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Sample records for order scleractinia class

  1. Restructuring the Traditional Suborders in the Order Scleractinia Based on Embryogenetic Morphological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Nami

    2016-02-01

    The order Scleractinia includes two distinct groups, which are termed "complex" and "robust" as indicated by the molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal gene sequences. Since this discovery, coral taxonomists have been seeking morphological characters for grouping this deep division in the order Scleractinia. Recently, morphological characteristics during embryogenesis that facilitate grouping the two clades as "complex" and "robust" were reported, thus clarifying a deep division in the Scleractinia. In the present report, I establish two new suborders, Refertina and Vacatina, on the basis of the embryogenetic morphological characteristics, molecular data, and new observations of Tubastraea coccinea and Cyphastrea serailia embryogenesis. In particular, the embryo of T. coccinea has a possible fertilization membrane that was first observed in the phylum Cnidaria. The new suborder Refertina consists of the families that belong to the "complex" clade and have no or little blastocoel. The new suborder Vacatina is composed of the families that fall into the "robust" clade and have an apparent blastocoel.

  2. Restructuring the Traditional Suborders in the Order Scleractinia Based on Embryogenetic Morphological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Nami

    2016-02-01

    The order Scleractinia includes two distinct groups, which are termed "complex" and "robust" as indicated by the molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal gene sequences. Since this discovery, coral taxonomists have been seeking morphological characters for grouping this deep division in the order Scleractinia. Recently, morphological characteristics during embryogenesis that facilitate grouping the two clades as "complex" and "robust" were reported, thus clarifying a deep division in the Scleractinia. In the present report, I establish two new suborders, Refertina and Vacatina, on the basis of the embryogenetic morphological characteristics, molecular data, and new observations of Tubastraea coccinea and Cyphastrea serailia embryogenesis. In particular, the embryo of T. coccinea has a possible fertilization membrane that was first observed in the phylum Cnidaria. The new suborder Refertina consists of the families that belong to the "complex" clade and have no or little blastocoel. The new suborder Vacatina is composed of the families that fall into the "robust" clade and have an apparent blastocoel. PMID:26853877

  3. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  4. Mitochondrial genome rearrangements in the scleractinia/corallimorpharia complex: implications for coral phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Fang; Kitahara, Marcelo Visentini; Luo, Haiwei; Tracey, Dianne; Geller, Jonathan; Fukami, Hironobu; Miller, David John; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-05-01

    Corallimorpharia is a small Order of skeleton-less animals that is closely related to the reef-building corals (Scleractinia) and of fundamental interest in the context of understanding the potential impacts of climate change in the future on coral reefs. The relationship between the nominal Orders Corallimorpharia and Scleractinia is controversial-the former is either the closest outgroup to the Scleractinia or alternatively is derived from corals via skeleton loss. This latter scenario, the "naked coral" hypothesis, is strongly supported by analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) protein sequences, whereas the former is equally strongly supported by analyses of mt nucleotide sequences. The "naked coral" hypothesis seeks to link skeleton loss in the putative ancestor of corallimorpharians with a period of elevated oceanic CO2 during the Cretaceous, leading to the idea that these skeleton-less animals may be harbingers for the fate of coral reefs under global climate change. In an attempt to better understand their evolutionary relationships, we examined mt genome organization in a representative range (12 species, representing 3 of the 4 extant families) of corallimorpharians and compared these patterns with other Hexacorallia. The most surprising finding was that mt genome organization in Corallimorphus profundus, a deep-water species that is the most scleractinian-like of all corallimorpharians on the basis of morphology, was much more similar to the common scleractinian pattern than to those of other corallimorpharians. This finding is consistent with the idea that C. profundus represents a key position in the coral <-> corallimorpharian transition.

  5. Correlated evolution of sex and reproductive mode in corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Alexander M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Hughes, Terry P.

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality and reproductive mode are two fundamental life-history traits that exhibit largely unexplained macroevolutionary patterns among the major groups of multicellular organisms. For example, the cnidarian class Anthozoa (corals and anemones) is mainly comprised of gonochoric (separate sex) brooders or spawners, while one order, Scleractinia (skeleton-forming corals), appears to be mostly hermaphroditic spawners. Here, using the most complete phylogeny of scleractinians, we reconstruct how evolutionary transitions between sexual systems (gonochorism versus hermaphrodism) and reproductive modes (brooding versus spawning) have generated large-scale taxonomic patterns in these characters. Hermaphrodites have independently evolved in three large, distantly related lineages consisting of mostly reef-building species. Reproductive mode in corals has evolved at twice the rate of sexuality, while the evolution of sexuality has been heavily biased: gonochorism is over 100 times more likely to be lost than gained, and can only be acquired by brooders. This circuitous evolutionary pathway accounts for the prevalence of hermaphroditic spawners among reef-forming scleractinians, despite their ancient gonochoric heritage. PMID:20659935

  6. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Blair, David; Miller, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences, generating a 234 taxon dataset representing 25 of the 27 currently recognized scleractinian families. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was a striking discrepancy between the taxonomic validity of coral families consisting predominantly of deep-sea or shallow-water species. Most families composed predominantly of deep-sea azooxanthellate species were monophyletic in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses but, by contrast (and consistent with previous studies), most families composed predominantly of shallow-water zooxanthellate taxa were polyphyletic, although Acroporidae, Poritidae, Pocilloporidae, and Fungiidae were exceptions to this general pattern. One factor contributing to this inconsistency may be the greater environmental stability of deep-sea environments, effectively removing taxonomic “noise” contributed by phenotypic plasticity. Our phylogenetic analyses imply that the most basal extant scleractinians are azooxanthellate solitary corals from deep

  7. Mitochondrial Genome Rearrangements in the Scleractinia/Corallimorpharia Complex: Implications for Coral Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Fang; Kitahara, Marcelo Visentini; Luo, Haiwei; Tracey, Dianne; Geller, Jonathan; Fukami, Hironobu; Miller, David John; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-01-01

