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Sample records for order iwo msf99-0254

  1. Fundamental Thermal Fluid Physics of High Temperature Flows in Advanced Reactor Systems - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program Interoffice Work Order (IWO) MSF99-0254 Final Report for Period 1 August 1999 to 31 December 2002

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.; Condie, K.G.; Foust, T.D.; McCreery, G.E.; Pink, R.J.; Stacey, D.E.; Shenoy, A.; Baccaglini, G.; Pletcher, R.H.; Wallace, J.M.; Vukoslavcevic, P.; Jackson, J.D.; Kunugi, T.; Satake, S.-i.

    2002-12-31

    The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of advanced reactors for higher efficiency and enhanced safety and for deployable reactors for electrical power generation, process heat utilization and hydrogen generation. While key applications would be advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGCRs) using the closed Brayton cycle (CBC) for higher efficiency (such as the proposed Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) of General Atomics [Neylan and Simon, 1996]), results of the proposed research should also be valuable in reactor systems with supercritical flow or superheated vapors, e.g., steam. Higher efficiency leads to lower cost/kwh and reduces life-cycle impacts of radioactive waste (by reducing waters/kwh). The outcome will also be useful for some space power and propulsion concepts and for some fusion reactor concepts as side benefits, but they are not the thrusts of the investigation. The objective of the project is to provide fundamental thermal fluid physics knowledge and measurements necessary for the development of the improved methods for the applications.

  2. The Later Stone Age Calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: Morphology and Chronology

    PubMed Central

    Harvati, Katerina; Stringer, Chris; Grün, Rainer; Aubert, Maxime; Allsworth-Jones, Philip; Folorunso, Caleb Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years the Later Stone Age has been redated to a much deeper time depth than previously thought. At the same time, human remains from this time period are scarce in Africa, and even rarer in West Africa. The Iwo Eleru burial is one of the few human skeletal remains associated with Later Stone Age artifacts in that region with a proposed Pleistocene date. We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3-D geometric morphometric analysis of cranial landmarks and semilandmarks was conducted using a large comparative fossil and modern human sample. The measurements were collected in the form of three dimensional coordinates and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal components, canonical variates, Mahalanobis D2 and Procrustes distance analyses were performed. The results were further visualized by comparing specimen and mean configurations. Results point to a morphological similarity with late archaic African specimens dating to the Late Pleistocene. A long bone cortical fragment was made available for U-series analysis in order to re-date the specimen. The results (∼11.7–16.3 ka) support a terminal Pleistocene chronology for the Iwo Eleru burial as was also suggested by the original radiocarbon dating results and by stratigraphic evidence. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are in accordance with suggestions of deep population substructure in Africa and a complex evolutionary process for the origin of modern humans. They further highlight the dearth of hominin finds from West Africa, and underscore our real lack of knowledge of human evolution in that region. PMID:21949689

  3. Development of mobile sensor for volcanic observation "HOMURA": Test campaign at Kirishima Iwo-yama, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, K.; Ito, K.; Iwahori, K.; Anbe, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring volcanoes near active craters is important to know symptoms and transitions of volcanic eruptions. In order to observe volcanic phenomena near craters according to the circumstance, monitoring system with unmanned robots are useful. We have been trying to develop a practical UGV-type robot, and have completed a prototype, which we named "Homura". Homura is a small-sized, vehicle-type robot with six wheels (750 x 430 x 310 mm in dimensions and a weight of about 12 kg). Homura is remotely controlled with mobile phone radio waves; it can move in volcanic fields and send real time data of sensors equipped in the vehicle to the base station. We carried out a test campaign of Homura from Feb. 19th to Apr. 8th, 2015 at Iwo-yama to examine if Homura can work for a few month in natural volcanic fields. Iwo-yama is one of craters in the Kirishima volcanic field, SW Japan; the area within 1 km from the crater was an off-limit area from Oct. 24th, 2014 to May 5th, 2015 because volcanic seismicity there was active and eruption might occur. On Feb. 19th, we carried and put Homura at the rim of the crater. Unfortunately, mobile phone connectivity was not entirely stable around Iwo-yama. Then, we decided not to move Homura and only to obtain real time data of the sensors (a camera, CO2 gas sensor, and thermometer). After we returned to our office, we operated Homura for one to two hours every day until Apr. 8th. Although the weather was often bad (rain, fog, or cold temperature) during the test campaign, we could completely operate Homura without any trouble. On Apr. 8th, the battery in Homura ran down. After we collected Homura from Iwo-yama and recharged the battery, Homura perfectly worked again. The results of this campaign indicate that Homura stably operates for a long time in volcanic field. Homura is useful as simple monitoring station in volcanic fields where mobile phone connection is available.

  4. Evaluation of the selection methods used in the exIWO algorithm based on the optimization of multidimensional functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Daniel; Josiński, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The expanded Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) is an optimization metaheuristic modelled on the original IWO version inspired by dynamic growth of weeds colony. The authors of the present paper have modified the exIWO algorithm introducing a set of both deterministic and non-deterministic strategies of individuals' selection. The goal of the project was to evaluate the modified exIWO by testing its usefulness for multidimensional numerical functions optimization. The optimized functions: Griewank, Rastrigin, and Rosenbrock are frequently used as benchmarks because of their characteristics.

  5. Iwo Eleru's place among Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene populations of North and East Africa.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2014-10-01

    The Iwo Eleru site in Nigeria preserves the only terminal Pleistocene fossil from tropical West Africa. The peoples of this region contributed to significant population movements throughout the continent during the Holocene. As such, characterizing the phenotype of Late Pleistocene West African populations is critical for disentangling the evolutionary signatures of a highly complex African population history and structure. Previous research approached the calvaria's morphology from a paleoanthropological perspective, noting its mosaic of archaic and modern neurocranial features and distinctiveness from Pleistocene fossil taxa and contemporary modern human samples. In this paper, I compare Iwo Eleru with contemporary Late Pleistocene Africans and also consider the specimen's affinities with Holocene populations of the central and western Sahara, Nile Valley, and East Africa. Craniometric data were recorded for 22 neurocranial dimensions and subjected to principal components analysis and Mahalanobis distance estimation. Multidimensional scaling of distances indicated that Iwo Eleru fell outside the observed range of variation of other terminal Pleistocene supra-equatorial African populations, confirming previous results that documented its divergence from Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Europeans, and modern Africans. The calvaria was also distinct from Holocene Saharan, Nile Valley, and East African populations, which suggests limited West African input into the Sahara during the African Humid Period. Results presented here bolster previous research that suggested Iwo Eleru's anatomy reflected either admixture with archaic humans or the long-term survival of populations with more archaic neurocranial anatomy until the end of the Pleistocene.

  6. Downstream assessment of chlorinated organic compounds in the bed-sediment of Aiba Stream, Iwo, South-Western, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olutona, Godwin O; Olatunji, Stephen O; Obisanya, Joshua F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated levels and distribution pattern of chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) otherwise known as organochlorine pesticides in sediment samples at downstream of Aiba watercourse in Iwo, South-western Nigeria. Soxhlet extraction method followed by GC-ECD analysis were used to ascertain levels of COCs in the sediment samples collected from four different locations along the stream. Eighteen COCs were detected with trans permethrin and endosulfan sulfate having highest and lowest concentrations of 375.70 ± 689.41 and 0.03 ± 0.05 µg/g, respectively. The varying levels of COCs as obtained in this study were attributed to organochlorine pesticides contamination emanated from different agricultural practices and domestic sewage loads of the study area. PMID:26839760

  7. Ecophysiology of Zetaproteobacteria Associated with Shallow Hydrothermal Iron-Oxyhydroxide Deposits in Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kuratomi, Takashi; Morono, Yuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Inagaki, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal ferric deposits have demonstrated that members of Zetaproteobacteria play significant ecological roles in biogeochemical iron-cycling. However, the ecophysiological characteristics and interaction between other microbial members in the habitat still remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a core sample obtained from shallow hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxide deposits at Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed numerous helical stalk structures, suggesting the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the co-occurrence of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria and iron-reducing bacteria such as the genera Deferrisoma and Desulfobulbus with strong correlations on the sequence abundance. CARD-FISH indicated that the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria were not always consistent to the frequency of stalk structures. In the stalk-abundant layers with relatively small numbers of Zetaproteobacteria cells, accumulation of polyphosphate was observed inside Zetaproteobacteria cells, whereas no polyphosphate grains were observed in the topmost layers with fewer stalks and abundant Zetaproteobacteria cells. These results suggest that Zetaproteobacteria store intracellular polyphosphates during active iron oxidation that contributes to the mineralogical growth and biogeochemical iron cycling. PMID:26793184

  8. Ecophysiology of Zetaproteobacteria Associated with Shallow Hydrothermal Iron-Oxyhydroxide Deposits in Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kuratomi, Takashi; Morono, Yuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Inagaki, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal ferric deposits have demonstrated that members of Zetaproteobacteria play significant ecological roles in biogeochemical iron-cycling. However, the ecophysiological characteristics and interaction between other microbial members in the habitat still remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a core sample obtained from shallow hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxide deposits at Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed numerous helical stalk structures, suggesting the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the co-occurrence of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria and iron-reducing bacteria such as the genera Deferrisoma and Desulfobulbus with strong correlations on the sequence abundance. CARD-FISH indicated that the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria were not always consistent to the frequency of stalk structures. In the stalk-abundant layers with relatively small numbers of Zetaproteobacteria cells, accumulation of polyphosphate was observed inside Zetaproteobacteria cells, whereas no polyphosphate grains were observed in the topmost layers with fewer stalks and abundant Zetaproteobacteria cells. These results suggest that Zetaproteobacteria store intracellular polyphosphates during active iron oxidation that contributes to the mineralogical growth and biogeochemical iron cycling. PMID:26793184

  9. Eleven-years-long record of ferric hydroxide sedimentation in Satsuma Iwo-Jima island, Kagoshima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueshiba, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Goto, S.; Oguri, K.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Nagata, T.; Ninomiya, T.; Ikegami, F.

    2011-12-01

    Satsuma Iwo-Jima island is active in volcanic activity located about 40 km south of Kyushu Island, Japan. It has many hot springs, and is surrounded by patches of reddish brown and white colored seawater. Nagahama Bay, a small port located in the southern part of the island, retains reddish brown seawater and precipitates ferric hydroxide (Ninomiya and Kiyokawa, 2009). We conducted multidisciplinary study to investigate mechanisms and histories of precipitation of the sediments. From 2009 to 2011, we obtained 1.5m-long core samples in the bay that record sedimentation of mainly ferric hydroxide during the last 11~13 years since dredging in 1998. We compare their stratigraphy with (a) 11 years meteorological data and (b) volcanic activity record in that period. Stratigraphy: Thirteen short cores (<1m long) were collected from Nagahama Bay. The lower unit contains three layers of white and pink tuff beds (T1, T2 and T3) with thickness of 1~9cm. The upper unit mainly contains sand bed and reddish-brown mud. The tuff beds are mainly composed of volcanic glass. Sand bed is essentially a mixture of felsic rock fragments, volcanic glass, and ferric-rich fine materials. The reddish brown sediment between T1 and T2 has very fine orange-colored laminations (1~2mm thick/each). (a) Meteorological data: 11-years-long meteorological data of the Satsuma Iwo-Jima island suggest that heavy rainfalls (precipitation over 100mm/day) occurred in June 2000 (189mm/day), June 2001 (124.5mm/day), and June 2002 (122mm/day), and that three events of strong typhoon occurred in 2004 (maximum wind speed: 40.3m/s, 54.3m/s and 44.6m/s), 2005 (43.3m/s), and 2007 (50.2m/s). These meteorological events are reflected in, sometimes disturb, the sediment record. (b) Volcanic data: Volcanic activity has occurred from 1997 (Shinohara, 2002) to October 2004 (Japan Meteorological Agency, 2010). During that time, ash was spewed out from and deposited near the volcano. Tuffaceous beds in the sediments of

  10. The structure of iron-hydroxide mounds at hydrothermal environment in shallow marine, Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Kikai caldera, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratomi, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Goto, S.; Hoshino, T.; Ikegami, F.; Minowa, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island, located 38km south of Kyusyu, Japan, is a volcanic island in the northwestern rim of Kikai caldera. Iron-rich mounds develop with hydrothermal activity (pH=5.5, 50-60 °C) in Nagahama bay southwestern this island. The brownish seawater at the bay is due to mixing of the hot spring water (Shikaura and Tazaki, 2001) with the high deposition rate (1 m per year) of iron-rich sediments (Kiyokawa et al., 2012). In this study, we found the structure of mounds has unique information by the observation with X-ray CT scan, FE-SEM, and the thin-sectioned sample, and the chemical analysis with EDS, XRF, and XRD. Samples (20-30 cm long) were piece of mounds made from two layers: black high-density hard layer and brownish low-density soft layer. X-ray CT scan observation shows that the inside of samples is constructed from the aggregation of convex structure (3-4 cm). Low-density layers have many pipe-like structure (typical radius: 1 mm). Petrographic observations indicate that both high- and low-density layers have filament-like forms, however the form in low-density layer is perpendicular to those in high-density layer. In low-density layer, small particles on the filament-like form and the number increases toward high-density layer. FE-SEM observation shows that filament-like form in high-density layer consists of aggregation of bacillus-like form as the chain of particles (about 2 μm). At low-density layer, on the other hand, bacteria-like form with smaller particles (<1 μm) is observed. Bacteria-like form could be classified into 3 types (helix, ribbon-like, twisted). Furthermore, all particles are iron-hydroxides such as ferrihydrite with silica because they are consist of Fe, Si and O with broad peak in XRD. We conclude that the mounds at Nagahama bay were constructed form aggregation of convex structure with many pipes as the hydrothermal vent. Bacteria-like form probably is the stalk of neutrophilic, iron-oxidizing bacteria because of those

  11. Revisiting the source process for VLP signals observed at Satsuma-Iwo jima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.

    2014-12-01

    In April 1997, characteristic broadband seismic signals accompanied with very-long-period (VLP) repetitious seismic pulses were observed at Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan. Ohminato (2006) conducted waveform analyses and showed that the waveforms are well explained by the sudden expansion of an inclined shallow crack. In order to explain the repetitious property of the signals, he proposed a model of sudden vaporization of superheated water filling the crack as a physical model of the sudden crack expansion. This model explains the source geometry and the repetitious property of the VLP signals. However, this model has a serious drawback. The crack surface is not smooth and the rough surface would have small cavities containing small bubbles which can easily grow with increasing temperature and break the state of superheated condition of the water. Thus, for water in a container with rough surface such as a crack in the rock, it is difficult to keep the superheated condition.Recently, Namiki and Kagoshima (2014) conducted lab experiments using syrup as a magma analogue. The experiments show that the expansion of one void leads to expansion of another void above it by the rupture of film separating these two voids. The void expansions propagate upward and finally cause intermittent outgassing when they reach the magma surface. Suppose that the upward propagation of void expansions occurs in the conduit of Satsuma-Iwojima and that the top of the conduit is connected to the shallow inclined crack. When the void expansions propagate upward and finally reach the top of the conduit, the gas from the void would be injected into the crack and the crack expansion would excite VLP signals. Every time a large void reaches the top of the conduit, the crack would repeat expansion. The internal pressure increase of the crack occurs simultaneously with the void pressure decrease. Why is it that only the VLP signals corresponding to the expanding source are observed? The time constant at

  12. Shallow-water hydrothermal system and sedimentation of the ferric deposit in the Nagahama-bay, Satsuma Iwo-jima Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Koge, S.; Oguri, K.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2008-12-01

    Satsuma Iwo-jima Island, located 40km south of Kyushu, Japan, has characteristic hydrothermal activities surrounding its active volcano Iwo-dake. Along the shoreline, hydrothermal fluids discharge and they cause discoloration of the seawater. At Nagahama-bay, iron ion in carbonated spring is oxidized to iron hydroxide precipitate by mixing with the sea water and the water takes on red color(Kamada, 1964). To understand the relationships among the ferric deposits, hydrothermal ventings, and the sea tide in the bay, we conducted the following studies; (a) naked eye observation at seafloor by SCUBA diving and the measurements of temperature and sediment distributions, (b) time-series in situ observation of the sesafloor by OGURI-View system (an automatic underwater digital camera system; Oguri et al., 2006), (c) time-series observation of color changes in the surface water by automatic acquisition system modified from OGURI-View, (d) geochemical analysis of the sea water collected in spring and fall 2007 and summer 2008, (e) coring to find the components in the sediment, and (f) six months-long sediment trap to estimate total mass flux in the bay. On the seafloor, numerous hot vents were found in the eastern part of the bay at 4m in depth. Soft sediment was also formed around the vents up to 1.5m thick. Temperature of the surface sediment ranged from 30 to 55 degree Celsius; the highest temperature was observed near those vents. The time-series images taken by OGURI-View system showed that turbidness of the bottom of the sea water changed daily. The turbidity data in the bay indicated that their daily changes occurred by tidal currents and sometimes by unusual mixing induced by strong typhoon. The sediment of 83cm core sample consisted of clay-sized reddish ferric oxides, quartz, volcanic ashes, rock fragments, and very fine to fine sand. From the sediment trap experiment, total mass accumulation rate was estimated to 0.12-0.18g/cm2/day. This high rate may be one

  13. Ecophysiology of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria in an iron oxyhydroxide mound in a shallow marine environment at Satsuma Iwo-jima, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, T.; Kuratomi, T.; Morono, Y.; Hori, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Inagaki, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Satsuma Iwo-Jima is a small volcanic island located 40 km south of the Kyusyu Island, Japan. In the Nagahama Bay of the island, venting hydrothermal fluids from iron oxyhydroxide mounds on the seafloor. Using a light microscopy, numerous twisted stalk structures in the deposits were observed, suggesting the presence of neutrophilic iron-oxidizing microbial communities. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene-tagged fragments followed by correlation analysis showed that iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria inhabit the iron deposits in the vicinity of anaerobic iron-reducing bacteria, indicating the occurrence of iron cycling mediated by the microbial ecosystem. We successfully identified Zetaproteobacteria cells using CARD-FISH technique at the different depths of the cored sample, suggesting that the number of Zetaproteobacteria cells and the frequency of the twisted stalk structures are not always consistent. In stalk-abundant horizons that harbor relatively small Zetaproteobacteria populations, accumulation of polyphosphate within Zetaproteobacteria cells was clearly observed. This indicates that Zetaproteobacteria physiologically store energy and phosphorus substrates during the active iron oxidation. In marked contrast, in other horizons with fewer stalks and large populations of Zetaproteobacteria, polyphosphate was rarely observed in the cells, suggesting that Zetaproteobacteria have already used up the intracellular reservoir of energy and phosphorous substrates, and the iron-oxidizing activity is most likely lower than those cells inhabiting the redox interface.

  14. Rapid sedimentation of iron oxyhydroxides in an active hydrothermal shallow semi-enclosed bay at Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island, Kagoshima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Ueshiba, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity is common in the fishing port of Nagahama Bay, a small semi-enclosed bay located on the southwest coast of Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island (38 km south of Kyushu Island, Japan). The bay contains red-brown iron oxyhydroxides and thick deposits of sediment. In this work, the high concentration and sedimentation rates of oxyhydroxide in this bay were studied and the sedimentary history was reconstructed. Since dredging work in 1998, a thickness of ~ 1.0-1.5 m of iron oxyhydroxide-rich sediments has accumulated on the floor of the bay. To estimate the volume of iron oxyhydroxide sediments and the amount discharged from hydrothermal vents, sediment traps were operated for several years and 13 sedimentary core samples were collected to reconstruct the 10-year sedimentary history of Nagahama Bay. To confirm the timing of sedimentary events, the core data were compared with meteorological records obtained on the island, and the ages of characteristic key beds were thus identified. The sedimentation rate of iron oxyhydroxide mud was calculated, after correcting for sediment input from other sources. The sediments in the 13 cores from Nagahama Bay consist mainly of iron oxyhydroxide mud, three thick tephra beds, and a topmost thick sandy mud bed. Heavy rainfall events in 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004-2005 coincide with tephra beds, which were reworked from Iwo-Dake ash deposits to form tephra-rich sediment. Strong typhoon events with gigantic waves transported outer-ocean-floor sediments and supplied quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and albite sands to Nagahama Bay. These materials were redeposited together with bay sediments as the sandy mud bed. Based on the results from the sediment traps and cores, it is estimated that the iron oxyhydroxide mud accumulated in the bay at the relatively rapid rate of 33.3 cm/year (from traps) and 2.8-4.9 cm/year (from cores). The pore water contents within the sediment trap and core sediments are 73%-82% and 47

  15. Long term observation of Tidal Cycle in Nagahama Bay, Satsuma Iwo-Jima: Implications for hydrothermal products sedimentation in littoral environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minowa, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Goto, S.; Ikegami, F.; Kuratomi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Satsuma Iwo-jima Island, located 40km south of Kyushu Island, Japan, has shallow-water hydrothermal system. The seawater along the coast of the island is turned to ivory and red because of suspending aluminous and ferric deposits occurred by mixing of volcanic fluids and the seawater. At Nagahama Bay that is partly isolated from the open sea, the color of the seawater is dark reddish brown, concentrated ferric deposits. Especially fisherman's ports are most dark colored portion in this bay. Depth of these port are 5-8m. The max tidal change is around 2 m hight. Turbidity in this bay is formed by warm Fe-oxyhydroxide from hot spring from beach area. There are many chimney of biomat bed identified in this bay. To understand how the ferric deposits behave, we conducted continuous profiling of ocean water condition through out the tidal cycle and monitoring of surface water. Using a multiple sensor (Horiba WX-22), we measured the seawater from the surface to the bottom of the bay for two weeks to see one tidal cycle in 2013 Janualy 21th-Febrary 2nd and June 16th-29th and analyzed pH, turbidity, temperature, conductivity, ORP (oxidation and reduction potential) and DO (dissolved oxygen) data. Result: It is very clear signal of the oxyhidroxide water and outer ocean input. The pH, turbidity, temperature are very clearly changed and identified these water boundary. Hight tide time: a high tide time (Jun 17), there are well preserved outer ocean input signal, however, high tide time (Jun 24-25) are totally homogenous in water condition. This time may deposition time of the oxyhydrooxide. pH variation is from 7.2 to 8.2. Temprature changed form 24 to 28 Low tide time: most data is high temperature and high tubidity. We now check when is most deposition time of the oxyhydroxide.

