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Sample records for order discrete event

  1. Order of events matter: comparing discrete models for optimal control of species augmentation.

    PubMed

    Bodine, Erin N; Gross, Louis J; Lenhart, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    We investigate optimal timing of augmentation of an endangered/threatened species population in a target region by moving individuals from a reserve or captive population. This is formulated as a discrete-time optimal control problem in which augmentation occurs once per time period over a fixed number of time periods. The population model assumes the Allee effect growth functions in both target and reserve populations and the control objective is to maximize the target and reserve population sizes over the time horizon while accounting for costs of augmentation. Two possible orders of events are considered for different life histories of the species relative to augmentation time: move individuals either before or after population growth occurs. The control variable is the proportion of the reserve population to be moved to the target population. We develop solutions and illustrate numerical results which indicate circumstances for which optimal augmentation strategies depend upon the order of events. PMID:22882021

  2. Concurrency and discrete event control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Much of discrete event control theory has been developed within the framework of automata and formal languages. An alternative approach inspired by the theories of process-algebra as developed in the computer science literature is presented. The framework, which rests on a new formalism of concurrency, can adequately handle nondeterminism and can be used for analysis of a wide range of discrete event phenomena.

  3. Discrete event simulation of continuous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation of a system described by differential equations requires that some element of the system be approximated by discrete quantities. There are two system aspects that can be made discrete; time and state. When time is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a difference equation (i.e., a discrete time system), and the solution is calculated at fixed points in time. When the state is discrete, the differential equation is approximated by a discrete event system. Events correspond to jumps through the discrete state space of the approximation.

  4. A discrete event method for wave simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a discrete event interpretation of the finite difference time domain (FDTD) and digital wave guide network (DWN) wave simulation schemes. The discrete event method is formalized using the discrete event system specification (DEVS). The scheme is shown to have errors that are proportional to the resolution of the spatial grid. A numerical example demonstrates the relative efficiency of the scheme with respect to FDTD and DWN schemes. The potential for the discrete event scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and attenuation errors is discussed.

  5. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  6. Stabilization of discrete-event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brave, Y.; Heymann, M.

    1990-01-01

    Discrete-event processes are modeled by state-machines in the Ramadge-Wonham framework with control by a feedback event disablement mechanism. In this paper, concepts of stabilization of discrete-event processes are defined and investigated. The possibility of driving a process (under control) from arbitrary initial states to a prescribed subset of the state set and then keeping it there indefinitely is examined. This stabilization property is studied also with respect to 'open-loop' processes and their asymptotic behavior is characterized. Polynomial time algorithms are presented for verifying various types of attraction and for the synthesis of attractors.

  7. An algebra of discrete event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.

  8. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  9. Discrete Events as Units of Perceived Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverence, Brandon M.; Scholl, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    In visual images, we perceive both space (as a continuous visual medium) and objects (that inhabit space). Similarly, in dynamic visual experience, we perceive both continuous time and discrete events. What is the relationship between these units of experience? The most intuitive answer may be similar to the spatial case: time is perceived as an…

  10. Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    The Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations (MADECC) project is an effort within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Information Systems Division to develop autonomous positioning and attitude control for constellation satellites. It will be accomplished using traditional control theory and advanced coordination algorithms developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). This capability will be demonstrated in the discrete event control test-bed located at JHU/APL. This project will be modeled for the Leonardo constellation mission, but is intended to be adaptable to any constellation mission. To develop a common software architecture. the controllers will only model very high-level responses. For instance, after determining that a maneuver must be made. the MADECC system will output B (Delta)V (velocity change) value. Lower level systems must then decide which thrusters to fire and for how long to achieve that (Delta)V.

  11. Program For Parallel Discrete-Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.; Blume, Leo R.; Geiselman, John S.; Presley, Matthew T.; Wedel, John J., Jr.; Bellenot, Steven F.; Diloreto, Michael; Hontalas, Philip J.; Reiher, Peter L.; Weiland, Frederick P.

    1991-01-01

    User does not have to add any special logic to aid in synchronization. Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) computer program is special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. Complete implementation of Time Warp mechanism. Supports only simulations and other computations designed for virtual time. Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains sequential simulation engine interface-compatible with TWOS. TWOS and TWSIM written in, and support simulations in, C programming language.

  12. Preconditioning for first-order spectral discretization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.; Macaraeg, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Efficient solution of the equations from spectral discretizations is essential if the high-order accuracy of these methods is to be realized. Direct solution of these equations is rarely feasible, thus iterative techniques are required. A preconditioning scheme for first-order Chebyshev collocation operators is proposed herein, in which the central finite difference mesh is finer than the collocation mesh. Details of the proper techniques for transferring information between the meshes are given here, and the scheme is analyzed by examination of the eigenvalue spectra of the preconditioned operators. The effect of artificial viscosity required in the inversion of the finite difference operator is examined. A second preconditioning scheme, involving a high-order upwind finite difference operator of the van Leer type is also analyzed to provide a comparison with the present scheme. Finally, the performance of the present scheme is verified by application to several test problems.

  13. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    PubMed

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. PMID:20804980

  14. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    PubMed

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed.

  15. HODIF:High-Order Discretizations, Interpolations and

    2006-06-20

    This software, a library, contains FORTRAN77 subroutines to calculate first and second derivatives up to 8th order, interpolations (1D and 2D) up to 10th order and filters up to 14th order. Only even orders are addressed and finite-difference stencils are implemented on a vertex-centered mesh. The primary aim of this library is to be used in block-structured adaptive mesh simulations where high order is desired. The interpolants in this library are essentially designed to domore » prolongations and restrictions between levels of rfinement - however, they assume that the refinement ratio is 2. The filters are provided to remove high wavenumber content from solutions in case Runge phenomenon occurs - a common occurrence in case of marginal resolution of the solution. Details of the derivation and use are to be found in "Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations and filters", by J. Ray, C.A. Kennedy, S. Lefantzi and H.N. Najm, Sandia Technical Report, SAND2005-7981. The software comes with a User's Guide and examples how to use it.« less

  16. Distributed discrete event simulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, R.C.

    1988-02-01

    The presentation given here is restricted to discrete event simulation. The complexity of and time required for many present and potential discrete simulations exceeds the reasonable capacity of most present serial computers. The desire, then, is to implement the simulations on a parallel machine. However, certain problems arise in an effort to program the simulation on a parallel machine. In one category of methods deadlock care arise and some method is required to either detect deadlock and recover from it or to avoid deadlock through information passing. In the second category of methods, potentially incorrect simulations are allowed to proceed. If the situation is later determined to be incorrect, recovery from the error must be initiated. In either case, computation and information passing are required which would not be required in a serial implementation. The net effect is that the parallel simulation may not be much better than a serial simulation. In an effort to determine alternate approaches, important papers in the area were reviewed. As a part of that review process, each of the papers was summarized. The summary of each paper is presented in this report in the hopes that those doing future work in the area will be able to gain insight that might not otherwise be available, and to aid in deciding which papers would be most beneficial to pursue in more detail. The papers are broken down into categories and then by author. Conclusions reached after examining the papers and other material, such as direct talks with an author, are presented in the last section. Also presented there are some ideas that surfaced late in the research effort. These promise to be of some benefit in limiting information which must be passed between processes and in better understanding the structure of a distributed simulation. Pursuit of these ideas seems appropriate.

  17. Parallel discrete-event simulation of FCFS stochastic queueing networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Physical systems are inherently parallel. Intuition suggests that simulations of these systems may be amenable to parallel execution. The parallel execution of a discrete-event simulation requires careful synchronization of processes in order to ensure the execution's correctness; this synchronization can degrade performance. Largely negative results were recently reported in a study which used a well-known synchronization method on queueing network simulations. Discussed here is a synchronization method (appointments), which has proven itself to be effective on simulations of FCFS queueing networks. The key concept behind appointments is the provision of lookahead. Lookahead is a prediction on a processor's future behavior, based on an analysis of the processor's simulation state. It is shown how lookahead can be computed for FCFS queueing network simulations, give performance data that demonstrates the method's effectiveness under moderate to heavy loads, and discuss performance tradeoffs between the quality of lookahead, and the cost of computing lookahead.

  18. Synchronization of autonomous objects in discrete event simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous objects in event-driven discrete event simulation offer the potential to combine the freedom of unrestricted movement and positional accuracy through Euclidean space of time-driven models with the computational efficiency of event-driven simulation. The principal challenge to autonomous object implementation is object synchronization. The concept of a spatial blackboard is offered as a potential methodology for synchronization. The issues facing implementation of a spatial blackboard are outlined and discussed.

  19. Temporal Trends of Discrete Extreme Events - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, S. N.; Jayasuriya, N.; Bhuiyan, M.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Investigating trends in discrete events is essential for the study of changing patterns of extreme events. Temporal trends in the inter-arrival times of occurrence of drought events were examined for 21 selected stations across Victoria, Australia. In the present study, the Standardize Precipitation Index (SPI) was applied for 12-month time scale to identify drought. A drought event here is defined as a period in which the SPI is continuously negative and reaching a value of -1.0 or less. Often, nonparametric tests are commonly used to test for trends including in discrete events. However, discrete events are not constant because of the presence of zero values or non-normality of data. The methodology applies to long-term records of event counts and is based on the stochastic concepts of Poisson process and standard linear regression. Overall, of the 21 stations, 15 showed statistically significant increasing frequency indicates those events are becoming more frequent. Only one station gave insignificant result. The remaining 5 stations showed the time between events was significantly increasing designates droughts are becoming less frequent.

  20. Discrete event simulation in the artificial intelligence environment

    SciTech Connect

    Egdorf, H.W.; Roberts, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulations performed in an Artificial Intelligence (AI) environment provide benefits in two major areas. The productivity provided by Object Oriented Programming, Rule Based Programming, and AI development environments allows simulations to be developed and maintained more efficiently than conventional environments allow. Secondly, the use of AI techniques allows direct simulation of human decision making processes and Command and Control aspects of a system under study. An introduction to AI techniques is presented. Two discrete event simulations produced in these environments are described. Finally, a software engineering methodology is discussed that allows simulations to be designed for use in these environments. 3 figs.

  1. Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.

  2. Optimization of Operations Resources via Discrete Event Simulation Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, B.; Morris, D.; White, N.; Unal, R.

    1996-01-01

    The resource levels required for operation and support of reusable launch vehicles are typically defined through discrete event simulation modeling. Minimizing these resources constitutes an optimization problem involving discrete variables and simulation. Conventional approaches to solve such optimization problems involving integer valued decision variables are the pattern search and statistical methods. However, in a simulation environment that is characterized by search spaces of unknown topology and stochastic measures, these optimization approaches often prove inadequate. In this paper, we have explored the applicability of genetic algorithms to the simulation domain. Genetic algorithms provide a robust search strategy that does not require continuity and differentiability of the problem domain. The genetic algorithm successfully minimized the operation and support activities for a space vehicle, through a discrete event simulation model. The practical issues associated with simulation optimization, such as stochastic variables and constraints, were also taken into consideration.

  3. Synchronous parallel system for emulation and discrete event simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A synchronous parallel system for emulation and discrete event simulation having parallel nodes responds to received messages at each node by generating event objects having individual time stamps, stores only the changes to state variables of the simulation object attributable to the event object, and produces corresponding messages. The system refrains from transmitting the messages and changing the state variables while it determines whether the changes are superseded, and then stores the unchanged state variables in the event object for later restoral to the simulation object if called for. This determination preferably includes sensing the time stamp of each new event object and determining which new event object has the earliest time stamp as the local event horizon, determining the earliest local event horizon of the nodes as the global event horizon, and ignoring the events whose time stamps are less than the global event horizon. Host processing between the system and external terminals enables such a terminal to query, monitor, command or participate with a simulation object during the simulation process.

  4. DEVS representation of dynamical systems - Event-based intelligent control. [Discrete Event System Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how systems can be advantageously represented as discrete-event models by using DEVS (discrete-event system specification), a set-theoretic formalism. Such DEVS models provide a basis for the design of event-based logic control. In this control paradigm, the controller expects to receive confirming sensor responses to its control commands within definite time windows determined by its DEVS model of the system under control. The event-based contral paradigm is applied in advanced robotic and intelligent automation, showing how classical process control can be readily interfaced with rule-based symbolic reasoning systems.

  5. Disaster Response Modeling Through Discrete-Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jeffrey; Gilmer, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Organizations today are required to plan against a rapidly changing, high-cost environment. This is especially true for first responders to disasters and other incidents, where critical decisions must be made in a timely manner to save lives and resources. Discrete-event simulations enable organizations to make better decisions by visualizing complex processes and the impact of proposed changes before they are implemented. A discrete-event simulation using Simio software has been developed to effectively analyze and quantify the imagery capabilities of domestic aviation resources conducting relief missions. This approach has helped synthesize large amounts of data to better visualize process flows, manage resources, and pinpoint capability gaps and shortfalls in disaster response scenarios. Simulation outputs and results have supported decision makers in the understanding of high risk locations, key resource placement, and the effectiveness of proposed improvements.

  6. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  7. Approximate Schur complement preconditioning of the lowest order nodal discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, J.D.; Ascher, U.M.; Morel, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Particular classes of nodal methods and mixed hybrid finite element methods lead to equivalent, robust and accurate discretizations of 2nd order elliptic PDEs. However, widespread popularity of these discretizations has been hindered by the awkward linear systems which result. The present work exploits this awkwardness, which provides a natural partitioning of the linear system, by defining two optimal preconditioners based on approximate Schur complements. Central to the optimal performance of these preconditioners is their sparsity structure which is compatible with Dendy`s black box multigrid code.

  8. Ordering events of biochemical evolution.

    PubMed

    Cunchillos, C; Lecointre, G

    2007-05-01

    Metabolic pathways exhibit structures resulting from an evolutionary process. Pathways have been inherited through time with modification, from the earliest periods of life. It is possible to compare the structure of pathways as done in comparative anatomy, i.e. for inferring ancestral pathways or parts of it (ancestral enzymatic functions), using standard phylogenetic reconstruction. Thus a phylogenetic tree of pathways provides a relative ordering of the rise of enzymatic functions. It even becomes possible to order the birth of each complete pathway in time. This particular "DNA-free" conceptual approach to evolutionary biochemistry is reviewed, gathering all the justifications given for it. Then, the method of assigning a given pathway to a time span of biochemical development is revisited. The previous method used an implicit "clock" of metabolic development that is difficult to justify. We develop a new clock-free approach, using functional biochemical arguments. Results of the two methods are not significantly different; our method is just more precise. This suggests that the clock assumed in the first method does not provoke any important artefact in describing the development of biochemical evolution. It is just unnecessary to postulate it. As a result, most of the amino acid metabolic pathways develop forwards, confirming former models of amino acid catabolism evolution, but not those for amino acid anabolism. The order of appearance of sectors of universal cellular metabolism is: (1) amino acid catabolism, (2) amino acid anabolism and closure of the urea cycle, (3) glycolysis and glycogenesis, (4) closure of the pentose-phosphate cycle, (5) closure of the Krebs cycle and fatty acids metabolism, (6) closure of the Calvin cycle.

  9. Modelling machine ensembles with discrete event dynamical system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discrete Event Dynamical System (DEDS) theory can be utilized as a control strategy for future complex machine ensembles that will be required for in-space construction. The control strategy involves orchestrating a set of interactive submachines to perform a set of tasks for a given set of constraints such as minimum time, minimum energy, or maximum machine utilization. Machine ensembles can be hierarchically modeled as a global model that combines the operations of the individual submachines. These submachines are represented in the global model as local models. Local models, from the perspective of DEDS theory , are described by the following: a set of system and transition states, an event alphabet that portrays actions that takes a submachine from one state to another, an initial system state, a partial function that maps the current state and event alphabet to the next state, and the time required for the event to occur. Each submachine in the machine ensemble is presented by a unique local model. The global model combines the local models such that the local models can operate in parallel under the additional logistic and physical constraints due to submachine interactions. The global model is constructed from the states, events, event functions, and timing requirements of the local models. Supervisory control can be implemented in the global model by various methods such as task scheduling (open-loop control) or implementing a feedback DEDS controller (closed-loop control).

  10. Control of discrete event systems modeled as hierarchical state machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brave, Y.; Heymann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine a class of discrete event systems (DESs) modeled as asynchronous hierarchical state machines (AHSMs). For this class of DESs, they provide an efficient method for testing reachability, which is an essential step in many control synthesis procedures. This method utilizes the asynchronous nature and hierarchical structure of AHSMs, thereby illustrating the advantage of the AHSM representation as compared with its equivalent (flat) state machine representation. An application of the method is presented where an online minimally restrictive solution is proposed for the problem of maintaining a controlled AHSM within prescribed legal bounds.

  11. Discrete event simulation in an artificial intelligence environment: Some examples

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.J.; Farish, T.

    1991-01-01

    Several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) object-oriented discrete-event simulation efforts have been completed during the past three years. One of these systems has been put into production and has a growing customer base. Another (started two years earlier than the first project) was completed but has not yet been used. This paper will describe these simulation projects. Factors which were pertinent to the success of the one project, and to the failure of the second project will be discussed (success will be measured as the extent to which the simulation model was used as originally intended). 5 figs.

  12. State-space supervision of reconfigurable discrete event systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Discrete Event Systems (DES) theory of supervisory and state feedback control offers many advantages for implementing supervisory systems. Algorithmic concepts have been introduced to assure that the supervising algorithms are correct and meet the specifications. It is often assumed that the supervisory specifications are invariant or, at least, until a given supervisory task is completed. However, there are many practical applications where the supervising specifications update at real time. For example, in a Reconfigurable Discrete Event System (RDES) architecture, a bank of supervisors is defined to accommodate each identified operational condition or different supervisory specifications. This adaptive supervisory control system changes the supervisory configuration to accept coordinating commands or to adjust for changes in the controlled process. This paper addresses reconfiguration at the supervisory level of hybrid systems along with a RDES underlying architecture. It reviews the state-based supervisory control theory and extends it to the paradigm of RDES and in view of process control applications. The paper addresses theoretical issues with a limited number of practical examples. This control approach is particularly suitable for hierarchical reconfigurable hybrid implementations.

  13. The cost of conservative synchronization in parallel discrete event simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a synchronous conservative parallel discrete-event simulation protocol is analyzed. The class of simulation models considered is oriented around a physical domain and possesses a limited ability to predict future behavior. A stochastic model is used to show that as the volume of simulation activity in the model increases relative to a fixed architecture, the complexity of the average per-event overhead due to synchronization, event list manipulation, lookahead calculations, and processor idle time approach the complexity of the average per-event overhead of a serial simulation. The method is therefore within a constant factor of optimal. The analysis demonstrates that on large problems--those for which parallel processing is ideally suited--there is often enough parallel workload so that processors are not usually idle. The viability of the method is also demonstrated empirically, showing how good performance is achieved on large problems using a thirty-two node Intel iPSC/2 distributed memory multiprocessor.

  14. Multiple Orderings of Events in Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Young, Alexandra L; Oxtoby, Neil P; Huang, Jonathan; Marinescu, Razvan V; Daga, Pankaj; Cash, David M; Fox, Nick C; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schott, Jonathan M; Alexander, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    The event-based model constructs a discrete picture of disease progression from cross-sectional data sets, with each event corresponding to a new biomarker becoming abnormal. However, it relies on the assumption that all subjects follow a single event sequence. This is a major simplification for sporadic disease data sets, which are highly heterogeneous, include distinct subgroups, and contain significant proportions of outliers. In this work we relax this assumption by considering two extensions to the event-based model: a generalised Mallows model, which allows subjects to deviate from the main event sequence, and a Dirichlet process mixture of generalised Mallows models, which models clusters of subjects that follow different event sequences, each of which has a corresponding variance. We develop a Gibbs sampling technique to infer the parameters of the two models from multi-modal biomarker data sets. We apply our technique to data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative to determine the sequence in which brain regions become abnormal in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, as well as the heterogeneity of that sequence in the cohort. We find that the generalised Mallows model estimates a larger variation in the event sequence across subjects than the original event-based model. Fitting a Dirichlet process model detects three subgroups of the population with different event sequences. The Gibbs sampler additionally provides an estimate of the uncertainty in each of the model parameters, for example an individual's latent disease stage and cluster assignment. The distributions and mixtures of sequences that this new family of models introduces offer better characterisation of disease progression of heterogeneous populations, new insight into disease mechanisms, and have the potential for enhanced disease stratification and differential diagnosis. PMID:26223048

  15. Stochastic Event Counter for Discrete-Event Systems Under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2008-06-01

    This paper addresses the issues of counting the occurrence of special events in the framework of partiallyobserved discrete-event dynamical systems (DEDS). First, we develop a noble recursive procedure that updates active counter information state sequentially with available observations. In general, the cardinality of active counter information state is unbounded, which makes the exact recursion infeasible computationally. To overcome this difficulty, we develop an approximated recursive procedure that regulates and bounds the size of active counter information state. Using the approximated active counting information state, we give an approximated minimum mean square error (MMSE) counter. The developed algorithms are then applied to count special routing events in a material flow system.

  16. Performance Analysis of Cloud Computing Architectures Using Discrete Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, John C.; Golomb, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the economic benefit of on-demand resource allocation to meet changing enterprise computing needs. However, the flexibility of cloud computing is disadvantaged when compared to traditional hosting in providing predictable application and service performance. Cloud computing relies on resource scheduling in a virtualized network-centric server environment, which makes static performance analysis infeasible. We developed a discrete event simulation model to evaluate the overall effectiveness of organizations in executing their workflow in traditional and cloud computing architectures. The two part model framework characterizes both the demand using a probability distribution for each type of service request as well as enterprise computing resource constraints. Our simulations provide quantitative analysis to design and provision computing architectures that maximize overall mission effectiveness. We share our analysis of key resource constraints in cloud computing architectures and findings on the appropriateness of cloud computing in various applications.

  17. Optimal Parametric Discrete Event Control: Problem and Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Christopher H

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel optimization problem for discrete event control, similar in spirit to the optimal parametric control problem common in statistical process control. In our problem, we assume a known finite state machine plant model $G$ defined over an event alphabet $\\Sigma$ so that the plant model language $L = \\LanM(G)$ is prefix closed. We further assume the existence of a \\textit{base control structure} $M_K$, which may be either a finite state machine or a deterministic pushdown machine. If $K = \\LanM(M_K)$, we assume $K$ is prefix closed and that $K \\subseteq L$. We associate each controllable transition of $M_K$ with a binary variable $X_1,\\dots,X_n$ indicating whether the transition is enabled or not. This leads to a function $M_K(X_1,\\dots,X_n)$, that returns a new control specification depending upon the values of $X_1,\\dots,X_n$. We exhibit a branch-and-bound algorithm to solve the optimization problem $\\min_{X_1,\\dots,X_n}\\max_{w \\in K} C(w)$ such that $M_K(X_1,\\dots,X_n) \\models \\Pi$ and $\\LanM(M_K(X_1,\\dots,X_n)) \\in \\Con(L)$. Here $\\Pi$ is a set of logical assertions on the structure of $M_K(X_1,\\dots,X_n)$, and $M_K(X_1,\\dots,X_n) \\models \\Pi$ indicates that $M_K(X_1,\\dots,X_n)$ satisfies the logical assertions; and, $\\Con(L)$ is the set of controllable sublanguages of $L$.

  18. Enhancing Complex System Performance Using Discrete-Event Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize discrete-event simulation (DES) merged with human factors analysis to provide the venue within which the separation and deconfliction of the system/human operating principles can occur. A concrete example is presented to illustrate the performance enhancement gains for an aviation cargo flow and security inspection system achieved through the development and use of a process DES. The overall performance of the system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, and total number of pallets waiting for inspection in the queue. These metrics are performance indicators of the system's ability to service current needs and respond to additional requests. We studied and analyzed different scenarios by changing various model parameters such as the number of pieces per pallet ratio, number of inspectors and cargo handling personnel, number of forklifts, number and types of detection systems, inspection modality distribution, alarm rate, and cargo closeout time. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures identified effective ways to meet inspection requirements while maintaining or reducing overall operational cost and eliminating any shipping delays associated with any proposed changes in inspection requirements. With this understanding effective operational strategies can be developed to optimally use personnel while still maintaining plant efficiency, reducing process interruptions, and holding or reducing costs.

  19. Improving the Teaching of Discrete-Event Control Systems Using a LEGO Manufacturing Prototype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, A.; Bucio, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the usefulness of employing LEGO as a teaching-learning aid in a post-graduate-level first course on the control of discrete-event systems (DESs). The final assignment of the course is presented, which asks students to design and implement a modular hierarchical discrete-event supervisor for the coordination layer of a…

  20. Asymmetric statistics of order books: The role of discreteness and evidence for strategic order placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccaria, A.; Cristelli, M.; Alfi, V.; Ciulla, F.; Pietronero, L.

    2010-06-01

    We show that the statistics of spreads in real order books is characterized by an intrinsic asymmetry due to discreteness effects for even or odd values of the spread. An analysis of data from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) order book points out that traders’ strategies contribute to this asymmetry. We also investigate this phenomenon in the framework of a microscopic model and, by introducing a nonuniform deposition mechanism for limit orders, we are able to quantitatively reproduce the asymmetry found in the experimental data. Simulations of our model also show a realistic dynamics with a sort of intermittent behavior characterized by long periods in which the order book is compact and liquid interrupted by volatile configurations. The order placement strategies produce a nontrivial behavior of the spread relaxation dynamics which is similar to the one observed in real markets.

  1. Statistical and Probabilistic Extensions to Ground Operations' Discrete Event Simulation Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trocine, Linda; Cummings, Nicholas H.; Bazzana, Ashley M.; Rychlik, Nathan; LeCroy, Kenneth L.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiatives will invest in technologies, public/private partnerships, and infrastructure, paving the way for the expansion of human civilization into the solar system and beyond. As it is has been for the past half century, the Kennedy Space Center will be the embarkation point for humankind's journey into the cosmos. Functioning as a next generation space launch complex, Kennedy's launch pads, integration facilities, processing areas, launch and recovery ranges will bustle with the activities of the world's space transportation providers. In developing this complex, KSC teams work through the potential operational scenarios: conducting trade studies, planning and budgeting for expensive and limited resources, and simulating alternative operational schemes. Numerous tools, among them discrete event simulation (DES), were matured during the Constellation Program to conduct such analyses with the purpose of optimizing the launch complex for maximum efficiency, safety, and flexibility while minimizing life cycle costs. Discrete event simulation is a computer-based modeling technique for complex and dynamic systems where the state of the system changes at discrete points in time and whose inputs may include random variables. DES is used to assess timelines and throughput, and to support operability studies and contingency analyses. It is applicable to any space launch campaign and informs decision-makers of the effects of varying numbers of expensive resources and the impact of off nominal scenarios on measures of performance. In order to develop representative DES models, methods were adopted, exploited, or created to extend traditional uses of DES. The Delphi method was adopted and utilized for task duration estimation. DES software was exploited for probabilistic event variation. A roll-up process was used, which was developed to reuse models and model elements in other less - detailed models. The DES team continues to innovate and expand

  2. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  3. Weak order for the discretization of the stochastic heat equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debussche, Arnaud; Printems, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we study the approximation of the distribution of X_t Hilbert-valued stochastic process solution of a linear parabolic stochastic partial differential equation written in an abstract form as mathrm{d} X_t+AX_t mathrm{d} t = Q^{1/2} mathrm{d} W(t), quad X_0=x in H, quad tin[0,T], driven by a Gaussian space time noise whose covariance operator Q is given. We assume that A^{-alpha} is a finite trace operator for some alpha>0 and that Q is bounded from H into D(A^beta) for some betageq 0 . It is not required to be nuclear or to commute with A . The discretization is achieved thanks to finite element methods in space (parameter h>0 ) and a theta -method in time (parameter Delta t=T/N ). We define a discrete solution X^n_h and for suitable functions \\varphi defined on H , we show that \\vertmathbb{E} \\varphi(X^N_h) - mathbb{E} \\varphi(X_T) \\vert = O(h^{2gamma} + Delta t^gamma) where gamma<1- alpha + beta . Let us note that as in the finite dimensional case the rate of convergence is twice the one for pathwise approximations.

  4. Sensor Configuration Selection for Discrete-Event Systems under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chiao Lin; Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Algorithms for counting the occurrences of special events in the framework of partially-observed discrete event dynamical systems (DEDS) were developed in previous work. Their performances typically become better as the sensors providing the observations become more costly or increase in number. This paper addresses the problem of finding a sensor configuration that achieves an optimal balance between cost and the performance of the special event counting algorithm, while satisfying given observability requirements and constraints. Since this problem is generally computational hard in the framework considered, a sensor optimization algorithm is developed using two greedy heuristics, one myopic and the other based on projected performances of candidate sensors. The two heuristics are sequentially executed in order to find best sensor configurations. The developed algorithm is then applied to a sensor optimization problem for a multiunit- operation system. Results show that improved sensor configurations can be found that may significantly reduce the sensor configuration cost but still yield acceptable performance for counting the occurrences of special events.

  5. Application of Parallel Discrete Event Simulation to the Space Surveillance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, D.; Leek, J.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we describe how and why we chose parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) as the paradigm for modeling the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) in our modeling framework, TESSA (Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness). DES is a simulation paradigm appropriate for systems dominated by discontinuous state changes at times that must be calculated dynamically. It is used primarily for complex man-made systems like telecommunications, vehicular traffic, computer networks, economic models etc., although it is also useful for natural systems that are not described by equations, such as particle systems, population dynamics, epidemics, and combat models. It is much less well known than simple time-stepped simulation methods, but has the great advantage of being time scale independent, so that one can freely mix processes that operate at time scales over many orders of magnitude with no runtime performance penalty. In simulating the SSN we model in some detail: (a) the orbital dynamics of up to 105 objects, (b) their reflective properties, (c) the ground- and space-based sensor systems in the SSN, (d) the recognition of orbiting objects and determination of their orbits, (e) the cueing and scheduling of sensor observations, (f) the 3-d structure of satellites, and (g) the generation of collision debris. TESSA is thus a mixed continuous-discrete model. But because many different types of discrete objects are involved with such a wide variation in time scale (milliseconds for collisions, hours for orbital periods) it is suitably described using discrete events. The PDES paradigm is surprising and unusual. In any instantaneous runtime snapshot some parts my be far ahead in simulation time while others lag behind, yet the required causal relationships are always maintained and synchronized correctly, exactly as if the simulation were executed sequentially. The TESSA simulator is custom-built, conservatively synchronized, and designed to scale to

  6. Discrete-Time Survival Factor Mixture Analysis for Low-Frequency Recurrent Event Histories

    PubMed Central

    Masyn, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the latent class analysis framework for modeling single event discrete-time survival data is extended to low-frequency recurrent event histories. A partial gap time model, parameterized as a restricted factor mixture model, is presented and illustrated using juvenile offending data. This model accommodates event-specific baseline hazard probabilities and covariate effects; event recurrences within a single time period; and accounts for within- and between-subject correlations of event times. This approach expands the family of latent variable survival models in a way that allows researchers to explicitly address questions about unobserved heterogeneity in the timing of events across the lifespan. PMID:24489519

  7. Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations, and filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Najm, Habib N.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    Block-structured adaptively refined meshes (SAMR) strive for efficient resolution of partial differential equations (PDEs) solved on large computational domains by clustering mesh points only where required by large gradients. Previous work has indicated that fourth-order convergence can be achieved on such meshes by using a suitable combination of high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters and can deliver significant computational savings over conventional second-order methods at engineering error tolerances. In this paper, we explore the interactions between the errors introduced by discretizations, interpolations and filters. We develop general expressions for high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters, in multiple dimensions, using a Fourier approach, facilitating the high-order SAMR implementation. We derive a formulation for the necessary interpolation order for given discretization and derivative orders. We also illustrate this order relationship empirically using one and two-dimensional model problems on refined meshes. We study the observed increase in accuracy with increasing interpolation order. We also examine the empirically observed order of convergence, as the effective resolution of the mesh is increased by successively adding levels of refinement, with different orders of discretization, interpolation, or filtering.

  8. Dynamical behavior of fractional-order Hastings-Powell food chain model and its discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matouk, A. E.; Elsadany, A. A.; Ahmed, E.; Agiza, H. N.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the dynamical behavior of fractional-order Hastings-Powell food chain model is investigated and a new discretization method of the fractional-order system is introduced. A sufficient condition for existence and uniqueness of the solution of the proposed system is obtained. Local stability of the equilibrium points of the fractional-order system is studied. Furthermore, the necessary and sufficient conditions of stability of the discretized system are also studied. It is shown that the system's fractional parameter has effect on the stability of the discretized system which shows rich variety of dynamical behaviors such as Hopf bifurcation, an attractor crisis and chaotic attractors. Numerical simulations show the tea-cup chaotic attractor of the fractional-order system and the richer dynamical behavior of the corresponding discretized system.

  9. Sequential Window Diagnoser for Discrete-Event Systems Under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chiao Lin; Humberto E. Garcia; David Thorsley; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2009-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of counting the occurrence of special events in the framework of partiallyobserved discrete-event dynamical systems (DEDS). Developed diagnosers referred to as sequential window diagnosers (SWDs) utilize the stochastic diagnoser probability transition matrices developed in [9] along with a resetting mechanism that allows on-line monitoring of special event occurrences. To illustrate their performance, the SWDs are applied to detect and count the occurrence of special events in a particular DEDS. Results show that SWDs are able to accurately track the number of times special events occur.

  10. On the Total Variation of High-Order Semi-Discrete Central Schemes for Conservation Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a new fifth-order, semi-discrete, central-upwind scheme for solving one-dimensional systems of conservation laws. This scheme combines a fifth-order WENO reconstruction, a semi-discrete central-upwind numerical flux, and a strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta method. We test our method with various examples, and give particular attention to the evolution of the total variation of the approximations.

  11. Synchronous Parallel Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation System with Self-Contained Simulation Objects and Active Event Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a method of performing object-oriented simulation and a system having inter-connected processor nodes operating in parallel to simulate mutual interactions of a set of discrete simulation objects distributed among the nodes as a sequence of discrete events changing state variables of respective simulation objects so as to generate new event-defining messages addressed to respective ones of the nodes. The object-oriented simulation is performed at each one of the nodes by assigning passive self-contained simulation objects to each one of the nodes, responding to messages received at one node by generating corresponding active event objects having user-defined inherent capabilities and individual time stamps and corresponding to respective events affecting one of the passive self-contained simulation objects of the one node, restricting the respective passive self-contained simulation objects to only providing and receiving information from die respective active event objects, requesting information and changing variables within a passive self-contained simulation object by the active event object, and producing corresponding messages specifying events resulting therefrom by the active event objects.

  12. Can discrete event simulation be of use in modelling major depression?

    PubMed Central

    Le Lay, Agathe; Despiegel, Nicolas; François, Clément; Duru, Gérard

    2006-01-01

    Background Depression is among the major contributors to worldwide disease burden and adequate modelling requires a framework designed to depict real world disease progression as well as its economic implications as closely as possible. Objectives In light of the specific characteristics associated with depression (multiple episodes at varying intervals, impact of disease history on course of illness, sociodemographic factors), our aim was to clarify to what extent "Discrete Event Simulation" (DES) models provide methodological benefits in depicting disease evolution. Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of published Markov models in depression and identified potential limits to their methodology. A model based on DES principles was developed to investigate the benefits and drawbacks of this simulation method compared with Markov modelling techniques. Results The major drawback to Markov models is that they may not be suitable to tracking patients' disease history properly, unless the analyst defines multiple health states, which may lead to intractable situations. They are also too rigid to take into consideration multiple patient-specific sociodemographic characteristics in a single model. To do so would also require defining multiple health states which would render the analysis entirely too complex. We show that DES resolve these weaknesses and that its flexibility allow patients with differing attributes to move from one event to another in sequential order while simultaneously taking into account important risk factors such as age, gender, disease history and patients attitude towards treatment, together with any disease-related events (adverse events, suicide attempt etc.). Conclusion DES modelling appears to be an accurate, flexible and comprehensive means of depicting disease progression compared with conventional simulation methodologies. Its use in analysing recurrent and chronic diseases appears particularly useful compared with Markov processes

  13. Modeling Repeatable Events Using Discrete-Time Data: Predicting Marital Dissolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    I join two methodologies by illustrating the application of multilevel modeling principles to hazard-rate models with an emphasis on procedures for discrete-time data that contain repeatable events. I demonstrate this application using data taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to ascertain the relationship between multiple…

  14. An extension of the OpenModelica compiler for using Modelica models in a discrete event simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James

    2014-11-03

    In this article, a new back-end and run-time system is described for the OpenModelica compiler. This new back-end transforms a Modelica model into a module for the adevs discrete event simulation package, thereby extending adevs to encompass complex, hybrid dynamical systems. The new run-time system that has been built within the adevs simulation package supports models with state-events and time-events and that comprise differential-algebraic systems with high index. Finally, although the procedure for effecting this transformation is based on adevs and the Discrete Event System Specification, it can be adapted to any discrete event simulation package.

  15. Second-order discrete Kalman filtering equations for control-structure interaction simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Belvin, W. Keith; Alvin, Kenneth F.

    1991-01-01

    A general form for the first-order representation of the continuous, second-order linear structural dynamics equations is introduced in order to derive a corresponding form of first-order Kalman filtering equations (KFE). Time integration of the resulting first-order KFE is carried out via a set of linear multistep integration formulas. It is shown that a judicious combined selection of computational paths and the undetermined matrices introduced in the general form of the first-order linear structural systems leads to a class of second-order discrete KFE involving only symmetric, N x N solution matrix.

  16. A new method for centralised and modular supervisory control of real-time discrete event systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouédraogo, Lucien; Khoumsi, Ahmed; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of controlling a plant described as a real-time discrete event system (RTDES). In particular, automata-based supervisory control of RTDES is addressed. The aim of supervisory control is to restrict the behaviour (using a supervisor) of an uncontrolled plant in order to conform to a given specification. First, we propose a centralised method for the synthesis of a supervisor that forces a given plant to conform to a given specification. Then, we extend this centralised method to the modular case, that is, for the synthesis of n supervisors that force the plant to conform to n given specifications, respectively. Timed automata (TA) with invariants is the model used to describe the plant and the specification(s). The synthesis approach is based on the transformation of the control problem into a non-real-time form, using a transformation of TA into equivalent particular finite state automata called Set-Exp-Automata. This transformation allows to adapt the theory of Ramadge and Wonham, and is justified by the fact that it reduces the state space explosion problem compared to other transformation methods such as the transformation of TA into region automata. Moreover, the Set-Exp-Automata model provides a suitable control architecture for implementation. The proposed approach allows to obtain the solution to both the centralised and modular supervisory control problem, by identifying the solvability conditions and giving a step-by-step computation procedure of the solution.

  17. Discrete-time reduced order neural observers for uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Alanis, Alma Y; Sanchez, Edgar N; Ricalde, Luis J

    2010-02-01

    This paper focusses on a novel discrete-time reduced order neural observer for nonlinear systems, which model is assumed to be unknown. This neural observer is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. The proposed scheme is based on a discrete-time recurrent high order neural network (RHONN) trained with an extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm, using a parallel configuration. This work includes the stability proof of the estimation error on the basis of the Lyapunov approach; to illustrate the applicability, simulation results for a nonlinear oscillator are included. PMID:20180251

  18. DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION OF OPTICAL SWITCH MATRIX PERFORMANCE IN COMPUTER NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, Neena; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present application of a Discrete Event Simulator (DES) for performance modeling of optical switching devices in computer networks. Network simulators are valuable tools in situations where one cannot investigate the system directly. This situation may arise if the system under study does not exist yet or the cost of studying the system directly is prohibitive. Most available network simulators are based on the paradigm of discrete-event-based simulation. As computer networks become increasingly larger and more complex, sophisticated DES tool chains have become available for both commercial and academic research. Some well-known simulators are NS2, NS3, OPNET, and OMNEST. For this research, we have applied OMNEST for the purpose of simulating multi-wavelength performance of optical switch matrices in computer interconnection networks. Our results suggest that the application of DES to computer interconnection networks provides valuable insight in device performance and aids in topology and system optimization.

  19. Desktop Modeling and Simulation: Parsimonious, yet Effective Discrete-Event Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, James R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates how quickly students can be trained to construct useful discrete-event simulation models using Excel The typical supply chain used by many large national retailers is described, and an Excel-based simulation model is constructed of it The set of programming and simulation skills required for development of that model are then determined we conclude that six hours of training are required to teach the skills to MBA students . The simulation presented here contains all fundamental functionallty of a simulation model, and so our result holds for any discrete-event simulation model. We argue therefore that Industry workers with the same technical skill set as students having completed one year in an MBA program can be quickly trained to construct simulation models. This result gives credence to the efficacy of Desktop Modeling and Simulation whereby simulation analyses can be quickly developed, run, and analyzed with widely available software, namely Excel.

  20. Discrete-event simulation of nuclear-waste transport in geologic sites subject to disruptive events. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, S.; Ryland, S.; Peck, R.

    1980-06-19

    This report outlines a methodology to study the effects of disruptive events on nuclear waste material in stable geologic sites. The methodology is based upon developing a discrete events model that can be simulated on the computer. This methodology allows a natural development of simulation models that use computer resources in an efficient manner. Accurate modeling in this area depends in large part upon accurate modeling of ion transport behavior in the storage media. Unfortunately, developments in this area are not at a stage where there is any consensus on proper models for such transport. Consequently, our work is directed primarily towards showing how disruptive events can be properly incorporated in such a model, rather than as a predictive tool at this stage. When and if proper geologic parameters can be determined, then it would be possible to use this as a predictive model. Assumptions and their bases are discussed, and the mathematical and computer model are described.

  1. Boundary treatment for fourth-order staggered mesh discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderse, B.; Verstappen, R. W. C. P.; Koren, B.

    2014-01-01

    Harlow and Welch [Phys. Fluids 8 (1965) 2182-2189] introduced a discretization method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations conserving the secondary quantities kinetic energy and vorticity, besides the primary quantities mass and momentum. This method was extended to fourth order accuracy by several researchers [25,14,21]. In this paper we propose a new consistent boundary treatment for this method, which is such that continuous integration-by-parts identities (including boundary contributions) are mimicked in a discrete sense. In this way kinetic energy is exactly conserved even in case of non-zero tangential boundary conditions. We show that requiring energy conservation at the boundary conflicts with order of accuracy conditions, and that the global accuracy of the fourth order method is limited to second order in the presence of boundaries. We indicate how non-uniform grids can be employed to obtain full fourth order accuracy.

  2. Model for the evolution of the time profile in optimistic parallel discrete event simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziganurova, L.; Novotny, M. A.; Shchur, L. N.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate synchronisation aspects of an optimistic algorithm for parallel discrete event simulations (PDES). We present a model for the time evolution in optimistic PDES. This model evaluates the local virtual time profile of the processing elements. We argue that the evolution of the time profile is reminiscent of the surface profile in the directed percolation problem and in unrestricted surface growth. We present results of the simulation of the model and emphasise predictive features of our approach.

  3. Max-plus Algebraic Tools for Discrete Event Systems, Static Analysis, and Zero-Sum Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubert, Stéphane

    The max-plus algebraic approach of timed discrete event systems emerged in the eighties, after the discovery that synchronization phenomena can be modeled in a linear way in the max-plus setting. This led to a number of results, like the determination of long term characteristics (throughput, stationary regime) by spectral theory methods or the representation of the input-output behavior by rational series.