    Corallimorpharia is a small Order of skeleton-less animals that is closely related to the reef-building corals (Scleractinia) and of fundamental interest in the context of understanding the potential impacts of climate change in the future on coral reefs. The relationship between the nominal Orders Corallimorpharia and Scleractinia is controversial—the former is either the closest outgroup to the Scleractinia or alternatively is derived from corals via skeleton loss. This latter scenario, the “naked coral” hypothesis, is strongly supported by analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) protein sequences, whereas the former is equally strongly supported by analyses of mt nucleotide sequences. The “naked coral” hypothesis seeks to link skeleton loss in the putative ancestor of corallimorpharians with a period of elevated oceanic CO2 during the Cretaceous, leading to the idea that these skeleton-less animals may be harbingers for the fate of coral reefs under global climate change. In an attempt to better understand their evolutionary relationships, we examined mt genome organization in a representative range (12 species, representing 3 of the 4 extant families) of corallimorpharians and compared these patterns with other Hexacorallia. The most surprising finding was that mt genome organization in Corallimorphus profundus, a deep-water species that is the most scleractinian-like of all corallimorpharians on the basis of morphology, was much more similar to the common scleractinian pattern than to those of other corallimorpharians. This finding is consistent with the idea that C. profundus represents a key position in the coral <-> corallimorpharian transition. PMID:24769753

  8. Mitochondrial genome rearrangements in the scleractinia/corallimorpharia complex: implications for coral phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Fang; Kitahara, Marcelo Visentini; Luo, Haiwei; Tracey, Dianne; Geller, Jonathan; Fukami, Hironobu; Miller, David John; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-05-01

    Corallimorpharia is a small Order of skeleton-less animals that is closely related to the reef-building corals (Scleractinia) and of fundamental interest in the context of understanding the potential impacts of climate change in the future on coral reefs. The relationship between the nominal Orders Corallimorpharia and Scleractinia is controversial-the former is either the closest outgroup to the Scleractinia or alternatively is derived from corals via skeleton loss. This latter scenario, the "naked coral" hypothesis, is strongly supported by analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) protein sequences, whereas the former is equally strongly supported by analyses of mt nucleotide sequences. The "naked coral" hypothesis seeks to link skeleton loss in the putative ancestor of corallimorpharians with a period of elevated oceanic CO2 during the Cretaceous, leading to the idea that these skeleton-less animals may be harbingers for the fate of coral reefs under global climate change. In an attempt to better understand their evolutionary relationships, we examined mt genome organization in a representative range (12 species, representing 3 of the 4 extant families) of corallimorpharians and compared these patterns with other Hexacorallia. The most surprising finding was that mt genome organization in Corallimorphus profundus, a deep-water species that is the most scleractinian-like of all corallimorpharians on the basis of morphology, was much more similar to the common scleractinian pattern than to those of other corallimorpharians. This finding is consistent with the idea that C. profundus represents a key position in the coral <-> corallimorpharian transition. PMID:24769753

  9. Optimized leaf ordering with class labels for hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed

    Novoselova, Natalia; Wang, Junxi; Klawonn, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical clustering is extensively used in the bioinformatics community to analyze biomedical data. These data are often tagged with class labels, as e.g. disease subtypes or gene ontology (GO) terms. Heatmaps in connection with dendrograms are the common standard to visualize results of hierarchical clustering. The heatmap can be enriched by an additional color bar at the side, indicating for each instance in the data set to which class it belongs. In the ideal case, when the clustering matches perfectly with the classes, one would expect that instances from the same class cluster together and the color bar consists of well-separated color blocks without frequent alteration of colors (classes). But even in the case when instances from the same class cluster perfectly together, the dendrogram might not reflect this important aspect due to the fact that its representation is not unique. In this paper, we propose a leaf ordering algorithm for the dendrogram that preserving the hierarchical clustering result tries to group instances from the same class together. It is based on the concept of dynamic programming which can efficiently compute the optimal or nearly optimal order, consistent with the structure of the tree.

  10. A new class of natural magnetic materials - The ordering alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, Peter

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that tetrataenite (approximately FeNi), found in many meteorites, and Josephinite (approximately FeNi3), found in many serpentinized peridotites and possibly in Allende, are atomically ordered alloys. Data are presented, showing magnetic hysteresis loops, coercivity-temperature behavior at cryogenic temperatures, and thermomagnetic curves, that show that these ordered magnetic materials have unique magnetic properties and do not fit the conventional rock magnetism paradigms represented by Fe3O4 serpentinites. The ordered state is characterized by induced magnetic anisotropy, reaching the extreme for the tetragonal truly uniaxial anisotropy in FeNi. It is suggested that these ordered magnetic alloys should be considered a new class of natural magnetic materials.

  11. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  12. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-08-18

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms.

  13. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class

    PubMed Central

    Rovetto, Carlos A.; Concepción, Tomás J.; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system’s behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  14. Description of the mitochondrial genome of the tree coral Dendrophyllia arbuscula (Anthozoa, Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Luz, Bruna Louise Pereira; Capel, Kátia Cristina Cruz; Stampar, Sérgio Nascimento; Kitahara, Marcelo Visentini

    2016-07-01

    Dendrophylliidae is one of the few monophyletic families within the Scleractinia that embraces zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate species represented by both solitary and colonial forms. Among the exclusively azooxanthellate genera, Dendrophyllia is reported worldwide from 1 to 1200 m deep. To date, although three complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes from representatives of the family are available, only that from Turbinaria peltata has been formally published. Here we describe the complete nucleotide sequence of the mt genome from Dendrophyllia arbuscula that is 19 069 bp in length and comprises two rDNAs, two tRNAs, and 13 protein-coding genes arranged in the canonical scleractinian mt gene order. No genes overlap, resulting in the presence of 18 intergenic spacers and one of the longest scleractinian mt genome sequenced to date.