  16. The structure of iron-oxyhydroxide mounds affected by iron-oxidizing bacteria at shallow submarine hydrothermal vent in Satsuma Iwo-Jima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratomi, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Goto, S.; Hoshino, T.; Ikegami, F.; Minowa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Satsuma Iwo-Jima, located 38km south of Kyusyu island, Japan, is preserved and identified on occurring iron precipitation at shallow ocean where can be recorded modern analogy of iron precipitation and sedimentation. This is a volcanic island in the northwestern rim of Kikai caldera. Iron- and silica-rich mounds (0.5-3m wide and 0.2-7m high) are developing with hydrothermal activity (pH=5.5, 50-60 degree Celsius), and there is high deposition rate of iron-oxides (33 cm/year). In this study, we analyzed samples (20-30 cm long) recovered from iron oxidized mounds at seafloor by the observation with CT scan, FE-SEM and thin-sectioned samples, and the chemical analysis with EDS, XRF, XRD and DNA, and found that the structure of mounds has unique information. Each mounds are formed two layers: blackish hard layer and brownish soft layer. The inside of samples is constructed from the aggregation of convex structure (3-4 cm) covered by hard layers as a rim. Petrographic observations indicate that both layers have filament-like forms, and the form in soft layer is perpendicular to that in the hard layer. The number of iron oxides particles observed on filament-like forms in soft layer increases toward hard layer. Hard layer consists of aggregation of bacillus-like form as the chain of particle (about 2 um). At soft layer, on the other hand, bacteria-like form with smaller particles (<0.5 um) is observed. Bacteria-like form could be classified into 3 types (helix, ribbon-like, twisted). Furthermore, hard layers consist of ferrihydrite and opal-A (Si: 26.8%, Fe: 56.0%) and soft one is composed by ferrihydrite, opal-A and silica mineral (Si: 36.5%, Fe: 43.5%). Mariprofundus ferrooxydansknown as iron-oxidizing bacteria belonging to Zeta-proteobacteria identified in this matter. Bacteria-like form is considered to be the stalk made by iron-oxidizing bacteria. Such neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria prefers an environment of redox interface between hydrothermal water and

  17. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  18. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  19. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  20. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  1. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  2. Design of static synchronous series compensator based damping controller employing invasive weed optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashik; Al-Amin, Rasheduzzaman; Amin, Ruhul

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes designing of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller to enhance the stability of a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system by means of Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO) technique. Conventional PI controller is used as the SSSC damping controller which takes rotor speed deviation as the input. The damping controller parameters are tuned based on time integral of absolute error based cost function using IWO. Performance of IWO based controller is compared to that of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based controller. Time domain based simulation results are presented and performance of the controllers under different loading conditions and fault scenarios is studied in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the IWO based design approach. PMID:25140288

  3. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  4. After order 636

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-02-01

    Through its Order 636, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) completed a restructuring of the natural gas industry. The order severed the last links in the chain linking gas producers to pipeline companies to local gas distribution companies (LDCs) to customers. Before Order 636 took effect, many predicted electric power generation, particularly by cogenerators and independent power producers (IPPs), would be a major growth area for natural gas. In fact, what Order 636 has shown is, that timing is everything, and that it`s difficult to sort out the effect of one agent of change when many others are at work.

  5. Bioregions and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakthrough, 1985

    1985-01-01

    What bioregions can do to contribute to world order and security is discussed in this newsletter. A bioregion is defined as an identifiable geographical area of interacting life-systems that is relatively self-sustaining in the ever-renewing processes of nature. Articles included are: "Bioregionalism and World Order" (Gerald Mische); "Bioregions:…

  6. Narcissism and birth order.

    PubMed

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  7. Representation of linear orders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D A; Kim, J O; Sudevan, P

    1984-01-01

    Two binary classification tasks were used to explore the associative structure of linear orders. In Experiment 1, college students classified English letters as targets or nontargets, the targets being consecutive letters of the alphabet. The time to reject nontargets was a decreasing function of the distance from the target set, suggesting response interference mediated by automatic associations from the target to the nontarget letters. The way in which this interference effect depended on the placement of the boundaries between the target and nontarget sets revealed the relative strengths of individual interletter associations. In Experiment 2, students were assigned novel linear orders composed of letterlike symbols and asked to classify pairs of symbols as being adjacent or nonadjacent in the assigned sequence. Reaction time was found to be a joint function of the distance between any pair of symbols and the relative positions of those symbols within the sequence. The effects of both distance and position decreased systematically over 6 days of practice with a particular order, beginning at a level typical of unfamiliar orders and converging on a level characteristic of familiar orders such as letters and digits. These results provide an empirical unification of two previously disparate sets of findings in the literature on linear orders, those concerning familiar and unfamiliar orders, and the systematic transition between the two patterns of results suggests the gradual integration of a new associative structure.

  8. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  9. ASDC Order Tools

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-04-17

    ... users to search our data holdings without logging in to the system. The user, however, must log in before ordering the data. ... Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor II (ACRIM II) Total Solar Irradiance Data Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) data (Selected ...

  10. 'Good palliative care' orders.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, I

    1993-01-01

    A Select Committee of the Parliament of South Australia, considering revisions to legislation governing care of the dying, did not support allowing doctors to assist suicide. They recommended that no liability attach to the provision of reasonable palliative care which happens to shorten life. The Committee affirmed the suggestion that positive open orders to provide 'good palliative care' should replace 'do not resuscitate' orders. PMID:7506978

  11. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    PubMed

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  12. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  13. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  14. Finite order variational bicomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitolo, Raffaele

    1999-01-01

    The theory of variational bicomplexes was established at the end of the seventies by several authors [2, 17, 23, 26, 29-32]. The idea is that the operations which take a Lagrangian into its Euler-Lagrange morphism [9, 10, 12, 24] and an Euler-Lagrange morphism into its Helmholtz' conditions of local variationality [1-3, 7, 11, 13, 18, 27] are morphisms of a (long) exact sheaf sequence. This viewpoint overcomes several problems of Lagrangian formulations in mechanics and field theories [21, 28]. To avoid technical difficulties variational bicomplexes were formulated over the space of infinite jets of a fibred manifold. But in this formalism the information relative to the order of the jet where objects are defined is lost.We refer to the recent formulation of variational bicomplexes on finite order jet spaces [13]. Here, a finite order variational sequence is obtained by quotienting the de Rham sequence on a finite order jet space with an intrinsically defined sub-sequence, whose choice is inspired by the calculus of variations. It is important to find an isomorphism of the quotient sequence with a sequence of sheaves of ‘concrete’ sections of some vector bundle. This task has already been faced locally [22, 25] and intrinsically [33] in the case of one independent variable.In this paper, we give an intrinsic isomorphism of the variational sequence (in the general case of n independent variables) with a sequence which is made by sheaves of forms on a jet space of minimal order. This yields new natural solutions to problems like the minimal order Lagrangian corresponding to a locally variational Euler-Lagrange morphism and the search of variationally trivial Lagrangians. Moreover, we give a new intrinsic formulation of Helmholtz' local variationality conditions, proving the existence of a new intrinsic geometric object which, for an Euler-Lagrange morphism, plays a role analogous to that of the momentum of a Lagrangian.

  15. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  16. A Varifocal Mirror Display Integrated Iwo A High-Speed Image Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lowell D.

    1988-06-01

    A raster based variable focal length (varifocal) mirror display system, which is integrated into a high-speed 200 million instructions per second (MIPS) image processor (IP), is described. The display system is comprised of a loudspeaker-membrane-mirror subassembly, a suitable cathode ray tube (CRT) display monitor, and a display controller. The display controller is a single circuit board installed directly into the chassis of the IP. The stack of tomographic images, to be displayed as a three-dimensional raster, is stored in the 32 megabyte IP memory. Both the display controller and the computing engine of the IP have direct access to the image arrays over very high speed data pathways. The varifocal mirror display system uses a vibrating mirror in the form of an aluminized membrane stretched over a loudspeaker, coupled with a CRT suspended face down over the mirror. The mirror is made to vibrate back and forth, as a spherical cap, by exciting the loudspeaker with a 30 Hertz sine wave. Stacks of 2-D tomographic images are displayed, one image at a time, on the CRT in synchrony with the mirror motion. Because of the changing focal length of the mirror and the integrating nature of the human eye-brain combination, the time sequence of 2-D images, displayed on the CRT face, appears as a 3-D image in the mirror. The system simplifies procedures such as: reviewing large amounts of 3-D image information, exploring volume images in three dimensions, and gaining an appreciation or understanding of three-dimensional shapes and spatial relationships.

  17. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  18. Word Order in Klamath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Karen

    The word order in Klamath, a Penutian language of southern Oregon, has been described as almost completely "free". The language is examined in terms of the effect of the relative topicality of arguments on their position preceding or following the verb. The database used for this study consisted of seven Klamath texts from Barker (1963): five…

  19. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  20. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  1. Higher-order Multiples.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S

    2015-09-01

    Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.

  2. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  3. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  4. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  5. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  6. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  7. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  8. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper. PMID:27660531

  9. Between order and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, James P.

    2012-01-01

    What is a pattern? How do we come to recognize patterns never seen before? Quantifying the notion of pattern and formalizing the process of pattern discovery go right to the heart of physical science. Over the past few decades physics' view of nature's lack of structure--its unpredictability--underwent a major renovation with the discovery of deterministic chaos, overthrowing two centuries of Laplace's strict determinism in classical physics. Behind the veil of apparent randomness, though, many processes are highly ordered, following simple rules. Tools adapted from the theories of information and computation have brought physical science to the brink of automatically discovering hidden patterns and quantifying their structural complexity.

  10. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  11. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  12. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  13. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  14. Order without design.

    PubMed

    Kurakin, Alexei

    2010-04-14

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents.

  15. Birth order and myopia

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A.; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L.; Williams, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in 4 subject groups. Methods Subject groups were participants in 1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N=4,401), 2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N=1,959), 3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N=1,344), and 4) Israeli Defense Force recruitment candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N=888,277). Main outcome: Odds ratio (OR) for myopia in first born versus non-first born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first born versus fourth or higher born comparison than for the first born versus second/third born comparison (P<0.001) and (b) with increasing myopia severity (P<0.001). Conclusions Across all studies, the increased risk of myopia in first born individuals was low (OR <1.3). Indeed, only the studies with >4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism. PMID:24168726

  16. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). OF 347, Order for Supplies or Services. OF 347, prescribed in 53.213(f), (or an approved agency form) may be used to place orders...

  17. Oligorotaxane Radicals under Orders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A strategy for creating foldameric oligorotaxanes composed of only positively charged components is reported. Threadlike components—namely oligoviologens—in which different numbers of 4,4′-bipyridinium (BIPY2+) subunits are linked by p-xylylene bridges, are shown to be capable of being threaded by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) rings following the introduction of radical-pairing interactions under reducing conditions. UV/vis/NIR spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations suggest that the reduced oligopseudorotaxanes fold into highly ordered secondary structures as a result of the formation of BIPY•+ radical cation pairs. Furthermore, by installing bulky stoppers at each end of the oligopseudorotaxanes by means of Cu-free alkyne–azide cycloadditions, their analogous oligorotaxanes, which retain the same stoichiometries as their progenitors, can be prepared. Solution-state studies of the oligorotaxanes indicate that their mechanically interlocked structures lead to the enforced interactions between the dumbbell and ring components, allowing them to fold (contract) in their reduced states and unfold (expand) in their fully oxidized states as a result of Coulombic repulsions. This electrochemically controlled reversible folding and unfolding process, during which the oligorotaxanes experience length contractions and expansions, is reminiscent of the mechanisms of actuation associated with muscle fibers. PMID:27163033

  18. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePlus

    ... order; DNR; DNR order; Advance care directive - DNR; Health care agent - DNR; Health care proxy - DNR; End-of-life - DNR; Living ... medical order written by a doctor. It instructs health care providers not to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) ...

  19. 49 CFR 453.3 - Detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detention orders and other orders. 453.3 Section 453.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.3 Detention orders and other orders. (a) The terms of...

  20. Topology in Ordered Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Toyoki; Oda, Migaku; Asano, Yasuhiro; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2006-08-01

    .]. Nanofibers of hydrogen storage alloy / I. Saita ... [et al.]. Synthesis of stable icosahedral quasicrystals in Zn-Sc based alloys and their magnetic properties / S. Kashimoto and T. Ishimasa. One-armed spiral wave excited by eam pressure in accretion disks in Be/X-Ray binaries / K. Hayasaki and A. T. Okazaki -- IV. Topological defects and excitations. Topological excitations in the ground state of charge density wave systems / P. Monceau. Soliton transport in nanoscale charge-density-wave systems / K. Inagaki, T. Toshima and S. Tanda. Topological defects in triplet superconductors UPt3, Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol], etc. / K. Maki ... [et al.]. Microscopic structure of vortices in type II superconductors / K. Machida ... [et al.]. Microscopic neutron investigation of the Abrikosov state of high-temperature superconductors / J. Mesot. Energy dissipation at nano-scale topological defects of high-Tc superconductors: microwave study / A. Maeda. Pressure induced topological phase transition in the heavy Fermion compound CeAl[symbol] / H. Miyagawa ... [et al.]. Explanation for the unusual orientation of LSCO square vortex lattice in terms of nodal superconductivity / M. Oda. Local electronic states in Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]CaCu[symbol]O[symbol] / A. Hashimoto ... [et al.] -- V. Topology in quantum phenomena. Topological vortex formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of alkali-metal atoms / M. Nakahara. Quantum phase transition of [symbol]He confined in nano-porous media / K. Shirahama, K. Yamamoto and Y. Shibayama. A new mean-field theory for Bose-Einstein condensates / T. Kita. Spin current in topological cristals / Y. Asano. Antiferromagnetic defects in non-magnetic hidden order of the heavy-electron system URu[symbol]Si[symbol] / H. Amitsuka, K. Tenya and M. Yokoyama. Magnetic-field dependences of thermodynamic quantities in the vortex state of Type-II superconductors / K. Watanabe, T. Kita and M. Arai. Three-magnon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in quantum ferrimagnets of topological

  1. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  2. Olson Order of Quantum Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2016-07-01

    M.P. Olson, Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 28, 537-544 (1971) showed that the system of effect operators of the Hilbert space can be ordered by the so-called spectral order such that the system of effect operators is a complete lattice. Using his ideas, we introduce a partial order, called the Olson order, on the set of bounded observables of a complete lattice effect algebra. We show that the set of bounded observables is a Dedekind complete lattice.

  3. Structural order in glassy water.

    PubMed

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Sciortino, Francesco; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-06-01

    We investigate structural order in glassy water by performing classical molecular dynamics simulations using the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model of water. We perform isochoric cooling simulations across the glass transition temperature at different cooling rates and densities. We quantify structural order by orientational and translational order metrics. Upon cooling the liquid into the glassy state, both the orientational order parameter Q and translational order parameter tau increase. At T=0 K, the glasses fall on a line in the Q-tau plane or order map. The position of this line depends only on density and coincides with the location in the order map of the inherent structures (IS) sampled upon cooling. We evaluate the energy of the IS, eIS(T), and find that both order parameters for the IS are proportional to eIS. We also study the structural order during the transformation of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) upon isothermal compression and are able to identify distinct regions in the order map corresponding to these glasses. Comparison of the order parameters for LDA and HDA with those obtained upon isochoric cooling indicates major structural differences between glasses obtained by cooling and glasses obtained by compression. These structural differences are only weakly reflected in the pair correlation function. We also characterize the evolution of structural order upon isobaric annealing, leading at high pressure to very-high density amorphous ice (VHDA). PMID:16089741

  4. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  5. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  15. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  16. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  17. Surface melting of electronic order.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S. B.; Liu, X.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P. J.; Mitchell, J. F.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We report temperature-dependent surface x-ray scattering studies of the orbital ordered surface in La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. We find that as the bulk ordering temperature is approached from below the thickness of the interface between the electronically ordered and electronically disordered regions at the surface grows, though the bulk correlation length remains unchanged. Close to the transition, the surface is so rough that there is no well-defined electronic surface, despite the presence of bulk electronic order. That is, the electronic ordering at the surface has melted. Above the bulk transition, long-range ordering in the bulk is destroyed but finite-sized isotropic fluctuations persist, with a correlation length roughly equal to that of the low-temperature in-plane surface correlation length.

  18. Spin density wave order, topological order, and Fermi surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir; Berg, Erez; Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Schattner, Yoni

    2016-09-01

    In the conventional theory of density wave ordering in metals, the onset of spin density wave (SDW) order coincides with the reconstruction of the Fermi surfaces into small "pockets." We present models which display this transition, while also displaying an alternative route between these phases via an intermediate phase with topological order, no broken symmetry, and pocket Fermi surfaces. The models involve coupling emergent gauge fields to a fractionalized SDW order, but retain the canonical electron operator in the underlying Hamiltonian. We establish an intimate connection between the suppression of certain defects in the SDW order and the presence of Fermi surface sizes distinct from the Luttinger value in Fermi liquids. We discuss the relevance of such models to the physics of the hole-doped cuprates near optimal doping.

  19. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.

  20. Test ordering by GP trainees

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Simon; Morgan, Andy; Kerr, Rohan; Tapley, Amanda; Magin, Parker

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on test-ordering attitudes and intended practice of GP trainees, and any associations between changes in test ordering and trainee characteristics. Design Preworkshop and postworkshop survey of attitudes to test ordering, intended test-ordering practices for 3 clinical scenarios (fatigue, screening, and shoulder pain), and tolerance for uncertainty. Setting Three Australian regional general practice training providers. Participants General practice trainees (N = 167). Intervention A 2-hour workshop session and an online module. Main outcome measures Proportion of trainees who agreed with attitudinal statements before and after the workshop; proportion of trainees who would order tests, mean number of tests ordered, and number of appropriate and inappropriate tests ordered for each scenario before and after the workshop. Results Of 167 trainees, 132 (79.0%) completed both the preworkshop and postworkshop questionnaires. A total of 122 trainees attended the workshop. At baseline, 88.6% thought that tests can harm patients, 84.8% believed overtesting was a problem, 72.0% felt pressured by patients, 52.3% believed that tests would reassure patients, and 50.8% thought that they were less likely to be sued if they ordered tests. There were desirable changes in all attitudes after the workshop. Before the workshop, the mean number of tests that trainees would have ordered was 4.4, 4.8, and 1.5 for the fatigue, screening, and shoulder pain scenarios, respectively. After the workshop there were decreases in the mean number of both appropriate tests (decrease of 0.94) and inappropriate tests (decrease of 0.24) in the fatigue scenario; there was no change in the mean number of appropriate tests and a decrease in inappropriate tests (decrease of 0.76) in the screening scenario; and there was an increase in the proportion of trainees who would appropriately not order tests in the shoulder pain

  1. Constructing higher-order hydrodynamics: The third order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamics can be formulated as the gradient expansion of conserved currents in terms of the fundamental fields describing the near-equilibrium fluid flow. In the relativistic case, the Navier-Stokes equations follow from the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to first order in derivatives. In this paper, we go beyond the presently understood second-order hydrodynamics and discuss the systematization of obtaining the hydrodynamic expansion to an arbitrarily high order. As an example of the algorithm that we present, we fully classify the gradient expansion at third order for neutral fluids in four dimensions, thus finding the most general next-to-leading-order corrections to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations in curved space-time. In doing so, we list 20 new transport coefficient candidates in the conformal case and 68 in the nonconformal case. As we do not consider any constraints that could potentially arise from the local entropy current analysis, this is the maximal possible set of neutral third-order transport coefficients. To investigate the physical implications of these new transport coefficients, we obtain the third-order corrections to the linear dispersion relations that describe the propagation of diffusion and sound waves in relativistic fluids. We also compute the corrections to the scalar (spin-2) two-point correlation function of the third-order stress-energy tensor. Furthermore, as an example of a nonlinear hydrodynamic flow, we calculate the third-order corrections to the energy density of a boost-invariant Bjorken flow. Finally, we apply our field theoretic results to the N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills fluid at infinite 't Hooft coupling and an infinite number of colors to find the values of five new linear combinations of the conformal transport coefficients.

  2. High-Order/Low-Order methods for ocean modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Christopher; Womeldorff, Geoff; Chacón, Luis; Knoll, Dana A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine a High Order/Low Order (HOLO) approach for a z-level ocean model and show that the traditional semi-implicit and split-explicit methods, as well as a recent preconditioning strategy, can easily be cast in the framework of HOLO methods. The HOLO formulation admits an implicit-explicit method that is algorithmically scalable and second-order accurate, allowing timesteps much larger than the barotropic time scale. We demonstrate how HOLO approaches, in particular the implicit-explicit method, can provide a solid route for ocean simulation to heterogeneous computing and exascale environments.

  3. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…

  4. Tensions between Liberty and Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Explores the issue of balancing liberty and order within the United States. Discusses the role of the Bill of Rights, focusing on the amendments in the document and the later amendments that ensure the liberty of U.S. citizens. Explains how order and liberty are ensured and includes discussion questions. (CMK)

  5. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  6. Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.