  4. The first order solutions for two configurations of discrete zoom lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Anthony J.; Zhao, Yang; Steven, Samuel J.; Berman, Rebecca; Fennig, Eryn A.; Petropavlovskiy, Dmitry; Bentley, Julie; Moore, Duncan T.; Olson, Craig

    2016-05-01

    Discrete zoom systems are commonly used as laser beam expanders and infrared zoom lenses. The reason to design a discrete zoom lens is that they are often a desirable compromise between fixed-focal length lenses and continuous zoom lenses, offering many advantages to imaging systems of all types. They have the advantage over continuous zoom systems for containing fewer elements, thus reducing the weight of the system, and having one mechanical motion instead of two. In literature there is little information on the first order parameters and starting requirements for discrete systems. This work derives the first order equations for two different discrete zoom systems. The equations are derived from the requirements of first order parameters which define the starting group focal lengths. The two design configurations studied are: one zoom group flipping in and out of the system; one zoom group moving laterally along the optical axis. This work analyzes the first order equations for both configurations and discusses the starting point for the designs taking into consideration system limitations. Final designs for both configurations are then compared over several parameters: group focal lengths, lens diameters, overall length, number of elements, materials, and performance.

  5. Second-order analysis of semiparametric recurrent event processes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongtao

    2011-09-01

    A typical recurrent event dataset consists of an often large number of recurrent event processes, each of which contains multiple event times observed from an individual during a follow-up period. Such data have become increasingly available in medical and epidemiological studies. In this article, we introduce novel procedures to conduct second-order analysis for a flexible class of semiparametric recurrent event processes. Such an analysis can provide useful information regarding the dependence structure within each recurrent event process. Specifically, we will use the proposed procedures to test whether the individual recurrent event processes are all Poisson processes and to suggest sensible alternative models for them if they are not. We apply these procedures to a well-known recurrent event dataset on chronic granulomatous disease and an epidemiological dataset on meningococcal disease cases in Merseyside, United Kingdom to illustrate their practical value.

  6. Near Optimal Event-Triggered Control of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems Using Neurodynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an event-triggered near optimal control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems. Event-driven neurodynamic programming (NDP) is utilized to design the control policy. A neural network (NN)-based identifier, with event-based state and input vectors, is utilized to learn the system dynamics. An actor-critic framework is used to learn the cost function and the optimal control input. The NN weights of the identifier, the critic, and the actor NNs are tuned aperiodically once every triggered instant. An adaptive event-trigger condition to decide the trigger instants is derived. Thus, a suitable number of events are generated to ensure a desired accuracy of approximation. A near optimal performance is achieved without using value and/or policy iterations. A detailed analysis of nontrivial inter-event times with an explicit formula to show the reduction in computation is also derived. The Lyapunov technique is used in conjunction with the event-trigger condition to guarantee the ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system. The simulation results are included to verify the performance of the controller. The net result is the development of event-driven NDP. PMID:26285220

  7. Near Optimal Event-Triggered Control of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems Using Neurodynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an event-triggered near optimal control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems. Event-driven neurodynamic programming (NDP) is utilized to design the control policy. A neural network (NN)-based identifier, with event-based state and input vectors, is utilized to learn the system dynamics. An actor-critic framework is used to learn the cost function and the optimal control input. The NN weights of the identifier, the critic, and the actor NNs are tuned aperiodically once every triggered instant. An adaptive event-trigger condition to decide the trigger instants is derived. Thus, a suitable number of events are generated to ensure a desired accuracy of approximation. A near optimal performance is achieved without using value and/or policy iterations. A detailed analysis of nontrivial inter-event times with an explicit formula to show the reduction in computation is also derived. The Lyapunov technique is used in conjunction with the event-trigger condition to guarantee the ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system. The simulation results are included to verify the performance of the controller. The net result is the development of event-driven NDP.

  8. Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (Inventor); Harris, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

  9. A third-order multistep time discretization for a Chebyshev tau spectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreman, A. W.; Kuerten, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    A time discretization scheme based on the third-order backward difference formula has been embedded into a Chebyshev tau spectral method for the Navier-Stokes equations. The time discretization is a variant of the second-order backward scheme proposed by Krasnov et al. (2008) [3]. High-resolution direct numerical simulations of turbulent incompressible channel flow have been performed to compare the backward scheme to the Runge-Kutta scheme proposed by Spalart et al. (1991) [2]. It is shown that the Runge-Kutta scheme leads to a poor convergence of some third-order spatial derivatives in the direct vicinity of the wall, derivatives that represent the diffusion of wall-tangential vorticity. The convergence at the wall is shown to be significantly improved if the backward scheme is applied.

  10. Domain-decomposable preconditioners for second-order upwind discretizations of multicomponent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Gropp, W.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Discrete systems arising in computational fluid dynamics applications often require wide stencils adapted to the local convective direction in order to accommodate higher-order upwind differencing, and involve multiple components perhaps coupling strongly at each point. Conventional exactly or approximately factored inverses of such operators are burdensome to apply globally, especially in problems complicated by non-tensor-product domain geometry or adaptive refinement, though their forward'' action is not. Such problems can be solved by iterative methods by using either point-block preconditioners or combination space-decoupled/component-decoupled preconditioners that are based on lower-order discretizations. Except for a global implicit solve on a coarse grid, each phase in the application of such preconditioners has simple locally exploitable structure. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Optimized Hypervisor Scheduler for Parallel Discrete Event Simulations on Virtual Machine Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of virtual machine (VM)-based platforms for parallel computing, it is now possible to execute parallel discrete event simulations (PDES) over multiple virtual machines, in contrast to executing in native mode directly over hardware as is traditionally done over the past decades. While mature VM-based parallel systems now offer new, compelling benefits such as serviceability, dynamic reconfigurability and overall cost effectiveness, the runtime performance of parallel applications can be significantly affected. In particular, most VM-based platforms are optimized for general workloads, but PDES execution exhibits unique dynamics significantly different from other workloads. Here we first present results from experiments that highlight the gross deterioration of the runtime performance of VM-based PDES simulations when executed using traditional VM schedulers, quantitatively showing the bad scaling properties of the scheduler as the number of VMs is increased. The mismatch is fundamental in nature in the sense that any fairness-based VM scheduler implementation would exhibit this mismatch with PDES runs. We also present a new scheduler optimized specifically for PDES applications, and describe its design and implementation. Experimental results obtained from running PDES benchmarks (PHOLD and vehicular traffic simulations) over VMs show over an order of magnitude improvement in the run time of the PDES-optimized scheduler relative to the regular VM scheduler, with over 20 reduction in run time of simulations using up to 64 VMs. The observations and results are timely in the context of emerging systems such as cloud platforms and VM-based high performance computing installations, highlighting to the community the need for PDES-specific support, and the feasibility of significantly reducing the runtime overhead for scalable PDES on VM platforms.

  12. An error bound for a discrete reduced order model of a linear multivariable system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M.; Franklin, Gene F.

    1987-01-01

    The design of feasible controllers for high dimension multivariable systems can be greatly aided by a method of model reduction. In order for the design based on the order reduction to include a guarantee of stability, it is sufficient to have a bound on the model error. Previous work has provided such a bound for continuous-time systems for algorithms based on balancing. In this note an L-infinity bound is derived for model error for a method of order reduction of discrete linear multivariable systems based on balancing.

  13. Second-order discretization in space and time for radiation hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. D.; Morel, J. E.; Lowrie, R. B.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for solving the equations of radiation hydrodynamics that is second-order accurate in space and time. This method combines the MUSCL-Hancock method for solving the Euler equations with the TR/BDF2 scheme in time for solving the equations of radiative transfer. We use an LDFEM to discretize the radiative transfer equations in space, which, though uncommon for radiation diffusion calculations, is a standard for radiation transport applications. We address the challenges inherent to using different spatial discretizations for the hydrodynamics and radiation and demonstrate how these may be overcome. We define our method for a 1-D model of compressible fluid dynamics coupled with grey radiation diffusion. Using the method of manufactured solutions, we show that the method is second-order accurate in space and time for both the equilibrium diffusion and streaming limit. (authors)

  14. Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, K.; Wonham, W. M.

    2009-03-05

    A purely distributed control paradigm is proposed for discrete-event systems (DES). In contrast to control by one or more external supervisors, distributed control aims to design built-in strategies for individual agents. First a distributed optimal nonblocking control problem is formulated. To solve it, a top-down localization procedure is developed which systematically decomposes an external supervisor into local controllers while preserving optimality and nonblockingness. An efficient localization algorithm is provided to carry out the computation, and an automated guided vehicles (AGV) example presented for illustration. Finally, the 'easiest' and 'hardest' boundary cases of localization are discussed.

  15. Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, K.; Wonham, W. M.

    2009-03-01

    A purely distributed control paradigm is proposed for discrete-event systems (DES). In contrast to control by one or more external supervisors, distributed control aims to design built-in strategies for individual agents. First a distributed optimal nonblocking control problem is formulated. To solve it, a top-down localization procedure is developed which systematically decomposes an external supervisor into local controllers while preserving optimality and nonblockingness. An efficient localization algorithm is provided to carry out the computation, and an automated guided vehicles (AGV) example presented for illustration. Finally, the 'easiest' and 'hardest' boundary cases of localization are discussed.

  16. Determining the significance of associations between two series of discrete events : bootstrap methods /

    SciTech Connect

    Niehof, Jonathan T.; Morley, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    We review and develop techniques to determine associations between series of discrete events. The bootstrap, a nonparametric statistical method, allows the determination of the significance of associations with minimal assumptions about the underlying processes. We find the key requirement for this method: one of the series must be widely spaced in time to guarantee the theoretical applicability of the bootstrap. If this condition is met, the calculated significance passes a reasonableness test. We conclude with some potential future extensions and caveats on the applicability of these methods. The techniques presented have been implemented in a Python-based software toolkit.

  17. Using Discrete Event Simulation to predict KPI's at a Projected Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Concha, Pablo; Neriz, Liliana; Parada, Danilo; Ramis, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is a powerful factor in the design of clinical facilities. DES enables facilities to be built or adapted to achieve the expected Key Performance Indicators (KPI's) such as average waiting times according to acuity, average stay times and others. Our computational model was built and validated using expert judgment and supporting statistical data. One scenario studied resulted in a 50% decrease in the average cycle time of patients compared to the original model, mainly by modifying the patient's attention model. PMID:26262262

  18. Hierarchical, modular discrete-event modelling in an object-oriented environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, B.P.

    1987-11-01

    Hierarchical, modular specification of discrete-event models offers a basis for reusable model bases and hence for enhanced simulation of truly varied design alternatives. The authors describe an environment which realizes the DEVS formalism developed for hierarchical, modular models. It is implemented in PC-Scheme, a powerful Lisp dialect for microcomputers containing an object-oriented programming subsystem. Since both the implementation and the underlying language are accessible to the user, the result is a capable medium for combining simulation modelling and artificial intelligence techniques.

  19. A mathematical approach for evaluating Markov models in continuous time without discrete-event simulation.

    PubMed

    van Rosmalen, Joost; Toy, Mehlika; O'Mahony, James F

    2013-08-01

    Markov models are a simple and powerful tool for analyzing the health and economic effects of health care interventions. These models are usually evaluated in discrete time using cohort analysis. The use of discrete time assumes that changes in health states occur only at the end of a cycle period. Discrete-time Markov models only approximate the process of disease progression, as clinical events typically occur in continuous time. The approximation can yield biased cost-effectiveness estimates for Markov models with long cycle periods and if no half-cycle correction is made. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of methods for evaluating Markov models in continuous time. These methods use mathematical results from stochastic process theory and control theory. The methods are illustrated using an applied example on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B. The main result is a mathematical solution for the expected time spent in each state in a continuous-time Markov model. It is shown how this solution can account for age-dependent transition rates and discounting of costs and health effects, and how the concept of tunnel states can be used to account for transition rates that depend on the time spent in a state. The applied example shows that the continuous-time model yields more accurate results than the discrete-time model but does not require much computation time and is easily implemented. In conclusion, continuous-time Markov models are a feasible alternative to cohort analysis and can offer several theoretical and practical advantages. PMID:23715464

  20. Real-Time Imaging of Discrete Exocytic Events Mediating Surface Delivery of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yudowski, Guillermo A.; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Panicker, Sandip; Thorn, Kurt S.; Beattie, Eric C.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We directly resolved discrete exocytic fusion events mediating insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) to the somatodendritic surface of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons, in slice and dissociated cultures, using protein tagging with a pH-sensitive GFP (green fluorescent protein) variant and rapid (10 frames/s) fluorescence microscopy. AMPAR-containing exocytic events occurred under basal culture conditions in both the cell body and dendrites; potentiating chemical stimuli produced an NMDA receptor-dependent increase in the frequency of individual exocytic events. The number of AMPARs inserted per exocytic event, estimated using single-molecule analysis, was quite uniform but individual events differed significantly in kinetic properties affecting the subsequent surface distribution of receptors. “Transient” events, from which AMPARs dispersed laterally immediately after surface insertion, generated a pronounced but short-lived (dissipating within ~1 s) increase in surface AMPAR fluorescence extending locally (2–5µm) from the site of exocytosis. “Persistent” events, from which inserted AMPARs dispersed slowly (typically over 5–10 s), affected local surface receptor concentration to a much smaller degree. Both modes of exocytic insertion occurred throughout the dendritic shaft, but remarkably, neither mode of insertion was observed directly into synaptic spines. AMPARs entered spines preferentially from transient events occurring in the adjoining dendritic shaft, driven apparently by mass action and short-range lateral diffusion, and locally delivered AMPARs remained mostly in the mobile fraction. These results suggest a highly dynamic mechanism for both constitutive and activity-dependent surface delivery of AMPARs, mediated by kinetically distinct exocytic modes that differ in propensity to drive lateral entry of receptors to nearby synapses. PMID:17928453

  1. Identification of safety-critical events using kinematic vehicle data and the discrete fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Robert; Smith, Brian L; Park, Hyungjun; Dailey, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Recent technological advances have made it both feasible and practical to identify unsafe driving behaviors using second-by-second trajectory data. Presented in this paper is a unique approach to detecting safety-critical events using vehicles' longitudinal accelerations. A Discrete Fourier Transform is used in combination with K-means clustering to flag patterns in the vehicles' accelerations in time-series that are likely to be crashes or near-crashes. The algorithm was able to detect roughly 78% of crasjavascript:void(0)hes and near-crashes (71 out of 91 validated events in the Naturalistic Driving Study data used), while generating about 1 false positive every 2.7h. In addition to presenting the promising results, an implementation strategy is discussed and further research topics that can improve this method are suggested in the paper.

  2. Energy Stable Flux Formulas For The Discontinuous Galerkin Discretization Of First Order Nonlinear Conservation Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Charrier, Pierre; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We consider the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element discretization of first order systems of conservation laws derivable as moments of the kinetic Boltzmann equation. This includes well known conservation law systems such as the Euler For the class of first order nonlinear conservation laws equipped with an entropy extension, an energy analysis of the DG method for the Cauchy initial value problem is developed. Using this DG energy analysis, several new variants of existing numerical flux functions are derived and shown to be energy stable.

  3. Some Experiences with High Order Discretization Schemes for Compressible Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the structure and complexity of compressible fluid flow places high demands on numerical discretization techniques for the fluid flow equations. Fluid flows arising in external aerodynamics often contain both flow field discontinuities and fluid boundary-layers. Both must be accurately resolved to provide useful information to aerodynamic design and analysis engineers. These accuracy requirements motivated the present author to examine a class of finite-volume techniques on arbitrary triangulated domains based on linear or quadratic reconstruction of integral-averaged data followed by upwind flux function evaluation and small time evolution. More recently, we have considered some new upwind techniques which yield compact discretizations while maintaining higher order accuracy. In the mini-symposium talk we will discuss both of these techniques as well as demonstrate the relative merits of each method by computing a number of aerodynamic flows containing shock waves and boundary-layers.

  4. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    DOE PAGES

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy alsomore » eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.« less

  5. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy also eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.

  6. Young Children's Reasoning about the Order of Past Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Teresa; Hoerl, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Four studies are reported that employed an object location task to assess temporal-causal reasoning. In Experiments 1-3, successfully locating the object required a retrospective consideration of the order in which two events had occurred. In Experiment 1, 5- but not 4-year-olds were successful; 4-year-olds also failed to perform at above-chance…

  7. Discretized and aggregated: modeling dive depth of harbor seals from ordered categorical data with temporal autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Megan D; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2012-09-01

    Ordered categorical data are pervasive in environmental and ecological data, and often arise from constraints that require discretizing a continuous variable into ordered categories. A great deal of data have been collected toward the study of marine mammal dive behavior using satellite depth recorders (SDRs), which often discretize a continuous variable such as depth. Additionally, data storage or transmission constraints may also necessitate the aggregation of data over time intervals of a specified length. The categorization and aggregation create a time series of ordered multicategory counts for each animal, which present challenges in terms of statistical modeling and practical interpretation. We describe an intuitive strategy for modeling such aggregated, ordered categorical data allowing for inference regarding the category probabilities and a measure of central tendency on the original scale of the data (e.g., meters), along with incorporation of temporal correlation and overdispersion. The strategy extends covariate-specific cutpoint models for ordinal data. We demonstrate the method in an analysis of SDR dive-depth data collected on harbor seals in Alaska. The primary goal of the analysis is to assess the relationship of covariates, such as time of day, with number of dives and maximum depth of dives. We also predict missing values and introduce novel graphical summaries of the data and results. PMID:22118495

  8. Automated generation of discrete event controllers for dynamic reconfiguration of autonomous sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Sarah; Griffin, Christopher; Phoha, Shashi

    2003-12-01

    Autonomous Sensor Networks have the potential for broad applicability to national security, intelligent transportation, industrial production and environmental and hazardous process control. Distributed sensors may be used for detecting bio-terrorist attacks, for contraband interdiction, border patrol, monitoring building safety and security, battlefield surveillance, or may be embedded in complex dynamic systems for enabling fault tolerant operations. In this paper we present algorithms and automation tools for constructing discrete event controllers for complex networked systems that restrict the dynamic behavior of the system according to given specifications. In our previous work we have modeled dynamic system as a discrete event automation whose open loop behavior is represented as a language L of strings generated with the alphabet 'Elipson' of all possible atomic events that cause state transitions in the network. The controlled behavior is represented by a sublanguage K, contained in L, that restricts the behavior of the system according to the specifications of the controller. We have developed the algebraic structure of controllable sublanguages as perfect right partial ideals that satisfy a precontrollability condition. In this paper we develop an iterative algorithm to take an ad hoc specification described using a natural language, and to formulate a complete specification that results in a controllable sublanguage. A supervisory controller modeled as an automaton that runs synchronously with the open loop system in the sense of Ramadge and Wonham is automatically generated to restrict the behavior of the open loop system to the controllable sublanguage. A battlefield surveillance scenario illustrates the iterative evolution of ad hoc specifications for controlling an autonomous sensor network and the generation of a controller that reconfigures the sensor network to dynamically adapt to environmental perturbations.

  9. The natural order of events: How speakers of different languages represent events nonverbally

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; So, Wing Chee; Özyürek, Aslı; Mylander, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    To test whether the language we speak influences our behavior even when we are not speaking, we asked speakers of four languages differing in their predominant word orders (English, Turkish, Spanish, and Chinese) to perform two nonverbal tasks: a communicative task (describing an event by using gesture without speech) and a noncommunicative task (reconstructing an event with pictures). We found that the word orders speakers used in their everyday speech did not influence their nonverbal behavior. Surprisingly, speakers of all four languages used the same order and on both nonverbal tasks. This order, actor–patient–act, is analogous to the subject–object–verb pattern found in many languages of the world and, importantly, in newly developing gestural languages. The findings provide evidence for a natural order that we impose on events when describing and reconstructing them nonverbally and exploit when constructing language anew. PMID:18599445

  10. Scale invariance of temporal order discrimination using complex, naturalistic events.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-07-01

    Recent demonstrations of scale invariance in cognitive domains prompted us to investigate whether a scale-free pattern might exist in retrieving the temporal order of events from episodic memory. We present four experiments using an encoding-retrieval paradigm with naturalistic stimuli (movies or video clips). Our studies show that temporal order judgement retrieval times were negatively correlated with the temporal separation between two events in the movie. This relation held, irrespective of whether temporal distances were on the order of tens of minutes (Exp 1-2) or just a few seconds (Exp 3-4). Using the SIMPLE model, we factored in the retention delays between encoding and retrieval (delays of 24 h, 15 min, 1.5-2.5 s, and 0.5 s for Exp 1-4, respectively) and computed a temporal similarity score for each trial. We found a positive relation between similarity and retrieval times; that is, the more temporally similar two events, the slower the retrieval of their temporal order. Using Bayesian analysis, we confirmed the equivalence of the RT/similarity relation across all experiments, which included a vast range of temporal distances and retention delays. These results provide evidence for scale invariance during the retrieval of temporal order of episodic memories. PMID:25909581

  11. Scale invariance of temporal order discrimination using complex, naturalistic events

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Recent demonstrations of scale invariance in cognitive domains prompted us to investigate whether a scale-free pattern might exist in retrieving the temporal order of events from episodic memory. We present four experiments using an encoding-retrieval paradigm with naturalistic stimuli (movies or video clips). Our studies show that temporal order judgement retrieval times were negatively correlated with the temporal separation between two events in the movie. This relation held, irrespective of whether temporal distances were on the order of tens of minutes (Exp 1−2) or just a few seconds (Exp 3−4). Using the SIMPLE model, we factored in the retention delays between encoding and retrieval (delays of 24 h, 15 min, 1.5–2.5 s, and 0.5 s for Exp 1–4, respectively) and computed a temporal similarity score for each trial. We found a positive relation between similarity and retrieval times; that is, the more temporally similar two events, the slower the retrieval of their temporal order. Using Bayesian analysis, we confirmed the equivalence of the RT/similarity relation across all experiments, which included a vast range of temporal distances and retention delays. These results provide evidence for scale invariance during the retrieval of temporal order of episodic memories. PMID:25909581

  12. A conceptual modeling framework for discrete event simulation using hierarchical control structures

    PubMed Central

    Furian, N.; O’Sullivan, M.; Walker, C.; Vössner, S.; Neubacher, D.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual Modeling (CM) is a fundamental step in a simulation project. Nevertheless, it is only recently that structured approaches towards the definition and formulation of conceptual models have gained importance in the Discrete Event Simulation (DES) community. As a consequence, frameworks and guidelines for applying CM to DES have emerged and discussion of CM for DES is increasing. However, both the organization of model-components and the identification of behavior and system control from standard CM approaches have shortcomings that limit CM’s applicability to DES. Therefore, we discuss the different aspects of previous CM frameworks and identify their limitations. Further, we present the Hierarchical Control Conceptual Modeling framework that pays more attention to the identification of a models’ system behavior, control policies and dispatching routines and their structured representation within a conceptual model. The framework guides the user step-by-step through the modeling process and is illustrated by a worked example. PMID:26778940

  13. A Framework for the Optimization of Discrete-Event Simulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, B. D.; Unal, R.; White, N. H.; Morris, W. D.

    1996-01-01

    With the growing use of computer modeling and simulation, in all aspects of engineering, the scope of traditional optimization has to be extended to include simulation models. Some unique aspects have to be addressed while optimizing via stochastic simulation models. The optimization procedure has to explicitly account for the randomness inherent in the stochastic measures predicted by the model. This paper outlines a general purpose framework for optimization of terminating discrete-event simulation models. The methodology combines a chance constraint approach for problem formulation, together with standard statistical estimation and analyses techniques. The applicability of the optimization framework is illustrated by minimizing the operation and support resources of a launch vehicle, through a simulation model.

  14. Reversible Parallel Discrete-Event Execution of Large-scale Epidemic Outbreak Models

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Seal, Sudip K

    2010-01-01

    The spatial scale, runtime speed and behavioral detail of epidemic outbreak simulations together require the use of large-scale parallel processing. In this paper, an optimistic parallel discrete event execution of a reaction-diffusion simulation model of epidemic outbreaks is presented, with an implementation over the $\\mu$sik simulator. Rollback support is achieved with the development of a novel reversible model that combines reverse computation with a small amount of incremental state saving. Parallel speedup and other runtime performance metrics of the simulation are tested on a small (8,192-core) Blue Gene / P system, while scalability is demonstrated on 65,536 cores of a large Cray XT5 system. Scenarios representing large population sizes (up to several hundred million individuals in the largest case) are exercised.

  15. DeMO: An Ontology for Discrete-event Modeling and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Gregory A; Miller, John A; Hybinette, Maria; Baramidze, Gregory; York, William S

    2011-01-01

    Several fields have created ontologies for their subdomains. For example, the biological sciences have developed extensive ontologies such as the Gene Ontology, which is considered a great success. Ontologies could provide similar advantages to the Modeling and Simulation community. They provide a way to establish common vocabularies and capture knowledge about a particular domain with community-wide agreement. Ontologies can support significantly improved (semantic) search and browsing, integration of heterogeneous information sources, and improved knowledge discovery capabilities. This paper discusses the design and development of an ontology for Modeling and Simulation called the Discrete-event Modeling Ontology (DeMO), and it presents prototype applications that demonstrate various uses and benefits that such an ontology may provide to the Modeling and Simulation community. PMID:22919114

  16. Fault detection and isolation in manufacturing systems with an identified discrete event model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Matthias; Schneider, Stefan; Lesage, Jean-Jacques; Litz, Lothar

    2012-10-01

    In this article a generic method for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in manufacturing systems considered as discrete event systems (DES) is presented. The method uses an identified model of the closed-loop of plant and controller built on the basis of observed fault-free system behaviour. An identification algorithm known from literature is used to determine the fault detection model in form of a non-deterministic automaton. New results of how to parameterise this algorithm are reported. To assess the fault detection capability of an identified automaton, probabilistic measures are proposed. For fault isolation, the concept of residuals adapted for DES is used by defining appropriate set operations representing generic fault symptoms. The method is applied to a case study system.

  17. Exception handling controllers: An application of pushdown systems to discrete event control

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Christopher H

    2008-01-01

    Recent work by the author has extended the Supervisory Control Theory to include the class of control languages defined by pushdown machines. A pushdown machine is a finite state machine extended by an infinite stack memory. In this paper, we define a specific type of deterministic pushdown machine that is particularly useful as a discrete event controller. Checking controllability of pushdown machines requires computing the complement of the controller machine. We show that Exception Handling Controllers have the property that algorithms for taking their complements and determining their prefix closures are nearly identical to the algorithms available for finite state machines. Further, they exhibit an important property that makes checking for controllability extremely simple. Hence, they maintain the simplicity of the finite state machine, while providing the extra power associated with a pushdown stack memory. We provide an example of a useful control specification that cannot be implemented using a finite state machine, but can be implemented using an Exception Handling Controller.

  18. State feedback control of real-time discrete event systems with infinite states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong-Jin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study a state feedback supervisory control of timed discrete event systems (TDESs) with infinite number of states modelled as timed automata. To this end, we represent a timed automaton with infinite number of untimed states (called locations) by a finite set of conditional assignment statements. Predicates and predicate transformers are employed to finitely represent the behaviour and specification of a TDES with infinite number of locations. In addition, the notion of clock regions in timed automata is used to identify the reachable states of a TDES with an infinite time space. For a real-time specification described as a predicate, we present the controllability condition for the existence of a state feedback supervisor that restricts the behaviour of the controlled TDES within the specification.

  19. CONFIG - Adapting qualitative modeling and discrete event simulation for design of fault management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Basham, Bryan D.

    1989-01-01

    CONFIG is a modeling and simulation tool prototype for analyzing the normal and faulty qualitative behaviors of engineered systems. Qualitative modeling and discrete-event simulation have been adapted and integrated, to support early development, during system design, of software and procedures for management of failures, especially in diagnostic expert systems. Qualitative component models are defined in terms of normal and faulty modes and processes, which are defined by invocation statements and effect statements with time delays. System models are constructed graphically by using instances of components and relations from object-oriented hierarchical model libraries. Extension and reuse of CONFIG models and analysis capabilities in hybrid rule- and model-based expert fault-management support systems are discussed.

  20. Developing Flexible Discrete Event Simulation Models in an Uncertain Policy Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, David J.; Fayez, Sam; Steele, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    On February 1st, 2010 U.S. President Barack Obama submitted to Congress his proposed budget request for Fiscal Year 2011. This budget included significant changes to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), including the proposed cancellation of the Constellation Program. This change proved to be controversial and Congressional approval of the program's official cancellation would take many months to complete. During this same period an end-to-end discrete event simulation (DES) model of Constellation operations was being built through the joint efforts of Productivity Apex Inc. (PAl) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) teams under the guidance of NASA. The uncertainty in regards to the Constellation program presented a major challenge to the DES team, as to: continue the development of this program-of-record simulation, while at the same time remain prepared for possible changes to the program. This required the team to rethink how it would develop it's model and make it flexible enough to support possible future vehicles while at the same time be specific enough to support the program-of-record. This challenge was compounded by the fact that this model was being developed through the traditional DES process-orientation which lacked the flexibility of object-oriented approaches. The team met this challenge through significant pre-planning that led to the "modularization" of the model's structure by identifying what was generic, finding natural logic break points, and the standardization of interlogic numbering system. The outcome of this work resulted in a model that not only was ready to be easily modified to support any future rocket programs, but also a model that was extremely structured and organized in a way that facilitated rapid verification. This paper discusses in detail the process the team followed to build this model and the many advantages this method provides builders of traditional process-oriented discrete

  1. Reversible Discrete Event Formulation and Optimistic Parallel Execution of Vehicular Traffic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2009-01-01

    Vehicular traffic simulations are useful in applications such as emergency planning and traffic management. High speed of traffic simulations translates to speed of response and level of resilience in those applications. Discrete event formulation of traffic flow at the level of individual vehicles affords both the flexibility of simulating complex scenarios of vehicular flow behavior as well as rapid simulation time advances. However, efficient parallel/distributed execution of the models becomes challenging due to synchronization overheads. Here, a parallel traffic simulation approach is presented that is aimed at reducing the time for simulating emergency vehicular traffic scenarios. Our approach resolves the challenges that arise in parallel execution of microscopic, vehicular-level models of traffic. We apply a reverse computation-based optimistic execution approach to address the parallel synchronization problem. This is achieved by formulating a reversible version of a discrete event model of vehicular traffic, and by utilizing this reversible model in an optimistic execution setting. Three unique aspects of this effort are: (1) exploration of optimistic simulation applied to vehicular traffic simulation (2) addressing reverse computation challenges specific to optimistic vehicular traffic simulation (3) achieving absolute (as opposed to self-relative) speedup with a sequential speed close to that of a fast, de facto standard sequential simulator for emergency traffic. The design and development of the parallel simulation system is presented, along with a performance study that demonstrates excellent sequential performance as well as parallel performance. The benefits of optimistic execution are demonstrated, including a speed up of nearly 20 on 32 processors observed on a vehicular network of over 65,000 intersections and over 13 million vehicles.

  2. APEX - a Petri net process modeling tool built on a discrete-event simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Gish, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    APEX, the Animated Process Experimentation tool, provides a capability for defining, simulating and animating process models. Primarily constructed for the modeling and analysis of software process models, we have found that APEX is much more broadly applicable and is suitable for process modeling tasks outside the domain of software processes. APEX has been constructed as a library of simulation blocks that implement timed hierarchical colored Petri Nets. These Petri Net blocks operate in conjunction with EXTEND, a general purpose continuous and discrete-event simulation tool. EXTEND provides a flexible, powerful and extensible environment with features particularly suitable for the modeling of complex processes. APEX`s Petri Net block additions to EXTEND provide an inexpensive capability with well-defined and easily understood semantics that is a powerful, easy to use, flexible means to engage in process modeling and evaluation. The vast majority of software process research has focused on the enactment of software processes. Little has been said about the actual creation and evaluation of software process models necessary to support enactment. APEX has been built by the Software Engineering Process Technology Project at GTE Laboratories which has been focusing on this neglected area of process model definition and analysis. We have constructed high-level software lifecycle models, a set of models that demonstrate differences between four levels of the SEI Capability Maturity Model (CMM), customer care process models, as well as models involving more traditional synchronization and coordination problems such as producer-consumer and 2-phase commit. APEX offers a unique blend of technology from two different disciplines: discrete-event simulation and Petri Net modeling. Petri Nets provide a well-defined and rich semantics in a simple, easy to understand notation. The simulation framework allows for execution, animation, and measurement of the resultant models.

  3. Multi-block simulations in general relativity: high-order discretizations, numerical stability and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Luis; Reula, Oscar; Tiglio, Manuel

    2005-12-01

    The need to smoothly cover a computational domain of interest generically requires the adoption of several grids. To solve a given problem under this grid structure, one must ensure the suitable transfer of information among the different grids involved. In this work, we discuss a technique that allows one to construct finite-difference schemes of arbitrary high order which are guaranteed to satisfy linear numerical and strict stability. The method relies on the use of difference operators satisfying summation by parts and penalty terms to transfer information between the grids. This allows the derivation of semi-discrete energy estimates for problems admitting such estimates at the continuum. We analyse several aspects of this technique when used in conjunction with high-order schemes and illustrate its use in one-, two- and three-dimensional numerical relativity model problems with non-trivial topologies, including truly spherical black hole excision.

  4. An overset mesh approach for 3D mixed element high-order discretizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazell, Michael J.; Sitaraman, Jayanarayanan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    2016-10-01

    A parallel high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is used to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in an overset mesh framework. The DG solver has many capabilities including: hp-adaption, curved cells, support for hybrid, mixed-element meshes, and moving meshes. Combining these capabilities with overset grids allows the DG solver to be used in problems with bodies in relative motion and in a near-body off-body solver strategy. The overset implementation is constructed to preserve the design accuracy of the baseline DG discretization. Multiple simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy and performance of the overset DG solver. These simulations demonstrate the capability of the high-order DG solver to handle complex geometry and large scale parallel simulations in an overset framework.

  5. Discrete sliding mode control for robust tracking of higher order delay time systems with experimental application.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, A A; Malwatkar, G M; Patre, B M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete time sliding mode controller (DSMC) is proposed for higher order plus delay time (HOPDT) processes. A sliding mode surface is selected as a function of system states and error and the tuning parameters of sliding mode controller are determined using dominant pole placement strategy. The condition for the existence of stable sliding mode is obtained by using Lyapunov function. The proposed method is applicable to HOPDT processes with oscillatory and integrating behavior, open loop instability or non-minimum phase characteristics and works satisfactory under the effect of parametric uncertainty. The method does not require reduced order model and provides simple way to design the controllers. The simulation and experimentation results show that the proposed method ensures desired tracking dynamics.

  6. SPEEDES - A multiple-synchronization environment for parallel discrete-event simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeff S.

    1992-01-01

    Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete-Event Simulation (SPEEDES) is a unified parallel simulation environment. It supports multiple-synchronization protocols without requiring users to recompile their code. When a SPEEDES simulation runs on one node, all the extra parallel overhead is removed automatically at run time. When the same executable runs in parallel, the user preselects the synchronization algorithm from a list of options. SPEEDES currently runs on UNIX networks and on the California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mark III Hypercube. SPEEDES also supports interactive simulations. Featured in the SPEEDES environment is a new parallel synchronization approach called Breathing Time Buckets. This algorithm uses some of the conservative techniques found in Time Bucket synchronization, along with the optimism that characterizes the Time Warp approach. A mathematical model derived from first principles predicts the performance of Breathing Time Buckets. Along with the Breathing Time Buckets algorithm, this paper discusses the rules for processing events in SPEEDES, describes the implementation of various other synchronization protocols supported by SPEEDES, describes some new ones for the future, discusses interactive simulations, and then gives some performance results.

  7. Towards High Performance Discrete-Event Simulations of Smart Electric Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Nutaro, James J; Yoginath, Srikanth B

    2011-01-01

    Future electric grid technology is envisioned on the notion of a smart grid in which responsive end-user devices play an integral part of the transmission and distribution control systems. Detailed simulation is often the primary choice in analyzing small network designs, and the only choice in analyzing large-scale electric network designs. Here, we identify and articulate the high-performance computing needs underlying high-resolution discrete event simulation of smart electric grid operation large network scenarios such as the entire Eastern Interconnect. We focus on the simulator's most computationally intensive operation, namely, the dynamic numerical solution for the electric grid state, for both time-integration as well as event-detection. We explore solution approaches using general-purpose dense and sparse solvers, and propose a scalable solver specialized for the sparse structures of actual electric networks. Based on experiments with an implementation in the THYME simulator, we identify performance issues and possible solution approaches for smart grid experimentation in the large.

  8. Examining Passenger Flow Choke Points at Airports Using Discrete Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeremy R.; Madhavan, Poomima

    2011-01-01

    The movement of passengers through an airport quickly, safely, and efficiently is the main function of the various checkpoints (check-in, security. etc) found in airports. Human error combined with other breakdowns in the complex system of the airport can disrupt passenger flow through the airport leading to lengthy waiting times, missing luggage and missed flights. In this paper we present a model of passenger flow through an airport using discrete event simulation that will provide a closer look into the possible reasons for breakdowns and their implications for passenger flow. The simulation is based on data collected at Norfolk International Airport (ORF). The primary goal of this simulation is to present ways to optimize the work force to keep passenger flow smooth even during peak travel times and for emergency preparedness at ORF in case of adverse events. In this simulation we ran three different scenarios: real world, increased check-in stations, and multiple waiting lines. Increased check-in stations increased waiting time and instantaneous utilization. while the multiple waiting lines decreased both the waiting time and instantaneous utilization. This simulation was able to show how different changes affected the passenger flow through the airport.

  9. Serial killers: ordering caspase activation events in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Slee, E A; Adrain, C; Martin, S J

    1999-11-01

    Caspases participate in the molecular control of apoptosis in several guises; as triggers of the death machinery, as regulatory elements within it, and ultimately as a subset of the effector elements of the machinery itself. The mammalian caspase family is steadily growing and currently contains 14 members. At present, it is unclear whether all of these proteases participate in apoptosis. Thus, current research in this area is focused upon establishing the repertoire and order of caspase activation events that occur during the signalling and demolition phases of cell death. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that proximal caspase activation events are typically initiated by molecules that promote caspase aggregation. As expected, distal caspase activation events are likely to be controlled by caspases activated earlier in the cascade. However, recent data has cast doubt upon the functional demarcation of caspases into signalling (upstream) and effector (downstream) roles based upon their prodomain lengths. In particular, caspase-3 may perform an important role in propagating the caspase cascade, in addition to its role as an effector caspase within the death programme. Here, we discuss the apoptosis-associated caspase cascade and the hierarchy of caspase activation events within it.

  10. Automatic generation of efficient orderings of events for scheduling applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    In scheduling a set of tasks, it is often not known with certainty how long a given event will take. We call this duration uncertainty. Duration uncertainty is a primary obstacle to the successful completion of a schedule. If a duration of one task is longer than expected, the remaining tasks are delayed. The delay may result in the abandonment of the schedule itself, a phenomenon known as schedule breakage. One response to schedule breakage is on-line, dynamic rescheduling. A more recent alternative is called proactive rescheduling. This method uses statistical data about the durations of events in order to anticipate the locations in the schedule where breakage is likely prior to the execution of the schedule. It generates alternative schedules at such sensitive points, which can be then applied by the scheduler at execution time, without the delay incurred by dynamic rescheduling. This paper proposes a technique for making proactive error management more effective. The technique is based on applying a similarity-based method of clustering to the problem of identifying similar events in a set of events.

  11. A second-order two-scale homogenization procedure using macrolevel discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesičar, Tomislav; Tonković, Zdenko; Sorić, Jurica

    2014-08-01

    The present study deals with a second-order two-scale computational homogenization procedure for modeling deformation responses of heterogeneous materials at small strains. The macro to micro transition and the application of generalized periodic boundary conditions on the representative volume element (RVE) at the microlevel are investigated. The structure at macroscale level is discretized by the two dimensional triangular finite elements, while the quadrilateral finite element is used for the discretization of the RVE. The finite element formulations and the new proposed multiscale scheme have been implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS using user subroutines derived. Due to the continuity transition, an additional integral condition on microlevel fluctuation field has to be imposed, as expected. The integration has been performed using various numerical integration techniques and the results obtained are compared in a few examples. It is concluded that only trapezoidal rule gives a physically based deformed shape of the RVE. Finally, the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed multiscale homogenization approach are demonstrated by the modeling of a shear layer problem, usually used as a benchmark in multiscale analyses.

  12. Symmetry preserving discretization of ordinary differential equations. Large symmetry groups and higher order equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rodríguez, M. A.; Winternitz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and ordinary difference systems (OΔSs) invariant under the actions of the Lie groups {{SL}}x(2),{{SL}}y(2) and {{SL}}x(2)× {{SL}}y(2) of projective transformations of the independent variables x and dependent variables y are constructed. The ODEs are continuous limits of the OΔSs, or conversely, the OΔSs are invariant discretizations of the ODEs. The invariant OΔSs are used to calculate numerical solutions of the invariant ODEs of order up to five. The solutions of the invariant numerical schemes are compared to numerical solutions obtained by standard Runge-Kutta methods and to exact solutions, when available. The invariant method performs at least as well as standard ones and much better in the vicinity of singularities of solutions.

  13. Tempest - Efficient Computation of Atmospheric Flows Using High-Order Local Discretization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, P. A.; Guerra, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Tempest Framework composes several compact numerical methods to easily facilitate intercomparison of atmospheric flow calculations on the sphere and in rectangular domains. This framework includes the implementations of Spectral Elements, Discontinuous Galerkin, Flux Reconstruction, and Hybrid Finite Element methods with the goal of achieving optimal accuracy in the solution of atmospheric problems. Several advantages of this approach are discussed such as: improved pressure gradient calculation, numerical stability by vertical/horizontal splitting, arbitrary order of accuracy, etc. The local numerical discretization allows for high performance parallel computation and efficient inclusion of parameterizations. These techniques are used in conjunction with a non-conformal, locally refined, cubed-sphere grid for global simulations and standard Cartesian grids for simulations at the mesoscale. A complete implementation of the methods described is demonstrated in a non-hydrostatic setting.

  14. A preference-ordered discrete-gaming approach to air-combat analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to one-on-one air-combat analysis is described which employs discrete gaming of a parameterized model featuring choice between several closed-loop control policies. A preference-ordering formulation due to Falco is applied to rational choice between outcomes: win, loss, mutual capture, purposeful disengagement, draw. Approximate optimization is provided by an active-cell scheme similar to Falco's obtained by a 'backing up' process similar to that of Kopp. The approach is designed primarily for short-duration duels between craft with large-envelope weaponry. Some illustrative computations are presented for an example modeled using constant-speed vehicles and very rough estimation of energy shifts.

  15. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens), medication compliance, seasonality

  16. Scaling Time Warp-based Discrete Event Execution to 104 Processors on Blue Gene Supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2007-01-01

    Lately, important large-scale simulation applications, such as emergency/event planning and response, are emerging that are based on discrete event models. The applications are characterized by their scale (several millions of simulated entities), their fine-grained nature of computation (microseconds per event), and their highly dynamic inter-entity event interactions. The desired scale and speed together call for highly scalable parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) engines. However, few such parallel engines have been designed or tested on platforms with thousands of processors. Here an overview is given of a unique PDES engine that has been designed to support Time Warp-style optimistic parallel execution as well as a more generalized mixed, optimistic-conservative synchronization. The engine is designed to run on massively parallel architectures with minimal overheads. A performance study of the engine is presented, including the first results to date of PDES benchmarks demonstrating scalability to as many as 16,384 processors, on an IBM Blue Gene supercomputer. The results show, for the first time, the promise of effectively sustaining very large scale discrete event execution on up to 104 processors.

