Due to the lack of redundancy in the Landing/Deceleration Subsystems there is a high number of critical items.

  12. Post-flight differential correction analysis using Vinti's spheroidal method for the small astronomy satellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an intensive analysis of a differential orbit improvement method utilizing observational data for a 550-kilometer altitude, near-circular, near-equatorial satellite orbit are presented. Observations of the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-1) are in the form of direction cosines as measured at two ground interferometer tracking stations near the Equator during the first 22 orbital revolutions (approximately 37 hours) after launch of the spacecraft. Numerical results, in both tabular and graphical form, are displayed for numerous iterated fittings of various observational arcs by differential correction of the orbital elements. Parameters varied in these comparative cases include the time duration of the observational data block, the number of pairs of direction cosine data and the number of tracking station passes included in the solution, the distribution of such passes between the two available tracking stations, and the acceptance criterion for the observational residuals in the least squares fitting procedure. It was found that three observational pairs of direction cosine data, the minimum number possible for a uniquely determined solution in theory, are sufficient to promote covergence to an accurate solution, if properly selected.

  13. Preliminary solutions for the lunar gravity field from analysis of lunar orbiter tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Rowlands, D. D.; Fricke, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of the gravitation field, in combination with surface topography, provides one of the principal means of inferring the internal structure of a planetary body. Previous analyses of the lunar gravitational field have been based on data from the Lunar Orbiters, the Apollo subsatellites, and the low altitude passes of the Apollo spacecraft. Recently, Konopliv et al. have reanalyzed all available Lunar Orbiter and Apollo subsatellite tracking data, producing a 60th degree and order solution. In preparation for the Clementine Mission to the Moon, we have also initiated a reanalysis of the Lunar Orbiter and Apollo subsatellite data. Our reanalysis takes advantage of advanced force and measurement modeling techniques as well as modern computational facilities. We applied the least squares collocation technique which stabilizes the behavior of the solution and high degree and order. The extension of the size of the field reduces the aliasing coming from the omitted portion of the gravitational field. This is especially important for the analysis of the tracking data from the Lunar Orbiters, as the periapse heights frequently ranged from 50 to 100 km.

  14. The Inner Magnetospheric Imager (IMI): Instrument heritage and orbit viewing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years an engineering team in the Program Development Office at MSFC has been doing design studies for the proposed Inner Magnetospheric Imager (IMI) mission. This team had a need for more information about the instruments that this mission would carry so that they could get a better handle on instrument volume, mass, power, and telemetry needs as well as information to help assess the possible cost of such instruments and what technology development they would need. To get this information, an extensive literature search was conducted as well as interviews with several members of the IMI science working group. The results of this heritage survey are summarized below. There was also a need to evaluate the orbits proposed for this mission from the stand point of their suitability for viewing the various magnetospheric features that are planned for this mission. This was accomplished by first, identifying the factors which need to be considered in selecting an orbit, second, translating these considerations into specific criteria, and third, evaluating the proposed orbits against these criteria. The specifics of these criteria and the results of the orbit analysis are contained in the last section of this report.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of Shuttle Orbiter leeside surface infrared imagery obtained during atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrick, D. L.; Throckmorton, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The thermographic analysis techniques developed for processing of data from the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) experiment are discussed. The SILTS experiment will obtain high-spatial-resolution infrared images of the leeside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during atmospheric entry by means of a scanning infrared radiometer located atop the orbiter's vertical stabilizer. Comprehensive analysis of the SILTS thermography requires accurate consideration of all those factors (such as geometry of the observed surfaces, local surface emissivity, solar radiation, and other potential sources of image degradation) which may potentially affect the output of the infrared radiometer. An overview of the entire data processing procedure and brief descriptions of the data processing algorithms are presented.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of Shuttle Orbiter leeside surface infrared imagery obtained during atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrick, D. L.; Throckmorton, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The thermographic analysis techniques developed for processing of data from the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) experiment are discussed. The SILTS experiment will obtain high-spatial-resolution infrared images of the leeside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during atmospheric entry by means of a scanning infrared radiometer located atop the orbiter's vertical stabilizer. Comprehensive analysis of the SILTS thermography requires accurate consideration of all those factors (such as geometry of the observed surfaces, local surface emissivity, solar radiation, and other potential sources of image degradation) which may potentially affect the output of the infrared radiometer. An overview of the entire data processing procedure and brief descriptions of the data processing algorithms are presented.

  17. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  18. Finite-element reentry heat-transfer analysis of space shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Quinn, Robert D.; Gong, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite-element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat-transfer analysis of the space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating. Three wing cross sections and one midfuselage cross section were selected for the thermal analysis. The predicted thermal protection system temperatures were found to agree well with flight-measured temperatures. The calculated aluminum structural temperatures also agreed reasonably well with the flight data from reentry to touchdown. The effects of internal radiation and of internal convection were found to be significant. The SPAR finite-element solutions agreed reasonably well with those obtained from the conventional finite-difference method.

  19. Orbit Determination and Analysis for 1970-97B at 14th-Order Resonance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    I! D-AIM60 6 ORBIT DET4RNINATION AND ANALYSIS FOR lflS-97I AT 1/1 14TH-ORDER RESONANCE(U) ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHNENT FRNDOROUGH ( ENGLAND ) A N...Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants, UK Sa. Sponsoring Agency’s Code 6a. Sponsoring Agency (Contract Authority) Name and Location N/A N/A * 7. Title

  20. Macroinformational analysis of conditions for controllability of space-vehicle orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, B. I.

    2011-12-01

    The general axiomatics of information measures for the macro analysis of relations of an information-cybernetic system in the control is introduced. The general structure of a semantically marked graph of open and closed relations of an information-cybernetic system between the participants in the environment, as well as thenecessary axiomatic and technological information-cybernetic system conditions of controllability and observability of objects, for the case of a space vehicle in orbit, are justified.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of STS-3 Entry Heat-Transfer Data for the Orbiter Windward Centerline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Hamilton, H. H., II; Zoby, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of heat transfer data on the space shuttle orbiter windward centerline for the STS-3 mission entry is presented. Temperature-time history plots for each measurement location and tabulated wall temperature and convective heating rate data at 21 selected trajectory points are included. The STS-3 flight data are also compared with predictions by two approximation methods for computing convective heat transfer rates in equilibrium air.

  2. Periodic orbit analysis demonstrates genetic constraints, variability, and switching in Drosophila courtship behavior.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Ruedi; Arthur, Benjamin I

    2008-06-01

    We use symbolic dynamics to describe Drosophila courtship communication. We posit that behavior should be defined in terms of irreducible periodic orbits of fundamental acts. This leads to a first operational definition of behavior, which allows for a fine grained quantitative analysis of behavior. We obtain evidence that during Drosophila courtship, individual characteristics of the protagonists are exchanged (predominantly from the male to the female) and that males in the presence of fruitless males perform a behavioral switch from male to female behavior.

  3. The analysis of behavior in orbit GSS two series of US early-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Sukhov, K. P.; Motrunych, I. I.

    2016-09-01

    Satellites Early Warning System Series class SBIRS US Air Force must replace on GEO early series DSP Series. During 2014-2016 the authors received more than 30 light curves "DSP-18 and "Sbirs-Geo 2". The analysis of the behavior of these satellites in orbit by a coordinate and photometric data. It is shown that for the monitoring of the Earth's surface is enough to place GEO 4 unit SBIRS across 90 deg.

  4. Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Reliability and Maintainability Data for Conceptual Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for estimating the expected support required of new systems during their conceptual design phase, Langley Research Center has recently collected Shuttle Orbiter reliability and maintainability data from the various data base sources at Kennedy Space Center. This information was analyzed to provide benchmarks, trends, and distributions to aid in the analysis of new designs. This paper presents a summation of those results and an initial interpretation of the findings.

  5. Observations and Orbital Analysis of the High-Amplitude Delta Scuti Star SZLyncis: The Unusual Orbital Precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin-Jia; Qian, Sheng-Bang

    2013-12-01

    We determined forty-two new times of light maximum from our photometry observations and WASP project, and collected all times of light maximum observed between 1961 and 2013 in order to calculate the orbital elements of the SZ Lyncis system and the secular change of the pulsation period with the classical O - C method. We confirmed the decrease of the longitude of the periastron passage with a rate of (-1.˚15 ±0.˚25) yr-1 , and discussed the causative mechanism. The results show that the precession of the star's orbit might be due to a close binary system, which means that the companion of SZ Lyncis is actually a binary system. We used the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data to obtain the complete orbital elements of the SZ Lyncis system, and found that the inclination, i, and parallax, πt , are 39.˚5 ± 17.˚7 and 2.61 ± 0.98 mas (corresponds to 380 ± 140 pc), respectively. We reanalyzed the mean radial velocities of SZ Lyncis given by Bardin and Imbert (1984), and noticed a weak variation existing in the residuals from a single-Keplerian fit. We suggest that more detailed high-precision spectroscopic observations are definitely needed in the future to check this short periodic change.

  6. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  7. On-Orbit Quantitative Real-Time Gene Expression Analysis Using the Wetlab-2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Tran, Luan; Schonfeld, Julie

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center's WetLab-2 Project enables on-orbit quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis without the need for sample return. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage of using non-toxic chemicals and does not require alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The project selected the Cepheid SmartCycler (TradeMark), a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, because of its advantages including rugged modular design, low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color multiplex detection. Single tube multiplex assays can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system can downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and uplink new thermal cycling programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR and generate results on-orbit is an important step towards utilizing the ISS as a National Laboratory facility. Specifically, the ability to get on-orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experimental parameters in real time without the need for sample return and re-flight. On orbit gene expression analysis can also eliminate the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples and provide on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. Finally, the system can also be used for analysis of

  8. Orbital stress analysis, Part IV: Use of a "stiffness-graded" biodegradable implants to repair orbital blow-out fracture.

    PubMed

    Al-Sukhun, Jehad; Penttilä, Heikki; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model (FEM) of a human orbit, of 1 patient, who had an orbital blow-out fracture, to study the effect of using a "stiffness-graded" (SG) biodegradable implant on the biomechanics of bone-fracture repair. An FEM of the orbit and the globe, of 1 patient who had an orbital blow-out fracture and was treated with biodegradable poly-L/DL-lactide [P(L/DL)LA 70/30], was generated based on computed tomography scan images. Simulations were performed with a computer using a commercially available finite element software. The FEM was then used to study the effect of using an SG biodegradable implant on the stress distribution in the fractured bone. This was compared with the stress distribution at the fracture interface and at the bone-implant interface, when using P(L/DL)LA implant with a uniform stiffness. The use of SG implants caused less stress shielding to the fractured bone. At 50% of the bone healing stage, stress at the fracture interface was compressive in nature, that is, 0.2 MPa for the uniform implant, whereas SG implants resulted in tensile stress of 0.2 MPa. The result was that SG implants allowed the 50% healed bone to participate in loadings. Stiffness-graded implants are more flexible and hence permit more bending of the fractured bone. This results in higher compressive stresses, induced at the fractured faces, to accelerate bone healing. However, away from the fracture interface, the reduced stiffness and elastic modulus of the implant cause the neutral axis of the composite structure to be lowered into the bone, resulting in the higher tensile stress in the bone layer underneath the implant. The use of SG implants induced significant changes in the stress patterns at the fracture interface and at the bone-implant interface. Stiffness-graded biodegradable implants offered less stress shielding to the bone, providing higher compressive stress at the fractured surface, to induce accelerated bone

  9. Stream network analysis from orbital and suborbital imagery, Colorado River Basin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Orbital SL-2 imagery (earth terrain camera S-190B), received September 5, 1973, was subjected to quantitative network analysis and compared to 7.5 minute topographic mapping (scale: 1/24,000) and U.S.D.A. conventional black and white aerial photography (scale: 1/22,200). Results can only be considered suggestive because detail on the SL-2 imagery was badly obscured by heavy cloud cover. The upper Bee Creek basin was chosen for analysis because it appeared in a relatively cloud-free portion of the orbital imagery. Drainage maps were drawn from the three sources digitized into a computer-compatible format, and analyzed by the WATER system computer program. Even at its small scale (1/172,000) and with bad haze the orbital photo showed much drainage detail. The contour-like character of the Glen Rose Formation's resistant limestone units allowed channel definition. The errors in pattern recognition can be attributed to local areas of dense vegetation and to other areas of very high albedo caused by surficial exposure of caliche. The latter effect caused particular difficulty in the determination of drainage divides.

  10. Dynamical-systems analysis and unstable periodic orbits in reacting flows behind symmetric bluff bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jia-Chen; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Kostka, Stanislav; Jiang, Naibo; Kiel, Barry V.; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh

    2013-09-01

    Dynamical systems analysis is performed for reacting flows stabilized behind four symmetric bluff bodies to determine the effects of shape on the nature of flame stability, acoustic coupling, and vortex shedding. The task requires separation of regular, repeatable aspects of the flow from experimental noise and highly irregular, nonrepeatable small-scale structures caused primarily by viscous-mediated energy cascading. The experimental systems are invariant under a reflection, and symmetric vortex shedding is observed throughout the parameter range. As the equivalence ratio—and, hence, acoustic coupling—is reduced, a symmetry-breaking transition to von Karman vortices is initiated. Combining principal-components analysis with a symmetry-based filtering, we construct bifurcation diagrams for the onset and growth of von Karman vortices. We also compute Lyapunov exponents for each flame holder to help quantify the transitions. Furthermore, we outline changes in the phase-space orbits that accompany the onset of von Karman vortex shedding and compute unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) embedded in the complex flows prior to and following the bifurcation. For each flame holder, we find a single UPO in flows without von Karman vortices and a pair of UPOs in flows with von Karman vortices. These periodic orbits organize the dynamics of the flow and can be used to reduce or control flow irregularities. By subtracting them from the overall flow, we are able to deduce the nature of irregular facets of the flows.

  11. Orbit Optimization and Scattering Coefficient Analysis for the Proposed GLORIA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of an orbit for a Low-Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite for coastal coverage over Antarctic and United States shorelines as part of the Geostationary/Low-Earth Orbiting Radar Image Acquisition (GLORIA) System. Simulations over a range of orbital parameters are performed to determine the optimal orbit. Scattering coefficients are computed for the optimal orbit throughout the day and characterized to compare various scenarios for which link budget comparisons could then be made.

  12. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the guidance, navigation, and control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trahan, W. H.; Odonnell, R. A.; Pietz, K. C.; Hiott, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) is presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Subsystem hardware are documented. The function of the GNC hardware is to respond to guidance, navigation, and control software commands to effect vehicle control and to provide sensor and controller data to GNC software. Some of the GNC hardware for which failure modes analysis was performed includes: hand controllers; Rudder Pedal Transducer Assembly (RPTA); Speed Brake Thrust Controller (SBTC); Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU); Star Tracker (ST); Crew Optical Alignment Site (COAS); Air Data Transducer Assembly (ADTA); Rate Gyro Assemblies; Accelerometer Assembly (AA); Aerosurface Servo Amplifier (ASA); and Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC). The IOA analysis process utilized available GNC hardware drawings, workbooks, specifications, schematics, and systems briefs for defining hardware assemblies, components, and circuits. Each hardware item was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  13. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Leading edge structural design/analysis and material allowables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. W.; Curry, D. M.; Kelly, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), a structural composite whose development was targeted for the high temperature reentry environments of reusable space vehicles, has successfully demonstrated that capability on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Unique mechanical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures up to 3000 F, make this material ideally suited for the 'hot' regions of multimission space vehicles. Design allowable characterization testing, full-scale development and qualification testing, and structural analysis techniques will be presented herein that briefly chart the history of the RCC material from infancy to eventual multimission certification for the Orbiter. Included are discussions pertaining to the development of the design allowable data base, manipulation of the test data into usable forms, and the analytical verification process.

  15. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA). Version 2.0: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.; Zsoldos, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 2.0, is discussed. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system that consists of six program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an Evans and Sutherland PS300 graphics workstation. In the current version, three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. Circular and rectangular, off nadir, fixed and scanning sensors are supported. One module produces an interactive three dimensional animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently, Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  16. Design and performance analysis of an aero-maneuvering orbital-transfer vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, G. P.

    1985-01-01

    Systems requirements for design-optimized, lateral-turn performance were determined for reusable, space-based applications and low-Earth orbits involving large multiple plane-inclination changes. The aerothermodynamic analysis is the most advanced available for rarefield-hypersonic flow over lifting surfaces at incidence. The effects of leading-edge bluntness, low-density viscous phenomena, and finite-rate flow-field chemistry and surface catalysis are accounted for. The predicted aerothermal heating characteristics are correlated with thermal-control and flight-performance capabilities. The mission payload capacity for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations was determined for round-trip sorties extending to polar orbits. Recommendations are given for future design refinements. The results help to identify technology issues required to develop prototype operational vehicles.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling of space-based orbit transfer vehicle cryogenic propellant resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defelice, David M.; Aydelott, John C.

    1987-01-01

    The resupply of the cryogenic propellants is an enabling technology for spacebased orbit transfer vehicles. As part of the NASA Lewis ongoing efforts in microgravity fluid management, thermodynamic analysis and subscale modeling techniques were developed to support an on-orbit test bed for cryogenic fluid management technologies. Analytical results have shown that subscale experimental modeling of liquid resupply can be used to validate analytical models when the appropriate target temperature is selected to relate the model to its prototype system. Further analyses were used to develop a thermodynamic model of the tank chilldown process which is required prior to the no-vent fill operation. These efforts were incorporated into two FORTRAN programs which were used to present preliminary analyticl results.

  18. Natural bond orbital analysis: a critical overview of relationships to alternative bonding perspectives.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Frank

    2012-11-15

    We sketch the basic principles of natural bond orbital (NBO) theory, including critical discussion of its relationship to alternative bonding concepts and selected illustrations of its application to a broad spectrum of chemical bonding motifs. Particular emphasis is placed on the close NBO connections to prequantal bonding, and electromerism concepts, as well as the deep roots in quantal eigenvalue, superposition, and Pauli exclusion concepts that are manifested in many aspects of NBO donor-acceptor analysis. With respect to leading alternative perspectives, we identify similarities and differences that distinguish NBO theory from the corresponding precepts of valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory, and Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules, with critical discussion of the assumptions underlying characteristic differences in each case.

  19. Photogrammetric analysis of horizon panoramas: The Pathfinder landing site in Viking orbiter images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberst, J.; Jaumann, R.; Zeitler, W.; Hauber, E.; Kuschel, M.; Parker, T.; Golombek, M.; Malin, M.; Soderblom, L.

    1999-01-01

    Tiepoint measurements, block adjustment techniques, and sunrise/sunset pictures were used to obtain precise pointing data with respect to north for a set of 33 IMP horizon images. Azimuth angles for five prominent topographic features seen at the horizon were measured and correlated with locations of these features in Viking orbiter images. Based on this analysis, the Pathfinder line/sample coordinates in two raw Viking images were determined with approximate errors of 1 pixel, or 40 m. Identification of the Pathfinder location in orbit imagery yields geological context for surface studies of the landing site. Furthermore, the precise determination of coordinates in images together with the known planet-fixed coordinates of the lander make the Pathfinder landing site the most important anchor point in current control point networks of Mars. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and systems analysis study. Volume 11: Study extension 2 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    Work conducted in the second extension of the Phase A Orbit Transfer Vehicle Concept Definition and Systems Analysis Study is summarized. Four major tasks were identified: (1) define an initial OTV program consistent with near term Civil Space Leadership Initiative missions; (2) develop program evolution to long term advanced missions; (3) investigate the implications of current STS safety policy on an Aft Cargo Carrier based OTV; and (4) expand the analysis of high entry velocity aeroassist. An increased emphasis on the breath of OTV applications was undertaken to show the need for the program on the basis of the expansion of the nation's capabilities in space.

  1. Analysis of Ballistic Structures of Multichannel Communication Satellite Systems on Precessing Elliptic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulliev, A. M.; Zabotin, V. I.

    2003-11-01

    Two models of intersatellite communication channels in satellite systems on precessing elliptic orbits are considered. By assuming that these systems provide for a continuous survey of the Earth of the necessary multiplicity, algorithms of the analysis of ballistic system structures are constructed for these models in order to maintain multichannel global communication and organization of corresponding intersatellite channels. The algorithm operation is illustrated by numerical examples. This paper develops the results from [1-3], where a similar approach was advanced for the analysis of ballistic structures of satellite systems with simplified models of motion.

  2. Estimation strategies for orbit determination of applications satellites. [using covariance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Lynn, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure for applying covariance analysis to determine the most efficient estimation strategy for satisfying the stringent mission requirements of long arc orbit determination of applications satellites is presented. The procedure is applied to the problem of satisfying mission requirements with respect to altitude determination of GEOS-C. It is shown that requirements are met when twelve dominant geopotential coefficients are estimated along with satellite state. This application of covariance analysis is general and can be applied to future applications satellites. Recommendations for future studies are also given.