  7. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  8. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  9. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  10. Order, Chaos and All That!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ideas about the concept of chaos is surveyed. Discussed are chaos in deterministic, dynamic systems; order in dissipative systems; and thermodynamics and irreversibility. Included are logistic and bifurcation maps to illustrate points made in the discussion. (CW)

  11. Tetrahedral Order in Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.

    2016-10-01

    We review the impact of tetrahedral order on the macroscopic dynamics of bent-core liquid crystals. We discuss tetrahedral order comparing with other types of orientational order, like nematic, polar nematic, polar smectic, and active polar order. In particular, we present hydrodynamic equations for phases, where only tetrahedral order exists or tetrahedral order is combined with nematic order. Among the latter, we discriminate between three cases, where the nematic director (a) orients along a fourfold, (b) along a threefold symmetry axis of the tetrahedral structure, or (c) is homogeneously uncorrelated with the tetrahedron. For the optically isotropic T d phase, which only has tetrahedral order, we focus on the coupling of flow with, e.g., temperature gradients and on the specific orientation behavior in external electric fields. For the transition to the nematic phase, electric fields lead to a temperature shift that is linear in the field strength. Electric fields induce nematic order, again linear in the field strength. If strong enough, electric fields can change the tetrahedral structure and symmetry leading to a polar phase. We briefly deal with the T phase that arises when tetrahedral order occurs in a system of chiral molecules. To case (a), defined above, belong (i) the non-polar, achiral, optically uniaxial D2d phase with ambidextrous helicity (due to a linear gradient free energy contribution) and with orientational frustration in external fields, (ii) the non-polar tetragonal S4 phase, (iii) the non-polar, orthorhombic D2 phase that is structurally chiral featuring ambidextrous chirality, (iv) the polar orthorhombic C2v phase, and (v) the polar, structurally chiral, monoclinic C2 phase. Case (b) results in a trigonal C3v phase that behaves like a biaxial polar nematic phase. An example for case (c) is a splay bend phase, where the ground state is inhomogeneous due to a linear gradient free energy contribution. Finally, we discuss some experiments

  12. Supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, K.; Liu, Q. P.

    2010-03-08

    This paper considers supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations. Within the framework of symmetry approach, we give a list containing six equations, which are (potentially) integrable systems. Among these equations, the most interesting ones include a supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation and a novel supersymmetric fifth order KdV equation. For the latter, we supply some properties such as a Hamiltonian structures and a possible recursion operator.

  13. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  14. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  15. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  16. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  17. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  18. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  3. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  4. Order-parameter scaling in fluctuation-dominated phase ordering.

    PubMed

    Kapri, Rajeev; Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Barma, Mustansir

    2016-01-01

    In systems exhibiting fluctuation-dominated phase ordering, a single order parameter does not suffice to characterize the order, and it is necessary to monitor a larger set. For hard-core sliding particles on a fluctuating surface and the related coarse-grained depth (CD) models, this set comprises the long-wavelength Fourier components of the density profile, which capture the breakup and remerging of particle-rich regions. We study both static and dynamic scaling laws obeyed by the Fourier modes Q_{mL} and find that the mean value obeys the static scaling law 〈Q_{mL}〉∼L^{-ϕ}f(m/L) with ϕ≃2/3 and ϕ≃3/5 for Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface evolution, respectively, and ϕ≃3/4 for the CD model. The full probability distribution P(Q_{mL}) exhibits scaling as well. Further, time-dependent correlation functions such as the steady-state autocorrelation and cross-correlations of order-parameter components are scaling functions of t/L^{z}, where L is the system size and z is the dynamic exponent, with z=2 for EW and z=3/2 for KPZ surface evolution. In addition we find that the CD model shows temporal intermittency, manifested in the dynamical structure functions of the density and the weak divergence of the flatness as the scaled time approaches 0. PMID:26871034

  5. A Law of Order: Word Order Change in Classical Aztec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Susan M.

    1976-01-01

    The verb in Classical Aztec is slowly moving from the end of the sentence to the beginning due to the attraction of sentence initial modal particles to the verb. Not only the function but also the position of elements should be examined to account for word-order change. (SCC)

  6. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  7. Ordering states with coherence measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.

  8. Ordering states with coherence measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.

  9. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes.

  10. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    PubMed

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent.

  11. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-05-27

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude. PMID:27284651

  12. Weighted order statistic classifiers with large rank-order margin.

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R. B.; Hush, D. R.; Theiler, J. P.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe how Stack Filters and Weighted Order Statistic function classes can be used for classification problems. This leads to a new design criteria for linear classifiers when inputs are binary-valued and weights are positive . We present a rank-based measure of margin that can be directly optimized as a standard linear program and investigate its effect on generalization error with experiment. Our approach can robustly combine large numbers of base hypothesis and easily implement known priors through regularization.

  13. Peacekeeping. Perspectives in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    This pamphlet, intended for senior high classroom use, defines war, peace, and peacekeeping systems; discusses the destructiveness of war; and proposes the case study method for studying world order. The major portion of the booklet explores ways of peacekeeping through analysis of four different models: collective security, collective force,…

  14. Generalized high order compact methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub

    2010-09-01

    The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.

  15. Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…

  16. Suffix Ordering and Morphological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plag, Ingo; Baayen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate about the principles constraining the combinatorial properties of suffixes. Hay 2002 and Hay & Plag 2004 proposed a model in which suffixes can be ordered along a hierarchy of processing complexity. We show that this model generalizes to a larger set of suffixes, and we provide independent evidence supporting the…

  17. How do people order stimuli?

    PubMed

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C

    2014-08-01

    People may find it easier to construct an order after first representing stimuli on a scale or categorizing them, particularly when the number of stimuli to be ordered is large or when some of them must be remembered. Five experiments tested this hypothesis. In two of these experiments (1 and 3), we asked participants to rank line lengths or to rank photographs by artistic value. The participants provided evidence of how they performed these tasks, and this evidence indicated that they often made use of some preliminary representation--either a metric or a categorization. Two further experiments (2 and 4) indicated that people rarely produced rankings when given a choice of assessment measures for either the length of lines or the artistic value of photographs. In Experiment 5, when the number of lines was larger or lines were only visible one at a time, participants were faster at estimating line lengths as a percentage of the card covered than at rank ordering the lengths. Overall, the results indicate that ordering stimuli is not an easy or natural process when the number of stimuli is large or when the stimuli are not all perceptible at once. An implication is that the psychological measures available to individuals are not likely to be purely ordinal when many of the elements being measured must be recalled.

  18. Moral Order and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that a society without reverence for myths and history inevitably falls prone to chaos and evil, pointing to abortion, Andy Warhol's celebrity, and Woodstock as evidence of this disintegration of society. Proposes that humanities education expose students to human experience based on some awesome and fixed moral order. (AYC)

  19. Symbols of a cosmic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  20. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at high temperatures in hostile environments. Attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at high temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past 10 years, considerable effort was devoted to R&D of ordered intermetallic alloys, and progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel effort on alloy design has led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, and TiAl systems for structural applications.

  1. Second-Order Footsteps Illusions.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi; Anstis, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    In the "footsteps illusion", light and dark squares travel at constant speed across black and white stripes. The squares appear to move faster and slower as their contrast against the stripes varies. We now demonstrate some second-order footsteps illusions, in which all edges are defined by colors or textures-even though luminance-based neural motion detectors are blind to such edges. PMID:27551366

  2. Digital first order hold circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Fred N. (Inventor); Wensley, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    There is provided a digitally controlled first order hold circuit and waveform synthesizer for digitally controlling the representation of a function over an approximation interval. In accordance with the operation of the invention, the first order hold circuit and waveform generator receives a digital data input signal which contains initial condition data, up/down data, and slope data for the approximation interval. The initial condition data is loaded into an up/down counter which is incremented using counting data at a rate depending on the value of the slope data and in a direction depending on the value of the up-down data. In order to minimize delays arising from data acquistion, two frequency synthesizer circuits are provided such that one frequency synthesizer provides counting data while the other frequency synthesizer receives slope data. During alternating intervals, the other frequency synthesizer circuit provides counting data while the other circuit receives slope data. In addition, long length data input signals covering a plurality of approximation intervals are provided to reduce the demands on a main system central processing unit.

  3. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  4. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  5. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  6. Ordering events of biochemical evolution.

    PubMed

    Cunchillos, C; Lecointre, G

    2007-05-01

    Metabolic pathways exhibit structures resulting from an evolutionary process. Pathways have been inherited through time with modification, from the earliest periods of life. It is possible to compare the structure of pathways as done in comparative anatomy, i.e. for inferring ancestral pathways or parts of it (ancestral enzymatic functions), using standard phylogenetic reconstruction. Thus a phylogenetic tree of pathways provides a relative ordering of the rise of enzymatic functions. It even becomes possible to order the birth of each complete pathway in time. This particular "DNA-free" conceptual approach to evolutionary biochemistry is reviewed, gathering all the justifications given for it. Then, the method of assigning a given pathway to a time span of biochemical development is revisited. The previous method used an implicit "clock" of metabolic development that is difficult to justify. We develop a new clock-free approach, using functional biochemical arguments. Results of the two methods are not significantly different; our method is just more precise. This suggests that the clock assumed in the first method does not provoke any important artefact in describing the development of biochemical evolution. It is just unnecessary to postulate it. As a result, most of the amino acid metabolic pathways develop forwards, confirming former models of amino acid catabolism evolution, but not those for amino acid anabolism. The order of appearance of sectors of universal cellular metabolism is: (1) amino acid catabolism, (2) amino acid anabolism and closure of the urea cycle, (3) glycolysis and glycogenesis, (4) closure of the pentose-phosphate cycle, (5) closure of the Krebs cycle and fatty acids metabolism, (6) closure of the Calvin cycle.

  7. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  8. Royal Order, 14 July 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This Order is designed to promote equality of opportunity for men and women in the private sector. It provides that equal opportunity plans can be established by employers with the cooperation of worker representatives. These plans should include a description of the plan's objective with respect to equal opportunity; a description of affirmative actions to be taken; and the date of the implementation of the plan and the dates on which intermediary steps in the plan should be attained. The plans should also contain procedures for periodical evaluation.

  9. Biocatalytic induction of supramolecular order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Andrew R.; Roy, Sangita; Arora, Meenakshi; Das, Apurba K.; Hodson, Nigel; Murray, Paul; Marshall, Stephen; Javid, Nadeem; Sefcik, Jan; Boekhoven, Job; van Esch, Jan H.; Santabarbara, Stefano; Hunt, Neil T.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2010-12-01

    Supramolecular gels, which demonstrate tunable functionalities, have attracted much interest in a range of areas, including healthcare, environmental protection and energy-related technologies. Preparing these materials in a reliable manner is challenging, with an increased level of kinetic defects observed at higher self-assembly rates. Here, by combining biocatalysis and molecular self-assembly, we have shown the ability to more quickly access higher-ordered structures. By simply increasing enzyme concentration, supramolecular order expressed at molecular, nano- and micro-levels is dramatically enhanced, and, importantly, the gelator concentrations remain identical. Amphiphile molecules were prepared by attaching an aromatic moiety to a dipeptide backbone capped with a methyl ester. Their self-assembly was induced by an enzyme that hydrolysed the ester. Different enzyme concentrations altered the catalytic activity and size of the enzyme clusters, affecting their mobility. This allowed structurally diverse materials that represent local minima in the free energy landscape to be accessed based on a single gelator structure.

  10. Fauna Europaea – Orthopteroid orders

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The “Orthopteroid orders“ is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  11. Fauna Europaea – Orthopteroid orders

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The “Orthopteroid orders“ is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper. PMID:27660531

  12. 10 CFR 820.42 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final order. 820.42 Section 820.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.42 Final order. A Compliance Order is a Final Order that constitutes a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement that is effective immediately unless the Order specifies a...

  13. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes recent advances in intermetallic research and development. Ordered intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides possess attractive properties for structural applications at elevated temperatures in hostile environments; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance limit their use as engineering materials in many cases. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of intermetallic alloys; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Recent advances in first-principles calculations and atomistic simulations further help us in understanding atomic bonding, dislocation configuration, and alloying effects in intermetallics. The basic understanding has led to the development of nickel, iron, and titanium aluminide alloys with improved mechanical and metallurgical properties for structural use. Industrial interest in ductile intermetallic alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  14. Discourse on order vs. disorder

    PubMed Central

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The second law of thermodynamics is on one hand understood to account for irrevocable flow of energy from the top down, on the other hand it is seen to imply irreversible increase of disorder. This tension between the 2 stances is resolved in favor of the free energy consumption when entropy is derived from the statistical mechanics of open systems. The change in entropy is shown to map directly to the decrease in free energy without any connotation attached to disorder. Increase of disorder, just as order, is found to be merely a consequence of free energy consumption. The erroneous association of disorder with entropy stems from an unwarranted assumption that a system could undergo changes of state without concomitant dissipation, i.e., a change in energy. PMID:27574534

  15. Discourse on order vs. disorder.

    PubMed

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is on one hand understood to account for irrevocable flow of energy from the top down, on the other hand it is seen to imply irreversible increase of disorder. This tension between the 2 stances is resolved in favor of the free energy consumption when entropy is derived from the statistical mechanics of open systems. The change in entropy is shown to map directly to the decrease in free energy without any connotation attached to disorder. Increase of disorder, just as order, is found to be merely a consequence of free energy consumption. The erroneous association of disorder with entropy stems from an unwarranted assumption that a system could undergo changes of state without concomitant dissipation, i.e., a change in energy.

  16. Discourse on order vs. disorder.

    PubMed

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is on one hand understood to account for irrevocable flow of energy from the top down, on the other hand it is seen to imply irreversible increase of disorder. This tension between the 2 stances is resolved in favor of the free energy consumption when entropy is derived from the statistical mechanics of open systems. The change in entropy is shown to map directly to the decrease in free energy without any connotation attached to disorder. Increase of disorder, just as order, is found to be merely a consequence of free energy consumption. The erroneous association of disorder with entropy stems from an unwarranted assumption that a system could undergo changes of state without concomitant dissipation, i.e., a change in energy. PMID:27574534

  17. Spatial processes in linear ordering.

    PubMed

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A - B - C - D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial processes in the construction of such models. In a series of 7 experiments we report such evidence. Participants respond quicker when the dominant element in a pair is presented on the left (or top) rather than on the right (or bottom). The left-anchoring tendency reverses in a sample with Farsi background (reading/writing from right to left). Alternative explanations and confounds are tested. A theoretical model is proposed that integrates basic assumptions about acquired reading/writing habits as a scaffold for spatial simulation, and primacy/dominance representation within such spatial simulations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641448

  18. Frustrated Order on Extrinsic Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Grason, Gregory M.; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2012-01-03

    We study, numerically and theoretically, defects in an anisotropic liquid that couple to the extrinsic geometry of a surface. Though the intrinsic geometry tends to confine topological defects to regions of large Gaussian curvature, extrinsic couplings tend to orient the order along the local direction of maximum or minimum bending. This additional frustration is generically unavoidable, and leads to complex ground-state thermodynamics. Using the catenoid as a prototype, we show, in contradistinction to the well-known effects of intrinsic geometry, that extrinsic curvature expels disclinations from the region of maximum curvature above a critical coupling threshold. On catenoids lacking an “inside-outside” symmetry, defects are expelled altogether above a critical neck size.

  19. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.

  20. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  1. Interior order expands minerals management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a surprise move on May 10, Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt ordered the consolidation of all leasing and resource management functions for the outer continental shelf (OCS) into the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Among those programs shifted to MMS are ‘all functions in direct support of the OCS program’ in the Geologic Division and in the Office of the Assistant Director for Resource Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including oil and gas resources, energy-related hazards, and marine geology investigations. It is unclear whether research associated with the OCS leasing functions will be considered ‘direct support’ and what will happen to the research if it is so considered.Also to be shuttled to MMS are the oil-spill trajectory functions of the Office of Earth Sciences Applications and all the functions of the Office of Policy Analysis relating to the OCS that had been transferred from the Department of Energy as a result of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

  2. Dislocation sources in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Appel, F.; Wagner, R.; Mecking, H.

    1996-09-01

    An overview on the current understanding of dislocation sources and multiplication mechanisms is made for ordered intermetallic alloys of the L1{sub 2}, B2, and D0{sub 19} structures. In L1{sub 2} alloys, a large disparity of edge/screw segments in their relative mobility reduces the efficiency of a Frank-Read Type multiplication mechanism. In Fe-40%Al of the B2 structure, a variety of dislocation sources are available for <111> slip, including ones resulting from condensation of thermal vacancies. In NiAl with the relatively high APB energy, <100> dislocations may result from the dislocation decomposition reactions, the prismatic punching out from inclusion particles, and/or steps and coated layers of the surface. Internal interfaces often provide sites for dislocation multiplication, e.g., grain boundaries, sub-boundaries in Ni{sub 3}Ga, NiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al, and antiphase domain boundaries in Ti{sub 3}Al. As for the crack tip as a dislocation source, extended SISFs trailed by super-Shockley partials emanating form the cracks in Ni{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Ti are discussed in view of a possible toughening mechanism.

  3. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures.

  4. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  5. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  6. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  7. Liquid crystalline order in mucus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viney, C.; Huber, A. E.; Verdugo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Mucus plays an exceptionally wide range of important biological roles. It operates as a protective, exchange, and transport medium in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems of humans and other vertebrates. Mucus is a polymer hydrogel. It is secreted as discrete packages (secretory granules) by specialized secretory cells. Mucus hydrogel is stored in a condensed state inside the secretory granules. Depending upon the architecture of their constituent macromolecules and on the composition of the solvent, polymer gels can form liquid crystalline microstructures, with orientational order being exhibited over optically resolvable distances. Individual mucin molecules consist of alternating rigid segments (heavily glycosylated; hydrophilic) and flexible segments (nonglycosylated; hydrophobic). Polymer molecules consisting of rigid units linked by flexible spacers are frequently associated with liquid crystalline behavior, which again raises the possibility that mucus could form anisotropic fluid phases. Suggestions that mucins may be self-associating in dilute solution have previously been challenged on the basis of sedimentation-equilibrium studies performed on mucus in which potential sites of association were competitively blocked with inhibitors. However, the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases does not depend on the existence of inter- or intramolecular associations; these phases can form on the basis of steric considerations alone.

  8. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution from which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.

  9. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    DOE PAGES

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution frommore » which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.« less

  10. 10 CFR 820.42 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final order. 820.42 Section 820.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.42 Final order. A Compliance Order is a Final Order that constitutes a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement that is effective...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  12. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  16. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating the... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...

  17. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating the... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  18. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating the... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  19. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating the... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...

  20. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  1. 10 CFR 820.41 - Compliance order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance order. 820.41 Section 820.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.41 Compliance order. The Secretary may issue to any person involved in a DOE nuclear activity a Compliance Order that: (a) Identifies a situation that violates,...

  2. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating...

  3. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase orders. Purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent for expenditures authorized by the... prevent hardship or suffering, purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent against the...

  4. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  5. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  6. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  7. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  8. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  9. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  11. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  12. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  13. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  14. 33 CFR 156.112 - Suspension order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension order. 156.112 Section... § 156.112 Suspension order. The COTP or OCMI may issue a suspension order to suspend transfer operations... OCMI is unable to verify compliance with the regulations through an inspection. A suspension order:...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  16. 36 CFR 261.50 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in Areas Designated by Order § 261.50 Orders. (a) The Chief, each Regional Forester, each Experiment... issue orders which close or restrict the use of described areas within the area over which he has jurisdiction. An order may close an area to entry or may restrict the use of an area by applying any or all...

  17. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail to...

  18. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase orders. Purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent for expenditures authorized by the... prevent hardship or suffering, purchase orders may be issued by the superintendent against the...

  19. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  20. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  1. 17 CFR 201.141 - Orders and decisions: Service of orders instituting proceedings and other orders and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on each person named in the order as a party. The Secretary may direct an interested division to... made to a person other than a natural person by delivering a copy of the order instituting proceedings... telephone number and hours of facsimile machine operation. Service of orders or decisions by the...

  2. 17 CFR 201.141 - Orders and decisions: Service of orders instituting proceedings and other orders and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on each person named in the order as a party. The Secretary may direct an interested division to... made to a person other than a natural person by delivering a copy of the order instituting proceedings... telephone number and hours of facsimile machine operation. Service of orders or decisions by the...

  3. Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2010-02-01

    A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [A. Pathak, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclassical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality.

  4. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  5. 48 CFR 416.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Departmental Task Order Ombudsman. (b) Each HCA shall designate a task order ombudsman for the contracting activity. The HCA shall forward a copy of the designation memorandum to the Departmental Task...

  6. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  7. 36 CFR 261.50 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in Areas Designated by Order § 261.50 Orders. (a) The Chief, each Regional Forester, each Experiment... Forester, each Experiment Station Director, the Administrator of the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit...

  8. The Order on Implementation, May 31, 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisis, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The order on implementation of the May 1954 ruling on school desegregation, delivered by Chief Justice Earl Warren, is presented. The NAACP's statement on the order, made on the same day, is also given. (MC)

  9. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  10. 49 CFR 1503.423 - Consent orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.423 Consent orders. (a) Issuance. At any time before the issuance..., may agree to dispose of the case by the issuance of a consent order by TSA. (b) Contents. A...

  11. Multi-order Arnoldi-based model order reduction of second-order time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhi-Hua; Jiang, Yao-Lin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Krylov subspace-based model order reduction methods of second-order systems with time delays, and present two structure-preserving methods for model order reduction of these second-order systems, which avoid to convert the second-order systems into first-order ones. One method is based on a Krylov subspace by using the Taylor series expansion, the other method is based on the Laguerre series expansion. These two methods are used in the multi-order Arnoldi algorithm to construct the projection matrices. The resulting reduced models can not only preserve the structure of the original systems, but also can match a certain number of approximate moments or Laguerre expansion coefficients. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated by two numerical examples.