  17. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Thulasidasan, Sunil; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Romero, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that

  18. Discrete Event Simulation Models for CT Examination Queuing in West China Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li; Tang, Shijun; Shi, Yingkang; Guo, Huili

    2016-01-01

    In CT examination, the emergency patients (EPs) have highest priorities in the queuing system and thus the general patients (GPs) have to wait for a long time. This leads to a low degree of satisfaction of the whole patients. The aim of this study is to improve the patients' satisfaction by designing new queuing strategies for CT examination. We divide the EPs into urgent type and emergency type and then design two queuing strategies: one is that the urgent patients (UPs) wedge into the GPs' queue with fixed interval (fixed priority model) and the other is that the patients have dynamic priorities for queuing (dynamic priority model). Based on the data from Radiology Information Database (RID) of West China Hospital (WCH), we develop some discrete event simulation models for CT examination according to the designed strategies. We compare the performance of different strategies on the basis of the simulation results. The strategy that patients have dynamic priorities for queuing makes the waiting time of GPs decrease by 13 minutes and the degree of satisfaction increase by 40.6%. We design a more reasonable CT examination queuing strategy to decrease patients' waiting time and increase their satisfaction degrees. PMID:27547237

  19. Discrete Event Simulation Models for CT Examination Queuing in West China Hospital.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Liu, Hangjiang; Liao, Huchang; Tang, Shijun; Shi, Yingkang; Guo, Huili

    2016-01-01

    In CT examination, the emergency patients (EPs) have highest priorities in the queuing system and thus the general patients (GPs) have to wait for a long time. This leads to a low degree of satisfaction of the whole patients. The aim of this study is to improve the patients' satisfaction by designing new queuing strategies for CT examination. We divide the EPs into urgent type and emergency type and then design two queuing strategies: one is that the urgent patients (UPs) wedge into the GPs' queue with fixed interval (fixed priority model) and the other is that the patients have dynamic priorities for queuing (dynamic priority model). Based on the data from Radiology Information Database (RID) of West China Hospital (WCH), we develop some discrete event simulation models for CT examination according to the designed strategies. We compare the performance of different strategies on the basis of the simulation results. The strategy that patients have dynamic priorities for queuing makes the waiting time of GPs decrease by 13 minutes and the degree of satisfaction increase by 40.6%. We design a more reasonable CT examination queuing strategy to decrease patients' waiting time and increase their satisfaction degrees.

  20. Using discrete-event simulation in strategic capacity planning for an outpatient physical therapy service.

    PubMed

    Rau, Chi-Lun; Tsai, Pei-Fang Jennifer; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max; Tan, Jhih-Cian; Syu, Hong-Cheng; Jheng, Yue-Ling; Ciou, Ting-Syuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan

    2013-12-01

    This study uses a simulation model as a tool for strategic capacity planning for an outpatient physical therapy clinic in Taipei, Taiwan. The clinic provides a wide range of physical treatments, with 6 full-time therapists in each session. We constructed a discrete-event simulation model to study the dynamics of patient mixes with realistic treatment plans, and to estimate the practical capacity of the physical therapy room. The changes in time-related and space-related performance measurements were used to evaluate the impact of various strategies on the capacity of the clinic. The simulation results confirmed that the clinic is extremely patient-oriented, with a bottleneck occurring at the traction units for Intermittent Pelvic Traction (IPT), with usage at 58.9 %. Sensitivity analysis showed that attending to more patients would significantly increase the number of patients staying for overtime sessions. We found that pooling the therapists produced beneficial results. The average waiting time per patient could be reduced by 45 % when we pooled 2 therapists. We found that treating up to 12 new patients per session had no significantly negative impact on returning patients. Moreover, we found that the average waiting time for new patients decreased if they were given priority over returning patients when called by the therapists.

  1. Discrete event command and control for networked teams with multiple missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Frank L.; Hudas, Greg R.; Pang, Chee Khiang; Middleton, Matthew B.; McMurrough, Christopher

    2009-05-01

    During mission execution in military applications, the TRADOC Pamphlet 525-66 Battle Command and Battle Space Awareness capabilities prescribe expectations that networked teams will perform in a reliable manner under changing mission requirements, varying resource availability and reliability, and resource faults. In this paper, a Command and Control (C2) structure is presented that allows for computer-aided execution of the networked team decision-making process, control of force resources, shared resource dispatching, and adaptability to change based on battlefield conditions. A mathematically justified networked computing environment is provided called the Discrete Event Control (DEC) Framework. DEC has the ability to provide the logical connectivity among all team participants including mission planners, field commanders, war-fighters, and robotic platforms. The proposed data management tools are developed and demonstrated on a simulation study and an implementation on a distributed wireless sensor network. The results show that the tasks of multiple missions are correctly sequenced in real-time, and that shared resources are suitably assigned to competing tasks under dynamically changing conditions without conflicts and bottlenecks.

  2. Empirical Evaluation of Conservative and Optimistic Discrete Event Execution on Cloud and VM Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Virtual machine (VM) technologies, especially those offered via Cloud platforms, present new dimensions with respect to performance and cost in executing parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) applications. Due to the introduction of overall cost as a metric, the choice of the highest-end computing configuration is no longer the most economical one. Moreover, runtime dynamics unique to VM platforms introduce new performance characteristics, and the variety of possible VM configurations give rise to a range of choices for hosting a PDES run. Here, an empirical study of these issues is undertaken to guide an understanding of the dynamics, trends and trade-offs in executing PDES on VM/Cloud platforms. Performance results and cost measures are obtained from actual execution of a range of scenarios in two PDES benchmark applications on the Amazon Cloud offerings and on a high-end VM host machine. The data reveals interesting insights into the new VM-PDES dynamics that come into play and also leads to counter-intuitive guidelines with respect to choosing the best and second-best configurations when overall cost of execution is considered. In particular, it is found that choosing the highest-end VM configuration guarantees neither the best runtime nor the least cost. Interestingly, choosing a (suitably scaled) low-end VM configuration provides the least overall cost without adversely affecting the total runtime.

  3. StratBAM: A Discrete-Event Simulation Model to Support Strategic Hospital Bed Capacity Decisions.

    PubMed

    Devapriya, Priyantha; Strömblad, Christopher T B; Bailey, Matthew D; Frazier, Seth; Bulger, John; Kemberling, Sharon T; Wood, Kenneth E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to accurately measure and assess current and potential health care system capacities is an issue of local and national significance. Recent joint statements by the Institute of Medicine and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality have emphasized the need to apply industrial and systems engineering principles to improving health care quality and patient safety outcomes. To address this need, a decision support tool was developed for planning and budgeting of current and future bed capacity, and evaluating potential process improvement efforts. The Strategic Bed Analysis Model (StratBAM) is a discrete-event simulation model created after a thorough analysis of patient flow and data from Geisinger Health System's (GHS) electronic health records. Key inputs include: timing, quantity and category of patient arrivals and discharges; unit-level length of care; patient paths; and projected patient volume and length of stay. Key outputs include: admission wait time by arrival source and receiving unit, and occupancy rates. Electronic health records were used to estimate parameters for probability distributions and to build empirical distributions for unit-level length of care and for patient paths. Validation of the simulation model against GHS operational data confirmed its ability to model real-world data consistently and accurately. StratBAM was successfully used to evaluate the system impact of forecasted patient volumes and length of stay in terms of patient wait times, occupancy rates, and cost. The model is generalizable and can be appropriately scaled for larger and smaller health care settings. PMID:26310949

  4. Discrete Event Simulation Models for CT Examination Queuing in West China Hospital.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Liu, Hangjiang; Liao, Huchang; Tang, Shijun; Shi, Yingkang; Guo, Huili

    2016-01-01

    In CT examination, the emergency patients (EPs) have highest priorities in the queuing system and thus the general patients (GPs) have to wait for a long time. This leads to a low degree of satisfaction of the whole patients. The aim of this study is to improve the patients' satisfaction by designing new queuing strategies for CT examination. We divide the EPs into urgent type and emergency type and then design two queuing strategies: one is that the urgent patients (UPs) wedge into the GPs' queue with fixed interval (fixed priority model) and the other is that the patients have dynamic priorities for queuing (dynamic priority model). Based on the data from Radiology Information Database (RID) of West China Hospital (WCH), we develop some discrete event simulation models for CT examination according to the designed strategies. We compare the performance of different strategies on the basis of the simulation results. The strategy that patients have dynamic priorities for queuing makes the waiting time of GPs decrease by 13 minutes and the degree of satisfaction increase by 40.6%. We design a more reasonable CT examination queuing strategy to decrease patients' waiting time and increase their satisfaction degrees. PMID:27547237

  5. StratBAM: A Discrete-Event Simulation Model to Support Strategic Hospital Bed Capacity Decisions.

    PubMed

    Devapriya, Priyantha; Strömblad, Christopher T B; Bailey, Matthew D; Frazier, Seth; Bulger, John; Kemberling, Sharon T; Wood, Kenneth E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to accurately measure and assess current and potential health care system capacities is an issue of local and national significance. Recent joint statements by the Institute of Medicine and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality have emphasized the need to apply industrial and systems engineering principles to improving health care quality and patient safety outcomes. To address this need, a decision support tool was developed for planning and budgeting of current and future bed capacity, and evaluating potential process improvement efforts. The Strategic Bed Analysis Model (StratBAM) is a discrete-event simulation model created after a thorough analysis of patient flow and data from Geisinger Health System's (GHS) electronic health records. Key inputs include: timing, quantity and category of patient arrivals and discharges; unit-level length of care; patient paths; and projected patient volume and length of stay. Key outputs include: admission wait time by arrival source and receiving unit, and occupancy rates. Electronic health records were used to estimate parameters for probability distributions and to build empirical distributions for unit-level length of care and for patient paths. Validation of the simulation model against GHS operational data confirmed its ability to model real-world data consistently and accurately. StratBAM was successfully used to evaluate the system impact of forecasted patient volumes and length of stay in terms of patient wait times, occupancy rates, and cost. The model is generalizable and can be appropriately scaled for larger and smaller health care settings.

  6. Application of Discrete Event Control to the Insertion Task of Electric Line Using 6-Link Electro-Hydraulic Manipulators with Dual Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyoungkwan; Yokota, Shinichi

    Uninterrupted power supply has become indispensable during the maintenance task of active electric power lines as a result of today's highly information-oriented society and increasing demand of electric utilities. The maintenance task has the risk of electric shock and the danger of falling from high place. Therefore it is necessary to realize an autonomous robot system using electro-hydraulic manipulator because hydraulic manipulators have the advantage of electric insulation. Meanwhile it is relatively difficult to realize autonomous assembly tasks particularly in the case of manipulating flexible objects such as electric lines. In this report, a discrete event control system is introduced for automatic assembly task of electric lines into sleeves as one of a typical task of active electric power lines. In the implementation of a discrete event control system, LVQNN (learning vector quantization neural network) is applied to the insertion task of electric lines to sleeves. In order to apply these proposed control system to the unknown environment, virtual learning data for LVQNN was generated by fuzzy inference. By the experimental results of two types of electric lines and sleeves, these proposed discrete event control and neural network learning algorithm are confirmed very effective to the insertion tasks of electric lines to sleeves as a typical task of active electric power maintenance tasks.

  7. Semi-discrete biomass dynamic modeling: an improved approach for assessing fish stock responses to pulsed harvest events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Clay; Colvin, Michael E.; Stewart, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Continuous harvest over an annual period is a common assumption of continuous biomass dynamics models (CBDMs); however, fish are frequently harvested in a discrete manner. We developed semidiscrete biomass dynamics models (SDBDMs) that allow discrete harvest events and evaluated differences between CBDMs and SDBDMs using an equilibrium yield analysis with varying levels of fishing mortality (F). Equilibrium fishery yields for CBDMs and SDBDMS were similar at low fishing mortalities and diverged as F approached and exceeded maximum sustained yield (FMSY). Discrete harvest resulted in lower equilibrium yields at high levels of Frelative to continuous harvest. The effect of applying harvest continuously when it was in fact discrete was evaluated by fitting CBDMs and SDBDMs to time series data generated from a hypothetical fish stock undergoing discrete harvest and evaluating parameter estimates bias. Violating the assumption of continuous harvest resulted in biased parameter estimates for CBDM while SDBDM parameter estimates were unbiased. Biased parameter estimates resulted in biased biological reference points derived from CBDMs. Semidiscrete BDMs outperformed continuous BDMs and should be used when harvest is discrete, when the time and magnitude of harvest are known, and when F is greater than FMSY.

  8. Characterization of high order spatial discretizations and lumping techniques for discontinuous finite element SN transport

    SciTech Connect

    Maginot, P. G.; Ragusa, J. C.; Morel, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    We examine several possible methods of mass matrix lumping for discontinuous finite element discrete ordinates transport using a Lagrange interpolatory polynomial trial space. Though positive outflow angular flux is guaranteed with traditional mass matrix lumping in a purely absorbing 1-D slab cell for the linear discontinuous approximation, we show that when used with higher degree interpolatory polynomial trial spaces, traditional lumping does yield strictly positive outflows and does not increase in accuracy with an increase in trial space polynomial degree. As an alternative, we examine methods which are 'self-lumping'. Self-lumping methods yield diagonal mass matrices by using numerical quadrature restricted to the Lagrange interpolatory points. Using equally-spaced interpolatory points, self-lumping is achieved through the use of closed Newton-Cotes formulas, resulting in strictly positive outflows in pure absorbers for odd power polynomials in 1-D slab geometry. By changing interpolatory points from the traditional equally-spaced points to the quadrature points of the Gauss-Legendre or Lobatto-Gauss-Legendre quadratures, it is possible to generate solution representations with a diagonal mass matrix and a strictly positive outflow for any degree polynomial solution representation in a pure absorber medium in 1-D slab geometry. Further, there is no inherent limit to local truncation error order of accuracy when using interpolatory points that correspond to the quadrature points of high order accuracy numerical quadrature schemes. (authors)

  9. Improving outpatient phlebotomy service efficiency and patient experience using discrete-event simulation.

    PubMed

    Yip, Kenneth; Pang, Suk-King; Chan, Kui-Tim; Chan, Chi-Kuen; Lee, Tsz-Leung

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a simulation modeling application to reconfigure the outpatient phlebotomy service of an acute regional and teaching hospital in Hong Kong, with an aim to improve service efficiency, shorten patient queuing time and enhance workforce utilization. Design/methodology/approach - The system was modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process and a discrete-event simulation model was developed to simulate the current setting, and to evaluate how various performance metrics would change if switched from a decentralized to a centralized model. Variations were then made to the model to test different workforce arrangements for the centralized service, so that managers could decide on the service's final configuration via an evidence-based and data-driven approach. Findings - This paper provides empirical insights about the relationship between staffing arrangement and system performance via a detailed scenario analysis. One particular staffing scenario was chosen by manages as it was considered to strike the best balance between performance and workforce scheduled. The resulting centralized phlebotomy service was successfully commissioned. Practical implications - This paper demonstrates how analytics could be used for operational planning at the hospital level. The authors show that a transparent and evidence-based scenario analysis, made available through analytics and simulation, greatly facilitates management and clinical stakeholders to arrive at the ideal service configuration. Originality/value - The authors provide a robust method in evaluating the relationship between workforce investment, queuing reduction and workforce utilization, which is crucial for managers when deciding the delivery model for any outpatient-related service. PMID:27477930

  10. Random vs. Combinatorial Methods for Discrete Event Simulation of a Grid Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, D. Richard; Kacker, Raghu; Lei, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This study compared random and t-way combinatorial inputs of a network simulator, to determine if these two approaches produce significantly different deadlock detection for varying network configurations. Modeling deadlock detection is important for analyzing configuration changes that could inadvertently degrade network operations, or to determine modifications that could be made by attackers to deliberately induce deadlock. Discrete event simulation of a network may be conducted using random generation, of inputs. In this study, we compare random with combinatorial generation of inputs. Combinatorial (or t-way) testing requires every combination of any t parameter values to be covered by at least one test. Combinatorial methods can be highly effective because empirical data suggest that nearly all failures involve the interaction of a small number of parameters (1 to 6). Thus, for example, if all deadlocks involve at most 5-way interactions between n parameters, then exhaustive testing of all n-way interactions adds no additional information that would not be obtained by testing all 5-way interactions. While the maximum degree of interaction between parameters involved in the deadlocks clearly cannot be known in advance, covering all t-way interactions may be more efficient than using random generation of inputs. In this study we tested this hypothesis for t = 2, 3, and 4 for deadlock detection in a network simulation. Achieving the same degree of coverage provided by 4-way tests would have required approximately 3.2 times as many random tests; thus combinatorial methods were more efficient for detecting deadlocks involving a higher degree of interactions. The paper reviews explanations for these results and implications for modeling and simulation.

  11. Using Discrete Event Computer Simulation to Improve Patient Flow in a Ghanaian Acute Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Best, Allyson M.; Dixon, Cinnamon A.; Kelton, W. David; Lindsell, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Crowding and limited resources have increased the strain on acute care facilities and emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. These problems are particularly prevalent in developing countries. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a computer-based tool that can be used to estimate how changes to complex healthcare delivery systems, such as EDs, will affect operational performance. Using this modality, our objective was to identify operational interventions that could potentially improve patient throughput of one acute care setting in a developing country. Methods We developed a simulation model of acute care at a district level hospital in Ghana to test the effects of resource-neutral (e.g. modified staff start times and roles) and resource-additional (e.g. increased staff) operational interventions on patient throughput. Previously captured, de-identified time-and-motion data from 487 acute care patients were used to develop and test the model. The primary outcome was the modeled effect of interventions on patient length of stay (LOS). Results The base-case (no change) scenario had a mean LOS of 292 minutes (95% CI 291, 293). In isolation, neither adding staffing, changing staff roles, nor varying shift times affected overall patient LOS. Specifically, adding two registration workers, history takers, and physicians resulted in a 23.8 (95% CI 22.3, 25.3) minute LOS decrease. However, when shift start-times were coordinated with patient arrival patterns, potential mean LOS was decreased by 96 minutes (95% CI 94, 98); and with the simultaneous combination of staff roles (Registration and History-taking) there was an overall mean LOS reduction of 152 minutes (95% CI 150, 154). Conclusions Resource-neutral interventions identified through DES modeling have the potential to improve acute care throughput in this Ghanaian municipal hospital. DES offers another approach to identifying potentially effective interventions to improve patient flow in emergency and acute

  12. Improving outpatient phlebotomy service efficiency and patient experience using discrete-event simulation.

    PubMed

    Yip, Kenneth; Pang, Suk-King; Chan, Kui-Tim; Chan, Chi-Kuen; Lee, Tsz-Leung

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a simulation modeling application to reconfigure the outpatient phlebotomy service of an acute regional and teaching hospital in Hong Kong, with an aim to improve service efficiency, shorten patient queuing time and enhance workforce utilization. Design/methodology/approach - The system was modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process and a discrete-event simulation model was developed to simulate the current setting, and to evaluate how various performance metrics would change if switched from a decentralized to a centralized model. Variations were then made to the model to test different workforce arrangements for the centralized service, so that managers could decide on the service's final configuration via an evidence-based and data-driven approach. Findings - This paper provides empirical insights about the relationship between staffing arrangement and system performance via a detailed scenario analysis. One particular staffing scenario was chosen by manages as it was considered to strike the best balance between performance and workforce scheduled. The resulting centralized phlebotomy service was successfully commissioned. Practical implications - This paper demonstrates how analytics could be used for operational planning at the hospital level. The authors show that a transparent and evidence-based scenario analysis, made available through analytics and simulation, greatly facilitates management and clinical stakeholders to arrive at the ideal service configuration. Originality/value - The authors provide a robust method in evaluating the relationship between workforce investment, queuing reduction and workforce utilization, which is crucial for managers when deciding the delivery model for any outpatient-related service.

  13. TADSim: Discrete Event-based Performance Prediction for Temperature Accelerated Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mniszewski, Susan M.; Junghans, Christoph; Voter, Arthur F.; Perez, Danny; Eidenbenz, Stephan J.

    2015-04-16

    Next-generation high-performance computing will require more scalable and flexible performance prediction tools to evaluate software--hardware co-design choices relevant to scientific applications and hardware architectures. Here, we present a new class of tools called application simulators—parameterized fast-running proxies of large-scale scientific applications using parallel discrete event simulation. Parameterized choices for the algorithmic method and hardware options provide a rich space for design exploration and allow us to quickly find well-performing software--hardware combinations. We demonstrate our approach with a TADSim simulator that models the temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) method, an algorithmically complex and parameter-rich member of the accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) family of molecular dynamics methods. The essence of the TAD application is captured without the computational expense and resource usage of the full code. We accomplish this by identifying the time-intensive elements, quantifying algorithm steps in terms of those elements, abstracting them out, and replacing them by the passage of time. We use TADSim to quickly characterize the runtime performance and algorithmic behavior for the otherwise long-running simulation code. We extend TADSim to model algorithm extensions, such as speculative spawning of the compute-bound stages, and predict performance improvements without having to implement such a method. Validation against the actual TAD code shows close agreement for the evolution of an example physical system, a silver surface. Finally, focused parameter scans have allowed us to study algorithm parameter choices over far more scenarios than would be possible with the actual simulation. This has led to interesting performance-related insights and suggested extensions.

  14. TADSim: Discrete Event-based Performance Prediction for Temperature Accelerated Dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Mniszewski, Susan M.; Junghans, Christoph; Voter, Arthur F.; Perez, Danny; Eidenbenz, Stephan J.

    2015-04-16

    Next-generation high-performance computing will require more scalable and flexible performance prediction tools to evaluate software--hardware co-design choices relevant to scientific applications and hardware architectures. Here, we present a new class of tools called application simulators—parameterized fast-running proxies of large-scale scientific applications using parallel discrete event simulation. Parameterized choices for the algorithmic method and hardware options provide a rich space for design exploration and allow us to quickly find well-performing software--hardware combinations. We demonstrate our approach with a TADSim simulator that models the temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) method, an algorithmically complex and parameter-rich member of the accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) family ofmore » molecular dynamics methods. The essence of the TAD application is captured without the computational expense and resource usage of the full code. We accomplish this by identifying the time-intensive elements, quantifying algorithm steps in terms of those elements, abstracting them out, and replacing them by the passage of time. We use TADSim to quickly characterize the runtime performance and algorithmic behavior for the otherwise long-running simulation code. We extend TADSim to model algorithm extensions, such as speculative spawning of the compute-bound stages, and predict performance improvements without having to implement such a method. Validation against the actual TAD code shows close agreement for the evolution of an example physical system, a silver surface. Finally, focused parameter scans have allowed us to study algorithm parameter choices over far more scenarios than would be possible with the actual simulation. This has led to interesting performance-related insights and suggested extensions.« less

  15. Discrete-event simulation of a wide-area health care network.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, J G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Predict the behavior and estimate the telecommunication cost of a wide-area message store-and-forward network for health care providers that uses the telephone system. DESIGN: A tool with which to perform large-scale discrete-event simulations was developed. Network models for star and mesh topologies were constructed to analyze the differences in performances and telecommunication costs. The distribution of nodes in the network models approximates the distribution of physicians, hospitals, medical labs, and insurers in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Modeling parameters were based on measurements taken from a prototype telephone network and a survey conducted at two medical clinics. Simulation studies were conducted for both topologies. RESULTS: For either topology, the telecommunication cost of a network in Saskatchewan is projected to be less than $100 (Canadian) per month per node. The estimated telecommunication cost of the star topology is approximately half that of the mesh. Simulations predict that a mean end-to-end message delivery time of two hours or less is achievable at this cost. A doubling of the data volume results in an increase of less than 50% in the mean end-to-end message transfer time. CONCLUSION: The simulation models provided an estimate of network performance and telecommunication cost in a specific Canadian province. At the expected operating point, network performance appeared to be relatively insensitive to increases in data volume. Similar results might be anticipated in other rural states and provinces in North America where a telephone-based network is desired. PMID:7583646

  16. Electromagnetic enhancement of ordered silver nanorod arrays evaluated by discrete dipole approximation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guoke; Wang, Jinliang

    2015-01-01

    Summary The enhancement factor (EF) of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays were investigated in terms of electromagnetic (EM) mechanism by using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The dependence of EF on several parameters, i.e., structure, length, excitation wavelength, incident angle and polarization, and gap size has been investigated. “Hotspots” were found distributed in the gaps between adjacent nanorods. Simulations of AgNR arrays of different lengths revealed that increasing the rod length from 374 to 937 nm (aspect ratio from 2.0 to 5.0) generated more “hotspots” but not necessarily increased EF under both 514 and 532 nm excitation. A narrow lateral gap (in the incident plane) was found to result in strong EF, while the dependence of EF on the diagonal gap (out of the incident plane) showed an oscillating behavior. The EF of the array was highly dependent on the angle and polarization of the incident light. The structure of AgNR and the excitation wavelength were also found to affect the EF. The EF of random arrays was stronger than that of an ordered one with the same average gap of 21 nm, which could be explained by the exponential dependence of EF on the lateral gap size. Our results also suggested that absorption rather than extinction or scattering could be a good indicator of EM enhancement. It is expected that the understanding of the dependence of local field enhancement on the structure of the nanoarrays and incident excitations will shine light on the optimal design of efficient SERS substrates and improved performance. PMID:25821708

  17. A survival tree method for the analysis of discrete event times in clinical and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Hoerauf, Achim; Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-02-28

    Survival trees are a popular alternative to parametric survival modeling when there are interactions between the predictor variables or when the aim is to stratify patients into prognostic subgroups. A limitation of classical survival tree methodology is that most algorithms for tree construction are designed for continuous outcome variables. Hence, classical methods might not be appropriate if failure time data are measured on a discrete time scale (as is often the case in longitudinal studies where data are collected, e.g., quarterly or yearly). To address this issue, we develop a method for discrete survival tree construction. The proposed technique is based on the result that the likelihood of a discrete survival model is equivalent to the likelihood of a regression model for binary outcome data. Hence, we modify tree construction methods for binary outcomes such that they result in optimized partitions for the estimation of discrete hazard functions. By applying the proposed method to data from a randomized trial in patients with filarial lymphedema, we demonstrate how discrete survival trees can be used to identify clinically relevant patient groups with similar survival behavior.

  18. A survival tree method for the analysis of discrete event times in clinical and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Hoerauf, Achim; Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-02-28

    Survival trees are a popular alternative to parametric survival modeling when there are interactions between the predictor variables or when the aim is to stratify patients into prognostic subgroups. A limitation of classical survival tree methodology is that most algorithms for tree construction are designed for continuous outcome variables. Hence, classical methods might not be appropriate if failure time data are measured on a discrete time scale (as is often the case in longitudinal studies where data are collected, e.g., quarterly or yearly). To address this issue, we develop a method for discrete survival tree construction. The proposed technique is based on the result that the likelihood of a discrete survival model is equivalent to the likelihood of a regression model for binary outcome data. Hence, we modify tree construction methods for binary outcomes such that they result in optimized partitions for the estimation of discrete hazard functions. By applying the proposed method to data from a randomized trial in patients with filarial lymphedema, we demonstrate how discrete survival trees can be used to identify clinically relevant patient groups with similar survival behavior. PMID:26358826

  19. High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bran R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present high-order semi-discrete central-upwind numerical schemes for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. This scheme is based on the use of fifth-order central interpolants like those developed in [1], in fluxes presented in [3]. These interpolants use the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) approach to avoid spurious oscillations near singularities, and become "central-upwind" in the semi-discrete limit. This scheme provides numerical approximations whose error is as much as an order of magnitude smaller than those in previous WENO-based fifth-order methods [2, 1]. Thee results are discussed via examples in one, two and three dimensions. We also pregnant explicit N-dimensional formulas for the fluxes, discuss their monotonicity and tl!e connection between this method and that in [2].

  20. Discrete Event Execution with One-Sided and Two-Sided GVT Algorithms on 216,000 Processor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Global virtual time (GVT) computation is a key determinant of the efficiency and runtime dynamics of parallel discrete event simulations (PDES), especially on large-scale parallel platforms. Here, three execution modes of a generalized GVT computation algorithm are studied on high-performance parallel computing systems: (1) a synchronous GVT algorithm that affords ease of implementation, (2) an asynchronous GVT algorithm that is more complex to implement but can relieve blocking latencies, and (3) a variant of the asynchronous GVT algorithm to exploit one-sided communication in extant supercomputing platforms. Performance results are presented of implementations of these algorithms on up to 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 system, exercised on a range of parameters: optimistic and conservative synchronization, fine- to medium-grained event computation, synthetic and non-synthetic applications, and different lookahead values. Performance of up to 54 billion events executed per second is registered. Detailed PDES-specific runtime metrics are presented to further the understanding of tightly-coupled discrete event dynamics on massively parallel platforms.

  1. High-Order Semi-Discrete Central-Upwind Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present the first fifth order, semi-discrete central upwind method for approximating solutions of multi-dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Unlike most of the commonly used high order upwind schemes, our scheme is formulated as a Godunov-type scheme. The scheme is based on the fluxes of Kurganov-Tadmor and Kurganov-Tadmor-Petrova, and is derived for an arbitrary number of space dimensions. A theorem establishing the monotonicity of these fluxes is provided. The spacial discretization is based on a weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction of the derivative. The accuracy and stability properties of our scheme are demonstrated in a variety of examples. A comparison between our method and other fifth-order schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations shows that our method exhibits smaller errors without any increase in the complexity of the computations.

  2. Children's Reasoning about the Temporal Order of Past and Future Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Teresa; Hanley, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Four- and five-year-olds completed two sets of tasks that involved reasoning about the temporal order in which events had occurred in the past or were to occur in the future. Four-year-olds succeeded on the tasks that involved reasoning about the order of past events but not those that involved reasoning about the order of future events, whereas…

  3. Symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta method based on the eighth-order nearly analytic discrete operator and its wavefield simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao-Yuan; Ma, Xiao; Yang, Lei; Song, Guo-Jie

    2014-03-01

    We propose a symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (SPRK) method with eighth-order spatial accuracy based on the extended Hamiltonian system of the acoustic wave equation. Known as the eighth-order NSPRK method, this technique uses an eighth-order accurate nearly analytic discrete (NAD) operator to discretize high-order spatial differential operators and employs a second-order SPRK method to discretize temporal derivatives. The stability criteria and numerical dispersion relations of the eighth-order NSPRK method are given by a semi-analytical method and are tested by numerical experiments. We also show the differences of the numerical dispersions between the eighth-order NSPRK method and conventional numerical methods such as the fourth-order NSPRK method, the eighth-order Lax-Wendroff correction (LWC) method and the eighth-order staggered-grid (SG) method. The result shows that the ability of the eighth-order NSPRK method to suppress the numerical dispersion is obviously superior to that of the conventional numerical methods. In the same computational environment, to eliminate visible numerical dispersions, the eighth-order NSPRK is approximately 2.5 times faster than the fourth-order NSPRK and 3.4 times faster than the fourth-order SPRK, and the memory requirement is only approximately 47.17% of the fourth-order NSPRK method and 49.41 % of the fourth-order SPRK method, which indicates the highest computational efficiency. Modeling examples for the two-layer models such as the heterogeneous and Marmousi models show that the wavefields generated by the eighth-order NSPRK method are very clear with no visible numerical dispersion. These numerical experiments illustrate that the eighth-order NSPRK method can effectively suppress numerical dispersion when coarse grids are adopted. Therefore, this method can greatly decrease computer memory requirement and accelerate the forward modeling productivity. In general, the eighth-order NSPRK method has tremendous potential

  4. Fully discrete energy stable high order finite difference methods for hyperbolic problems in deforming domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkar, Samira; Nordström, Jan

    2015-06-01

    A time-dependent coordinate transformation of a constant coefficient hyperbolic system of equations which results in a variable coefficient system of equations is considered. By applying the energy method, well-posed boundary conditions for the continuous problem are derived. Summation-by-Parts (SBP) operators for the space and time discretization, together with a weak imposition of boundary and initial conditions using Simultaneously Approximation Terms (SATs) lead to a provable fully-discrete energy-stable conservative finite difference scheme. We show how to construct a time-dependent SAT formulation that automatically imposes boundary conditions, when and where they are required. We also prove that a uniform flow field is preserved, i.e. the Numerical Geometric Conservation Law (NGCL) holds automatically by using SBP-SAT in time and space. The developed technique is illustrated by considering an application using the linearized Euler equations: the sound generated by moving boundaries. Numerical calculations corroborate the stability and accuracy of the new fully discrete approximations.

  5. Comparison of Diachronic Thinking and Event Ordering in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brandy D.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rabin, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Two main theoretical constructs seek to describe the elaborated sense of time that may be a uniquely human attribute: diachronic thinking (the ability to think about the past and use that information to predict future events) and event ordering (the ability to sequence events in temporal order). Researchers utilize various tasks to measure the…

  6. Using Discrete Event Simulation for Programming Model Exploration at Extreme-Scale: Macroscale Components for the Structural Simulation Toolkit (SST).

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Jeremiah J; Kenny, Joseph P.

    2015-02-01

    Discrete event simulation provides a powerful mechanism for designing and testing new extreme- scale programming models for high-performance computing. Rather than debug, run, and wait for results on an actual system, design can first iterate through a simulator. This is particularly useful when test beds cannot be used, i.e. to explore hardware or scales that do not yet exist or are inaccessible. Here we detail the macroscale components of the structural simulation toolkit (SST). Instead of depending on trace replay or state machines, the simulator is architected to execute real code on real software stacks. Our particular user-space threading framework allows massive scales to be simulated even on small clusters. The link between the discrete event core and the threading framework allows interesting performance metrics like call graphs to be collected from a simulated run. Performance analysis via simulation can thus become an important phase in extreme-scale programming model and runtime system design via the SST macroscale components.

  7. Bringing Order to Life Events: Memory for the Temporal Order of Autobiographical Events over an Extended Period in School-Aged Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Doydum, Ayzit; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Remembering temporal information associated with personal past events is critical. Yet little is known about the development of temporal order memory for naturally occurring events. In the current research, 8- to 10-year-old children and adults took photographs daily for 4 weeks. Later, they participated in a primacy/recency task (were shown 2 of…

  8. Nematic ordering of rigid rod polyelectrolytes induced by electrostatic interactions: Effect of discrete charge distribution along the chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dian; Venev, Sergey V.; Palyulin, Vladimir V.; Potemkin, Igor I.

    2011-02-01

    Similar to the Debye-Hückel plasma, charged groups in solutions of rigid rod polyelectrolytes attract each other. We derive expression for the correlation free energy of electrostatic attraction of the rods within the random phase approximation. In this theory, we explicitly take into account positions of charged groups on the chains and examine both charge and polymer concentration fluctuations. The correlation free energies and the osmotic pressures are calculated for isotropic and completely ordered nematic phase. The results of the discrete model are compared with results of a continuous model. The discrete model gives rise to a stronger attraction between the charged groups both in the isotropic and nematic phases and to a stronger orienting action of the electrostatic forces.

  9. Discrete gene replication events drive coupling between the cell cycle and circadian clocks

    PubMed Central

    Paijmans, Joris; Bosman, Mark; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Lubensky, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms possess both a cell cycle to control DNA replication and a circadian clock to anticipate changes between day and night. In some cases, these two rhythmic systems are known to be coupled by specific, cross-regulatory interactions. Here, we use mathematical modeling to show that, additionally, the cell cycle generically influences circadian clocks in a nonspecific fashion: The regular, discrete jumps in gene-copy number arising from DNA replication during the cell cycle cause a periodic driving of the circadian clock, which can dramatically alter its behavior and impair its function. A clock built on negative transcriptional feedback either phase-locks to the cell cycle, so that the clock period tracks the cell division time, or exhibits erratic behavior. We argue that the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus has evolved two features that protect its clock from such disturbances, both of which are needed to fully insulate it from the cell cycle and give it its observed robustness: a phosphorylation-based protein modification oscillator, together with its accompanying push–pull read-out circuit that responds primarily to the ratios of different phosphoform concentrations, makes the clock less susceptible to perturbations in protein synthesis; the presence of multiple, asynchronously replicating copies of the same chromosome diminishes the effect of replicating any single copy of a gene. PMID:27035936

  10. Event-driven Monte Carlo: Exact dynamics at all time scales for discrete-variable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Coto, Alejandro; Díaz-Méndez, Rogelio; Pupillo, Guido

    2016-06-01

    We present an algorithm for the simulation of the exact real-time dynamics of classical many-body systems with discrete energy levels. In the same spirit of kinetic Monte Carlo methods, a stochastic solution of the master equation is found, with no need to define any other phase-space construction. However, unlike existing methods, the present algorithm does not assume any particular statistical distribution to perform moves or to advance the time, and thus is a unique tool for the numerical exploration of fast and ultra-fast dynamical regimes. By decomposing the problem in a set of two-level subsystems, we find a natural variable step size, that is well defined from the normalization condition of the transition probabilities between the levels. We successfully test the algorithm with known exact solutions for non-equilibrium dynamics and equilibrium thermodynamical properties of Ising-spin models in one and two dimensions, and compare to standard implementations of kinetic Monte Carlo methods. The present algorithm is directly applicable to the study of the real-time dynamics of a large class of classical Markovian chains, and particularly to short-time situations where the exact evolution is relevant.

  11. Ladder and cross terms in second-order distorted Born approximation. [for bounded layer of random discrete scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Y. Q.; Kong, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    In the strong fluctuation theory for a bounded layer of random discrete scatterers, the second moments of the fields in the second-order distorted Born approximation are obtained for copolarized and cross-polarized fields. The backscattering cross sections per unit area are calculated by including the mutual coherence of the fields due to the coincidental ray paths, and that due to the opposite ray paths, corresponding to the ladder and cross terms in the Feynman diagramatic representation. It is proved that the contributions from ladder and cross terms for the copolarized backscattering cross sections are the same, while the contributions for the cross-polarized backscattering cross sections are of the same order. The bistatic scattering coefficients in the second-order approximation for both the ladder and cross terms are also obtained. The contributions from the cross terms explain the enhancement in the backscattering direction.

  12. NasoNet, modeling the spread of nasopharyngeal cancer with networks of probabilistic events in discrete time.

    PubMed

    Galán, S F; Aguado, F; Díez, F J; Mira, J

    2002-07-01

    The spread of cancer is a non-deterministic dynamic process. As a consequence, the design of an assistant system for the diagnosis and prognosis of the extent of a cancer should be based on a representation method that deals with both uncertainty and time. The ultimate goal is to know the stage of development of a cancer in a patient before selecting the appropriate treatment. A network of probabilistic events in discrete time (NPEDT) is a type of Bayesian network for temporal reasoning that models the causal mechanisms associated with the time evolution of a process. This paper describes NasoNet, a system that applies NPEDTs to the diagnosis and prognosis of nasopharyngeal cancer. We have made use of temporal noisy gates to model the dynamic causal interactions that take place in the domain. The methodology we describe is general enough to be applied to any other type of cancer.

  13. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Model Integrated Commodities Consumption for a Launch Campaign of the Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Daniel; Parsons, Jeremy W.; Cates, Grant

    2014-01-01

    In May 2013, NASA's GSDO Program requested a study to develop a discrete event simulation (DES) model that analyzes the launch campaign process of the Space Launch System (SLS) from an integrated commodities perspective. The scope of the study includes launch countdown and scrub turnaround and focuses on four core launch commodities: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and helium. Previously, the commodities were only analyzed individually and deterministically for their launch support capability, but this study was the first to integrate them to examine the impact of their interactions on a launch campaign as well as the effects of process variability on commodity availability. The study produced a validated DES model with Rockwell Arena that showed that Kennedy Space Center's ground systems were capable of supporting a 48-hour scrub turnaround for the SLS. The model will be maintained and updated to provide commodity consumption analysis of future ground system and SLS configurations.

  14. Second order distorted born approximation for backscattering from a layer of discrete random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Roger H.; Saatchi, Sasan S.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in scattering and depolarization characteristics of the vegetation canopies. Scattering models applied to the microwave remote sensing of vegetation canopies showed that multiple scattering effects can be important in simulating the backscattering coefficients correctly. In particular, in most applications, the cross-polarized backscattering coefficients are often underestimated by single scattering models. Recently, there have been concerted efforts to include the second order terms in the radiative transfer models of vegetation canopies in order to account for multiple scattering within the canopy. The coherent wave theory approach is extended to include multiple scattering effects to predict the coherent and incoherent backscattering contributions from a layer of vegetation canopy. The problem is initially formulated in terms of the exact equation for the correlation function of the field, i.e., the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Using fractional volume as a small parameter, a Foldy type approximation is made to obtain a more manageable correlation equation. This equation is iterated to obtain first and second order solutions. The iteration procedure assumes the variance of the field fluctuations are small compared to the coherent intensity. This assumption proved to be particularly successful in computing backscattering coefficients. First and second order backscattering coefficients are calculated from the iterants of the correlation equation. It is shown that the first order coefficients are the same as the distorted Born results used previously by the authors. These results contained enhancement terms in the direct-reflected contributions. The important contributions to second order backscattering are examined and interpreted in terms of scattering diagrams. Examples of situations in which second order backscattering coefficients are important are given.

  15. Unraveling Ages of Discrete Cryptic Events During Polyphase Orogenesis in SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Reno, B. L.; Piccoli, P. M.; Trouw, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic assembly of cratons in eastern Brazil is recorded by the successive Brasília, Ribeira and Buzios subduction-to-collision orogenic events in the intervals ca. 660-605 Ma (Reno et al., Frontiers in Mineral Sciences, abstract, 2007), ca. 580-550 Ma (Heilbron & Machado, Precambrian Res., 2003) and ca. 525- 505 Ma (Schmitt et al., Precambrian Res., 2004), respectively. The southern Brasília Belt displays characteristics of a passive margin in the east and an accretionary orogen in the west prior to terminal collision and final emplacement of the ENE-verging nappes. In the southern Brasília Belt, peak temperatures of 800-950 C are recorded, whereas in the Ribeira and Buzios Belts peak temperatures register around 780 C. Cryptic thermal overprinting by the younger events on the older orogenic belts is demonstrated by monazite age data from these Brasiliano-age belts in southeast Brazil. In the southern-most portion of the southern Brasília Belt, a SSE-plunging mineral elongation lineation and the occurrence of sillimanite represent macroscopic structural and petrologic evidence, respectively, of tectonic overprinting imposed during the Ribeira Orogeny. Comprehensive dating of monazite using the electron probe microanalysis method from throughout the southern-most Brasília Belt indicates widespread Ribeira-age (580-530 Ma) monazite growth, even tens of km north of the sillimanite-out isograd. The Buzios Belt lies outboard of the Ribera Belt; monazite from Ribera Belt migmatitic metapelites records Buzios-age growth. Monazite dates from the Ribeira belt determined using the electron probe microanalysis method were culled by chemical zone within individual grains. Exploratory data analysis (see Reno et al., Fall AGU, 2007) reveals distinct Ribeira-age (553-533 Ma) cores and Buzios-age (530-505 Ma) rims in monazite from rocks with no petrologic evidence of overprinting. Monazite grains likely grew during the Ribeira Orogeny, and were either partially

  16. A robust computational technique for model order reduction of two-time-scale discrete systems via genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Alsmadi, Othman M K; Abo-Hammour, Zaer S

    2015-01-01

    A robust computational technique for model order reduction (MOR) of multi-time-scale discrete systems (single input single output (SISO) and multi-input multioutput (MIMO)) is presented in this paper. This work is motivated by the singular perturbation of multi-time-scale systems where some specific dynamics may not have significant influence on the overall system behavior. The new approach is proposed using genetic algorithms (GA) with the advantage of obtaining a reduced order model, maintaining the exact dominant dynamics in the reduced order, and minimizing the steady state error. The reduction process is performed by obtaining an upper triangular transformed matrix of the system state matrix defined in state space representation along with the elements of B, C, and D matrices. The GA computational procedure is based on maximizing the fitness function corresponding to the response deviation between the full and reduced order models. The proposed computational intelligence MOR method is compared to recently published work on MOR techniques where simulation results show the potential and advantages of the new approach.

  17. Quasi-discrete particle motion in an externally imposed, ordered structure in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer; Merlino, Robert L.; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2015-11-01

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., "hopping") motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.