  3. Manifold Modeling for Brain Population Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Samuel; Tasdizen, Tolga; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Joshi, Sarang; Whitaker, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for building efficient representations of large sets of brain images. Our hypothesis is that the space spanned by a set of brain images can be captured, to a close approximation, by a low-dimensional, nonlinear manifold. This paper presents a method to learn such a low-dimensional manifold from a given data set. The manifold model is generative—brain images can be constructed from a relatively small set of parameters, and new brain images can be projected onto the manifold. This allows to quantify the geometric accuracy of the manifold approximation in terms of projection distance. The manifold coordinates induce a Euclidean coordinate system on the population data that can be used to perform statistical analysis of the population. We evaluate the proposed method on the OASIS and ADNI brain databases of head MR images in two ways. First, the geometric fit of the method is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Second, the ability of the brain manifold model to explain clinical measures is analyzed by linear regression in the manifold coordinate space. The regression models show that the manifold model is a statistically significant descriptor of clinical parameters. PMID:20579930

  4. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the purge, vent and drain subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, M. C., III

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter PV and D (Purge, Vent and Drain) Subsystem hardware. The PV and D Subsystem controls the environment of unpressurized compartments and window cavities, senses hazardous gases, and purges Orbiter/ET Disconnect. The subsystem is divided into six systems: Purge System (controls the environment of unpressurized structural compartments); Vent System (controls the pressure of unpressurized compartments); Drain System (removes water from unpressurized compartments); Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) (monitors hazardous gas concentrations); Window Cavity Conditioning System (WCCS) (maintains clear windows and provides pressure control of the window cavities); and External Tank/Orbiter Disconnect Purge System (prevents cryo-pumping/icing of disconnect hardware). Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Four of the sixty-two failure modes analyzed were determined as single failures which could result in the loss of crew or vehicle. A possible loss of mission could result if any of twelve single failures occurred. Two of the criticality 1/1 failures are in the Window Cavity Conditioning System (WCCS) outer window cavity, where leakage and/or restricted flow will cause failure to depressurize/repressurize the window cavity. Two criticality 1/1 failures represent leakage and/or restricted flow in the Orbiter/ET disconnect purge network which

  5. Analysis and optimization of an air-launch-to-orbit separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohier, Henri; Piet-Lahanier, Helene; Farges, Jean-Loup

    2015-03-01

    In an air-launch-to-orbit, a space rocket is launched from a carrier aircraft. Air-launch-to-orbit appears as particularly interesting for nano- and microsatellites which are generally launched as secondary loads, that is, placed in the conventional launch vehicle's payload section with a larger primary satellite. In an air-launch-to-orbit, a small satellite can be launched alone as a primary load, away from a carrier aircraft, aboard a smaller rocket vehicle, and in doing so, benefit from more flexible dates and trajectories. One of the most important phases of the mission is the separation between the carrier aircraft and the space rocket. A flight simulator including a large number of factors of uncertainties has been especially developed to study the separation, and a safety criteria has been defined with respect to store collision avoidance. It is used for a sensitivity analysis and an optimization of the possible trajectories. The sensitivity analysis first requires a screening method to select unessential factors that can be held constant. The Morris method is amongst the most popular screening methods. It requires limited calculations, but may result in keeping constant an essential factor which would greatly affect the results of the sensitivity analysis. This paper shows that this risk can be important in spite of recent improvements of the Morris method. It presents an adaptation of this method which divides this risk by a factor of ten on a standard test function. It is based on the maximum of the elementary effects instead of their average. The method focuses the calculations on the factors with a low impact, checking the convergence of this set of factors, and uses two different factor variations instead of one. This adaptation of the Morris method is used to limit the amount of the air-launch-to-orbit simulations and simplify the uncertainty domain for analysis by Sobol's method. The aerodynamic perturbations due to wind, the parameters defining the

  6. Spin-Orbit Alignment of Exoplanet Systems: Ensemble Analysis Using Asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campante, T. L.; Lund, M. N.; Kuszlewicz, J. S.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Albrecht, S.; Winn, J. N.; Bedding, T. R.; Benomar, O.; Bossini, D.; Handberg, R.; Santos, A. R. G.; Van Eylen, V.; Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Hekker, S.; Hirano, T.; Huber, D.; Karoff, C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.; North, T. S. H.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Stello, D.; White, T. R.

    2016-03-01

    The angle ψ between a planet’s orbital axis and the spin axis of its parent star is an important diagnostic of planet formation, migration, and tidal evolution. We seek empirical constraints on ψ by measuring the stellar inclination is via asteroseismology for an ensemble of 25 solar-type hosts observed with NASA’s Kepler satellite. Our results for is are consistent with alignment at the 2σ level for all stars in the sample, meaning that the system surrounding the red-giant star Kepler-56 remains as the only unambiguous misaligned multiple-planet system detected to date. The availability of a measurement of the projected spin-orbit angle λ for two of the systems allows us to estimate ψ. We find that the orbit of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-7b is likely to be retrograde (\\psi =116\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {4}-14.7+30.2), whereas that of Kepler-25c seems to be well aligned with the stellar spin axis (\\psi =12\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {6}-11.0+6.7). While the latter result is in apparent contradiction with a statement made previously in the literature that the multi-transiting system Kepler-25 is misaligned, we show that the results are consistent, given the large associated uncertainties. Finally, we perform a hierarchical Bayesian analysis based on the asteroseismic sample in order to recover the underlying distribution of ψ. The ensemble analysis suggests that the directions of the stellar spin and planetary orbital axes are correlated, as conveyed by a tendency of the host stars to display large values of inclination.

  7. Direct Detection and Orbit Analysis of the Exoplanets HR 8799 bcd from Archival 2005 Keck/NIRC2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Fukagawa, Misato; Thalmann, Christian; Matsumura, Soko; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present previously unpublished July 2005 H-band coronagraphic data of the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 from the newly-released Keck/NIRC2 archive. Despite poor observing conditions, we detect three of the planets (HR 8799 bcd), two of them (HR 8799 bc) without advanced image processing. Comparing these data with previously published 1998-2011 astrometry and that from re-reduced October 2010 Keck data constrains the orbits of the planets. Analyzing the planets' astrometry separately, HR 8799 d's orbit is likely inclined at least 25 deg from face-on and the others may be on in inclined orbits. For semimajor axis ratios consistent with a 4:2:1 mean-motion resonance our analysis yields precise values for HR 8799 bcd's orbital parameters and strictly constrains the planets' eccentricities to be less than 0.18-0.3. However, we find no acceptable orbital solutions with this resonance that place the planets in face-on orbits; HR 8799 d shows the largest deviation from such orbits. Moreover, few orbits make HR 8799 d coplanar with b and c, whereas dynamical stability analyses used to constrain the planets' masses typically assume coplanar and/or fare.on orbits. This paper illustrates the significant science gain enabled with the release of the NIRC2 archive.

  8. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  9. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  10. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the displays and controls subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trahan, W. H.; Prust, E. E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Displays and Controls (D and C) subsystem hardware. The function of the D and C hardware is to provide the crew with the monitor, command, and control capabilities required for management of all normal and contingency mission and flight operations. The D and C hardware for which failure modes analysis was performed consists of the following: Acceleration Indicator (G-METER); Head Up Display (HUD); Display Driver Unit (DDU); Alpha/Mach Indicator (AMI); Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI); Attitude Director Indicator (ADI); Propellant Quantity Indicator (PQI); Surface Position Indicator (SPI); Altitude/Vertical Velocity Indicator (AVVI); Caution and Warning Assembly (CWA); Annunciator Control Assembly (ACA); Event Timer (ET); Mission Timer (MT); Interior Lighting; and Exterior Lighting. Each hardware item was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  11. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the atmospheric revitalization pressure control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiidi, M. J.; Duffy, R. E.; Mclaughlin, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis/Critical Items List (FMEA/CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Atmospheric Revitalization and Pressure Control Subsystem (ARPCS) are documented. The ARPCS hardware was categorized into the following subdivisions: (1) Atmospheric Make-up and Control (including the Auxiliary Oxygen Assembly, Oxygen Assembly, and Nitrogen Assembly); and (2) Atmospheric Vent and Control (including the Positive Relief Vent Assembly, Negative Relief Vent Assembly, and Cabin Vent Assembly). The IOA analysis process utilized available ARPCS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  12. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the hydraulics/water spray boiler subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, J. D.; Davidson, W. R.; Parkman, William E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results for the Orbiter Hydraulics/Water Spray Boiler Subsystem. The hydraulic system provides hydraulic power to gimbal the main engines, actuate the main engine propellant control valves, move the aerodynamic flight control surfaces, lower the landing gear, apply wheel brakes, steer the nosewheel, and dampen the external tank (ET) separation. Each hydraulic system has an associated water spray boiler which is used to cool the hydraulic fluid and APU lubricating oil. The IOA analysis process utilized available HYD/WSB hardware drawings, schematics and documents for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 430 failure modes analyzed, 166 were determined to be PCIs.

  13. Vibrational spectra, molecular structure, natural bond orbital, first order hyperpolarizability, thermodynamic analysis and normal coordinate analysis of Salicylaldehyde p-methylphenylthiosemicarbazone by density functional method.

    PubMed

    Porchelvi, E Elamurugu; Muthu, S

    2015-01-05

    The thiosemicarbazone compound, Salicylaldehyde p-methylphenylthiosemicarbazone (abbreviated as SMPTSC) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman and UV. Density functional (DFT) calculations have been carried out for the title compound by performing DFT level of theory using B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated and compared with the experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with aid of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. The electronic dipole moment (μD) and the first hyperpolarizability (βtot) values of the investigated molecule were computed using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Thearomaticities of the phenyl rings were studied using the standard harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) index. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs).

  14. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the electrical power distribution and control subsystem, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeckpeper, K. R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C) hardware. The EPD and C hardware performs the functions of distributing, sensing, and controlling 28 volt DC power and of inverting, distributing, sensing, and controlling 117 volt 400 Hz AC power to all Orbiter subsystems from the three fuel cells in the Electrical Power Generation (EPG) subsystem. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 1671 failure modes analyzed, 9 single failures were determined to result in loss of crew or vehicle. Three single failures unique to intact abort were determined to result in possible loss of the crew or vehicle. A possible loss of mission could result if any of 136 single failures occurred. Six of the criticality 1/1 failures are in two rotary and two pushbutton switches that control External Tank and Solid Rocket Booster separation. The other 6 criticality 1/1 failures are fuses, one each per Aft Power Control Assembly (APCA) 4, 5, and 6 and one each per Forward Power Control Assembly (FPCA) 1, 2, and 3, that supply power to certain Main Propulsion System (MPS) valves and Forward Reaction Control System (RCS) circuits.

  15. A method of orbital analysis for large-scale first-principles simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Otani, Minoru; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-06-28

    An efficient method of calculating the natural bond orbitals (NBOs) based on a truncation of the entire density matrix of a whole system is presented for large-scale density functional theory calculations. The method recovers an orbital picture for O(N) electronic structure methods which directly evaluate the density matrix without using Kohn-Sham orbitals, thus enabling quantitative analysis of chemical reactions in large-scale systems in the language of localized Lewis-type chemical bonds. With the density matrix calculated by either an exact diagonalization or O(N) method, the computational cost is O(1) for the calculation of NBOs associated with a local region where a chemical reaction takes place. As an illustration of the method, we demonstrate how an electronic structure in a local region of interest can be analyzed by NBOs in a large-scale first-principles molecular dynamics simulation for a liquid electrolyte bulk model (propylene carbonate + LiBF{sub 4})

  16. An Analysis of Recent Major Breakups in he Low Earth Orbit Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Of the 190 known satellite breakups between 1961 and 2006, only one generated more than 500 cataloged fragments. The event was the explosion of the Pegasus Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System in 1996, adding 713 fragments to the U.S. Satellite Catalog. Since the beginning of 2007; however, the near-Earth environment has been subjected to several major breakups, including the Fengyun-1C anti-satellite test and the explosion of Briz-M in 2007, the unusual breakup of Cosmos 2421 in 2008, and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009. Combined, these events added more than 5000 large (> or equal 10 cm) fragments to the environment. Detailed analysis of the radar cross section measurements and orbit histories of the fragments from these major events reveals several unusual characteristics in their size and area-to-mass ratio distributions. The characteristics could be related to the material composition of the parent vehicles, the nature of the breakup, and the composition and physical property of the fragments. In addition, the majority of these fragments are expected to remain in orbit for at least decades. Their long-term impact to the environment is analyzed using the NASA orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND. Descriptions of these analyses and a summary are included in this paper.

  17. An Analysis of Recent Major Breakups in he Low Earth Orbit Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Of the 190 known satellite breakups between 1961 and 2006, only one generated more than 500 cataloged fragments. The event was the explosion of the Pegasus Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System in 1996, adding 713 fragments to the U.S. Satellite Catalog. Since the beginning of 2007; however, the near-Earth environment has been subjected to several major breakups, including the Fengyun-1C anti-satellite test and the explosion of Briz-M in 2007, the unusual breakup of Cosmos 2421 in 2008, and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009. Combined, these events added more than 5000 large (> or equal 10 cm) fragments to the environment. Detailed analysis of the radar cross section measurements and orbit histories of the fragments from these major events reveals several unusual characteristics in their size and area-to-mass ratio distributions. The characteristics could be related to the material composition of the parent vehicles, the nature of the breakup, and the composition and physical property of the fragments. In addition, the majority of these fragments are expected to remain in orbit for at least decades. Their long-term impact to the environment is analyzed using the NASA orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND. Descriptions of these analyses and a summary are included in this paper.

  18. Structural Analysis Peer Review for the Static Display of the Orbiter Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center Visitors Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minute, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Mr. Christopher Miller with the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) NASA Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) office requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) technical support on March 15, 2012, to review and make recommendations on the structural analysis being performed for the Orbiter Atlantis static display at the KSC Visitor Center. The principal focus of the assessment was to review the engineering firm's structural analysis for lifting and aligning the orbiter and its static display configuration

  19. Electric propulsion reliability: Statistical analysis of on-orbit anomalies and comparative analysis of electric versus chemical propulsion failure rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Joseph Homer; Geng, Fan; Ku, Michelle; Walker, Mitchell L. R.

    2017-10-01

    With a few hundred spacecraft launched to date with electric propulsion (EP), it is possible to conduct an epidemiological study of EP's on orbit reliability. The first objective of the present work was to undertake such a study and analyze EP's track record of on orbit anomalies and failures by different covariates. The second objective was to provide a comparative analysis of EP's failure rates with those of chemical propulsion. Satellite operators, manufacturers, and insurers will make reliability- and risk-informed decisions regarding the adoption and promotion of EP on board spacecraft. This work provides evidence-based support for such decisions. After a thorough data collection, 162 EP-equipped satellites launched between January 1997 and December 2015 were included in our dataset for analysis. Several statistical analyses were conducted, at the aggregate level and then with the data stratified by severity of the anomaly, by orbit type, and by EP technology. Mean Time To Anomaly (MTTA) and the distribution of the time to (minor/major) anomaly were investigated, as well as anomaly rates. The important findings in this work include the following: (1) Post-2005, EP's reliability has outperformed that of chemical propulsion; (2) Hall thrusters have robustly outperformed chemical propulsion, and they maintain a small but shrinking reliability advantage over gridded ion engines. Other results were also provided, for example the differentials in MTTA of minor and major anomalies for gridded ion engines and Hall thrusters. It was shown that: (3) Hall thrusters exhibit minor anomalies very early on orbit, which might be indicative of infant anomalies, and thus would benefit from better ground testing and acceptance procedures; (4) Strong evidence exists that EP anomalies (onset and likelihood) and orbit type are dependent, a dependence likely mediated by either the space environment or differences in thrusters duty cycles; (5) Gridded ion thrusters exhibit both

  20. Vibrational spectra and natural bond orbital analysis of organic crystal L-prolinium picrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwin, Bismi; Amalanathan, M.; Hubert Joe, I.

    2012-10-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis and quantum chemical computations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed on the organic crystal L-prolinium picrate (LPP). The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of LPP have been investigated using B3LYP method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA 4 program. The various intramolecular interactions confirming the biological activity of the compound have been exposed by natural bond orbital analysis. The distribution of Mulliken atomic charges and bending of natural hybrid orbitals associated with hydrogen bonding also reflects the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding thereby enhancing bioactivity. The analysis of the electron density of HOMO and LUMO gives an idea of the delocalization and low value of energy gap indicates electron transport in the molecule and thereby bioactivity. Vibrational analysis reveals the presence of strong O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O interaction between L-prolinium and picrate ions providing evidence for the charge transfer interaction between the donor and acceptor groups and is responsible for its bioactivity.

  1. Vibrational spectra and natural bond orbital analysis of organic crystal L-prolinium picrate.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Bismi; Amalanathan, M; Hubert Joe, I

    2012-10-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis and quantum chemical computations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed on the organic crystal L-prolinium picrate (LPP). The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of LPP have been investigated using B3LYP method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA 4 program. The various intramolecular interactions confirming the biological activity of the compound have been exposed by natural bond orbital analysis. The distribution of Mulliken atomic charges and bending of natural hybrid orbitals associated with hydrogen bonding also reflects the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding thereby enhancing bioactivity. The analysis of the electron density of HOMO and LUMO gives an idea of the delocalization and low value of energy gap indicates electron transport in the molecule and thereby bioactivity. Vibrational analysis reveals the presence of strong O-H···O and N-H···O interaction between L-prolinium and picrate ions providing evidence for the charge transfer interaction between the donor and acceptor groups and is responsible for its bioactivity.

  2. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC) Actuator hardware are documented. The function of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuators (ATVC) is to gimbal the main engines to provide for attitude and flight path control during ascent. During first stage flight, the SRB nozzles provide nearly all the steering. After SRB separation, the Orbiter is steered by gimbaling of its main engines. There are six electrohydraulic servoactuators, one pitch and one yaw for each of the three main engines. Each servoactuator is composed of four electrohydraulic servovalve assemblies, one second stage power spool valve assembly, one primary piston assembly and a switching valve. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Critical failures resulting in loss of ATVC were mainly due to loss of hydraulic fluid, fluid contamination and mechanical failures.

  3. Orbit determination error analysis and station-keeping for liberation point trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Steven Craig

    In the elliptic restricted three-body problem (ER3BP), the two primary masses are assumed to be in known elliptic orbits about their common center of mass. The third (infinitesimal) mass may be positioned near one of the five known Lagrange points located in the coordinate system rotating with the primaries. The bounded motion of the infinitesimal mass relative to a Lagrange point can then be computed. In particular, for the Sun-Earth plus Moon three-body system (where the Earth plus Moon barycenter is treated as one primary mass), orbits in the vicinity of the Lagrange point L1 between the Sun and the Earth are ideal for the study of solar-terrestrial interactions. A quasi-periodic 'Lissajous' trajectory and a much larger, nearly periodic 'halo-type' orbit are used in this effort as nominal paths near L1 in the Sun-Earth plus Moon ER3BP. Trajectory determination for a spacecraft that moves under the influence of the two-body system of forces will be affected by many error sources, including tracking errors and modeling uncertainty. Orbit determination error analysis seeks to quantify the impact of these errors. Covariance analysis is a method of error analysis used in this effort to predict state vector error levels. After a predetermined tracking period, using a selected range and range-rate tracking schedule, specific covariance matrix entries are used to compute standard deviations for each of the six states. The results of error analysis using the Kalman and batch weighted least squares filters are compared, and covariance analysis is used to incorporate additional error sources, such as solar radiation pressure uncertainty. The means and the probability distributions of these state errors are tested using statistical hypothesis tests and goodness of fit tests, respectively. The state error levels are then used in Monte Carlo simulations of three station-keeping methods - two delta velocity controllers and an on/off controller developed from a state feedback

  4. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 1: Analysis, baseline design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A system analysis of the shuttle orbiter baseline system management (SM) computer function is performed. This analysis results in an alternative SM design which is also described. The alternative design exhibits several improvements over the baseline, some of which are increased crew usability, improved flexibility, and improved growth potential. The analysis consists of two parts: an application assessment and an implementation assessment. The former is concerned with the SM user needs and design functional aspects. The latter is concerned with design flexibility, reliability, growth potential, and technical risk. The system analysis is supported by several topical investigations. These include: treatment of false alarms, treatment of off-line items, significant interface parameters, and a design evaluation checklist. An in-depth formulation of techniques, concepts, and guidelines for design of automated performance verification is discussed.

  5. Acousto-optic signature analysis for inspection of the orbiter thermal protection tile bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Julio G.; Tow, D. M.; Barna, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a viable NDE technique for the inspection of orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tile bonds. Phase 2, discussed here, concentrated on developing an empirical understanding of the bonded and unbonded vibration signatures of acreage tiles. Controlled experiments in the laboratory have provided useful information on the dynamic response of TPS tiles. It has been shown that several signatures are common to all the pedigree tiles. This degree of consistency in the tile-SIP (strain isolation pad) dynamic response proves that an unbond can be detected for a known tile and establish the basis for extending the analysis capability to arbitrary tiles for which there are no historical data. The field tests of the noncontacting laser acoustic sensor system, conducted at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), investigated the vibrational environment of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) and its effect on the measurement and analysis techniques being developed. The data collected showed that for orbiter locations, such as the body flap and elevon, the data analysis scheme, and/or the sensor, will require modification to accommodate the ambient motion. Several methods were identified for accomplishing this, and a solution is seen as readily achievable. It was established that the tile response was similar to that observed in the laboratory. Of most importance, however, is that the field environment will not affect the physics of the dynamic response that is related to bond condition. All of this information is fundamental to any future design and development of a prototype system.

  6. Integrated orbital servicing study for low-cost payload programs. Volume 2: Technical and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, E. R.; Deats, C. L.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Kyrias, G. M.; Snodgrass, M. R.; Sosnay, R. D.; Spencer, R. A.; Wudell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Orbital maintenance concepts were examined in an effort to determine a cost effective orbital maintenance system compatible with the space transportation system. An on-orbit servicer maintenance system is recommended as the most cost effective system. A pivoting arm on-orbit servicer was selected and a preliminary design was prepared. It is indicated that orbital maintenance does not have any significant impact on the space transportation system.

  7. Rotational Doppler shift for electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum based on spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Gang

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the rotational Doppler effect for the electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) with a method based on spectrum analysis, which is appropriate for both optics and free-space radio cases. We find that the frequency spectrum received is the convolution of emission spectrum and a discrete spectrum about OAM states, and verify it in the numerical simulations as well. This discovery makes it possible to distinguish the linear and rotational Doppler shift, and is helpful to developments of remote sensing and velocimetry in radar.

  8. Enumeration and stability analysis of simple periodic orbits in β-Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sonone, Rupali L. Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-04-24

    We study the well-known one-dimensional problem of N particles with a nonlinear interaction. The special case of quadratic and quartic interaction potential among nearest neighbours is the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We enumerate and classify the simple periodic orbits for this system and find the stability zones, employing Floquet theory. Such stability analysis is crucial to understand the transition of FPU lattice from recurrences to globally chaotic behavior, energy transport in lower dimensional system, dynamics of optical lattices and also its impact on shape parameter of bio-polymers such as DNA and RNA.