  12. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  13. 10 CFR 490.602 - Special orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special orders. 490.602 Section 490.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Investigations and Enforcement § 490.602 Special orders. (a) DOE may require by general or special orders that any person— (1) File,...

  14. 10 CFR 490.602 - Special orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special orders. 490.602 Section 490.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Investigations and Enforcement § 490.602 Special orders. (a) DOE may require by general or special orders that any person— (1) File,...

  15. 10 CFR 490.602 - Special orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special orders. 490.602 Section 490.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Investigations and Enforcement § 490.602 Special orders. (a) DOE may require by general or special orders that any person— (1) File,...

  16. 10 CFR 490.602 - Special orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special orders. 490.602 Section 490.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Investigations and Enforcement § 490.602 Special orders. (a) DOE may require by general or special orders that any person— (1) File,...

  17. 10 CFR 490.602 - Special orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special orders. 490.602 Section 490.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Investigations and Enforcement § 490.602 Special orders. (a) DOE may require by general or special orders that any person— (1) File,...

  18. A Composite of Order Analysis Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druva, Cynthia Ann

    Order Analysis is a multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique for determining order among items. This paper reviews articles by different authors describing various components of ordering theory. A common nomenclature is constructed to link together the various ideas and is applied to a fairly simple set of data. Topics discussed include a more…

  19. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 1220.608 Section 1220.608 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 1205.16 Section 1205.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.16 Order. The term Order means the...

  1. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  2. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  3. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  4. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  5. 19 CFR 4.74 - Transportation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transportation orders. 4.74 Section 4.74 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.74 Transportation orders. Clearance shall... voyage would be in violation of any provision of any transportation order, regulation, or...

  6. An Analysis of Second-Order Autoshaping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Robinson, Jasper

    2004-01-01

    Three mechanisms can explain second-order conditioning: (1) The second-order conditioned stimulus (CS2) could activate a representation of the first-order conditioned stimulus (CS1), thereby provoking the conditioned response (CR); The CS2 could enter into an excitatory association with either (2) the representation governing the CR, or (3) with a…

  7. Lyapunov functions for fractional order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A.; Gallegos, Javier A.

    2014-09-01

    A new lemma for the Caputo fractional derivatives, when 0<α<1, is proposed in this paper. This result has proved to be useful in order to apply the fractional-order extension of Lyapunov direct method, to demonstrate the stability of many fractional order systems, which can be nonlinear and time varying.

  8. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  10. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  12. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  13. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  14. 20 CFR 655.121 - Job orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... orders in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F and the requirements set forth in § 655.122. (b) SWA review. (1) The SWA will review the contents of the job order for compliance with the requirements specified in 20 CFR... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job orders. 655.121 Section 655.121...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  18. The legal status of 'no code orders'.

    PubMed

    Memel, S L; Lemkin, J W

    1978-05-01

    No code orders, lacking explicit definition and direct legal authority, pose many liability hazards for hospital medical staffs dealing with terminally ill patients. The decision to withhold life-support procedures must consider the high risk involved. Various situations that might entail no code orders are presented along with suggestions concerning the use of these orders. PMID:10306909

  19. 48 CFR 52.216-18 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... deposits the order in the mail. Orders may be issued orally, by facsimile, or by electronic commerce... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ordering. 52.216-18 Section 52.216-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  20. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  1. 32 CFR 726.6 - Travel orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel orders. 726.6 Section 726.6 National... MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.6 Travel orders. The Chief of Naval Personnel or the Deputy Commandant, Manpower & Reserve Affairs, may issue travel orders to a member to...

  2. Abel's Theorem Simplifies Reduction of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We give an alternative to the standard method of reduction or order, in which one uses one solution of a homogeneous, linear, second order differential equation to find a second, linearly independent solution. Our method, based on Abel's Theorem, is shorter, less complex and extends to higher order equations.

  3. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  4. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  5. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  6. 25 CFR 213.29 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Division orders. 213.29 Section 213.29 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Rents and Royalties § 213.29 Division orders. (a) Lessees... avail themselves of this privilege, division orders should be executed by the lessee and forwarded...

  7. Sign Order in Argentine Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massone, Maria Ignacia; Curiel, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on word order - the order of constituents in the sentence - as one way in which languages establish the relationship between a verb and its arguments. The spoken languages of the world have been classified into three, major word-order types: SVO, VSO, and SOV. Greenberg' work (1963) on language typology has been a stimulus to…

  8. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or...

  9. 28 CFR 2.58 - Prior orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior orders. 2.58 Section 2.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.58 Prior orders. Any order...

  10. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  11. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  12. Higher-order artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, M.

    1990-12-01

    The report investigates the storage capacity of an artificial neural network where the state of each neuron depends on quadratic correlations of all other neurons, i.e. a third order network. This is in contrast to a standard Hopfield network where the state of each single neuron depends on the state on every other neuron, without any correlations. The storage capacity of a third order network is larger than that for standard Hopfield by one order of N. However, the number of connections is also larger by an order of N. It is shown that the storage capacity per connection is identical for standard Hopfield and for this third order network.

  13. First-order inflation. [in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this paper, some models for first-order inflation are discussed, and unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition are emphasized. Some of the history of inflation is reviewed to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  14. Order Parameters for Two-Dimensional Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2007-10-01

    We derive methods that explain how to quantify the amount of order in ``ordered'' and ``highly ordered'' porous arrays. Ordered arrays from bee honeycomb and several from the general field of nanoscience are compared. Accurate measures of the order in porous arrays are made using the discrete pair distribution function (PDF) and the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) from 2-D discrete Fourier transforms calculated from the real-space data using MATLAB routines. An order parameter, OP3, is defined from the PDF to evaluate the total order in a given array such that an ideal network has the value of 1. When we compare PDFs of man-made arrays with that of our honeycomb we find OP3=0.399 for the honeycomb and OP3=0.572 for man's best hexagonal array. The DWF also scales with this order parameter with the least disorder from a computer-generated hexagonal array and the most disorder from a random array. An ideal hexagonal array normalizes a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller parameter is derived which describes the disorder in the arrays. An order parameter S, defined by the DWF, takes values from [0, 1] and for the analyzed man-made array is 0.90, while for the honeycomb it is 0.65. This presentation describes methods to quantify the order found in these arrays.

  15. Control of Initialized Fractional-Order Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartly, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of historical effects in fractional-order systems, this paper presents a general fractional-order control theory that includes the time-varying initialization response. Previous studies have not properly accounted for these historical effects. The initialization response, along with the forced response, for fractional-order systems is determined. Stability properties of fractional-order systems are presented in the complex Airplane, which is a transformation of the s-plane. Time responses are discussed with respect to pole positions in the complex Airplane and frequency response behavior is included. A fractional-order vector space representation, which is a generalization of the state space concept, is presented including the initialization response. Control methods for vector representations of initialized fractional-order systems are shown. Nyquist, root-locus, and other input-output control methods are adapted to the control of fractional-order systems. Finally, the fractional-order differintegral is generalized to continuous order-distributions that have the possibility of including a continuum of fractional orders in a system element.

  16. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Asymmetric Magnon Excitation by Spontaneous Toroidal Ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of spontaneous toroidal ordering on magnetic excitation are theoretically investigated for a localized spin model that includes a staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and anisotropic exchange interactions, which arise from the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling and the multiorbital correlation effect. We show that the model exhibits a Néel-type antiferromagnetic order, which simultaneously accompanies a ferroic toroidal order. We find that the occurrence of toroidal order modulates the magnon dispersion in an asymmetric way with respect to the wave number: a toroidal dipole order on the zigzag chain leads to a band-bottom shift, while a toroidal octupole order on the honeycomb lattice gives rise to a valley splitting. These asymmetric magnon excitations could be a source of unusual magnetic responses, such as nonreciprocal magnon transport. A variety of modulations are discussed while changing the lattice and magnetic symmetries. The implications regarding candidate materials for asymmetric magnon excitations are presented.

  18. Ordering structured populations in multiplayer cooperation games

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Jorge; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Spatial structure greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. While in two-player games the condition for cooperation to evolve depends on a single structure coefficient, in multiplayer games the condition might depend on several structure coefficients, making it difficult to compare different population structures. We propose a solution to this issue by introducing two simple ways of ordering population structures: the containment order and the volume order. If population structure is greater than population structure in the containment or the volume order, then can be considered a stronger promoter of cooperation. We provide conditions for establishing the containment order, give general results on the volume order, and illustrate our theory by comparing different models of spatial games and associated update rules. Our results hold for a large class of population structures and can be easily applied to specific cases once the structure coefficients have been calculated or estimated. PMID:26819335

  19. Higher-order organization of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Benson, Austin R; Gleich, David F; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-07-01

    Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks--at the level of small network subgraphs--remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns.

  20. Higher-order organization of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Benson, Austin R; Gleich, David F; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-07-01

    Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks--at the level of small network subgraphs--remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns. PMID:27387949

  1. Two-dimensional order and disorder thermofields

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L. V.

    2006-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain the two-dimensional order and disorder thermal operators using the Thermofield Bosonization formalism. We show that the general property of the two-dimensional world according with the bosonized Fermi field at zero temperature can be constructed as a product of an order and a disorder variables which satisfy a dual field algebra holds at finite temperature. The general correlation functions of the order and disorder thermofields are obtained.

  2. Exact significance test for Markov order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, S. D.; Hahs, D. W.

    2014-02-01

    We describe an exact significance test of the null hypothesis that a Markov chain is nth order. The procedure utilizes surrogate data to yield an exact test statistic distribution valid for any sample size. Surrogate data are generated using a novel algorithm that guarantees, per shot, a uniform sampling from the set of sequences that exactly match the nth order properties of the observed data. Using the test, the Markov order of Tel Aviv rainfall data is examined.

  3. Feedback and efficiency in limit order markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challet, Damien

    2008-06-01

    A consistency criterion for price impact functions in limit order markets is proposed that prohibits chain arbitrage exploitation. Both the bid-ask spread and the feedback of sequential market orders of the same kind onto both sides of the order book are essential to ensure consistency at the smallest time scale. All the stocks investigated in Paris Stock Exchange have consistent price impact functions.

  4. An overview of task order 10

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L

    2011-01-12

    Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).

  5. Higher-order force gradient symplectic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Kidwell, Donald W.

    2000-12-01

    We show that a recently discovered fourth order symplectic algorithm, which requires one evaluation of force gradient in addition to three evaluations of the force, when iterated to higher order, yielded algorithms that are far superior to similarly iterated higher order algorithms based on the standard Forest-Ruth algorithm. We gauge the accuracy of each algorithm by comparing the step-size independent error functions associated with energy conservation and the rotation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector when solving a highly eccentric Kepler problem. For orders 6, 8, 10, and 12, the new algorithms are approximately a factor of 103, 104, 104, and 105 better.

  6. CCII based fractional filters of different orders

    PubMed Central

    Soltan, Ahmed; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Soliman, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to generalize the design of continuous-time filters to the fractional domain with different orders and validates the theoretical results with two different CCII based filters. In particular, the proposed study introduces the generalized formulas for the previous fractional-order analysis of equal orders. The fractional-order filters enhance the design flexibility and prove that the integer-order performance is a very narrow subset from the fractional-order behavior due to the extra degrees of freedom. The general fundamentals of these filters are presented by calculating the maximum and minimum frequencies, the half power frequency and the right phase frequency which are considered a critical issue for the filter design. Different numerical solutions for the generalized fractional order low pass filters with two different fractional order elements are introduced and verified by the circuit simulations of two fractional-order filters: Kerwin–Huelsman–Newcomb (KHN) and Tow-Tomas CCII-based filters, showing great matching. PMID:25685483

  7. Chaos in a Fractional Order Chua System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.; Qammar, Helen Killory

    1996-01-01

    This report studies the effects of fractional dynamics in chaotic systems. In particular, Chua's system is modified to include fractional order elements. Varying the total system order incrementally from 2.6 to 3.7 demonstrates that systems of 'order' less than three can exhibit chaos as well as other nonlinear behavior. This effectively forces a clarification of the definition of order which can no longer be considered only by the total number of differentiations or by the highest power of the Laplace variable.

  8. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  9. Bond-orientational order in liquid Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. Q.; Stroud, D.

    1991-01-01

    Bond-orientational order in liquid Si via Monte Carlo simulation in conjuncation with empirical two- and three-body potentials of the form proposed by Stillinger and Weber are studied. Bond-orientational order (BOO) is described in terms of combinations of spherical harmonic functions. Liquid Si is found to have pronounced short-range BOO corresponding to l = 3, as expected for a structure with local tetrahedral order. No long-range BOO is found either in the equilibrium or the supercooled liquid. When the three-body potential is artificially removed, the tetrahedral bond-orientation order disappears and the liquid assumes a close-packed structure.

  10. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  11. Order Sets in Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems: an Analysis of Seven Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.; Carpenter, James D.; Krall, Michael A.; Pang, Justine E.; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-01-01

    Most computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems have built-in support for order sets (collections of orders grouped by a clinical purpose). Evidence and experience suggest that order sets are important tools for ordering efficiency and decision support and may influence ordering. Developing and maintaining order sets is costly, so hospitals often must prioritize which order sets can be created. We analyzed order set utilization at seven diverse sites with CPOE. The number of order sets per site ranged from 81 to 535, and the number of order set uses per discharge ranged from 0.48 to 9.89. We also compared the top ten order sets at each site, and found many commonalities, such as generic and condition-specific admission order sets, surgical sets and clinical pathways. We also found that, at each site, utilization of order sets was skewed, with a small number of order sets comprising the bulk of utilization. These findings may be useful for order sets developers, particularly in settings where resources are constrained and the most important order sets must be developed first. PMID:21347107

  12. Duplicate Orders: An Unintended Consequence of Computerized provider/physician order entry (CPOE) Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Magid, S.; Forrer, C.; Shaha, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Computerized provider/physician order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS) is designed to improve patient safety. However, a number of unintended consequences which include duplicate ordering have been reported. The objective of this time-series study was to characterize duplicate orders and devise strategies to minimize them. Methods Time series design with systematic weekly sampling for 84 weeks. Each week we queried the CPOE database, downloaded all active orders onto a spreadsheet, and highlighted duplicate orders. We noted the following details for each duplicate order: time, order details (e.g. drug, dose, route and frequency), ordering prescriber, including position and role, and whether the orders originated from a single order or from an order set (and the name of the order set). This analysis led to a number of interventions, including changes in: order sets, workflow, prescriber training, pharmacy procedures, and duplicate alerts. Results Duplicates were more likely to originate from different prescribers than from same prescribers; and from order sets than from single orders. After interventions, there was an 84.8% decrease in the duplication rate from weeks 1 to 84 and a 94.6% decrease from the highest (1) to the lowest week (75). Currently, we have negligible duplicate orders. Conclusions Duplicate orders can be a significant unintended consequence of CPOE. By analyzing these orders, we were able to devise and implement generalizable strategies that significantly reduced them. The incidence of duplicate orders before CPOE implementation is unknown, and our data originate from a weekly snapshot of active orders, which serves as a sample of total active orders. Thus, it should be noted that this methodology likely under-reports duplicate orders. PMID:23646085

  13. 14 CFR 1264.123 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective order. 1264.123 Section 1264.123 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.123 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may...

  14. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  15. 7 CFR 1.166 - Consent order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consent order. 1.166 Section 1.166 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.166 Consent order. At any...

  16. The effect of time ordering revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, J.; Boland, D.; Capes, H.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.

    2008-10-22

    The effects of time ordering on line shapes are investigated for the dynamic ionic broadening of the Lyman alpha line in hydrogen plasmas. The difference between calculations with and without time ordering is calculated for an electric field created by a single particle, and for a thermal average over plasma configurations with moderate temperature and density.

  17. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a)...

  2. 24 CFR 180.535 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... order, to make all or part of the showing of good cause in camera. If such a showing is made, upon motion of the party or other person from whom discovery is sought, an in camera record of the proceedings may be made. If the ALJ enters a protective order, any in camera record of such showing shall...

  3. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and delivery-order ombudsman is the Director, Strategic Acquisition Service, PSC. The task-order and... Services HRSA: Associate Administrator, Office of Operations IHS: Director, Office of Management Services... Senior Advisor to the Director (Other than R & D) PSC: Director, Strategic Acquisition Service...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6005 - Case (order).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Case (order). 29.6005 Section 29.6005 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6005 Case (order). The state of tobacco with respect to its...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.610 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 1230.610 Section 1230.610 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... means the Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order....

  6. 40 CFR 91.604 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing Regulations § 91.604 Test orders.... The test order must be delivered in person by an EPA enforcement officer or EPA...

  7. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section 20.606 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF... in camera. The ALJ shall record any proceedings in camera. If he or she enters a protective order,...

  8. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section 20.606 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF... in camera. The ALJ shall record any proceedings in camera. If he or she enters a protective order,...

  9. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section 20.606 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF... in camera. The ALJ shall record any proceedings in camera. If he or she enters a protective order,...

  10. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section 20.606 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF... in camera. The ALJ shall record any proceedings in camera. If he or she enters a protective order,...

  11. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section 20.606 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF... in camera. The ALJ shall record any proceedings in camera. If he or she enters a protective order,...

  12. Order From disorder in Frustrated Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Piers

    This talk will review the phemomenon of ''Order from disorder'': the mechanism by which fluctuations remove a degeneracy within a frustrated spin system. An important consequence of order-from-disorder, is the ability of frustrated Heisenberg spin systems to overcome the Mermin-Wagner theorem, developing new forms of discrete order, even when the spins themselves remain disordered with a finite correlation length. The most well-known example, is the two-dimensional frustrated J1 -J2 Heisenberg model, which undergoes a finite temperature Ising phase transition into a stripy or ''nematic'' state, even though the spins do not order until absolute zero. Nematic ordering of this kind is believed to occur in the iron-based superconductors, such as BaFe2 As2 . More recently, it has been possible to theoretically study the triangular-honeycomb versions of the J1 -J2 model, called a windmill model, in which order-from disorder drives the development of six-state clock order. Remarkably, in this case, order-from-disorder leads to an intermediate power-law spin phase, despite the underlying Heisenerg spins. This research was supported by DOE Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-FG02-99ER45790.

  13. 10 CFR 820.23 - Consent order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with the objectives of the Act and the DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements. The Director and a person... Consent Order need not constitute an admission by any person that the Act or a DOE Nuclear Safety... Act or a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement. A Consent Order shall, however, set forth the relevant...

  14. 10 CFR 820.23 - Consent order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consent order. 820.23 Section 820.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.23 Consent order. (a) Settlement policy. DOE encourages settlement of an enforcement proceeding at any time if the settlement is consistent with the objectives of the...

  15. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase orders....

  16. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  17. Enhanced ordering temperatures in antiferromagnetic manganite superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    May, Stephen J.; Robertson, Lee; Ryan, P J; Kim, J.-W.; Santos, Tiffany S.; Karapetrova, Evgenia; Zarestky, Jerel L.; Zhai, X.; Te velthuis, Suzanne G.; Eckstein, James N.; Bader, S. D.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2009-01-01

    The disorder inherent to doping by cation substitution in the complex oxides can have profound effects on collective ordered states. Here, we demonstrate that cation-site ordering achieved via digital synthesis techniques can dramatically enhance the antiferromagnetic ordering temperatures of manganite films. Cation-ordered (LaMnO3)m/(SrMnO3)2m superlattices exhibit N el temperatures (TN) that are the highest of any La1-xSrxMnO3 compound, ~70 K greater than compositionally equivalent randomly doped La1/3Sr2/3MnO3. The antiferromagnetic order is A-type, consisting of in-plane double-exchange-mediated ferromagnetic sheets coupled antiferromagnetically along the out-of-plane direction. Via synchrotron x-ray scattering, we have discovered an in-plane structural modulation that reduces the charge itinerancy and hence the ordering temperature within the ferromagnetic sheets, thereby limiting TN. This modulation is mitigated and driven to long wavelengths by cation ordering, enabling the higher TN values of the superlattices. These results provide insight into how cation-site ordering can enhance cooperative behavior in oxides through subtle structural phenomena.

  18. BSO--Broad System of Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Geoffrey

    The Broad System of Ordering (BSO), a subject-indication coding and ordering scheme developed to meet the requirements of the UNISIST program for an international switching mechanism between information systems using diverse indexing/retrieval languages is described. The scope and purpose of the BSO, its development and testing, a schematic…

  19. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  20. 12 CFR 622.59 - Assessment order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment order. 622.59 Section 622.59 Banks... Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.59 Assessment order. (a) Consent. In the event of consent of the parties concerned to an assessment, or if, upon the record made at...

  1. 12 CFR 263.63 - Assessment order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment order. 263.63 Section 263.63 Banks... (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 263.63 Assessment order. (a) In the event of consent to an assessment by the person...

  2. 12 CFR 263.63 - Assessment order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment order. 263.63 Section 263.63 Banks... OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 263.63 Assessment order. (a) In the event of consent to an assessment by the person concerned, or...

  3. 12 CFR 263.63 - Assessment order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment order. 263.63 Section 263.63 Banks... (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 263.63 Assessment order. (a) In the event of consent to an assessment by the person...

  4. Birth Order and Marital Bliss in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Leonard; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study offers a rank order of successful marriages, according to birth order in Israel. The results of two studies show that marriage consisting of a first born and a later born are more successful than marriages composed of two first borns or two later borns. (Author/PC)

  5. 14 CFR 17.9 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... protective orders addressing the treatment of protected information, including protected information in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective orders. 17.9 Section 17.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL...