  18. Quasi-discrete particle motion in an externally imposed, ordered structure in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Edward Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer; Merlino, Robert L.; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2015-11-15

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., “hopping”) motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.

  19. Using the Integration of Discrete Event and Agent-Based Simulation to Enhance Outpatient Service Quality in an Orthopedic Department.

    PubMed

    Kittipittayakorn, Cholada; Ying, Kuo-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Many hospitals are currently paying more attention to patient satisfaction since it is an important service quality index. Many Asian countries' healthcare systems have a mixed-type registration, accepting both walk-in patients and scheduled patients. This complex registration system causes a long patient waiting time in outpatient clinics. Different approaches have been proposed to reduce the waiting time. This study uses the integration of discrete event simulation (DES) and agent-based simulation (ABS) to improve patient waiting time and is the first attempt to apply this approach to solve this key problem faced by orthopedic departments. From the data collected, patient behaviors are modeled and incorporated into a massive agent-based simulation. The proposed approach is an aid for analyzing and modifying orthopedic department processes, allows us to consider far more details, and provides more reliable results. After applying the proposed approach, the total waiting time of the orthopedic department fell from 1246.39 minutes to 847.21 minutes. Thus, using the correct simulation model significantly reduces patient waiting time in an orthopedic department. PMID:27195606

  20. Total Order Reliability in PSA: Importance of Basic Events and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    E. Borgonovo; C. Smith

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold. First, to formalize the properties of the total order reliability importance measure for PSA models. Second, to extend the definition of the total order importance measure to groups of basic events. This allows one to obtain the importance of systems and to address the relevance of interactions among systems.

  1. Breakdown of the continuum limit approximation to the discrete scattering events and its influence on the electric field autocorrelation functions of transmitted light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šormaz, Miloš; Reufer, Mathias; Völker, Andreas C.; Simon, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    The complexity of modeling light propagation in turbid media can be significantly simplified if one assumes it to be diffusive. This is, however, only valid after the light has traveled a sufficient distance so that the diffusion equation can be employed. So far, there has been no reliable way to determine this distance, despite the fact that the assumption is often applied in optics. The discrete nature of scattering events plays an important role in modeling propagation of weakly scattered light, so a continuum equation such as the diffusion equation cannot be used to describe this process. Electric field autocorrelation functions g1(τ ) of light transmitted through turbid colloidal samples are measured using diffusing wave spectroscopy and compared to Monte Carlo simulations in order to obtain a better estimation of the continuum limit. The two methods to calculate g1(τ ) from the simulated photon trajectories are compared; the first assumes the continuum limit by using the path-length distributions of photon trajectories, while the second considers the square momentum transfers and therefore accurately calculates g1(τ ) even if the detected signal is composed of weakly scattered light. The results of the two methods are used to determine the lengths of the shortest diffuse photon trajectories; they grow with the sample thickness and scattering anisotropy.

  2. An Infinite Order Discrete Variable Representation of an Effective Mass Hamiltonian: Application to Exciton Wave Functions in Quantum Confined Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kaledin, Alexey L; Lian, Tianquan; Hill, Craig L; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2014-08-12

    We describe an extension of the conventional Fourier grid discrete variable representation (DVR) to the bound state problem of a particle with a position-dependent mass. An infinite order DVR, derived for a variable mass kinetic energy operator, coupled with an efficient grid contraction scheme yields essentially exact eigenvalues for a chosen grid spacing. Implementation of the method is shown to be very practical due to the fact that in a DVR no integral evaluation is necessary and that the resultant kinetic energy matrix is sparse. Numerical calculations are presented for exciton states of spherical, cylindrical, and toric Type I (CdSe/ZnS) core-shell quantum dots. In these examples, electron-hole interaction is treated explicitly by solving a self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson equation on a contracted DVR grid. Prospective applications of the developed approach to calculating electron transfer rates between adsorbed molecular acceptors and quantum confined nanocrystals of generic shape, dimensionality, and composition are also discussed.

  3. Modeling Pluto-Charon mutual eclipse events. I - First-order models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, R. Scott; Tedesco, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    The present 'first order' analytical and numerical models of light curves due to mutual events between close planetary binaries, the effects of shadowing are included. Attention is given to the case of the Pluto-Charon system. The results of the analytical and numerical approaches agree to well within the expected light curve measurement error. The model predicts that the current mutual eclipse event series will end by November 1990.

  4. Modeling Pluto-Charon mutual eclipse events. I. First-order models

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, R.S.; Tedesco, E.F.

    1986-11-01

    The present first order analytical and numerical models of light curves due to mutual events between close planetary binaries, the effects of shadowing are included. Attention is given to the case of the Pluto-Charon system. The results of the analytical and numerical approaches agree to well within the expected light curve measurement error. The model predicts that the current mutual eclipse event series will end by November 1990. 12 references.

  5. Adaptive Neural Network-Based Event-Triggered Control of Single-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network (NN) control of single-input and single-output uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems under event sampled NN inputs. In this control scheme, the feedback signals are transmitted, and the NN weights are tuned in an aperiodic manner at the event sampled instants. After reviewing the NN approximation property with event sampled inputs, an adaptive state estimator (SE), consisting of linearly parameterized NNs, is utilized to approximate the unknown system dynamics in an event sampled context. The SE is viewed as a model and its approximated dynamics and the state vector, during any two events, are utilized for the event-triggered controller design. An adaptive event-trigger condition is derived by using both the estimated NN weights and a dead-zone operator to determine the event sampling instants. This condition both facilitates the NN approximation and reduces the transmission of feedback signals. The ultimate boundedness of both the NN weight estimation error and the system state vector is demonstrated through the Lyapunov approach. As expected, during an initial online learning phase, events are observed more frequently. Over time with the convergence of the NN weights, the inter-event times increase, thereby lowering the number of triggered events. These claims are illustrated through the simulation results.

  6. A discrete time event-history approach to informative drop-out in mixed latent Markov models with covariates.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    Mixed latent Markov (MLM) models represent an important tool of analysis of longitudinal data when response variables are affected by time-fixed and time-varying unobserved heterogeneity, in which the latter is accounted for by a hidden Markov chain. In order to avoid bias when using a model of this type in the presence of informative drop-out, we propose an event-history (EH) extension of the latent Markov approach that may be used with multivariate longitudinal data, in which one or more outcomes of a different nature are observed at each time occasion. The EH component of the resulting model is referred to the interval-censored drop-out, and bias in MLM modeling is avoided by correlated random effects, included in the different model components, which follow common latent distributions. In order to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model by the expectation-maximization algorithm, we extend the usual forward-backward recursions of Baum and Welch. The algorithm has the same complexity as the one adopted in cases of non-informative drop-out. We illustrate the proposed approach through simulations and an application based on data coming from a medical study about primary biliary cirrhosis in which there are two outcomes of interest, one continuous and the other binary. PMID:25227970

  7. Higher-order differential variational principle and differential equations of motion for mechanical systems in event space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Wu; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Xiao-Xia; Luo, Wen-Feng

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the higher-order differential variational principle and differential equations of motion for mechanical systems in event space. Based on the higher-order d'Alembert principle of the system, the higher-order velocity energy and the higher-order acceleration energy of the system in event space are defined, the higher-order d'Alembert—Lagrange principle of the system in event space is established, and the parametric forms of Euler—Lagrange, Nielsen and Appell for this principle are given. Finally, the higher-order differential equations of motion for holonomic systems in event space are obtained.

  8. Acquisition and use of mental operators: the influence of natural order of events.

    PubMed

    Müller, Burkhard; Gehrke, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    The present article reports two experiments investigating the influence of natural order of events on the acquisition and use of knowledge about operations, in short mental operators. The principle of use specificity states that task performance depends directly on the similarity between acquisition context and the present situation. In contrast, the principle of natural order proposes that knowledge about operations can always be applied easier (faster) if reasoning follows the natural order of events. In Experiment 1, participants had to apply alphabet-arithmetic operators and LISP functions in a prognosis task (A + 2 = ?) or a retrognosis task (? - 2 = A). In alphabet-arithmetic, an advantage for the first kind of task at the beginning of training decreased with increasing practice. In LISP, however, a preference for this task (corresponding with a prospective knowledge use) emerged with increasing practice. In Experiment 2, arithmetic relations between digit pairs had to be induced. In a causal context condition, relations were described as input and output of electric circuits, in a neutral context the relations were described as arithmetic dependencies. A preference for the prognosis task was found for the causal context condition (corresponding with a prospective knowledge use) but not for the neutral one. The findings suggest that the natural order of events moderates the acquisition and use of mental operators. Further research is required to clarify the bases for this moderation. PMID:14959504

  9. Bounding the Resource Availability of Partially Ordered Events with Constant Resource Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    We compare existing techniques to bound the resource availability of partially ordered events. We first show that, contrary to intuition, two existing techniques, one due to Laborie and one due to Muscettola, are not strictly comparable in terms of the size of the search trees generated under chronological search with a fixed heuristic. We describe a generalization of these techniques called the Flow Balance Constraint to tightly bound the amount of available resource for a set of partially ordered events with piecewise constant resource impact We prove that the new technique generates smaller proof trees under chronological search with a fixed heuristic, at little increase in computational expense. We then show how to construct tighter resource bounds but at increased computational cost.

  10. Gradual changes in hippocampal activity support remembering the order of events.

    PubMed

    Manns, Joseph R; Howard, Marc W; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2007-11-01

    The hippocampus is thought to contribute to episodic memory in part by binding stimuli to their spatiotemporal context. The present study examined how hippocampal neuronal populations encode spatial and temporal context as rats performed a task in which they were required to remember the order of trial-unique sequences of odors. The results suggest that a gradual change in the pattern of hippocampal activity served as a temporal context for odor-sampling events and was important for successful subsequent memory of the order of those odors.

  11. Repeated questioning for order of events: disparate effects following logical versus random presentation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Lehman, Melissa S

    2006-04-01

    In the present study, 72 college-age participants from an introductory psychology course viewed a series of 20 pictures depicting events surrounding a routine activity, i.e., eating at a cafeteria; these pictures were presented either in a logical order. e.g., enter cafeteria, pick up tray, stand in line, and select food, or in a random order. Three successive tests of free reconstruction of order indicated disparate effects of these conditions; random presentation produced significant forgetting of order information across tests, whereas logical presentation produced no change in performance across tests. Whereas randomly presented stimuli produced both reliable intertest recovery (reminiscence) and forgetting, neither result was observed following logical presentation. The implications of these data for eyewitness testimony for general theories of hypermnesia are discussed. PMID:16796097

  12. Dielectric characterization of thermodynamic first order events in model frozen systems intended for lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Evans, S A; Morris, K R; Mackenzie, A P; Lordi, N G

    1995-01-01

    The degree and ease with which permanent dipoles in a frozen sample orient in an applied electric field is affected during thermal transitions. This motion can be monitored with dielectric analysis (DEA) at low AC frequencies (< approximately 300,000 Hz). The systems characterized with respect to their behavior in the frozen state consisted of common lyophile excipients in aqueous solutions known to exhibit typical thermodynamic first order transitions. Prior to freezing, solution samples were placed on an interdigitated electrodes and served as the dielectric component of the resulting capacitor. Plots of derivative of dielectric permittivity with respect to time (or temperature) showed the presence of frequency independent peaks (signifying a first order event) at temperatures that coincided with eutectic temperatures (ca. -22 degrees C for sodium chloride-water and ca. -5 degrees C for mannitol-water), amorphous to crystalline transition temperatures (ca. -25 degrees C for mannitol-water), and/or freezing point depression values in water. The values obtained by DEA correlated well with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and literature values. DEA appears to offer added insight over established techniques by not only determining the temperature at which these events occur, but also by defining the thermodynamic order of the event.

  13. Memory for the temporal order of events in patients with frontal lobe lesions and amnesic patients.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, A P; Janowsky, J S; Squire, L R

    1990-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe lesions, amnesic patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, other (non-Korsakoff) amnesic patients, and control subjects were given tests of memory for temporal order. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with a list of 15 words and then asked to reproduce the list order from a random array of the words. In the second experiment, they were asked to arrange in chronological order a random display of 15 factual events that occurred between 1941 and 1985. In both experiments, patients with frontal lobe lesions were impaired in placing the items in the correct temporal order, despite normal item memory (i.e. normal recall and recognition memory for the words and facts). The two groups of amnesic patients exhibited impaired memory for temporal order as well as impaired item memory. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome exhibited poorer temporal order memory than the other amnesic patients, despite similar levels of item memory. These findings demonstrate that patients with frontal lobe lesions have difficulty organizing information temporally. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, who have both diencephalic and frontal damage, have memory impairment together with a disproportionate deficit in memory for temporal order.

  14. Self-organization vs. self-ordering events in life-origin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, David L.; Trevors, Jack T.

    2006-12-01

    Self-ordering phenomena should not be confused with self-organization. Self-ordering events occur spontaneously according to natural “law” propensities and are purely physicodynamic. Crystallization and the spontaneously forming dissipative structures of Prigogine are examples of self-ordering. Self-ordering phenomena involve no decision nodes, no dynamically-inert configurable switches, no logic gates, no steering toward algorithmic success or “computational halting”. Hypercycles, genetic and evolutionary algorithms, neural nets, and cellular automata have not been shown to self-organize spontaneously into nontrivial functions. Laws and fractals are both compression algorithms containing minimal complexity and information. Organization typically contains large quantities of prescriptive information. Prescriptive information either instructs or directly produces nontrivial optimized algorithmic function at its destination. Prescription requires choice contingency rather than chance contingency or necessity. Organization requires prescription, and is abstract, conceptual, formal, and algorithmic. Organization utilizes a sign/symbol/token system to represent many configurable switch settings. Physical switch settings allow instantiation of nonphysical selections for function into physicality. Switch settings represent choices at successive decision nodes that integrate circuits and instantiate cooperative management into conceptual physical systems. Switch positions must be freely selectable to function as logic gates. Switches must be set according to rules, not laws. Inanimacy cannot “organize” itself. Inanimacy can only self-order. “Self-organization” is without empirical and prediction-fulfilling support. No falsifiable theory of self-organization exists. “Self-organization” provides no mechanism and offers no detailed verifiable explanatory power. Care should be taken not to use the term “self-organization” erroneously to refer to low

  15. A Decision Tool that Combines Discrete Event Software Process Models with System Dynamics Pieces for Software Development Cost Estimation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, Carolyn Barrett; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The development process for a large software development project is very complex and dependent on many variables that are dynamic and interrelated. Factors such as size, productivity and defect injection rates will have substantial impact on the project in terms of cost and schedule. These factors can be affected by the intricacies of the process itself as well as human behavior because the process is very labor intensive. The complex nature of the development process can be investigated with software development process models that utilize discrete event simulation to analyze the effects of process changes. The organizational environment and its effects on the workforce can be analyzed with system dynamics that utilizes continuous simulation. Each has unique strengths and the benefits of both types can be exploited by combining a system dynamics model and a discrete event process model. This paper will demonstrate how the two types of models can be combined to investigate the impacts of human resource interactions on productivity and ultimately on cost and schedule.

  16. The cognitive demands of second order manual control: Applications of the event related brain potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, C.; Gill, R.; Kramer, A.; Ross, W.; Donchin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Three experiments are described in which tracking difficulty is varied in the presence of a covert tone discrimination task. Event related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by the tones are employed as an index of the resource demands of tracking. The ERP measure reflected the control order variation, and this variable was thereby assumed to compete for perceptual/central processing resources. A fine-grained analysis of the results suggested that the primary demands of second order tracking involve the central processing operations of maintaining a more complex internal model of the dynamic system, rather than the perceptual demands of higher derivative perception. Experiment 3 varied tracking bandwidth in random input tracking, and the ERP was unaffected. Bandwidth was then inferred to compete for response-related processing resources that are independent of the ERP.

  17. Continuum behavior of lattice QED, discretized with one-sided lattice differences, in one-loop order

    SciTech Connect

    Sadooghi, N.; Rothe, H.J.

    1997-06-01

    A lattice action for QED is considered, where the derivatives in the Dirac operator are replaced by one-sided lattice differences. A systematic expansion in the lattice spacing of the one-loop contribution to the fermion self-energy, vacuum polarization tensor, and vertex function is carried out for an arbitrary choice of one-sided lattice differences. It is shown that only the vacuum polarization tensor possesses the correct continuum limit, while the fermion self-energy and vertex function receive noncovariant contributions. A lattice action, discretized with a fixed choice of one-sided lattice differences, therefore, does not define a renormalizable field theory. The noncovariant contributions can, however, be eliminated by averaging the expression over all possible choices of one-sided lattice differences. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. A Discrete Event Simulation Model for Evaluating the Performances of an M/G/C/C State Dependent Queuing System

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Ruzelan; M. Nawawi, Mohd Kamal; Kawsar, Luthful A.; Ghani, Noraida A.; Kamil, Anton A.; Mustafa, Adli

    2013-01-01

    M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed. PMID:23560037

  19. Real-time Monitoring of Discrete Synaptic Release Events and Excitatory Potentials within Self-reconstructed Neuromuscular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Oleinick, Alexander I; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Chemical synaptic transmission is central to the brain functions. In this regard, real-time monitoring of chemical synaptic transmission during neuronal communication remains a great challenge. In this work, in vivo-like oriented neural networks between superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and their effector smooth muscle cells (SMC) were assembled in a microfluidic device. This allowed amperometric detection of individual neurotransmitter release events inside functional SCG-SMC synapse with carbon fiber nanoelectrodes as well as recording of postsynaptic potential using glass nanopipette electrodes. The high vesicular release activities essentially involved complex events arising from flickering fusion pores as quantitatively established based on simulations. This work allowed for the first time monitoring in situ chemical synaptic transmission under conditions close to those found in vivo, which may yield important and new insights into the nature of neuronal communications. PMID:26079517

  20. A New Discretization Method of Order Four for the Numerical Solution of One-Space Dimensional Second-Order Quasi-Linear Hyperbolic Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, R. K.; Arora, Urvashi

    2002-01-01

    Three level-implicit finite difference methods of order four are discussed for the numerical solution of the mildly quasi-linear second-order hyperbolic equation A(x, t, u)u[subscript xx] + 2B(x, t, u)u[subscript xt] + C(x, t, u)u[subscript tt] = f(x, t, u, u[subscript x], u[subscript t]), 0 less than x less than 1, t greater than 0 subject to…

  1. The spatiotemporal order of signaling events unveils the logic of development signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Owen, Markus R.; Mao, Yanlan

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Animals from worms and insects to birds and mammals show distinct body plans; however, the embryonic development of diverse body plans with tissues and organs within is controlled by a surprisingly few signaling pathways. It is well recognized that combinatorial use of and dynamic interactions among signaling pathways follow specific logic to control complex and accurate developmental signaling and patterning, but it remains elusive what such logic is, or even, what it looks like. Results: We have developed a computational model for Drosophila eye development with innovated methods to reveal how interactions among multiple pathways control the dynamically generated hexagonal array of R8 cells. We obtained two novel findings. First, the coupling between the long-range inductive signals produced by the proneural Hh signaling and the short-range restrictive signals produced by the antineural Notch and EGFR signaling is essential for generating accurately spaced R8s. Second, the spatiotemporal orders of key signaling events reveal a robust pattern of lateral inhibition conducted by Ato-coordinated Notch and EGFR signaling to collectively determine R8 patterning. This pattern, stipulating the orders of signaling and comparable to the protocols of communication, may help decipher the well-appreciated but poorly defined logic of developmental signaling. Availability and implementation: The model is available upon request. Contact: hao.zhu@ymail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153573

  2. Memory for the order of events in specific sequences: contributions of the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Devito, Loren M; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2011-03-01

    Episodic memory involves remembering the incidental order of a series of events that comprise a specific experience. Current models of temporal organization in episodic memory have demonstrated that animals can make memory judgments about the order of serially presented events; however, in these protocols, the animals can judge items based on their relative recency. Thus, it remains unclear as to whether animals use the specific order of items in forming memories of distinct sequences. To resolve this important issue in memory representation, we presented mice repeatedly with two widely separated odor sequences and then tested their natural exploratory preference between pairs of odors selected from within or between sequences. Intact animals preferred to investigate odors that occurred earlier within each sequence, indicating they did remember the order of events within each distinct sequence. In contrast, intact animals did not discriminate between pairs of odors from different sequences. These findings indicate that preferences were not guided by relative recency, which would be expected to support graded discrimination between widely separated events. Furthermore, damage to either the hippocampus or the medial prefrontal cortex eliminated order preference within sequences. Despite the deficit in order memory, control recognition tests showed that normal mice and mice with hippocampal or medial prefrontal damage could correctly identify previously experienced odors compared with novel odors. These findings provide strong evidence that animals form representations of the order of events within specific experiences and that the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are essential to order memory.

  3. A paradigm for discrete physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.

    1987-01-01

    An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity.

  4. Real-time networked control of an industrial robot manipulator via discrete-time second-order sliding modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimiliano Capisani, Luca; Facchinetti, Tullio; Ferrara, Antonella

    2010-08-01

    This article presents the networked control of a robotic anthropomorphic manipulator based on a second-order sliding mode technique, where the control objective is to track a desired trajectory for the manipulator. The adopted control scheme allows an easy and effective distribution of the control algorithm over two networked machines. While the predictability of real-time tasks execution is achieved by the Soft Hard Real-Time Kernel (S.Ha.R.K.) real-time operating system, the communication is established via a standard Ethernet network. The performances of the control system are evaluated under different experimental system configurations using, to perform the experiments, a COMAU SMART3-S2 industrial robot, and the results are analysed to put into evidence the robustness of the proposed approach against possible network delays, packet losses and unmodelled effects.

  5. Relationship between medication event rates and the Leapfrog computerized physician order entry evaluation tool

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander A; Keohane, Carol; Lipsitz, Stuart; Zimlichman, Eyal; Amato, Mary; Simon, Steven R; Coffey, Michael; Kaufman, Nathan; Cadet, Bismarck; Schiff, Gordon; Seger, Diane L; Bates, David W

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool has been promoted as a means of monitoring computerized physician order entry (CPOE). We sought to determine the relationship between Leapfrog scores and the rates of preventable adverse drug events (ADE) and potential ADE. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 1000 adult admissions in five community hospitals from October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010 was performed. Observed rates of preventable ADE and potential ADE were compared with scores reported by the Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool. The primary outcome was the rate of preventable ADE and the secondary outcome was the composite rate of preventable ADE and potential ADE. Results Leapfrog performance scores were highly related to the primary outcome. A 43% relative reduction in the rate of preventable ADE was predicted for every 5% increase in Leapfrog scores (rate ratio 0.57; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.88). In absolute terms, four fewer preventable ADE per 100 admissions were predicted for every 5% increase in overall Leapfrog scores (rate difference −4.2; 95% CI −7.4 to −1.1). A statistically significant relationship between Leapfrog scores and the secondary outcome, however, was not detected. Discussion Our findings support the use of the Leapfrog tool as a means of evaluating and monitoring CPOE performance after implementation, as addressed by current certification standards. Conclusions Scores from the Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool closely relate to actual rates of preventable ADE. Leapfrog testing may alert providers to potential vulnerabilities and highlight areas for further improvement. PMID:23599225

  6. Track-event theory of cell survival with second-order repair.

    PubMed

    Besserer, Jürgen; Schneider, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    When fractionation schemes for hypofractionation and stereotactic body radiotherapy are considered, a reliable cell survival model at high dose is needed for calculating doses of similar biological effectiveness. In this work, a simple model for cell survival which is valid also at high dose is developed from Poisson statistics. It is assumed that a cell is killed by an event that is defined by two double-strand breaks on the same or different chromosomes. Two different mechanisms can produce events. A one-track event is always represented by two simultaneous double-strand breaks. A two-track event results in one double-strand break. Therefore, at least two two-track events on the same or different chromosomes are necessary to produce an event. It is assumed that two double-strand breaks can be repaired with a certain repair probability. Both the one-track events and the two-track events are statistically independent. From the stochastic nature of cell killing which is described by the Poisson distribution, the cell survival probability was derived. The model was fitted to experimental data. It was shown that a solution based on Poisson statistics exists for cell survival. It exhibits exponential cell survival at high dose and a finite gradient of cell survival at vanishing dose, which is in agreement with experimental cell studies. The model fits the experimental data as well as the LQ model and is based on two free parameters. It was shown that cell survival can be described with a simple analytical formula on the basis of Poisson statistics. This solution represents in the limit of large dose the typical exponential behavior and predicts cell survival as well as the LQ model.

  7. Chemical Dosing and First-Order Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    College students encounter a variety of first-order phenomena in their mathematics and science courses. Introductory chemistry textbooks that discuss first-order processes, usually in conjunction with chemical kinetics or radioactive decay, stop at single, discrete dose events. Although single-dose situations are important, multiple-dose events,…

  8. Budget Impact Analysis of Switching to Digital Mammography in a Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening Program: A Discrete Event Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Mercè; Arrospide, Arantzazu; Mar, Javier; Sala, Maria; Vilaprinyó, Ester; Hernández, Cristina; Cots, Francesc; Martínez, Juan; Castells, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the budgetary impact of switching from screen-film mammography to full-field digital mammography in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Methods A discrete-event simulation model was built to reproduce the breast cancer screening process (biennial mammographic screening of women aged 50 to 69 years) combined with the natural history of breast cancer. The simulation started with 100,000 women and, during a 20-year simulation horizon, new women were dynamically entered according to the aging of the Spanish population. Data on screening were obtained from Spanish breast cancer screening programs. Data on the natural history of breast cancer were based on US data adapted to our population. A budget impact analysis comparing digital with screen-film screening mammography was performed in a sample of 2,000 simulation runs. A sensitivity analysis was performed for crucial screening-related parameters. Distinct scenarios for recall and detection rates were compared. Results Statistically significant savings were found for overall costs, treatment costs and the costs of additional tests in the long term. The overall cost saving was 1,115,857€ (95%CI from 932,147 to 1,299,567) in the 10th year and 2,866,124€ (95%CI from 2,492,610 to 3,239,638) in the 20th year, representing 4.5% and 8.1% of the overall cost associated with screen-film mammography. The sensitivity analysis showed net savings in the long term. Conclusions Switching to digital mammography in a population-based breast cancer screening program saves long-term budget expense, in addition to providing technical advantages. Our results were consistent across distinct scenarios representing the different results obtained in European breast cancer screening programs. PMID:24832200

  9. Discontinuous isogeometric analysis methods for the first-order form of the neutron transport equation with discrete ordinate (SN) angular discretisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, A. R.; Welch, J. A.; Kópházi, J.; Eaton, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper two discontinuous Galerkin isogeometric analysis methods are developed and applied to the first-order form of the neutron transport equation with a discrete ordinate (SN) angular discretisation. The discontinuous Galerkin projection approach was taken on both an element level and the patch level for a given Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) patch. This paper describes the detailed dispersion analysis that has been used to analyse the numerical stability of both of these schemes. The convergence of the schemes for both smooth and non-smooth solutions was also investigated using the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) for multidimensional problems and a 1D semi-analytical benchmark whose solution contains a strongly discontinuous first derivative. This paper also investigates the challenges posed by strongly curved boundaries at both the NURBS element and patch level with several algorithms developed to deal with such cases. Finally numerical results are presented both for a simple pincell test problem as well as the C5G7 quarter core MOX/UOX small Light Water Reactor (LWR) benchmark problem. These numerical results produced by the isogeometric analysis (IGA) methods are compared and contrasted against linear and quadratic discontinuous Galerkin finite element (DGFEM) SN based methods.

  10. Characterizing storm-event nitrate fluxes in a fifth order suburbanizing watershed using in situ sensors.

    PubMed

    Carey, Richard O; Wollheim, Wilfred M; Mulukutla, Gopal K; Mineau, Madeleine M

    2014-07-15

    Land use influences the distribution of nonpoint nitrogen (N) sources in urbanizing watersheds and storm events interact with these heterogeneous sources to expedite N transport to aquatic systems. In situ sensors provide high frequency and continuous measurements that may reflect storm-event N variability more accurately compared to grab samples. We deployed sensors from April to December 2011 in a suburbanizing watershed (479 km2) to characterize storm-event nitrate-N (NO3-N) and conductivity variability. NO3-N concentrations exhibited complex patterns both within and across storms and shifted from overall dilution (source limitation) before summer baseflows to subsequent periods of flushing (transport limitation). In contrast, conductivity generally diluted with increasing runoff. Despite diluted NO3-N concentrations, NO3-N fluxes consistently increased with flow. Sensor flux estimates for the entire deployment period were similar to estimates derived from weekly and monthly grab samples. However, significant differences in flux occurred at monthly time scales, which may have important implications for understanding impacts to temporally sensitive receiving waters. Evidence of both supply (nutrient-poor) and transport (nutrient-rich) limitation patterns during storms is consistent with watersheds undergoing land use transitions. Tracking shifts in these patterns could indicate N accumulation in developing watersheds and help identify mitigation opportunities prior to N impairment.

  11. Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage "FOD" Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/ health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite-element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

  12. Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

  13. Degassing and magma mixing during the eruption of Surtsey Volcano (Iceland, 1963-1967): the signatures of a dynamic and discrete rift propagation event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, C. Ian; Le Voyer, Marion; Moussallam, Yves; White, James D. L.; Thordarson, Thor; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    /1965 gases extremely well, but cannot account for the oxidized gases emitted in 1967, which may have been contaminated by ambient air in a system that was opening as the eruption waned. Surtsey's pyroclastic resurgence can be explained by recharge from ephemeral and compositionally heterogeneous magma bodies, tapped from possibly as deep as the mantle-crust boundary, in a process consistent with the progressively increasing interconnection between magma bodies that is typical at propagating rift tips. The eruption of Surtsey therefore shows that magma system evolution at rift tips can occur in dynamic and discrete events, with influx of new magma having explosive consequences.

  14. An essay on discrete foundations for physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-07-01

    We base our theory of physics and cosmology on the five principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute non-uniqueness, and strict construction. Our modeling methodology starts from the current practice of physics, constructs a self-consistent representation based on the ordering operator calculus and provides rules of correspondence that allow us to test the theory by experiment. We use program universe to construct a growing collection of bit strings whose initial portions (labels) provide the quantum numbers that are conserved in the events defined by the construction. The labels are followed by content strings which are used to construct event-based finite and discrete coordinates. On general grounds such a theory has a limiting velocity, and positions and velocities do not commute. We therefore reconcile quantum mechanics with relativity at an appropriately fundamental stage in the construction. We show that events in different coordinate systems are connected by the appropriate finite and discrete version of the Lorentz transformation, that 3-momentum is conserved in events, and that this conservation law is the same as the requirement that different paths can ''interfere'' only when they differ by an integral number of deBroglie wavelengths. 38 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. An essay on discrete foundations for physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-10-05

    We base our theory of physics and cosmology on the five principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute non- uniqueness, and strict construction. Our modeling methodology starts from the current practice of physics, constructs a self-consistent representation based on the ordering operator calculus and provides rules of correspondence that allow us to test the theory by experiment. We use program universe to construct a growing collection of bit strings whose initial portions (labels) provide the quantum numbers that are conserved in the events defined by the construction. The labels are followed by content strings which are used to construct event-based finite and discrete coordinates. On general grounds such a theory has a limiting velocity, and positions and velocities do not commute. We therefore reconcile quantum mechanics with relativity at an appropriately fundamental stage in the construction. We show that events in different coordinate systems are connected by the appropriate finite and discrete version of the Lorentz transformation, that 3-momentum is conserved in events, and that this conservation law is the same as the requirement that different paths can ''interfere'' only when they differ by an integral number of deBroglie wavelengths. 38 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Observation of persistent α-helical content and discrete types of backbone disorder during a molten globule to ordered peptide transition via deep-UV resonance Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mia C.; Mutter, Andrew; Koder, Ronald L.; JiJi, Renee D.; Cooley, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    The molten globule state can aide in the folding of a protein to a functional structure and is loosely defined as an increase in structural disorder with conservation of the ensemble secondary structure content. Simultaneous observation of persistent secondary structure content with increased disorder has remained experimentally problematic. As a consequence, modeling how the molten globule state remains stable and how it facilitates proper folding remains difficult due to a lack of amenable spectroscopic techniques to characterize this class of partially unfolded proteins. Previously, deep-UV resonance Raman (dUVRR) spectroscopy has proven useful in the resolution of global and local structural fluctuations in the secondary structure of proteins. In this work, dUVRR was employed to study the molten globule to ordered transition of a model four-helix bundle protein, HP7. Both the average ensemble secondary structure and types of local disorder were monitored, without perturbation of the solvent, pH, or temperature. The molten globule to ordered transition is induced by stepwise coordination of two heme molecules. Persistent dUVRR spectral features in the amide III region at 1295–1301 and 1335–1338 cm−1 confirm previous observations that HP7 remains predominantly helical in the molten globule versus the fully ordered state. Additionally, these spectra represent the first demonstration of conserved helical content in a molten globule protein. With successive heme binding significant losses are observed in the spectral intensity of the amide III3 and S regions (1230–1260 and 1390 cm−1, respectively), which are known to be sensitive to local disorder. These observations indicate that there is a decrease in the structural populations able to explore various extended conformations, with successive heme binding events. DUVRR spectra indicate that the first heme coordination between two helical segments diminishes exploration of more elongated backbone structural

  17. Collective Weibull behavior of social atoms: Application of the rank-ordering statistics to historical extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Telesca, Luciano; Chi, Sung-Ching; Sun, Li-Chung

    2012-02-01

    Analogous to crustal earthquakes in natural fault systems, we here consider the dynasty collapses as extreme events in human society. Duration data of ancient Chinese and Egyptian dynasties provides a good chance of exploring the collective behavior of the so-called social atoms. By means of the rank-ordering statistics, we demonstrate that the duration data of those ancient dynasties could be described with good accuracy by the Weibull distribution. It is thus amazing that the distribution of time to failure of human society, i.e. the disorder of a historical dynasty, follows the widely accepted Weibull process as natural material fails.

  18. Can utilizing a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system prevent hospital medical errors and adverse drug events?

    PubMed

    Charles, Krista; Cannon, Margaret; Hall, Robert; Coustasse, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems allow physicians to prescribe patient services electronically. In hospitals, CPOE essentially eliminates the need for handwritten paper orders and achieves cost savings through increased efficiency. The purpose of this research study was to examine the benefits of and barriers to CPOE adoption in hospitals to determine the effects on medical errors and adverse drug events (ADEs) and examine cost and savings associated with the implementation of this newly mandated technology. This study followed a methodology using the basic principles of a systematic review and referenced 50 sources. CPOE systems in hospitals were found to be capable of reducing medical errors and ADEs, especially when CPOE systems are bundled with clinical decision support systems designed to alert physicians and other healthcare providers of pending lab or medical errors. However, CPOE systems face major barriers associated with adoption in a hospital system, mainly high implementation costs and physicians' resistance to change.

  19. Can Utilizing a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) System Prevent Hospital Medical Errors and Adverse Drug Events?

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Krista; Cannon, Margaret; Hall, Robert; Coustasse, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems allow physicians to prescribe patient services electronically. In hospitals, CPOE essentially eliminates the need for handwritten paper orders and achieves cost savings through increased efficiency. The purpose of this research study was to examine the benefits of and barriers to CPOE adoption in hospitals to determine the effects on medical errors and adverse drug events (ADEs) and examine cost and savings associated with the implementation of this newly mandated technology. This study followed a methodology using the basic principles of a systematic review and referenced 50 sources. CPOE systems in hospitals were found to be capable of reducing medical errors and ADEs, especially when CPOE systems are bundled with clinical decision support systems designed to alert physicians and other healthcare providers of pending lab or medical errors. However, CPOE systems face major barriers associated with adoption in a hospital system, mainly high implementation costs and physicians’ resistance to change. PMID:25593568

  20. The relationship between computerized physician order entry and pediatric adverse drug events: a nested matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feliciano; Salas, Maribel; Kim, Young-Il; Menachemi, Nir

    2009-08-01

    This study assesses the impact of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) implementation in pediatric hospitals on reported adverse drug events. Using a nested matched case-control design; we linked CPOE implementation information from the health information management systems society analytics database with reported adverse drug event (ADE) from the national association of children's hospitals and related institutions case mix comparative data program. Differences were examined using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses. Patients from CPOE hospitals were more frequently seen in larger hospitals have more co-morbidities than those from non-CPOE hospitals. When matched by admitting diagnosis, age, gender and race, ADE cases were associated with more reported co-morbidities, and were reported less frequently in hospitals with CPOE. Patients from hospitals without CPOE were 42% more likely to experience reportable ADE after adjusting for the presence of co-morbidities. In conclusion, we found significant beneficial associations between reportable ADE and CPOE adoption in a representative sample of pediatric hospitals.

  1. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

  2. Evaluation of estimation methods and power of tests of discrete covariates in repeated time-to-event parametric models: application to Gaucher patients treated by imiglucerase.

    PubMed

    Vigan, Marie; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Mentré, France

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of repeated time-to-event data is increasingly performed in pharmacometrics using parametric frailty models. The aims of this simulation study were (1) to assess estimation performance of Stochastic Approximation Expectation Maximization (SAEM) algorithm in MONOLIX, Adaptive Gaussian Quadrature (AGQ), and Laplace algorithm in PROC NLMIXED of SAS and (2) to evaluate properties of test of a dichotomous covariate on occurrence of events. The simulation setting is inspired from an analysis of occurrence of bone events after the initiation of treatment by imiglucerase in patients with Gaucher Disease (GD). We simulated repeated events with an exponential model and various dropout rates: no, low, or high. Several values of baseline hazard model, variability, number of subject, and effect of covariate were studied. For each scenario, 100 datasets were simulated for estimation performance and 500 for test performance. We evaluated estimation performance through relative bias and relative root mean square error (RRMSE). We studied properties of Wald and likelihood ratio test (LRT). We used these methods to analyze occurrence of bone events in patients with GD after starting an enzyme replacement therapy. SAEM with three chains and AGQ algorithms provided good estimates of parameters much better than SAEM with one chain and Laplace which often provided poor estimates. Despite a small number of repeated events, SAEM with three chains and AGQ gave small biases and RRMSE. Type I errors were closed to 5%, and power varied as expected for SAEM with three chains and AGQ. Probability of having at least one event under treatment was 19.1%. PMID:24570340

  3. Discrete Darboux transformation for discrete polynomials of hypergeometric type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerezako, Gaspard

    1998-03-01

    The Darboux transformation, well known in second-order differential operator theory, is applied to the difference equations satisfied by the discrete hypergeometric polynomials (Charlier, Meixner-Kravchuk, Hahn).

  4. E. coli Resuspension During an Artificial High-flow Event in a Small First-order Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachepsky, Y. A.; Guber, A. K.; Shelton, D. R.; Hill, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    Stream, pond, and lake sediments can serve as environmental reservoirs for E. coli, including pathogenic strains. Substantial increases in E. coli concentrations observed in stream water during rainfall events are often attributed exclusively to runoff from agricultural fields, pastures, and riparian areas. However, this increase can, to various extents, be caused by the resuspension of E. coli from sediment. The separation of runoff vs. sediment E. coli sources is not possible based exclusively on creek water sampling during natural rainfalls. The objectives of this work were (a) to create and monitor an artificial high-flow event that would cause E. coli concentration changes solely due to resuspension and settling, (b) to develop a model of E. coli transport in creek water as affected by resuspension and settling. The study site, at the USDA-Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, is in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain of Maryland. The site contains a small first-order stream that is instrumented with four stations for monitoring stream flow and bacteria concentrations. The creek runs within a riparian corridor of variable width from about 65 m at its narrowest point, to more than 100 m. The creek bed is from 100 to 150 cm wide. Prior to the high-flow experiment, the creek sediment was grab-sampled weekly for 2 months for E. coli concentrations at three locations downstream from stations 1, 2 and 4. Time and sample position across the creek were not significant factors affecting E. coli concentrations in sediment; location along the creek was a significant factor. Initial E. coli concentrations in top 1 cm (just prior to flow) averaged 4500, 2500, and 500 cell per g of sediment at locations 1 and 2 and 4, respectively. The E. coli concentrations in sediments decreased exponentially with depth by about one order of magnitude per 2 cm. The artificial flow event was created by releasing 80 tons of tap water on a tarp-covered stream bank at 11 m above the station 1

  5. Sound Classification and Call Discrimination Are Decoded in Order as Revealed by Event-Related Potential Components in Frogs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guangzhan; Yang, Ping; Xue, Fei; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2015-01-01

    Species that use communication sounds to coordinate social and reproductive behavior must be able to distinguish vocalizations from nonvocal sounds as well as to identify individual vocalization types. In this study we sought to identify the neural localization of the processes involved and the temporal order in which they occur in an anuran species, the music frog Babina daunchina. To do this we measured telencephalic and mesencephalic event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by synthesized white noise (WN), highly sexually attractive (HSA) calls produced by males from inside nests and male calls of low sexual attractiveness (LSA) produced outside of nests. Each stimulus possessed similar temporal structures. The results showed the following: (1) the amplitudes of the first negative ERP component (N1) at ∼ 100 ms differed significantly between WN and conspecific calls but not between HSA and LSA calls, indicating that discrimination between conspecific calls and nonvocal sounds occurs in ∼ 100 ms, (2) the amplitudes of the second positive ERP component (P2) at ∼ 200 ms in the difference waves between HSA calls and WN were significantly higher than between LSA calls and WN in the right telencephalon, implying that call characteristic identification occurs in ∼ 200 ms and (3) WN evoked a larger third positive ERP component (P3) at ∼ 300 ms than conspecific calls, suggesting the frogs had classified the conspecific calls into one category and perceived WN as novel. Thus, both the detection of sounds and the identification of call characteristics are accomplished quickly in a specific temporal order, as reflected by ERP components. In addition, the most dynamic ERP patterns appeared in the left mesencephalon and the right telencephalon, indicating the two brain regions might play key roles in anuran vocal communication. PMID:26613526

  6. Spatio-temporal hazard estimation in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, with a new event-order model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) with 49 eruptive centres in the last c. 250 ka presents many challenges to our understanding of distributed volcanic field construction and evolution. We re-examine the age constraints within the AVF and perform a correlation exercise matching the well-dated record of tephras from cores distributed throughout the field to the most likely source volcanoes, using thickness and location information and a simple attenuation model. Combining this augmented age information with known stratigraphic constraints, we produce a new age-order algorithm for the field, with errors incorporated using a Monte Carlo procedure. Analysis of the new age model discounts earlier appreciations of spatio-temporal clustering in the AVF. Instead the spatial and temporal aspects appear independent; hence the location of the last eruption provides no information about the next location. The temporal hazard intensity in the field has been highly variable, with over 63% of its centres formed in a high-intensity period between 40 and 20 ka. Another, smaller, high-intensity period may have occurred at the field onset, while the latest event, at 504 ± 5 years B.P., erupted 50% of the entire field's volume. This emphasises the lack of steady-state behaviour that characterises the AVF, which may also be the case in longer-lived fields with a lower dating resolution. Spatial hazard intensity in the AVF under the new age model shows a strong NE-SW structural control of volcanism that may reflect deep-seated crustal or subduction zone processes and matches the orientation of the Taupo Volcanic Zone to the south.

  7. Modelling and real-time simulation of continuous-discrete systems in mechatronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lindow, H.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a methodology for simulation and modelling of systems with continuous - discrete dynamics. It derives hybrid discrete event models from Lagrange`s equations of motion. This method combines continuous mechanical, electrical and thermodynamical submodels on one hand with discrete event models an the other hand into a hybrid discrete event model. This straight forward software development avoids numeric overhead.