  15. Higher-order behavior classes: contingencies, beliefs, and verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Catania, A C

    1995-09-01

    The concepts of reinforcement and of higher-order classes of behavior are reviewed and applied to analyses of self-reinforcement, self-efficacy, the causal status of private events, and the role of verbal behavior in human action. The analyses support the case that Bandura's criticisms of behavior analytic thought rest upon several misunderstandings, the most important of which are the distinctions between theories and phenomena and a neglect of the process of ontogenic selection. Bandura's persistence in promoting these misunderstandings is puzzling, because over a period of at least two decades he has repeated without substantial correction arguments that were refuted at the time he first made them. Bandura's views on these concepts can be interpreted as a contemporary variety of creationism in behavioral science. PMID:8576398

  16. 32 CFR 1630.18 - Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to perform alternative service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to... National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.18 Class 1-W: Conscientious objector ordered to perform alternative service. In Class 1-W shall be placed any registrant who has been...

  17. Synchronization between integer-order chaotic systems and a class of fractional-order chaotic systems via sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Diyi; Zhang, Runfan; Sprott, J C; Chen, Haitao; Ma, Xiaoyi

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we focus on the synchronization between integer-order chaotic systems and a class of fractional-order chaotic system using the stability theory of fractional-order systems. A new sliding mode method is proposed to accomplish this end for different initial conditions and number of dimensions. More importantly, the vector controller is one-dimensional less than the system. Furthermore, three examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, which are the synchronization between a fractional-order Chen chaotic system and an integer-order T chaotic system, the synchronization between a fractional-order hyperchaotic system based on Chen's system and an integer-order hyperchaotic system, and the synchronization between a fractional-order hyperchaotic system based on Chen's system and an integer-order Lorenz chaotic system. Finally, numerical results are presented and are in agreement with theoretical analysis.

  18. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumeng, Luo; Dongmei, Li

    2013-11-01

    A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise.

  19. Changes in Teaching in Order to Help Students with Learning Difficulties Improve in Cypriot Primary Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Florentia

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore what changes two Cypriot primary school teachers brought in their teaching in order to help students with learning difficulties improve in their classes. The study was qualitative and used non-participant observation in two primary classrooms in different primary schools and semi-structured interviews with the main…

  20. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  1. The “Fungia patella group” (Scleractinia, Fungiidae) revisited with a description of the mini mushroom coral Cycloseris boschmai sp. n.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent taxonomic history of extant free-living Cycloseris species is briefly reviewed, resulting in the description of Cycloseris boschmai sp. n. (Scleractinia, Fungiidae) and a discussion on the validity of two other recently described species. Some Cycloseris species were previously considered to belong to the Fungia patella group, which also concerned misidentified museum specimens that actually belong to the new species. Other specimens of C. boschmai sp. n. were photographed and collected in the course of 30 years of fieldwork. The new mushroom coral is compared with other free-living Cycloseris species by means of an identification key. With a maximum diameter of 50 mm, it is the smallest free-living mushroom coral discovered so far. It can also be distinguished by its large primary order costae and variable colouration. Its distribution range is limited to the Coral Triangle, where it can be observed as an uncommon species on lower reef slopes. PMID:24493954

  2. Periodic motion in a class of nth-order autonomous differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of periodic motion in a class of autonomous nonlinear differential equations of order greater than two. The approach is based on the decomposition of an equation into a linear and a nonlinear part. The analysis relies on some basic ideas from linear analysis and geometry. Sufficient conditions for a periodic solution are derived by means of a general topological principle referred to as the torus principle. The existence of a periodic solution is concluded by an appropriate use of the Brouwer fixed-point theorem.

  3. Intelligent Tracking Control for a Class of Uncertain High-Order Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xudong; Shi, Peng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    This brief is concerned with the problem of intelligent tracking control for a class of high-order nonlinear systems with completely unknown nonlinearities. An intelligent adaptive control algorithm is presented by combining the adaptive backstepping technique with the neural networks' approximation ability. It is shown that the practical output tracking performance of the system is achieved using the proposed state-feedback controller under two mild assumptions. In particular, by introducing a parameter in the derivations, the tracking error between the time-varying target signal and the output can be reduced via tuning the controller design parameters. Moreover, in order to solve the problem of overparameterization, which is a common issue in adaptive control design, a controller with one adaptive law is also designed. Finally, simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical approaches and the potential of the proposed new design techniques.

  4. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the first-order hyperpolarizability of a class of triarylamine derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Daniel L. E-mail: deboni@ifsc.usp.br; Fonseca, Ruben D.; Mendonca, Cleber R.; De Boni, Leonardo E-mail: deboni@ifsc.usp.br; Vivas, Marcelo G.; Ishow, E.; Canuto, Sylvio

    2015-02-14

    This paper reports on the static and dynamic first-order hyperpolarizabilities of a class of push-pull octupolar triarylamine derivatives dissolved in toluene. We have combined hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiment and the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock method implemented at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level of theory to determine the static and dynamic (at 1064 nm) first-order hyperpolarizability (β{sub HRS}) of nine triarylamine derivatives with distinct electron-withdrawing groups. In four of these derivatives, an azoaromatic unit is inserted and a pronounceable increase of the first-order hyperpolarizability is reported. Based on the theoretical results, the dipolar/octupolar character of the derivatives is determined. By using a polarizable continuum model in combination with the DFT calculations, it was found that although solvated in an aprotic and low dielectric constant solvent, due to solvent-induced polarization and the frequency dispersion effect, the environment substantially affects the first-order hyperpolarizability of all derivatives investigated. This statement is supported due to the solvent effects to be essential for the better agreement between theoretical results and experimental data concerning the dynamic first-order hyperpolarizability of the derivatives. The first-order hyperpolarizability of the derivatives was also modeled using the two- and three-level models, where the relationship between static and dynamic first hyperpolarizabilities is given by a frequency dispersion model. Using this approach, it was verified that the dynamic first hyperpolarizability of the derivatives is satisfactorily reproduced by the two-level model and that, in the case of the derivatives with an azoaromatic unit, the use of a damped few-level model is essential for, considering also the molecular size of such derivatives, a good quantitative agreement between theoretical results and experimental data to be observed.