  6. Partially ordered state of ice XV

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, K.; Noritake, F.; Machida, S.; Sano-Furukawa, A.; Hattori, T.; Yamane, R.; Kagi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Most ice polymorphs have order–disorder “pairs” in terms of hydrogen positions, which contributes to the rich variety of ice polymorphs; in fact, three recently discovered polymorphs— ices XIII, XIV, and XV—are ordered counter forms to already identified disordered phases. Despite the considerable effort to understand order–disorder transition in ice crystals, there is an inconsistency among the various experiments and calculations for ice XV, the ordered counter form of ice VI, i.e., neutron diffraction observations suggest antiferroelectrically ordered structures, which disagree with dielectric measurement and theoretical studies, implying ferroelectrically ordered structures. Here we investigate in-situ neutron diffraction measurements and density functional theory calculations to revisit the structure and stability of ice XV. We find that none of the completely ordered configurations are particular favored; instead, partially ordered states are established as a mixture of ordered domains in disordered ice VI. This scenario in which several kinds of ordered configuration coexist dispels the contradictions in previous studies. It means that the order–disorder pairs in ice polymorphs are not one-to-one correspondent pairs but rather have one-to-n correspondence, where there are n possible configurations at finite temperature. PMID:27375120

  7. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditional orders. 590.402 Section 590.402 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.402 Conditional...

  8. 78 FR 32155 - Difenzoquat; Order Revoking Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... byproducts; horse, fat; horse, meat; horse, meat byproducts; poultry, fat; poultry, meat; poultry, meat... Federal Register of December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75037) (FRL-9372-9), EPA issued a final data call-in order in follow-up to a proposed order which published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39962)...

  9. Partially ordered state of ice XV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, K.; Noritake, F.; Machida, S.; Sano-Furukawa, A.; Hattori, T.; Yamane, R.; Kagi, H.

    2016-07-01

    Most ice polymorphs have order–disorder “pairs” in terms of hydrogen positions, which contributes to the rich variety of ice polymorphs; in fact, three recently discovered polymorphs— ices XIII, XIV, and XV—are ordered counter forms to already identified disordered phases. Despite the considerable effort to understand order–disorder transition in ice crystals, there is an inconsistency among the various experiments and calculations for ice XV, the ordered counter form of ice VI, i.e., neutron diffraction observations suggest antiferroelectrically ordered structures, which disagree with dielectric measurement and theoretical studies, implying ferroelectrically ordered structures. Here we investigate in-situ neutron diffraction measurements and density functional theory calculations to revisit the structure and stability of ice XV. We find that none of the completely ordered configurations are particular favored; instead, partially ordered states are established as a mixture of ordered domains in disordered ice VI. This scenario in which several kinds of ordered configuration coexist dispels the contradictions in previous studies. It means that the order–disorder pairs in ice polymorphs are not one-to-one correspondent pairs but rather have one-to-n correspondence, where there are n possible configurations at finite temperature.

  10. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  11. 6 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective order. 13.24 Section 13.24 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective...

  12. 6 CFR 13.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective order. 13.24 Section 13.24 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective...

  13. 46 CFR 550.201 - Information orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information orders. 550.201 Section 550.201 Shipping... REGULATIONS TO ADJUST OR MEET CONDITIONS UNFAVORABLE TO SHIPPING IN THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES... Commission may, by order, require any person (including any common carrier, tramp operator, bulk...

  14. 46 CFR 550.201 - Information orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information orders. 550.201 Section 550.201 Shipping... REGULATIONS TO ADJUST OR MEET CONDITIONS UNFAVORABLE TO SHIPPING IN THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES... Commission may, by order, require any person (including any common carrier, tramp operator, bulk...

  15. 46 CFR 550.201 - Information orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information orders. 550.201 Section 550.201 Shipping... REGULATIONS TO ADJUST OR MEET CONDITIONS UNFAVORABLE TO SHIPPING IN THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES... Commission may, by order, require any person (including any common carrier, tramp operator, bulk...

  16. 46 CFR 550.201 - Information orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information orders. 550.201 Section 550.201 Shipping... REGULATIONS TO ADJUST OR MEET CONDITIONS UNFAVORABLE TO SHIPPING IN THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES... Commission may, by order, require any person (including any common carrier, tramp operator, bulk...

  17. 46 CFR 550.201 - Information orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information orders. 550.201 Section 550.201 Shipping... REGULATIONS TO ADJUST OR MEET CONDITIONS UNFAVORABLE TO SHIPPING IN THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES... Commission may, by order, require any person (including any common carrier, tramp operator, bulk...

  18. 38 CFR 42.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an... more of the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only...

  19. 14 CFR 1264.123 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.123 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or with... the following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on...

  20. 31 CFR 16.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with respect to discovery sought by an opposing party or... following: (1) That the discovery not be had; (2) That the discovery may be had only on specified terms...

  1. Tying Signals: Restoring Classroom Order after Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Icbay, Mehmet Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at publicly demonstrating how classroom order is mutually established by a teacher and students in transition periods. Transitions take place in each instance when a current activity finishes, simultaneously the contextual organisation of the activity changes, and then the previously established order is lost. As a result, the…

  2. Order, chaos and nuclear dynamics: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1990-08-01

    This is an introductory lecture illustrating by simple examples the anticipated effect on collective nuclear dynamics of a transition from order to chaos in the motions of nucleons inside an idealized nucleus. The destruction of order is paralleled by a transition from a rubber-like to a honey-like behaviour of the independent-particle nuclear model. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Lagrangian systems with higher order constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendra, H.; Grillo, S. D.

    2007-05-01

    A class of mechanical systems subject to higher order constraints (i.e., constraints involving higher order derivatives of the position of the system) are studied. We call them higher order constrained systems (HOCSs). They include simplified models of elastic rolling bodies, and also the so-called generalized nonholonomic systems (GNHSs), whose constraints only involve the velocities of the system (i.e., first order derivatives in the position of the system). One of the features of this kind of systems is that D'Alembert's principle (or its nonlinear higher order generalization, the Chetaev's principle) is not necessarily satisfied. We present here, as another interesting example of HOCS, systems subjected to friction forces, showing that those forces can be encoded in a second order kinematic constraint. The main aim of the paper is to show that every HOCS is equivalent to a GNHS with linear constraints, in a canonical way. That is to say, systems with higher order constraints can be described in terms of one with linear constraints in velocities. We illustrate this fact with a system with friction and with Rocard's model [Dynamique Générale des Vibrations (1949), Chap. XV, p. 246 and L'instabilité en Mécanique; Automobiles, Avions, Ponts Suspendus (1954)] of a pneumatic tire. As a by-product, we introduce some applications on higher order tangent bundles, which we expect to be useful for the study of intrinsic aspects of the geometry of such bundles.

  4. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protective order. 17.28 Section 17.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to...

  5. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protective order. 17.28 Section 17.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to...

  6. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protective order. 17.28 Section 17.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to...

  7. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective order. 17.28 Section 17.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to...

  8. 21 CFR 17.28 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protective order. 17.28 Section 17.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY... protective order with respect to discovery sought by a party or with respect to the hearing, seeking to...

  9. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  10. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  11. 77 FR 20641 - Jose Concepcion: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Jose Concepcion: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring Jose Concepcion for 5 years...

  12. Time and Order Effects on Causal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Angelica; Jara, Elvia; Vila, Javier; Rosas, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to explore trial order and retention interval effects upon causal predictive judgments. Experiment 1 found that participants show a strong effect of trial order when a stimulus was sequentially paired with two different outcomes compared to a condition where both outcomes were presented intermixed. Experiment 2…

  13. 21 CFR 1315.62 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final order. 1315.62 Section 1315.62 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.62 Final order. As soon as...

  14. 21 CFR 1315.62 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final order. 1315.62 Section 1315.62 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.62 Final order. As soon as...

  15. 21 CFR 1315.62 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final order. 1315.62 Section 1315.62 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.62 Final order. As soon as...

  16. 21 CFR 1315.62 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final order. 1315.62 Section 1315.62 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.62 Final order. As soon as...

  17. 21 CFR 1315.62 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final order. 1315.62 Section 1315.62 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Hearings § 1315.62 Final order. As soon as...

  18. Posterior Probabilities for a Consensus Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)

  19. 34 CFR 33.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective order. 33.24 Section 33.24 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.24 Protective order.... (3) That the discovery may be had only through a method of discovery other than that requested....

  20. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  1. Ordered chromatic number of planar maps

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that there exist planar maps and orderings of the regions of those maps foe which no finite number of colors will suffice for a parsimonious proper coloring. In particular, planar maps with 0(2/sup n/2/) regions are exhibited that require n colors for their proper ordered coloring.

  2. Science Orders Systems and Operations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriz, Harry M.

    This manual describes the implementation and operation of SCIENCE ORDERS, an online orders management system used by the Science and Technology Department of Newman Library at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Operational since January 1985, the system is implemented using the SPIRES database management system and is used to (1)…

  3. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  4. Exploring Partial Order of European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annoni, Paola; Bruggemann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Partial Order Theory has been recently more and more employed in applied science to overcome the intrinsic disadvantage hidden in aggregation, if a multiple attribute system is available. Despite its numerous positive features, there are many practical cases where the interpretation of the partial order can be rather troublesome. In these cases…

  5. 75 FR 17927 - Kevin Xu: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... goods, namely pharmaceutical drugs, and knowingly used a counterfeit mark, the ZYPREXA trademark, on and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Kevin Xu: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order...

  6. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and delivery-order ombudsman is the Director, Strategic Acquisition Service, PSC. The task-order and... Services HRSA: Associate Administrator, Office of Operations IHS: Director, Office of Management Services... Senior Advisor to the Director (Other than R & D) PSC: Director, Strategic Acquisition Service...

  7. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and delivery-order ombudsman is the Director, Strategic Acquisition Service, PSC. The task-order and... Services HRSA: Associate Administrator, Office of Operations IHS: Director, Office of Management Services... Senior Advisor to the Director (Other than R & D) PSC: Director, Strategic Acquisition Service...

  8. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and delivery-order ombudsman is the Director, Strategic Acquisition Service, PSC. The task-order and... Services HRSA: Associate Administrator, Office of Operations IHS: Director, Office of Management Services... Senior Advisor to the Director (Other than R & D) PSC: Director, Strategic Acquisition Service...

  9. Retrieval Strategies for Linearly Ordered Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, John M.; Potts, George R.

    1977-01-01

    Subjects responded to pairs of test items from learned linear orderings (e.g., Tom is taller than Dick; Dick is taller than Sam, etc.). Results are compared with previous studies of ordered linguistic, perceptual, and numerical information. (Editor/RK)

  10. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  11. 7 CFR 917.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 917.100 Section 917.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 917.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 917.100 Section 917.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 917.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 917.100 Section 917.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  14. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective order. 308.523 Section 308.523 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.523 Protective order. (a) A party or...

  15. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective order. 308.523 Section 308.523 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.523 Protective order. (a) A party or...

  16. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective order. 308.523 Section 308.523 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.523 Protective order. (a) A party or...

  17. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective order. 308.523 Section 308.523 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.523 Protective order. (a) A party or...

  18. 12 CFR 308.523 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective order. 308.523 Section 308.523 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.523 Protective order. (a) A party or...

  19. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditional orders. 590.402 Section 590.402 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.402 Conditional...

  20. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase orders....

  1. Chemical Dosing and First-Order Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    College students encounter a variety of first-order phenomena in their mathematics and science courses. Introductory chemistry textbooks that discuss first-order processes, usually in conjunction with chemical kinetics or radioactive decay, stop at single, discrete dose events. Although single-dose situations are important, multiple-dose events,…

  2. 49 CFR 1503.425 - Compromise orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.425 Compromise orders. (a) Issuance. At any time before the... Violation, may agree to dispose of the case by the issuance of a compromise order by TSA. (b) Contents. A... that the person agrees to pay the civil penalty specified. (4) A statement that TSA makes no finding...

  3. 45 CFR 32.6 - Withholding order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding order. 32.6 Section 32.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.6 Withholding order. (a) Unless the Secretary receives information that the Secretary...

  4. 45 CFR 79.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective order. 79.24 Section 79.24 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79... being sealed be opened only by order of the ALJ; (8) That a trade secret or other confidential...

  5. 48 CFR 1216.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 1216.505 Ordering. (b)(5) Unless otherwise... Administration (OA) is designated as the OA Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman. If any corrective action is needed... provide a written determination of such action to the contracting officer. Issues that cannot be...

  6. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  7. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND... showing the grounds for the order, conclusions regarding all material issues of law or discretion, and...

  8. 14 CFR 405.5 - Emergency orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency orders. 405.5 Section 405.5 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT § 405.5 Emergency orders. The Associate Administrator...

  9. 14 CFR 405.5 - Emergency orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency orders. 405.5 Section 405.5 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT § 405.5 Emergency orders. The Associate Administrator may immediately terminate, prohibit,...

  10. 14 CFR 405.5 - Emergency orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency orders. 405.5 Section 405.5 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT § 405.5 Emergency orders. The Associate Administrator may immediately terminate, prohibit,...

  11. 14 CFR 405.5 - Emergency orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency orders. 405.5 Section 405.5 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT § 405.5 Emergency orders. The Associate Administrator may immediately terminate, prohibit,...

  12. 14 CFR 405.5 - Emergency orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency orders. 405.5 Section 405.5 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS AND ENFORCEMENT § 405.5 Emergency orders. The Associate Administrator may immediately terminate, prohibit,...

  13. School Bullying and Social and Moral Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical consideration of the ways in which school bullying relates to social and moral orders and the relations of power that are central to the upholding of such orders. Moving away from the focus on individual aggressive intentionality that has hitherto dominated school bullying research, the article argues that…

  14. 21 CFR 1301.46 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final order. 1301.46 Section 1301.46 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS... Administrator shall serve one copy of his/her order upon each party in the hearing. Modification, Transfer...

  15. 21 CFR 1301.46 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final order. 1301.46 Section 1301.46 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS... Administrator shall serve one copy of his/her order upon each party in the hearing. Modification, Transfer...

  16. 21 CFR 1301.46 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final order. 1301.46 Section 1301.46 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS... Administrator shall serve one copy of his/her order upon each party in the hearing. Modification, Transfer...

  17. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  18. First-order Dyson coordinates and geometry.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2013-08-15

    The mathematical constructs of the Dyson coordinates and geometry are introduced. The former are a unitary transformation of the normal coordinates and the anharmonic vibrational counterpart of the Dyson orbitals in electronic structure theory. The first-order Dyson coordinates bring the sums of the harmonic force constants and their first-order diagrammatic perturbation corrections (the first-order Dyson self-energy) to a diagonal form. The first-order Dyson geometry has no counterpart in electronic structure theory. It is the point on the potential energy surface at which the sums of the energy gradients and their first-order diagrammatic perturbation corrections vanish. It agrees with the vibrationally averaged geometry of vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) theory in the bulk limit. These constructs provide a unified view of the relationship of VSCF and its diagrammatically size-consistent modifications as well as the self-consistent phonon method widely used in solid-state physics.

  19. Constraints on topological order in mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Michael P; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-02-20

    We point out certain symmetry induced constraints on topological order in Mott insulators (quantum magnets with an odd number of spin 1/2 moments per unit cell). We show, for example, that the double-semion topological order is incompatible with time reversal and translation symmetry in Mott insulators. This sharpens the Hastings-Oshikawa-Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem for 2D quantum magnets, which guarantees that a fully symmetric gapped Mott insulator must be topologically ordered, but is silent about which topological order is permitted. Our result applies to the kagome lattice quantum antiferromagnet, where recent numerical calculations of the entanglement entropy indicate a ground state compatible with either toric code or double-semion topological order. Our result rules out the latter possibility.

  20. Discovering Complex Ordered Phases of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, An-Chang

    2012-02-01

    Block copolymers with their rich phase behavior and ordering transitions have become a paradigm for the study of structured soft materials. Understanding the structures and phase transitions in block copolymers has been one of the most active research areas in polymer science in the past two decades. One of the achievements is the self-consistent field theory (SCFT), which provides a powerful framework for the study of ordered phase of block copolymers. I will present a generic strategy to discover complex ordered phases of block copolymers within the SCFT framework. Specifically, a combination of real-space and reciprocal-space techniques is used to explore possible ordered phases in multiblock copolymer melts. These candidate phases can then be used to construct phase diagrams. Application of this strategy to linear and star ABC triblock copolymers has led to the discovery of a rich array of ordered phases.

  1. Selfishness as second-order altruism.

    PubMed

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Wilson, David Sloan

    2008-05-13

    Selfishness is seldom considered a group-beneficial strategy. In the typical evolutionary formulation, altruism benefits the group, selfishness undermines altruism, and the purpose of the model is to identify mechanisms, such as kinship or reciprocity, that enable altruism to evolve. Recent models have explored punishment as an important mechanism favoring the evolution of altruism, but punishment can be costly to the punisher, making it a form of second-order altruism. This model identifies a strategy called "selfish punisher" that involves behaving selfishly in first-order interactions and altruistically in second-order interactions by punishing other selfish individuals. Selfish punishers cause selfishness to be a self-limiting strategy, enabling altruists to coexist in a stable equilibrium. This polymorphism can be regarded as a division of labor, or mutualism, in which the benefits obtained by first-order selfishness help to "pay" for second-order altruism. PMID:18448681

  2. Constraints on topological order in mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Michael P; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-02-20

    We point out certain symmetry induced constraints on topological order in Mott insulators (quantum magnets with an odd number of spin 1/2 moments per unit cell). We show, for example, that the double-semion topological order is incompatible with time reversal and translation symmetry in Mott insulators. This sharpens the Hastings-Oshikawa-Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem for 2D quantum magnets, which guarantees that a fully symmetric gapped Mott insulator must be topologically ordered, but is silent about which topological order is permitted. Our result applies to the kagome lattice quantum antiferromagnet, where recent numerical calculations of the entanglement entropy indicate a ground state compatible with either toric code or double-semion topological order. Our result rules out the latter possibility. PMID:25763971

  3. Order in Gravitation Potentially Linked to Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-04-01

    Darwin, in the concluding remark of his text, On the Origin of Species (1859), referred to ``the fixed law of gravity'', which implies an assumption that the gravitational constant and the Newtonian the inverse square logic are potentially fixed. Therefore, they cannot influence evolution. My substantiation of the Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) (In version 1 of http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0210040) predicting the decreasing value of gravitational constant theorizes that all coupling constants are increasing with time. This is also backed by the recent observations. Consequently, it is logical that the orderly increase of coupling constants imparts an orderly influence on mutations assumed uninfluenced otherwise. This orderly influence is unidirectional, clearly in the direction of increasing intelligence, looking at the evolutionary history, whether or not in the sense of a religion. On the horizon, I see that the order in gravitation is linked to the order in entropy as well.

  4. New Existence Conditions for Order Complementarity Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, S. Z.

    2009-09-01

    Complementarity problems are mathematical models of problems in economics, engineering and physics. A special class of complementarity problems are the order complementarity problems [2]. Order complementarity problems can be applied in lubrication theory [6] and economics [1]. The notion of exceptional family of elements for general order complementarity problems in Banach spaces will be introduced. It will be shown that for general order complementarity problems defined by completely continuous fields the problem has either a solution or an exceptional family of elements (for other notions of exceptional family of elements see [1, 2, 3, 4] and the related references therein). This solves a conjecture of [2] about the existence of exceptional family of elements for order complementarity problems. The proof can be done by using the Leray-Schauder alternative [5]. An application to integral operators will be given.

  5. Synthesis of higher order nonlinear circuit elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, L. O.; Szeto, E. W.

    1984-02-01

    Higher and mixed-order n-port circuit elements were introduced recently to provide a logically complete formulation for nonlinear circuit theory. In this paper, higher order mutators are defined and used to synthesize these elements. The class of all higher order mutators is shown to form a group under cascade interconnections. Each mutator is realized using only linear capacitors, linear inductors and linear controlled sources. An upper bound on each type of element needed to realize a mutator is also given. Each higher or mixed-order n-port element is realized by cascading approprimate mutators across each port of a nonlinear n-port resistor. The main theorem shows that any higher or mixed-order nonlinear n-port element with a constitutive relation defined on a compact set can be realized using linear capacitors, inductors, and controlled sources, and 2-terminal nonlinear resistors.

  6. 76 FR 23335 - Public Land Order No. 7761; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6849; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Act of 1976, 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6849 (56 FR 16278 (1991)), as corrected by Public Land Order No. 6907 (56 FR 57806 (1991)), 56 FR 24119 (1991), Public Land Order No. 6862 (56 FR 27692 (1991)), and 75 FR 74743 (2010), that withdrew 457,800 acres of the...

  7. Fourth order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1994-01-01

    Fourth order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the fourth order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  8. High order fluid model for streamer discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markosyan, Aram; Dujko, Sasa; White, Ronald; Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2012-10-01

    We present a high order fluid model for streamer discharges. Using momentum transfer theory, the fluid equations are obtained as velocity moments of the Boltzmann equation. We solve Poisson equation to obtain space charge electric field. The high order tensors from the energy flux equation are specified in terms of low order moments to close the system. The average collision frequencies for momentum and energy transfer in elastic and inelastic collisions required as an input in high order fluid model of streamers in molecular nitrogen are calculated using a multi term Boltzmann equation solution. The results of simulations are compared with those obtained by a PIC/MC method and by the classical first order fluid model based on the drift-diffusion and local field approximation. The comparison clearly validates the high order fluid model, while the first order fluid model underestimates many aspects of streamer dynamics. Two important issues are discussed on the basis of fundamental kinetic theory developed in the past decade: (1) the correct implementation of transport data in fluid models of streamer discharges; (2) the accuracy of two term approximation for solving Boltzmann's equation in the context of streamer studies.