  8. Advance Liquid Metal Reactor Discrete Dynamic Event Tree/Bayesian Network Analysis and Incident Management Guidelines (Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Groth, Katrina M.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-04-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self-correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the system's design to manage the accident. Inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, but nonetheless extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety, thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayesian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR-14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  9. Novel approach to data discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowik, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Karol; Jankowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Discretization is an important preprocessing step in data mining. The data discretization method involves determining the ranges of values for numeric attributes, which ultimately represent discrete intervals for new attributes. The ranges for the proposed set of cuts are analyzed, in order to obtain a minimal set of ranges while retaining the possibility of classification. For this purpose, a special discernibility function can be constructed as a conjunction of alternative cuts set for each pair of different objects of different decisions- cuts discern these objects. However, the data mining methods based on discernibility matrix are insufficient for large databases. The purpose of this paper is the idea of implementation of a new data discretization algorithm that is based on statistics of attribute values and that avoids building the discernibility matrix explicitly. Evaluation of time complexity has shown that the proposed method is much more efficient than currently available solutions for large data sets.

  10. Discrete-Event Simulation in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheisz, Daniel; Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1988-01-01

    Gives examples, descriptions, and uses for various types of simulation systems, including the Flowtran, Process, Aspen Plus, Design II, GPSS, Simula, and Simscript. Explains similarities in simulators, terminology, and a batch chemical process. Tables and diagrams are included. (RT)

  11. Extreme brain events: Higher-order statistics of brain resting activity and its relation with structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, T. A.; Russo, R.; Diez, I.; Bharath, P.; Zirovich, M.; Stramaglia, S.; Cortes, J. M.; de Arcangelis, L.; Chialvo, D. R.

    2015-09-01

    The brain exhibits a wide variety of spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging as the so-called blood-oxygenated-level-dependent (BOLD) signal. An active area of work includes efforts to best describe the plethora of these patterns evolving continuously in the brain. Here we explore the third-moment statistics of the brain BOLD signals in the resting state as a proxy to capture extreme BOLD events. We find that the brain signal exhibits typically nonzero skewness, with positive values for cortical regions and negative values for subcortical regions. Furthermore, the combined analysis of structural and functional connectivity demonstrates that relatively more connected regions exhibit activity with high negative skewness. Overall, these results highlight the relevance of recent results emphasizing that the spatiotemporal location of the relatively large-amplitude events in the BOLD time series contains relevant information to reproduce a number of features of the brain dynamics during resting state in health and disease.

  12. 75 FR 52329 - Corn Event MON 863 and MON 863 x MON 810; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ...'s order for the cancellations of certain products containing the pesticides, Bacillus thuringiensis... the last products containing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein and the genetic material necessary... not the last products containing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein and the genetic...

  13. The Cauchy-Kovalevskaya Extension Theorem in Discrete Clifford Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, H.; De Schepper, H.; Sommen, F.

    2010-09-01

    Discrete Clifford analysis is a higher dimensional discrete function theory based on skew Weyl relations. It is centered around the study of Clifford algebra valued null solutions, called discrete monogenic functions, of a discrete Dirac operator, i.e. a first order, Clifford vector valued difference operator. In this contribution, we establish a Cauchy-Kovalevskaya extension theorem for discrete monogenic functions defined on the grid Zhm of m-tuples of integer multiples of a variable mesh width h. Convergence to the continuous case is investigated. As illustrative examples we explicitly construct the Cauchy-Kovalevskaya extensions of the discrete delta function and of a discretized exponential.

  14. An event-related fMRI study of self-paced alphabetically ordered writing of single letters.

    PubMed

    Rektor, I; Rektorová, I; Mikl, M; Brázdil, M; Krupa, P

    2006-08-01

    The spatial location of activation for writing individual letters and for writing simple dots was studied using event-related functional MRI. Ten healthy right-handed subjects were scanned while performing two different protocols with self-paced repetitive movement. In the first protocol with self-paced dot writing, we observed significant activation in regions known to participate in motor control: contralateral to the movement in the primary sensorimotor and supramarginal cortices, the supplementary motor area (SMA) with the underlying cingulate, in the thalamus and, to a lesser extent, in the ipsilateral inferior parietal and occipital cortices. In the second protocol, we investigated an elemental writing feature--writing single letters. We observed statistically significant changes in the premotor, sensorimotor and supramarginal cortices, the SMA and the thalamus with left predominance, and in the bilateral premotor and inferior/superior parietal cortices. The parietal region that was active during the writing of single letters spanned the border between the parietal superior and inferior lobuli Brodmann area (BA 2, 40), deep in the intraparietal sulcus, with a surprising right-sided dominance. The direct comparison of the results of the two protocols was not significant with a confidence level of P<0.05 corrected for whole brain volume. Thus, the ROI approach was used, and we tried to find significant differences within the two predefined regions of interest (ROI) (BA 7, BA 37). The differences were found with a confidence level of P<0.05 corrected for the volume of these predicted areas. The ROI were located in the posterior parts of hemispheres, in the ventral and in the dorsal visual pathway. The right-sided posterior cortices may play a role in the elemental mechanisms of writing. It is possible that activation of this region is linked with the spatial dimension of the writing.

  15. Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…

  16. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  17. Subcompartmentalisation of proteins in the rhoptries correlates with ordered events of erythrocyte invasion by the blood stage malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Zuccala, Elizabeth S; Gout, Alexander M; Dekiwadia, Chaitali; Marapana, Danushka S; Angrisano, Fiona; Turnbull, Lynne; Riglar, David T; Rogers, Kelly L; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Ralph, Stuart A; Speed, Terence P; Baum, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction - the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion. PMID:23049965

  18. Subcompartmentalisation of Proteins in the Rhoptries Correlates with Ordered Events of Erythrocyte Invasion by the Blood Stage Malaria Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Zuccala, Elizabeth S.; Gout, Alexander M.; Dekiwadia, Chaitali; Marapana, Danushka S.; Angrisano, Fiona; Turnbull, Lynne; Riglar, David T.; Rogers, Kelly L.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Ralph, Stuart A.; Speed, Terence P.; Baum, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction – the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion. PMID:23049965

  19. Discrete bisoliton fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X. M.; Han, X. X.; Yao, X. K.

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative solitons, which result from the intricate balance between dispersion and nonlinearity as well as gain and loss, are of the fundamental scientific interest and numerous important applications. Here, we report a fiber laser that generates bisoliton – two consecutive dissipative solitons that preserve a fixed separation between them. Deviations from this separation result in its restoration. It is also found that these bisolitons have multiple discrete equilibrium distances with the quantized separations, as is confirmed by the theoretical analysis and the experimental observations. The main feature of our laser is the anomalous dispersion that is increased by an order of magnitude in comparison to previous studies. Then the spectral filtering effect plays a significant role in pulse-shaping. The proposed laser has the potential applications in optical communications and high-resolution optics for coding and transmission of information in higher-level modulation formats. PMID:27767075

  20. Discrete Pearson distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, K.O. ); Shenton, L.R. ); Kastenbaum, M.A. , Basye, VA )

    1991-11-01

    These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.

  1. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm2 exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  2. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    SciTech Connect

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm{sup 2} exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  3. Principles of Discrete Time Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-04-01

    1. Introduction; 2. The physics of discreteness; 3. The road to calculus; 4. Temporal discretization; 5. Discrete time dynamics architecture; 6. Some models; 7. Classical cellular automata; 8. The action sum; 9. Worked examples; 10. Lee's approach to discrete time mechanics; 11. Elliptic billiards; 12. The construction of system functions; 13. The classical discrete time oscillator; 14. Type 2 temporal discretization; 15. Intermission; 16. Discrete time quantum mechanics; 17. The quantized discrete time oscillator; 18. Path integrals; 19. Quantum encoding; 20. Discrete time classical field equations; 21. The discrete time Schrodinger equation; 22. The discrete time Klein-Gordon equation; 23. The discrete time Dirac equation; 24. Discrete time Maxwell's equations; 25. The discrete time Skyrme model; 26. Discrete time quantum field theory; 27. Interacting discrete time scalar fields; 28. Space, time and gravitation; 29. Causality and observation; 30. Concluding remarks; Appendix A. Coherent states; Appendix B. The time-dependent oscillator; Appendix C. Quaternions; Appendix D. Quantum registers; References; Index.

  4. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  5. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  6. PREFACE: 4th Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Domenico, Antonio; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2015-07-01

    The DISCRETE 2014: Fourth Symposium in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries took place at King's College London, Strand Campus, London WC2R 2LS, from Tuesday, December 2 2014 till Saturday, December 6 2014. This is the fourth Edition of the DISCRETE conference series, which is a biannual event, having been held previously in Valencia (Discrete'08), Rome (Discrete2010) and Lisbon (Discrete2012). The topics covered at the DISCRETE series of conferences are: T, C, P, CP symmetries; accidental symmetries (B, L conservation); CPT symmetry, decoherence and entangled states, Lorentz symmetry breaking (phenomenology and current bounds); neutrino mass and mixing; implications for cosmology and astroparticle physics, dark matter searches; experimental prospects at LHC, new facilities. In DISCRETE 2014 we have also introduced two new topics: cosmological aspects of non-commutative space-times as well as PT symmetric Hamiltonians (non-Hermitian but with real eigenvalues), a topic that has wide applications in particle physics and beyond. The conference was opened by the King's College London Vice Principal on Research and Innovation, Mr Chris Mottershead, followed by a welcome address by the Chair of DISCRETE 2014 (Professor Nick E. Mavromatos). After these introductory talks, the scientific programme of the DISCRETE 2014 symposium started. Following the tradition of DISCRETE series of conferences, the talks (138 in total) were divided into plenary-review talks (25), invited research talks (50) and shorter presentations (63) — selected by the conveners of each session in consultation with the organisers — from the submitted abstracts. We have been fortunate to have very high-quality, thought stimulating and interesting talks at all levels, which, together with the discussions among the participants, made the conference quite enjoyable. There were 152 registered participants for the event.

  7. The effectiveness of computerized order entry at reducing preventable adverse drug events and medication errors in hospital settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act subsidizes implementation by hospitals of electronic health records with computerized provider order entry (CPOE), which may reduce patient injuries caused by medication errors (preventable adverse drug events, pADEs). Effects on pADEs have not been rigorously quantified, and effects on medication errors have been variable. The objectives of this analysis were to assess the effectiveness of CPOE at reducing pADEs in hospital-related settings, and examine reasons for heterogeneous effects on medication errors. Methods Articles were identified using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Econlit, web-based databases, and bibliographies of previous systematic reviews (September 2013). Eligible studies compared CPOE with paper-order entry in acute care hospitals, and examined diverse pADEs or medication errors. Studies on children or with limited event-detection methods were excluded. Two investigators extracted data on events and factors potentially associated with effectiveness. We used random effects models to pool data. Results Sixteen studies addressing medication errors met pooling criteria; six also addressed pADEs. Thirteen studies used pre-post designs. Compared with paper-order entry, CPOE was associated with half as many pADEs (pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.47, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.71) and medication errors (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.60). Regarding reasons for heterogeneous effects on medication errors, five intervention factors and two contextual factors were sufficiently reported to support subgroup analyses or meta-regression. Differences between commercial versus homegrown systems, presence and sophistication of clinical decision support, hospital-wide versus limited implementation, and US versus non-US studies were not significant, nor was timing of publication. Higher baseline rates of medication errors predicted greater reductions (P < 0.001). Other context and

  8. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  9. Sensitive and accurate identification of protein–DNA binding events in ChIP-chip assays using higher order derivative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christian L.; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Immuno-precipitation of protein–DNA complexes followed by microarray hybridization is a powerful and cost-effective technology for discovering protein–DNA binding events at the genome scale. It is still an unresolved challenge to comprehensively, accurately and sensitively extract binding event information from the produced data. We have developed a novel strategy composed of an information-preserving signal-smoothing procedure, higher order derivative analysis and application of the principle of maximum entropy to address this challenge. Importantly, our method does not require any input parameters to be specified by the user. Using genome-scale binding data of two Escherichia coli global transcription regulators for which a relatively large number of experimentally supported sites are known, we show that ∼90% of known sites were resolved to within four probes, or ∼88 bp. Over half of the sites were resolved to within two probes, or ∼38 bp. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our strategy delivers significant quantitative and qualitative performance gains over available methods. Such accurate and sensitive binding site resolution has important consequences for accurately reconstructing transcriptional regulatory networks, for motif discovery, for furthering our understanding of local and non-local factors in protein–DNA interactions and for extending the usefulness horizon of the ChIP-chip platform. PMID:21051353

  10. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  11. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  12. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-17

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  13. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraggi, Alon E.

    1997-02-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  14. A Few Continuous and Discrete Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Rui, Wenjuan

    2016-08-01

    Starting from a 2-unimodular group, we construct its new Lie algebras for which the positive-order Lax pairs and the negative-order Lax pairs are introduced, respectively. With the help of the resulting structure equation of the group we generate some partial differential equations including the well-known MKdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the hyperbolic sine-Gordon equation and other new nonlinear evolution equations. With the aid of the Tu scheme combined with the given Lax pairs, we obtain the isospectral and nonisospectral hierarchies of evolution equations, from which we generate two sets of symmetries of a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (gNLS) equation. Finally, we discretize the Lax pairs to obtain a set of coupled semi-discrete equations. As their reduction, we produce the semi-discrete MKdV equation and semi-discrete NLS equation.

  15. Discrete Tchebycheff orthonormal polynomials and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discrete Tchebycheff orthonormal polynomials offer a convenient way to make least squares polynomial fits of uniformly spaced discrete data. Computer programs to do so are simple and fast, and appear to be less affected by computer roundoff error, for the higher order fits, than conventional least squares programs. They are useful for any application of polynomial least squares fits: approximation of mathematical functions, noise analysis of radar data, and real time smoothing of noisy data, to name a few.

  16. Discrete monotron oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Haynes, W.B.

    1996-08-01

    The authors theoretically and numerically investigate the operation and behavior of the discrete monotron oscillator, a novel high-power microwave source. The discrete monotron differs from conventional monotrons and transit time oscillators by shielding the electron beam from the monotron cavity`s RF fields except at two distinct locations. This makes the discrete monotron act more like a klystron than a distributed traveling wave device. As a result, the oscillator has higher efficiency and can operate with higher beam powers than other single cavity oscillators and has more stable operation without requiring a seed input signal than mildly relativistic, intense-beam klystron oscillators.

  17. The Discrete Hanging Cable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

  18. Power Analysis for Trials with Discrete-Time Survival Endpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwiak, Katarzyna; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Studies on event occurrence aim to investigate if and when subjects experience a particular event. The timing of events may be measured continuously using thin precise units or discretely using time periods. The latter metric of time is often used in social science research and the generalized linear model (GLM) is an appropriate model for data…

  19. On the definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables.

    PubMed

    Español, Pep; Zúñiga, Ignacio

    2009-10-28

    The Green-Kubo formula for discrete hydrodynamic variables involves information about not only the fluid transport coefficients but also about discrete versions of the differential operators that govern the evolution of the discrete variables. This gives an intimate connection between discretization procedures in fluid dynamics and coarse-graining procedures used to obtain hydrodynamic behavior of molecular fluids. We observed that a natural definition of discrete hydrodynamic variables in terms of Voronoi cells leads to a Green-Kubo formula which is divergent, rendering the full coarse-graining strategy useless. In order to understand this subtle issue, in the present paper we consider the coarse graining of noninteracting Brownian particles. The discrete hydrodynamic variable for this problem is the number of particles within Voronoi cells. Thanks to the simplicity of the model we spot the origin of the singular behavior of the correlation functions. We offer an alternative definition, based on the concept of a Delaunay cell that behaves properly, suggesting the use of the Delaunay construction for the coarse graining of molecular fluids at the discrete hydrodynamic level.

  20. Episodes, events, and models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Harrison, Anthony M.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  1. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2016-10-01

    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  2. Modelling road accident blackspots data with the discrete generalized Pareto distribution.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Faustino; Gómez-Déniz, Emilio; Sarabia, José María

    2014-10-01

    This study shows how road traffic networks events, in particular road accidents on blackspots, can be modelled with simple probabilistic distributions. We considered the number of crashes and the number of fatalities on Spanish blackspots in the period 2003-2007, from Spanish General Directorate of Traffic (DGT). We modelled those datasets, respectively, with the discrete generalized Pareto distribution (a discrete parametric model with three parameters) and with the discrete Lomax distribution (a discrete parametric model with two parameters, and particular case of the previous model). For that, we analyzed the basic properties of both parametric models: cumulative distribution, survival, probability mass, quantile and hazard functions, genesis and rth-order moments; applied two estimation methods of their parameters: the μ and (μ+1) frequency method and the maximum likelihood method; used two goodness-of-fit tests: Chi-square test and discrete Kolmogorov-Smirnov test based on bootstrap resampling; and compared them with the classical negative binomial distribution in terms of absolute probabilities and in models including covariates. We found that those probabilistic models can be useful to describe the road accident blackspots datasets analyzed.

  3. Depression: discrete or continuous?

    PubMed

    Bowins, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the true structure of depression is necessary if we are to advance our understanding and treatment options. Central to the issue of structure is whether depression represents discrete types or occurs on a continuum. Nature almost universally operates on the basis of continuums, whereas human perception favors discrete categories. This reality might be formalized into a 'continuum principle': natural phenomena tend to occur on a continuum, and any instance of hypothesized discreteness requires unassailable proof. Research evidence for discrete types falls far short of this standard, with most evidence supporting a continuum. However, quantitative variation can yield qualitative differences as an emergent property, fostering the appearance of discreteness. Depression as a continuum is best characterized by duration and severity dimensions, with the latter understood in terms of depressive inhibition. In the absence of some degree of cognitive, emotional, social, and physical inhibition, depression should not be diagnosed. Combining the dimensions of duration and severity provides an optimal way to characterize the quantitative and related qualitative aspects of depression and to describe the overall degree of dysfunction. The presence of other symptom types occurs when anxiety, hypomanic/manic, psychotic, and personality continuums interface with the depression continuum. PMID:25531962

  4. Deformed discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  5. Discrete breathers in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Baimova, Yu A.; Velarde, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems, in addition to traveling waves, support vibrational defect-localized modes. It turned out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Since the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, it is only through the special choice of initial conditions that a group of nodes can be found on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), will be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of the small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically conserve its vibrational energy forever provided no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery in them of DBs was only a matter of time. It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems support both traveling waves and vibrational defect-localized modes. It turns out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Because the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, only a special choice of the initial conditions allows selecting a group of nodes on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), can be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically preserve its vibrational energy forever if no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery of DBs in them was only a matter of time. Experimental studies of DBs encounter major technical difficulties, leaving atomistic computer simulations as the primary investigation tool. Despite

  6. Azimuthal-Angle Dependence of Charged-Pion-Interferometry Measurements with Respect to Second- and Third-Order Event Planes in Au +Au Collisions at √sNN =200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Charged-pion-interferometry measurements were made with respect to the second- and third-order event plane for Au +Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV. A strong azimuthal-angle dependence of the extracted Gaussian-source radii was observed with respect to both the second- and third-order event planes. The results for the second-order dependence indicate that the initial eccentricity is reduced during the medium evolution, which is consistent with previous results. In contrast, the results for the third-order dependence indicate that the initial triangular shape is significantly reduced and potentially reversed by the end of the medium evolution, and that the third-order oscillations are largely dominated by the dynamical effects from triangular flow.

  7. Azimuthal-angle dependence of charged-pion-interferometry measurements with respect to second- and third-order event planes in Au+Au collisions at √[S(NN)]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E-J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2014-06-01

    Charged-pion-interferometry measurements were made with respect to the second- and third-order event plane for Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV. A strong azimuthal-angle dependence of the extracted Gaussian-source radii was observed with respect to both the second- and third-order event planes. The results for the second-order dependence indicate that the initial eccentricity is reduced during the medium evolution, which is consistent with previous results. In contrast, the results for the third-order dependence indicate that the initial triangular shape is significantly reduced and potentially reversed by the end of the medium evolution, and that the third-order oscillations are largely dominated by the dynamical effects from triangular flow.

  8. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  9. Discrete cavity solitons.

    PubMed

    Peschel, U; Egorov, O; Lederer, F

    2004-08-15

    We derive evolution equations describing light propagation in an array of coupled-waveguide resonators and predict the existence of discrete cavity solitons. We identify stable, unstable, and oscillating solitons by varying the coupling strength between the anticontinuous and the continuous limit. PMID:15357356

  10. Bell-Curve Genetic Algorithm for Mixed Continuous and Discrete Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Griffith, Michelle; Sykes, Ruth; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    In this manuscript we have examined an extension of BCB that encompasses a mix of continuous and quasi-discrete, as well as truly-discrete applications. FVe began by testing two refinements to the discrete version of BCB. The testing of midpoint versus fitness (Tables 1 and 2) proved inconclusive. The testing of discrete normal tails versus standard mutation showed was conclusive and demonstrated that the discrete normal tails are better. Next, we implemented these refinements in a combined continuous and discrete BCB and compared the performance of two discrete distance on the hub problem. Here we found when "order does matter" it pays to take it into account.

  11. Discretizing singular point sources in hyperbolic wave propagation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, N. Anders; O'Reilly, Ossian; Sjögreen, Björn; Bydlon, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    We develop high order accurate source discretizations for hyperbolic wave propagation problems in first order formulation that are discretized by finite difference schemes. By studying the Fourier series expansions of the source discretization and the finite difference operator, we derive sufficient conditions for achieving design accuracy in the numerical solution. Only half of the conditions in Fourier space can be satisfied through moment conditions on the source discretization, and we develop smoothness conditions for satisfying the remaining accuracy conditions. The resulting source discretization has compact support in physical space, and is spread over as many grid points as the number of moment and smoothness conditions. In numerical experiments we demonstrate high order of accuracy in the numerical solution of the 1-D advection equation (both in the interior and near a boundary), the 3-D elastic wave equation, and the 3-D linearized Euler equations.

  12. Discreteness induced extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira; da Silva, Linaena Méricy

    2015-11-01

    Two simple models based on ecological problems are discussed from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown how discrepant may be the results of the models that include spatial distribution with discrete interactions when compared with the continuous analogous models. In the continuous case we have, under certain circumstances, the population explosion. When we take into account the finiteness of the population, we get the opposite result, extinction. We will analyze how these results depend on the dimension d of the space and describe the phenomenon of the "Discreteness Inducing Extinction" (DIE). The results are interpreted in the context of the "paradox of sex", an old problem of evolutionary biology.

  13. Discreteness effects in population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Lecomte, Vivien

    2016-05-01

    We analyse numerically the effects of small population size in the initial transient regime of a simple example population dynamics. These effects play an important role for the numerical determination of large deviation functions of additive observables for stochastic processes. A method commonly used in order to determine such functions is the so-called cloning algorithm which in its non-constant population version essentially reduces to the determination of the growth rate of a population, averaged over many realizations of the dynamics. However, the averaging of populations is highly dependent not only on the number of realizations of the population dynamics, and on the initial population size but also on the cut-off time (or population) considered to stop their numerical evolution. This may result in an over-influence of discreteness effects at initial times, caused by small population size. We overcome these effects by introducing a (realization-dependent) time delay in the evolution of populations, additional to the discarding of the initial transient regime of the population growth where these discreteness effects are strong. We show that the improvement in the estimation of the large deviation function comes precisely from these two main contributions.

  14. Discrete Constrained Lagrangian Systems and Geometric Constraint Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Azumi

    2010-09-01

    We develop discrete Lagrangian systems with holonomic constraints by employing the discrete Lagrange-d'Alembert principle, which was originally proposed by [5, 6]. Especially, we focus on the class of discrete holonomic Lagrangian systems in the context of the index 2 model, i.e., discrete Lagrange-d'Alembert equations with velocity-level constraints, while the lower index formulation may induce constraint violations called drift-off phenomena. So we incorporate geometric constraint stabilization proposed by [7, 8] into the discrete holonomic Lagrangian systems in order to avoid the constraint violations. We demonstrate numerical validity in making use of discrete Lagrange-d'Alembert equations for the index 2 model of holonomic mechanical systems with an illustrative example of linkage mechanisms.

  15. Discrete breathers in hexagonal dusty plasma lattices.

    PubMed

    Koukouloyannis, V; Kourakis, I

    2009-08-01

    The occurrence of single-site or multisite localized vibrational modes, also called discrete breathers, in two-dimensional hexagonal dusty plasma lattices is investigated. The system is described by a Klein-Gordon hexagonal lattice characterized by a negative coupling parameter epsilon in account of its inverse dispersive behavior. A theoretical analysis is performed in order to establish the possibility of existence of single as well as three-site discrete breathers in such systems. The study is complemented by a numerical investigation based on experimentally provided potential forms. This investigation shows that a dusty plasma lattice can support single-site discrete breathers, while three-site in phase breathers could exist if specific conditions, about the intergrain interaction strength, would hold. On the other hand, out of phase and vortex three-site breathers cannot be supported since they are highly unstable.

  16. Discrete breathers in hexagonal dusty plasma lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Koukouloyannis, V.; Kourakis, I.

    2009-08-15

    The occurrence of single-site or multisite localized vibrational modes, also called discrete breathers, in two-dimensional hexagonal dusty plasma lattices is investigated. The system is described by a Klein-Gordon hexagonal lattice characterized by a negative coupling parameter epsilon in account of its inverse dispersive behavior. A theoretical analysis is performed in order to establish the possibility of existence of single as well as three-site discrete breathers in such systems. The study is complemented by a numerical investigation based on experimentally provided potential forms. This investigation shows that a dusty plasma lattice can support single-site discrete breathers, while three-site in phase breathers could exist if specific conditions, about the intergrain interaction strength, would hold. On the other hand, out of phase and vortex three-site breathers cannot be supported since they are highly unstable.

  17. Graph-theoretic analysis of discrete-phase-space states for condition change detection and quantification of information

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.

    2014-09-16

    Data collected from devices and human condition may be used to forewarn of critical events such as machine/structural failure or events from brain/heart wave data stroke. By monitoring the data, and determining what values are indicative of a failure forewarning, one can provide adequate notice of the impending failure in order to take preventive measures. This disclosure teaches a computer-based method to convert dynamical numeric data representing physical objects (unstructured data) into discrete-phase-space states, and hence into a graph (structured data) for extraction of condition change.

  18. Discrete Dynamics Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  19. PREFACE: DISCRETE '08: Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, José; Botella, Francisco J.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.

    2009-07-01

    The Symposium DISCRETE'08 on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries was held at the Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia, Spain from 11 to 16 December 2008. IFIC is a joint centre of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) and the Universitat de València (UVEG). The aim of the Symposium was to bring together experts on the field of Discrete Symmetries in order to discuss its prospects on the eve of the LHC era. The general state of the art for CP, T and CPT symmetries was reviewed and their interplay with Baryogenesis, Early Cosmology, Quantum Gravity, String Theory and the Dark Sector of the Universe was emphasised. Connections with physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular Supersymmetry, were investigated. Experimental implications in current and proposed facilities received particular attention. The scientific programme consisted of 24 invited Plenary Talks and 93 contributions selected among the submitted papers. Young researchers, in particular, were encouraged to submit an abstract. The Special Lecture on ''CERN and the Future of Particle Physics'', given by the CERN Director General Rolf-Dieter Heuer to close the Symposium, was of particular relevance. On the last day of the Symposium, an open meeting took place between Professor Heuer and the Spanish community of particle physics. The Symposium covered recent developments on the subject of Discrete Symmetries in the following topics: Quantum Vacuum Entanglement, Symmetrisation Principle CPT in Quantum Gravity and String Theory, Decoherence, Lorentz Violation Ultra-high-energy Messengers Time Reversal CP violation in the SM and beyond Neutrino Mass, Mixing and CP Baryogenesis, Leptogenesis Family Symmetries Supersymmetry and other searches Experimental Prospects: LHC, Super-B Factories, DAΦNE-2, Neutrino Beams The excellence of most of the presentations during the Symposium was pointed out by many participants. The broad spectrum of topics under the

  20. Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey F.

    2002-10-10

    Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''.

  1. Discrete-Time Goldfishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    The original continuous-time ''goldfish'' dynamical system is characterized by two neat formulas, the first of which provides the N Newtonian equations of motion of this dynamical system, while the second provides the solution of the corresponding initial-value problem. Several other, more general, solvable dynamical systems ''of goldfish type'' have been identified over time, featuring, in the right-hand (''forces'') side of their Newtonian equations of motion, in addition to other contributions, a velocity-dependent term such as that appearing in the right-hand side of the first formula mentioned above. The solvable character of these models allows detailed analyses of their behavior, which in some cases is quite remarkable (for instance isochronous or asymptotically isochronous). In this paper we introduce and discuss various discrete-time dynamical systems, which are as well solvable, which also display interesting behaviors (including isochrony and asymptotic isochrony) and which reduce to dynamical systems of goldfish type in the limit when the discrete-time independent variable l=0,1,2,... becomes the standard continuous-time independent variable t, 0≤t<∞.

  2. Parameters of Semantic Multisensory Integration Depend on Timing and Modality Order among People on the Autism Spectrum: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, N.; Mottron, L.; Burack, J. A.; Jemel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) report difficulty integrating simultaneously presented visual and auditory stimuli (Iarocci & McDonald, 2006), albeit showing enhanced perceptual processing of unisensory stimuli, as well as an enhanced role of perception in higher-order cognitive tasks (Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) model;…

  3. Stability and change of personality across the life course: the impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five.

    PubMed

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2011-10-01

    Does personality change across the entire life course, and are those changes due to intrinsic maturation or major life experiences? This longitudinal study investigated changes in the mean levels and rank order of the Big Five personality traits in a heterogeneous sample of 14,718 Germans across all of adulthood. Latent change and latent moderated regression models provided 4 main findings: First, age had a complex curvilinear influence on mean levels of personality. Second, the rank-order stability of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness all followed an inverted U-shaped function, reaching a peak between the ages of 40 and 60 and decreasing afterward, whereas Conscientiousness showed a continuously increasing rank-order stability across adulthood. Third, personality predicted the occurrence of several objective major life events (selection effects) and changed in reaction to experiencing these events (socialization effects), suggesting that personality can change due to factors other than intrinsic maturation. Fourth, when events were clustered according to their valence, as is commonly done, effects of the environment on changes in personality were either overlooked or overgeneralized. In sum, our analyses show that personality changes throughout the life span, but with more pronounced changes in young and old ages, and that this change is partly attributable to social demands and experiences.

  4. Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H

    2014-09-01

    An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  5. Nonintegrable Schrodinger discrete breathers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Floría, L M; Peyrard, M; Bishop, A R

    2004-12-01

    In an extensive numerical investigation of nonintegrable translational motion of discrete breathers in nonlinear Schrödinger lattices, we have used a regularized Newton algorithm to continue these solutions from the limit of the integrable Ablowitz-Ladik lattice. These solutions are shown to be a superposition of a localized moving core and an excited extended state (background) to which the localized moving pulse is spatially asymptotic. The background is a linear combination of small amplitude nonlinear resonant plane waves and it plays an essential role in the energy balance governing the translational motion of the localized core. Perturbative collective variable theory predictions are critically analyzed in the light of the numerical results.

  6. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  7. Discrete anti-gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P. ); Starson, S. )

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.

  8. Long-life relativistic electron enhancement events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaochao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Chinese 'Fengyun-1' series are low earth orbit satellites, the Space Particle Component Detector on 'Fengyun-1' have detected continuously relativistic electrons at the low earth orbit for a long time, obtained plenty of observations. From July, 2004 to February, 2005 'Fengyun-1'observed two strong relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events lasting a long time. These two events were all very intense, electron fluxes enhanced more than 3 orders of magnitude. And they all lasted a long time, are all rarely long-life events, the 'lifetime' of electrons during these two events are 24 and 23 days individually. The enhancement extent of electron fluxes is varied at different L-positions. In order to seek causes of these special events and the acceleration mechanism driving them, we investigate the simultaneous interplanetary and magnetospheric environments. Then it is found: before or on commencements of these two events, interplanetary and magnetospheric environments disturbed intensively, Dst index disturbed continuously for three times; evident southward interplanetary magnetic field and strong substorm activities are important factors to drive relativistic electrons enhancement dramatically, the substorm activities produced copious quantities of energetic electrons in the energy range 100~300keV, and provided an important seed population of energetic electrons needed for major relativistic electron events; frequently dynamic pressure fluctuations in the solar wind may be another key factor for these two extraordinary events, Fourier transforms of the solar wind dynamic pressure confirms that the pulsations occurred at several discrete frequencies about mHz, these fluctuations could lead to magnetospheric ULF pulsations at the same frequencies, and the mode numbers of these ULF pulsations were appropriate, then they could accelerated the 'seed' electrons to relativistic electrons effectively.

  9. Siku: A Sea Ice Discrete Element Method Model on a Spherical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Hutchings, J. K.; Johnson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas can be significantly and adversely affected by sea ice. In the event of an oil spill, sea ice complicates the tracking of ice/oil trajectories and can hinder cleanup operations. There is a need for a sea ice dynamics model that can accurately simulate ice pack deformation and failure to improve the ability to track ice/oil trajectories and support oil response operations. A discrete element method (DEM) model, where each ice floe is represented by discrete elements that are initially bonded (frozen) together will be used to address the difficulty continuum modeling approaches have with representing discrete phenomena in sea ice, such as the formation of leads and ridges. Each discrete element in the DEM is a rigid body driven by environmental forcing (wind, current and Coriolis forces) and interaction forces with other discrete elements (compression, shear, tension, bond rupture and regrowth). We introduce a new DEM model ``Siku'', currently under development, to simulate ice drift of an ice floe on a spherical Earth. We will present initial free-drift results. Siku is focused on improving sea ice interaction mechanics and providing an accurate geometrical representation needed for basin scale and regional simulations. Upon completion, Siku will be an open source GNU GPL licensed user friendly program with embedded python capability for setting up simulations "scenarios" and coupling with other models to provide forcing fields. We use a unique quaternion representation for position and orientation of polygon sea-ice elements that use a second order integration scheme of sea-ice element motion on the Earth's sphere that does not depend on the location of the element and, hence, avoids numerical problems near the pole.

  10. Discrete subaortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M M; Varma, M P; Cleland, J; O'Kane, H O; Webb, S W; Mulholland, H C; Adgey, A A

    1981-01-01

    Data concerning 17 consecutive patients with discrete subaortic stenosis are recorded. Twelve patients underwent operative resection of the obstructing lesion. Of these all except one were symptomatic and all had electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular hypertrophy with strain. They had a peak resting systolic left ventricular outflow tract gradient of greater than 50 mmHg as predicted from the combined cuff measurement of systolic blood pressure and the echocardiographically estimated left ventricular systolic pressure and/or as determined by cardiac catheterisation. The outflow tract gradient as predicted from M-mode echocardiography and peak systolic pressure showed close correlation with that measured at cardiac catheterisation or operation. During the postoperative follow-up from one month to 11 years, of 11 patients, one patient required a further operation for recurrence of the obstruction four years after the initial operation. All patients are now asymptomatic. Five patients have not had an operation. The left ventricular outflow tract gradient as assessed at the time of cardiac catheterisation was greater than 50 mmHg. One patient has been lost to follow-up. The remaining four have been followed from four to eight years and have remained asymptomatic and the electrocardiograms have remained unchanged. Careful follow-up of all patients is essential with continuing clinical assessment, electrocardiograms, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms, and if necessary cardiac catheterisation. Prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis is also essential. Images PMID:6457617

  11. Discreteness inducing coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Renato Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Consider two species that diffuse through space. Consider further that they differ only in initial densities and, possibly, in diffusion constants. Otherwise they are identical. What happens if they compete with each other in the same environment? What is the influence of the discrete nature of the interactions on the final destination? And what are the influence of diffusion and additive fluctuations corresponding to random migration and immigration of individuals? This paper aims to answer these questions for a particular competition model that incorporates intra and interspecific competition between the species. Based on mean field theory, the model has a stationary state dependent on the initial density conditions. We investigate how this initial density dependence is affected by the presence of demographic multiplicative noise and additive noise in space and time. There are three main conclusions: (1) Additive noise favors denser populations at the expense of the less dense, ratifying the competitive exclusion principle. (2) Demographic noise, on the other hand, favors less dense populations at the expense of the denser ones, inducing equal densities at the quasi-stationary state, violating the aforementioned principle. (3) The slower species always suffers the more deleterious effects of statistical fluctuations in a homogeneous medium.

  12. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  13. A Discrete Lagrangian Algorithm for Optimal Routing Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmas, O. T.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2008-11-06

    The ideas of discrete Lagrangian methods for conservative systems are exploited for the construction of algorithms applicable in optimal ship routing problems. The algorithm presented here is based on the discretisation of Hamilton's principle of stationary action Lagrangian and specifically on the direct discretization of the Lagrange-Hamilton principle for a conservative system. Since, in contrast to the differential equations, the discrete Euler-Lagrange equations serve as constrains for the optimization of a given cost functional, in the present work we utilize this feature in order to minimize the cost function for optimal ship routing.

  14. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, Cosmin Sargsyan, Khachik Debusschere, Bert Najm, Habib N.

    2015-01-15

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker–Planck equation. The Fokker–Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. The performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  15. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2015-01-01

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. The performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  16. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2014-10-22

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  17. Optimal estimation for discrete time jump processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaca, M. V.; Tretter, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Optimum estimates of nonobservable random variables or random processes which influence the rate functions of a discrete time jump process (DTJP) are obtained. The approach is based on the a posteriori probability of a nonobservable event expressed in terms of the a priori probability of that event and of the sample function probability of the DTJP. A general representation for optimum estimates and recursive equations for minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimates are obtained. MMSE estimates are nonlinear functions of the observations. The problem of estimating the rate of a DTJP when the rate is a random variable with a probability density function of the form cx super K (l-x) super m and show that the MMSE estimates are linear in this case. This class of density functions explains why there are insignificant differences between optimum unconstrained and linear MMSE estimates in a variety of problems.

  18. Optimal Discretization Resolution in Algebraic Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Behzad; Kamalabadi, Farzad

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we focus on data-limited tomographic imaging problems where the underlying linear inverse problem is ill-posed. A typical regularized reconstruction algorithm uses algebraic formulation with a predetermined discretization resolution. If the selected resolution is too low, we may loose useful details of the underlying image and if it is too high, the reconstruction will be unstable and the representation will fit irrelevant features. In this work, two approaches are introduced to address this issue. The first approach is using Mallow's CL method or generalized cross-validation. For each of the two methods, a joint estimator of regularization parameter and discretization resolution is proposed and their asymptotic optimality is investigated. The second approach is a Bayesian estimator of the model order using a complexity-penalizing prior. Numerical experiments focus on a space imaging application from a set of limited-angle tomographic observations.

  19. Fluid Coupling in a Discrete Cochlear Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, S. J.; Lineton, B.; Ni, G.

    2011-11-01

    The interaction between the basilar membrane, BM, dynamics and the fluid coupling in the cochlea can be formulated using a discrete model by assuming that the BM is divided into a number of longitudinal elements. The form of the fluid coupling can then be understood by dividing it into a far field component, due to plane wave acoustic coupling, and a near field component, due to higher order evanescent acoustic modes. The effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry in the cross-sectional areas of the fluid chambers can also be accounted for within this formulation. The discrete model is used to calculate the effect on the coupled BM response of a short cochlear implant, which reduces the volume of one of the fluid chambers over about half its length. The passive response of the coupled cochlea at lower frequencies is shown to be almost unaffected by this change in volume.

  20. Degeneracy and discreteness in cosmological model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Huan-Yu; Huang, Yuan; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2016-03-01

    We explore the problems of degeneracy and discreteness in the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM). We use the Observational Hubble Data (OHD) and the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data to study this issue. In order to describe the discreteness in fitting of data, we define a factor G to test the influence from each single data point and analyze the goodness of G. Our results indicate that a higher absolute value of G shows a better capability of distinguishing models, which means the parameters are restricted into smaller confidence intervals with a larger figure of merit evaluation. Consequently, we claim that the factor G is an effective way of model differentiation when using different models to fit the observational data.

  1. On Discrete Lotka-Volterra Type Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Saburov, Mansoor

    The Lotka-Volterra (in short LV) model is a second order nonlinear differential equation frequently used to describe the dynamics of biological systems in which two groups of species, predators and their preys interact. One of the basic results of the LV model is that under suitable conditions the LV model can exhibit any asymptotical behavior such as equilibrium states, periodic cycles, and attractors. The discrete analogy of LV model has been considered by many researchers and has been called a quadratic LV model. In a discrete case, one of the unexpected results is that a quadratic LV model cannot exhibit a periodic cycle. In this paper we study nonlinear LV type models which include quadratic LV as a particular case. Unlike quadratic LV models, LV type models can exhibit any asymptotical behavior such as equilibrium states, periodic cycles, and attractors.

  2. Discrete Dirac Structures and Implicit Discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leok, Melvin; Ohsawa, Tomoki

    2010-07-01

    We present discrete analogues of Dirac structures and the Tulczyjew's triple by considering the geometry of symplectic maps and their associated generating functions. We demonstrate that this framework provides a means of deriving discrete analogues of implicit Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. In particular, this yields implicit nonholonomic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian integrators. We also introduce discrete Lagrange-d'Alembert-Pontryagin and Hamilton-d'Alembert variational principles, which provide an alternative derivation of the same set of integration algorithms. In addition to providing a unified treatment of discrete Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics in the more general setting of Dirac mechanics, it provides a generalization of symplectic and Poisson integrators to the broader category of Dirac integrators.

  3. Construction of Superconvergent Discretizations with Differential-Difference Invariants

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Axford

    2005-08-12

    To incorporate symmetry properties of second-order differential equations into finite difference equations, the concept of differential-difference invariants is introduced. This concept is applied to discretizing homogeneous eigenvalue problems and inhomogeneous two-point boundary value problems with various combinations of Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that discretizations constructed with differential-difference invariants yield exact results for eigenvalue spectra and superconvergent results for numerical solutions of differential equations.

  4. All covariance controllers for linear discrete-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Chen; Skelton, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    The set of covariances that a linear discrete-time plant with a specified-order controller can have is characterized. The controllers that assign such covariances to any linear discrete-time system are given explicitly in closed form. The freedom in these covariance controllers is explicit and is parameterized by two orthogonal matrices. By appropriately choosing these free parameters, additional system objectives can be achieved without altering the state covariance, and the stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed.

  5. OBEST: The Object-Based Event Scenario Tree Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    WYSS, GREGORY D.; DURAN, FELICIA A.

    2001-03-01

    Event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation have been used in risk assessment studies for many years. This report details how features of these two methods can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology with some of the best features of each. The resultant Object-Based Event Scenarios Tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible (especially those that exhibit inconsistent or variable event ordering, which are difficult to represent in an event tree analysis). Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST method uses a recursive algorithm to solve the object model and identify all possible scenarios and their associated probabilities. Since scenario likelihoods are developed directly by the solution algorithm, they need not be computed by statistical inference based on Monte Carlo observations (as required by some discrete event simulation methods). Thus, OBEST is not only much more computationally efficient than these simulation methods, but it also discovers scenarios that have extremely low probabilities as a natural analytical result--scenarios that would likely be missed by a Monte Carlo-based method. This report documents the OBEST methodology, the demonstration software that implements it, and provides example OBEST models for several different application domains, including interactions among failing interdependent infrastructure systems, circuit analysis for fire risk evaluation in nuclear power plants, and aviation safety studies.

  6. Discrete photonics in waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Moison, J M; Belabas, N; Minot, C; Levenson, J A

    2009-08-15

    In homogeneous arrays of coupled waveguides, Floquet-Bloch waves are known to travel freely across the waveguides. We introduce a systematic discussion of the built-in patterning of the coupling constant between neighboring waveguides. Key patterns provide functions such as redirecting, guiding, and focusing these waves, up to nonlinear all-optical routing. This opens the way to light control in a functionalized discrete space, i.e., discrete photonics.