  5. Training for the New Work Order: The Adult Classroom as a Site of Class(ed) Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Ninetta

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study that investigated how the professional identities of trainers in the adult sector in Australia are shaped by intersecting relations of social class, ethnicity, gender and the discourses of vocational adult education. Interviews with two trainers as well as observations of them at work are analysed and…

  6. Second-order splitting schemes for a class of reactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhuyin; Pope, Stephen B.

    2008-09-01

    We consider the numerical time integration of a class of reaction-transport systems that are described by a set of ordinary differential equations for primary variables. In the governing equations, the terms involved may require the knowledge of secondary variables, which are functions of the primary variables. Specifically, we consider the case where, given the primary variables, the evaluation of the secondary variables is computationally expensive. To solve this class of reaction-transport equations, we develop and demonstrate several computationally efficient splitting schemes, wherein the portions of the governing equations containing chemical reaction terms are separated from those parts containing the transport terms. A computationally efficient solution to the transport sub-step is achieved through the use of linearization or predictor-corrector methods. The splitting schemes are applied to the reactive flow in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with the Davis-Skodjie reaction model, to the CO+H oxidation in a CSTR with detailed chemical kinetics, and to a reaction-diffusion system with an extension of the Oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. As demonstrated in the test problems, the proposed splitting schemes, which yield efficient solutions to the transport sub-step, achieve second-order accuracy in time.

  7. Nonsingular decoupled terminal sliding-mode control for a class of fourth-order nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayramoglu, Husnu; Komurcugil, Hasan

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a nonsingular decoupled terminal sliding mode control (NDTSMC) method for a class of fourth-order nonlinear systems. First, the nonlinear fourth-order system is decoupled into two second-order subsystems which are referred to as the primary and secondary subsystems. The sliding surface of each subsystem was designed by utilizing time-varying coefficients which are computed by linear functions derived from the input-output mapping of the one-dimensional fuzzy rule base. Then, the control target of the secondary subsystem was embedded to the primary subsystem by the help of an intermediate signal. Thereafter, a nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (NTSMC) method was utilized to make both subsystems converge to their equilibrium points in finite time. The simulation results on the inverted pendulum system are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. It is seen that the proposed method exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster dynamic response and lower IAE and ITAE values as compared with the existing decoupled control methods.

  8. Further results related to variance past lifetime class & associated orderings and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdy, Mervat

    2016-11-01

    If the random variable T denotes the lifetime of a unit, then the random variable T(t) = [ t - T ∣ T ≤ t ] , for a fixed t > 0, is known as the past lifetime. In this study, we present some new properties of the mean and variance for past lifetime classes (orderings). In addition, we consider an (n - r + 1) -out-of- n system with identical components where it is assumed that the lifetimes of the components are i.i.d. We assume that the system fails before time x, x > 0. Under these conditions, we are interested in studying the variance time elapsed since the failure of the components. Several properties of this function are studied and an example is provided. Finally, some applications in economic theory are described with real data.

  9. Ordered Rules and the Morphophonemics of the N-Class in Swahili. York Papers in Linguistics, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyvaerts, D.L.

    This article argues for a set of ordered rules for morphophonemic alternations in the N-class in Swahili, positing /n/ as the class prefix and an abstract segment as stem initial in certain words. The rules are: (1) liquids and the labial glide become corresponding voiced stops; (2) the nasal prefix assimilates in coronality and backness, and…

  10. Conservation Laws and Symmetry Properties of a Class of Higher Order Theories of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraco, D.; Dominguez, E.; Guibert, R.; Hamity, V.

    1998-04-01

    We consider a class of fourth order theories of gravity with arbitrary matter fields arising from a diffeomorphism invariant Lagrangian density mathcal{L}_T = mathcal{L}_G + mathcal{L}_M, with mathcal{L}_G = sqrt { - g} left[ {R + hleft( R right)} right]and mathcal{L}_Mthe phenomenological representation of the nongravitational fields. We derive first the generalization of the Einstein pseudotensor and the von Freud superpotential. We then show, using the arbitrariness that is always present in the choice of pseudotensor and superpotential, that we can choose these superpotentials to have the same form as those for the Hilbert Lagrangian of general relativity (GR). In particular we may introduce the Moller superpotential of GR as associated with a double-index differential conservation law. Similarly, using the Moller superpotential we prove that we can choose the Komar vector of GR to construct a conserved quantity for isolated asymptotically flat systems. For the example R + R2theory we prove then, that the active mass is equal to the total energy (or inertial mass) of the system.

  11. An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The 120 presently recognized genera and seven subgenera of the azooxanthellate Scleractinia are keyed using gross morphological characters of the corallum. All genera are illustrated with calicular and side views of coralla. All termes used in the key are defined in an illustrated glossary. A table of all species-level keys, both comprehensive and faunistic, is provided covering the last 40 years. PMID:23166463

  12. Semi-Nonparametric Methods for Detecting Latent Non-Normality: A Fusion of Latent Trait and Ordered Latent Class Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, J. Eric; Mehta, Paras D.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered latent class analysis (OLCA) can be used to approximate unidimensional latent distributions. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the method of OLCA in detecting non-normality of an unobserved continuous variable (i.e., a common factor) used to explain the covariation between dichotomous item-level responses. Using simulation,…

  13. Selection and Trans-Species Polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes in the Order Crocodylia

    PubMed Central

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R.; Higgins, Damien P.; Miles, Lee G.; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85–90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia. PMID:24503938