  9. Use of MSC/NASTRAN for the thermal analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, James; Mccann, David

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the thermal modeling and analysis effort being conducted to investigate the transient temperature and thermal stress characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter brake components and subsystems. Models are constructed of the brake stator as well as of the entire brake assembly to analyze the temperature distribution and thermal stress during the landing and braking process. These investigations are carried out on a UNIVAC computer system with MSC/NASTRAN Version 63. Analytical results and solution methods are presented and comparisons are made with SINDA results.

  10. Supporting flight data analysis for Space Shuttle Orbiter experiments at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. J.; Budnick, M. P.; Yang, L.; Chiasson, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter experiments program is responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The infrared imagery of shuttle (IRIS), catalytic surface effects, and tile gap heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The software required to process the flight data which support these experiments is described. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques provide information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third shuttle mission.

  11. Use of MSC/NASTRAN for the thermal analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, James; Mccann, David

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the thermal modeling and analysis effort being conducted to investigate the transient temperature and thermal stress characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter brake components and subsystems. Models are constructed of the brake stator as well as of the entire brake assembly to analyze the temperature distribution and thermal stress during the landing and braking process. These investigations are carried out on a UNIVAC computer system with MSC/NASTRAN Version 63. Analytical results and solution methods are presented and comparisons are made with SINDA results.

  12. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations.

  13. Data Acquisition, Management, and Analysis in Support of the Audiology and Hearing Conservation and the Orbital Debris Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, Todd

    2012-01-01

    My internship at Johnson Space Center, Houston TX comprised of working simultaneously in the Space Life Science Directorate (Clinical Services Branch, SD3) in Audiology and Hearing Conservation and in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Sciences Directorate in the Orbital Debris Program Office (KX). The purpose of the project done to support the Audiology and Hearing Conservation Clinic (AuHCon) is to organize and analyze auditory test data that has been obtained from tests conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in Johnson Space Center's clinic. Astronauts undergo a special type of auditory test called an On-Orbit Hearing Assessment (OOHA), which monitors hearing function while crewmembers are exposed to noise and microgravity during long-duration spaceflight. Data needed to be formatted to assist the Audiologist in studying, analyzing and reporting OOHA results from all ISS missions, with comparison to conventional preflight and post-flight audiometric test results of crewmembers. Orbital debris is the #1 threat to manned spacecraft; therefore NASA is investing in different measurement techniques to acquire information on orbital debris. These measurements are taken with telescopes in different parts of the world to acquire brightness variations over time, from which size, rotation rates and material information can be determined for orbital debris. Currently many assumptions are taken to resolve size and material from observed brightness, therefore a laboratory (Optical Measurement Center) is used to simulate the space environment and acquire information of known targets suited to best model the orbital debris population. In the Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) telescopic data were acquired and analyzed to better assess the orbital debris population.

  14. Automated analysis of a diverse synapse population.

    PubMed

    Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Synapses of the mammalian central nervous system are highly diverse in function and molecular composition. Synapse diversity per se may be critical to brain function, since memory and homeostatic mechanisms are thought to be rooted primarily in activity-dependent plastic changes in specific subsets of individual synapses. Unfortunately, the measurement of synapse diversity has been restricted by the limitations of methods capable of measuring synapse properties at the level of individual synapses. Array tomography is a new high-resolution, high-throughput proteomic imaging method that has the potential to advance the measurement of unit-level synapse diversity across large and diverse synapse populations. Here we present an automated feature extraction and classification algorithm designed to quantify synapses from high-dimensional array tomographic data too voluminous for manual analysis. We demonstrate the use of this method to quantify laminar distributions of synapses in mouse somatosensory cortex and validate the classification process by detecting the presence of known but uncommon proteomic profiles. Such classification and quantification will be highly useful in identifying specific subpopulations of synapses exhibiting plasticity in response to perturbations from the environment or the sensory periphery.

  15. Automated Analysis of a Diverse Synapse Population

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Synapses of the mammalian central nervous system are highly diverse in function and molecular composition. Synapse diversity per se may be critical to brain function, since memory and homeostatic mechanisms are thought to be rooted primarily in activity-dependent plastic changes in specific subsets of individual synapses. Unfortunately, the measurement of synapse diversity has been restricted by the limitations of methods capable of measuring synapse properties at the level of individual synapses. Array tomography is a new high-resolution, high-throughput proteomic imaging method that has the potential to advance the measurement of unit-level synapse diversity across large and diverse synapse populations. Here we present an automated feature extraction and classification algorithm designed to quantify synapses from high-dimensional array tomographic data too voluminous for manual analysis. We demonstrate the use of this method to quantify laminar distributions of synapses in mouse somatosensory cortex and validate the classification process by detecting the presence of known but uncommon proteomic profiles. Such classification and quantification will be highly useful in identifying specific subpopulations of synapses exhibiting plasticity in response to perturbations from the environment or the sensory periphery. PMID:23555213

  16. The constrained space orbital variation analysis for periodic ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Hernandez, N.; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio Marcelo; Fdez Sanz, Javier

    2006-05-21

    The constrained space orbital variation (CSOV) method for the analysis of the interaction energy has been implemented in the periodic ab initio CRYSTAL03 code. The method allows for the partition of the energy of two interacting chemical entities, represented in turn by periodic models, into contributions which account for electrostatic effects, mutual polarization and charge transfer. The implementation permits one to carry out the analysis both at the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory levels, where in the latter the most popular exchange-correlation functionals can be used. As an illustrating example, the analysis of the interaction between CO and the MgO (001) surface has been considered. As expected by the almost fully ionic character of the support, our periodic CSOV results, in general agree with those previously obtained using the embedded cluster approach, showing the reliability of the present implementation.

  17. Use of an engineering data management system in the analysis of Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Vallas, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of an engineering data management system to facilitate the extensive stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system. Descriptions are given of the approach and methods used (1) to gather, organize, and store the data, (2) to query data interactively, (3) to generate graphic displays of the data, and (4) to access, transform, and prepare the data for input to a stress analysis program. The relational information management system was found to be well suited to the tile analysis problem because information related to many separate tiles could be accessed individually from a data base having a natural organization from an engineering viewpoint. The flexible user features of the system facilitated changes in data content and organization which occurred during the development and refinement of the tile analysis procedure. Additionally, the query language supported retrieval of data to satisfy a variety of user-specified conditions.

  18. Use of an engineering data management system in the analysis of Space Shuttle Orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Vallas, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of an engineering data management system to facilitate the extensive stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system. Descriptions are given of the approach and methods used (1) to gather, organize, and store the data, (2) to query data interactively, (3) to generate graphic displays of the data, and (4) to access, transform, and prepare the data for input to a stress analysis program. The relational information management system was found to be well suited to the tile analysis problem because information related to many separate tiles could be accessed individually from a data base having a natural organization from an engineering viewpoint. The flexible user features of the system facilitated changes in data content and organization which occurred during the development and refinement of the tile analysis procedure. Additionally, the query language supported retrieval of data to satisfy a variety of user-specified conditions.

  19. Solar Dynamics Observatory On-Orbit Jitter Testing, Analysis, and Mitigation Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kuo-Chia (Alice); Blaurock, Carl A.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Maghami, Peiman G.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was designed to understand the Sun and the Sun s influence on Earth. SDO was launched on February 11, 2010 carrying three scientific instruments: the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). Both AIA and HMI are sensitive to high frequency pointing perturbations and have sub-arcsecond level line-of-sight (LOS) jitter requirements. Extensive modeling and analysis efforts were directed in estimating the amount of jitter disturbing the science instruments. To verify the disturbance models and to validate the jitter performance prior to launch, many jitter-critical components and subassemblies were tested either by the mechanism vendors or at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Although detailed analysis and assembly level tests were performed to obtain good jitter predictions, there were still several sources of uncertainties in the system. The structural finite element model did not have all the modes correlated to test data at high frequencies (greater than 50 Hz). The performance of the instrument stabilization system was not known exactly but was expected to be close to the analytical model. A true disturbance-to-LOS observatory level test was not available due to the tight schedule of the flight spacecraft, the cost in time and manpower, difficulties in creating gravity negation systems, and risks of damaging flight hardware. To protect the observatory jitter performance against model uncertainties, the SDO jitter team devised several on-orbit jitter reduction plans in addition to reserve margins on analysis results. Since some of these plans severely restricted the capabilities of several spacecraft components (e.g. wheels and High Gain Antennas), the SDO team performed on-orbit jitter tests to determine which jitter reduction plans, if any, were necessary to satisfy science LOS jitter requirements. The SDO on-orbit

  20. Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation between populations.

    PubMed Central

    Corander, Jukka; Waldmann, Patrik; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian method for estimating hidden population substructure using multilocus molecular markers and geographical information provided by the sampling design. The joint posterior distribution of the substructure and allele frequencies of the respective populations is available in an analytical form when the number of populations is small, whereas an approximation based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation approach can be obtained for a moderate or large number of populations. Using the joint posterior distribution, posteriors can also be derived for any evolutionary population parameters, such as the traditional fixation indices. A major advantage compared to most earlier methods is that the number of populations is treated here as an unknown parameter. What is traditionally considered as two genetically distinct populations, either recently founded or connected by considerable gene flow, is here considered as one panmictic population with a certain probability based on marker data and prior information. Analyses of previously published data on the Moroccan argan tree (Argania spinosa) and of simulated data sets suggest that our method is capable of estimating a population substructure, while not artificially enforcing a substructure when it does not exist. The software (BAPS) used for the computations is freely available from http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/~mjs. PMID:12586722

  1. Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation between populations.

    PubMed

    Corander, Jukka; Waldmann, Patrik; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian method for estimating hidden population substructure using multilocus molecular markers and geographical information provided by the sampling design. The joint posterior distribution of the substructure and allele frequencies of the respective populations is available in an analytical form when the number of populations is small, whereas an approximation based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation approach can be obtained for a moderate or large number of populations. Using the joint posterior distribution, posteriors can also be derived for any evolutionary population parameters, such as the traditional fixation indices. A major advantage compared to most earlier methods is that the number of populations is treated here as an unknown parameter. What is traditionally considered as two genetically distinct populations, either recently founded or connected by considerable gene flow, is here considered as one panmictic population with a certain probability based on marker data and prior information. Analyses of previously published data on the Moroccan argan tree (Argania spinosa) and of simulated data sets suggest that our method is capable of estimating a population substructure, while not artificially enforcing a substructure when it does not exist. The software (BAPS) used for the computations is freely available from http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/~mjs.

  2. Periodic orbit analysis of a system with continuous symmetry—A tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Budanur, Nazmi Burak Cvitanović, Predrag; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel

    2015-07-15

    Dynamical systems with translational or rotational symmetry arise frequently in studies of spatially extended physical systems, such as Navier-Stokes flows on periodic domains. In these cases, it is natural to express the state of the fluid in terms of a Fourier series truncated to a finite number of modes. Here, we study a 4-dimensional model with chaotic dynamics and SO(2) symmetry similar to those that appear in fluid dynamics problems. A crucial step in the analysis of such a system is symmetry reduction. We use the model to illustrate different symmetry-reduction techniques. The system's relative equilibria are conveniently determined by rewriting the dynamics in terms of a symmetry-invariant polynomial basis. However, for the analysis of its chaotic dynamics, the “method of slices,” which is applicable to very high-dimensional problems, is preferable. We show that a Poincaré section taken on the 'slice' can be used to further reduce this flow to what is for all practical purposes a unimodal map. This enables us to systematically determine all relative periodic orbits and their symbolic dynamics up to any desired period. We then present cycle averaging formulas adequate for systems with continuous symmetry and use them to compute dynamical averages using relative periodic orbits. The convergence of such computations is discussed.

  3. Performance of BDS-3: Measurement Quality Analysis, Precise Orbit and Clock Determination.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin; Geng, Tao; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Wang, Bin

    2017-05-28

    Since 2015, China has successfully launched five experimental BeiDou global navigation system (BDS-3) satellites for expanding the regional system to global coverage. An initial performance assessment and characterization analysis of the BDS-3 is presented. Twenty days of tracking data have been collected from eleven monitoring stations. The tracking characteristics and measurement quality are analyzed and compared with the regional BDS (BDS-2) in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudo-range multipath, and noise. The preliminary results suggest that the measurement quality of BDS-3 outperforms the BDS-2 for the same type of satellites. In addition, the analysis of multipath combinations reveals that the problem of satellite-induced code biases found in BDS-2 seems to have been solved for BDS-3. Precise orbit and clock determination are carried out and evaluated. The orbit overlap comparison show a precision of 2-6 dm in 3D root mean square (RMS) and 6-14 cm in the radial component for experimental BDS-3 satellites. External validations with satellite laser ranging (SLR) show residual RMS on the level of 1-3 dm. Finally, the performance of the new-generation onboard atomic clocks is evaluated and results confirm an increased stability compared to BDS-2 satellite clocks.

  4. Performance of BDS-3: Measurement Quality Analysis, Precise Orbit and Clock Determination

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xin; Geng, Tao; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Since 2015, China has successfully launched five experimental BeiDou global navigation system (BDS-3) satellites for expanding the regional system to global coverage. An initial performance assessment and characterization analysis of the BDS-3 is presented. Twenty days of tracking data have been collected from eleven monitoring stations. The tracking characteristics and measurement quality are analyzed and compared with the regional BDS (BDS-2) in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudo-range multipath, and noise. The preliminary results suggest that the measurement quality of BDS-3 outperforms the BDS-2 for the same type of satellites. In addition, the analysis of multipath combinations reveals that the problem of satellite-induced code biases found in BDS-2 seems to have been solved for BDS-3. Precise orbit and clock determination are carried out and evaluated. The orbit overlap comparison show a precision of 2–6 dm in 3D root mean square (RMS) and 6–14 cm in the radial component for experimental BDS-3 satellites. External validations with satellite laser ranging (SLR) show residual RMS on the level of 1–3 dm. Finally, the performance of the new-generation onboard atomic clocks is evaluated and results confirm an increased stability compared to BDS-2 satellite clocks. PMID:28555027

  5. Conformational analysis of methylphenidate: comparison of molecular orbital and molecular mechanics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Skawinski, William J.; Misra, Milind; Paris, Kristina A.; Naik, Neelam H.; Buono, Ronald A.; Deutsch, Howard M.; Venanzi, Carol A.

    2004-11-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) binds to the cocaine binding site on the dopamine transporter and inhibits reuptake of dopamine, but does not appear to have the same abuse potential as cocaine. This study, part of a comprehensive effort to identify a drug treatment for cocaine abuse, investigates the effect of choice of calculation technique and of solvent model on the conformational potential energy surface (PES) of MP and a rigid methylphenidate (RMP) analogue which exhibits the same dopamine transporter binding affinity as MP. Conformational analysis was carried out by the AM1 and AM1/SM5.4 semiempirical molecular orbital methods, a molecular mechanics method (Tripos force field with the dielectric set equal to that of vacuum or water) and the HF/6-31G* molecular orbital method in vacuum phase. Although all three methods differ somewhat in the local details of the PES, the general trends are the same for neutral and protonated MP. In vacuum phase, protonation has a distinctive effect in decreasing the regions of space available to the local conformational minima. Solvent has little effect on the PES of the neutral molecule and tends to stabilize the protonated species. The random search (RS) conformational analysis technique using the Tripos force field was found to be capable of locating the minima found by the molecular orbital methods using systematic grid search. This suggests that the RS/Tripos force field/vacuum phase protocol is a reasonable choice for locating the local minima of MP. However, the Tripos force field gave significantly larger phenyl ring rotational barriers than the molecular orbital methods for MP and RMP. For both the neutral and protonated cases, all three methods found the phenyl ring rotational barriers for the RMP conformers/invertamers (denoted as cte, tte, and cta) to be: cte, tte> MP > cta. Solvation has negligible effect on the phenyl ring rotational barrier of RMP. The B3LYP/6-31G* density functional method was used to calculate the phenyl

  6. The design and analysis of a double swivel toggle release mechanism for the Orbiter stabilized payload deployment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Guy L.; Tsai, Ted

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Stabilized Payload Deployment System (SPDS) is discussed. The lightweight and heavy-duty system rolls payloads over the orbiter's side rather than ejecting them upward. The system will enhance the orbiter capability of carrying larger and heavier payloads. The design, function, and analysis of a new three-pin double swivel toggle release mechanism which is crucial to the successful deployment of the SPDS are described.

  7. Analysis of the effects of mean local node-crossing time on the evolution of Sun-synchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, P.; Blaes, V.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of mean local node-crossing time on the evolution of Sun-synchronous orbits was undertaken during Phase-A orbit analysis for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) O,P,Q environmental spacecraft. That analysis added to the growing body of evidence that individual Sun-synchronous missions, at differing node-crossing times, experience nodal drift rates that can differ in both magnitude and direction. A Sun-synchronous orbit is obtained by means of a nodal drift rate approximating the 0.9856-degree-per-day apparent precession of the position of the mean Sun. This drift rate is achieved through the interaction of the orbital semimajor axis and inclination in Earth's geopotential field. Influencing perturbations include atmospheric drag and, most important, the effects of solar gravitation on inclination. The present analysis examines a series of Sun-synchronous orbits with mean local node-crossing times at 1-hour intervals from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. It considers the fixed geometry of each orbital plane with respect to both the Sun and the diurnal atmospheric bulge, then analyzes the influence of these features upon the evolution of the semimajor axix and inclination and thus upon the rate of the nodal drift in the course of 1 year.

  8. Results from the direct combination of satellite and gravimetric data. [orbit analysis and gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results have been obtained for the solution of 184 15-deg equal-area blocks directly from the analysis of satellite orbits, and from a combination of the satellite results with terrestrial gravity material. This test computation, made to verify the method, used 17,632 optical observations from ten satellites in 29 arcs averaging in length seven days. Analysis of the satellite results were made by comparing the solved for anomalies with the terrestrial anomaly set, and by developing the solved for anomalies into potential coefficients which were compared to the GEM 3 set of potential coefficients to degree 12. These comparisons indicated improvement in each solution as more arcs were added. The programs used in this solution can easily be used to solve for smaller size blocks and handle additional data types. The only limitation will be computer core availability and computer time.

  9. LANDSAT-D MSS/TM tuned orbital jitter analysis model LDS900

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollak, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    The final LANDSAT-D orbital dynamic math model (LSD900), comprised of all test validated substructures, was used to evaluate the jitter response of the MSS/TM experiments. A dynamic forced response analysis was performed at both the MSS and TM locations on all structural modes considered (thru 200 Hz). The analysis determined the roll angular response of the MSS/TM experiments to improve excitation generated by component operation. Cross axis and cross experiment responses were also calculated. The excitations were analytically represented by seven and nine term Fourier series approximations, for the MSS and TM experiment respectively, which enabled linear harmonic solution techniques to be applied to response calculations. Single worst case jitter was estimated by variations of the eigenvalue spectrum of model LSD 900. The probability of any worst case mode occurrence was investigated.

  10. Updated dispersion analysis for the first Orbital Flight Test (OFT-1) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering 3-sigma uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for the first orbital flight test (OFT-1) mission. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for the OFT-1 reference flight profile and was performed to determine state vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated 3 sigma uncertainties. The dispersions are determined at major mission events and fixed times from liftoff (time slices). Principal error contributors to the covariance matrix are listed. The dispersion data indicates that the largest position error occurs in the down range component. At main engine cutoff and circularization, the vehicle performance uncertainties are the major contributors to down range error.

  11. Use of an engineering data management system in the analysis of space shuttle orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Vallas, M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an engineering data management system to facilitate the extensive stress analyses of the space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system is demonstrated. The methods used to gather, organize, and store the data; to query data interactively; to generate graphic displays of the data; and to access, transform, and prepare the data for input to a stress analysis program are described. Information related to many separate tiles can be accessed individually from the data base which has a natural organization from an engineering viewpoint. The flexible user features of the system facilitate changes in data content and organization which occur during the development and refinement of the tile analysis procedure. Additionally, the query language supports retrieval of data to satisfy a variety of user-specified conditions.

  12. Results from the direct combination of satellite and gravimetric data. [orbit analysis and gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results have been obtained for the solution of 184 15-deg equal-area blocks directly from the analysis of satellite orbits, and from a combination of the satellite results with terrestrial gravity material. This test computation, made to verify the method, used 17,632 optical observations from ten satellites in 29 arcs averaging in length seven days. Analysis of the satellite results were made by comparing the solved for anomalies with the terrestrial anomaly set, and by developing the solved for anomalies into potential coefficients which were compared to the GEM 3 set of potential coefficients to degree 12. These comparisons indicated improvement in each solution as more arcs were added. The programs used in this solution can easily be used to solve for smaller size blocks and handle additional data types. The only limitation will be computer core availability and computer time.

  13. Hydrogen on-orbit storage and supply (HOSS) thermal design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Curtis M.; Schick, Scott H.; Batty, J. Clair

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes the thermal design and analysis of the HOSS (Hydrogen On-Orbit Storage and Supply) liquid hydrogen dewar. This task is being carried out by the Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University under contract from NASA Lewis Research Center. The vacuum jacketed 80-liter dewar is designed for a mission life greater than 30 days. The design uses concentric G-10 fiberglass support tubes and multilayer insulation to thermally isolate the hydrogen tank. Heat load trade off studies were performed based on the support tube thickness, plumbing size, and vacuum shell temperature. The dewar employs a liquid nitrogen cooled shield to provide a non-venting ground hold capability of more than 96 hours for launch preparation. Analysis has shown that a greater than 30 day mission is feasible even with a mechanically robust design capable of withstanding most launch environments.