  9. Higher order equations of motion and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämmerzahl, Claus; Rademaker, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Standard fundamental equations of motion for point particles are of second order in the time derivative. Here we are exploring the consequences of fundamental equations of motion with an additional small even higher order term to the standard formulation. This is related to two issues: (i) higher order equations of motion will have influence on the definition of the structure of possible interactions and in particular of the gravitational interaction, and (ii) such equations of motion provide a framework to test the validity of Newton’s second law which is the basis for the definition of forces but which assumes from the very beginning that the fundamental equations of motion are of second order. We will show that starting with our generalized equations of motions it is possible to introduce the space-time metric describing the gravitational interaction by means of a standard gauge principle. Another main result within our model of even higher order derivatives is that for slowly varying and smooth fields the higher order derivatives either lead to runaway solutions or induces a zitterbewegung. We confront this higher order scheme with experimental data.

  10. CMS memo OKs use of standing orders.

    PubMed

    2008-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has reversed course and clarified the use of standing orders in a manner that is much more favorable to EDs. Initiation of standing orders or protocols no longer requires prior authorization by a physician. Documentation still is required, and it must be entered into the medical record, but it can be entered following implementation of the standing order. Nurses can administer drugs if approved by protocol and if it is within their nursing scope of practice. PMID:19086739

  11. Ecodesign of ordered mesoporous silica materials.

    PubMed

    Gérardin, Corine; Reboul, Julien; Bonne, Magali; Lebeau, Bénédicte

    2013-05-01

    Characterized by a regular porosity in terms of pore size and pore network arrangement, ordered mesoporous solids have attracted increasing interest in the last two decades. These materials have been identified as potential candidates for several applications. However, more environmentally friendly and economical synthesis routes of mesoporous silica materials were found to be necessary in order to develop these applications on an industrial scale. Consequently, ecodesign of ordered mesoporous silica has been considerably developed with the objective of optimizing the chemistry and the processing aspects of the material synthesis. In this review, the main strategies developed with this aim are presented and discussed. PMID:23407854

  12. On Tenth Order Central Spatial Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sjogreen, B; Yee, H C

    2007-05-14

    This paper explores the performance of the tenth-order central spatial scheme and derives the accompanying energy-norm stable summation-by-parts (SBP) boundary operators. The objective is to employ the resulting tenth-order spatial differencing with the stable SBP boundary operators as a base scheme in the framework of adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order multistep filter schemes of Yee et al. (1999), Yee and Sj{umlt o}green (2002, 2005, 2006, 2007), and Sj{umlt o}green and Yee (2004). These schemes were designed for multiscale turbulence flows including strong shock waves and combustion.

  13. Tetrahedral Order in Banana Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2005-03-01

    Bent-core liquid crystal molecules can exhibit phases that require a third-rank symmetric-traceless tensor order parameter, as well as a vector order parameter and the usual second-rank nematic order parameter. The combination gives rise to a rich variety of spatially homogeneous phases ranging from the well-known nematic to novel tetrahedratic and chiral liquids. I discuss experimental signatures of these phases and phase transitions between them.[0.3cm] L. Radzihovsky and T.C. Lubensky, Europhys. Lett.54, 206 (2001); Phys. Rev.E 66, 031704 (2002).

  14. Probabilities for separating sets of order statistics.

    PubMed

    Glueck, D H; Karimpour-Fard, A; Mandel, J; Muller, K E

    2010-04-01

    Consider a set of order statistics that arise from sorting samples from two different populations, each with their own, possibly different distribution functions. The probability that these order statistics fall in disjoint, ordered intervals and that of the smallest statistics, a certain number come from the first populations is given in terms of the two distribution functions. The result is applied to computing the joint probability of the number of rejections and the number of false rejections for the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate procedure.

  15. Cognitive systems struggling for word order.

    PubMed

    Langus, Alan; Nespor, Marina

    2010-06-01

    We argue that the grammatical diversity observed among the world's languages emerges from the struggle between individual cognitive systems trying to impose their preferred structure on human language. We investigate the cognitive bases of the two most common word orders in the world's languages: SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) and SVO. Evidence from language change, grammaticalization, stability of order, and theoretical arguments, indicates a syntactic preference for SVO. The reason for the prominence of SOV languages is not as clear. In two gesture-production experiments and one gesture comprehension experiment, we show that SOV emerges as the preferred constituent configuration in participants whose native languages (Italian and Turkish) have different word orders. We propose that improvised communication does not rely on the computational system of grammar. The results of a fourth experiment, where participants comprehended strings of prosodically flat words in their native language, shows that the computational system of grammar prefers the orthogonal Verb-Object orders.

  16. High order accurate solutions of viscous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, Eli

    1993-01-01

    We consider a fourth order extension to MacCormack's scheme. The original extension was fourth order only for the inviscid terms but was second order for the viscous terms. We show how to modify the viscous terms so that the scheme is uniformly fourth order in the spatial derivatives. Applications are given to some boundary layer flows. In addition, for applications to shear flows the effect of the outflow boundary conditions are very important. We compare the accuracy of several of these different boundary conditions for both boundary layer and shear flows. Stretching at the outflow usually increases the oscillations in the numerical solution but the addition of a filtered sponge layer (with or without stretching) reduces such oscillations. The oscillations are generated by insufficient resolution of the shear layer. When the shear layer is sufficiently resolved then oscillations are not generated and there is less of a need for a nonreflecting boundary condition.

  17. 46 CFR 201.74 - Declaratory orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration may issue a declaratory order to terminate a proceeding or to remove uncertainty. Petitions for the issuance thereof shall state clearly and concisely the nature of the controversy or...

  18. 46 CFR 201.74 - Declaratory orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration may issue a declaratory order to terminate a proceeding or to remove uncertainty. Petitions for the issuance thereof shall state clearly and concisely the nature of the controversy or...

  19. 46 CFR 201.74 - Declaratory orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration may issue a declaratory order to terminate a proceeding or to remove uncertainty. Petitions for the issuance thereof shall state clearly and concisely the nature of the controversy or...

  20. 46 CFR 201.74 - Declaratory orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration may issue a declaratory order to terminate a proceeding or to remove uncertainty. Petitions for the issuance thereof shall state clearly and concisely the nature of the controversy or...

  1. 46 CFR 201.74 - Declaratory orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration may issue a declaratory order to terminate a proceeding or to remove uncertainty. Petitions for the issuance thereof shall state clearly and concisely the nature of the controversy or...

  2. Rapid Sampling for Visualizations with Ordering Guarantees

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert; Blais, Eric; Parameswaran, Aditya; Indyk, Piotr; Madden, Sam; Rubinfeld, Ronitt

    2015-01-01

    Visualizations are frequently used as a means to understand trends and gather insights from datasets, but often take a long time to generate. In this paper, we focus on the problem of rapidly generating approximate visualizations while preserving crucial visual properties of interest to analysts. Our primary focus will be on sampling algorithms that preserve the visual property of ordering; our techniques will also apply to some other visual properties. For instance, our algorithms can be used to generate an approximate visualization of a bar chart very rapidly, where the comparisons between any two bars are correct. We formally show that our sampling algorithms are generally applicable and provably optimal in theory, in that they do not take more samples than necessary to generate the visualizations with ordering guarantees. They also work well in practice, correctly ordering output groups while taking orders of magnitude fewer samples and much less time than conventional sampling schemes. PMID:26779380

  3. Is birth order associated with adult mortality?

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S R; Wingard, D L; Edelstein, S L; Criqui, M H; Tucker, J S; Friedman, H S

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether birth order is associated with total or cause-specific adult mortality and whether the association differed by sex, was confounded by age, number of siblings, or socioeconomic status, or was mediated by personality, education, or health behaviors. Teachers throughout California identified intellectually gifted children as part of a prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman. Information on birth order was available on 1162 subjects (85% of cohort) who have since been followed for over 70 years. Cox proportional hazards models indicated that birth order was not associated with adult all-cause, cardiovascular, or cancer mortality. Among women, middle children were more likely than oldest children to die from causes of death other than cardiovascular disease or cancer, although the numbers in this category were small. This study did not provide evidence that birth order is associated with adult mortality in this highly intelligent, middle-class cohort.

  4. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  5. Pedophilia, sexual orientation, and birth order.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, A F; Bezeau, S; Kuban, M; Blanchard, R

    1997-05-01

    This study extended research on birth order and erotic preferences by examining birth order in a sample of pedophiles. Charts of 338 pedophiles, assessed from 1980-1994 in the Behavioural Sexology Department of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, were reviewed for family-demographic information. In total, 170 (57 heterosexual pedophiles, 68 homosexual pedophiles, and 45 bisexual pedophiles) of these men had sufficient sibling information to be included in the analyses. The results indicated that homosexual-bisexual pedophiles had a later birth order than heterosexual pedophiles and that this effect was primarily the result of the homosexual-bisexual group being born later among their brothers. The results extend previous findings that homosexual men, regardless of sample composition, have a later birth order than comparable groups of heterosexual men. The results also challenge some existing theories on the nature and origins of pedophilia. PMID:9131853

  6. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-10-01

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.

  7. Second-order corrected Hadamard formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epele, L. N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C. A. García

    1985-08-01

    The second-order correction to the Hadamard formulas for the Green's function, harmonic measures, and period matrix of a two-dimensional domain is obtained in the context of the domain-variational theory.

  8. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  9. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  10. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  11. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  12. 50 CFR 300.97 - Inseason orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.97 Inseason orders. (a) During the fishing season... management measures for West Coast Salmon Fisheries, published in the Federal Register; Treaty...

  13. Shape selectivity extending to ordered supermicroporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Min; Zhang, Haidong; Wang, Yi Meng; He, Ming Yuan

    2015-01-28

    In the synthesis of polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) catalyzed by ordered supermicroporous aluminosilicates, shape selectivity was observed and the high selectivity for target products (PODE3-8) was attributed to the particular pore diameter.

  14. Rapid Equilibrium-Ordered Enzyme Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Thomas R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) characteristic initial velocity behavior (considering the five-step reaction sequence for rapid equilibrium-order bisubstrate mechanisms); (2) dead-end inhibition; (3) inhibition by single products; and (4) an activator as a leading reactant. (JN)

  15. High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    A third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme developed by Yamaleev and Carpenter was proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, a systematic approach is presented that enables 'energy stable' modifications for existing WENO schemes of any order. The technique is demonstrated by developing a one-parameter family of fifth-order upwind-biased ESWENO schemes; ESWENO schemes up to eighth order are presented in the appendix. New weight functions are also developed that provide (1) formal consistency, (2) much faster convergence for smooth solutions with an arbitrary number of vanishing derivatives, and (3) improved resolution near strong discontinuities.

  16. The interval order polytope of a digraph

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.; Schulz, A.

    1994-12-31

    Interval orders and their cocomparability graphs, the interval graphs, are of significant importance as structures of solutions for several combinatorial optimization problems. This is due to the fact that each element is associated with an interval, which may be interpreted as a time interval, for example in a schedule, or as a substring in a string of items, for example, a substring of a DNA string in molecular biology. In the talk we show that the interval order polytope of a digraph may serve as a basis for a polyhedral combinatorial approach to this class of problems. We present results on odd cycle and clique based valid inequalities and discuss the complexity of their separation problem. We show that well-known valid inequalities of the linear ordering polytope, as, e.g., Mobius ladder inequalities and fence inequalities obtain a natural interpretation in terms of these inequalities of the interval order polytope.

  17. First-order inflation. [in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    I discuss the most recent model of inflation. In first-order inflation the inflationary epoch is associated with a first-order phase transition, with the most likely candidate being GUT symmetry breaking. The transition from the false-vacuum inflationary phase to the true-vacuum radiation-dominated phase proceeds through the nucleation and percolation of true-vacuum bubbles. The first successful and simplest model of first-order inflation, extended inflation, is discussed in some detail: evolution of the cosmic-scale factor, reheating, density perturbations, and the production of gravitational waves both from quantum fluctuations and bubble collisions. Particular attention is paid to the most critical issue in any model of first-order inflation: the requirements on the nucleation rate to ensure a graceful transition from the inflationary phase to the radiation-dominated phase.

  18. Topological order from quantum loops and nets

    SciTech Connect

    Fendley, Paul

    2008-12-15

    I define models of quantum loops and nets that have ground states with topological order. These make possible excited states comprised of deconfined anyons with non-abelian braiding. With the appropriate inner product, these quantum loop models are equivalent to net models whose topological weight involves the chromatic polynomial. A simple Hamiltonian preserving the topological order is found by exploiting quantum self-duality. For the square lattice, this Hamiltonian has only four-spin interactions.

  19. Magnetic properties of ordered NiPt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, P. E.; Franse, J. J. M.

    1988-04-01

    Thermal expansion, forced volume magnetostriction and high magnetic field data are presented on the ordered equiatomic NiPt compound. Values are derived for the magnetovolume parameter κC (≃3 × 10 -6kg2A-2m-4), and for the electronic and lattice Grüneisen parameters (Γ e ≊ 5.6; Γ latt ≊ 2.5) . Ordering effects on the magnetoelastic properties are studied for alloys containing 40-60 at % Ni.

  20. 19 CFR 4.37 - General order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General order. 4.37 Section 4.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.37 General order. (a) Any merchandise or baggage regularly landed but not...

  1. Topological order parameters for interacting topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2010-12-17

    We propose a topological order parameter for interacting topological insulators, expressed in terms of the full Green's functions of the interacting system. We show that it is exactly quantized for a time-reversal invariant topological insulator, and it can be experimentally measured through the topological magneto-electric effect. This topological order parameter can be applied to both interacting and disordered systems, and used for determining their phase diagrams. PMID:21231609

  2. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afonso, C.L.; Kurath, Gael; 82 Additional Authors,

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  3. Documentation of the Fourth Order Band Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, fourth order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.

  4. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Claudio L; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F; Bavari, Sina; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R; Briand, François-Xavier; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H; Chandran, Kartik; Chéng, Jiāsēn; Clawson, Anna N; Collins, Peter L; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M; Easton, Andrew J; Ebihara, Hideki; Farkas, Szilvia L; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A M; Fù, Yànpíng; Ghedin, Elodie; Goodin, Michael M; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kitajima, Elliot W; Kobinger, Gary P; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lenardon, Sergio; Leroy, Eric M; Li, Ci-Xiu; Lin, Xian-Dan; Liú, Lìjiāng; Longdon, Ben; Marton, Szilvia; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L; Payne, Susan L; Paweska, Janusz T; Randall, Rick E; Rima, Bertus K; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Shi, Mang; Smither, Sophie J; Stenglein, Mark D; Stone, David M; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B; Tian, Jun-Hua; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S; Vasilakis, Nikos; Verbeek, Martin; Volchkov, Viktor E; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walsh, John A; Walker, Peter J; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wetzel, Thierry; Whitfield, Anna E; Xiè, Ji Tāo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Kuhn, Jens H

    2016-08-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  5. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Claudio L; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F; Bavari, Sina; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R; Briand, François-Xavier; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H; Chandran, Kartik; Chéng, Jiāsēn; Clawson, Anna N; Collins, Peter L; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M; Easton, Andrew J; Ebihara, Hideki; Farkas, Szilvia L; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A M; Fù, Yànpíng; Ghedin, Elodie; Goodin, Michael M; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kitajima, Elliot W; Kobinger, Gary P; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lenardon, Sergio; Leroy, Eric M; Li, Ci-Xiu; Lin, Xian-Dan; Liú, Lìjiāng; Longdon, Ben; Marton, Szilvia; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L; Payne, Susan L; Paweska, Janusz T; Randall, Rick E; Rima, Bertus K; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Shi, Mang; Smither, Sophie J; Stenglein, Mark D; Stone, David M; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B; Tian, Jun-Hua; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S; Vasilakis, Nikos; Verbeek, Martin; Volchkov, Viktor E; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walsh, John A; Walker, Peter J; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wetzel, Thierry; Whitfield, Anna E; Xiè, Ji Tāo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Kuhn, Jens H

    2016-08-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). PMID:27216929

  6. Ordered macromolecular structures in ferrofluid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.; Pynn, R.; Charles, S.; Skjeltorp, A.T.; Trewhella, J.; Stubbs, G.; Timmins, P.

    1989-04-03

    We have observed ordering of dilute dispersions of spherical and cylindrical macromolecules in magnetized ferrofluids. The order results from structural correlations between macromolecular and ferrofluid particles rather than from macroscopic magnetostatic effects. We have aligned elongated macromolecules by this technique and have obtained anisotropic neutron-diffraction patterns, which reflect the internal structure of the macromolecules. The method provides a tool for orienting suspended macromolecular assemblies which are not amenable to conventional alignment techniques.

  7. Complex order fractional derivatives in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanacković, Teodor M.; Konjik, Sanja; Pilipović, Stevan; Zorica, Dušan

    2016-06-01

    We introduce complex order fractional derivatives in models that describe viscoelastic materials. This cannot be carried out unrestrictedly, and therefore we derive, for the first time, real valued compatibility constraints, as well as physical constraints that lead to acceptable models. As a result, we introduce a new form of complex order fractional derivative. Also, we consider a fractional differential equation with complex derivatives, and study its solvability. Results obtained for stress relaxation and creep are illustrated by several numerical examples.

  8. [Order of Malta during First World War].

    PubMed

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  9. Static solutions for fourth order gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William

    2010-11-15

    The Lichnerowicz and Israel theorems are extended to higher order theories of gravity. In particular it is shown that Schwarzschild is the unique spherically symmetric, static, asymptotically flat, black-hole solution, provided the spatial curvature is less than the quantum gravity scale outside the horizon. It is then shown that in the presence of matter (satisfying certain positivity requirements), the only static and asymptotically flat solutions of general relativity that are also solutions of higher order gravity are the vacuum solutions.

  10. Higher-order generic functions for CLOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for developing higher-order generic functions within the Common Lisp Object System similar to the ones in Common Lisp for processing sequences. The framework consist of several CLOS classes which define a protocol that allows other classes to inherit default methods for many higher-order generic functions. These generic functions provide an elegant and uniform framework for processing CLOS objects that primarily represent collections of other objects.

  11. Order-splitting and long-memory in an order-driven market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; LeBaron, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical research has documented long-memories of trading volume, volatility, and order-signs in stock markets. We conjecture that traders' order-splitting is related to these empirical features. This study conducts simulations on an order-driven economy where agents split their orders into small pieces and execute piece by piece to reduce price impact. We demonstrate that we can replicate the long-memories in our order-splitting economy and conclude that order-splitting can be a possible cause for these empirical properties.

  12. Asymmetric magnon excitation by spontaneous toroidal ordering

    DOE PAGES

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-04-12

    The effects of spontaneous toroidal ordering on magnetic excitation are theoretically investigated for a localized spin model that includes a staggered Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction and anisotropic exchange interactions, which arise from the antisymmetric spin–orbit coupling and the multiorbital correlation effect. We show that the model exhibits a Néel-type antiferromagnetic order, which simultaneously accompanies a ferroic toroidal order. We find that the occurrence of toroidal order modulates the magnon dispersion in an asymmetric way with respect to the wave number: a toroidal dipole order on the zigzag chain leads to a band-bottom shift, while a toroidal octupole order on the honeycomb latticemore » gives rise to a valley splitting. These asymmetric magnon excitations could be a source of unusual magnetic responses, such as nonreciprocal magnon transport. A variety of modulations are discussed while changing the lattice and magnetic symmetries. Furthermore, the implications regarding candidate materials for asymmetric magnon excitations are presented.« less

  13. Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David

    2012-05-19

    Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758

  14. Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Jeandrew

    2010-01-15

    This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

  15. Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, David

    2012-01-01

    Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758

  16. Symmetry of charge order in cuprates.

    PubMed

    Comin, R; Sutarto, R; He, F; da Silva Neto, E H; Chauviere, L; Fraño, A; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Bonn, D A; Yoshida, Y; Eisaki, H; Achkar, A J; Hawthorn, D G; Keimer, B; Sawatzky, G A; Damascelli, A

    2015-08-01

    Charge-ordered ground states permeate the phenomenology of 3d-based transition metal oxides, and more generally represent a distinctive hallmark of strongly correlated states of matter. The recent discovery of charge order in various cuprate families has fuelled new interest into the role played by this incipient broken symmetry within the complex phase diagram of high-T(c) superconductors. Here, we use resonant X-ray scattering to resolve the main characteristics of the charge-modulated state in two cuprate families: Bi2Sr(2-x)La(x)CuO(6+δ) (Bi2201) and YBa2Cu3O(6+y) (YBCO). We detect no signatures of spatial modulations along the nodal direction in Bi2201, thus clarifying the inter-unit-cell momentum structure of charge order. We also resolve the intra-unit-cell symmetry of the charge-ordered state, which is revealed to be best represented by a bond order with modulated charges on the O-2p orbitals and a prominent d-wave character. These results provide insights into the origin and microscopic description of charge order in cuprates, and its interplay with superconductivity. PMID:26006005

  17. HODIF:High-Order Discretizations, Interpolations and

    2006-06-20

    This software, a library, contains FORTRAN77 subroutines to calculate first and second derivatives up to 8th order, interpolations (1D and 2D) up to 10th order and filters up to 14th order. Only even orders are addressed and finite-difference stencils are implemented on a vertex-centered mesh. The primary aim of this library is to be used in block-structured adaptive mesh simulations where high order is desired. The interpolants in this library are essentially designed to domore » prolongations and restrictions between levels of rfinement - however, they assume that the refinement ratio is 2. The filters are provided to remove high wavenumber content from solutions in case Runge phenomenon occurs - a common occurrence in case of marginal resolution of the solution. Details of the derivation and use are to be found in "Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations and filters", by J. Ray, C.A. Kennedy, S. Lefantzi and H.N. Najm, Sandia Technical Report, SAND2005-7981. The software comes with a User's Guide and examples how to use it.« less

  18. 75 FR 32846 - Final Rule Relating to Time and Order of Issuance of Domestic Relations Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... were favorable. \\3\\ 72 FR 10070. A number of commenters asked the Department to add additional examples... Impact Analysis Executive Order 12866 Statement Under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735), a regulatory... Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2530 RIN 1210-AB15 Final Rule Relating to Time and Order...