  7. Joint Modeling of Longitudinal Data and Discrete-Time Survival Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Feiyou; Stein, Catherine M.; Elston, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A predictive joint shared parameter model is proposed for discrete time-to-event and longitudinal data. A discrete survival model with frailty and a generalized linear mixed model for the longitudinal data are joined to predict the probability of events. This joint model focuses on predicting discrete time-to-event outcome, taking advantage of repeated measurements. We show that the probability of an event in a time window can be more precisely predicted by incorporating the longitudinal measurements. The model was investigated by comparison with a two-step model and a discrete time survival model. Results from both a study on the occurrence of tuberculosis and simulated data show that the joint model is superior to the other models in discrimination ability, especially as the latent variables related to both survival times and the longitudinal measurements depart from 0. PMID:23709103

  8. Joint modeling of longitudinal data and discrete-time survival outcome.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feiyou; Stein, Catherine M; Elston, Robert C

    2016-08-01

    A predictive joint shared parameter model is proposed for discrete time-to-event and longitudinal data. A discrete survival model with frailty and a generalized linear mixed model for the longitudinal data are joined to predict the probability of events. This joint model focuses on predicting discrete time-to-event outcome, taking advantage of repeated measurements. We show that the probability of an event in a time window can be more precisely predicted by incorporating the longitudinal measurements. The model was investigated by comparison with a two-step model and a discrete-time survival model. Results from both a study on the occurrence of tuberculosis and simulated data show that the joint model is superior to the other models in discrimination ability, especially as the latent variables related to both survival times and the longitudinal measurements depart from 0.

  9. Detection of anomalous events

    DOEpatents

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  10. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms

    PubMed Central

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools. PMID:27006089

  11. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.

  12. A space-time discretization procedure for wave propagation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford

    1989-01-01

    Higher order compact algorithms are developed for the numerical simulation of wave propagation by using the concept of a discrete dispersion relation. The dispersion relation is the imprint of any linear operator in space-time. The discrete dispersion relation is derived from the continuous dispersion relation by examining the process by which locally plane waves propagate through a chosen grid. The exponential structure of the discrete dispersion relation suggests an efficient splitting of convective and diffusive terms for dissipative waves. Fourth- and eighth-order convection schemes are examined that involve only three or five spatial grid points. These algorithms are subject to the same restrictions that govern the use of dispersion relations in the constructions of asymptotic expansions to nonlinear evolution equations. A new eighth-order scheme is developed that is exact for Courant numbers of 1, 2, 3, and 4. Examples are given of a pulse and step wave with a small amount of physical diffusion.

  13. Scalable networks for discrete quantum random walks

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, S.; Osaki, H.; Buluta, I.M.; Hasegawa, S.

    2005-09-15

    Recently, quantum random walks (QRWs) have been thoroughly studied in order to develop new quantum algorithms. In this paper we propose scalable quantum networks for discrete QRWs on circles, lines, and also in higher dimensions. In our method the information about the position of the walker is stored in a quantum register and the network consists of only one-qubit rotation and (controlled){sup n}-NOT gates, therefore it is purely computational and independent of the physical implementation. As an example, we describe the experimental realization in an ion-trap system.

  14. Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2001-01-01

    A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.

  15. On classification of discrete, scalar-valued Poisson brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, E.

    2012-10-01

    We address the problem of classifying discrete differential-geometric Poisson brackets (dDGPBs) of any fixed order on a target space of dimension 1. We prove that these Poisson brackets (PBs) are in one-to-one correspondence with the intersection points of certain projective hypersurfaces. In addition, they can be reduced to a cubic PB of the standard Volterra lattice by discrete Miura-type transformations. Finally, by improving a lattice consolidation procedure, we obtain new families of non-degenerate, vector-valued and first-order dDGPBs that can be considered in the framework of admissible Lie-Poisson group theory.

  16. Geometry of discrete quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Sabry, Amr; Tai, Yu-Tsung

    2013-05-01

    Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2n infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} (based on primes p congruent to 3 (mod4)) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space \\mathbf {CP}^{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p + 1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to \\mathbf {DCP}^{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analogue of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\,\\prod _{k=1}^{n-1} ( p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} have pn(p - 1)n unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have pn + 1(p - 1)(p + 1)n - 1 maximally entangled states with purity zero.

  17. Entrainment of coarse grains using a discrete particle model

    SciTech Connect

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Arnold, Roger B. Jr.

    2014-10-06

    Conventional bedload transport models and incipient motion theories relying on a time-averaged boundary shear stress are incapable of accounting for the effects of fluctuating near-bed velocity in turbulent flow and are therefore prone to significant errors. Impulse, the product of an instantaneous force magnitude and its duration, has been recently proposed as an appropriate criterion for quantifying the effects of flow turbulence in removing coarse grains from the bed surface. Here, a discrete particle model (DPM) is used to examine the effects of impulse, representing a single idealized turbulent event, on particle entrainment. The results are classified according to the degree of grain movement into the following categories: motion prior to entrainment, initial dislodgement, and energetic displacement. The results indicate that in all three cases the degree of particle motion depends on both the force magnitude and the duration of its application and suggest that the effects of turbulence must be adequately accounted for in order to develop a more accurate method of determining incipient motion. DPM is capable of simulating the dynamics of grain entrainment and is an appropriate tool for further study of the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport.

  18. Discrete cloud structure on Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, H. B.

    1989-07-01

    Recent CCD imaging data for the discrete cloud structure of Neptune shows that while cloud features at CH4-band wavelengths are manifest in the southern hemisphere, they have not been encountered in the northern hemisphere since 1986. A literature search has shown the reflected CH4-band light from the planet to have come from a single discrete feature at least twice in the last 10 years. Disk-integrated photometry derived from the imaging has demonstrated that a bright cloud feature was responsible for the observed 8900 A diurnal variation in 1986 and 1987.

  19. Interventional tool tracking using discrete optimization.

    PubMed

    Heibel, Hauke; Glocker, Ben; Groher, Martin; Pfister, Marcus; Navab, Nassir

    2013-03-01

    This work presents a novel scheme for tracking of motion and deformation of interventional tools such as guide-wires and catheters in fluoroscopic X-ray sequences. Being able to track and thus to estimate the correct positions of these tools is crucial in order to offer guidance enhancement during interventions. The task of estimating the apparent motion is particularly challenging due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of fluoroscopic images and due to combined motion components originating from patient breathing and tool interactions performed by the physician. The presented approach is based on modeling interventional tools with B-splines whose optimal configuration of control points is determined through efficient discrete optimization. Each control point corresponds to a discrete random variable in a Markov random field (MRF) formulation where a set of labels represents the deformation space. In this context, the optimal curve corresponds to the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the MRF energy. The main motivation for employing a discrete approach is the possibility to incorporate a multi-directional search space which is robust to local minima. This is of particular interest for curve tracking under large deformation. This work analyzes feasibility of employing efficient first-order MRFs for tracking. In particular it shows how to achieve a good compromise between energy approximations and computational efficiency. Experimental results suggest to define both the external and internal energy in terms of pairwise potential functions. The method was successfully applied to the tracking of guide-wires in fluoroscopic X-ray sequences of several hundred frames which requires extremely robust techniques. Comparisons with state-of-the-art guide-wire tracking algorithms confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:23232412

  20. First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2016-05-01

    A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of

  1. Fluctuations and discreteness in diffusion limited growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devita, Jason P.

    This thesis explores the effects of fluctuations and discreteness on the growth of physical systems where diffusion plays an important role. It focuses on three related problems, all dependent on diffusion in a fundamental way, but each with its own unique challenges. With diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), the relationship between noisy and noise-free Laplacian growth is probed by averaging the results of noisy growth. By doing so in a channel geometry, we are able to compare to known solutions of the noise-free problem. We see that while the two are comparable, there are discrepancies which are not well understood. In molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we create efficient computational algorithms, by replacing random walkers (diffusing atoms) with approximately equivalent processes. In one case, the atoms are replaced by a continuum field. Solving for the dynamics of the field yields---in an average sense---the dynamics of the atoms. In the other case, the atoms are treated as individual random-walking particles, but the details of the dynamics are changed to an (approximately) equivalent set of dynamics. This approach involves allowing adatoms to take long hops. We see approximately an order of magnitude speed up for simulating island dynamics, mound growth, and Ostwald ripening. Some ideas from the study of MBE are carried over to the study of front propagation in reaction-diffusion systems. Many of the analytic results about front propagation are derived from continuum models. It is unclear, however, that these results accurately describe the properties of a discrete system. It is reasonable to think that discrete systems will converge to the continuum results when sufficiently many particles are included. However, computational evidence of this is difficult to obtain, since the interesting properties tend to depend on a power law of the logarithm of the number of particles. Thus, the number of particles included in simulations must be exceedingly large. By

  2. COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY OF VARIOUS SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION SCHEMES OF THE DISCRETE ORDINATES EQUATIONS IN 2D CARTESIAN GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian Schunert; Yousry Y. Azmy; Damien Fournier

    2011-05-01

    We present a comprehensive error estimation of four spatial discretization schemes of the two-dimensional Discrete Ordinates (SN) equations on Cartesian grids utilizing a Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) benchmark suite based on variants of Larsen’s benchmark featuring different orders of smoothness of the underlying exact solution. The considered spatial discretization schemes include the arbitrarily high order transport methods of the nodal (AHOTN) and characteristic (AHOTC) types, the discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DGFEM) and the recently proposed higher order diamond difference method (HODD) of spatial expansion orders 0 through 3. While AHOTN and AHOTC rely on approximate analytical solutions of the transport equation within a mesh cell, DGFEM and HODD utilize a polynomial expansion to mimick the angular flux profile across each mesh cell. Intuitively, due to the higher degree of analyticity, we expect AHOTN and AHOTC to feature superior accuracy compared with DGFEM and HODD, but at the price of potentially longer grind times and numerical instabilities. The latter disadvantages can result from the presence of exponential terms evaluated at the cell optical thickness that arise from the semianalytical solution process. This work quantifies the order of accuracy and the magnitude of the error of all four discretization methods for different optical thicknesses, scattering ratios and degrees of smoothness of the underlying exact solutions in order to verify or contradict the aforementioned intuitive expectation.

  3. On discrete control of nonlinear systems with applications to robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Mansour

    1989-01-01

    Much progress has been reported in the areas of modeling and control of nonlinear dynamic systems in a continuous-time framework. From implementation point of view, however, it is essential to study these nonlinear systems directly in a discrete setting that is amenable for interfacing with digital computers. But to develop discrete models and discrete controllers for a nonlinear system such as robot is a nontrivial task. Robot is also inherently a variable-inertia dynamic system involving additional complications. Not only the computer-oriented models of these systems must satisfy the usual requirements for such models, but these must also be compatible with the inherent capabilities of computers and must preserve the fundamental physical characteristics of continuous-time systems such as the conservation of energy and/or momentum. Preliminary issues regarding discrete systems in general and discrete models of a typical industrial robot that is developed with full consideration of the principle of conservation of energy are presented. Some research on the pertinent tactile information processing is reviewed. Finally, system control methods and how to integrate these issues in order to complete the task of discrete control of a robot manipulator are also reviewed.

  4. Harmonic Pinnacles in the Discrete Gaussian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubetzky, Eyal; Martinelli, Fabio; Sly, Allan

    2016-06-01

    The 2 D Discrete Gaussian model gives each height function {η : {mathbb{Z}^2tomathbb{Z}}} a probability proportional to {exp(-β mathcal{H}(η))}, where {β} is the inverse-temperature and {mathcal{H}(η) = sum_{x˜ y}(η_x-η_y)^2} sums over nearest-neighbor bonds. We consider the model at large fixed {β}, where it is flat unlike its continuous analog (the Discrete Gaussian Free Field). We first establish that the maximum height in an {L× L} box with 0 boundary conditions concentrates on two integers M, M + 1 with {M˜ √{(1/2πβ)log Lloglog L}}. The key is a large deviation estimate for the height at the origin in {mathbb{Z}2}, dominated by "harmonic pinnacles", integer approximations of a harmonic variational problem. Second, in this model conditioned on {η≥ 0} (a floor), the average height rises, and in fact the height of almost all sites concentrates on levels H, H + 1 where {H˜ M/√{2}}. This in particular pins down the asymptotics, and corrects the order, in results of Bricmont et al. (J. Stat. Phys. 42(5-6):743-798, 1986), where it was argued that the maximum and the height of the surface above a floor are both of order {√{log L}}. Finally, our methods extend to other classical surface models (e.g., restricted SOS), featuring connections to p-harmonic analysis and alternating sign matrices.

  5. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    DOE PAGES

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2014-10-22

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discretemore » and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.« less

  6. Input-output identification of controlled discrete manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Vargas, Ana Paula; López-Mellado, Ernesto; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The automated construction of discrete event models from observations of external system's behaviour is addressed. This problem, often referred to as system identification, allows obtaining models of ill-known (or even unknown) systems. In this article, an identification method for discrete event systems (DESs) controlled by a programmable logic controller is presented. The method allows processing a large quantity of observed long sequences of input/output signals generated by the controller and yields an interpreted Petri net model describing the closed-loop behaviour of the automated DESs. The proposed technique allows the identification of actual complex systems because it is sufficiently efficient and well adapted to cope with both the technological characteristics of industrial controllers and data collection requirements. Based on polynomial-time algorithms, the method is implemented as an efficient software tool which constructs and draws the model automatically; an overview of this tool is given through a case study dealing with an automated manufacturing system.

  7. Blade-order-dependent radiocarbon variability in brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) reflected a cold Oyashio water intrusion event in an embayment of the Sanriku coast, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, N.; Fukuda, H.; Miyairi, Y.; Yokoyama, Y.; Nagata, T.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocarbon in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater varies greatly, both geographically and with depth. This "reservoir effect" is thought to be reflected in the radiocarbon content (∆14C) of marine organisms, via DIC fixation by primary producers and subsequent trophic transfer. The ∆14C of marine organismal soft tissues might thus provide unique information about their habitats, diets, migration and other environmental histories. However, the effectiveness of this approach has yet to be extensively explored, with data on ∆14C variability in soft tissues of marine organisms being markedly limited. Here we examined whether ∆14C values of individual pinnate blades (leaf-like structures) of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) reflect the ∆14C of DIC in the water current prevailing at the time of blade formation. The study was conducted in Otsuchi Bay located in the Sanriku coastal region, northeastern Japan, where 14C-depleted cold Oyashio current and warm Tsugaru current (high ∆14C) converge, affecting the physiology and growth of marine organisms growing there. U. pinnatifida individuals cultured in the bay (length of saprophytes, 140-215 cm) were harvested in April 2014 and ∆14C of blades were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry. Younger blades formed after the Oyashio water intrusion had significantly lower ∆14C values compared to older blades formed before the event. The ∆14C values of younger and older blades were generally consistent with the ∆14C of DIC in Oyashio (-60.5 ‰) and Tsugaru (24.9 ‰) waters, respectively. Thus, despite possible turnover of organic carbon in seaweed soft tissues, blade-order-dependent ∆14C variability appeared to strongly reflect the Oyashio intrusion event (radiocarbon shift) in the bay.

  8. Discrete gauge symmetries in discrete MSSM-like orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, L. E.; Schellekens, A. N.; Uranga, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the necessity of discrete ZN symmetries in the MSSM to insure baryon stability, we study the origin of discrete gauge symmetries from open string sector U(1)'s in orientifolds based on rational conformal field theory. By means of an explicit construction, we find an integral basis for the couplings of axions and U(1) factors for all simple current MIPFs and orientifolds of all 168 Gepner models, a total of 32 990 distinct cases. We discuss how the presence of discrete symmetries surviving as a subgroup of broken U(1)'s can be derived using this basis. We apply this procedure to models with MSSM chiral spectrum, concretely to all known U(3)×U(2)×U(1)×U(1) and U(3)×Sp(2)×U(1)×U(1) configurations with chiral bi-fundamentals, but no chiral tensors, as well as some SU(5) GUT models. We find examples of models with Z2 (R-parity) and Z3 symmetries that forbid certain B and/or L violating MSSM couplings. Their presence is however relatively rare, at the level of a few percent of all cases.

  9. Dark Energy from Discrete Spacetime

    PubMed Central

    Trout, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502

  10. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    PubMed

    Trout, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  11. A FORTRAN Program for Discrete Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, James O.; Brewer, James K.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran program is presented for discriminant analysis of discrete variables. The program assumes discrete, nominal data with no distributional, variance-covariance assumptions. The program handles a maximum of fifty predictor variables and twelve outcome groups. (Author/JKS)

  12. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-04-01

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos-Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  13. Analysis of discretization errors in LES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosal, Sandip

    1995-01-01

    All numerical simulations of turbulence (DNS or LES) involve some discretization errors. The integrity of such simulations therefore depend on our ability to quantify and control such errors. In the classical literature on analysis of errors in partial differential equations, one typically studies simple linear equations (such as the wave equation or Laplace's equation). The qualitative insight gained from studying such simple situations is then used to design numerical methods for more complex problems such as the Navier-Stokes equations. Though such an approach may seem reasonable as a first approximation, it should be recognized that strongly nonlinear problems, such as turbulence, have a feature that is absent in linear problems. This feature is the simultaneous presence of a continuum of space and time scales. Thus, in an analysis of errors in the one dimensional wave equation, one may, without loss of generality, rescale the equations so that the dependent variable is always of order unity. This is not possible in the turbulence problem since the amplitudes of the Fourier modes of the velocity field have a continuous distribution. The objective of the present research is to provide some quantitative measures of numerical errors in such situations. Though the focus of this work is LES, the methods introduced here can be just as easily applied to DNS. Errors due to discretization of the time-variable are neglected for the purpose of this analysis.

  14. Analysis of stochastic effects in Kaldor-type business cycle discrete model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev; Sysolyatina, Anna

    2016-07-01

    We study nonlinear stochastic phenomena in the discrete Kaldor model of business cycles. A numerical parametric analysis of stochastically forced attractors (equilibria, closed invariant curves, discrete cycles) of this model is performed using the stochastic sensitivity functions technique. A spatial arrangement of random states in stochastic attractors is modeled by confidence domains. The phenomenon of noise-induced transitions "chaos-order" is discussed.

  15. Observability of discretized partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.

  16. From ordinary to discrete quantum mechanics: The Charlier oscillator and its coalgebra symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, D.; Riglioni, D.

    2016-10-01

    The coalgebraic structure of the harmonic oscillator is used to underline possible connections between continuous and discrete superintegrable models which can be described in terms of SUSY discrete quantum mechanics. A set of 1-parameter algebraic transformations is introduced in order to generate a discrete representation for the coalgebraic harmonic oscillator. This set of transformations is shown to play a role in the generalization of classical orthogonal polynomials to the realm of discrete orthogonal polynomials in the Askey scheme. As an explicit example the connection between Hermite and Charlier oscillators, that share the same coalgebraic structure, is presented and a two-dimensional maximally superintegrable version of the Charlier oscillator is constructed.

  17. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  18. Galerkin/Runge-Kutta discretizations for semilinear parabolic equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of fully discrete Galerkin/Runge-Kutta methods is constructed and analyzed for semilinear parabolic initial boundary value problems. Unlike any classical counterpart, this class offers arbitrarily high, optimal order convergence. In support of this claim, error estimates are proved, and computational results are presented. Furthermore, it is noted that special Runge-Kutta methods allow computations to be performed in parallel so that the final execution time can be reduced to that of a low order method.

  19. Isomer ratio calculations using modeled discrete levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.; Hoff, R.W.

    1984-10-16

    Isomer ratio calculations were made for the reactions: /sup 175/Lu(n,..gamma..)/sup 176m,g/Lu, /sup 175/Lu(n,2n)/sup 174m,g/Lu, /sup 237/Np(n,2n)/sup 236m,g/Np, /sup 241/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 242m,g/Am, and /sup 243/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 244m,g/Am using modeled level structures in the deformed, odd-odd product nuclei. The hundreds of discrete levels and their gamma-ray branching ratios provided by the modeling are necessary to achieve agreement with experiment. Many rotational bands must be included in order to obtain a sufficiently representative selection of K quantum numbers. The levels of each band must be extended to appropriately high values of angular momentum.

  20. Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects.

  1. Discrete Fourier transforms of nonuniformly spaced data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Time series or spatial series of measurements taken with nonuniform spacings have failed to yield fully to analysis using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). This is due to the fact that the formal DFT is the convolution of the transform of the signal with the transform of the nonuniform spacings. Two original methods are presented for deconvolving such transforms for signals containing significant noise. The first method solves a set of linear equations relating the observed data to values defined at uniform grid points, and then obtains the desired transform as the DFT of the uniform interpolates. The second method solves a set of linear equations relating the real and imaginary components of the formal DFT directly to those of the desired transform. The results of numerical experiments with noisy data are presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the methods.

  2. A discrete element and ray framework for rapid simulation of acoustical dispersion of microscale particulate agglomerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohdi, T. I.

    2016-03-01

    In industry, particle-laden fluids, such as particle-functionalized inks, are constructed by adding fine-scale particles to a liquid solution, in order to achieve desired overall properties in both liquid and (cured) solid states. However, oftentimes undesirable particulate agglomerations arise due to some form of mutual-attraction stemming from near-field forces, stray electrostatic charges, process ionization and mechanical adhesion. For proper operation of industrial processes involving particle-laden fluids, it is important to carefully breakup and disperse these agglomerations. One approach is to target high-frequency acoustical pressure-pulses to breakup such agglomerations. The objective of this paper is to develop a computational model and corresponding solution algorithm to enable rapid simulation of the effect of acoustical pulses on an agglomeration composed of a collection of discrete particles. Because of the complex agglomeration microstructure, containing gaps and interfaces, this type of system is extremely difficult to mesh and simulate using continuum-based methods, such as the finite difference time domain or the finite element method. Accordingly, a computationally-amenable discrete element/discrete ray model is developed which captures the primary physical events in this process, such as the reflection and absorption of acoustical energy, and the induced forces on the particulate microstructure. The approach utilizes a staggered, iterative solution scheme to calculate the power transfer from the acoustical pulse to the particles and the subsequent changes (breakup) of the pulse due to the particles. Three-dimensional examples are provided to illustrate the approach.

  3. Discrete virus infection model of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Min, Lequan; Pian, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    In 1996 Nowak and his colleagues proposed a differential equation virus infection model, which has been widely applied in the study for the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Biological dynamics may be described more practically by discrete events rather than continuous ones. Using discrete systems to describe biological dynamics should be reasonable. Based on one revised Nowak et al's virus infection model, this study introduces a discrete virus infection model (DVIM). Two equilibriums of this model, E1 and E2, represents infection free and infection persistent, respectively. Similar to the case of the basic virus infection model, this study deduces a basic virus reproductive number R0 independing on the number of total cells of an infected target organ. A proposed theorem proves that if the basic virus reproductive number R0<1 then the virus free equilibrium E1 is locally stable. The DVIM is more reasonable than an abstract discrete susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIRS) whose basic virus reproductive number R0 is relevant to the number of total cells of the infected target organ. As an application, this study models the clinic HBV DNA data of a patient who was accepted via anti-HBV infection therapy with drug lamivudine. The results show that the numerical simulation is good in agreement with the clinic data.

  4. Identification of micro parameters for discrete element simulation of agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palis, Stefan; Antonyuk, Sergiy; Dosta, Maksym; Heinrich, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical behaviour of solid particles like agglomerates, granules or crystals strongly depends on their micro structure, e.g. structural defects and porosity. In order to model the mechanical behaviour of these inhomogeneous media the discrete element method has been proven to be an appropriate tool. The model parameters used are typically micro parameters like bond stiffness, particle-particle contact stiffness, strength of the bonds. Due to the lack of general methods for a direct micro parameter determination, normally laborious parameter adaptation has to be done in order to fit experiment and simulation. In this contribution a systematic and automatic way for parameter adaptation using real experiments is proposed. Due to the fact, that discrete element models are typically systems of differential equations of very high order, gradient based methods are not suitable. Hence, the focus will be on derivative free methods.

  5. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  6. Notes on Accuracy of Finite-Volume Discretization Schemes on Irregular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Truncation-error analysis is a reliable tool in predicting convergence rates of discretization errors on regular smooth grids. However, it is often misleading in application to finite-volume discretization schemes on irregular (e.g., unstructured) grids. Convergence of truncation errors severely degrades on general irregular grids; a design-order convergence can be achieved only on grids with a certain degree of geometric regularity. Such degradation of truncation-error convergence does not necessarily imply a lower-order convergence of discretization errors. In these notes, irregular-grid computations demonstrate that the design-order discretization-error convergence can be achieved even when truncation errors exhibit a lower-order convergence or, in some cases, do not converge at all.

  7. Discrete auroras and magnetotail processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, L. R.

    Important information about magnetospheric phenomena associated with auroras and substorms can be inferred from low-altitude auroral observations. Satellite observations have shown that discrete auroral arcs lie within a boundary plasma sheet (BPS) region that is outside the central plasma sheet (CPS). The observations imply that arcs are generated along BPS field lines by magnetospheric processes that form large, perpendicular electric field structures. The BPS and the arc generation processes apparently lie along field lines that are in the vicinity of the boundary between open and closed field lines and cross the tail (or magnetopause) current sheet. Ground-based observations show that the first indication of a substorm onset is the brightening of a quiet, discrete arc. This suggests that substorms are initiated along the BPS field lines associated with arc generation, and not within the CPS. Finally, auroral observations have shown that the area of open, polar-cap field lines varies considerably during periods of geomagnetic activity. Expansion of the polar cap has the potential for releasing trapped plasma sheet particles along freshly open field lines. The resulting evacuation of field lines has the potential for being an important loss process for the plasma sheet and for being a source of tailward flows and energetic particle bursts in the tail.

  8. Investigating the Photon Strength Function to Discrete Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedeking, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Burke, J. T.; Hatarik, R.; Lesher, S. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Krtička, M.; Allmond, J. M.; Basunia, M. S.; Fallon, P.; Firestone, R. B.; Goldblum, B. L.; Lake, P. T.; Lee, I.-Y.; Paschalis, S.; Petri, M.; Phair, L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade several measurements in medium mass nuclei have reported a low-energy enhancement in the photon strength function. Although, much effort has been invested in unravelling the mysteries of this effect, its physical origin is still not understood. Here, a completely model-independent experimental approach to investigate the possible existence of this enhancement is presented. The experiment was designed to study statistical feeding from the quasi-continuum (below the neutron separation energy) to individual low-lying discrete levels in 95Mo produced in the (d,p) reaction. A key aspect to successfully study gamma decay from the region of high level-density is the detection and extraction of correlated particle-gamma-gamma events which was accomplished using an array of Clover HPGe detectors and large area annular silicon detectors. The entrance channel excitation energy into the residual nucleus produced in the reaction was inferred from the detected proton energies in the silicon detectors. Gating on gamma-transitions originating from low-lying discrete levels specifies the state fed by statistical gamma-rays. Any particle-gamma-gamma event in combination with specific energy sum requirements ensures a clean and unambiguous determination of the initial and final state of the observed gamma rays. With these requirements the statistical feeding to individual discrete levels is extracted on an event-by-event basis. The latest results are presented and compared to 95Mo photon strength function data measured at the University of Oslo by Guttormsen et al. In particular, questions regarding the existence of the low-energy enhancement in the photon strength function are addressed.

  9. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE 2012) was held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, from 3-7 December 2012 and was organised by Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP) of Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. This is the sequel to the Symposia that was successfully organised in Valéncia in 2008 and in Rome in 2010. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking Discrete symmetries and models of flavour mixing Baryogenesis, leptogenesis Neutrino physics Electroweak symmetry breaking and physics beyond the Standard Model Accidental symmetries (B, L conservation) Experimental prospects at LHC Dark matter searches Super flavour factories, and other new experimental facilities The Symposium was organised in plenary sessions with a total of 24 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 70 talks, including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Ignatios Antoniadis, Abdelhak Djouadi, Rabindra Mohapatra, André Rubbia, Alexei Yu Smirnov, José Bernabéu, Marco Cirelli, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Antonio Di Domenico, Robertus Potting, João Varela, Frank Rathmann, Michele Gallinaro, Dumitru Ghilencea, Neville Harnew, John Walsh, Patrícia Conde Muíño, Juan Aguilar-Saavedra, Nick Mavromatos, Ulrich Nierste, Ferruccio Feruglio, Vasiliki Mitsou, Masanori Yamauchi, and Marcello Giorgi. The Symposium was attended by about 140 participants. Among the social events, there was a social dinner in the historical Associação Comercial de Lisboa, which included a musical performance of 'Fado', the traditional music from Lisbon. The next symposium of the series will be organised by King's College, London University, UK, from 1-5 December 2014. Guest Editors G C Branco, D Emmanuel-Costa, R González Felipe, F R Joaquim, L Lavoura, S Palomares-Ruiz, M N Rebelo, J C

  10. Directed assembly of discrete gold nanoparticle groupings usingbranched DNA scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, Shelley A.; Goh, Sarah L.; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Williams, Shara C.; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-09-14

    The concept of self-assembled dendrimers is explored for the creation of discrete nanoparticle assemblies. Hybridization of branched DNA trimers and nanoparticle-DNA conjugates results in the synthesis of nanoparticle trimer and tetramer complexes. Multiple tetramer architectures are investigated, utilizing Au-DNA conjugates with varying secondary structural motifs. Hybridization products are analyzed by gel electrophoresis, and discrete bands are observed corresponding to structures with increasing numbers of hybridization events. Samples extracted from each band are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, and statistics compiled from micrographs are used to compare assembly characteristics for each architecture. Asymmetric structures are also produced in which both 5 and 10 nm Au particles are assembled on branched scaffolds.

  11. Observers for discrete-time nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Walter D.

    Observer synthesis for discrete-time nonlinear systems with special applications to parameter estimation is analyzed. Two new types of observers are developed. The first new observer is an adaptation of the Friedland continuous-time parameter estimator to discrete-time systems. The second observer is an adaptation of the continuous-time Gauthier observer to discrete-time systems. By adapting these observers to discrete-time continuous-time parameter estimation problems which were formerly intractable become tractable. In addition to the two newly developed observers, two observers already described in the literature are analyzed and deficiencies with respect to noise rejection are demonstrated. Improved versions of these observers are proposed and their performance demonstrated. The issues of discrete-time observability, discrete-time system inversion, and optimal probing are also addressed.

  12. Ideal shrinking and expansion of discrete sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Ideal methods are described for shrinking or expanding a discrete sequence, image, or image sequence. The methods are ideal in the sense that they preserve the frequency spectrum of the input up to the Nyquist limit of the input or output, whichever is smaller. Fast implementations that make use of the discrete Fourier transform or the discrete Hartley transform are described. The techniques lead to a new multiresolution image pyramid.

  13. Determinant Expressions for Discrete Integrable Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi

    2006-08-01

    Explicit formulas for several discrete integrable maps with periodic boundary condition are obtained, which give the sequential time developments in a form of the quotient of successive determinants of tri-diagonal matrices. We can expect that such formulas make the corresponding numerical simulations simple and stable. The cases of discrete Lotka-Volterra and discrete KdV equations are demonstrated by using the common algorithm computing determinants of tri-diagonal matrices.

  14. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  15. Discretizing gravity in warped spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Matthew; Randall, Lisa; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Thambyahpillai, Shiyamala

    2005-07-11

    We investigate the discretized version of the compact Randall-Sundrum model. By studying the mass eigenstates of the lattice theory, we demonstrate that for warped space, unlike for flat space, the strong coupling scale does not depend on the IR scale and lattice size. However, strong coupling does prevent us from taking the continuum limit of the lattice theory. Nonetheless, the lattice theory works in the manifestly holographic regime and successfully reproduces the most significant features of the warped theory. It is even in some respects better than the KK theory, which must be carefully regulated to obtain the correct physical results. Because it is easier to construct lattice theories than to find exact solutions to GR, we expect lattice gravity to be a useful tool for exploring field theory in curved space.

  16. Lepton mixing and discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    The pattern of lepton mixing can emerge from breaking a flavor symmetry in different ways in the neutrino and charged lepton Yukawa sectors. In this framework, we derive the model-independent conditions imposed on the mixing matrix by the structure of discrete groups of the von Dyck type which include A4, S4, and A5. We show that, in general, these conditions lead to at least two equations for the mixing parameters (angles and CP phase δ). These constraints, which correspond to unbroken residual symmetries, are consistent with nonzero 13 mixing and deviations from maximal 2-3 mixing. For the simplest case, which leads to an S4 model and reproduces the allowed values of the mixing angles, we predict δ=(90°-120°).

  17. Scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jesus; Taylor, Padraic

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems. By allowing more general boundary conditions and by imposing less restrictions on the nonlinearities, we obtain results that extend previous work in the area of discrete boundary value problems [Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Periodic solutions of nonlinear discrete-time systems, Appl. Anal. 62 (1996) 119-137; Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Scalar discrete nonlinear two-point boundary value problems, J. Difference Equ. Appl. 4 (1998) 127-144].

  18. Discrete geometry: speculations on a new framework for classical electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hemion, G.

    1988-10-01

    An attempt is made to describe the basic principles of physics in terms of discrete partially ordered sets. Geometric ideas are introduced by means of an action at a distance formulation of classical electrodynamics. The speculations are in two main directions: (i) Gravity, one of the four elementary forces of nature, seems to be fundamentally different from the other three forces. Could it be that gravity can be explained as a natural consequence of the discrete structure. (ii) The problem of the observer in quantum mechanics continues to cause conceptual problems. Can quantum statistics be explained in terms of finite ensembles of possible partially ordered sets. The development is guided at all stages by reference to the simplest, and most well-established principles of physics.

  19. Lepton mixing patterns from a scan of finite discrete groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthausen, Martin; Lim, Kher Sham; Lindner, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    The recent discovery of a non-zero value of the mixing angle θ13 has ruled out tri-bimaximal mixing as the correct lepton mixing pattern generated by some discrete flavor symmetry (barring large next-to-leading order corrections in concrete models). In this work we assume that neutrinos are Majorana particles and perform a general scan of all finite discrete groups with order less than 1536 to obtain their predictions for lepton mixing angles. To our surprise, the scan of over one million groups only yields 3 interesting groups that give lepton mixing patterns which lie within 3-sigma of the current best global fit values. A systematic way to categorize such groups and the implications for flavor symmetry are discussed.

  20. Stable grid refinement and singular source discretization for seismic wave simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-10-30

    An energy conserving discretization of the elastic wave equation in second order formulation is developed for a composite grid, consisting of a set of structured rectangular component grids with hanging nodes on the grid refinement interface. Previously developed summation-by-parts properties are generalized to devise a stable second order accurate coupling of the solution across mesh refinement interfaces. The discretization of singular source terms of point force and point moment tensor type are also studied. Based on enforcing discrete moment conditions that mimic properties of the Dirac distribution and its gradient, previous single grid formulas are generalized to work in the vicinity of grid refinement interfaces. These source discretization formulas are shown to give second order accuracy in the solution, with the error being essentially independent of the distance between the source and the grid refinement boundary. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the properties of the proposed method.

  1. Discrete-time infinity control problem with measurement feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoorvogel, A. A.; Saberi, A.; Chen, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with measurement feedback. The authors extend previous results by having weaker assumptions on the system parameters. The authors also show explicitly the structure of H(sub infinity) controllers. Finally, they show that it is in certain cases possible, without loss of performance, to reduce the dynamical order of the controllers.

  2. Exploring Discretization Error in Simulation-Based Aerodynamic Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the level of discretization error in simulation-based aerodynamic databases and introduces strategies for error control. Simulations are performed using a parallel, multi-level Euler solver on embedded-boundary Cartesian meshes. Discretization errors in user-selected outputs are estimated using the method of adjoint-weighted residuals and we use adaptive mesh refinement to reduce these errors to specified tolerances. Using this framework, we examine the behavior of discretization error throughout a token database computed for a NACA 0012 airfoil consisting of 120 cases. We compare the cost and accuracy of two approaches for aerodynamic database generation. In the first approach, mesh adaptation is used to compute all cases in the database to a prescribed level of accuracy. The second approach conducts all simulations using the same computational mesh without adaptation. We quantitatively assess the error landscape and computational costs in both databases. This investigation highlights sensitivities of the database under a variety of conditions. The presence of transonic shocks or the stiffness in the governing equations near the incompressible limit are shown to dramatically increase discretization error requiring additional mesh resolution to control. Results show that such pathologies lead to error levels that vary by over factor of 40 when using a fixed mesh throughout the database. Alternatively, controlling this sensitivity through mesh adaptation leads to mesh sizes which span two orders of magnitude. We propose strategies to minimize simulation cost in sensitive regions and discuss the role of error-estimation in database quality.

  3. Lax representations and integrable time discretizations of the DDKdV, DDmKdV, and DDHOKdV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zuonong; Huang, Hongci; Xue, Weimin

    1999-02-01

    From a proper 2 × 2 discrete isospectral problem, a new differential-difference integrable equation in Lax sense is proposed by a discrete zero curvature equation. The DDKdV (differential-difference DdV equation) proposed by Ohta and Hirota and DDCDGKS (DD Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada equation) are rederived. Some other new discrete KdV equations, discrete mKdV equations and discrete high order KdV equations which converge to the corresponding continuous soliton equations in the continuum limit are obtained. Integrable time discretizations of the DDKdV, DDmKdV (differential-difference mKdV equation) and DDHOKdV (differential-difference high order KdV equations) are given.

  4. A Piecewise Bi-Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Sn Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Chang, J H; Warsa, J S; Adams, M L

    2010-12-22

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional Cartesian (X-Y) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. The discretization is a discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) that utilizes piecewise bi-linear (PWBL) basis functions, which are formally introduced in this paper. We also present a series of numerical results on quadrilateral and polygonal grids and compare these results to a variety of other spatial discretizations that have been shown to be successful on these grid types. Finally, we note that the properties of the PWBL basis functions are such that the leading-order piecewise bi-linear discontinuous finite element (PWBLD) solution will satisfy a reasonably accurate diffusion discretization in the thick diffusion limit, making the PWBLD method a viable candidate for many different classes of transport problems.

  5. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  6. Event shape sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  7. Quantum-trajectory thermodynamics with discrete feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zongping; Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We employ the quantum-jump-trajectory approach to construct a systematic framework to study the thermodynamics at the trajectory level in a nonequilibrium open quantum system under discrete feedback control. Within this framework, we derive quantum versions of the generalized Jarzynski equalities, which are demonstrated in an isolated pseudospin system and a coherently driven two-level open quantum system. Due to quantum coherence and measurement backaction, a fundamental distinction from the classical generalized Jarzynski equalities emerges in the quantum versions, which is characterized by a large negative information gain reflecting genuinely quantum rare events. A possible experimental scheme to test our findings in superconducting qubits is discussed.

  8. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  9. Maintenance Event

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-22

    Time:  08:00 am - 08:30 am EDT Event Impact:  Science Directorate websites will ... outage Thursday morning, 7/24, to perform upgrades to the web environment and are expected to be down for about 30 minutes. ...

  10. 5 CFR 572.102 - Agency discretion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency discretion. 572.102 Section 572.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES; NEW APPOINTEES AND INTERVIEWS § 572.102 Agency discretion. Payment of travel...

  11. Current Density and Continuity in Discretized Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schrodinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying…

  12. Covariance control of discrete stochastic bilinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Kherat, S. M.; Yaz, E.

    1991-01-01

    The covariances that certain bilinear stochastic discrete time systems may possess are characterized. An explicit parameterization of all controllers that assign such covariances is given. The state feedback assignability and robustness of the system are discussed from a deterministic point of view. This work extends the theory of covariance control for continuous time bilinear systems to a discrete time setting.

  13. Discrete/PWM Ballast-Resistor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit offers low switching loss and automatic compensation for failure of ballast resistor. Discrete/PWM ballast-resistor controller improved shunt voltage-regulator circuit designed to supply power from high-resistance source to low-impedance bus. Provides both coarse discrete voltage levels (by switching of ballast resistors) and continuous fine control of voltage via pulse-width modulation.

  14. Discreteness and Gradience in Intonational Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Three experimental techniques that can be used to investigate the gradient of discrete nature of intonational differences, the semantic task, the imitation task, and the pitch range task are discussed and evaluated. It is pointed out that categorical perception is a sufficient but not a necessary, property of phonological discreteness. (Author/VWL)

  15. Active control of turbomachine discrete tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleeter, Sanford

    This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.

  16. Generalized exponential function and discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto Martinez, Alexandre; Silva González, Rodrigo; Lauri Espíndola, Aquino

    2009-07-01

    Here we show that a particular one-parameter generalization of the exponential function is suitable to unify most of the popular one-species discrete population dynamic models into a simple formula. A physical interpretation is given to this new introduced parameter in the context of the continuous Richards model, which remains valid for the discrete case. From the discretization of the continuous Richards’ model (generalization of the Gompertz and Verhulst models), one obtains a generalized logistic map and we briefly study its properties. Notice, however that the physical interpretation for the introduced parameter persists valid for the discrete case. Next, we generalize the (scramble competition) θ-Ricker discrete model and analytically calculate the fixed points as well as their stabilities. In contrast to previous generalizations, from the generalized θ-Ricker model one is able to retrieve either scramble or contest models.

  17. Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method.

  18. Clutter from non-discrete seabed structures.

    PubMed

    Holland, Charles W; Ellis, Dale D

    2012-06-01

    Clutter, or discrete target-like returns, is the most significant problem in the employment of active sonar. It is well understood that discrete objects, which are of the same spatial scale as the target and which possess a significant impedance contrast to the surrounding ocean, can lead to clutter. Here a somewhat counter-intuitive result is shown: that discrete target-like returns can occur from slowly varying seabed structures. The range dependence of the seabed can be weak and smooth-due to changes in layer thicknesses, sound speed, or both. Thus, this clutter mechanism may be a viable hypothesis for areas in which seabed clutter has been observed, but no discrete features, buried or proud, could be found. By using a broadband source, the time-frequency evolution of this clutter could be a useful way to discriminate against other kinds of clutter; e.g., that due to discrete objects.

  19. MULTISCALE DISCRETIZATION OF SHAPE CONTOURS

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, L.; Rao, R.

    2000-09-01

    We present an efficient multi-scale scheme to adaptively approximate the continuous (or densely sampled) contour of a planar shape at varying resolutions. The notion of shape is intimately related to the notion of contour, and the efficient representation of the contour of a shape is vital to a computational understanding of the shape. Any polygonal approximation of a planar smooth curve is equivalent to a piecewise constant approximation of the parameterized X and Y coordinate functions of a discrete point set obtained by densely sampling the curve. Using the Haar wavelet transform for the piecewise approximation yields a hierarchical scheme in which the size of the approximating point set is traded off against the morphological accuracy of the approximation. Our algorithm compresses the representation of the initial shape contour to a sparse sequence of points in the plane defining the vertices of the shape's polygonal approximation. Furthermore, it is possible to control the overall resolution of the approximation by a single, scale-independent parameter.