  14. Real-time automated failure analysis for on-orbit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Sarah; Lauritsen, Janet; Pack, Ginger; Ha, Anhhoang; Jowers, Steven; Mcnenny, Robert; Truong, The; Dell, James

    1993-01-01

    A system which is to provide real-time failure analysis support to controllers at the NASA Johnson Space Center Control Center Complex (CCC) for both Space Station and Space Shuttle on-orbit operations is described. The system employs monitored systems' models of failure behavior and model evaluation algorithms which are domain-independent. These failure models are viewed as a stepping stone to more robust algorithms operating over models of intended function. The described system is designed to meet two sets of requirements. It must provide a useful failure analysis capability enhancement to the mission controller. It must satisfy CCC operational environment constraints such as cost, computer resource requirements, verification, and validation. The underlying technology and how it may be used to support operations is also discussed.

  15. Mission analysis data for inclined geosynchronous orbits, part 2. Appendix A: Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A bibliography of papers and reports on geosynchronous orbits, as well as background papers concerned with the fundamentals of orbital mechanics is presented. A listing of computer programs developed for this study is included.

  16. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the rudder/speed brake subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbiter Rudder/Speedbrake Actuation Mechanism is documented. The function of the Rudder/Speedbrake (RSB) is to provide directional control and to provide a means of energy control during entry. The system consists of two panels on a vertical hinge mounted on the aft part of the vertical stabilizer. These two panels move together to form a rudder but split apart to make a speedbrake. The Rudder/Speedbrake Actuation Mechanism consists of the following elements: (1) Power Drive Unit (PDU) which is composed of hydraulic valve module and a hydraulic motor-powered gearbox which contains differentials and mixer gears to provide PDU torque output; (2) four geared rotary actuators which apply the PDU generated torque to the rudder/speedbrake panels; and (3) ten torque shafts which join the PDU to the rotary actuators and interconnect the four rotary actuators. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failures and causes. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Critical RSB failures which result in potential loss of vehicle control were mainly due to loss of hydraulic fluid, fluid contaminators, and mechanical failures in gears and shafts.

  17. Extinction-effective population index: incorporating life-history variations in population viability analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masami

    2007-09-01

    Viability status of populations is a commonly used measure for decision-making in the management of populations. One of the challenges faced by managers is the need to consistently allocate management effort among populations. This allocation should in part be based on comparison of extinction risks among populations. Unfortunately, common criteria that use minimum viable population size or count-based population viability analysis (PVA) often do not provide results that are comparable among populations, primarily because they lack consistency in determining population size measures and threshold levels of population size (e.g., minimum viable population size and quasi-extinction threshold). Here I introduce a new index called the "extinction-effective population index," which accounts for differential effects of demographic stochasticity among organisms with different life-history strategies and among individuals in different life stages. This index is expected to become a new way of determining minimum viable population size criteria and also complement the count-based PVA. The index accounts for the difference in life-history strategies of organisms, which are modeled using matrix population models. The extinction-effective population index, sensitivity, and elasticity are demonstrated in three species of Pacific salmonids. The interpretation of the index is also provided by comparing them with existing demographic indices. Finally, a measure of life-history-specific effect of demographic stochasticity is derived.

  18. Preliminary internal straylight analysis of the METIS instrument for the Solar Orbiter ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verroi, Enrico; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Fineschi, Silvano; Antonucci, Ester

    2012-09-01

    METIS, the multi element telescope for imaging and spectroscopy, is a solar coronagraph foreseen for the Solar Orbiter mission. METIS is conceived to observe the solar corona from a near-sun orbit in three different spectral bands: in the HeII EUV narrow band at 30.4 nm, in the HI UV narrow band at 121.6 nm, and in the visible light band (500 - 650 nm). The visible light from the corona is ten million times fainter than the light emitted by the solar disk, so a very stringent light suppression design is needed for the visible channel. METIS adopts an “inverted occulted” configuration, where the disk light is shielded by an annular shape occulter, after which an annular aspherical mirror M1 collects the signal coming from the corona. The disk light heading through M1 is back-rejected by a suitable spherical mirror M0. This paper presents the stray light analysis for this new-concept configuration, performed with a ray tracing simulation, to insure the opto-mechanical design grants a stray light level below the limit of 10-9 times the coronal signal intensity. A model of the optics and of the mechanical parts of the telescope has been realized with ASAP (Breault Research TM); by means of a Montecarlo ray tracing, the effect of stray light on VIS and UVEUV channels has been simulated.

  19. An analysis of ullage heat transfer in the orbital refueling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Orbital Refueling System was an experiment flown on Shuttle Mission STS 41-G in October, 1984. Liquid hydrazine fuel was transferred back and forth from one spherical bladder tank to another using pressurized nitrogen as the driving force. Compressive heating of the ullage gas in the receiving tank could lead to a hazardous situation if any hydrazine leaked through to the ullage side of the bladder and was heated above about 175 F, where it can undergo spontaneous exothermic decomposition. Early analysis of the flight data indicated that the ullage compression process was much closer to an isothermal than an adiabatic one. In this study, a thorough review of the pertinent literature was used to make an a priori best-estimate for the ullage gas heat transfer coefficient (defining the Nusselt Number as a function of Reynolds and Rayleigh Numbers). Experimental data from the flight were analyzed in detail. It is evident that there is considerably more heat transfer than can be accounted for by conduction alone, but the observed increases do not correlate well with Reynolds Number, Rayleigh Number or vehicle acceleration. There are large gaps in the present understanding of convective heat transfer in closed containers with internal heat generation, especially in the presence of vibrations or other random disturbances. A program of experiments to fill in these gaps is suggested, covering both ground and orbital environments.

  20. Mission Life Thermal Analysis and Environment Correlation for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matthew B.; Peabody, Hume

    2012-01-01

    Standard thermal analysis practices include stacking worst-case conditions including environmental heat loads, thermo-optical properties and orbital beta angles. This results in the design being driven by a few bounding thermal cases, although those cases may only represent a very small portion of the actual mission life. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Branch developed a procedure to predict the flight temperatures over the entire mission life, assuming a known beta angle progression, variation in the thermal environment, and a degradation rate in the coatings. This was applied to the Global Precipitation Measurement core spacecraft. In order to assess the validity of this process, this work applies the similar process to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. A flight-correlated thermal model was exercised to give predictions of the thermal performance over the mission life. These results were then compared against flight data from the first two years of the spacecraft s use. This is used to validate the process and to suggest possible improvements for future analyses.

  1. [Analysis of Camellia rosthorniana populations fecundity].

    PubMed

    Cao, Guoxing; Zhong, Zhangcheng; Xie, Deti; Liu, Yun

    2004-03-01

    With the method of space substituting time, the structure of Camellia rosthorniana populations in three forest communities, i.e., Jiant bamboo forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and evergreen broad-leaved forest in Mt. Jinyun was investigated, and based on static life-tables, the fecundity tables and reproductive value tables of C. rosthorniana populations were constructed. Each reproductive parameter and its relation to bionomic strategies of C. rosthorniana populations were also analyzed. The results indicated that in evergreen broad-leaved forest, C. rosthorniana population had the longest life span and the greatest fitness. The stage of maximum reproductive value increased with increasing stability of the community. The sum of each population's reproductive value, residual reproductive value and total reproductive value for the whole life-history of C. rosthorniana also increased with increasing maturity of the community, showing their inherent relationships with reproductive fitness. As regards to bionomic strategy, C. rosthorniana showed mainly the characteristics of a k-strategies, but in less stable community, the reproductive parameters were greatly changed, showing some characteristics of a r-strategies.

  2. Improvement of the TOPEX and Jason Orbit Time Series: Precision Orbit Determination, Calibration, Validation and Improvement Through the Combined Reduction and Analysis of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beckley, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Orbit error is a major component in the overall error budget of all altimeter satellite missions. Jason-I is no exception and a 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal has been set, which represents a factor of two improvement over what is currently being achieved for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP). Our current analysis suggests this goal has been met and even improved upon, but the challenge is to be able to continually achieve this high accuracy, verify the performance and characterize and quantify the remaining errors over the lifetime of the mission. The computation, verification and error characterization of such high accuracy orbits requires the reduction and analysis of all available tracking data (GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter). Current analysis also indicates the history of TP orbits can be further improved employing new solution strategies developed and tested on Jason-I. Our research focuses on the calibration, validation and improvement of orbit accuracies using all available tracking data including altimetry. We will compute and distribute well centered Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm in the radial component. In addition to the orbits themselves, a characterization of the orbit error will be distributed and accumulated as a time series of orbit performance metrics to track anomalies and trends. The long time series of orbit error characterization will enable a better understanding of the remaining orbit errors and its impact on the altimeter data analysis. As part of this research effort we are also significantly improving the current level of TP orbit accuracy, re-computing new high-accuracy TP orbits from the beginning of the TP mission and continuing into the future (as long as TP is healthy). Our funded research effort will result in a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits for both TP and Jason, significantly benefiting the long time series of altimeter data analysis and the TP/Jason dual mission. The resultant high accuracy orbits

  3. Improvement of the TOPEX and Jason Orbit Time Series: Precision Orbit Determination, Calibration, Validation and Improvement Through the Combined Reduction and Analysis of GPS, SLR, DORIS and Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Beckley, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Orbit error is a major component in the overall error budget of all altimeter satellite missions. Jason-I is no exception and a 1 cm radial orbit accuracy goal has been set, which represents a factor of two improvement over what is currently being achieved for TOPEX/Poseidon (TP). Our current analysis suggests this goal has been met and even improved upon, but the challenge is to be able to continually achieve this high accuracy, verify the performance and characterize and quantify the remaining errors over the lifetime of the mission. The computation, verification and error characterization of such high accuracy orbits requires the reduction and analysis of all available tracking data (GPS, SLR, DORIS and altimeter). Current analysis also indicates the history of TP orbits can be further improved employing new solution strategies developed and tested on Jason-I. Our research focuses on the calibration, validation and improvement of orbit accuracies using all available tracking data including altimetry. We will compute and distribute well centered Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm in the radial component. In addition to the orbits themselves, a characterization of the orbit error will be distributed and accumulated as a time series of orbit performance metrics to track anomalies and trends. The long time series of orbit error characterization will enable a better understanding of the remaining orbit errors and its impact on the altimeter data analysis. As part of this research effort we are also significantly improving the current level of TP orbit accuracy, re-computing new high-accuracy TP orbits from the beginning of the TP mission and continuing into the future (as long as TP is healthy). Our funded research effort will result in a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits for both TP and Jason, significantly benefiting the long time series of altimeter data analysis and the TP/Jason dual mission. The resultant high accuracy orbits

  4. Skylab 1 rocket /1973-27B/ - Orbit determination and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King-Hele, D. G.

    1980-04-01

    The paper analyzes Skylab 1 rocket orbit and describes the geopotential resonance, atmospheric rotation, and variations in eccentricity due to drag. The final stage rocket which projected Skylab into orbit itself entered a nearly circular orbit which was determined at 62 epochs, with the orbital accuracy in perigee height and orbital inclination of 90 km. As the orbit contracted under influence of air drag, it passed slowly through the 31:2 geopotential resonance, when the track over the earth repeats every 31 revolutions at intervals of 2 days. The variations in inclination and eccentricity during the resonance phase were analyzed to determine the atmospheric rotation rate; the eccentricity variations were compared with the predicted values for orbit contraction in an atmosphere with a strong day-to-night variation in density.

  5. Analysis for orbital rendezvous of Chang'E-5 using SBI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Shan, Q.; Li, P.

    2016-12-01

    Chang'E-5 will be launched in later 2017/early 2018 using a new generation rocket from Wenchang satellite launch center, Hainan, China. It is a lunar sampling return mission, and it is the first time for China to carry out orbital rendezvous and docking in the Moon. How to achieve orbital rendezvous successfully in the Moon is very important in Chang'E-5 mission. Orbital rendezvous will be implemented between an orbiter and an ascender 200 km above the Moon. The ground tracking techniques include range, Doppler and VLBI, and they will be used to track the orbiter and the ascender when the ascender is about 70 km farther away from the orbiter. Later the ascender will approach the orbiter automatically. As a successful example, in Chang'E-3, the differential phase delay (delta delay) data between the rover and the lander are obtained with a random error of about 1 ps, and the relative position of the rover is determined with an accuracy of several meters by using same beam VLBI (SBI) technique. Here the application of the SBI technique for Chang'E-5 orbital rendezvous is discussed. SBI technique can be used to track the orbiter and the ascender simultaneously when they are in the same beam. Delta delay of the two probes can be derived, and the measurement accuracy is much higher than that of the traditional VLBI data because of the cancelation of common errors. Theoretically it can result in a more accurate relative orbit between the two probes. In the simulation, different strategies are discussed to analyze the contribution of SBI data to the orbit accuracy improvement especially relative orbit between the orbiter and ascender. The simulation results show that the relative position accuracy of the orbiter and ascender can reach about 1 m with delta delay data of 10 ps.

  6. Space shuttle orbiter digital data processing system timing sensitivity analysis OFT ascent phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagas, J. J.; Peterka, J. J.; Becker, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic loads were investigated to provide simulation and analysis of the space shuttle orbiter digital data processing system (DDPS). Segments of the ascent test (OFT) configuration were modeled utilizing the information management system interpretive model (IMSIM) in a computerized simulation modeling of the OFT hardware and software workload. System requirements for simulation of the OFT configuration were defined, and sensitivity analyses determined areas of potential data flow problems in DDPS operation. Based on the defined system requirements and these sensitivity analyses, a test design was developed for adapting, parameterizing, and executing IMSIM, using varying load and stress conditions for model execution. Analyses of the computer simulation runs are documented, including results, conclusions, and recommendations for DDPS improvements.

  7. Laboratory Reproduction and Failure Analysis of Cracked Orbiter Reaction Control System Niobium Thruster Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Jeremy B.; Castner, Willard L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing cracks and failure analysis of an orbiter reaction control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Endeavour STS-113 Landing; 2) RCS Thruster; 3) Thruster Cross-Section; 4) RCS Injector; 5) RCS Thruster, S/N 120l 6) Counterbore Cracks; 7) Relief Radius Cracks; 8) RCS Thruster Cracking History; 9) Thruster Manufacturing Timelines; 10) Laboratory Reproduction of Injector Cracking; 11) The Brownfield Specimen; 12) HF EtchantTests/Specimen Loading; 13) Specimen #3 HF + 600F; 14) Specimen #3 IG Fracture; 15) Specimen #5 HF + 600F; 16) Specimen #5 Popcorn ; 17) Specimen #5 Cleaned and Bent; 18) HF Exposure Test Matrix; 19) Krytox143AC Tests; 20) KrytoxTests/Specimen Loading; 21) Specimen #13 Krytox + 600F; and 22) KrytoxExposure Test Matrix.

  8. Symmetry analysis of phosphorene: electronic structure with spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian; Appelbaum's Group Team

    2015-03-01

    We present a symmetry analysis of electronic band structure including spin-orbit interaction close to the insulating gap edge in monolayer black phosphorus (``phosphorene''). Expressions for energy dispersion relation and spin-dependent eigenstates for electrons and holes are found via simplification of a perturbative expansion in wave vector k away from the zone center using elementary group theory. Importantly, we expose the underlying symmetries giving rise to substantial anisotropy in optical absorption, charge, and spin transport properties, and reveal the mechanism responsible for valence band distortion and possible lack of a true direct gap. We discovered that, spin flip processes are decoupled by symmetry from flexural phonons, allowing us to predict a spin lifetime comparable to bulk Si, vastly greater than graphene.

  9. TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet protocol (TCP/IP) interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) provides the means for the software to establish real-time interfaces with other software. Such interfaces can operate between two programs, either on the same computer or on different computers joined by a network. The SOAP TCP/IP module employs a client/server interface where SOAP is the server and other applications can be clients. Real-time interfaces between software offer a number of advantages over embedding all of the common functionality within a single program. One advantage is that they allow each program to divide the computation labor between processors or computers running the separate applications. Secondly, each program can be allowed to provide its own expertise domain with other programs able to use this expertise.

  10. Analysis of the orbit errors in the CERN accelerators using model simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.; Clearwater, S.; Scandale, W.; Pettersson, T.; Kugler, H.; Riche, A.; Chanel, M.; Martensson, E.; Lin, In-Ho

    1987-09-01

    This paper will describe the use of the PLUS program to find various types of machine and beam errors such as, quadrupole strength, dipole strength, beam position monitors (BPMs), energy profile, and beam launch. We refer to this procedure as the GOLD (Generic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) Method which is a general technique that can be applied to analysis of errors in storage rings and transport lines. One useful feature of the Method is that it analyzes segments of a machine at a time so that the application and efficiency is independent of the size of the overall machine. Because the techniques are the same for all the types of problems it solves, the user need learn only how to find one type of error in order to use the program.

  11. Thermal Analysis for Orbiter and ISS Plume Impingement on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, William C.; Reid, Ethan A.; Carl, Terry L.; Smith, Ries N.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Reaction Control System (RCS) Plume Model (RPM) is an exhaust plume flow field and impingement heating code that has been updated and applied to components of the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of this study was to use this code to determine if plume environments from either Orbiter PRCS jets or ISS reboost and Attitude Control System (ACS) jets cause thermal issues on ISS component surfaces. This impingement analysis becomes increasingly important as the ISS is being assembled with its first permanent crew scheduled to arrive by the end of fall 2000. By early summer 2001 , the ISS will have a number of major components installed such as the Unity (Node 1), Destiny (Lab Module), Zarya (Functional Cargo Block), and Zvezda (Service Module) along with the P6 solar arrays and radiators and the Z-1 truss. Plume heating to these components has been analyzed with the RPM code as well as additional components for missions beyond Flight 6A such as the Propulsion Module (PM), Mobile Servicing System, Space Station Remote Manipulator System, Node 2, and the Cupola. For the past several years NASA/JSC has been developing the methodology to predict plume heating on ISS components. The RPM code is a modified source flow code with capabilities for scarfed nozzles and intersecting plumes that was developed for the 44 Orbiter RCS jets. This code has been validated by comparison with Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX) heat flux and pressure data and with CFD and Method of Characteristics solutions. Previous analyses of plume heating predictions to the ISS using RPM have been reported, but did not consider thermal analysis for the components nor jet-firing histories as the Orbiter approaches the ISS docking ports. The RPM code has since been modified to analyze surface temperatures with a lumped mass approach and also uses jet-firing histories to produce pulsed heating rates. In addition, RPM was modified to include plume heating from ISS

  12. Orbit-based analysis of resonant excitations of Alfvén waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Bierwage, Andreas; Shinohara, Kouji

    2014-11-15

    The exponential growth phase of fast-ion-driven Alfvénic instabilities is simulated and the resonant wave-particle interactions are analyzed numerically. The simulations are carried out in realistic magnetic geometry and with a realistic particle distribution for a JT-60U plasma driven by negative-ion-based neutral beams. In order to deal with the large magnetic drifts of the fast ions, two new mapping methods are developed and applied. The first mapping yields the radii and pitch angles at the points, where the unperturbed orbit of a particle intersects the mid-plane. These canonical coordinates allow to express analysis results (e.g., drive profiles and resonance widths) in a form that is easy to understand and directly comparable to the radial mode structure. The second mapping yields the structure of the wave field along the particle trajectory. This allows us to unify resonance conditions for trapped and passing particles, determine which harmonics are driven, and which orders of the resonance are involved. This orbit-based resonance analysis (ORA) method is applied to fast-ion-driven instabilities with toroidal mode numbers n = 1-3. After determining the order and width of each resonance, the kinetic compression of resonant particles and the effect of linear resonance overlap are examined. On the basis of the ORA results, implications for the fully nonlinear regime, for the long-time evolution of the system in the presence of a fast ion source, and for the interpretation of experimental observations are discussed.

  13. Global Population Genetic Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing invasive aspergillosis, a globally distributed disease with a mortality rate of up to 90% in high-risk populations. Effective control and prevention of this disease require a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. However, despite significant efforts, the global molecular epidemiology of A. fumigatus remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed 2,026 A. fumigatus isolates from 13 countries in four continents using nine highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Genetic cluster analyses suggest that our global sample of A. fumigatus isolates belonged to eight genetic clusters, with seven of the eight clusters showing broad geographic distributions. We found common signatures of sexual recombination within individual genetic clusters and clear evidence of hybridization between several clusters. Limited but statistically significant genetic differentiations were found among geographic and ecological populations. However, there was abundant evidence for gene flow at the local, regional, and global scales. Interestingly, the triazole-susceptible and triazole-resistant populations showed different population structures, consistent with antifungal drug pressure playing a significant role in local adaptation. Our results suggest that global populations of A. fumigatus are shaped by historical differentiation, contemporary gene flow, sexual reproduction, and the localized antifungal drug selection that is driving clonal expansion of genotypes resistant to multiple triazole drugs. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity and geographic structure of the human fungal pathogen A. fumigatus have been the subject of many studies. However, most previous studies had relatively limited sample ranges and sizes and/or used genetic markers with low-level polymorphisms. In this paper, we characterize a global collection of strains of A. fumigatus using a panel of 9 highly

  14. The atomic orbitals of the topological atom.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Mayer, István

    2013-06-07

    The effective atomic orbitals have been realized in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory for a general wavefunction. This formalism can be used to retrieve from any type of calculation a proper set of orthonormalized numerical atomic orbitals, with occupation numbers that sum up to the respective Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic populations. Experience shows that only a limited number of effective atomic orbitals exhibit significant occupation numbers. These correspond to atomic hybrids that closely resemble the core and valence shells of the atom. The occupation numbers of the remaining effective orbitals are almost negligible, except for atoms with hypervalent character. In addition, the molecular orbitals of a calculation can be exactly expressed as a linear combination of this orthonormalized set of numerical atomic orbitals, and the Mulliken population analysis carried out on this basis set exactly reproduces the original QTAIM atomic populations of the atoms. Approximate expansion of the molecular orbitals over a much reduced set of orthogonal atomic basis functions can also be accomplished to a very good accuracy with a singular value decomposition procedure.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Orbit Determination Accuracy for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sease, Bradley; Myers, Jessica; Lorah, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a 2.4-meter telescope planned for launch to the Sun-Earth L2 point in 2026. This paper details a preliminary study of the achievable accuracy for WFIRST from ground-based orbit determination routines. The analysis here is divided into two segments. First, a linear covariance analysis of early mission and routine operations provides an estimate of the tracking schedule required to meet mission requirements. Second, a simulated operations'' scenario gives insight into the expected behavior of a daily Extended Kalman Filter orbit estimate over the first mission year given a variety of potential momentum unloading schemes.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of Ground-based Orbit Determination Accuracy for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sease, Brad

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a 2.4-meter telescope planned for launch to the Sun-Earth L2 point in 2026. This paper details a preliminary study of the achievable accuracy for WFIRST from ground-based orbit determination routines. The analysis here is divided into two segments. First, a linear covariance analysis of early mission and routine operations provides an estimate of the tracking schedule required to meet mission requirements. Second, a simulated operations scenario gives insight into the expected behavior of a daily Extended Kalman Filter orbit estimate over the first mission year given a variety of potential momentum unloading schemes.