  19. 3 CFR 13524 - Executive Order 13524 of December 16, 2009. Amending Executive Order 12425 Designating Interpol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Privileges, Exemptions, and Immunities 13524 Order 13524 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive... Public International Organization Entitled To Enjoy Certain Privileges, Exemptions, and Immunities By the..., including section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288), and in order...

  20. 29 CFR 2530.206 - Time and order of issuance of domestic relations orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... would be the same even if no order had been issued before the Participant's death, in other words, the... relations order, but the administrator finds the order deficient and determines that it is not a QDRO... Spouse divorce. As a result, Spouse no longer meets the definition of “surviving spouse” under the...

  1. 29 CFR 2530.206 - Time and order of issuance of domestic relations orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... would be the same even if no order had been issued before the Participant's death, in other words, the... relations order, but the administrator finds the order deficient and determines that it is not a QDRO... Spouse divorce. As a result, Spouse no longer meets the definition of “surviving spouse” under the...

  2. 49 CFR 453.5 - Termination of detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination of detention orders and other orders. 453.5 Section 453.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.5 Termination of detention orders and...

  3. Serial order in spatial immediate memory.

    PubMed

    Smyth, M M; Scholey, K A

    1996-02-01

    Serial order effects in spatial memory are investigated in three experiments. In the first an analysis of errors in recall data suggested that immediate transpositions were the most common error and that order errors over 2 or 3 adjacent items accounted for the majority of errors in recall. The first and last serial positions are less error-prone than is the middle position in sets of six and seven items. A second experiment investigated recognition of transpositions and found that immediate transpositions were hardest to recognize but that a traditional serial position effect was not found. This may be due to the difficulty of maintaining one set of spatial items when another set is presented for comparison. A probe experiment, in which subjects were asked to recognize whether a single item came from a memory set and then to assign it to its position in the set indicated that the first and last positions were remembered more accurately than were central positions. The combination of serial order data in recall and position data suggests that there are similarities between serial order and position effects in the verbal and spatial domains and that serial order in spatial sequences is position-based.

  4. Quantum correlations with no causal order

    PubMed Central

    Oreshkov, Ognyan; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2012-01-01

    The idea that events obey a definite causal order is deeply rooted in our understanding of the world and at the basis of the very notion of time. But where does causal order come from, and is it a necessary property of nature? Here, we address these questions from the standpoint of quantum mechanics in a new framework for multipartite correlations that does not assume a pre-defined global causal structure but only the validity of quantum mechanics locally. All known situations that respect causal order, including space-like and time-like separated experiments, are captured by this framework in a unified way. Surprisingly, we find correlations that cannot be understood in terms of definite causal order. These correlations violate a 'causal inequality' that is satisfied by all space-like and time-like correlations. We further show that in a classical limit causal order always arises, which suggests that space-time may emerge from a more fundamental structure in a quantum-to-classical transition. PMID:23033068

  5. Partially ordered sets in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Qi; Du, Fang; Wu, Tie-Jun

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a partial-order relation is defined among vertices of a network to describe which vertex is more important than another on its contribution to the connectivity of the network. A maximum linearly ordered subset of vertices is defined as a chain and the chains sharing the same end-vertex are grouped as a family. Through combining the same vertices appearing in different chains, a directed chain graph is obtained. Based on these definitions, a series of new network measurements, such as chain length distribution, family diversity distribution, as well as the centrality of families, are proposed. By studying the partially ordered sets in three kinds of real-world networks, many interesting results are revealed. For instance, the similar approximately power-law chain length distribution may be attributed to a chain-based positive feedback mechanism, i.e. new vertices prefer to participate in longer chains, which can be inferred by combining the notable preferential attachment rule with a well-ordered recommendation manner. Moreover, the relatively large average incoming degree of the chain graphs may indicate an efficient substitution mechanism in these networks. Most of the partially ordered set-based properties cannot be explained by the current well-known scale-free network models; therefore, we are required to propose more appropriate network models in the future.

  6. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  7. Representing higher-order dependencies in networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Wickramarathne, Thanuka L.; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the correctness of network analysis methods, the network (as the input) has to be a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying data. However, when representing sequential data from complex systems, such as global shipping traffic or Web clickstream traffic as networks, conventional network representations that implicitly assume the Markov property (first-order dependency) can quickly become limiting. This assumption holds that, when movements are simulated on the network, the next movement depends only on the current node, discounting the fact that the movement may depend on several previous steps. However, we show that data derived from many complex systems can show up to fifth-order dependencies. In these cases, the oversimplifying assumption of the first-order network representation can lead to inaccurate network analysis results. To address this problem, we propose the higher-order network (HON) representation that can discover and embed variable orders of dependencies in a network representation. Through a comprehensive empirical evaluation and analysis, we establish several desirable characteristics of HON, including accuracy, scalability, and direct compatibility with the existing suite of network analysis methods. We illustrate how HON can be applied to a broad variety of tasks, such as random walking, clustering, and ranking, and we demonstrate that, by using it as input, HON yields more accurate results without any modification to these tasks. PMID:27386539

  8. High-order tail in Schwarzschild spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of the behavior at late times of linear field perturbations of a Schwarzschild black hole spacetime. In particular, we give explicit analytic expressions for the field perturbations (for a specific ℓ-multipole) of general spin up to the first four orders at late times. These expressions are valid at arbitrary radius and include, apart from the well-known power-law tail decay at leading order (˜t-2 ℓ-3), a new logarithmic behavior at third leading order (˜t-2 ℓ-5ln t ). We obtain these late-time results by developing an analytical formalism initially formulated by Mano, Suzuki and Takasugi (MST) [Prog. Theor. Phys. 95, 1079 (1996); 96, 549 (1996)] formalism and by expanding the various MST Fourier-mode quantities for small frequency. While we give explicit expansions up to the first four leading orders (for small frequency for the Fourier modes, for late time for the field perturbation), we give a prescription for obtaining expressions to arbitrary order within a "perturbative regime."

  9. Quadrupolar Spin Orders in FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentao; Nevidomskyy, Andriy

    Motivated by the absence of long-range magnetic order and the strong spin fluctuations observed in the Fe-based superconductor FeSe, we study spin-1 model on a square lattice up to next-nearest neighbor Heisenberg and biquadratic spin exchanges. The zero-temperature variational phase diagram gives the conventional antiferromagnetic order and also more exotic quadrupolar spin phases. These quadrupolar phases do not host long-range magnetic order and preserve time-reversal symmetry, but break the spin SU(2) symmetry. In particular, we observe a robust ferroquadrupolar order (FQ) in immediate proximity to the columnar AFM phase. We envision that FeSe may be positioned within the FQ phase close to the phase boundary. Using the flavor-wave technique, we calculate the structure factor inside the FQ phase and find a Goldstone mode emerging from Q = (0 , 0) , which however bears zero spectral weight at ω = 0 due to time reversal symmetry. At the same time, we observe strong spin fluctuations near (π , 0) / (0 , π) , which agrees with the recent neutron scattering experiments. Further, we calculate the higher order interactions between the (π , 0) and (0 , π) spin fluctuations inside the FQ phase, which may shed light on the C4 symmetry breaking in the nematic phase of FeSe.

  10. Representing higher-order dependencies in networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wickramarathne, Thanuka L; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2016-05-01

    To ensure the correctness of network analysis methods, the network (as the input) has to be a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying data. However, when representing sequential data from complex systems, such as global shipping traffic or Web clickstream traffic as networks, conventional network representations that implicitly assume the Markov property (first-order dependency) can quickly become limiting. This assumption holds that, when movements are simulated on the network, the next movement depends only on the current node, discounting the fact that the movement may depend on several previous steps. However, we show that data derived from many complex systems can show up to fifth-order dependencies. In these cases, the oversimplifying assumption of the first-order network representation can lead to inaccurate network analysis results. To address this problem, we propose the higher-order network (HON) representation that can discover and embed variable orders of dependencies in a network representation. Through a comprehensive empirical evaluation and analysis, we establish several desirable characteristics of HON, including accuracy, scalability, and direct compatibility with the existing suite of network analysis methods. We illustrate how HON can be applied to a broad variety of tasks, such as random walking, clustering, and ranking, and we demonstrate that, by using it as input, HON yields more accurate results without any modification to these tasks. PMID:27386539

  11. Structural order and disorder in Precambrian kerogens

    SciTech Connect

    Buseck, P.R.; Bo-Jun, H.; Miner, B.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to examine the structures of a wide range of Precambrian kerogens from rocks with ages between 0.9 and 3.8 billion years. The authors find recognizable structural ordering in samples that show little or no evidence of crystallinity by powder X-ray diffraction measurements. A wide range in degree of ordering is evident in the HRTEM images. A rough correlation exists between the ordering displayed in the HRTEM images and both the sample ages and their H/C ratios. Many kerogen samples are structurally heterogeneous, possibly reflecting a variety of precursors, and source regions. The observed structural heterogeneities probably extend to other parameters; when isotopic and X-ray measurements can be made on the same scale as HRTEM images, similar scatter presumably will also be evident.

  12. Learning biases predict a word order universal.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Legendre, Géraldine

    2012-03-01

    How recurrent typological patterns, or universals, emerge from the extensive diversity found across the world's languages constitutes a central question for linguistics and cognitive science. Recent challenges to a fundamental assumption of generative linguistics-that universal properties of the human language acquisition faculty constrain the types of grammatical systems which can occur-suggest the need for new types of empirical evidence connecting typology to biases of learners. Using an artificial language learning paradigm in which adult subjects are exposed to a mix of grammatical systems (similar to a period of linguistic change), we show that learners' biases mirror a word-order universal, first proposed by Joseph Greenberg, which constrains typological patterns of adjective, numeral, and noun ordering. We briefly summarize the results of a probabilistic model of the hypothesized biases and their effect on learning, and discuss the broader implications of the results for current theories of the origins of cross-linguistic word-order preferences.

  13. Phase order in superfluid helium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell, Steven T.; Faulkner, Michael F.; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Taroni, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Classic experimental data on helium films are transformed to estimate a finite-size phase order parameter that measures the thermal degradation of the condensate fraction in the two-dimensional superfluid. The order parameter is found to evolve thermally with the exponent β = 3 π^2/128 , a characteristic, in analogous magnetic systems, of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition. Universal scaling near the BKT fixed point generates a collapse of experimental data on helium and ferromagnetic films, and implies new experiments and theoretical protocols to explore the phase order. These results give a striking example of experimental finite-size scaling in a critical system that is broadly relevant to two-dimensional Bose fluids. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Maxime Clusel, with whom we enjoyed many stimulating discussions on related topics.

  14. Manifold Learning by Preserving Distance Orders.

    PubMed

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, Esra; Akcakaya, Murat; Orhan, Umut; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear dimensionality reduction is essential for the analysis and the interpretation of high dimensional data sets. In this manuscript, we propose a distance order preserving manifold learning algorithm that extends the basic mean-squared error cost function used mainly in multidimensional scaling (MDS)-based methods. We develop a constrained optimization problem by assuming explicit constraints on the order of distances in the low-dimensional space. In this optimization problem, as a generalization of MDS, instead of forcing a linear relationship between the distances in the high-dimensional original and low-dimensional projection space, we learn a non-decreasing relation approximated by radial basis functions. We compare the proposed method with existing manifold learning algorithms using synthetic datasets based on the commonly used residual variance and proposed percentage of violated distance orders metrics. We also perform experiments on a retinal image dataset used in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) diagnosis.

  15. Filiform Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, R. M.

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this work is to generalize a very important type of Lie algebras and superalgebras, i.e., filiform Lie (super)algebras, into the theory of Lie algebras of order F. Thus, the concept of filiform Lie algebras of order F is obtained. In particular, for F = 3 it has been proved that by using infinitesimal deformations of the associated model elementary Lie algebra it can be obtained families of filiform elementary lie algebras of order 3, analogously as that occurs into the theory of Lie algebras [M. Vergne, “Cohomologie des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes. Application à l’étude de la variété des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes,” Bull. Soc. Math. France 98, 81–116 (1970)]. Also we give the dimension, using an adaptation of the sl(2,C)-module Method, and a basis of such infinitesimal deformations in some generic cases.

  16. Competing orders in FeAs layers.

    PubMed

    Lorenzana, J; Seibold, G; Ortix, C; Grilli, M

    2008-10-31

    Using the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation and Landau theory we identify possible phases competing with superconductivity in FeAs layers. We find that close to half-filling the transition from the paramagnet to the magnetically ordered phase is first order, making anharmonicities relevant and leading to a rich phase diagram. Between the already known one-dimensionally modulated magnetic stripe phase and the paramagnet we find a new phase which has the same structure factor as the former but in which magnetic moments at nearest-neighbor sites are at right angles making electrons acquire a nontrivial phase when circulating a plaquette at strong coupling. Another competing phase has magnetic and charge order and may be stabilized by charged impurities.

  17. Liquidity Dynamics in the Xetra Order Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidinger, Christoph

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we show how to reconstruct the limit order book of the 30 stocks constituting the DAX30 index based on the trading protocol of the Xetra Trading System at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. The algorithm used is innovative as it captures all trading phases, including auctions, and delivers a reconstruction of the orderbook either from a trader's view or a supervisory view including hidden volume as well. Based on the rebuilt order book, liquidity dynamics are examined. In contrats to findings for dealer markets, past market returns play a minor role in the determination of liquidity and liquidity commonality in Xetra, a pure limit order book market. Consequently, we provide evidence that liquidity provision by multiple sources in Xetra mitigates systemic liquidity risk introduced by the interrelation of return and liquidity.

  18. Unsymmetric ordering using a constrained Markowitz scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Amestoy, Patrick R.; Xiaoye S.; Pralet, Stephane

    2005-01-18

    We present a family of ordering algorithms that can be used as a preprocessing step prior to performing sparse LU factorization. The ordering algorithms simultaneously achieve the objectives of selecting numerically good pivots and preserving the sparsity. We describe the algorithmic properties and challenges in their implementation. By mixing the two objectives we show that we can reduce the amount of fill-in in the factors and reduce the number of numerical problems during factorization. On a set of large unsymmetric real problems, we obtained the median reductions of 12% in the factorization time, of 13% in the size of the LU factors, of 20% in the number of operations performed during the factorization phase, and of 11% in the memory needed by the multifrontal solver MA41-UNS. A byproduct of this ordering strategy is an incomplete LU-factored matrix that can be used as a preconditioner in an iterative solver.

  19. Beyond special relativity at second order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    The study of generic, nonlinear, deformations of special relativity parametrized by a high-energy scale M , which was carried out at first order in 1 /M in J. M. Carmona, J. L. Cortés, and F. Mercati, Phys. Rev. D 86, 084032 (2012), is extended to second order. This can be done systematically through a ("generalized") change of variables from momentum variables that transform linearly. We discuss the different perspectives on the meaning of the change of variables, obtain the coefficients of modified composition laws and Lorentz transformations at second order, and work out how κ -Poincaré, the most commonly used example in the literature, is reproduced as a particular case of the generic framework exposed here.

  20. High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    A new third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially NonOscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme for scalar and vector linear hyperbolic equations with piecewise continuous initial conditions is developed. The new scheme is proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions. In contrast to the existing high-resolution shock-capturing schemes, no assumption that the reconstruction should be total variation bounded (TVB) is explicitly required to prove stability of the new scheme. A rigorous truncation error analysis is presented showing that the accuracy of the 3rd-order ESWENO scheme is drastically improved if the tuning parameters of the weight functions satisfy certain criteria. Numerical results show that the new ESWENO scheme is stable and significantly outperforms the conventional third-order WENO finite difference scheme of Jiang and Shu in terms of accuracy, while providing essentially nonoscillatory solutions near strong discontinuities.

  1. Calculating Second-Order Effects in MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benumof, Reuben; Zoutendyk, John A.; Coss, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of mathematical models includes second-order effects in n-channel, enhancement-mode, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). When dimensions of circuit elements relatively large, effects neglected safely. However, as very-large-scale integration of microelectronic circuits leads to MOSFET's shorter or narrower than 2 micrometer, effects become significant in design and operation. Such computer programs as widely-used "Simulation Program With Integrated Circuit Emphasis, Version 2" (SPICE 2) include many of these effects. In second-order models of n-channel, enhancement-mode MOSFET, first-order gate-depletion region diminished by triangular-cross-section deletions on end and augmented by circular-wedge-cross-section bulges on sides.

  2. Learning biases predict a word order universal.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Legendre, Géraldine

    2012-03-01

    How recurrent typological patterns, or universals, emerge from the extensive diversity found across the world's languages constitutes a central question for linguistics and cognitive science. Recent challenges to a fundamental assumption of generative linguistics-that universal properties of the human language acquisition faculty constrain the types of grammatical systems which can occur-suggest the need for new types of empirical evidence connecting typology to biases of learners. Using an artificial language learning paradigm in which adult subjects are exposed to a mix of grammatical systems (similar to a period of linguistic change), we show that learners' biases mirror a word-order universal, first proposed by Joseph Greenberg, which constrains typological patterns of adjective, numeral, and noun ordering. We briefly summarize the results of a probabilistic model of the hypothesized biases and their effect on learning, and discuss the broader implications of the results for current theories of the origins of cross-linguistic word-order preferences. PMID:22208785

  3. Ferroic nature of magnetic toroidal order.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Anne S; Meier, Dennis; Fiebig, Manfred

    2014-09-05

    Electric dipoles and ferroelectricity violate spatial inversion symmetry, and magnetic dipoles and ferromagnetism break time-inversion symmetry. Breaking both symmetries favours magnetoelectric charge-spin coupling effects of enormous interest, such as multiferroics, skyrmions, polar superconductors, topological insulators or dynamic phenomena such as electromagnons. Extending the rationale, a novel type of ferroic order violating space- and time-inversion symmetry with a single order parameter should exist. This existence is fundamental and the inherent magnetoelectric coupling is technologically interesting. A uniform alignment of magnetic vortices, called ferrotoroidicity, was proposed to represent this state. Here we demonstrate that the magnetic vortex pattern identified in LiCoPO4 exhibits the indispensable hallmark of such a ferroic state, namely hysteretic poling of ferrotoroidic domains in the conjugate toroidal field, along with a distinction of toroidal from non-toroidal poling effects. This consolidates ferrotoroidicity as fourth form of ferroic order.

  4. Preconditioning for first-order spectral discretization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.; Macaraeg, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Efficient solution of the equations from spectral discretizations is essential if the high-order accuracy of these methods is to be realized. Direct solution of these equations is rarely feasible, thus iterative techniques are required. A preconditioning scheme for first-order Chebyshev collocation operators is proposed herein, in which the central finite difference mesh is finer than the collocation mesh. Details of the proper techniques for transferring information between the meshes are given here, and the scheme is analyzed by examination of the eigenvalue spectra of the preconditioned operators. The effect of artificial viscosity required in the inversion of the finite difference operator is examined. A second preconditioning scheme, involving a high-order upwind finite difference operator of the van Leer type is also analyzed to provide a comparison with the present scheme. Finally, the performance of the present scheme is verified by application to several test problems.

  5. Metastable orientational order of colloidal discoids

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Schultz, Benjamin A.; Glaser, Jens; Engel, Michael; Szakasits, Megan E.; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between phase separation and kinetic arrest is important in supramolecular self-assembly, but their effects on emergent orientational order are not well understood when anisotropic building blocks are used. Contrary to the typical progression from disorder to order in isotropic systems, here we report that colloidal oblate discoids initially self-assemble into short, metastable strands with orientational order—regardless of the final structure. The model discoids are suspended in a refractive index and density-matched solvent. Then, we use confocal microscopy experiments and Monte Carlo simulations spanning a broad range of volume fractions and attraction strengths to show that disordered clusters form near coexistence boundaries, whereas oriented strands persist with strong attractions. We rationalize this unusual observation in light of the interaction anisotropy imparted by the discoids. These findings may guide self-assembly for anisotropic systems in which orientational order is desired, such as when tailored mechanical properties are sought. PMID:26443082

  6. Manifold Learning by Preserving Distance Orders

    PubMed Central

    Akcakaya, Murat; Orhan, Umut; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear dimensionality reduction is essential for the analysis and the interpretation of high dimensional data sets. In this manuscript, we propose a distance order preserving manifold learning algorithm that extends the basic mean-squared error cost function used mainly in multidimensional scaling (MDS)-based methods. We develop a constrained optimization problem by assuming explicit constraints on the order of distances in the low-dimensional space. In this optimization problem, as a generalization of MDS, instead of forcing a linear relationship between the distances in the high-dimensional original and low-dimensional projection space, we learn a non-decreasing relation approximated by radial basis functions. We compare the proposed method with existing manifold learning algorithms using synthetic datasets based on the commonly used residual variance and proposed percentage of violated distance orders metrics. We also perform experiments on a retinal image dataset used in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) diagnosis. PMID:25045195

  7. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  8. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  9. An extension of first order limit language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Azrin; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Heng, Fong Wan; Yusof, Yuhani

    2014-06-01

    The study on cutting and pasting of DNA molecules under the framework of Formal Language Theory has led to the mathematical modelling of splicing system. The output of splicing system is the splicing language which can be categorized into three types: adult or inert persistent, transient and limit language. In the biological point of view, limit language is predicted to appear after the reaction of DNA molecules and enzyme with the existence of appropriate ligase reached the equilibrium state. In this research, the second order limit language is investigated. It is defined as the distinct language after splicing occurs among the resulting splicing language of the first order splicing language. Besides that, the characteristics of second order limit language are observed based on the properties of the crossing sites of the rules such as left or right context and palindromic via Y-G approach. The results lead to some examples and theorems which are presented in this paper.