  14. A class of reduced-order models in the theory of waves and stability

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a class of approximations to a type of wave field for which the dispersion relation is transcendental. The approximations have two defining characteristics: (i) they give the field shape exactly when the frequency and wavenumber lie on a grid of points in the (frequency, wavenumber) plane and (ii) the approximate dispersion relations are polynomials that pass exactly through points on this grid. Thus, the method is interpolatory in nature, but the interpolation takes place in (frequency, wavenumber) space, rather than in physical space. Full details are presented for a non-trivial example, that of antisymmetric elastic waves in a layer. The method is related to partial fraction expansions and barycentric representations of functions. An asymptotic analysis is presented, involving Stirling's approximation to the psi function, and a logarithmic correction to the polynomial dispersion relation. PMID:27118895

  15. Singularity confinement for a class of m-th order difference equations of combinatorics.

    PubMed

    Adler, Mark; van Moerbeke, Pierre; Vanhaecke, Pol

    2008-03-28

    In a recent publication, it was shown that a large class of integrals over the unitary group U(n) satisfy nonlinear, non-autonomous difference equations over n, involving a finite number of steps; special cases are generating functions appearing in questions of the longest increasing subsequences in random permutations and words. The main result of the paper states that these difference equations have the discrete Painlevé property; roughly speaking, this means that after a finite number of steps the solution to these difference equations may develop a pole (Laurent solution), depending on the maximal number of free parameters, and immediately after be finite again ("singularity confinement"). The technique used in the proof is based on an intimate relationship between the difference equations (discrete time) and the Toeplitz lattice (continuous time differential equations); the point is that the Painlevé property for the discrete relations is inherited from the Painlevé property of the (continuous) Toeplitz lattice.

  16. Robust stabilizing first-order controllers for a class of time delay systems.

    PubMed

    Saadaoui, Karim; Testouri, Sana; Benrejeb, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, stabilizing regions of a first-order controller for an all poles system with time delay are computed via parametric methods. First, the admissible ranges of one of the controller's parameters are obtained. Then, for a fixed value of this parameter, stabilizing regions in the remaining two parameters are determined using the D-decomposition method. Phase and gain margin specifications are then included in the design. Finally, robust stabilizing first-order controllers are determined for uncertain plants with an interval type uncertainty in the coefficients. Examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Behavior and finite-size effects of the sixth order cumulant in the three-dimensional Ising universality class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Li-Zhu; Wu, Yuan-Fang

    2016-09-01

    The high-order cumulants of conserved charges are suggested to be sensitive observables to search for the critical point of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This has been calculated to the sixth order in experiments. Corresponding theoretical studies on the sixth order cumulant are necessary. Based on the universality of the critical behavior, we study the temperature dependence of the sixth order cumulant of the order parameter using the parametric representation of the three-dimensional Ising model, which is expected to be in the same universality class as QCD. The density plot of the sign of the sixth order cumulant is shown on the temperature and external magnetic field plane. We found that at non-zero external magnetic field, when the critical point is approached from the crossover side, the sixth order cumulant has a negative valley. The width of the negative valley narrows with decreasing external field. Qualitatively, the trend is similar to the result of Monte Carlo simulation on a finite-size system. Quantitatively, the temperature of the sign change is different. Through Monte Carlo simulation of the Ising model, we calculated the sixth order cumulant of different sizes of systems. We discuss the finite-size effects on the temperature at which the cumulant changes sign. Supported by Fund Project of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education (16ZB0339), Fund Project of Chengdu Technological University for Doctor (2016RC004), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405088, 11221504)

  18. Computerized Adaptive Testing Using a Class of High-Order Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsi; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In the human sciences, a common assumption is that latent traits have a hierarchical structure. Higher order item response theory models have been developed to account for this hierarchy. In this study, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithms based on these kinds of models were implemented, and their performance under a variety of…

  19. Compacton solutions in a class of generalized fifth-order Korteweg--de Vries equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Fred; Hyman, James M.; Khare, Avinash

    2001-08-01

    Solitons play a fundamental role in the evolution of general initial data for quasilinear dispersive partial differential equations, such as the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV), nonlinear Schroedinger, and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations. These integrable equations have linear dispersion and the solitons have infinite support. We have derived and investigate a new KdV-like Hamiltonian partial differential equation from a four-parameter Lagrangian where the nonlinear dispersion gives rise to solitons with compact support (compactons). The new equation does not seem to be integrable and only mass, momentum, and energy seem to be conserved; yet, the solitons display almost the same modal decompositions and structural stability observed in integrable partial differential equations. The compactons formed from arbitrary initial data, are nonlinearly self-stabilizing, and maintain their coherence after multiple collisions. The robustness of these compactons and the inapplicability of the inverse scattering tools, that worked so well for the KdV equation, make it clear that there is a fundamental mechanism underlying the processes beyond integrability. We have found explicit formulas for multiple classes of compact traveling wave solutions. When there are more than one compacton solution for a particular set of parameters, the wider compacton is the minimum of a reduced Hamiltonian and is the only one that is stable.

  20. Compacton solutions in a class of generalized fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, F; Hyman, J M; Khare, A

    2001-08-01

    Solitons play a fundamental role in the evolution of general initial data for quasilinear dispersive partial differential equations, such as the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), nonlinear Schrödinger, and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations. These integrable equations have linear dispersion and the solitons have infinite support. We have derived and investigate a new KdV-like Hamiltonian partial differential equation from a four-parameter Lagrangian where the nonlinear dispersion gives rise to solitons with compact support (compactons). The new equation does not seem to be integrable and only mass, momentum, and energy seem to be conserved; yet, the solitons display almost the same modal decompositions and structural stability observed in integrable partial differential equations. The compactons formed from arbitrary initial data, are nonlinearly self-stabilizing, and maintain their coherence after multiple collisions. The robustness of these compactons and the inapplicability of the inverse scattering tools, that worked so well for the KdV equation, make it clear that there is a fundamental mechanism underlying the processes beyond integrability. We have found explicit formulas for multiple classes of compact traveling wave solutions. When there are more than one compacton solution for a particular set of parameters, the wider compacton is the minimum of a reduced Hamiltonian and is the only one that is stable. PMID:11497731

  1. Does the Chemical Diversity of the Order Haplosclerida (Phylum Porifera: Class Demospongia) Fit with Current Taxonomic Classification?