  17. Analysis of the structural continuity in twinned crystals in terms of pseudo-eigensymmetry of crystallographic orbits

    PubMed Central

    Marzouki, Mohamed Amine; Souvignier, Bernd; Nespolo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The reticular theory of twinning gives the necessary conditions on the lattice level for the formation of twins. The latter are based on the continuation, more or less approximate, of a substructure through the composition surface. The analysis of this structural continuity can be performed in terms of the eigensymmetry of the crystallographic orbits corresponding to occupied Wyckoff positions in the structure. If is the space group of the individual and a space group which fixes the twin lattice obtained as an intersection of the space groups of the individuals in their respective orientations, then a structural continuity is obtained if (1) the eigensymmetry of an orbit under contains the twin operation; (2) the eigensymmetry of a union of orbits under contains the twin operation; (3) the eigensymmetry of a split orbit under contains the twin operation; or (4) the eigensymmetry of a union of split orbits under contains the twin operation. The case of the twins in melilite is analysed: the (approximate) restoration of some of the orbits explains the formation of these twins. PMID:25075318

  18. [Isonymy analysis between 2 populations in northwestern Colombia].

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Gabriel; García, Jenny; Montoya, Patricia; Rojas, Winston; Amézquita, Maria Eugenia; Soto, Iván; López, Maria Cecilia; Ospina-Duque, Jorge; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2006-12-01

    Surname frequency (isonymy) is used as a marker of paternal lineage and is used to characterize human population structure. Principles of isonymy were used to determine the genetic structure, migration rates, ancestry relations and origins of populations. This analysis was applied to two historically related local populations which currently are considered to be genetically isolated. The genetic relationships and influence zones of the Aranzazu and Marinilla populations were assessed by means of surname frequency analysis. Data originated from database with the title "System of Identification of Beneficiaries of the Social Programs" database or Sisben. Population parameters such as a priori kinship (phi(ii)), population homogeneity with B and C estimators, and Cavalli-Sforza's genetic distance were calculated for (a) three towns of Marinilla and its influence zone and (b) Aranzazu. The Rionegro population served as an external, comparison population. The Aranzazu and Marinilla populations showed the higher homogeneity (B value between 0.25 and 0.5) in contrast with Rionegro (B = 0.159), as well as greater a priori kinship values (4), between 0.003 and 0.010). The lowest distances were found between Marinilla and Aranzazu. Aranzazu is a population with characteristics similar to those of Marinilla and its influence zone. The close similarity of genetic characteristics for these populations is due probably to a founder effect. Furthermore, the genetic similarity predicts that genetic diseases will have the same etiology in both populations and provides optimum conditions for gene mapping studies.

  19. Analysis of Gopher Tortoise Population Estimation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    that lives elsewhere. In addition to these three categories of activity, Diemer (1992b) used a fourth labeled “possibly active” to distinguish burrows...Such counts generally represent an unknown fraction of the total population of animals (or bur- rows), and additional information is usually...of burrow detectability by size class, in addition to improving burrow surveys for abundance estimates, would also add confidence to estimates of

  20. Correlation of /sup 35/Cl NQR frequencies with chlorine-atom p-orbital populations and charges in organic, silicoorganic, and inorganic chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Feshin, V.P.; Nikitin, P.A.; Voronkov, M.G.

    1986-07-01

    SCF MOLCAO calculations in the CNDO/2 approximation (valency sp basis) are presented for organic, heteroorganic, and inorganic chlorine compounds in the XCl series. Satisfactory correlations are obtained between the calculated charges on the Cl atoms, the populations of the psigma orbitals, and the numbers of unbalanced electrons on the one hand with the observed /sup 35/Cl NQR frequencies for the corresponding compounds in the XX'X''CCl and XCl series. These indicate that the Townes-Daly approximation in NQR spectroscopy is completely applicable even in the quantitative evaluation of chlorine-atom electron-density distributions in molecules.

  1. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  2. Natural bond orbital analysis, electronic structure and vibrational spectral analysis of N-(4-hydroxyl phenyl) acetamide: A density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, P.; Gunasekaran, S.; Ramkumaar, G. R.

    2014-09-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of N-(4-hydroxy phenyl) acetamide (N4HPA) of painkiller agent were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the optimized geometrical parameter, atomic charges, and vibrational wavenumbers and intensity of the vibrational bands. The computed vibrational wave numbers were compared with the FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental data. The computational calculations at DFT/B3LYP level with 6-31G(d,p), 6-31++G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes calculated using Vibrational energy distribution analysis (VEDA 4) program. The oscillator’s strength calculated by TD-DFT and N4HPA is approach complement with the experimental findings. The NMR chemical shifts 13C and 1H were recorded and calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) and electron density surfaces of the molecule were constructed. The Natural charges and intermolecular contacts have been interpreted using Natural Bond orbital (NBO) analysis the HOMO-LUMO energy gap has been calculated. The thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity and zero vibrational energy have been calculated.

  3. Natural bond orbital analysis, electronic structure and vibrational spectral analysis of N-(4-hydroxyl phenyl) acetamide: a density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, P; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2014-09-15

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of N-(4-hydroxy phenyl) acetamide (N4HPA) of painkiller agent were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm(-1) and 4000-50 cm(-1) respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the optimized geometrical parameter, atomic charges, and vibrational wavenumbers and intensity of the vibrational bands. The computed vibrational wave numbers were compared with the FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental data. The computational calculations at DFT/B3LYP level with 6-31G(d,p), 6-31++G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes calculated using Vibrational energy distribution analysis (VEDA 4) program. The oscillator's strength calculated by TD-DFT and N4HPA is approach complement with the experimental findings. The NMR chemical shifts 13C and 1H were recorded and calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) and electron density surfaces of the molecule were constructed. The Natural charges and intermolecular contacts have been interpreted using Natural Bond orbital (NBO) analysis the HOMO-LUMO energy gap has been calculated. The thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity and zero vibrational energy have been calculated.

  4. Orbital service module systems analysis study documentation. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Potentially feasible system concepts for providing additional power, thermal control, and attitude to the baseline orbiter were investigated in order to support a greater variety of space missions and to extend the orbiter's ability to remain in orbit. Results of these analyses include an incremental growth plan that offers the flexibility of adding capability as, and when, it is needed in order to satisfy emerging user requirements.

  5. Thermal and structural analysis of the GOES scan mirror's on orbit performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurmehly, G. E.; Hookman, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The on-orbit performance of the GOES satellite's scan mirror has been predicted by means of thermal, structural, and optical models. A simpler-than-conventional thermal model was used to reduce the time required to obtain orbital predictions, and the structural model was used to predict on-earth gravity sag and on-orbit distortions. The transfer of data from the thermal model to the structural model was automated for a given set of thermal nodes and structural grids.

  6. Dilution-of-Precision-Based Lunar Surface Navigation System Analysis Utilizing Lunar Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.; Connolly, Joseph W.; Sands, Obed S.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration is focused on the return of astronauts to the Moon. Although navigation systems have already been proven in the Apollo missions to the Moon, the current exploration campaign will involve more extensive and extended missions requiring new concepts for lunar navigation. In contrast to Apollo missions, which were limited to the near-side equatorial region of the Moon, those under the Exploration Systems Initiative will require navigation on the Moon's limb and far side. Since these regions have poor Earth visibility, a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will not provide adequate navigation solutions in these areas. In this report, a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based analysis of the performance of a network of Moon orbiting satellites is provided. This analysis extends a previous analysis of a lunar network (LN) of navigation satellites by providing an assessment of the capability associated with a variety of assumptions. These assumptions pertain to the minimum surface user elevation angle and a total single satellite failure in the lunar network. The assessment is accomplished by making appropriately formed estimates of DoP. Different adaptations of DoP, such as geometric DoP and positional DoP (GDoP and PDoP), are associated with a different set of assumptions regarding augmentations to the navigation receiver or transceiver.

  7. Orbit-determination performance of Doppler data for interplanetary cruise trajectories. Part 1: Error analysis methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    An error covariance analysis methodology is used to investigate different weighting schemes for two-way (coherent) Doppler data in the presence of transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors. The analysis focuses on orbit-determination performance in the interplanetary cruise phase of deep-space missions. Analytical models for the Doppler observable and for transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors are presented, drawn primarily from previous work. Previously published analytical models were improved upon by the following: (1) considering the effects of errors in the calibration of radio signal propagation through the troposphere and ionosphere as well as station-location errors; (2) modelling the spacecraft state transition matrix using a more accurate piecewise-linear approximation to represent the evolution of the spacecraft trajectory; and (3) incorporating Doppler data weighting functions that are functions of elevation angle, which reduce the sensitivity of the estimated spacecraft trajectory to troposphere and ionosphere calibration errors. The analysis is motivated by the need to develop suitable weighting functions for two-way Doppler data acquired at 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). This weighting is likely to be different from that in the weighting functions currently in use; the current functions were constructed originally for use with 2.3 GHz (S-band) Doppler data, which are affected much more strongly by the ionosphere than are the higher frequency data.

  8. Variational results and solutions in gauge gravity and a bifurcation analysis of black hole orbital dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Bruce Herold

    1999-10-01

    An analysis of all known spherically symmetric solutions to the field equations originating from the Riemann tensor quadratic curvature Lagrangian is presented. A new exact solution is found for the field equation originating from the ``energy-momentum'' equation of the gauge gravity theory. Imposing equivalence between the Palatini and standard variational field equations yields an algebraic condition that restricts the number spacetime solutions to gauge gravity. A class of spherically symmetric solutions to the conformally invariant theory of gravitation is shown to be shared by the gauge gravity field equations. An analysis of a spherically symmetric solution to the conformal gravity field equations is also presented. Point particle orbital dynamics in both the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black hole spacetimes are analyzed as 2-d conservative bifurcation phenomena. The classification is based on a study of coalescing fixed points and the parameter values at which these bifurcations occur. Physically distinct behaviors are separated by bifurcation points while dynamically distinct cases are divided into various regions of the phase-plane by the separatrix. The Schwarzschild dynamics exhibit both saddle-center and transcritical bifurcation points and a calculation of periastron precession is presented that incorporates a phase-plane analysis of the relativistic equations of motion. Level curves of constant energy are illustrated for both timelike and null geodesics and a phase-plane analysis of dynamical invariance between the proper and coordinate time reference frames is discussed. The Reissner- Nordström dynamics exhibit saddle-center, transcritical, pseudo-transcritical, and additional bifurcations that combine all three previous bifurcations in various combinations. Periastron precession in the Reissner-Nordström spacetime is analyzed using the phase-plane and bifurcation techniques and extended to include a bifurcation point of the dynamics. A

  9. Physical meaning of the natural orbitals: Analysis of exactly solvable models

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, N.; Rubio, A.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate the suitability of natural orbitals as a basis for describing many-body excitations. We analyze to which extent the natural orbitals describe both bound as well as ionized excited states and show that depending on the specifics of the excited state the ground-state natural orbitals may yield a good approximation. We show that the success of reduced density-matrix functional theory in describing molecular dissociation lies in the flexibility provided by fractional occupation numbers while the role of the natural orbitals is minor.

  10. Time-to-failure analysis for NiCd batteries in a CPS orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sense, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cells operating at five degrees Celsius or less, and going to 60 to 65 percent depth of discharge, were studied as to whether they could achieve a useful working life of 7.5 years in a GPS orbit. The characteristics of various orbits were compared and it is noted that the GPS orbit experiences only 220 cycles a year and must be treated as a geosynchronous rather than a low Earth orbit. Cell degradation is considered to be the result of both trickle-charge degradation and degradation due to cycling. Time-to-failure values are presented for selected temperatures and depth of discharges.

  11. Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 2: Analysis of hazardous payloads, docking, on-board survivability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed and supporting analyses are presented of the hazardous payloads, docking, and on-board survivability aspects connected with earth orbital operations of the space shuttle program. The hazards resulting from delivery, deployment, and retrieval of hazardous payloads, and from handling and transport of cargo between orbiter, sortie modules, and space station are identified and analyzed. The safety aspects of shuttle orbiter to modular space station docking includes docking for assembly of space station, normal resupply docking, and emergency docking. Personnel traffic patterns, escape routes, and on-board survivability are analyzed for orbiter with crew and passenger, sortie modules, and modular space station, under normal, emergency, and EVA and IVA operations.

  12. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  13. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of bosutinib.

    PubMed

    Hsyu, Poe-Hirr; Mould, Diane R; Abbas, Richat; Amantea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bosutinib is an orally active, competitive inhibitor of Src/Abl tyrosine kinases. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using data pooled from 3 studies of patients (n = 870) with solid tumors or Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Patients (aged 18-91 y, weighing 35-221 kg) who received bosutinib 50 to 600 mg orally with food each contributed 6-9 pharmacokinetic samples. The final pharmacokinetic model was a linear two-compartment model with first-order absorption, an absorption lag-time, and dose-dependent bioavailability. Oral absorption was relatively slow, with a half-time of 1.14 h and a lag-time of 0.87 h; time to peak concentration was 5-6 h. Apparent clearance was 120 L/h. The apparent volume of the peripheral compartment was large with a slow turnover; alpha and beta half-lives were 19 h and 290 days, respectively. All parameters were estimated with acceptable precision (standard error <30%). No tested covariate (protocol, baseline demographic/clinical characteristics, or laboratory results) explained the high inter-individual variability of bosutinib pharmacokinetics. Therefore, adjusting bosutinib dose for body size (weight, surface area) would not provide benefit over fixed dosing. Using this exposure model in pharmacodynamic assessment of one study, adverse event incidence was shown to be similar in overall and bosutinib-responsive populations.

  14. Implementation of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) model for stability and control analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, Stephen A.

    1995-01-01

    Three NASA centers: Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Johnson Space Center (JSC) are currently involved in studying a family of single-stage- and two-stage-to-orbit (SSTO/TSTO) vehicles to serve as the next generation space transportation system (STS). A rocketed winged-body is the current focus. The configuration (WB001) is a vertically-launched, horizontally-landing system with circular cross-section. Preliminary aerodynamic data was generated by LaRC and is a combination of wind-tunnel data, empirical methods, and Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System-(APAS) generated values. JSC's efforts involve descent trajectory design, stability analysis, and flight control system synthesis. Analysis of WB001's static stability indicates instability in 'tuck' (C(sub mu) less than 0: Mach = 0.30, alpha greater than 3.25 deg; Mach = 0.60, alpha greater than 8.04), an unstable dihedral effects (C(sub l(beta)) greater than 0: Mach = 30,alpha less than 12 deg.; Mach = 0.60, alpha less than 10.00 deg.), and, most significantly, an unstable weathercock stability derivative, C(sub n(beta)), at all angles of attack and subsonic Mach numbers. Longitudinal trim solutions for Mach = 0.30 and 0.60 indicate flight path angle possibilities ranging from around 12 (M = 0.30) to slightly over 20 degrees at Mach = 0.60. Trim angles of attack increase from 6.24 at Mach 0.60 and 10,000 feet to 17.7 deg. at Mach 0.30, sea-level. Lateral trim was attempted for a design cross-wind of 25.0 knots. The current vehicle aerodynamic and geometric characteristics will only yield a lateral trim solution at impractical tip-fin deflections (approximately equal to 43 deg.) and bank angles (21 deg.). A study of the lateral control surfaces, tip-fin controllers for WB001, indicate increased surface area would help address these instabilities, particularly the deficiency in C(sub n(beta)), but obviously at the expense of increased vehicle weight. Growth factors of

  15. Orbital decay analysis, reentry predictions and risk assessment for the GOCE satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    The ESA’s GOCE satellite was launched on 17 March 2009. After mapping the geopotential with unrivalled accuracy and detail for four years from an extremely low circular polar orbit, on 21 October 2013 the low thrust ion propulsion motor used to contrast the atmospheric drag was automatically shut down when the pressure in the xenon propellant tank dropped below a critical threshold. Then the satellite entered in “fine-pointing mode” (FPM), a phase of orbital altitude decay with active fine attitude control carried out by a set of magnetotorquers. According to the pre-launch specifications, the attitude control system was expected to compensate the gravity gradient and the aerodynamic torques up to an average drag force along the orbit of 20 mN. However the system proved itself much more robust than envisaged, remaining operational until reentry, with drag forces exceeding 2000 mN. The uncommon nature of the GOCE reentry campaign, sharing an uncontrolled orbital decay with a finely controlled attitude along the atmospheric drag direction, made the reentry predictions for this satellite an interesting case study, in particular because nobody was able to say a priori if and when the attitude control would have failed, leading to an unrestrained tumbling. Therefore, even though the casualty expectancy for this reentry was slightly above the internationally recognized alert threshold of 1/10,000, i.e. around 1/5000, it presented a number of challenges and opportunities from the prediction and risk evaluation points of view. As in previous cases, ISTI/CNR was in charge of reentry predictions for the Italian civil protection authorities and exchanged information with the other agencies involved in the framework of the international reentry campaign promoted by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). Considering the peculiar nature of the GOCE reentry, the definition of reliable uncertainty windows was not easy, in particular taking into account

  16. Stratigraphy, Sequence, and Crater Populations of Lunar Impact Basins from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data: Implications for the Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    New measurements of the topography of the Moon from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA)[1] provide an excellent base-map for analyzing the large crater population (D.20 km)of the lunar surface [2, 3]. We have recently used this data to calculate crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) for 30 lunar impact basins, which have implications for their stratigraphy and sequence. These data provide an avenue for assessing the timing of the transitions between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains, which has been linked to the late heavy bombardment (LHB). We also use LOLA data to re-examine relative stratigraphic relationships between key lunar basins.

  17. Stability of halo orbits.

    PubMed

    Howard, J E; Dullin, H R; Horányi, M

    2000-04-10

    We predict new populations of trapped nonequatorial ("halo") orbits of charged dust grains about an arbitrary axisymmetric planet. Simple equilibrium and stability conditions are derived, revealing dramatic differences between positively and negatively charged grains in prograde or retrograde orbits. Implications for the Cassini mission to Saturn are discussed.

  18. Two Color Populations of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects and the Smaller Orbital Inclinations of Red Centaur Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegler, S. C.; Romanishin, W.; Consolmagno, G. J.; J., S.

    2016-12-01

    We present new optical colors for 28 Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and 35 Centaur objects measured with the 1.8 m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and the 4.3 m Discovery Channel Telescope. By combining these new colors with our previously published colors, we increase the sample size of our survey to 154 objects. Our survey is unique in that the uncertainties in our color measurements are less than half the uncertainties in the color measurements reported by other researchers in the literature. Small uncertainties are essential for discerning between a unimodal and a bimodal distribution of colors for these objects as well as detecting correlations between colors and orbital elements. From our survey, it appears red Centaurs have a broader color distribution than gray Centaurs. We find red Centaurs have a smaller orbital inclination angle distribution than gray Centaurs at the 99.3% confidence level. Furthermore, we find that our entire sample of KBOs and Centaurs exhibits bimodal colors at the 99.4 % confidence level. KBOs and Centaurs with H V > 7.0 have bimodal colors at the 99.96% confidence level and KBOs with H V < 6.0 have bimodal colors at the 96% confidence level.

  19. Evaluation of mixed-population flood-frequency analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    A mixed population of flood flows was shown to cause quality-of-fit problems if a single-population flood-frequency distribution was used to describe the flood data. The three populations in this mix were "ordinary," tropical cyclone, and ice-jam-release floods. Parametric descriptions of the single and separated flood populations were evaluated using probability-plot correlation-coefficient tests. These tests quantified how well the flood-probability distributions agreed with plotting-position descriptions of the data and quantified the differences due to the mixed-population analysis. High outliers caused the high skewness found in the single- population analyses. The tropical cyclone component was underestimated by single-population analyses at gauging stations in Massachusetts that had little data.

  20. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  1. Re-Entry Aeroheating Analysis of Tile-Repair Augers for the Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Computational re-entry aerothermodynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter s tile overlay repair (TOR) sub-assembly is presented. Entry aeroheating analyses are conducted to characterize the aerothermodynamic environment of the TOR and to provide necessary inputs for future TOR thermal and structural analyses. The TOR sub-assembly consists of a thin plate and several augers and spacers that serve as the TOR fasteners. For the computational analysis, the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) is used. A 5-species non-equilibrium chemistry model with a finite rate catalytic recombination model and a radiation equilibrium wall condition are used. It is assumed that wall properties are the same as reaction cured glass (RCG) properties with a surface emissivity of epsilon = 0.89. Surface heat transfer rates for the TOR and tile repair augers (TRA) are computed at a STS-107 trajectory point corresponding to Mach 18 free stream conditions. Computational results show that the average heating bump factor (BF), which is a ratio of local heat transfer rate to a design reference point located at the damage site, for the auger head alone is about 1.9. It is also shown that the average BF for the combined auger and washer heads is about 2.0.