  20. Medical futility and physician discretion

    PubMed Central

    Wreen, M

    2004-01-01

    Some patients have no chance of surviving if not treated, but very little chance if treated. A number of medical ethicists and physicians have argued that treatment in such cases is medically futile and a matter of physician discretion. This paper critically examines that position. According to Howard Brody and others, a judgment of medical futility is a purely technical matter, which physicians are uniquely qualified to make. Although Brody later retracted these claims, he held to the view that physicians need not consult the patient or his family to determine their values before deciding not to treat. This is because professional integrity dictates that treatment should not be undertaken. The argument for this claim is that medicine is a profession and a social practice, and thus capable of breaches of professional integrity. Underlying professional integrity are two moral principles, one concerning harm, the other fraud. According to Brody both point to the fact that when the odds of survival are very low treatment is a violation of professional integrity. The details of this skeletal argument are exposed and explained, and the full argument is criticised. On a number of counts, it is found wanting. If anything, professional integrity points to the opposite conclusion. PMID:15173362

  1. Accuracy Analysis for Finite-Volume Discretization Schemes on Irregular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    A new computational analysis tool, downscaling test, is introduced and applied for studying the convergence rates of truncation and discretization errors of nite-volume discretization schemes on general irregular (e.g., unstructured) grids. The study shows that the design-order convergence of discretization errors can be achieved even when truncation errors exhibit a lower-order convergence or, in some cases, do not converge at all. The downscaling test is a general, efficient, accurate, and practical tool, enabling straightforward extension of verification and validation to general unstructured grid formulations. It also allows separate analysis of the interior, boundaries, and singularities that could be useful even in structured-grid settings. There are several new findings arising from the use of the downscaling test analysis. It is shown that the discretization accuracy of a common node-centered nite-volume scheme, known to be second-order accurate for inviscid equations on triangular grids, degenerates to first order for mixed grids. Alternative node-centered schemes are presented and demonstrated to provide second and third order accuracies on general mixed grids. The local accuracy deterioration at intersections of tangency and in flow/outflow boundaries is demonstrated using the DS tests tailored to examining the local behavior of the boundary conditions. The discretization-error order reduction within inviscid stagnation regions is demonstrated. The accuracy deterioration is local, affecting mainly the velocity components, but applies to any order scheme.

  2. Asymptotic analysis of discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xia; Yuan, Guang-wei; Shen, Zhi-jun

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by providing well-behaved fully discrete schemes in practice, this paper extends the asymptotic analysis on time integration methods for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion in [2] to space discretizations. Therein studies were carried out on a two-temperature model with Larsen's flux-limited diffusion operator, both the implicitly balanced (IB) and linearly implicit (LI) methods were shown asymptotic-preserving. In this paper, we focus on asymptotic analysis for space discrete schemes in dimensions one and two. First, in construction of the schemes, in contrast to traditional first-order approximations, asymmetric second-order accurate spatial approximations are devised for flux-limiters on boundary, and discrete schemes with second-order accuracy on global spatial domain are acquired consequently. Then by employing formal asymptotic analysis, the first-order asymptotic-preserving property for these schemes and furthermore for the fully discrete schemes is shown. Finally, with the help of manufactured solutions, numerical tests are performed, which demonstrate quantitatively the fully discrete schemes with IB time evolution indeed have the accuracy and asymptotic convergence as theory predicts, hence are well qualified for both non-equilibrium and equilibrium radiation diffusion.

  3. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  4. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  5. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  6. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  7. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  8. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  9. Discrete analysis of stochastic NMR.II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S. T. S.; Rods, M. S.; Newmark, R. D.; Budinger, T. F.

    Stochastic NMR is an efficient technique for high-field in vivo imaging and spectroscopic studies where the peak RF power required may be prohibitively high for conventional pulsed NMR techniques. A stochastic NMR experiment excites the spin system with a sequence of RF pulses where the flip angles or the phases of the pulses are samples of a discrete stochastic process. In a previous paper the stochastic experiment was analyzed and analytic expressions for the input-output cross-correlations, average signal power, and signal spectral density were obtained for a general stochastic RF excitation. In this paper specific cases of excitation with random phase, fixed flip angle, and excitation with two random components in quadrature are analyzed. The input-output cross-correlation for these two types of excitations is shown to be Lorentzian. Line broadening is the only spectral distortion as the RF excitation power is increased. The systematic noise power is inversely proportional to the number of data points N used in the spectral reconstruction. The use of a complete maximum length sequence (MLS) may improve the signal-to-systematic-noise ratio by 20 dB relative to random binary excitation, but peculiar features in the higher-order autocorrelations of MLS cause noise-like distortion in the reconstructed spectra when the excitation power is high. The amount of noise-like distortion depends on the choice of the MLS generator.

  10. The Analysis of Rush Orders Risk in Supply Chain: A Simulation Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahfouz, Amr; Arisha, Amr

    2011-01-01

    Satisfying customers by delivering demands at agreed time, with competitive prices, and in satisfactory quality level are crucial requirements for supply chain survival. Incidence of risks in supply chain often causes sudden disruptions in the processes and consequently leads to customers losing their trust in a company's competence. Rush orders are considered to be one of the main types of supply chain risks due to their negative impact on the overall performance, Using integrated definition modeling approaches (i.e. IDEF0 & IDEF3) and simulation modeling technique, a comprehensive integrated model has been developed to assess rush order risks and examine two risk mitigation strategies. Detailed functions sequence and objects flow were conceptually modeled to reflect on macro and micro levels of the studied supply chain. Discrete event simulation models were then developed to assess and investigate the mitigation strategies of rush order risks, the objective of this is to minimize order cycle time and cost.

  11. Species survival emerge from rare events of individual migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelnik, Yuval R.; Solomon, Sorin; Yaari, Gur

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems greatly vary in their species composition and interactions, yet they all show remarkable resilience to external influences. Recent experiments have highlighted the significant effects of spatial structure and connectivity on the extinction and survival of species. It has also been emphasized lately that in order to study extinction dynamics reliably, it is essential to incorporate stochasticity, and in particular the discrete nature of populations, into the model. Accordingly, we applied a bottom-up modeling approach that includes both spatial features and stochastic interactions to study survival mechanisms of species. Using the simplest spatial extension of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model with competition, subject to demographic and environmental noise, we were able to systematically study emergent properties of this rich system. By scanning the relevant parameter space, we show that both survival and extinction processes often result from a combination of habitat fragmentation and individual rare events of recolonization.

  12. Reproduction memory of two-event sequences in pigeons.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, B K

    1984-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained to reproduce two-event sequences in an experiment that employed a discrete-trial procedure that required subjects to peck one of four possible sample sequences (left-left, left-right, right-right, right-left) signaled on a given trial by the successive illumination of response keys. Following a retention interval (0.1 to 30 seconds), a reinforcer was delivered if a subject reproduced the prior sample sequence during a test condition in which both left and right keys were illuminated. The pigeons readily reproduced the orders in which they had just seen and pecked two illuminated keys. Reproduction accuracy declined as the retention interval was increased. Homogeneous sequences (left-left, right-right) were reproduced with greater accuracy than heterogeneous sequences. PMID:6716036

  13. Species survival emerge from rare events of individual migration.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Solomon, Sorin; Yaari, Gur

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems greatly vary in their species composition and interactions, yet they all show remarkable resilience to external influences. Recent experiments have highlighted the significant effects of spatial structure and connectivity on the extinction and survival of species. It has also been emphasized lately that in order to study extinction dynamics reliably, it is essential to incorporate stochasticity, and in particular the discrete nature of populations, into the model. Accordingly, we applied a bottom-up modeling approach that includes both spatial features and stochastic interactions to study survival mechanisms of species. Using the simplest spatial extension of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model with competition, subject to demographic and environmental noise, we were able to systematically study emergent properties of this rich system. By scanning the relevant parameter space, we show that both survival and extinction processes often result from a combination of habitat fragmentation and individual rare events of recolonization. PMID:25597477

  14. Species survival emerge from rare events of individual migration

    PubMed Central

    Zelnik, Yuval R.; Solomon, Sorin; Yaari, Gur

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems greatly vary in their species composition and interactions, yet they all show remarkable resilience to external influences. Recent experiments have highlighted the significant effects of spatial structure and connectivity on the extinction and survival of species. It has also been emphasized lately that in order to study extinction dynamics reliably, it is essential to incorporate stochasticity, and in particular the discrete nature of populations, into the model. Accordingly, we applied a bottom-up modeling approach that includes both spatial features and stochastic interactions to study survival mechanisms of species. Using the simplest spatial extension of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model with competition, subject to demographic and environmental noise, we were able to systematically study emergent properties of this rich system. By scanning the relevant parameter space, we show that both survival and extinction processes often result from a combination of habitat fragmentation and individual rare events of recolonization. PMID:25597477

  15. Discrete Element Modelling of Floating Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffey, Samantha; Liang, Qiuhua; Parkin, Geoff; Large, Andy; Rouainia, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    schemes. The results show that the tool is able to adequately replicate water depth and depth-averaged velocity of a dam-break wave, as well as velocity and displacement of floating cylindrical elements, thus validating its shock capturing capabilities and the coupling technique applied for this simple test case. Future development of the tool will incorporate a 2D hydrodynamic scheme and a 3D discrete element scheme in order to model the more complex processes associated with debris transport.

  16. Timing Processes Are Correlated when Tasks Share a Salient Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Rosenbaum, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Event timing is manifested when participants make discrete movements such as repeatedly tapping a key. Emergent timing is manifested when participants make continuous movements such as repeatedly drawing a circle. Here we pursued the possibility that providing salient perceptual events to mark the completion of time intervals could allow circle…

  17. A Computational Model of Event Segmentation from Perceptual Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy R.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Braver, Todd S.

    2007-01-01

    People tend to perceive ongoing continuous activity as series of discrete events. This partitioning of continuous activity may occur, in part, because events correspond to dynamic patterns that have recurred across different contexts. Recurring patterns may lead to reliable sequential dependencies in observers' experiences, which then can be used…

  18. Event Perception: A Mind/Brain Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Swallow, Khena M.; Braver, Todd S.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    People perceive and conceive of activity in terms of discrete events. Here we propose a theory according to which the perception of boundaries between events arises from ongoing perceptual processing and regulates attention and memory. Perceptual systems continuously make predictions about what will happen next. When transient errors in predictions arise, an event boundary is perceived. According to the theory, the perception of events depends on both sensory cues and knowledge structures that represent previously learned information about event parts and inferences about actors’ goals and plans. Neurological and neurophysiological data suggest that representations of events may be implemented by structures in the lateral prefrontal cortex and that perceptual prediction error is calculated and evaluated by a processing pathway including the anterior cingulate cortex and subcortical neuromodulatory systems. PMID:17338600

  19. Discrete dipole approximation simulation of bead enhanced diffraction grating biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Khalid Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from bead enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of bead material, number of beads forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the beads on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of beads reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various bead materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that bead enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations.

  20. Spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajc, Borut; Lugo, Adrián R.; Sturla, Mauricio B.

    2012-04-01

    We present an exactly solvable model of a scalar field in an AdSd+1 like background interpolating between a Z2 preserving and a Z2 breaking minima of the potential. We define its holographic dual through the AdS/CFT dictionary and argue that at zero temperature the d - dimensional strongly coupled system on the boundary of AdSd+1 exhibits a phase with a spontaneously broken discrete symmetry. In the presence of a black hole in the bulk ( T≠0) we find that, although the metastable phase is present, the discrete symmetry gets restored. We compute exactly the lowest order boundary correlation functions in the spontaneously broken phase at T = 0, finding out a pole of the propagator for zero momenta that signals the presence of a massless mode and argue that it should not be present at ( T≠0).

  1. On the spectral and conservation properties of nonlinear discretization operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauconnier, D.; Dick, E.

    2011-06-01

    Following the study of Pirozzoli [1], the objective of the present work is to provide a detailed theoretical analysis of the spectral properties and the conservation properties of nonlinear finite difference discretizations. First, a Nonlinear Spectral Analysis (NSA) is proposed in order to study the statistical behavior of the modified wavenumber of a nonlinear finite difference operator, for a large set of synthetic scalar fields with prescribed energy spectrum and random phase. Second, the necessary conditions for local and global conservation of momentum and kinetic energy are derived and verified for nonlinear discretizations. Because the nonlinear mechanisms result in a violation of the energy conservation conditions, the NSA is used to quantify the energy imbalance. Third, the effect of aliasing errors due to the nonlinearity is analyzed. Finally, the theoretical observations are verified for two simple, thought relevant, numerical simulations.

  2. Control of the formation of projective synchronisation in lower-dimensional discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Chin Yi; Xu, Daolin

    2003-11-01

    Projective synchronisation was recently observed in partially linear discrete-time systems. The scaling factor that characterises the behaviour of projective synchronisation is however unpredictable. In order to manipulate the ultimate state of the synchronisation, a control algorithm based on Schur-Chon stability criteria is proposed to direct the scaling factor onto any predestined value. In the numerical experiment, we illustrate the application on two chaotic discrete-time systems.

  3. Biological multi-rogue waves in discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with saturable nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchinang Tchameu, J. D.; Togueu Motcheyo, A. B.; Tchawoua, C.

    2016-09-01

    The discrete multi-rogue waves (DMRW) as solution of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation with saturable nonlinearities is studied numerically. These biological rogue waves represent the complex probability amplitude of finding an amide-I vibrational quantum at a site. We observe that the growth in the higher order saturable nonlinearity implies the formation of DMRW including an increase in the short-living DMRW and a decrease in amplitude of the long-living DMRW.

  4. More on conditions of local and global minima coincidence in discrete optimization problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedeva, T.T.; Sergienko, I.V.; Soltan, V.P.

    1994-05-01

    In some areas of discrete optimization, it is necessary to isolate classes of problems whose target functions do not have local or strictly local minima that differ from the global minima. Examples include optimizations on discrete metric spaces and graphs, lattices and partially ordered sets, and linear combinatorial problems. A unified schema that to a certain extent generalizes the convexity models on which the above-cited works are based has been presented in articles. This article is a continuation of that research.

  5. Creating Interoperable Meshing and Discretization Software: The Terascale Simulation Tools and Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Freitag, L.; Glimm, J.

    2002-03-28

    We present an overview of the technical objectives of the Terascale Simulation Tools and Technologies center. The primary goal of this multi-institution collaboration is to develop technologies that enable application scientists to easily use multiple mesh and discretization strategies within a single simulation on terascale computers. The discussion focuses on our efforts to create interoperable mesh generation tools, high-order discretization techniques, and adaptive meshing strategies.

  6. The inverse of winnowing: a FORTRAN subroutine and discussion of unwinnowing discrete data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bracken, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an unwinnowing algorithm that utilizes a discrete Fourier transform, and a resulting Fortran subroutine that winnows or unwinnows a 1-dimensional stream of discrete data; the source code is included. The unwinnowing algorithm effectively increases (by integral factors) the number of available data points while maintaining the original frequency spectrum of a data stream. This has utility when an increased data density is required together with an availability of higher order derivatives that honor the original data.

  7. Discrete symmetries and de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Cotăescu, Ion I. Pascu, Gabriel

    2014-11-24

    Aspects of the ambiguity in defining quantum modes on de Sitter spacetime using a commuting system composed only of differential operators are discussed. Discrete symmetries and their actions on the wavefunction in commonly used coordinate charts are reviewed. It is argued that the system of commuting operators can be supplemented by requiring the invariance of the wavefunction to combined discrete symmetries- a criterion which selects a single state out of the α-vacuum family. Two such members of this family are singled out by particular combined discrete symmetries- states between which exists a well-known thermality relation.

  8. Multigravity from a discrete extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.

    2004-06-01

    Multigravity theories are constructed from the discretization of the extra dimension of five-dimensional gravity. Using an ADM decomposition, the discretization is performed while maintaining the four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariance on each site. We relate the Goldstone bosons used to realize nonlinearly general covariance in discretized gravity to the shift fields of the higher-dimensional metric. We investigate the scalar excitations of the resulting theory and show the absence of ghosts and massive modes; this is due to a local symmetry inherited from the reparametrization invariance along the fifth dimension.

  9. High-accuracy discrete positioning device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, John J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An article (30) is controllably and precisely positioned at one of three discrete locations defined by a linkage. The positioning apparatus includes two independently driven cranks (34, 42), with a link (50) pivotably connected between the two cranks (34, 42). Another connector (44) is pivotably connected between one of the cranks (34 or 42) and the article (30) to be positioned. The cranks (34, 42) are rotationally adjusted so that the pivot points (52, 54) of the link (50) are collinear with the axes of rotation of the cranks (40, 48), thereby defining one of the three discrete locations. Additional cranks and links can be provided to define additional discrete locations.

  10. Discrete flavour symmetries from the Heisenberg group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floratos, E. G.; Leontaris, G. K.

    2016-04-01

    Non-abelian discrete symmetries are of particular importance in model building. They are mainly invoked to explain the various fermion mass hierarchies and forbid dangerous superpotential terms. In string models they are usually associated to the geometry of the compactification manifold and more particularly to the magnetised branes in toroidal compactifications. Motivated by these facts, in this note we propose a unified framework to construct representations of finite discrete family groups based on the automorphisms of the discrete and finite Heisenberg group. We focus in particular, on the PSL2 (p) groups which contain the phenomenologically interesting cases.

  11. Pharmacogenomics of suicidal events

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches. PMID:20504254

  12. Micro-scale fluorescence signals: a transition from continuous to discrete scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Doubell, M. J.; Prairie, J.; Sagara, Y.; Locke, C.; Nimmo-Smith, A.

    2012-12-01

    Micro-scale aquatic ecosystems are the engine for earth's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton fix inorganic carbon to organic carbon through the photosynthetic process. Although phytoplankton are single-cell organisms, they often appear in an aggregated form that elevates local fluorescence signal intensity. How intermittent are these features? We have developed a new free-fall microstructure profiler (TurboMAP-L). Fluorescence profiles measured by TurboMAP-L and a conventional fluorescence probe are in good agreement at one-meter scale average. However, the fluorescence signals revealed by the LED fluorescence probe are intermittent at cm scale. Millimeter scale fluorescence signals obtained from the laser probe are even more intermittent than the cm scale LED signals. The source of the millimeter-scale strong signals identified from the DSL images are coagulated discrete material ranging between a few 100 μm and a few millimeters scale. Unfortunately, the DSL images are not well focused, so the details of the coagulated matter are not clear. Therefore, a recently developed holographic imaging system was combined with the TurboMAP-L operation in order to identify the detail of the millimeter scale coagulated material. We show that fluorescence signals at millimeter scale exhibit high values of coefficient of variation and the signals are no longer a Gaussian process. We found a transition scale that separates a continuous Gaussian process to a discrete event series. We are also developing a new NPZ ecosystem model based on our finding. We will present the consequence of our new model that may alter the way in which the global biogeochemical cycle should be treated.

  13. Dynamic discretization method for solving Kepler's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, Scott A.; McLaughlin, Craig A.

    2006-09-01

    Kepler’s equation needs to be solved many times for a variety of problems in Celestial Mechanics. Therefore, computing the solution to Kepler’s equation in an efficient manner is of great importance to that community. There are some historical and many modern methods that address this problem. Of the methods known to the authors, Fukushima’s discretization technique performs the best. By taking more of a system approach and combining the use of discretization with the standard computer science technique known as dynamic programming, we were able to achieve even better performance than Fukushima. We begin by defining Kepler’s equation for the elliptical case and describe existing solution methods. We then present our dynamic discretization method and show the results of a comparative analysis. This analysis will demonstrate that, for the conditions of our tests, dynamic discretization performs the best.

  14. A discrete control model of PLANT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A model of the PLANT system using the discrete control modeling techniques developed by Miller is described. Discrete control models attempt to represent in a mathematical form how a human operator might decompose a complex system into simpler parts and how the control actions and system configuration are coordinated so that acceptable overall system performance is achieved. Basic questions include knowledge representation, information flow, and decision making in complex systems. The structure of the model is a general hierarchical/heterarchical scheme which structurally accounts for coordination and dynamic focus of attention. Mathematically, the discrete control model is defined in terms of a network of finite state systems. Specifically, the discrete control model accounts for how specific control actions are selected from information about the controlled system, the environment, and the context of the situation. The objective is to provide a plausible and empirically testable accounting and, if possible, explanation of control behavior.

  15. Motion of Discrete Interfaces Through Mushy Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braides, Andrea; Solci, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    We study the geometric motion of sets in the plane derived from the homogenization of discrete ferromagnetic energies with weak inclusions. We show that the discrete sets are composed by a `bulky' part and an external `mushy region' composed only of weak inclusions. The relevant motion is that of the bulky part, which asymptotically obeys to a motion by crystalline mean curvature with a forcing term, due to the energetic contribution of the mushy layers, and pinning effects, due to discreteness. From an analytical standpoint, it is interesting to note that the presence of the mushy layers implies only a weak and not strong convergence of the discrete motions, so that the convergence of the energies does not commute with the evolution. From a mechanical standpoint it is interesting to note the geometrical similarity of some phenomena in the cooling of binary melts.

  16. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  17. Development of discrete components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.J.

    1995-11-01

    Allied-Signal Inc, Kansas City Division, was provided with funding to maintain the capability to procure discrete components for various applications. A development project was undertaken to procure transistor die from one supplier for assembly into finished components by a different supplier. These components would be SA-equivalent with appropriate preconditioning, testing, and certification, The methodologies developed herein go far to ensure the future availability of discrete components.

  18. Discrete and diffuse aurora observed from Scotland: the Merry Dancers and the Northern Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, D. A. R.

    1999-12-01

    Two types of aurora are frequently observed from Scotland, the one discrete and the other diffuse. The discrete aurora is a highly active event popularly known as the Merry Dancers. It is a short-lived, rayed arc with a sharp lower border and is usually associated with intense magnetic activity. These features indicate that it is generated by boundary plasma sheet electrons. It is a discrete arc that has migrated south with the discrete auroral oval in response to increased magnetic activity. In contrast, the diffuse aurora is a quiet event popularly known as the Northern Dawn. It is a long-lived, homogeneous arc with a diffuse lower border and is usually associated with weak magnetic activity. These features indicate that it is generated by central plasma sheet electrons. It is an arc of diffuse-continuous aurora that has migrated south with the diffuse oval in response to north/south changes in the interplanetary magnetic field. Thus the Merry Dancers stem from the discrete auroral oval and the Northern Dawn from the diffuse auroral oval.

  19. Discrete differential geometry: the nonplanar quadrilateral mesh.

    PubMed

    Twining, Carole J; Marsland, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a discrete differential geometry defined on nonplanar quadrilateral meshes. Physical models on discrete nonflat spaces are of inherent interest, as well as being used in applications such as computation for electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, and image analysis. However, the majority of analysis has focused on triangulated meshes. We consider two approaches: discretizing the tensor calculus, and a discrete mesh version of differential forms. While these two approaches are equivalent in the continuum, we show that this is not true in the discrete case. Nevertheless, we show that it is possible to construct mesh versions of the Levi-Civita connection (and hence the tensorial covariant derivative and the associated covariant exterior derivative), the torsion, and the curvature. We show how discrete analogs of the usual vector integral theorems are constructed in such a way that the appropriate conservation laws hold exactly on the mesh, rather than only as approximations to the continuum limit. We demonstrate the success of our method by constructing a mesh version of classical electromagnetism and discuss how our formalism could be used to deal with other physical models, such as fluids.

  20. Image reconstruction using projections from a few views by discrete steering combined with DART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Junghyun; Song, Samuel M.; Kauke, Brian; Boyd, Douglas P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) based discrete tomography method to reconstruct an image accurately using projections from a few views. We specifically consider the problem of reconstructing an image of bottles filled with various types of liquids from X-ray projections. By exploiting the fact that bottles are usually filled with homogeneous material, we show that it is possible to obtain accurate reconstruction with only a few projections by an ART based algorithm. In order to deal with various types of liquids in our problem, we first introduce our discrete steering method which is a generalization of the binary steering approach for our proposed multi-valued discrete reconstruction. The main idea of the steering approach is to use slowly varying thresholds instead of fixed thresholds. We further improve reconstruction accuracy by reducing the number of variables in ART by combining our discrete steering with the discrete ART (DART) that fixes the values of interior pixels of segmented regions considered as reliable. By simulation studies, we show that our proposed discrete steering combined with DART yields superior reconstruction than both discrete steering only and DART only cases. The resulting reconstructions are quite accurate even with projections using only four views.

  1. Dust grain coagulation modelling : From discrete to continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paruta, P.; Hendrix, T.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    In molecular clouds, stars are formed from a mixture of gas, plasma and dust particles. The dynamics of this formation is still actively investigated and a study of dust coagulation can help to shed light on this process. Starting from a pre-existing discrete coagulation model, this work aims to mathematically explore its properties and its suitability for numerical validation. The crucial step is in our reinterpretation from its original discrete to a well-defined continuous form, which results in the well-known Smoluchowski coagulation equation. This opens up the possibility of exploiting previous results in order to prove the existence and uniqueness of a mass conserving solution for the evolution of dust grain size distribution. Ultimately, to allow for a more flexible numerical implementation, the problem is rewritten as a non-linear hyperbolic integro-differential equation and solved using a finite volume discretisation. It is demonstrated that there is an exact numerical agreement with the initial discrete model, with improved accuracy. This is of interest for further work on dynamically coupled gas with dust simulations.

  2. Multidimensional electron-photon transport with standard discrete ordinates codes

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, C.R.

    1997-04-01

    A method is described for generating electron cross sections that are comparable with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages of using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g. immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled electron-photon transport capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of electronics components to space and man-made radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional electron-photon transport problems. The key to the method is a simultaneous solution of the continuous-slowing-down (CSD) portion and elastic-scattering portion of the scattering source by the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The resulting multigroup-Legendre cross sections are much smaller than the true scattering cross sections that they represent. Under certain conditions, the cross sections are guaranteed positive and converge with a low-order Legendre expansion.

  3. Multidimensional electron-photon transport with standard discrete ordinates codes

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, C.R.

    1997-09-01

    A method is described for generating electron cross sections that are compatible with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages to using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g., immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled electron-photon transport capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of electronics components to space and synthetic radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT, and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional electron-photon transport problems. The key to the method is a simultaneous solution of the continuous-slowing-down and elastic-scattering portions of the scattering source by the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The resulting multigroup-Legendre cross sections are much smaller than the true scattering cross sections that they represent. Under certain conditions, the cross sections are guaranteed positive and converge with a low-order Legendre expansion.

  4. The waveform correlation event detection system project, Phase I: Issues in prototype development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Harris, M.; Beiriger, J.; Moore, S.; Trujillo, J.; Withers, M.; Aster, R.

    1996-08-01

    A study using long-period seismic data showed that seismic events can be detected and located based on correlations of processed waveform profiles with the profile expected for an event. In this technique both time and space are discretized and events are found by forming profiles and calculating correlations for all time-distance points. events are declared at points with large correlations. In the first phase of the Waveform Correlation Event Detection System (WCEDS) Project at Sandia Labs we have developed a prototype automatic event detection system based on Shearer`s work which shows promise for treaty monitoring applications. Many modifications have been made to meet the requirements of the monitoring environment. A new full matrix multiplication has been developed which can reduce the number of computations needed for the data correlation by as much as two orders of magnitude for large grids. New methodology has also been developed to deal with the problems caused by false correlations (sidelobes) generated during the correlation process. When an event has been detected, masking matrices are set up which will mask all correlation sidelobes due to the event, allowing other events with intermingled phases to be found. This process is repeated until a detection threshold is reached. The system was tested on one hour of Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) broadband data and built all 4 of the events listed in the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) which were observable by the IRIS network. A continuous execution scheme has been developed for the system but has not yet been implemented. Improvements to the efficiency of the code are in various stages of development. Many refinements would have to be made to the system before it could be used as part of an actual monitoring system, but at this stage we know of no clear barriers which would prevent an eventual implementation of the system.

  5. Odefy -- From discrete to continuous models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phenomenological information about regulatory interactions is frequently available and can be readily converted to Boolean models. Fully quantitative models, on the other hand, provide detailed insights into the precise dynamics of the underlying system. In order to connect discrete and continuous modeling approaches, methods for the conversion of Boolean systems into systems of ordinary differential equations have been developed recently. As biological interaction networks have steadily grown in size and complexity, a fully automated framework for the conversion process is desirable. Results We present Odefy, a MATLAB- and Octave-compatible toolbox for the automated transformation of Boolean models into systems of ordinary differential equations. Models can be created from sets of Boolean equations or graph representations of Boolean networks. Alternatively, the user can import Boolean models from the CellNetAnalyzer toolbox, GINSim and the PBN toolbox. The Boolean models are transformed to systems of ordinary differential equations by multivariate polynomial interpolation and optional application of sigmoidal Hill functions. Our toolbox contains basic simulation and visualization functionalities for both, the Boolean as well as the continuous models. For further analyses, models can be exported to SQUAD, GNA, MATLAB script files, the SB toolbox, SBML and R script files. Odefy contains a user-friendly graphical user interface for convenient access to the simulation and exporting functionalities. We illustrate the validity of our transformation approach as well as the usage and benefit of the Odefy toolbox for two biological systems: a mutual inhibitory switch known from stem cell differentiation and a regulatory network giving rise to a specific spatial expression pattern at the mid-hindbrain boundary. Conclusions Odefy provides an easy-to-use toolbox for the automatic conversion of Boolean models to systems of ordinary differential equations. It can be

  6. a Distributed Gaussian Discrete Variable Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Hasan

    In this work a discrete variable representation (DVR) is constructed from a distributed Gaussian basis (DGB). A DGB is a finite or infinite chain of uniformly distributed Gaussians g_{n}(x) = e^{-c^2(x/d-n)^2} where n takes integer values. There are three main parts of this thesis. In the first part (Chapter III) the finite chain distributed Gaussian DVR (Finite Chain DG-DVR) is derived. In order to accomplish this, the distributed Gaussian orthogonal polynomials are introduced. The connection of these polynomials to Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials is shown. The recurrence relation for these orthogonal polynomials is derived. Tested recipes are given to calculate the quadrature points and weights and to construct the corresponding Lagrange functions which are analogs of Lagrange interpolation polynomials. The symmetries of quadrature points, weights, and Lagrange functions are derived. Limit cases ctoinfty and cto 0 are studied. In the second part (Chapter IV)the infinite chain limit DG-DVR is derived from a limit of the finite chain DG-DVR. The quadrature points and weights and the Lagrange functions are found in this limit and kinetic energy operator is constructed. It is shown that in the limit c to 0 the infinite chain DG-DVR reduces to Colbert and Miller's DVR. A discussion of ability of a distributed Gaussian basis to represent an arbitrary function is given. The results of this treatment yield a possible explanation of surprising accuracy of Colbert-Miller DVR. In the third part construction of the DG-DVR is given when one point is chosen arbitrarily. Some interesting identities and integral representations for the b _{n} and sigma_ {n} coefficients that are introduced in the second part are found.

  7. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  8. Analysis of Phase-Type Stochastic Petri Nets With Discrete and Continuous Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L.; Goode, Plesent W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Petri net formalism is useful in studying many discrete-state, discrete-event systems exhibiting concurrency, synchronization, and other complex behavior. As a bipartite graph, the net can conveniently capture salient aspects of the system. As a mathematical tool, the net can specify an analyzable state space. Indeed, one can reason about certain qualitative properties (from state occupancies) and how they arise (the sequence of events leading there). By introducing deterministic or random delays, the model is forced to sojourn in states some amount of time, giving rise to an underlying stochastic process, one that can be specified in a compact way and capable of providing quantitative, probabilistic measures. We formalize a new non-Markovian extension to the Petri net that captures both discrete and continuous timing in the same model. The approach affords efficient, stationary analysis in most cases and efficient transient analysis under certain restrictions. Moreover, this new formalism has the added benefit in modeling fidelity stemming from the simultaneous capture of discrete- and continuous-time events (as opposed to capturing only one and approximating the other). We show how the underlying stochastic process, which is non-Markovian, can be resolved into simpler Markovian problems that enjoy efficient solutions. Solution algorithms are provided that can be easily programmed.

  9. Spurious haloes and discreteness-driven relaxation in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Obreschkow, D.; Hobbs, A.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-10-01

    There is strong evidence that cosmological N-body simulations dominated by warm dark matter (WDM) contain spurious or unphysical haloes, most readily apparent as regularly spaced low-mass haloes strung along filaments. We show that spurious haloes are a feature of traditional N-body simulations of cosmological structure formation models, including WDM and cold dark matter models, in which gravitational collapse proceeds in an initially anisotropic fashion, and arises naturally as a consequence of discreteness-driven relaxation. We demonstrate this using controlled N-body simulations of plane-symmetric collapse and show that spurious haloes are seeded at shell crossing by localized velocity perturbations induced by the discrete nature of the density field, and that their characteristic separation should be approximately the mean inter-particle separation of the N-body simulation, which is fixed by the mass resolution within the volume. Using cosmological N-body simulations in which particles are split into two collisionless components of fixed mass ratio, we find that the spatial distribution of the two components show signatures of discreteness-driven relaxation on both large and small scales. Adopting a spline kernel gravitational softening that is of order the comoving mean inter-particle separation helps to suppress the effect of discreteness-driven relaxation, but cannot eliminate it completely. These results provide further motivation for recent developments of new algorithms, which include, for example, revisions of the traditional N-body approach by means of spatially adaptive anistropric gravitational softenings or explicit solution of the evolution of dark matter in phase space.

  10. Transitions between discrete and rhythmic primitives in a unimanual task

    PubMed Central

    Sternad, Dagmar; Marino, Hamal; Charles, Steven K.; Duarte, Marcos; Dipietro, Laura; Hogan, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements in order to “stress” the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: starting at 2 s, the metronome intervals decreased by 36 ms per cycle to 200 ms, stayed at 200 ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models. PMID:23888139

  11. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2010: Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Domenico, Antonio; Bini, Cesare; Bloise, Caterina; Bossi, Fabio; Faccini, Riccardo; Gauzzi, Paolo; Isidori, Gino; Lipari, Paolo; Ludovici, Lucio; Silvestrini, Luca

    2011-12-01

    The Symposium DISCRETE2010 on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries was held at the Sapienza Universitàa di Roma, Italy from 6-11 December 2010. This second edition, after the successful one in Valencia in 2008, covered all theoretical and experimental progress in the field, and aimed at a thorough discussion on the latest developments. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries; accidental symmetries (B, L conservation); CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking; neutrino mass and mixing; cosmology and astroparticles, dark matter searches; experimental prospects at LHC, Super flavor factories, and new facilities. The Symposium was organized in plenary sessions with a total of 23 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 80 talks including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Achille Stocchi, Andreas Weiler, Kevin Pitts, Tim Gershon, Marco Sozzi, Neal Weiner, Vasiliki Mitsou, Bernard Sadoulet, Gianfranco Bertone, J. Eric Grove, Mauro Mezzetto, Alexei Yu Smirnov, Oliviero Cremonesi, Antonio Riotto, Reno Mandolesi, Brett Altschul, Jose Bernabeu, Lawrence Hall, Marco Grassi, Yannis K. Semertzidis, Riccardo Barbieri, Gigi Rolandi, Luciano Maiani. The Symposium venue was the CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) headquarter building, close to the Sapienza University. At the end of the Symposium a special open session, devoted to a wider audience, was held at the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, in the historical center of Rome. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants, about half coming from Italy, and the rest mainly from other European countries and United States. Among the social events was a concert at the Aula Magna of the Sapienza University, and a social dinner in the historical Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi on the Quirinale Hill. The next symposium of the series will be organised by IST, Universidade Tàecnica de Lisboa

  12. Dynamic Equations for a Free Particle Motion in a Discrete Space-Time Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rylov, Yuri A.

    2016-08-01

    One considers the discrete space-time geometry Gd, which is given on the set of points (events), where the geometry of Minkowski is given. This discrete geometry is not a geometry on lattice. Motion of a free particle is considered in Gd. Free motion in Gd can be reduced to a motion in geometry of Minkowski GM in some force field. Primordial free motion in Gd appears to be stochastic. In GM it is difficult to describe the force field responsible for stochastic motion of a particle. The nature of this force field appears to be geometrical.

  13. Discrete-space versus continuous-space lesion boundary and area definitions

    SciTech Connect

    Sensakovic, William F.; Starkey, Adam; Roberts, Rachael Y.; Armato, Samuel G. III

    2008-09-15

    Measurement of the size of anatomic regions of interest in medical images is used to diagnose disease, track growth, and evaluate response to therapy. The discrete nature of medical images allows for both continuous and discrete definitions of region boundary. These definitions may, in turn, support several methods of area calculation that give substantially different quantitative values. This study investigated several boundary definitions (e.g., continuous polygon, internal discrete, and external discrete) and area calculation methods (pixel counting and Green's theorem). These methods were applied to three separate databases: A synthetic image database, the Lung Image Database Consortium database of lung nodules and a database of adrenal gland outlines. Average percent differences in area on the order of 20% were found among the different methods applied to the clinical databases. These results support the idea that inconsistent application of region boundary definition and area calculation may substantially impact measurement accuracy.

  14. Fractional System Identification: An Approach Using Continuous Order-Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the identification of fractional- and integer-order systems using the concept of continuous order-distribution. Based on the ability to define systems using continuous order-distributions, it is shown that frequency domain system identification can be performed using least squares techniques after discretizing the order-distribution.

  15. On the consistency between nearest-neighbor peridynamic discretizations and discretized classical elasticity models

    DOE PAGES

    Seleson, Pablo; Du, Qiang; Parks, Michael L.

    2016-08-16

    The peridynamic theory of solid mechanics is a nonlocal reformulation of the classical continuum mechanics theory. At the continuum level, it has been demonstrated that classical (local) elasticity is a special case of peridynamics. Such a connection between these theories has not been extensively explored at the discrete level. This paper investigates the consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of linear elastic peridynamic models and finite difference discretizations of the Navier–Cauchy equation of classical elasticity. While nearest-neighbor discretizations in peridynamics have been numerically observed to present grid-dependent crack paths or spurious microcracks, this paper focuses on a different, analytical aspect of suchmore » discretizations. We demonstrate that, even in the absence of cracks, such discretizations may be problematic unless a proper selection of weights is used. Specifically, we demonstrate that using the standard meshfree approach in peridynamics, nearest-neighbor discretizations do not reduce, in general, to discretizations of corresponding classical models. We study nodal-based quadratures for the discretization of peridynamic models, and we derive quadrature weights that result in consistency between nearest-neighbor discretizations of peridynamic models and discretized classical models. The quadrature weights that lead to such consistency are, however, model-/discretization-dependent. We motivate the choice of those quadrature weights through a quadratic approximation of displacement fields. The stability of nearest-neighbor peridynamic schemes is demonstrated through a Fourier mode analysis. Finally, an approach based on a normalization of peridynamic constitutive constants at the discrete level is explored. This approach results in the desired consistency for one-dimensional models, but does not work in higher dimensions. The results of the work presented in this paper suggest that even though nearest

  16. [Dealing with competing events in survival analysis].

    PubMed

    Béchade, Clémence; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Survival analyses focus on the occurrences of an event of interest, in order to determine risk factors and estimate a risk. Competing events prevent from observing the event of interest. If there are competing events, it can lead to a bias in the risk's estimation. The aim of this article is to explain why Cox model is not appropriate when there are competing events, and to present Fine and Gray model, which can help when dealing with competing risks.

  17. Structure relations for monic orthogonal polynomials in two discrete variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodal, J.; Area, I.; Godoy, E.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, extensions of several relations linking differences of bivariate discrete orthogonal polynomials and polynomials themselves are given, by using an appropriate vector-matrix notation. Three-term recurrence relations are presented for the partial differences of the monic polynomial solutions of admissible second order partial difference equation of hypergeometric type. Structure relations, difference representations as well as lowering and raising operators are obtained. Finally, expressions for all matrix coefficients appearing in these finite-type relations are explicitly presented for a finite set of Hahn and Kravchuk orthogonal polynomials.

  18. Control of Nonholonomic Systems Using Discrete-valued Inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Masato; Ashida, Shouji; Sugie, Toshiharu

    This paper proposes a new control algorithm for a class of nonholonomic systems using ON/OFF-type discrete-valued control inputs. Our approach is based on second-order approximation of the principle of holonomy and its iteration with parameter updating, which is intended to be tolerant of severe inaccuracy of the control inputs. The proposed method is applied to attitude control of 2D and 3D free-flying robots and a wheeled mobile robot to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation results show its robustness against the model uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics such as non-Chaplygin type structure.

  19. Dissipative control and filtering of discrete-time singular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhiguang; Lam, James

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the problems of dissipative control and filtering of discrete-time singular systems are investigated. Based on parametrising the solutions of the constraint set, a necessary and sufficient condition is established in terms of strict linear matrix inequality which makes the condition more tractable. By using the system augmentation approach, a static output feedback controller design method is proposed to guarantee that the closed-loop system is admissible and strictly (Q, S, R) dissipative. Then, the result is applied to tackle the reduced-order filtering problem. The effectiveness of the obtained results in this paper is illustrated by numerical examples.

  20. Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.

  1. Extreme events in computational turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, P. K.; Zhai, X. M.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,1923 grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on “extreme” events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these extreme events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more “chunky” for extreme events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452

  2. Extreme events in computational turbulence.

    PubMed

    Yeung, P K; Zhai, X M; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-10-13

    We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,192(3) grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on "extreme" events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these extreme events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more "chunky" for extreme events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452

  3. Calcium and the control of discrete wave latency in the ventral photoreceptor of Limulus.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, J M; Srebro, R

    1976-01-01

    1. Discrete, transient depolarization (discrete waves) of the ventral photoreceptor of the horseshoe crab, Limulus, occur spontaneously in the dark adapted photoreceptor and are also evoked by light. They form the basic events which comprise the receptor potential. A brief, low energy flash of light evokes variable numbers of discrete waves which have variable latencies. Evidence suggesting that discrete wave latency reflects the kinetics of the chemical reactions of phototransduction is reviewed. 2. The concentration of extracellular Ca influences both the average discrete wave latency and its variability. Lowering extracellular Ca prolongs the latency and increases its variability. Increasing extracellular Ca has the opposite effect. 3. Changes in discrete wave latency caused by changes in extracellular Ca require 10--15 min to become fully manifest, whereas when the concentration of extracellular K is increased the photoreceptor achieves a steady-state depolarization in 10-15 sec. 4. Iontophoresis of the Ca-chelating agent EGTA into the photoreceptor increases both the average discrete wave latency and its variability. Iontophoresis of Ca-EGTA mixtures may either increase or decrease discrete wave latency and its variability depending upon the proportion of Ca mixed with EGTA. 5. It is suggested that the concentration of intracellular rather than extracellular ionized Ca is the prime factor indicating discrete wave latency. The effects of changing extracellular Ca can be explained if the photoreceptor is permeable to Ca in the dark and if it maintains a low intracellular Ca concentration by virtue of active metabolic processes (a pump-leak system). 6. Lowering the temperature of the photoreceptor also has the dual effect of increasing discrete wave latency and its variability. However, effects of lowering temperature and Ca simultaneously are greater than the sum of the two effects in individually. This suggests that Ca may be a reactant in the chemical process

  4. Origin of coherent structures in a discrete chaotic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, M.I.; Torres, J.J.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Weidman, P.

    1999-08-01

    Using as an example a large lattice of locally interacting Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons, we disclose the origin of ordered structures in a discrete nonequilibrium medium with fast and slow chaotic oscillations. The origin of the ordering mechanism is related to the appearance of a periodic average dynamics in the group of chaotic neurons whose individual slow activity is significantly synchronized by the group mean field. Introducing the concept of a {open_quotes}coarse grain{close_quotes} as a cluster of neuron elements with periodic averaged behavior allows consideration of the dynamics of a medium composed of these clusters. A study of this medium reveals spatially ordered patterns in the periodic and slow dynamics of the coarse grains that are controlled by the average intensity of the fast chaotic pulsation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Constraint analysis for variational discrete systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Bianca; Höhn, Philipp A.

    2013-09-15

    A canonical formalism and constraint analysis for discrete systems subject to a variational action principle are devised. The formalism is equivalent to the covariant formulation, encompasses global and local discrete time evolution moves and naturally incorporates both constant and evolving phase spaces, the latter of which is necessary for a time varying discretization. The different roles of constraints in the discrete and the conditions under which they are first or second class and/or symmetry generators are clarified. The (non-) preservation of constraints and the symplectic structure is discussed; on evolving phase spaces the number of constraints at a fixed time step depends on the initial and final time step of evolution. Moreover, the definition of observables and a reduced phase space is provided; again, on evolving phase spaces the notion of an observable as a propagating degree of freedom requires specification of an initial and final step and crucially depends on this choice, in contrast to the continuum. However, upon restriction to translation invariant systems, one regains the usual time step independence of canonical concepts. This analysis applies, e.g., to discrete mechanics, lattice field theory, quantum gravity models, and numerical analysis.