    PubMed

    Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Marra, Maria V; McCormack, Grace P; Thomas, Olivier P

    2016-06-01

    Sponges and their associated microbiota are well known to produce a large diversity of natural products, also called specialized metabolites. In addition to their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry, these rather species-specific compounds may help in the classification of some particular sponge groups. We review herein compounds isolated from haplosclerid sponges (Class Demospongia, Order Haplosclerida) in order to help in the revision of this large group of marine invertebrates. We focus only on 3-alkylpyridine derivatives and polyacetylenic compounds, as these two groups of natural products are characteristic of haplosclerid species and are highly diverse. A close collaboration between chemists and biologists is required in order to fully apply chemotaxonomical approaches, and whenever possible biological data should include morphological and molecular data and some insight into their microbial abundance.

  2. Does the Chemical Diversity of the Order Haplosclerida (Phylum Porifera: Class Demospongia) Fit with Current Taxonomic Classification?

    PubMed

    Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Marra, Maria V; McCormack, Grace P; Thomas, Olivier P

    2016-06-01

    Sponges and their associated microbiota are well known to produce a large diversity of natural products, also called specialized metabolites. In addition to their potential use in the pharmaceutical industry, these rather species-specific compounds may help in the classification of some particular sponge groups. We review herein compounds isolated from haplosclerid sponges (Class Demospongia, Order Haplosclerida) in order to help in the revision of this large group of marine invertebrates. We focus only on 3-alkylpyridine derivatives and polyacetylenic compounds, as these two groups of natural products are characteristic of haplosclerid species and are highly diverse. A close collaboration between chemists and biologists is required in order to fully apply chemotaxonomical approaches, and whenever possible biological data should include morphological and molecular data and some insight into their microbial abundance. PMID:27135628

  3. Indirect model reference adaptive control for a class of fractional order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuquan; Wei, Yiheng; Liang, Shu; Wang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    This article focuses on the indirect model reference adaptive control problem for fractional order systems. A constrained gradient estimation method was established firstly, since parameter estimation is part and parcel of the whole control problem. Then a novel adaptive control law is designed, from which the two problems, i.e., parameter estimation and reference tracking, can be unified perfectly. On these basis, an effective control scheme is established. The stability of the resulting closed-loop system is analyzed rigorously via indirect Lyapunov method and frequency distributed model. Finally, a careful simulation study is reported to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Stochastic ordering properties and optimal routing control for a class of finite capacity queueing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towsley, Don; Sparaggis, Panayotis D.; Cassandras, Christos G.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of routing jobs to parallel queues with identical exponential servers and unequal finite buffer capacities is considered. Stochastic ordering and weak majorization properties on critical performance measures are established by means of event-driven inductions. In particular, it is shown that the intuitive 'join the shortest non-full queue' (SNQ) policy is optimal with respect to an overall function that accounts for holding and blocking costs. Moreover, the buffer allocation problem is solved by proving the intuitive result that, for a fixed total buffer capacity, the optimal allocation scheme is the one in which the difference between the maximum and minimum queue capacities is minimized, i.e., becomes either 0 or 1.

  5. Porites randalli: A new coral species (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forsman, Z.H.; Birkeland, C.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of scleractinian coral, Porites randalli spec. nov. (Scleractinia, Poritidae), previously known as Porites sp. 2, is described from American Samoa. P. randalli typically forms small pale green colonies that are usually <5 cm in diameter, with a surface reticulated with small (0.5 cm-2 cm) nubbins or protuberances. Colonies have been observed between 1-12 m depths in a variety of reef habitats and are among the most common corals in American Samoa. Corallites are approximately 1 mm in diameter and are sunken with a visible ring of pali. The columella is either lacking or small, with 1,2 or no radii, six pali (five large and a small one on the dorsal septum). Corallite walls rise gradually with concentric rows of denticles. Porites randalli spec. nov. is an example of cryptic diversity; it is a small coral that at first glance can be overlooked or mistaken for a young colony of other species. ?? 2009 Magnolia Press.

  6. Lie and Noether point symmetries of a class of quasilinear systems of second-order differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the Lie and Noether point symmetries of a class of systems of second-order differential equations with n independent and m dependent variables (n × m systems). We solve the symmetry conditions in a geometric way and determine the general form of the symmetry vector and of the Noetherian conservation laws. We prove that the point symmetries are generated by the collineations of two (pseudo)metrics, which are defined in the spaces of independent and dependent variables. We demonstrate the general results in two special cases (a) a system of m coupled Laplace equations and (b) the Klein-Gordon equation of a particle in the context of Generalized Uncertainty Principle. In the second case we determine the complete invariant group of point transformations, and we apply the Lie invariants in order to find invariant solutions of the wave function for a spin-0 particle in the two dimensional hyperbolic space.

  7. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models.

  8. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models. PMID:25529525

  9. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26920085

  10. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  11. Complete genome sequence of strain HTCC2503T of Parvularcula bermudensis, the type species of the order "Parvularculales" in the class Alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Vergin, Kevin L; Kang, Dongmin; Rhee, Kwang-Hyun; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2011-01-01

    The order "Parvularculales" represents the seventh order in the class Alphaproteobacteria. Parvularcula bermudensis, the type species of the order, was isolated from the Sargasso Sea using dilution-to-extinction culturing. We present here the complete genome sequence of Parvularcula bermudensis HTCC2503(T), which contains genes for carotenoid biosynthesis, dimethylsulfoniopropionate demethylase, and transduction-like gene transfer agents. PMID:21037002