  2. Development of NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process Through Application on the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank; Hamlin, Teri; Youngblood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system. APA docs more than simply track experience: it systematically evaluates experience, looking for under-appreciated risks that may warrant changes to design or operational practice. This paper presents the pilot application of the NASA APA process to Space Shuttle Orbiter systems. In this effort, the working sessions conducted at Johnson Space Center (JSC) piloted the APA process developed by Information Systems Laboratories (ISL) over the last two years under the auspices of NASA's Office of Safety & Mission Assurance, with the assistance of the Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Shuttle & Exploration Analysis Branch. This process is built around facilitated working sessions involving diverse system experts. One important aspect of this particular APA process is its focus on understanding the physical mechanism responsible for an operational anomaly, followed by evaluation of the risk significance of the observed anomaly as well as consideration of generalizations of the underlying mechanism to other contexts. Model completeness will probably always be an issue, but this process tries to leverage operating experience to the extent possible in order to address completeness issues before a catastrophe occurs.

  3. Analysis of stability boundaries of satellite's equilibrium attitude in a circular orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    An asymmetric satellite equipped with control momentum gyroscopes (CMGs) with the center of mass of the system moving uniformly in a circular orbit was considered. The stability of a relative equilibrium attitude of the satellite was analyzed using Lyapunov's direct method. The Lyapunov function V is a positive definite integral of the total energy of the perturbed motion of the system. The asymptotic stability analysis of the stationary motion of the conservative system was based on the Barbashin-Krasovskii theorem on the nonexistence of integer trajectories of the set dot V, which was obtained using the differential equations of motion of the satellite with CMGs. By analyzing the sign definiteness of the quadratic part of V, it was found earlier by V.V. Sazonov that the stability region is described by four strict inequalities. The asymptotic stability at the stability boundary was analyzed by sequentially turning these inequalities into equalities with terms of orders higher than the second taken into account in V. The sign definiteness analysis of the inhomogeneous function V at the stability boundary involved a huge amount of computations related to the multiplication, expansion, substitution, and factorization of symbolic expressions. The computations were performed by applying a computer algebra system on a personal computer.

  4. A multiblock analysis for shuttle orbiter re-entry heating from Mach 24 to Mach 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Weilmuenster, K. J.; Alter, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    A multiblock, laminar heating analysis for the shuttle orbiter at three trajectory points ranging from Mach 24.3 to Mach 12.86 on re-entry is described. The analysis is performed using the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) with both a seven species chemical nonequilibrium model and an equilibrium model. A finite-catalytic-wall model appropriate for shuttle tiles at a radiative equilibrium wall temperature is applied. Computed heating levels are generally in good agreement with the flight data though a few rather large discrepancies remain unexplained. The multiblock relaxation strategy partitions the flowfield into manageable blocks requiring a fraction of the computational resources (time and memory) required by a full domain approach. In hot, the computational cost for a solution at even a single trajectory point would be prohibitively expensive at the given resolution without the multiblock approach. Converged blocks are reassembled to enable a fully coupled converged solution over the entire vehicle, starting from a nearly converged initial condition.

  5. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 2: PEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    User power, duration, and orbit requirements, which were the prime factors influencing power extension package (PEP) design, are discussed. A representative configuration of the PEP concept is presented and the major elements of the system are described as well as the PEP-to-Orbiter and remote manipulator interface provisions.

  6. Template-Based Orbital Wall Fracture Treatment Using Statistical Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Hans-Martin; Huempfner-Hierl, Heike; Kruber, Daniel; Schulze, Peter; Hierl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate whether a mold generated from a statistical shape model of the orbit could be generated to provide a cost-efficient means for the treatment of orbital fractures. A statistical shape model was created from 131 computed tomographic (CT) scans of unaffected adult middle European human orbits. To generate the model, CT scans were segmented in Brainlab software, preregistered using anatomic landmarks, trimmed to an identical size, and definitely registered. Then, the model was created using the global master algorithm. Based on this model, a mold consisting of a male part and a female part was constructed and printed using a rapid prototyping technique. A statistical shape model of the human orbit was generated from 125 CT scans. Six scans (4.5%) presented major anatomic deviations and were discarded. A solid mold based on this model was printed. Using this mold, flat titanium mesh could be successfully deformed to serve as an orbital implant. A mold based on the statistical orbital shape could serve as a cost-effective means for the treatment of orbital fractures. It allows the anatomic preformation of titanium or resorbable implant material for orbital reconstruction. Because these materials could be cut from larger sheets, the use of a mold would be a cost-effective treatment alternative. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Orbital operations study. Volume 2: Interfacing activities analysis. Part 2: Structural and mechanical group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, H. L.; Gianformaggio, A.; Anderson, N. R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the structural and mechanical activity group of the orbital operations study project are discussed. Element interfaces, alternate approaches, design concepts, operational procedures, functional requirements, design influences, and approach selection are presented. The following areas are considered: (1) mating, (2) orbital assembly, (3) separation, EOS payload deployment, and EOS payload retraction.

  8. Myths in the Diagnosis and Management of Orbital Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Kaan; Yanık, Özge

    2015-01-01

    Orbital tumors constitute a group of diverse lesions with a low incidence in the population. Tumors affecting the eye and ocular adnexa may also secondarily invade the orbit. Lack of accumulation of a sufficient number of cases with a specific diagnosis at various orbital centers, the paucity of prospective randomized studies, animal model studies, tissue bank, and genetic studies led to the development of various myths regarding the diagnosis and treatment of orbital lesions in the past. These myths continue to influence the diagnosis and treatment of orbital lesions by orbital specialists. This manuscript discusses some of the more common myths through case summaries and a review of the literature. Detailed genotypic analysis and genetic classification will provide further insight into the pathogenesis of many orbital diseases in the future. This will enable targeted treatments even for diseases with the same histopathologic diagnosis. Phenotypic variability within the same disease will be addressed using targeted treatments.

  9. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 2: Engineering analysis of orbital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Program plans, schedules, and costs are determined for a synchronous orbit-based power generation and relay system. Requirements for the satellite solar power station (SSPS) and the power relay satellite (PRS) are explored. Engineering analysis of large solar arrays, flight mechanics and control, transportation, assembly and maintenance, and microwave transmission are included.

  10. Orbiter/carrier separation for the ALT free flight no. 1 reference trajectories. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Details of the generation of the separation trajectories are discussed. The analysis culminated in definition of separation trajectories between physical separation and orbiter/carrier vortex clearance. Specifications, assumptions and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories are presented. Results of the analytical approach are evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized. Supporting references are listed.

  11. Orbital angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in thyroid eye disease: an analysis of vascular growth factors with clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lindsay L.; Lee, Nahyoung Grace; Amarnani, Dhanesh; Choi, Catherine J.; Bielenberg, Diane R.; Freitag, Suzanne K.; D’Amore, Patricia A.; Kim, Leo A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The human orbit is an environment that is vulnerable to inflammation and edema in the setting of autoimmune thyroid disease. Our study investigated the tenet that orbital adipose tissue lacks lymphatic vessels and analyzed the clinicopathologic differences between patients with acute and chronic thyroid eye disease (TED). The underlying molecular mediators of blood and lymphatic vessel formation within the orbital fat were also evaluated. Design Retrospective cohort study Participants The study included fat specimens from 26 orbits of 15 patients with TED undergoing orbital decompression. Orbital fat specimens from patients without TED as well as cadaveric orbital fat served as controls. Methods Tissue specimens were processed as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections (FFPE) or frozen cryosections for immunohistochemistry. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed via quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Clinicopathological correlation was made by determining the Clinical Activity Score (CAS) of each patient with TED. Main Outcome Measures Samples were examined for vascular and lymphatic markers including podoplanin, LYVE-1, and CD31 by immunohistochemistry, as well as for mRNA levels of VEGF, VEGF receptors, SEMA-3F, NRP-1, NRP-2, podoplanin and LYVE-1 by qRT-PCR. Results Clinicopathological correlation revealed increased staining of CD31-positive blood vessels in patients with acute TED with CAS > 4, as well as rare staining of podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels within acutely inflamed orbital fat tissue. Additionally, qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) as well as VEGF signaling molecules: VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. Conclusions In acute TED, compared to chronic TED and control orbital fat, there is increased blood vessel density suggesting neovascularization and rare lymphatic vessels suggestive of limited lymphangiogenesis. This pro

  12. Orbital Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Thyroid Eye Disease: An Analysis of Vascular Growth Factors with Clinical Correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lindsay L; Lee, Nahyoung Grace; Amarnani, Dhanesh; Choi, Catherine J; Bielenberg, Diane R; Freitag, Suzanne K; D'Amore, Patricia A; Kim, Leo A

    2016-09-01

    The human orbit is an environment that is vulnerable to inflammation and edema in the setting of autoimmune thyroid disease. Our study investigated the tenet that orbital adipose tissue lacks lymphatic vessels and analyzed the clinicopathologic differences between patients with acute and chronic thyroid eye disease (TED). The underlying molecular mediators of blood and lymphatic vessel formation within the orbital fat also were evaluated. Retrospective cohort study. The study included fat specimens from 26 orbits of 15 patients with TED undergoing orbital decompression. Orbital fat specimens from patients without TED as well as cadaveric orbital fat served as controls. Tissue specimens were processed as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections or frozen cryosections for immunohistochemistry. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed via quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinicopathologic correlation was made by determining the clinical activity score (CAS) of each patient with TED. Samples were examined for vascular and lymphatic markers including podoplanin, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) by immunohistochemistry, as well as for mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors, semaphorin 3F, neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, podoplanin, and LYVE-1 by quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinicopathologic correlation revealed increased staining of CD31-positive blood vessels in patients with acute TED with a CAS more than 4, as well as rare staining of podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels within acutely inflamed orbital fat tissue. Additionally, quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated increased expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 as well as VEGF signaling molecules VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. In acute TED, compared with chronic TED and control

  13. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. II. Low-eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.

    1994-08-01

    All known parent bodies of meteor showers belong to bodies moving in high-eccentricity orbits (e => 0.5). Recently, asteroids in low-eccentricity orbits (e < 0.5) approaching the Earth's orbit, were suggested as another population of possible parent bodies of meteor streams. This paper deals with the problem of calculation of meteor radiants connected with the bodies in low-eccentricity orbits from the point of view of optimal results depending on the method applied. The paper is a continuation of our previous analysis of high-eccentricity orbits (Svoren, J., Neslusan, L., Porubcan, V.: 1993, Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnate Pleso 23, 23). Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys. 7, 261) was applied. D <= 0.1 indicates a very good fit of orbits, 0.1 < D <= 0.2 is considered for a good fit and D > 0.2 means that the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal method, i.e. the one which results in the smallest D values for the population of low-eccentricity orbits, is that of adjusting the orbit by varying both the eccentricity and perihelion distance. A comparison of theoretical radiants obtained by various methods was made for typical representatives from each group of the NEA (near-Earth asteroids) objects.

  14. Conformational stability, spectroscopic and computational studies, hikes' occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, natural bond orbital analysis and thermodynamic parameters of anticancer drug on nanotube-A review.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, A S; Mashhadban, F; Hoseini-Alfatemi, S M; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2015-12-24

    Today the use of nanotubes (CNTs) is widely spread a versatile vector for drug delivery that can officiate as a platform for transporting a variety of bioactive molecules, such as drugs. In the present study, the interaction between the nanotube and anticancer drugs is investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were using the Gauss view and the complexes were optimized by B3LYP method using B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) and B3LYP/6-311++G (d, p) basis set in the gas phase and water solution at 298.15K. The calculated hikes' occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied (LUMO) energies Show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Furthermore, the effects of interactions on the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) have been used to a deeper investigation into the studied compounds. These factors compete against each other to determine the adsorption behavior of the tube computer simulation is seen to be capable to optimize anticancer drug design. This review article mainly concentrates on the different protocols of loading anticancer drugs onto CNTs as well as how to control the anticancer drug release and cancer treatment.

  15. Shuttle cryogenics supply system. Optimization study. Volume 5 B-4: Programmers manual for space shuttle orbit injection analysis (SOPSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer program for space shuttle orbit injection propulsion system analysis (SOPSA) is described to show the operational characteristics and the computer system requirements. The program was developed as an analytical tool to aid in the preliminary design of propellant feed systems for the space shuttle orbiter main engines. The primary purpose of the program is to evaluate the propellant tank ullage pressure requirements imposed by the need to accelerate propellants rapidly during the engine start sequence. The SOPSA program will generate parametric feed system pressure histories and weight data for a range of nominal feedline sizes.

  16. [Analysis of expression of cancer stem cell-related markers in orbital adenoid cystic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-ting; Zhu, Li-min; He, Yan-jin; Zhang, Hong

    2011-08-01

    To observe the expression and distribution of CD44, CD133, and ABCG2 in orbital adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and investigate their correlations with pathological type and prognosis. Two steps method of immunohistochemical staining was employed in 33 cases of paraffin embedded surgical specimens of human orbital ACC, 5 cases of recurrence samples, 3 cases of an excised lacrimal gland caused by neither inflammation nor tumor diseases, and 6 cases of xenograft tumors in nude mice. A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical material of these patients, which were collected from Jan. 1991 to Mar. 2009. The positive rate of CD44 was 54.5% (18/33), with 76.9% (10/13) in solid type and 40.0% (8/20) in adeno-tubiform type. There was no statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.072). In solid type the positive expression cells were often located at the marginal part of the cancer nest. In the adeno-tubiform type, positive cells were often located at the outer layer of the tubiform structure (myoepithelial cells). CD44 was also expressed in normal tissues. The positive rate of CD133 was 57.6% (19/33), with 76.9% (10/13) in solid type and 45.0% (9/20) in adeno-tubiform type. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.087). CD133 antigen was expressed in either the cytoplasm or nucleus, or expressed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The positive rate of ABCG2 was 21.2% (7/33), with 30.77% (4/13) in solid type and 15.0% (3/20) in adeno-tubiform type. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.393). Many positive cells surrounded the vessels in tumor tissues. There were no significant differences between different prognosis groups of these surface phenotypes. The correlative analysis results of three surface phenotypes showed that CD44(+) cells have positive correlation with CD133(+) cells (Spearman, r(s) = 0.416, P = 0.016). In six transplanted tumors of nude mice, the number of positive cases for CD44(+), CD133(+) and ABCG2

  17. Population and genomic lessons from genetic analysis of two Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Juyal, Garima; Mondal, Mayukh; Luisi, Pierre; Laayouni, Hafid; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Heutink, Peter; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Thelma, B K; Casals, Ferran

    2014-10-01

    Indian demographic history includes special features such as founder effects, interpopulation segregation, complex social structure with a caste system and elevated frequency of consanguineous marriages. It also presents a higher frequency for some rare mendelian disorders and in the last two decades increased prevalence of some complex disorders. Despite the fact that India represents about one-sixth of the human population, deep genetic studies from this terrain have been scarce. In this study, we analyzed high-density genotyping and whole-exome sequencing data of a North and a South Indian population. Indian populations show higher differentiation levels than those reported between populations of other continents. In this work, we have analyzed its consequences, by specifically assessing the transferability of genetic markers from or to Indian populations. We show that there is limited genetic marker portability from available genetic resources such as HapMap or the 1,000 Genomes Project to Indian populations, which also present an excess of private rare variants. Conversely, tagSNPs show a high level of portability between the two Indian populations, in contrast to the common belief that North and South Indian populations are genetically very different. By estimating kinship from mates and consanguinity in our data from trios, we also describe different patterns of assortative mating and inbreeding in the two populations, in agreement with distinct mating preferences and social structures. In addition, this analysis has allowed us to describe genomic regions under recent adaptive selection, indicating differential adaptive histories for North and South Indian populations. Our findings highlight the importance of considering demography for design and analysis of genetic studies, as well as the need for extending human genetic variation catalogs to new populations and particularly to those with particular demographic histories.

  18. Dynamic analysis of a parasite population model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.

    2002-03-01

    We study the dynamics of a model that describes the competitive interaction between an invading species (a parasite) and its antibodies in an living being. This model was recently used to examine the dynamical competition between Tripanosoma cruzi and its antibodies during the acute phase of Chagas' disease. Depending on the antibody properties, the model yields three types of outcomes, corresponding, respectively, to healing, chronic disease, and host death. Here, we study the dynamics of the parasite-antibody interaction with the help of simulations, obtaining phase trajectories and phase diagrams for the system. We show that, under certain conditions, the size of the parasite inoculation can be crucial for the infection outcome and that a retardation in the stimulated production of an antibody species may result in the parasite gaining a definitive advantage. We also find a criterion for the relative sizes of the parameters that are required if parasite-generated decoys are indeed to help the invasion. Decoys may also induce a qualitatively different outcome: a limit cycle for the antibody-parasite population phase trajectories.

  19. Orbital spectrum analysis of non-axisymmetric perturbations of the guiding-center particle motion in axisymmetric equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Zestanakis, P. A.; Anastassiou, G.; Hizanidis, K.; Kominis, Y.

    2016-03-15

    The presence of non-axisymmetric perturbations in an axisymmetric magnetic field equilibrium renders the Guiding Center (GC) particle motion non-integrable and may result in particle, energy, and momentum redistribution, due to resonance mechanisms. We analyse these perturbations in terms of their spectrum, as observed by the particles in the frame of unperturbed GC motion. We calculate semi-analytically the exact locations and strength of resonant spectral components of multiple perturbations. The presented Orbital Spectrum Analysis method is based on an exact Action-Angle transform that fully takes into account Finite Orbit Width effects. The method provides insight into the particle dynamics and enables the prediction of the effect of any perturbation to all different types of particles and orbits in a given, analytically or numerically calculated, axisymmetric equilibrium.

  20. On-Orbit Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Star Tracker Warm Pixel Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felikson, Denis; Ekinci, Matthew; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Vess, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of identification and analysis of warm pixels in two autonomous star trackers on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. A brief description of the mission orbit and attitude regimes is discussed and pertinent star tracker hardware specifications are given. Warm pixels are defined and the Quality Index parameter is introduced, which can be explained qualitatively as a manifestation of a possible warm pixel event. A description of the algorithm used to identify warm pixel candidates is given. Finally, analysis of dumps of on-orbit star tracker charge coupled devices (CCD) images is presented and an operational plan going forward is discussed. SDO, launched on February 11, 2010, is operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SDO is in a geosynchronous orbit with a 28.5 inclination. The nominal mission attitude points the spacecraft X-axis at the Sun, with the spacecraft Z-axis roughly aligned with the Solar North Pole. The spacecraft Y-axis completes the triad. In attitude, SDO moves approximately 0.04 per hour, mostly about the spacecraft Z-axis. The SDO star trackers, manufactured by Galileo Avionica, project the images of stars in their 16.4deg x 16.4deg fields-of-view onto CCD detectors consisting of 512 x 512 pixels. The trackers autonomously identify the star patterns and provide an attitude estimate. Each unit is able to track up to 9 stars. Additionally, each tracker calculates a parameter called the Quality Index, which is a measure of the quality of the attitude solution. Each pixel in the CCD measures the intensity of light and a warns pixel is defined as having a measurement consistently and significantly higher than the mean background intensity level. A warns pixel should also have lower intensity than a pixel containing a star image and will not move across the field of view as the attitude changes (as would a dim star image). It should be noted that the maximum error introduced in the star tracker

  1. Orbital Disturbance Analysis due to the Lunar Gravitational Potential and Deviation Minimization through the Trajectory Control in Closed Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, L. D.; Rocco, E. M.; de Moraes, R. V.

    2013-10-01

    A study evaluating the influence due to the lunar gravitational potential, modeled by spherical harmonics, on the gravity acceleration is accomplished according to the model presented in Konopliv (2001). This model provides the components x, y and z for the gravity acceleration at each moment of time along the artificial satellite orbit and it enables to consider the spherical harmonic degree and order up to100. Through a comparison between the gravity acceleration from a central field and the gravity acceleration provided by Konopliv's model, it is obtained the disturbing velocity increment applied to the vehicle. Then, through the inverse problem, the Keplerian elements of perturbed orbit of the satellite are calculated allowing the orbital motion analysis. Transfer maneuvers and orbital correction of lunar satellites are simulated considering the disturbance due to non-uniform gravitational potential of the Moon, utilizing continuous thrust and trajectory control in closed loop. The simulations are performed using the Spacecraft Trajectory Simulator-STRS, Rocco (2008), which evaluate the behavior of the orbital elements, fuel consumption and thrust applied to the satellite over the time.

  2. MRK 1216 and NGC 1277 - an orbit-based dynamical analysis of compact, high-velocity dispersion galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Akın; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; Husemann, Bernd; Lyubenova, Mariya; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2015-09-01

    We present a dynamical analysis to infer the structural parameters and properties of the two nearby, compact, high-velocity dispersion galaxies MRK 1216 and NGC 1277. Combining deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, wide-field integral field unit stellar kinematics, and complementary long-slit spectroscopic data out to three effective radii, we construct orbit-based models to constrain their black hole masses, dark matter content and stellar mass-to-light ratios. We obtain a black hole mass of log(M•/M⊙) = 10.1_{-0.2}^{+0.1} for NGC 1277 and an upper limit of log(M•/M⊙) = 10.0 for MRK 1216, within 99.7 per cent (3σ) confidence. The stellar mass-to-light ratios span a range of ΥV = 6.5_{-1.5}^{+1.5} in NGC 1277 and ΥH = 1.8_{-0.8}^{+0.5} in MRK 1216 and are in good agreement with single stellar population models of a single power-law Salpeter initial mass function. Even though our models do not place strong constraints on the dark halo parameters, they suggest that dark matter is a necessary ingredient in MRK 1216, with a dark matter contribution of 22^{+30}_{-20} per cent to the total mass budget within one effective radius. NGC 1277, on the other hand, can be reproduced without the need for a dark halo, and a maximal dark matter fraction of 13 per cent within the same radial extent. In addition, we investigate the orbital structures of both galaxies, which are rotationally supported and consistent with photometric multi-Sérsic decompositions, indicating that these compact objects do not host classical, non-rotating bulges formed during recent (z ≤ 2) dissipative events or through violent relaxation. Finally, both MRK 1216 and NGC 1277 are anisotropic, with a global anisotropy parameter δ of 0.33 and 0.58, respectively. While MRK 1216 follows the trend of fast-rotating, oblate galaxies with a flattened velocity dispersion tensor in the meridional plane of the order of βz ˜ δ, NGC 1277 is highly tangentially anisotropic and seems to belong

  3. Comparison and Analysis of BeiDou Satellite Single-system Precise Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. P.; Hao, J. M.; Deng, K.; Chen, Y. L.