  10. Higher-order dielectrophoresis of nonspherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nili, Hossein; Green, Nicolas G.

    2014-06-01

    Higher-order terms of dielectrophoretic (DEP) force are commonly ignored by invoking the simplifying dipole approximation. Concurrently, the trend towards micro- and nano-electrode structures in DEP design is bringing about an increasing number of instances where the approximation is expected to lose reliability. The case is severe for nonspherical particles (the shape of many biological particles) due to the shape-dependent nature of dielectric polarization. However, there is a lack of analytical means to determine multipole moments of nonspherical particles, numerical calculations of the same are regarded as unreliable, and there is a prevalence for higher-order force considerations to be ignored. As a result, the dipole approximation is used and/or nonspherical particles are approximated as spheres. This work proves the inefficacy of current qualitative criteria for the reliability of the dipole approximation and presents a quantitative substitute, with verified accuracy, that enables precise determination of the extent to which the dipole approximation would be reliable, and if found unreliable, corrects the approximation by adding second- and third-order terms of the DEP force. The effects of field nonuniformity, electrode design, and particle shape and aspect ratio on the significance of higher-order DEP forces is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that higher-order DEP forces are indeed of substantially increased significance for nonspherical particles; in the cases examined in this work, multipolar terms are seen to constitute more than 40% of the total force on ellipsoidal and cylindrical particles. It is further shown that approximating nonspherical particles as spheres of similar dimensions is subject to substantial error. Last, the substantial importance of the electrode design in influencing higher-order forces is shown.

  11. Approximate knowledge compilation: The first order case

    SciTech Connect

    Val, A. del

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge compilation procedures make a knowledge base more explicit so as make inference with respect to the compiled knowledge base tractable or at least more efficient. Most work to date in this area has been restricted to the propositional case, despite the importance of first order theories for expressing knowledge concisely. Focusing on (LUB) approximate compilation, our contribution is twofold: (1) We present a new ground algorithm for approximate compilation which can produce exponential savings with respect to the previously known algorithm. (2) We show that both ground algorithms can be lifted to the first order case preserving their correctness for approximate compilation.

  12. Quantum Fluctuations of a Superconductor Order Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu; Lehtinen, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    Tunneling I-V characteristics between very narrow titanium nanowires and "massive" superconducting aluminum were measured. The clear trend was observed: the thinner the titanium electrode, the broader the singularity at eV = Δ1(Al) + Δ2(Ti). The phenomenon can be explained by broadening of the gap edge of the quasi-one-dimensional titanium channels due to quantum fluctuations of the order parameter modulus |Δ2|. The range of the nanowire diameters, where the effect is pronounced, correlates with dimensions where the phase fluctuations of the complex superconducting order parameter Δ = |Δ|eiφ, the quantum phase slips, broadening the R(T) dependencies, have been observed.

  13. Thermoelectromotive force in materials with charge ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogutiuk, I. P.; Kogutiuk, P. P.; Priadko, L. F.; Smolin, M. D.

    1985-02-01

    The concentration and temperature dependences of thermoemf (alpha) in materials with charge ordering are calculated on the basis of a generalized Hubbard model using Kubo's formalism. It is shown that triple inversion of the sign of alpha occurs with change in the current-carrier density (n) in the charge-ordered state (COS). A decrease in temperature leads to a phase transition of the crystal in the COS, which also leads to a change in the sign of alpha for particular values of n.

  14. Polar order in folded backbone polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, G.A.; Stenger-Smith, J.A.; Henry, R.A.; Chafin, A.P.; Herman, W.N.; Hayden, L.M.

    1993-12-31

    The synthesis of cis-1,2-diamidocyclohexyl-bridged {alpha}-cyano-cinnamoyl nonlinear optical polymers is reported. Molecular orbital calculations on model compounds containing the cis- and trans-1,2-diamidocyclohexyl groups were performed. The low energy conformations, their molecular dipole moments and hyperpolarizabilities are discussed in terms of the degree of macroscopic polar order attainable in polymeric films poled in an electric field. The second-order nonlinear optical coefficients, d{sub 33}, for the cis- and trans-polymers are compared.

  15. Enzymatic induction of supramolecular order and bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengbiao; Ren, Xinrui; Ding, Dan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2016-05-01

    We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine adjuvant because it accelerated the DC maturation and elicited stronger T-cells cytokine production than the nanofibers. Our study demonstrated that biocatalytic triggering is a useful method for preparing supramolecular nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order and probably better bioactivity.We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine

  16. Novel third-order Lovelock wormhole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we consider wormhole geometries in third-order Lovelock gravity and investigate the possibility that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions. In this framework, by applying a specific equation of state, we obtain exact wormhole solutions, and by imposing suitable values for the parameters of the theory, we find that these geometries satisfy the weak energy condition in the vicinity of the throat, due to the presence of higher-order curvature terms. Finally, we trace out a numerical analysis, by assuming a specific redshift function, and find asymptotically flat solutions that satisfy the weak energy condition throughout the spacetime.

  17. Breastfeeding twins and higher-order multiples.

    PubMed

    Gromada, K K; Spangler, A K

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for pre-term and full-term infants are well documented. Breastfeeding facilitates maternal-infant attachment, provides optimal infant nutrition and immunologic protection, and minimizes economic impact. These benefits are multiplied with twins and higher-order multiples, who often are born at risk. Supporting a mother as she initiates and continues to breastfeed one infant requires specific knowledge and skills. Health professionals need additional knowledge and skills if they are to provide appropriate assessment, intervention, and support when a mother breastfeeds twins or higher-order multiples.

  18. Control of Initialized Fractional-Order Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    2004-01-01

    Fractional-Order systems, or systems containing fractional derivatives and integrals, have been studied by many in the engineering area. Additionally, very readable discussions, devoted specifically to the subject, are presented by Oldham and Spanier, Miller and Ross, and Pudlubny (1999a). It should be noted that there are a growing number of physical systems whose behavior can be compactly described using fractional system theory. Of specific interest to electrical engineers are long lines, electrochemical processes, dielectric polarization, colored noise, viscoelastic materials, and chaos. With the growing number of applications, it is important to establish a theory of control for these fractional-order systems, and for the potential use of fractional-order systems as feedback compensators. This topic is addressed in this paper. The first section discusses the control of fractional-order systems using a vector space representation, where initialization is included in the discussion. It should be noted that Bagley and Calico and Padovan and Sawicki both present a fractional state-space representation, which do not include the important historic effects. Incorporation of these effects based on the initialized fractional calculus is presented . The control methods presented in this paper are based on the initialized fractional order system theory. The second section presents an input-output approach. Some of the problems encountered in these sections are: a) the need to introduce a new complex plane to study the dynamics of fractional-order systems, b) the need to properly define the Laplace transform of the fractional derivative, and c) the proper inclusion of the initialization response in the system and control formulation. Following this, the next section generalizes the proportional-plus-integral-control (PI-control) and PID-control (PI-plus- derivative) concepts using fractional integrals. This is then further generalized using general fractional- order

  19. Polar antiferromagnets produced with orbital order.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Naoki; Ogimoto, Yasushi; Ida, Yoshiaki; Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro; Miyano, Kenjiro

    2012-04-13

    Polar states are realized in pseudocubic manganite films fabricated on high-index substrates, in which a Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion remains an active variable. Several types of orbital orders (OOs) were found to develop large optical second harmonics, signaling broken-inversion symmetry distinct from their bulk forms and films on (100) substrates. The observed symmetry lifting and first-principles calculation both indicate that the modified JT q2 mode drives Mn-site off centering, which can be controlled by a magnetic-field-induced phase transition via a coupling of OO and spin orders.

  20. Nonlinear waves in second order conformal hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogaça, D. A.; Marrochio, H.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we study wave propagation in dissipative relativistic fluids described by a simplified set of the 2nd order viscous conformal hydrodynamic equations corresponding to Israel-Stewart theory. Small amplitude waves are studied within the linearization approximation while waves with large amplitude are investigated using the reductive perturbation method, which is generalized to the case of 2nd order relativistic hydrodynamics. Our results indicate the presence of a "soliton-like" wave solution in Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics despite the presence of dissipation and relaxation effects.

  1. Breastfeeding twins and higher-order multiples.

    PubMed

    Gromada, K K; Spangler, A K

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for pre-term and full-term infants are well documented. Breastfeeding facilitates maternal-infant attachment, provides optimal infant nutrition and immunologic protection, and minimizes economic impact. These benefits are multiplied with twins and higher-order multiples, who often are born at risk. Supporting a mother as she initiates and continues to breastfeed one infant requires specific knowledge and skills. Health professionals need additional knowledge and skills if they are to provide appropriate assessment, intervention, and support when a mother breastfeeds twins or higher-order multiples. PMID:9684207

  2. The regular state in higher order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Trachilis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    We consider the higher-order gravity theory derived from the quadratic Lagrangian R + 𝜖R2 in vacuum as a first-order (ADM-type) system with constraints, and build time developments of solutions of an initial value formulation of the theory. We show that all such solutions, if analytic, contain the right number of free functions to qualify as general solutions of the theory. We further show that any regular analytic solution which satisfies the constraints and the evolution equations can be given in the form of an asymptotic formal power series expansion.

  3. Dynamical numerical model for nematic order reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, G; Ayeb, H; Barberi, R

    2008-05-01

    In highly frustrated calamitic nematic liquid crystals, a strong elastic distortion can be confined on a few nanometers. The classical elastic theory fails to describe such systems and a more complete description based on the tensor order parameter Q is required. A finite element method is used to implement the Q dynamics by a variational principle and it is shown that a uniaxial nematic configuration can evolve passing through transient biaxial states. This solution, which connects two competing uniaxial nematic textures, is known as "nematic order reconstruction."

  4. Dynamical numerical model for nematic order reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, G.; Ayeb, H.; Barberi, R.

    2008-05-01

    In highly frustrated calamitic nematic liquid crystals, a strong elastic distortion can be confined on a few nanometers. The classical elastic theory fails to describe such systems and a more complete description based on the tensor order parameter Q is required. A finite element method is used to implement the Q dynamics by a variational principle and it is shown that a uniaxial nematic configuration can evolve passing through transient biaxial states. This solution, which connects two competing uniaxial nematic textures, is known as “nematic order reconstruction.”

  5. Higher-order corrections to Coulomb fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond T.; Norbury, John W.

    1995-03-01

    Fission cross sections resulting from a 120 MeV/nucleon 238U beam incident upon Be, Al, Cu, Ag, and U targets have recently been measured by Justice et al. [Phys. Rev. C 49, R5 (1994)]. The electromagnetic contribution to these experimental cross sections have been compared to Weizsäcker-Williams theory which is based on first-order perturbation theory. The present work calculates the contribution to these cross sections due to higher-order excitations. Our results show that these corrections are insignificant in comparison to experimental error.

  6. Fibonacci topological order from quantum nets.

    PubMed

    Fendley, Paul; Isakov, Sergei V; Troyer, Matthias

    2013-06-28

    We analyze a model of quantum nets and show it has a non-Abelian topological order of doubled-Fibonacci type. The ground state has the same topological behavior as that of the corresponding string-net model, but our Hamiltonian can be defined on any lattice, has less complicated interactions, and its excitations are dynamical, not fixed. This Hamiltonian includes terms acting on the spins around a face, around a vertex, and special "Jones-Wenzl" terms that serve to couple long loops together. We provide strong evidence for a gap by exact diagonalization, completing the list of ingredients necessary for topological order. PMID:23848854

  7. Differential equations of time dependent order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludu, A.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a special type of ordinary differential equations dx x/dtx = f (t, x) whose order of differentiation is a continuous variable depending on the dependent x or independent t variables. We show that such variable order of differentiation equations (VODE) can be solved as Volterra integral equations of second kind with singular integrable kernel. We find the conditions for existence and uniqueness of solutions of such VODE, and present some numeric solutions for particular cases exhibiting bifurcations and blow-up.

  8. Ordered collagen membranes: production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, G; Mogilner, I G; Tolosa, E J; Massa, N; Garavaglia, M; Grigera, J R

    2012-01-01

    A collagen membrane with microscopic order is presented. The membranes were produced with acid-soluble collagen, using two different methods to obtain orientation. The product was characterized by mean of UV and IR spectra, scanning electronic microscopy, optical microscopy and laser diffractometry. The results clearly show a high level of order in the membranes obtained by both techniques. Permeability for rifamycin, ascorbic acid and NaCl was also measured. Due to the characteristics of the membranes, they have a potential application for treatment of surface injuries.

  9. Ordered and reversible hydrogenation of silicene.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinglan; Fu, Huixia; Xu, Yang; Oreshkin, A I; Shao, Tingna; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2015-03-27

    The hydrogenation of monatomic silicene sheet on Ag(111) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. It was observed that hydrogenation of silicene at room temperature results in a perfectly ordered γ-(3×3) superstructure. A theoretical model, which involves seven H atoms and rearranged buckling of Si atoms, was proposed and agrees with experiments very well. Moreover, by annealing to a moderate temperature, about 450 K, a dehydrogenation process occurs and the clean silicene surface can be fully recovered. Such uniformly ordered and reversible hydrogenation may be useful for tuning the properties of silicene as well as for controllable hydrogen storage.

  10. Mining for clinical expertise in (undocumented) order sets to power an order suggestion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H; Altman, Russ B

    2013-01-01

    Physician orders, the concrete manifestation of clinical decision making, are enhanced by the distribution of clinical expertise in the form of order sets and corollary orders. Conventional order sets are top-down distributed by committees of experts, limited by the cost of manual development, maintenance, and limited end-user awareness. An alternative explored here applies statistical data-mining to physician order data (>330K order instances from >1.4K inpatient encounters) to extract clinical expertise from the bottom-up. This powers a corollary order suggestion engine using techniques analogous to commercial product recommendation systems (e.g., Amazon.com's "Customers who bought this…" feature). Compared to a simple benchmark, the item-based association method illustrated here improves order prediction precision from 13% to 18% and further to 28% by incorporating information on the temporal relationship between orders. Incorporating statistics on conditional order frequency ratios further refines recommendations beyond just "common" orders to those relevant to a specific clinical context.

  11. The determination of third order linear models from a seventh order nonlinear jet engine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalonde, Rick J.; Hartley, Tom T.; De Abreu-Garcia, J. Alex

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate how good reduced-order models can be obtained directly by recursive parameter identification using input/output (I/O) data of high-order nonlinear systems. Three different methods of obtaining a third-order linear model from a seventh-order nonlinear turbojet engine model are compared. The first method is to obtain a linear model from the original model and then reduce the linear model by standard reduction techniques such as residualization and balancing. The second method is to identify directly a third-order linear model by recursive least-squares parameter estimation using I/O data of the original model. The third method is to obtain a reduced-order model from the original model and then linearize the reduced model. Frequency responses are used as the performance measure to evaluate the reduced models. The reduced-order models along with their Bode plots are presented for comparison purposes.

  12. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies).

  13. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  14. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  15. The spontaneous market order and evolution.

    PubMed

    Beck, Naomi

    2016-08-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection and the idea of a spontaneous order share a fundamental feature: the claim that apparent design or order do not necessarily imply a designer or rational planning. But they also present important differences, which touch upon central questions such as the evolution of morality, the role of human agency in social evolution, the existence (or not) of directionality in undesigned processes, and the presence (nor not) of a providential element in evolutionary accounts. In this article, I explore these themes and probe the relationship between the notion of a spontaneous order and the theory of evolution by natural selection. The reflections of Nobel laureate in economics, F.A. von Hayek, provide the beginning and endpoint in this voyage, for they constitute the most pronounced effort to develop a full-fledged theory combining evolution and economics in recent times. But along the way, I also investigate the influence of classical political economy on Darwin's thought, primarily that of Adam Smith, and consider the reasons for which Darwin did not refer to Smith when discussing the principle of natural selection in The Origin of Species. I conclude that the spontaneous order, as understood by Hayek, and evolution by natural selection constitute two disparate concepts. PMID:26751793

  16. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS AND...

  17. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS AND...

  18. 49 CFR 190.239 - Safety orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety orders. 190.239 Section 190.239 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY PIPELINE SAFETY ENFORCEMENT...

  19. Presentation Order Effects in Product Taste Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    Presentation order in paired-comparison testing was varied to measure the impact of primacy v recency effects on consumer product evaluation. First position preference bias characterized the findings, lending support to the attention decrement hypothesis or a suggested palate desensitization effect on subsequent taste trial behavior. (Author)

  20. Order and Value: Transitioning to Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofferding, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As students progress from working with whole numbers to working with integers, they must wrestle with the big ideas of number values and order. Using objects to show positive quantities is easy, but no physical negative quantities exist. Therefore, when talking about integers, the author refers to number values instead of number quantities. The…

  1. 76 FR 16324 - Orderly Liquidation Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 380 RIN 3064-AD73 Orderly Liquidation Authority AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance..., Attention: Comments, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 550 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20429....

  2. How to name and order convex polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Voytekhovsky, Yury L

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a method is suggested for naming any convex polyhedron by a numerical code arising from the adjacency matrix of its edge graph. A polyhedron is uniquely fixed by its name and can be built using it. Classes of convex n-acra (i.e. n-vertex polyhedra) are strictly ordered by their names. PMID:27580206

  3. Second-Order Conditioning in "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabone, Christopher J.; de Belle, J. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Associative conditioning in "Drosophila melanogaster" has been well documented for several decades. However, most studies report only simple associations of conditioned stimuli (CS, e.g., odor) with unconditioned stimuli (US, e.g., electric shock) to measure learning or establish memory. Here we describe a straightforward second-order conditioning…

  4. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operating regulations of the Geological Survey, see 30 CFR part 221. Operations ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND...

  5. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... operating regulations of the Geological Survey, see 30 CFR part 221. Operations ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND...

  6. 25 CFR 227.19 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... operating regulations of the Geological Survey, see 30 CFR part 221. Operations ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Division orders. 227.19 Section 227.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND...

  7. Ordering dynamics in collectively swimming Surf Scoters.

    PubMed

    Lukeman, Ryan

    2014-08-21

    One striking feature of collective motion in animal groups is a high degree of alignment among individuals, generating polarized motion. When order is lost, the dynamic process of reorganization, directly resulting from the individual interaction rules, provides significant information about both the nature of the rules, and how these rules affect the functioning of the collective. By analyzing trajectories of collectively swimming Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) during transitions between order and disorder, I find that individual speed and polarization are positively correlated in time, such that individuals move more slowly in groups exhibiting lower alignment. A previously validated zone-based model framework is used to specify interactions that permit repolarization while maintaining group cohesion and avoiding collisions. Polarization efficiency is optimized under the constraints of cohesion and collision-avoidance for alignment-dominated propulsion (versus autonomous propulsion), and for repulsion an order of magnitude larger than attraction and alignment. The relative strengths of interactions that optimize polarization also quantitatively recover the speed-polarization dependence observed in the data. Parameters determined here through optimizing polarization efficiency are essentially the same as those determined previously from a different approach: a best-fit model for polarized Surf Scoter movement data. The rules governing these flocks are therefore robust, accounting for behavior across a range of order and structure, and also highly responsive to perturbation. Flexibility and efficient repolarization offers an adaptive explanation for why specific interactions in such animal groups are used. PMID:24675619

  8. Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2005-01-01

    The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

  9. 47 CFR 54.511 - Ordering services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.511 Ordering services. (a) Selecting a provider of eligible services. In selecting a provider of eligible services, schools, libraries, library... eligible services shall not charge schools, school districts, libraries, library consortia, or...

  10. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing § 89.503... designee. The test order must be delivered in person by an EPA enforcement officer or EPA...

  11. Creating a Purchase Order Using Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indusi, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the creation of a company purchase order complete with the names of items to be purchased, cost, quantity, discounts, sales tax, and balance due. It requires students to apply their knowledge and understanding of percentages and also gives students an opportunity to understand the mathematics they use with algebraic formulas. (AIM)

  12. Cognitive Systems Struggling for Word Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langus, Alan; Nespor, Marina

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the grammatical diversity observed among the world's languages emerges from the struggle between individual cognitive systems trying to impose their preferred structure on human language. We investigate the cognitive bases of the two most common word orders in the world's languages: SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) and SVO. Evidence from…

  13. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ordering. 316.505 Section 316.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND... NIH: Senior Scientific Advisor for Extramural Research, Office of Extramural Research (R & D)...

  14. Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Ann-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

  15. Tsallis distribution from minimally selected order statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    2007-12-06

    We demonstrate that selection of the minimal value of ordered variables leads in a natural way to its distribution being given by the Tsallis distribution, the same as that resulting from Tsallis nonextensive statistics. The possible application of this result to the multiparticle production processes is indicated.

  16. 78 FR 60248 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Volha Dubouskaya... but not limited to L-3 x200xp Handheld Thermal Imaging Cameras, without first obtaining from the... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act...

  17. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.

  18. 77 FR 20823 - Jyotin Parikh: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... bases this order on a finding that Mr. Parikh was convicted of one count of conspiracy to commit an... an individual if it finds that the individual has been convicted of a conspiracy to commit a felony... of conspiracy to commit an offense against the United States, in violation of 18 U.S.C. 371....

  19. 76 FR 18059 - Taxpayer Assistance Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Bill of Rights II, the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998, the Community... necessary to reflect changes to the law made by the Taxpayer Bill of Rights II (TBOR 2), the Internal... (REG-152166-05) relating to taxpayer assistance orders was published in the Federal Register (74...

  20. 48 CFR 13.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 13.302 Section 13.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 13.302...