  6. Study of spin-temperature effects using energy-ordered gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Baktash, C.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated a new continuum {gamma}-ray spectroscopy technique which is based on the detection of all emitted {gamma} rays in a 4{pi} detector system, and ordering them according to their energies on an event-by-event basis. The technique allows determination of growth strength functions, and rotational damping width as a function of spin and temperature. Thus, it opens up the possibility of studying the onset of motional narrowing and the mapping of the evolution of nuclear collectivity with spin and temperature. Application of the technique for preferential entry-state population, exit-channel selection, and feeding of the discrete states via selective pathways will be discussed. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Time-Symmetric Discretization of The Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2010-11-24

    We explicitly and analytically demonstrate that simple time-symmetric discretization of the harmonic oscillator (used as a simple model of a discrete dynamical system), leads to discrete equations of motion whose solutions are perfectly stable at all time scales, and whose energy is exactly conserved. This result is important for both fundamental discrete physics, as well as for numerical analysis and simulation.

  8. Discrete Mathematics in the Schools. DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, Volume 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Joseph G., Ed.; Franzblau, Deborah S., Ed.; Roberts, Fred S., Ed.

    This book is a collection of articles by experienced educators and explains why and how discrete mathematics should be taught in K-12 classrooms. It includes evidence for "why" and practical guidance for "how" and also discusses how discrete mathematics can be used as a vehicle for achieving the broader goals of the major effort now underway to…

  9. Hidden Markov Models for Detecting Aseismic Events in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, R.

    2004-12-01

    We employ a hidden Markov model (HMM) to segment surface displacement time series collection by the Southern California Integrated Geodetic Network (SCIGN). These segmented time series are then used to detect regional events by observing the number of simultaneous mode changes across the network; if a large number of stations change at the same time, that indicates an event. The hidden Markov model (HMM) approach assumes that the observed data has been generated by an unobservable dynamical statistical process. The process is of a particular form such that each observation is coincident with the system being in a particular discrete state, which is interpreted as a behavioral mode. The dynamics are the model are constructed so that the next state is directly dependent only on the current state -- it is a first order Markov process. The model is completely described by a set of parameters: the initial state probabilities, the first order Markov chain state-to-state transition probabilities, and the probability distribution of observable outputs associated with each state. The result of this approach is that our segmentation decisions are based entirely on statistical changes in the behavior of the observed daily displacements. In general, finding the optimal model parameters to fit the data is a difficult problem. We present an innovative model fitting method that is unsupervised (i.e., it requires no labeled training data) and uses a regularized version of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to ensure that model solutions are both robust with respect to initial conditions and of high quality. We demonstrate the reliability of the method as compared to standard model fitting methods and show that it results in lower noise in the mode change correlation signal used to detect regional events. We compare candidate events detected by this method to the seismic record and observe that most are not correlated with a significant seismic event. Our analysis

  10. Discrete Roughness Transition for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of discrete roughness and the correlations developed to predict the onset of boundary layer transition on hypersonic flight vehicles are discussed. The paper is organized by hypersonic vehicle applications characterized in a general sense by the boundary layer: slender with hypersonic conditions at the edge of the boundary layer, moderately blunt with supersonic, and blunt with subsonic. This paper is intended to be a review of recent discrete roughness transition work completed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of agency flight test programs. First, a review is provided of discrete roughness wind tunnel data and the resulting correlations that were developed. Then, results obtained from flight vehicles, in particular the recently flown Hyper-X and Shuttle missions, are discussed and compared to the ground-based correlations.

  11. Natural discretization in noncommutative field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Acatrinei, Ciprian Sorin

    2015-12-07

    A discretization scheme for field theory is developed, in which the space time coordinates are assumed to be operators forming a noncommutative algebra. Generic waves without rotational symmetry are studied in (2+1) - dimensional scalar field theory with Heisenberg-type noncommutativity. In the representation chosen, the radial coordinate is naturally rendered discrete. Nonlocality along this coordinate, induced by noncommutativity, accounts for the angular dependence of the fields. A complete solution and the interpretation of its nonlocal features are given. The exact form of standing and propagating waves on such a discrete space is found in terms of finite series. A precise correspondence is established between the degree of nonlocality and the angular momentum of a field configuration. At small distance no classical singularities appear, even at the location of the sources. At large radius one recovers the usual commutative/continuum behaviour.

  12. Discrete-time Markovian stochastic Petri nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardo, Gianfranco

    1995-01-01

    We revisit and extend the original definition of discrete-time stochastic Petri nets, by allowing the firing times to have a 'defective discrete phase distribution'. We show that this formalism still corresponds to an underlying discrete-time Markov chain. The structure of the state for this process describes both the marking of the Petri net and the phase of the firing time for each transition, resulting in a large state space. We then modify the well-known power method to perform a transient analysis even when the state space is infinite, subject to the condition that only a finite number of states can be reached in a finite amount of time. Since the memory requirements might still be excessive, we suggest a bounding technique based on truncation.

  13. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  14. A unified framework for modeling landscape evolution by discrete flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelef, Eitan; Hilley, George E.

    2016-05-01

    Topographic features such as branched valley networks and undissected convex-up hillslopes are observed in disparate physical environments. In some cases, these features are formed by sediment transport processes that occur discretely in space and time, while in others, by transport processes that are uniformly distributed across the landscape. This paper presents an analytical framework that reconciles the basic attributes of such sediment transport processes with the topographic features that they form and casts those in terms that are likely common to different physical environments. In this framework, temporal changes in surface elevation reflect the frequency with which the landscape is traversed by geophysical flows generated discretely in time and space. This frequency depends on the distance to which flows travel downslope, which depends on the dynamics of individual flows, the lithologic and topographic properties of the underlying substrate, and the coevolution of topography, erosion, and the routing of flows over the topographic surface. To explore this framework, we postulate simple formulations for sediment transport and flow runout distance and demonstrate that the conditions for hillslope and channel network formation can be cast in terms of fundamental parameters such as distance from drainage divide and a friction-like coefficient that describes a flow's resistance to motion. The framework we propose is intentionally general, but the postulated formulas can be substituted with those that aim to describe a specific process and to capture variations in the size distribution of such flow events.

  15. Discrete space charge affected field emission: Flat and hemisphere emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Shiffler, Donald A.; Tang, Wilkin; Rittersdorf, Ian M.; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Harris, John R.; Lau, Y. Y.; Petillo, John J.; Luginsland, John W.

    2015-05-21

    Models of space-charge affected thermal-field emission from protrusions, able to incorporate the effects of both surface roughness and elongated field emitter structures in beam optics codes, are desirable but difficult. The models proposed here treat the meso-scale diode region separate from the micro-scale regions characteristic of the emission sites. The consequences of discrete emission events are given for both one-dimensional (sheets of charge) and three dimensional (rings of charge) models: in the former, results converge to steady state conditions found by theory (e.g., Rokhlenko et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 107, 014904 (2010)]) but show oscillatory structure as they do. Surface roughness or geometric features are handled using a ring of charge model, from which the image charges are found and used to modify the apex field and emitted current. The roughness model is shown to have additional constraints related to the discrete nature of electron charge. The ability of a unit cell model to treat field emitter structures and incorporate surface roughness effects inside a beam optics code is assessed.

  16. The discrete regime of flame propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew

    The propagation of laminar dust flames in iron dust clouds was studied in a low-gravity envi-ronment on-board a parabolic flight aircraft. The elimination of buoyancy-induced convection and particle settling permitted measurements of fundamental combustion parameters such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. The discrete regime of flame propagation was observed by substitut-ing nitrogen present in air with xenon, an inert gas with a significantly lower heat conductivity. Flame propagation in the discrete regime is controlled by the heat transfer between neighbor-ing particles, rather than by the particle burning rate used by traditional continuum models of heterogeneous flames. The propagation mechanism of discrete flames depends on the spa-tial distribution of particles, and thus such flames are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the fuel concentration. Constant pressure laminar dust flames were observed inside 70 cm long, 5 cm diameter Pyrex tubes. Equally-spaced plate assemblies forming rectangular chan-nels were placed inside each tube to determine the quenching distance defined as the minimum channel width through which a flame can successfully propagate. High-speed video cameras were used to measure the flame speed and a fiber optic spectrometer was used to measure the flame temperature. Experimental results were compared with predictions obtained from a numerical model of a three-dimensional flame developed to capture both the discrete nature and the random distribution of particles in the flame. Though good qualitative agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental observations, residual g-jitters and the short reduced-gravity periods prevented further investigations of propagation limits in the dis-crete regime. The full exploration of the discrete flame phenomenon would require high-quality, long duration reduced gravity environment

  17. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called “Discrete Results” (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of “Discrete Results” is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel “Discrete Results” concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast

  18. Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Vankerschaver, Joris

    2007-03-15

    In this note, we develop a theory of Euler-Poincare reduction for discrete Lagrangian field theories. We introduce the concept of Euler-Poincare equations for discrete field theories, as well as a natural extension of the Moser-Veselov scheme, and show that both are equivalent. The resulting discrete field equations are interpreted in terms of discrete differential geometry. An application to the theory of discrete harmonic mappings is also briefly discussed.

  19. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  20. Engineering Fano resonances in discrete arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2005-11-01

    We study transmission properties of discrete arrays composed of a linear waveguide coupled to a system of N side defect states. This simple system can be used to model discrete networks of coupled defect modes in photonic crystals, complex waveguide arrays in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices, and ring-resonator structures. We demonstrate the basic principles of the resonant scattering management through engineering Fano resonances and find exact results for the wave transmission coefficient. We reveal conditions for perfect reflections and transmissions due to either destructive or constructive interferences, and associate them with Fano resonances, also demonstrating how these resonances can be tuned by nonlinear defects.

  1. Discrete Gabor Filters For Binocular Disparity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1995-01-01

    Discrete Gabor filters proposed for use in determining binocular disparity - difference between positions of same feature or object depicted in stereoscopic images produced by two side-by-side cameras aimed in parallel. Magnitude of binocular disparity used to estimate distance from cameras to feature or object. In one potential application, cameras charge-coupled-device video cameras in robotic vision system, and binocular disparities and distance estimates used as control inputs - for example, to control approaches to objects manipulated or to maintain safe distances from obstacles. Binocular disparities determined from phases of discretized Gabor transforms.

  2. Discretely holomorphic parafermions and integrable boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlef, Yacine

    2012-07-01

    In two-dimensional statistical models possessing a discretely holomorphic parafermion, we introduce a modified discrete Cauchy-Riemann equation on the boundary of the domain, and we show that the solution of this equation yields integrable boundary Boltzmann weights. This approach is applied to (i) the square-lattice O(n) loop model, where the exact locations of the special and ordinary transitions are recovered, and (ii) the Fateev-Zamolodchikov {Z}_N spin model, where a new rotation-invariant, integrable boundary condition is discovered for generic N.

  3. Eye Movements Reveal the Influence of Event Structure on Reading Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swets, Benjamin; Kurby, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    When we read narrative texts such as novels and newspaper articles, we segment information presented in such texts into discrete events, with distinct boundaries between those events. But do our eyes reflect this event structure while reading? This study examines whether eye movements during the reading of discourse reveal how readers respond…

  4. Discrete physics: Practice, representation and rules of correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1988-07-01

    We make a brief historical review of some aspects of modern physics which we find most significant in our own endeavor. We discuss the ''Yukawa Vertices'' of elementary particle theory as used in laboratory practice, second quantized field theory, analytic S-Matrix theory and in our own approach. We review the conserved quantum numbers in the Standard Model of quarks and leptons. This concludes our presentation of the ''E-frame.'' We try to develop a self-consistent representation of our theory. We have already claimed that this approach provides a discrete reconciliation between the formal (representational) aspects of quantum mechanics and relativity. Also discussed are rules of correspondence connecting the formalism to the practice of physics by using the counter paradigm and event-based coordinates to construct relativistic quantum mechanics in a new way. 31 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Coupling of Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.; Simpson, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    A computer code, DRC3, has been developed for coupling Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences in order to solve a special category of geometrically-complex deep penetration shielding problems. The code extends the capabilities of earlier methods that coupled Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with two-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences. The problems involve the calculation of fluences and responses in a perturbation to an otherwise simple two- or three-dimensional radiation field. In general, the perturbation complicates the geometry such that it cannot be modeled exactly using any of the discrete ordinates geometry options and thus a direct discrete ordinates solution is not possible. Also, the calculation of radiation transport from the source to the perturbation involves deep penetration. One approach to solving such problems is to perform the calculations in three steps: (1) a forward discrete ordinates calculation, (2) a localized adjoint Monte Carlo calculation, and (3) a coupling of forward fluences from the first calculation with adjoint leakages from the second calculation to obtain the response of interest (fluence, dose, etc.). A description of this approach is presented along with results from test problems used to verify the method. The test problems that were selected could also be solved directly by the discrete ordinates method. The good agreement between the DRC3 results and the direct-solution results verify the correctness of DRC3.

  6. Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. I. Evolving Hilbert spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Höhn, Philipp A.

    2014-08-15

    A temporally varying discretization often features in discrete gravitational systems and appears in lattice field theory models subject to a coarse graining or refining dynamics. To better understand such discretization changing dynamics in the quantum theory, an according formalism for constrained variational discrete systems is constructed. While this paper focuses on global evolution moves and, for simplicity, restricts to flat configuration spaces R{sup N}, a Paper II [P. A. Höhn, “Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. II. Local evolution moves,” J. Math. Phys., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1401.7731 [gr-qc].] discusses local evolution moves. In order to link the covariant and canonical picture, the dynamics of the quantum states is generated by propagators which satisfy the canonical constraints and are constructed using the action and group averaging projectors. This projector formalism offers a systematic method for tracing and regularizing divergences in the resulting state sums. Non-trivial coarse graining evolution moves lead to non-unitary, and thus irreversible, projections of physical Hilbert spaces and Dirac observables such that these concepts become evolution move dependent on temporally varying discretizations. The formalism is illustrated in a toy model mimicking a “creation from nothing.” Subtleties arising when applying such a formalism to quantum gravity models are discussed.

  7. Event-driven management algorithm of an Engineering documents circulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenkov, V.; Zebzeev, A.; Gromakov, E.

    2015-04-01

    Development methodology of an engineering documents circulation system in the design company is reviewed. Discrete event-driven automatic models using description algorithms of project management is offered. Petri net use for dynamic design of projects is offered.

  8. Optimal sensor placement in structural health monitoring using discrete optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2015-12-01

    The objective of optimal sensor placement (OSP) is to obtain a sensor layout that gives as much information of the dynamic system as possible in structural health monitoring (SHM). The process of OSP can be formulated as a discrete minimization (or maximization) problem with the sensor locations as the design variables, conditional on the constraint of a given sensor number. In this paper, we propose a discrete optimization scheme based on the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the OSP problem after first transforming it into an integer optimization problem. A modal assurance criterion-oriented objective function is investigated to measure the utility of a sensor configuration in the optimization process based on the modal characteristics of a reduced order model. The reduced order model is obtained using an iterated improved reduced system technique. The constraint is handled by a penalty term added to the objective function. Three examples, including a 27 bar truss bridge, a 21-storey building at the MIT campus and the 610 m high Canton Tower, are investigated to test the applicability of the proposed algorithm to OSP. In addition, the proposed OSP algorithm is experimentally validated on a physical laboratory structure which is a three-story two-bay steel frame instrumented with triaxial accelerometers. Results indicate that the proposed method is efficient and can be potentially used in OSP in practical SHM.

  9. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 +/- 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  10. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 ± 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  11. Discrete excitation of mode pulses using a diode-pumped solid-state digital laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngcobo, Sandile; Bell, Teboho

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate novel method of generating discrete excitation of on-demand Lagaurre-Gaussian (LG) mode pulses, in a diode pumped solid-state digital laser. The digital laser comprises of an intra-cavity spatial light modulator (SLM) that acts as an end-mirror of the resonator for uploading digital holograms, for the selection of discrete LG modes and controlling the quality facto, Q of the resonator. Discrete excitation of LG mode pulses of azimuthal-order l of 0, 1, 2, with zero radial-order (p = 0) were generated. Pulses of duration 200 ms and intensities as high as 1 mW with repetition speed of 60 Hz were produced at 1 um wavelength. The maximum peak power-conversion efficiency measured was 1.3%.

  12. Discrete wavelength-locked external cavity laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Silver, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser (and method of generating laser light) comprising: a laser light source; means for collimating light output by the laser light source; a diffraction grating receiving collimated light; a cavity feedback mirror reflecting light received from the diffraction grating back to the diffraction grating; and means for reliably tuning the external cavity laser to discrete wavelengths.

  13. Fast Mix Table Construction for Material Discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Seth R

    2013-01-01

    An effective hybrid Monte Carlo--deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a ``mix table,'' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table in $O(\\text{number of voxels}\\times \\log \\text{number of mixtures})$ time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation.

  14. Teaching Discrete Mathematics with Graphing Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masat, Francis E.

    Graphing calculator use is often thought of in terms of pre-calculus or continuous topics in mathematics. This paper contains examples and activities that demonstrate useful, interesting, and easy ways to use a graphing calculator with discrete topics. Examples are given for each of the following topics: functions, mathematical induction and…

  15. Conjugacy classes in discrete Heisenberg groups

    SciTech Connect

    Budylin, R Ya

    2014-08-01

    We study an extension of a discrete Heisenberg group coming from the theory of loop groups and find invariants of conjugacy classes in this group. In some cases, including the case of the integer Heisenberg group, we make these invariants more explicit. Bibliography: 4 titles.

  16. Discrete Gust Model for Launch Vehicle Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Frank B.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of spacecraft vehicle responses to atmospheric wind gusts during flight is important in the establishment of vehicle design structural requirements and operational capability. Typically, wind gust models can be either a spectral type determined by a random process having a wide range of wavelengths, or a discrete type having a single gust of predetermined magnitude and shape. Classical discrete models used by NASA during the Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs included a 9 m/sec quasi-square-wave gust with variable wavelength from 60 to 300 m. A later study derived discrete gust from a military specification (MIL-SPEC) document that used a "1-cosine" shape. The MIL-SPEC document contains a curve of non-dimensional gust magnitude as a function of non-dimensional gust half-wavelength based on the Dryden spectral model, but fails to list the equation necessary to reproduce the curve. Therefore, previous studies could only estimate a value of gust magnitude from the curve, or attempt to fit a function to it. This paper presents the development of the MIL-SPEC curve, and provides the necessary information to calculate discrete gust magnitudes as a function of both gust half-wavelength and the desired probability level of exceeding a specified gust magnitude.

  17. Geometry of Discrete-Time Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, Robert I.; Modin, Klas; Verdier, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Classical Hamiltonian spin systems are continuous dynamical systems on the symplectic phase space (S^2)^n. In this paper, we investigate the underlying geometry of a time discretization scheme for classical Hamiltonian spin systems called the spherical midpoint method. As it turns out, this method displays a range of interesting geometrical features that yield insights and sets out general strategies for geometric time discretizations of Hamiltonian systems on non-canonical symplectic manifolds. In particular, our study provides two new, completely geometric proofs that the discrete-time spin systems obtained by the spherical midpoint method preserve symplecticity. The study follows two paths. First, we introduce an extended version of the Hopf fibration to show that the spherical midpoint method can be seen as originating from the classical midpoint method on T^*{R}^{2n} for a collective Hamiltonian. Symplecticity is then a direct, geometric consequence. Second, we propose a new discretization scheme on Riemannian manifolds called the Riemannian midpoint method. We determine its properties with respect to isometries and Riemannian submersions, and, as a special case, we show that the spherical midpoint method is of this type for a non-Euclidean metric. In combination with Kähler geometry, this provides another geometric proof of symplecticity.

  18. A deterministic discrete ordinates transport proxy application

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-03

    Kripke is a simple 3D deterministic discrete ordinates (Sn) particle transport code that maintains the computational load and communications pattern of a real transport code. It is intended to be a research tool to explore different data layouts, new programming paradigms and computer architectures.

  19. Kinematics of foldable discrete space cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Exact kinematic description of a NASA proposed prototype foldable-deployable discrete space crane are presented. A computer program is developed which maps the geometry of the crane once controlling parameters are specified. The program uses a building block type approach in which it calculates the local coordinates of each repeating cell and then combines them with respect to a global coordinates system.

  20. Discrete Resource Allocation in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is…

  1. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.; Dornmair, I.; Jalas, S.; Peters, K.; Vay, J.-L.; Maier, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  2. Weight discretization paradigm for optical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiesler, Emile; Choudry, Amar; Caulfield, H. John

    1990-08-01

    Neural networks are a primary candidate architecture for optical computing. One of the major problems in using neural networks for optical computers is that the information holders: the interconnection strengths (or weights) are normally real valued (continuous), whereas optics (light) is only capable of representing a few distinguishable intensity levels (discrete). In this paper a weight discretization paradigm is presented for back(ward error) propagation neural networks which can work with a very limited number of discretization levels. The number of interconnections in a (fully connected) neural network grows quadratically with the number of neurons of the network. Optics can handle a large number of interconnections because of the fact that light beams do not interfere with each other. A vast amount of light beams can therefore be used per unit of area. However the number of different values one can represent in a light beam is very limited. A flexible, portable (machine independent) neural network software package which is capable of weight discretization, is presented. The development of the software and some experiments have been done on personal computers. The major part of the testing, which requires a lot of computation, has been done using a CRAY X-MP/24 super computer.

  3. Web-Based Implementation of Discrete Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tanzy; Keinert, Fritz; Shelley, Mack

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Mathematics at Iowa State University teaches a freshman-level Discrete Mathematics course with total enrollment of about 1,800 students per year. The traditional format includes large lectures, with about 150 students each, taught by faculty and temporary instructors in two class sessions per week and recitation sections, with…

  4. Models for neutrino mass with discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisi, S.

    2011-08-01

    Discrete non-abelian flavor symmetries give in a natural way tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing as showed in a prototype model. However neutrino mass matrix pattern may be very different from the tri-bimaximal one if small deviations of TBM will be observed. We give the result of a model independent analysis for TBM neutrino mass pattern.

  5. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  6. 29 CFR 6.32 - Consent findings and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent findings and order. 6.32 Section 6.32 Labor Office... Consent findings and order. (a) At any time prior to the receipt of evidence or, at the discretion of the... enter into consent findings and an order disposing of the proceeding in whole or in part. (b)...

  7. 29 CFR 6.32 - Consent findings and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent findings and order. 6.32 Section 6.32 Labor Office... Consent findings and order. (a) At any time prior to the receipt of evidence or, at the discretion of the... enter into consent findings and an order disposing of the proceeding in whole or in part. (b)...

  8. 29 CFR 6.32 - Consent findings and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Consent findings and order. 6.32 Section 6.32 Labor Office... Consent findings and order. (a) At any time prior to the receipt of evidence or, at the discretion of the... enter into consent findings and an order disposing of the proceeding in whole or in part. (b)...

  9. 29 CFR 6.32 - Consent findings and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consent findings and order. 6.32 Section 6.32 Labor Office... Consent findings and order. (a) At any time prior to the receipt of evidence or, at the discretion of the... enter into consent findings and an order disposing of the proceeding in whole or in part. (b)...

  10. 29 CFR 6.32 - Consent findings and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consent findings and order. 6.32 Section 6.32 Labor Office... Consent findings and order. (a) At any time prior to the receipt of evidence or, at the discretion of the... enter into consent findings and an order disposing of the proceeding in whole or in part. (b)...

  11. 38 CFR 1.490 - Legal effect of order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exercise discretion pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 5701(b)(5) and 38 CFR 1.511 to disclose such records. It does not... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal effect of order. 1... PROVISIONS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosures and Use § 1.490 Legal effect of order. The records to...

  12. 38 CFR 1.490 - Legal effect of order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exercise discretion pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 5701(b)(5) and 38 CFR 1.511 to disclose such records. It does not... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal effect of order. 1... PROVISIONS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosures and Use § 1.490 Legal effect of order. The records to...

  13. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  14. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, J.; Prskawetz, A.; Grass, D.; Blöschl, G.

    2015-06-01

    Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy and water. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre et al., 2013; Viglione et al., 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. In order to build this first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events, we transform an existing descriptive stochastic model into an optimal deterministic model. The intermediate step is to formulate and simulate a descriptive deterministic model. We develop a periodic water function to approximate the former discrete stochastic time series of rainfall events. Due to the non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function the long-term path of consumption and investment will be periodic.

  15. A Multilevel Algorithm for the Solution of Second Order Elliptic Differential Equations on Sparse Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflaum, Christoph

    1996-01-01

    A multilevel algorithm is presented that solves general second order elliptic partial differential equations on adaptive sparse grids. The multilevel algorithm consists of several V-cycles. Suitable discretizations provide that the discrete equation system can be solved in an efficient way. Numerical experiments show a convergence rate of order Omicron(1) for the multilevel algorithm.

  16. Effects of Mesh Irregularities on Accuracy of Finite-Volume Discretization Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of mesh irregularities on accuracy of unstructured node-centered finite-volume discretizations are considered. The focus is on an edge-based approach that uses unweighted least-squares gradient reconstruction with a quadratic fit. For inviscid fluxes, the discretization is nominally third order accurate on general triangular meshes. For viscous fluxes, the scheme is an average-least-squares formulation that is nominally second order accurate and contrasted with a common Green-Gauss discretization scheme. Gradient errors, truncation errors, and discretization errors are separately studied according to a previously introduced comprehensive methodology. The methodology considers three classes of grids: isotropic grids in a rectangular geometry, anisotropic grids typical of adapted grids, and anisotropic grids over a curved surface typical of advancing layer grids. The meshes within the classes range from regular to extremely irregular including meshes with random perturbation of nodes. Recommendations are made concerning the discretization schemes that are expected to be least sensitive to mesh irregularities in applications to turbulent flows in complex geometries.

  17. An exact and consistent adjoint method for high-fidelity discretization of the compressible flow equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme

  18. Multi-Target Tracking by Discrete-Continuous Energy Minimization.

    PubMed

    Milan, Anton; Schindler, Konrad; Roth, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    The task of tracking multiple targets is often addressed with the so-called tracking-by-detection paradigm, where the first step is to obtain a set of target hypotheses for each frame independently. Tracking can then be regarded as solving two separate, but tightly coupled problems. The first is to carry out data association, i.e., to determine the origin of each of the available observations. The second problem is to reconstruct the actual trajectories that describe the spatio-temporal motion pattern of each individual target. The former is inherently a discrete problem, while the latter should intuitively be modeled in continuous space. Having to deal with an unknown number of targets, complex dependencies, and physical constraints, both are challenging tasks on their own and thus most previous work focuses on one of these subproblems. Here, we present a multi-target tracking approach that explicitly models both tasks as minimization of a unified discrete-continuous energy function. Trajectory properties are captured through global label costs, a recent concept from multi-model fitting, which we introduce to tracking. Specifically, label costs describe physical properties of individual tracks, e.g., linear and angular dynamics, or entry and exit points. We further introduce pairwise label costs to describe mutual interactions between targets in order to avoid collisions. By choosing appropriate forms for the individual energy components, powerful discrete optimization techniques can be leveraged to address data association, while the shapes of individual trajectories are updated by gradient-based continuous energy minimization. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results on diverse benchmark sequences.

  19. Entropy is a consequence of a discrete time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riek, Roland

    2015-07-01

    While the basic microscopic physical laws are time reversible, the arrow of time and time irreversibility appears only at the macroscopic physical laws by the second law of thermodynamics with its entropy term S. It is the attempt of the present work to bridge the microscopic physical world with its macroscopic one with an alternative approach than the statistical mechanics theory of Gibbs and Boltzmann. For simplicity a “classical”, single particle in a one dimensional space is selected. In addition, it is assumed that time is discrete with constant step size. As a consequence time irreversibility at the microscopic level is obtained if the present force is of complex nature (F(r) ≠ const). In order to compare this discrete time irreversible mechanics with its classical Newton analog, time reversibility is reintroduced by scaling the time steps for any given time step n by the variable sn leading to the Nosé-Hoover Lagrangian comprising a term NdfkB T In sn (kB the Boltzmann constant, T the temperature, and Ndf the number of degrees of freedom) which is defined as the microscopic entropy Sn at time point n multiplied by T. Upon ensemble averaging of the microscopic entropy in a many particles system in thermodynamic equilibrium it approximates its macroscopic counterpart known from statistical mechanics. The presented derivation with the resulting analogy between the ensemble averaged microscopic entropy and its statistical mechanics analog suggests that the entropy term itself has its root not in statistical mechanics but rather in the discreteness of time.

  20. Discrete ordinates methods in xy geometry with spatially varying angular discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Bal, G.; Warin, X.

    1997-10-01

    The efficiency of a new quadrature rule adapted to the numerical resolution of a neutron transport problem in xy geometry is presented based on the use of the discrete ordinates method for the angular variable. The purpose of introducing this quadrature rule is to couple two different angular discretizations used on two nonoverlapping subdomains, which is useful for performing local refinement. This coupling and some numerical results of source problems are presented.

  1. A Spatial Discretization Scheme for Solving the Transport Equation on Unstructured Grids of Polyhedra

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.G.

    2000-11-01

    In this work, we develop a new spatial discretization scheme that may be used to numerically solve the neutron transport equation. This new discretization extends the family of corner balance spatial discretizations to include spatial grids of arbitrary polyhedra. This scheme enforces balance on subcell volumes called corners. It produces a lower triangular matrix for sweeping, is algebraically linear, is non-negative in a source-free absorber, and produces a robust and accurate solution in thick diffusive regions. Using an asymptotic analysis, we design the scheme so that in thick diffusive regions it will attain the same solution as an accurate polyhedral diffusion discretization. We then refine the approximations in the scheme to reduce numerical diffusion in vacuums, and we attempt to capture a second order truncation error. After we develop this Upstream Corner Balance Linear (UCBL) discretization we analyze its characteristics in several limits. We complete a full diffusion limit analysis showing that we capture the desired diffusion discretization in optically thick and highly scattering media. We review the upstream and linear properties of our discretization and then demonstrate that our scheme captures strictly non-negative solutions in source-free purely absorbing media. We then demonstrate the minimization of numerical diffusion of a beam and then demonstrate that the scheme is, in general, first order accurate. We also note that for slab-like problems our method actually behaves like a second-order method over a range of cell thicknesses that are of practical interest. We also discuss why our scheme is first order accurate for truly 3D problems and suggest changes in the algorithm that should make it a second-order accurate scheme. Finally, we demonstrate 3D UCBL's performance on several very different test problems. We show good performance in diffusive and streaming problems. We analyze truncation error in a 3D problem and demonstrate robustness in a

  2. 78 FR 645 - Federal Employee Pay Schedules and Rates That Are Set by Administrative Discretion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... 21, 2012 [FR Doc. 2013-00001 Filed 1-2-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 6325-01 ... Rates That Are Set by Administrative Discretion Executive Order 13635--Adjustments of Certain Rates of... 21, 2012 Federal Employee Pay Schedules and Rates That Are Set by Administrative...

  3. A study of discrete glacier motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoet, Lucas K.

    Knowledge of process which control glacial dynamics are imperative in quantifying the response of a glacier or ice sheet to external forcing. This dissertation focuses mainly upon the characterization of sliding ice over a bed in an unstable fashion. I investigate unstable sliding through instances where it is observed in passive seismology as well as a focused laboratory study. The laboratory study attempts to isolate specific aspects of the sliding interface, which could lead to unstable sliding. Implications of unstable sliding with regards to erosion are also dealt with. Initially the TAMSEIS array is used to observe a unique set of seismicity originating at the base of David Glacier Antarctica in which ˜ 20,000 events were located over a ˜300 day period as the ice slid over an asperity. Tidal effects at the terminus modulated the interevent spacing and magnitude of events allowing for a basic analysis of healing process between a glacier and its bed. The 300 day period of repeat seismicity is hypothesized to arise from advection of debris rich ice over the asperity. Next the erosion implications of stick slip sliding are investigated. Sudden advancement associated with seismic energy generation is hypothesized to rapidly expand water filled cavities, which form in lee of bedrock highs. The rapid expansion creates a drop in water pressure within the cavity resulting in a pressure gradient leading to rapid fracture of bedrock. During the interseismic period of a stick slipping glacier the static coefficient of friction transfers a larger shear stress to the bed than the dynamic coefficient of friction from stably sliding glacier would. Next laboratory experimentation is conducted using a biaxial shearing apparatus in order to test the hypothesis that debris rich ice can affect the stability regime of a sliding glacier. This is preformed on a suite of ice-debris samples with range entrained debris percentages and temperatures. Both synthetic ice constructed in

  4. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Discretization of MHD on 3D Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Rieben, R N; White, D A; Wallin, B K; Solberg, J M

    2006-06-12

    We present an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) discretization of the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on unstructured hexahedral grids. The method is formulated using an operator-split approach with three distinct phases: electromagnetic diffusion, Lagrangian motion, and Eulerian advection. The resistive magnetic dynamo equation is discretized using a compatible mixed finite element method with a 2nd order accurate implicit time differencing scheme which preserves the divergence-free nature of the magnetic field. At each discrete time step, electromagnetic force and heat terms are calculated and coupled to the hydrodynamic equations to compute the Lagrangian motion of the conducting materials. By virtue of the compatible discretization method used, the invariants of Lagrangian MHD motion are preserved in a discrete sense. When the Lagrangian motion of the mesh causes significant distortion, that distortion is corrected with a relaxation of the mesh, followed by a 2nd order monotonic remap of the electromagnetic state variables. The remap is equivalent to Eulerian advection of the magnetic flux density with a fictitious mesh relaxation velocity. The magnetic advection is performed using a novel variant of constrained transport (CT) that is valid for unstructured hexahedral grids with arbitrary mesh velocities. The advection method maintains the divergence free nature of the magnetic field and is second order accurate in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. For regions in which the magnetic field is discontinuous (e.g. MHD shocks) the method is limited using a novel variant of algebraic flux correction (AFC) which is local extremum diminishing (LED) and divergence preserving. Finally, we verify each stage of the discretization via a set of numerical experiments.

  5. Order Parameters for Two-Dimensional Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2007-10-01

    We derive methods that explain how to quantify the amount of order in ``ordered'' and ``highly ordered'' porous arrays. Ordered arrays from bee honeycomb and several from the general field of nanoscience are compared. Accurate measures of the order in porous arrays are made using the discrete pair distribution function (PDF) and the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) from 2-D discrete Fourier transforms calculated from the real-space data using MATLAB routines. An order parameter, OP3, is defined from the PDF to evaluate the total order in a given array such that an ideal network has the value of 1. When we compare PDFs of man-made arrays with that of our honeycomb we find OP3=0.399 for the honeycomb and OP3=0.572 for man's best hexagonal array. The DWF also scales with this order parameter with the least disorder from a computer-generated hexagonal array and the most disorder from a random array. An ideal hexagonal array normalizes a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller parameter is derived which describes the disorder in the arrays. An order parameter S, defined by the DWF, takes values from [0, 1] and for the analyzed man-made array is 0.90, while for the honeycomb it is 0.65. This presentation describes methods to quantify the order found in these arrays.

  6. Discrete photonics resonator in coupled waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Plougonven, Nadia Belabas; Minot, Christophe; Bouwmans, Géraud; Levenson, Ariel; Moison, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that discrete diffraction resonance can be designed, fabricated, and successfully probed in functionalized - guidonic - coupled waveguide arrays. We evidence that double-barrier patterning of the coupling creates wavelength-independent angular tunnel resonance in the transmitted and the reflected intensity of light beams freely propagating in the plane of the array. Transmission peaks obtained are associated with resonant excitation of the engineered array bound supermodes of the functionalized array, in agreement with accurate and practical numerical modeling based on extended coupled-mode theory. The linear operation of the guidonic resonant tunneling double barrier makes up an original resonator for discrete photonics, suitable for all-optical control of light.

  7. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  8. Polarized pulse waves in random discrete scatterers.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, A; Jaruwatanadilok, S; Kuga, Y

    2001-10-20

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the use of polarization for imaging objects in a cluttered environment. Examples are optical imaging through clouds, optical detection of objects in a biological medium, and microwave detection of objects in clutter. We extend previous studies of continuous-wave scattering to pulse-polarization scattering in discrete scatterers. We solve the time-dependent vector radiative transfer equation for a plane-parallel medium by using Mie scattering and the discrete ordinates method. The time-dependent degree of polarization and cross-polarization discrimination are calculated and verify the advantages of circular over linear polarization in maintaining greater copolarized components rather than cross-polarized components.

  9. Semi-Discrete Ingham-Type Inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Komornik, Vilmos Loreti, Paola

    2007-03-15

    One of the general methods in linear control theory is based on harmonic and non-harmonic Fourier series. The key of this approach is the establishment of various suitable adaptations and generalizations of the classical Parseval equality. A new and systematic approach was begun in our papers in collaboration with Baiocchi. Many recent results of this kind, obtained through various Ingham-type theorems, were exposed recently. Although this work concentrated on continuous models, in connection with numerical simulations a natural question is whether these results also admit useful discrete versions. The purpose of this paper is to establish discrete versions of various Ingham-type theorems by using our approach. They imply the earlier continuous results by a simple limit process.

  10. Discrete Abelian gauge symmetries and axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honecker, Gabriele; Staessens, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    We combine two popular extensions of beyond the Standard Model physics within the framework of intersecting D6-brane models: discrete ℤn symmetries and Peccei-Quinn axions. The underlying natural connection between both extensions is formed by the presence of massive U(1) gauge symmetries in D-brane model building. Global intersecting D6-brane models on toroidal orbifolds of the type T6/ℤ2N and T6/ℤ2 × ℤ2M with discrete torsion offer excellent playgrounds for realizing these extensions. A generation-dependent ℤ2 symmetry is identified in a global Pati-Salam model, while global left-right symmetric models give rise to supersymmetric realizations of the DFSZ axion model. In one class of the latter models, the axion as well as Standard Model particles carry a non-trivial ℤ3 charge.

  11. Is Discrete Mathematics the New Math of the Eighties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Eric W.

    1985-01-01

    Considered are what discrete mathematics includes, some parallels and differences between new math and discrete mathematics (listed in a table), and lessons to be learned. A list of references is included. (MNS)

  12. Development and Application of Compatible Discretizations of Maxwell's Equations

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Koning, J; Rieben, R

    2005-05-27

    We present the development and application of compatible finite element discretizations of electromagnetics problems derived from the time dependent, full wave Maxwell equations. We review the H(curl)-conforming finite element method, using the concepts and notations of differential forms as a theoretical framework. We chose this approach because it can handle complex geometries, it is free of spurious modes, it is numerically stable without the need for filtering or artificial diffusion, it correctly models the discontinuity of fields across material boundaries, and it can be very high order. Higher-order H(curl) and H(div) conforming basis functions are not unique and we have designed an extensible C++ framework that supports a variety of specific instantiations of these such as standard interpolatory bases, spectral bases, hierarchical bases, and semi-orthogonal bases. Virtually any electromagnetics problem that can be cast in the language of differential forms can be solved using our framework. For time dependent problems a method-of-lines scheme is used where the Galerkin method reduces the PDE to a semi-discrete system of ODE's, which are then integrated in time using finite difference methods. For time integration of wave equations we employ the unconditionally stable implicit Newmark-Beta method, as well as the high order energy conserving explicit Maxwell Symplectic method; for diffusion equations, we employ a generalized Crank-Nicholson method. We conclude with computational examples from resonant cavity problems, time-dependent wave propagation problems, and transient eddy current problems, all obtained using the authors massively parallel computational electromagnetics code EMSolve.

  13. Nonlinear Analysis for Event Forewarning (NLAfEW)

    2013-05-23

    The NLAfEW computer code analyses noisy, experimental data to forewarn of adverse events. The functionality of the analysis is a follows: It removes artifacts from the data, converts the continuous data value to discrete values, constructs time-delay embedding vectors, comparents the unique nodes and links in one graph, and determines event forewarning on the basis of several successive occurrences of one (or more) of the dissimilarity measures above a threshold.

  14. Discrete ordinates with new quadrature sets and modified source conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, K.; Allen, E.J., Victory, H.D. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    A major shortcoming of the discrete ordinates method with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set is that when the number of secondaries per primary c and the order of approximation N are not too large, all the (N + 1)v (the flux being of the form exp({minus}x/v)) lie in ({minus}1,1). It is known, however, that the largest v{sub j} corresponding to the asymptotic flux is greater than unity. The Legendre polynomial used for obtaining the quadrature set is orthogonal with respect to weight unity in the range ({minus}1,1). However, the Case and Zweifel eigenfunctions derived from the exact solution of one-speed transport theory are orthogonal with respect to a complicated weight function w({mu}) and {mu} in the half-range and full-range cases, respectively. In this paper, the authors have used a set of orthogonal polynomials with respect to w ({mu}) to develop quadrature sets to be used in the discrete ordinates calculation.

  15. Multiorder boundaries among discrete domains: relative fractal dimension and others.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qi; Du, Fang; Wu, Tie-Jun

    2010-03-01

    In nature and society, most of competitions take place on the boundaries among a group of domains where different individuals or colonies share common resources; therefore, it is widely believed that domain boundaries play important roles in the evolution of many complex systems. Here, we first give a definition for multiorder boundaries among discrete domains and then propose a general method to calculate their relative fractal dimension, i.e., the ratio of the fractal dimension of the boundaries versus that of the domains themselves. Through analyzing three types of real-world discrete domains, several interesting results are revealed. For example, the limitation on the number of domains that an individual can join in may produce longer boundaries indicating more cruel competitions among the domains. Besides, the individuals with more social links are always considered more important in social networks, and it is found that these individuals as valuable resources of social domains are always centralized on the boundaries of higher order. PMID:20370288

  16. Discrete sequence prediction and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Learning from experience to predict sequences of discrete symbols is a fundamental problem in machine learning with many applications. We apply sequence prediction using a simple and practical sequence-prediction algorithm, called TDAG. The TDAG algorithm is first tested by comparing its performance with some common data compression algorithms. Then it is adapted to the detailed requirements of dynamic program optimization, with excellent results.

  17. Discrete Bimodal Probes for Thrombus Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Ritika; Ciesienski, Kate L.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Loving, Galen S.; Caravan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a generalizable solid/solution phase strategy for the synthesis of discrete bimodal fibrin-targeted imaging probes. A fibrin-specific peptide was conjugated with two distinct imaging reporters at the C- and N-terminus. In vitro studies demonstrated retention of fibrin affinity and specificity. Imaging studies showed that these probes could detect fibrin over a wide range of probe concentrations by optical, magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography imaging. PMID:22698259

  18. Joint discrete universality of Hurwitz zeta functions

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinčikas, A

    2014-11-30

    We obtain a joint discrete universality theorem for Hurwitz zeta functions. Here the parameters of zeta functions and the step of shifts of these functions approximating a given family of analytic functions are connected by some condition of linear independence. Nesterenko's theorem gives an example satisfying this condition. The universality theorem is applied to estimate the number of zeros of a linear combination of Hurwitz zeta functions. Bibliography: 20 titles.

  19. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  20. The discrete-time compensated Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.-H.; Athans, M.

    1979-01-01

    A suboptimal dynamic compensator to be used in conjunction with the ordinary discrete-time Kalman filter is derived. The resultant compensated Kalman filter has the property that steady-state bias estimation errors, resulting from modelling errors, are eliminated. The implementation of the compensated Kalman filter involves the use of accumulators in the residual channels in addition to the nominal dynamic model of the stochastic system.