    2016-09-01

    The method of double-difference dynamic precise orbit determination for BeiDou satellites by using both carrier phase and smoothed pseudo-range is presented. The data processing flows of zero-difference and double-difference dynamic precise orbit determination for BeiDou satellites are presented. And the two methods are analyzed. The precision of two methods is compared based on the real data. The results show that in the condition of stations layout and by using the two methods, the three-dimension precision of GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite) can reach about 1 m, and those of IGSO (Inclined Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite) and MEO (Medium Earth Orbit Satellite) can be better than 0.5 m. And the radial precision of the three kinds of orbit satellites can be all better than 10 cm. Compared with the zero-difference dynamic method, the orbit precision of GEO is better with the double-difference dynamic method, and that of IGSO is comparable, but that of MEO is worse.

  4. [Etiology, diagnosis and treatment analysis of 37 cases with orbital fistula].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-Ting; He, Yan-Jin; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Dong; Song, Guo-Xiang

    2009-07-07

    To present some instruction in diagnosis and treatment of the orbital fistula by analyze the clinical manifestation. The clinical data for 37 cases with orbital fistula treated during 1980 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 37 cases with orbital fistula, there are 21 cases caused by foreign bodies, including 17 cases by retained wooden bodies, 3 cases by iatrogenic foreign bodies and 1 case by firecrackers. There are 9 cases caused by orbital cysts, including 5 cases dermoid cysts, 3 cases epidermoid cysts and 1 case frontal mucopyocele. There are 6 cases orbital infection inflammation, including 5 cases osteomyelitis and 1 case orbital abscess. There is 1 case eosinophilic granuloma. Different etiologies have characteristic features. Medical history, fistula examinations and imaging examinations must be analyzed synthetically in order to make proper etiological diagnosis. Eradicate etiologies and resect fistula are most important. It is necessary to make an ancillary therapy, such as ENT treatment. The common etiologies of orbital fistula are retained foreign body, dermoid cysts and osteomyelitis. The pathogenesis include infective inflammation, congenital heteroplasia, operation and tumor. B-scan ultrasonography, CT, and MRI can be used for the localization and qualitation diagnosis. There are comprehensive approaches for diagnosis and management of this type of injury. In order to give an effective therapy, we must make an accurate diagnosis and analyze the features of fistula.

  5. Vibrational spectral investigation and natural bond orbital analysis of pharmaceutical compound 7-Amino-2,4-dimethylquinolinium formate - DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D. M.; Amalanathan, M.; Sebastian, S.; Sajan, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Bena Jothy, V.; Nemec, Ivan

    2013-11-01

    The molecular geometry, the normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments, natural bond orbital analysis and the HOMO-LUMO analysis of 7-Amino-2,4-dimethylquinolinium formate in the ground state were performed by B3LYP levels of theory using the 6-31G(d) basis set. The optimised bond lengths and bond angles are in good agreement with the X-ray data. The vibrational spectra of the title compound which is calculated by DFT method, reproduces vibrational wave numbers and intensities with an accuracy which allows reliable vibrational assignments. The possibility of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding was identified using NBO analysis. Natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction.

  6. Vibrational spectral investigation and natural bond orbital analysis of pharmaceutical compound 7-Amino-2,4-dimethylquinolinium formate - DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Suresh, D M; Amalanathan, M; Sebastian, S; Sajan, D; Hubert Joe, I; Bena Jothy, V; Nemec, Ivan

    2013-11-01

    The molecular geometry, the normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments, natural bond orbital analysis and the HOMO-LUMO analysis of 7-Amino-2,4-dimethylquinolinium formate in the ground state were performed by B3LYP levels of theory using the 6-31G(d) basis set. The optimised bond lengths and bond angles are in good agreement with the X-ray data. The vibrational spectra of the title compound which is calculated by DFT method, reproduces vibrational wave numbers and intensities with an accuracy which allows reliable vibrational assignments. The possibility of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding was identified using NBO analysis. Natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction.

  7. Genetic analysis of population differentiation and adaptation in Leuciscus waleckii.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yumei; Tang, Ran; Sun, Xiaowen; Liang, Liqun; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Jinfeng; Dou, Xinjie; Tao, Ran

    2013-12-01

    Demographic events and natural selection both influence animal phenotypic and genetic variation; exploring the effects of demography and selection on population divergence is of great significance in evolutionary biology. To uncover the causes behind the patterns of genetic differentiation and adaptation among six populations of Leuciscus waleckii from Dali Basin (two populations, alkaline vs. freshwater) and Amur Basin (four populations, freshwater rivers vs. alkaline lake), a set of 21 unlinked polymorphic microsatellite markers and two mitochondrial DNA sequences (Cytb and D-loop) were applied to examine whether populations from different environments or habitats have distinct genetic differentiation and whether alkalinity is the major factor that caused population divergence. Bayesian analysis and principal component analysis as well as haplotype network analysis showed that these populations are primarily divided into two groups, which are congruent with geographic separation but not inconsistent with the habitat environment (alkalinity). Using three different approaches, outlier detection indicated that one locus, HLJYL017, may be under directional selection and involved in local adaptation processes. Overall, this study suggested that demographic events and selection of local environmental conditions including of alkalinity are jointly responsible for population divergence. These findings constitute an important step towards the understanding of the genetic basis of differentiation and adaptation, as well as towards the conservation of L. waleckii.

  8. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    required. These data also help in the analysis and interpretation of impact features on returned spacecraft surfaces. 4) Mitigation - Controlling the growth of the orbital debris population is a high priority for NASA, the United States, and the major space-faring nations of the world to preserve near-Earth space for future generations. Mitigation measures can take the form of curtailing or preventing the creation of new debris, designing satellites to withstand impacts by small debris, and implementing operational procedures ranging from utilizing orbital regimes with less debris, adopting specific spacecraft attitudes, and even maneuvering to avoid collisions with debris. Downloadable items include several documents in PDF format and executable software.and 5) Reentry - Because of the increasing number of objects in space, NASA has adopted guidelines and assessment procedures to reduce the number of non-operational spacecraft and spent rocket upper stages orbiting the Earth. One method of postmission disposal is to allow reentry of these spacecraft, either from orbital decay (uncontrolled entry) or with a controlled entry. Orbital decay may be achieved by firing engines to lower the perigee altitude so that atmospheric drag will eventually cause the spacecraft to enter. However, the surviving debris impact footprint cannot be guaranteed to avoid inhabited landmasses. Controlled entry normally occurs by using a larger amount of propellant with a larger propulsion system to drive the spacecraft to enter the atmosphere at a steeper flight path angle. It will then enter at a more precise latitude, longitude, and footprint in a nearly uninhabited impact region, generally located in the ocean.

  9. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    required. These data also help in the analysis and interpretation of impact features on returned spacecraft surfaces. 4) Mitigation - Controlling the growth of the orbital debris population is a high priority for NASA, the United States, and the major space-faring nations of the world to preserve near-Earth space for future generations. Mitigation measures can take the form of curtailing or preventing the creation of new debris, designing satellites to withstand impacts by small debris, and implementing operational procedures ranging from utilizing orbital regimes with less debris, adopting specific spacecraft attitudes, and even maneuvering to avoid collisions with debris. Downloadable items include several documents in PDF format and executable software.and 5) Reentry - Because of the increasing number of objects in space, NASA has adopted guidelines and assessment procedures to reduce the number of non-operational spacecraft and spent rocket upper stages orbiting the Earth. One method of postmission disposal is to allow reentry of these spacecraft, either from orbital decay (uncontrolled entry) or with a controlled entry. Orbital decay may be achieved by firing engines to lower the perigee altitude so that atmospheric drag will eventually cause the spacecraft to enter. However, the surviving debris impact footprint cannot be guaranteed to avoid inhabited landmasses. Controlled entry normally occurs by using a larger amount of propellant with a larger propulsion system to drive the spacecraft to enter the atmosphere at a steeper flight path angle. It will then enter at a more precise latitude, longitude, and footprint in a nearly uninhabited impact region, generally located in the ocean.

  10. An analysis of return flux from the Space Shuttle Orbiter RCS engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1984-01-01

    The return flux from the Space Shuttle Orbiter reaction control system (RCS) engines to sensors in the open payload bay has been analyzed on the basis of Shuttle/Payload Contamination Evaluation (SPACE II) model predictions and orbital flight measurements. Model data are presented showing the variations of molecular return flux values with Orbiter orientation and instrument direction. The effects of multiple molecular collisions within RCS engine plumes and in their vicinity are discussed. These collisions significantly influence the amount of plume molecules returning to payload instruments and, therefore, the amount of contaminants received.

  11. Orbital forcing on West African monsoon system revealed by KZai 02 pollen record spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalibard, Mathieu; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Pittet, Bernard; Fernandez, Vincent; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Suc, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The present-day intertropical climate is forced by yearly fluctuations of insolation reorganizing pressure cells. They control, via the wind system, the variations of the precipitation front known as the InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Its latitudinal oscillation drives a strong seasonality of rainfalls over Africa. However, connections between African climate during Pleistocene and orbital forcing are blurred by high-latitudes and local direct influence of insolation and need further investigations. The study of KZai 02 core pollen content provides a high-resolution record of changes in West African plant ecosystems during the last 160 kyrs. Spectral analyses were performed on pollen signals to identify periodicity in vegetation dynamics related to environmental fluctuations. The large range of frequencies detected testifies for the sensibility of African biotopes to past climate fluctuations. Milankovitch parameters, especially precession, are identified within variations of the ecological groups of KZai 02 pollen record and interpreted in terms of West African monsoon system variability. Asynchrony in the different plant ecosystem fluctuations suggests the out of step influence of several climatic parameters (precipitation, CO2, temperature) involving local insolation and high-latitude influence. Spectral analysis also reveals sub-Milankovitch periods related to (1) Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oeschger glacial pulsation events and (2) East Asian monsoon oscillations controlled by ice sheet pulses testifying for the strong relationship between low- and high-latitude climate changes.

  12. Orbit Uncertainty and Close-Approach Analysis Capabilities of the Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, J. D.; Chodas, P. W.; Yeomans, D. K.

    2001-12-01

    The Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System was initially made available in 1996. It has since been used by 450000 people to generate 700000 high-precision solar system ephemerides and database search results relating to the planets, satellites, and a growing list of asteroids, comets and spacecraft. This database is presently in excess of 90000 objects. The system receives about 23000 requests per month via the three automated access methods (telnet, web and e-mail) described at http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.html. Horizons has recently been extended to perform linearized covariance mappings. This allows users to obtain orbital motion uncertainties of those asteroids and comets for which a covariance is available, as a function of time, in multiple coordinate systems such as the plane-of-sky. Also newly available is an on-line close-approach analysis capability. This provides efficient detection of asteroid and comet approaches to planets and the larger asteroids. For asteroids and comets with a computed covariance, approach quantities such as encounter timing uncertainty are computed. This allows convenient assessment of the quality of close-approach knowledge. Detailed Horizons documentation is available at ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/ssd/Horizons_doc.ps

  13. A Multidisciplinary Performance Analysis of a Lifting-Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Korte, J. J.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW) is currently developing a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called VentureStar(TM) A team at NASA Langley Research Center participated with LMSW in the screening and evaluation of a number of early VentureStar(TM) configurations. The performance analyses that supported these initial studies were conducted to assess the effect of a lifting body shape, linear aerospike engine and metallic thermal protection system (TPS) on the weight and performance of the vehicle. These performance studies were performed in a multidisciplinary fashion that indirectly linked the trajectory optimization with weight estimation and aerothermal analysis tools. This approach was necessary to develop optimized ascent and entry trajectories that met all vehicle design constraints. Significant improvements in ascent performance were achieved when the vehicle flew a lifting trajectory and varied the engine mixture ratio during flight. Also, a considerable reduction in empty weight was possible by adjusting the total oxidizer-to-fuel and liftoff thrust-to-weight ratios. However, the optimal ascent flight profile had to be altered to ensure that the vehicle could be trimmed in pitch using only the flow diverting capability of the aerospike engine. Likewise, the optimal entry trajectory had to be tailored to meet TPS heating rate and transition constraints while satisfying a crossrange requirement.

  14. Critical analysis of fragment-orbital DFT schemes for the calculation of electronic coupling values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Christoph; Reuter, Karsten; Oberhofer, Harald

    2016-02-01

    We present a critical analysis of the popular fragment-orbital density-functional theory (FO-DFT) scheme for the calculation of electronic coupling values. We discuss the characteristics of different possible formulations or "flavors" of the scheme which differ by the number of electrons in the calculation of the fragments and the construction of the Hamiltonian. In addition to two previously described variants based on neutral fragments, we present a third version taking a different route to the approximate diabatic state by explicitly considering charged fragments. In applying these FO-DFT flavors to the two molecular test sets HAB7 (electron transfer) and HAB11 (hole transfer), we find that our new scheme gives improved electronic couplings for HAB7 (-6.2% decrease in mean relative signed error) and greatly improved electronic couplings for HAB11 (-15.3% decrease in mean relative signed error). A systematic investigation of the influence of exact exchange on the electronic coupling values shows that the use of hybrid functionals in FO-DFT calculations improves the electronic couplings, giving values close to or even better than more sophisticated constrained DFT calculations. Comparing the accuracy and computational cost of each variant, we devise simple rules to choose the best possible flavor depending on the task. For accuracy, our new scheme with charged-fragment calculations performs best, while numerically more efficient at reasonable accuracy is the variant with neutral fragments.

  15. Critical analysis of fragment-orbital DFT schemes for the calculation of electronic coupling values.

    PubMed

    Schober, Christoph; Reuter, Karsten; Oberhofer, Harald

    2016-02-07

    We present a critical analysis of the popular fragment-orbital density-functional theory (FO-DFT) scheme for the calculation of electronic coupling values. We discuss the characteristics of different possible formulations or "flavors" of the scheme which differ by the number of electrons in the calculation of the fragments and the construction of the Hamiltonian. In addition to two previously described variants based on neutral fragments, we present a third version taking a different route to the approximate diabatic state by explicitly considering charged fragments. In applying these FO-DFT flavors to the two molecular test sets HAB7 (electron transfer) and HAB11 (hole transfer), we find that our new scheme gives improved electronic couplings for HAB7 (-6.2% decrease in mean relative signed error) and greatly improved electronic couplings for HAB11 (-15.3% decrease in mean relative signed error). A systematic investigation of the influence of exact exchange on the electronic coupling values shows that the use of hybrid functionals in FO-DFT calculations improves the electronic couplings, giving values close to or even better than more sophisticated constrained DFT calculations. Comparing the accuracy and computational cost of each variant, we devise simple rules to choose the best possible flavor depending on the task. For accuracy, our new scheme with charged-fragment calculations performs best, while numerically more efficient at reasonable accuracy is the variant with neutral fragments.

  16. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  17. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-11-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  18. Gravity field error analysis - Applications of Global Positioning System receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, Ernst J. O.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  19. Parametric analysis of performance and design characteristics for advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.; Strack, W. C.; Padrutt, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Performance, trajectory, and design characteristics are presented for (1) a single-stage shuttle with a single advanced rocket engine, (2) a single-stage shuttle with an initial parallel chemical engine and advanced engine burn followed by an advanced engine sustainer burn, (3) a single-stage shuttle with an initial chemical engine burn followed by an advanced engine burn, and (4) a two-stage shuttle with a chemical propulsion booster stage and an advanced propulsion upper stage. The ascent trajectory profile includes a brief initial vertical rise; zero-lift flight through the sensible atmosphere; variational steering into an 83-kilometer by 185-kilometer intermediate orbit; and a fixed, 460-meter per second allowance for subsequent maneuvers. Results are given in terms of burnout mass fractions (including structure and payload), trajectory profiles, propellant loadings, and burn times. These results are generated with a trajectory analysis that includes a parametric variation of the specific impulse from 800 to 3000 seconds and the specific engine weight from 0 to 1.0.

  20. Water Phase Change Heat Exchanger System Level Analysis for Low Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In low Lunar orbit (LLO) the thermal environment is cyclic - extremely cold in the eclipse and as warm as room temperature near the subsolar point. Phase change material heat exchangers (PCHXs) are the best option for long term missions in these environments. The Orion spacecraft will use a n-pentadecane wax PCHX for its envisioned mission to LLO. Using water as a PCM material is attractive because its higher heat of fusion and greater density result in a lighter, more compact PCHX. To assess the use of a water PCHX for a human spacecraft in a circular LLO, a system level analysis was performed for the Orion spacecraft. Three cases were evaluated: 1) A one-to-one replacement of the wax PCHX on the internal thermal control loop with a water PCHX (including the appropriate control modifications), 2) reducing the radiator return setpoint temperature below Orion's value to enhance PCHX freezing, and 3) placing the water PCM on the external loop. The model showed that the water PCHX could not be used as a drop-in replacement for the wax PCHX. It did not freeze fully during the eclipse owing to its low freezing point. To obtain equivalent performance, 40% more radiator area than the Orion baseline was required. The study shows that, although water PCHXs are attractive at a component level, system level effects mean that they are not the best choice for LLO.

  1. Gravity field error analysis: Applications of GPS receivers and gradiometers on low orbiting platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrama, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the Earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3 to 10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85 respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.

  2. Photonic orbital angular momentum in starlight. Further analysis of the 2011 Starfire Optical Range Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, Denis W.; Sanchez, Darryl J.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Each attempt by the Atmospheric Simulation and Adaptive-optics Laboratory Testbed (ASALT) research group to detect turbulence-induced photonic orbital angular momentum (POAM) has been successful, spanning laboratory, simulation and field experiments, with the possible exception of the 2011 Starfire Optical Range (SOR) astronomical observations, a search for POAM induced by astronomical sources. Aims: The purposes of this work are to discuss how POAM from astronomical turbulent assemblages of molecules or atoms (TAMA) would appear in observations and then to reanalyze the data from the 2011 SOR observations using a more refined technique as a demonstration of POAM in starlight. Methods: This work uses the method of projections used previously in analysis of terrestrial data. Results: Using the method of projections, the noise floor of the system was reevaluated and is found to be no greater than 1%. Reevaluation of the 2011 SOR observations reveals that a POAM signal is evident in all of the data. Conclusions: POAM signals have been found in every instance of extended propagation through turbulence conducted by the ASALT research group, including the 2011 SOR observations. POAM is an inevitable result of the propagation of optical waves through turbulence. We express our gratitude to the Air Force Office of Scientific Research for their support of this research.

  3. Critical analysis of fragment-orbital DFT schemes for the calculation of electronic coupling values

    SciTech Connect

    Schober, Christoph; Reuter, Karsten; Oberhofer, Harald

    2016-02-07

    We present a critical analysis of the popular fragment-orbital density-functional theory (FO-DFT) scheme for the calculation of electronic coupling values. We discuss the characteristics of different possible formulations or “flavors” of the scheme which differ by the number of electrons in the calculation of the fragments and the construction of the Hamiltonian. In addition to two previously described variants based on neutral fragments, we present a third version taking a different route to the approximate diabatic state by explicitly considering charged fragments. In applying these FO-DFT flavors to the two molecular test sets HAB7 (electron transfer) and HAB11 (hole transfer), we find that our new scheme gives improved electronic couplings for HAB7 (−6.2% decrease in mean relative signed error) and greatly improved electronic couplings for HAB11 (−15.3% decrease in mean relative signed error). A systematic investigation of the influence of exact exchange on the electronic coupling values shows that the use of hybrid functionals in FO-DFT calculations improves the electronic couplings, giving values close to or even better than more sophisticated constrained DFT calculations. Comparing the accuracy and computational cost of each variant, we devise simple rules to choose the best possible flavor depending on the task. For accuracy, our new scheme with charged-fragment calculations performs best, while numerically more efficient at reasonable accuracy is the variant with neutral fragments.