  12. Progress in the Development of a Class of Efficient Low Dissipative High Order Shock-capturing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.; Sandham, N. D.; Hadjadj, A.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In a series of papers, Olsson (1994, 1995), Olsson & Oliger (1994), Strand (1994), Gerritsen Olsson (1996), Yee et al. (1999a,b, 2000) and Sandham & Yee (2000), the issue of nonlinear stability of the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations, including physical boundaries, and the corresponding development of the discrete analogue of nonlinear stable high order schemes, including boundary schemes, were developed, extended and evaluated for various fluid flows. High order here refers to spatial schemes that are essentially fourth-order or higher away from shock and shear regions. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the progress of the low dissipative high order shock-capturing schemes proposed by Yee et al. (1999a,b, 2000). This class of schemes consists of simple non-dissipative high order compact or non-compact central spatial differencings and adaptive nonlinear numerical dissipation operators to minimize the use of numerical dissipation. The amount of numerical dissipation is further minimized by applying the scheme to the entropy splitting form of the inviscid flux derivatives, and by rewriting the viscous terms to minimize odd-even decoupling before the application of the central scheme (Sandham & Yee). The efficiency and accuracy of these scheme are compared with spectral, TVD and fifth- order WENO schemes. A new approach of Sjogreen & Yee (2000) utilizing non-orthogonal multi-resolution wavelet basis functions as sensors to dynamically determine the appropriate amount of numerical dissipation to be added to the non-dissipative high order spatial scheme at each grid point will be discussed. Numerical experiments of long time integration of smooth flows, shock-turbulence interactions, direct numerical simulations of a 3-D compressible turbulent plane channel flow, and various mixing layer problems indicate that these schemes are especially suitable for practical complex problems in nonlinear aeroacoustics, rotorcraft dynamics, direct

  13. Employing Transformative Learning Theory in the Design and Implementation of a Curriculum for Court-Ordered Participants in a Parent Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mariann B.; Hill, Lilian H.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to analyze the experiences of participants in court-ordered parent education with the ultimate goal to identify a framework, which promotes learning that is transformative. Participants included 11 parents court ordered to attend parent education classes through the Department of Human Services. A basic qualitative design, which…

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Tubulipora flabellaris (Bryozoa: Stenolaemata): the first representative from the class Stenolaemata with unique gene order.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming'an; Shen, Xin; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Xixing; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Bin

    2011-09-01

    Mitochondrial genomes play a significant role in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within metazoans. There are still many controversies concerning the phylogenetic position of the phylum Bryozoa. In this research, we have finished the complete mitochondrial genome of one bryozoan (Tubulipora flabellaris), which is the first representative from the class Stenolaemata. The complete mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris is 13,763bp in length and contains 36 genes, which lacks the atp8 gene in contrast to the typical metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Gene arrangement comparisons indicate that the mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris has unique gene order when compared with other metazoans. The four known bryozoans complete mitochondrial genomes also have very different gene arrangements, indicates that bryozoan mitochondrial genomes have experienced drastic rearrangements. To investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Bryozoa, phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein coding genes (excluding atp6 and atp8) from 26 metazoan complete mitochondrial genomes were made utilizing Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods, respectively. The results indicate the monopoly of Lophotrochozoa and a close relationship between Chaetognatha and Bryozoa. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the relationship between two groups. Lophophorate appeared to be polyphyletic according to our analyses. Meanwhile, neither analysis supports close relationship between Branchiopod and Phoronida. Four bryozoans form a clade and the relationship among them is T. flabellaris+(F. hispida+(B. neritina+W. subtorquata)), which is in coincidence with traditional classification system.

  15. Using a CBL Unit, a Temperature Sensor, and a Graphing Calculator to Model the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions as Safe In-Class Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Russo, Deborah A.; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Schuman, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) technology, the graphing calculator, and the cooling and heating of water to model the behavior of consecutive first-order reactions is presented, where B is the reactant, I is the intermediate, and P is the product for an in-class demonstration. The activity demonstrates the spontaneous and consecutive…

  16. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  17. A new fractional-order sliding mode controller via a nonlinear disturbance observer for a class of dynamical systems with mismatched disturbances.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, Shabnam; Badamchizadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the stabilization and disturbance rejection for a class of fractional-order nonlinear dynamical systems with mismatched disturbances. To fulfill this purpose a new fractional-order sliding mode control (FOSMC) based on a nonlinear disturbance observer is proposed. In order to design the suitable fractional-order sliding mode controller, a proper switching surface is introduced. Afterward, by using the sliding mode theory and Lyapunov stability theory, a robust fractional-order control law via a nonlinear disturbance observer is proposed to assure the existence of the sliding motion in finite time. The proposed fractional-order sliding mode controller exposes better control performance, ensures fast and robust stability of the closed-loop system, eliminates the disturbances and diminishes the chattering problem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed fractional-order controller is depicted via numerical simulation results of practical example and is compared with some other controllers.

  18. Exploring the Construction of Social Class in Educational Discourse: The Rational Order of the Nation State versus Global Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to create intellectual space in which issues of social inequality and education can be analyzed and discussed in relation to the multifaceted and multi-levelled complexities of the modern world. It is divided into three sections. Section One locates the concept of social class in the context of the modern nation state during the…

  19. How Ordering of Assignments Can Influence Beliefs about the Self and How These Beliefs Can Impact on Student Class Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, David S.; DeShields, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether the ordering of the difficulty of exams can influence student beliefs about their academic abilities and the impact of these beliefs on their performance. The ordering of the difficulty of test items has shown to affect performance. Study One (n = 91) examined college student differences in reaction to a difficult…

  20. Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Chithiika Ruby, V.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.; Chandrasekar, V. K.