  4. DPTRAJ/ODP - DOUBLE PRECISION TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS AND ORBIT DETERMINATION PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckheimer, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Double Precision Trajectory Analysis Program, DPTRAJ, and the Orbit Determination Program, ODP, have been developed and improved over the years to provide the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory with a highly reliable and accurate navigation capability for their deep space missions such as VOYAGER. DPTRAJ and ODP are each collections of programs which work together to provide the desired computational results. DPTRAJ, ODP, and their supporting utility programs are capable of handling the massive amounts of data and performing the various numerical calculations required for solving the navigation problems associated with planetary fly-by and lander missions. They were used extensively in support of NASA's VOYAGER project. DPTRAJ produces a spacecraft ephemeris by numerical integration of the equations of motion, which can be formulated using a full set of acceleration models. For each particular trajectory case the extent of the modeling employed and the precision of the integration process are controlled by user input specifications. The equation of motion used includes four types of terms. An acceleration term accounts for the basic conic motion of the spacecraft with respect to the central body. Terms that measure the attraction of the perturbing bodies on the spacecraft and terms that indirectly affect the motion as perturbations on the central body may be included. Terms are also provided to account for other gravitational and non-gravitational effects on the motion. ODP's function is the processing of the observational data in order to compute precise estimates of the spacecraft, or lander, position coordinate histories. This function is executed by processing the observation data and auxiliary calibration information. ODP also computes a spacecraft state vector, or a lander position vector, along with parameters which define the acceleration. The heart of the ODP process is a data fitting subprocess in which validated, edited, and corrected observational data

  5. Robust Extraction and Multi-Technique Analysis of Micrometeoroids Captured in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Graham, G. A.; Bench, G.; Brennan, S.; Luening, K.; Pianetta, P.; Keller, L. P.; Flynn, G. J.; Snead, C.; Dominquez, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use of low-density silica aerogel as the primary capture cell technology for the NASA Discovery mission Stardust to Comet Wild-2 [1] is a strong motivation for researchers within the Meteoritics community to develop techniques to handle this material. The unique properties of silica aerogel allow dust particles to be captured at hypervelocity speeds and to remain partially intact. The same unique properties present difficulties in the preparation of particles for analysis. Using tools borrowed from microbiologists, we have developed techniques for robustly extracting captured hypervelocity dust particles and their residues from aerogel collectors[2-3]. It is important not only to refine these extraction techniques but also to develop protocols for analyzing the captured particles. Since Stardust does not return material to Earth until 2006, researchers must either analyze particles that are impacted in the laboratory using light-gasgun facilities [e.g. 41 or examine aerogel collectors that have been exposed in low-Earth orbit (LEO) [5]. While there are certainly benefits in laboratory shots, i.e. accelerating known compositions of projectiles into aerogel, the LEO capture particles offer the opportunity to investigate real particles captured under real conditions. The aerogel collectors used in this research are part of the NASA Orbital Debris Collection Experiment that was exposed on the MIR Space Station for 18 months [5]. We have developed the capability at the UCB Space Sciences Laboratory to extract tiny volumes of aerogel that completely contain each impact event, and to mount them on micromachined fixtures so that they can be analyzed with no interfering support (Fig.1). These aerogel keystones simultaneously bring the terminal particle and the particle track to within 10 m (15 g cm- ) of the nearest aerogel surface. The extracted aerogel wedges containing both the impact tracks and the captured particles have been characterized using the synchrotron

  6. Robust Extraction and Multi-Technique Analysis of Micrometeoroids Captured in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Graham, G. A.; Bench, G.; Brennan, S.; Luening, K.; Pianetta, P.; Keller, L. P.; Flynn, G. J.; Snead, C.; Dominquez, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use of low-density silica aerogel as the primary capture cell technology for the NASA Discovery mission Stardust to Comet Wild-2 [1] is a strong motivation for researchers within the Meteoritics community to develop techniques to handle this material. The unique properties of silica aerogel allow dust particles to be captured at hypervelocity speeds and to remain partially intact. The same unique properties present difficulties in the preparation of particles for analysis. Using tools borrowed from microbiologists, we have developed techniques for robustly extracting captured hypervelocity dust particles and their residues from aerogel collectors[2-3]. It is important not only to refine these extraction techniques but also to develop protocols for analyzing the captured particles. Since Stardust does not return material to Earth until 2006, researchers must either analyze particles that are impacted in the laboratory using light-gasgun facilities [e.g. 41 or examine aerogel collectors that have been exposed in low-Earth orbit (LEO) [5]. While there are certainly benefits in laboratory shots, i.e. accelerating known compositions of projectiles into aerogel, the LEO capture particles offer the opportunity to investigate real particles captured under real conditions. The aerogel collectors used in this research are part of the NASA Orbital Debris Collection Experiment that was exposed on the MIR Space Station for 18 months [5]. We have developed the capability at the UCB Space Sciences Laboratory to extract tiny volumes of aerogel that completely contain each impact event, and to mount them on micromachined fixtures so that they can be analyzed with no interfering support (Fig.1). These aerogel keystones simultaneously bring the terminal particle and the particle track to within 10 m (15 g cm- ) of the nearest aerogel surface. The extracted aerogel wedges containing both the impact tracks and the captured particles have been characterized using the synchrotron

  7. Demographics of reintroduced populations: estimation, modeling, and decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2013-01-01

    Reintroduction can be necessary for recovering populations of threatened species. However, the success of reintroduction efforts has been poorer than many biologists and managers would hope. To increase the benefits gained from reintroduction, management decision making should be couched within formal decision-analytic frameworks. Decision analysis is a structured process for informing decision making that recognizes that all decisions have a set of components—objectives, alternative management actions, predictive models, and optimization methods—that can be decomposed, analyzed, and recomposed to facilitate optimal, transparent decisions. Because the outcome of interest in reintroduction efforts is typically population viability or related metrics, models used in decision analysis efforts for reintroductions will need to include population models. In this special section of the Journal of Wildlife Management, we highlight examples of the construction and use of models for informing management decisions in reintroduced populations. In this introductory contribution, we review concepts in decision analysis, population modeling for analysis of decisions in reintroduction settings, and future directions. Increased use of formal decision analysis, including adaptive management, has great potential to inform reintroduction efforts. Adopting these practices will require close collaboration among managers, decision analysts, population modelers, and field biologists.

  8. MASSIVE: A Bayesian analysis of giant planet populations around low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannier, J.; Delorme, P.; Lagrange, A. M.; Borgniet, S.; Rameau, J.; Schlieder, J. E.; Gagné, J.; Bonavita, M. A.; Malo, L.; Chauvin, G.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Direct imaging has led to the discovery of several giant planet and brown dwarf companions. These imaged companions populate a mass, separation and age domain (mass >1 MJup, orbits > 5 AU, age < 1 Gyr) quite distinct from the one occupied by exoplanets discovered by the radial velocity or transit methods. This distinction could indicate that different formation mechanisms are at play. Aims: We aim at investigating correlations between the host star's mass and the presence of wide-orbit giant planets, and at providing new observational constraints on planetary formation models. Methods: We observed 58 young and nearby M-type dwarfs in L'-band with the VLT/NaCo instrument and used angular differential imaging algorithms to optimize the sensitivity to planetary-mass companions and to derive the best detection limits. We estimate the probability of detecting a planet as a function of its mass and physical separation around each target. We conduct a Bayesian analysis to determine the frequency of substellar companions orbiting low-mass stars, using a homogenous sub-sample of 54 stars. Results: We derive a frequency of for companions with masses in the range of 2-80 MJup, and % for planetary mass companions (2-14 MJup), at physical separations of 8 to 400 AU for both cases. Comparing our results with a previous survey targeting more massive stars, we find evidence that substellar companions more massive than 1 MJup with a low mass ratio Q with respect to their host star (Q < 1%), are less frequent around low-mass stars. This may represent observational evidence that the frequency of imaged wide-orbit substellar companions is correlated with stellar mass, corroborating theoretical expectations. Contrarily, we show statistical evidence that intermediate-mass ratio (1% < Q < 5%) companion with masses >2 MJup might be independent from the mass of the host star.

  9. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald A.; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system and in the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately determine insulation masses for a vehicle such as the one described above, the aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to

  10. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald A.; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system and in the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately determine insulation masses for a vehicle such as the one described above, the aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to

  11. Formation flying for electric sails in displaced orbits. Part I: Geometrical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    We present a geometrical methodology for analyzing the formation flying of electric solar wind sail based spacecraft that operate in heliocentric, elliptic, displaced orbits. The spacecraft orbit is maintained by adjusting its propulsive acceleration modulus, whose value is estimated using a thrust model that takes into account a variation of the propulsive performance with the sail attitude. The properties of the relative motion of the spacecraft are studied in detail and a geometrical solution is obtained in terms of relative displaced orbital elements, assumed to be small quantities. In particular, for the small eccentricity case (i.e. for a near-circular displaced orbit), the bounds characterized by the extreme values of relative distances are analytically calculated, thus providing an useful mathematical tool for preliminary design of the spacecraft formation structure.

  12. An analysis of the effect of aeroassist maneuvers on orbital transfer vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gregory O.; Suit, William T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes a Langley Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project (Summer 1986) dealing with the topic of the effectiveness of aeroassist maneuvers to accomplish a change in the orbital inclination of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). This task was subject to OTV design constraints, chief of which were the axial acceleration and the aerodynamic heating rate limits of the OTV. The use of vehicle thrust to replace lost kinetic energy and, thereby, to increase the maximum possible change in orbital inclination was investigated. A relation between time in the hover orbit and payload to LEO was established. The amount of plane change possible during this type of maneuver was checked for several runs and a possible thrusting procedure to increase the plane change and still get to LEO was suggested. Finally, the sensitivity of various target parameters to controllable independent variables was established, trades between the amount of control allowed, and payload to LEO suggested.

  13. An orbital radar mapper of Venus in the 1980's - Mission design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnin, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    A reasonable approach to the examination of Venus topography, obscured for photographic imaging, is available in the application of airborne radar mapping systems to an orbiter mission about the planet. Extrapolating the improving capabilities of earth-based radar study of Venus into the 1980's suggests that only a non-uniform, poorly resolved surface profile will be possible relative to the potential for 100% coverage at 100 meter resolution with an orbital radar. The intent of this paper is to define mission opportunities favorable for a Venus orbital mapper during the 1980's, to examine orbit design problem associated with mapping radar systems, to establish what flexibility exists for an adaptive mapping strategy, to contribute to the sizing of particular spacecraft systems, to suggest a reference mission design and demonstrate mission feasibility.

  14. Launch window analysis of satellites in high eccentricity or large circular orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renard, M. L.; Bhate, S. K.; Sridharan, R.

    1973-01-01

    Numerical methods and computer programs for studying the stability and evolution of orbits of large eccentricity are presented. Methods for determining launch windows and target dates are developed. Mathematical models are prepared to analyze the characteristics of specific missions.

  15. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to the MAPSEP organization and a detailed analytical description of all models and algorithms are given. These include trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes. Earth orbital MAPSEP contains the capability of analyzing almost any currently projected low thrust mission from low earth orbit to super synchronous altitudes. Furthermore, MAPSEP is sufficiently flexible to incorporate extended dynamic models, alternate mission strategies, and almost any other system requirement imposed by the user. As in the interplanetary version, earth orbital MAPSEP represents a trade-off between precision modeling and computational speed consistent with defining necessary system requirements. It can be used in feasibility studies as well as in flight operational support. Pertinent operational constraints are available both implicitly and explicitly. However, the reader should be warned that because of program complexity, MAPSEP is only as good as the user and will quickly succumb to faulty user inputs.

  16. Vector correlation analysis for inelastic and reactive collisions between partners possessing spin and orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2009-12-31

    A general reactive collision of the type A + B --> C + D is considered where both the collision partners (A and B) or the products (C and D) may possess internal, i.e., spin, orbital or rotational, angular momenta. Compact expressions are derived using a rigorous quantum mechanical analysis for the angular momentum anisotropy of either of the products (C or D) arising from an initially polarized distribution of the reactant angular momentum. The angular momentum distribution of the product is expressed in terms of canonical spherical tensors multiplied by anisotropy-transforming coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L). These coefficients act as transformation coefficients between the angular momentum anisotropy of the reactants and that of the product. They are independent of scattering angle but depend on the details of the scattering dynamics. The relationship between the coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L) and the body-fixed scattering S matrix is given and the methodology for the quantum mechanical calculation of the anisotropy-transforming coefficients is clearly laid out. The anisotropy-transforming coefficients are amenable to direct experimental measurement in a similar manner to vector correlation and alignment parameters in photodissociation processes. A key aspect of the theory is the use of projections of both reactant and product angular momenta onto the product recoil vector direction. An important new conservation rule is revealed through the analysis, namely that if the state multipole for reactant angular momentum distribution has a projection q(k) onto the product recoil vector the state multipoles for the product angular momentum distribution all have this same projection. Expressions are also presented for the distribution of the product angular momentum when its components are evaluated relative to the space-fixed Z-axis. Notes with detailed derivations of all the formulas are available as Supporting Information.

  17. Small-Body Extensions for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2008-01-01

    An extension to the SOAP software allows users to work with tri-axial ellipsoid-based representations of planetary bodies, primarily for working with small, natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. SOAP is a widely used tool for the visualization and analysis of space missions. The small body extension provides the same visualization and analysis constructs for use with small bodies. These constructs allow the user to characterize satellite path and instrument cover information for small bodies in both 3D display and numerical output formats. Tri-axial ellipsoids are geometric shapes the diameters of which are different in each of three principal x, y, and z dimensions. This construct provides a better approximation than using spheres or oblate spheroids (ellipsoids comprising two common equatorial diameters as a distinct polar diameter). However, the tri-axial ellipsoid is considerably more difficult to work with from a modeling perspective. In addition, the SOAP small-body extensions allow the user to actually employ a plate model for highly irregular surfaces. Both tri-axial ellipsoids and plate models can be assigned to coordinate frames, thus allowing for the modeling of arbitrary changes to body orientation. A variety of features have been extended to support tri-axial ellipsoids, including the computation and display of the spacecraft sub-orbital point, ground trace, instrument footprints, and swathes. Displays of 3D instrument volumes can be shown interacting with the ellipsoids. Longitude/latitude grids, contour plots, and texture maps can be displayed on the ellipsoids using a variety of projections. The distance along an arbitrary line of sight can be computed between the spacecraft and the ellipsoid, and the coordinates of that intersection can be plotted as a function of time. The small-body extension supports the same visual and analytical constructs that are supported for spheres and oblate spheroids in SOAP making the implementation of the more

  18. Smoothing of orbital tracking data: Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The problem created by the presence of wild or outlying data points among orbital tracking data, is addressed. Consideration is given to the effects of such outliers on the orbit determination process, and methods for minimizing or even eliminating these effects are proposed. Some preliminary efforts implementing these new methods are described, and the results thus far obtained are summarized. Based on these ideas and results, recommendations are made for future investigation.

  19. Multipole error analysis using local 3-bump orbit data in Fermilab Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.J.; Xiao, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The magnetic harmonic errors of the Fermilab Recycler ring were examined using circulating beam data taken with closed local orbit bumps. Data was first parsed into harmonic orbits of first, second, and third order. Each of which was analyzed for sources of magnetic errors of corresponding order. This study was made possible only with the incredible resolution of a new BPM system that was commissioned after June of 2003.

  20. Performance Analysis of Dynamic Routing Protocols in a Low Earth Orbit Satellite Data Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    different orbital planes, with a 7.5’ phase shift between the planes. The orbital planes themselves will have an inclination of 52 degrees and the satellites...other constraints. He also presents three approximations to the solution that run in polynomial time and produce paths no worse than 2, 1.62, or 1.5...satellite power in needless retransmissions. 2.5 Current System Proposals Three proposed LEO systems seem to be emerging as the top contenders to

  1. An analysis of the orbital Evolution of a solar sail around Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Prado, Antonio; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Treasaco, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Solar sails are a new concept of spacecraft propulsion that uses solar radiation pressure to generate acceleration: this way the sail experiences a small but unlimited and continuous acceleration. This work presents a method for finding initial conditions for frozen orbits for a solar sail around Mercury Frozen orbits are those whose orbital elements remain constant on average. Thus, at a given latitude, the satellite always passes at the same altitude. The orbital dynamics of the solar sail is governed by the potential attraction of the main body and the Sun. Besides the J2, J3 and C22 of Mercury gravity field, the dynamical model also includes the eccentricity and inclination of the orbit of the third body (Sun) and the solar acceleration pressure. In order to remove short-period terms of the dynamical system, a double averaging technique is applied to the disturbig potential. This algorithm is a two-fold process which firstly averages over the period of the satellite and secondly averages with respect to the period of the third body. The double-averaged potential is introduced in the Lagrange Planetary equations. Thus, frozen orbits are characterized by a surface depending on three variables: the orbital semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination. These surfaces determine orbits ranging in altitude from 300 to 1000 km, which include the altitude values considered in future scientific missions around Mercury such as BepiColombo. Finally, this work delves into the influence on the dynamics of the spacecraft for different values of the sail area-to-mass ratio, which is a parameter related to the efficiency of the solar sail Sponsored by CNPq - Brazil. The author is grateful to CNPq- Brazil for contract 306953/2014-5.

  2. The Orbital Evolution of 2007 VA85, an Amor-type Asteroid on a Retrograde Orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Włodarczyk, I.

    2010-06-01

    Among the known population of asteroids on retrograde orbits (i > 90°) we found an object classified as an Amor-type asteroid. During the analysis of the first results of astrometry, we found some possible Earth-impact solutions for this asteroid. After taking into account the latest observations, we excluded any significant impact solution. However, this asteroid is the first known example of potentially hazardous object on a retrograde orbit. We also investigated the orbital evolution of 2007 VA85 (1 My in the past), obtaining possible scenarios of its dynamical origin.

  3. Effect of perturbations on debris-to-debris orbital transfers: A quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kartik; Hekma, Enne; Agrawal, Abhishek; Topputo, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Lambert solver (Izzo, 2014) for preliminary design of Multi-Target Active Debris Removal missions. Firstly, we computed ≈25 million debris-to-debris transfers using the Lambert solver for selected sets of debris objects in Low Earth Orbit, Geostationary Transfer Orbit, and Geosynchronous Orbit. Subsequently, we propagated the departure states of the Lambert transfers below selected ΔV cut-offs using the SGP4/SDP4 propagator (Vallado et al., 2006). We recorded the arrival position and velocity error vectors incurred by neglecting perturbations and analyzed the results for each orbital regime. Our results indicate that perturbations can play a significant role in determining the feasibility of debris-to-debris transfers. By using the Lambert solver and neglecting perturbations, the errors in the arrival position and velocity for individual legs can be large. The largest errors were obtained for transfers between debris objects in Sun-Synchronous Orbit (O (100) km error in magnitude of position vector and O (0.1) km/s error in magnitude of velocity vector). Hence, solely employing the Lambert solver to rank transfer legs could lead to incorrect choices for sequencing of multi-target trajectories. This is particularly relevant for transfers in Low Earth Orbit, where the effects of perturbations are the strongest.

  4. Viability analysis in biological evaluations: Concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale

    Treesearch

    Gregory D. Hayward; John R. Squires

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection strategies often rely on environmental impact assessments. As part of the assessment process biologists are routinely asked to evaluate the effects of management actions on plants and animals. This evaluation often requires that biologists make judgments about the viability of affected populations. However, population viability...

  5. Global analysis of population growth and river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Human-related pressures on river water quality are a concern of global proportions.. However, little is known about the more specific impact of increasing population on river water quality and how it provides a vital environmental reference for water management. Combining global gridded data on population and river discharge with digitized river networks, we conduct numerical simulations to demonstrate the direct impact of population growth on river water quality. Our model traces the transport, dilution, and degradation of anthropogenic organic matter (BOD) emissions into rivers. Spanning the period from the early 20th century to the present, our analysis indicates that the pressure on downstream river networks markedly increased since the population explosion starting in 1950, especially in developing countries. The ratio of population to river discharge reveals the link between impact severity and dilution capacity. In addition, a denser population is found to be correlated with higher impact severity. Consideration of direct population influences on global river water quality becomes limited as society develops and should be studied as a fundamental reference for human-related river water management. Keywords: Population growth, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Human activities, Water Management

  6. The Orbital Parameters and Nature of the X-ray Pulsar IGR J16393-4643 Using Pulse Timing Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron B.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pottschmidt, K.; Skinner, G. K.

    2011-09-01

    A 3.7 day orbital period was previously suggested for the 910 s X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 from a pulse timing study of widely separated X-ray observations (Thompson et al., 2006), placing the system in the supergiant wind-fed region of the Ppulse-Porb diagram. However, orbital periods of 50.2 and 8.1 days could not be excluded. Nespoli et al. (2010) refute this wind-accreting high-mass X-ray binary classification and suggest a symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) designation based on infrared spectroscopy of the proposed counterpart and the potential 50.2 day orbital solution. SyXBs are low-mass X-ray binaries in which a neutron star accretes from the inhomogeneous medium around an M-type giant companion. We find that two statistically independent light curves of IGR J16393-4643, from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (15-50 keV) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) Galactic bulge scans (2-10 keV), show highly significant orbital modulation near 4.24 days. Making use of this precise orbital period, we present the results from pulse arrival time analysis on IGR J16393-4643 using RXTE PCA observations. We provide significantly improved phase-connected pulse timing results using archival observations presented in Thompson et al. (2006) and additional pulse timing data not included in their study to determine the orbital parameters of the system. The derived 7.5 M⊙ mass function is inconsistent with a SyXB identification.

  7. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the electrical power distribution and control/electrical power generation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Jeff A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C)/Electrical Power Generation (EPG) hardware. The EPD and C/EPG hardware is required for performing critical functions of cryogenic reactant storage, electrical power generation and product water distribution in the Orbiter. Specifically, the EPD and C/EPG hardware consists of the following components: Power Section Assembly (PSA); Reactant Control Subsystem (RCS); Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS); Water Removal Subsystem (WRS); and Power Reactant Storage and Distribution System (PRSDS). The IOA analysis process utilized available EPD and C/EPG hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  8. Analysis of the volumetric relationship among human ocular, orbital and fronto-occipital cortical morphology.

    PubMed

    Masters, Michael; Bruner, Emiliano; Queer, Sarah; Traynor, Sarah; Senjem, Jess

    2015-10-01

    Recent research on the visual system has focused on investigating the relationship among eye (ocular), orbital, and visual cortical anatomy in humans. This issue is relevant in evolutionary and medical fields. In terms of evolution, only in modern humans and Neandertals are the orbits positioned beneath the frontal lobes, with consequent structural constraints. In terms of medicine, such constraints can be associated with minor deformation of the eye, vision defects, and patterns of integration among these features, and in association with the frontal lobes, are important to consider in reconstructive surgery. Further study is therefore necessary to establish how these variables are related, and to what extent ocular size is associated with orbital and cerebral cortical volumes. Relationships among these anatomical components were investigated using magnetic resonance images from a large sample of 83 individuals, which also included each subject's body height, age, sex, and uncorrected visual acuity score. Occipital and frontal gyri volumes were calculated using two different cortical parcellation tools in order to provide a better understanding of how the eye and orbit vary in relation to visual cortical gyri, and frontal cortical gyri which are not directly related to visual processing. Results indicated that ocular and orbital volumes were weakly correlated, and that eye volume explains only a small proportion of the variance in orbital volume. Ocular and orbital volumes were also found to be equally and, in most cases, more highly correlated with five frontal lobe gyri than with occipital lobe gyri associated with V1, V2, and V3 of the visual cortex. Additionally, aft