    2015-01-15

    We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schrödinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering, we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and is also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

  1. Forever in the dark: the cave-dwelling azooxanthellate reef coral Leptoseris troglodyta sp. n. (Scleractinia, Agariciidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The coral species Leptoseris troglodyta sp. n. (Scleractinia, Agariciidae) is described as new to science. It is the first known azooxanthellate shallow-water agariciid and is recorded from the ceilings of caves at 5-35 m depth in West Pacific coral reefs. The corals have monocentric cup-shaped calices. They may become colonial through extramural budding from the basal coenosteum, which may cause adjacent calices to fuse. The size, shape and habitat of Leptoseris troglodyta are unique compared to other Leptoseris species, many of which have been recorded from mesophotic depths. The absence of zooxanthellae indicates that it may survive well in darkness, but endolithic algae in some corals indicate that they may be able to get some light. The presence of menianes on the septal sides, which may help to absorb light at greater depths in zooxanthellate corals, have no obvious adaptive relevance in the new species and could have been inherited from ancestral species that perhaps were zooxanthellate. The new species may be azooxanthellate as derived through the loss of zooxanthellae, which would be a reversal in Leptoseris phylogeny. PMID:23166468

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the Acanthocephala (class Palaeacanthocephala) with a paraphyletic assemblage of the orders Polymorphida and Echinorhynchida.

    PubMed

    Verweyen, Lisa; Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry W

    2011-01-01

    Acanthocephalans are attractive candidates as model organisms for studying the ecology and co-evolutionary history of parasitic life cycles in the marine ecosystem. Adding to earlier molecular analyses of this taxon, a total of 36 acanthocephalans belonging to the classes Archiacanthocephala (3 species), Eoacanthocephala (3 species), Palaeacanthocephala (29 species), Polyacanthocephala (1 species) and Rotifera as outgroup (3 species) were analyzed by using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of nuclear 18S rDNA sequence. This data set included three re-collected and six newly collected taxa, Bolbosoma vasculosum from Lepturacanthus savala, Filisoma rizalinum from Scatophagus argus, Rhadinorhynchus pristis from Gempylus serpens, R. lintoni from Selar crumenophthalmus, Serrasentis sagittifer from Johnius coitor, and Southwellina hispida from Epinephelus coioides, representing 5 new host and 3 new locality records. The resulting trees suggest a paraphyletic arrangement of the Echinorhynchida and Polymorphida inside the Palaeacanthocephala. This questions the placement of the genera Serrasentis and Gorgorhynchoides within the Echinorhynchida and not the Polymorphida, necessitating further insights into the systematic position of these taxa based on morphology.

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of the Acanthocephala (Class Palaeacanthocephala) with a Paraphyletic Assemblage of the Orders Polymorphida and Echinorhynchida

    PubMed Central

    Verweyen, Lisa; Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry W.

    2011-01-01

    Acanthocephalans are attractive candidates as model organisms for studying the ecology and co-evolutionary history of parasitic life cycles in the marine ecosystem. Adding to earlier molecular analyses of this taxon, a total of 36 acanthocephalans belonging to the classes Archiacanthocephala (3 species), Eoacanthocephala (3 species), Palaeacanthocephala (29 species), Polyacanthocephala (1 species) and Rotifera as outgroup (3 species) were analyzed by using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of nuclear 18S rDNA sequence. This data set included three re-collected and six newly collected taxa, Bolbosoma vasculosum from Lepturacanthus savala, Filisoma rizalinum from Scatophagus argus, Rhadinorhynchus pristis from Gempylus serpens, R. lintoni from Selar crumenophthalmus, Serrasentis sagittifer from Johnius coitor, and Southwellina hispida from Epinephelus coioides, representing 5 new host and 3 new locality records. The resulting trees suggest a paraphyletic arrangement of the Echinorhynchida and Polymorphida inside the Palaeacanthocephala. This questions the placement of the genera Serrasentis and Gorgorhynchoides within the Echinorhynchida and not the Polymorphida, necessitating further insights into the systematic position of these taxa based on morphology. PMID:22163005

  4. Time-varying sliding-coefficient-based decoupled terminal sliding-mode control for a class of fourth-order systems.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Husnu; Komurcugil, Hasan

    2014-07-01

    A time-varying sliding-coefficient-based decoupled terminal sliding mode control strategy is presented for a class of fourth-order systems. First, the fourth-order system is decoupled into two second-order subsystems. The sliding surface of each subsystem was designed by utilizing time-varying coefficients. Then, the control target of one subsystem to another subsystem was embedded. Thereafter, a terminal sliding mode control method was utilized to make both subsystems converge to their equilibrium points in finite time. The simulation results on the inverted pendulum system demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster dynamic response and lower IAE and ITAE values as compared with the existing decoupled control methods.

  5. Analysis of global O(t(-α)) stability and global asymptotical periodicity for a class of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks with time varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sivaranjani, R; Velmurugan, G; Cao, Jinde

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of the global O(t(-α)) stability and global asymptotic periodicity for a class of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks (FCVNNs) with time varying delays is investigated. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and a Leibniz rule for fractional differentiation, some new sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the addressed FCVNNs are globally O(t(-α)) stable. Moreover, some sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic periodicity of the addressed FCVNNs with time varying delays are derived, showing that all solutions converge to the same periodic function. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of our theoretical results.

  6. Adaptive neural network backstepping control for a class of uncertain fractional-order chaotic systems with unknown backlash-like hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yimin; Lv, Hui

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the control problem of a class of uncertain fractional-order chaotic systems preceded by unknown backlash-like hysteresis nonlinearities based on backstepping control algorithm. We model the hysteresis by using a differential equation. Based on the fractional Lyapunov stability criterion and the backstepping algorithm procedures, an adaptive neural network controller is driven. No knowledge of the upper bound of the disturbance and system uncertainty is required in our controller, and the asymptotical convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, we give two simulation examples to confirm our theoretical results.

  7. Maternal-fetal interactions and birth order influence insulin variable number of tandem repeats allele class associations with head size at birth and childhood weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken K; Petry, Clive J; Barratt, Bryan J; Ring, Susan; Cordell, Heather J; Wingate, Diane L; Pembrey, Marcus E; Todd, John A; Dunger, David B

    2004-04-01

    Polymorphism of the insulin gene (INS) variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR; class I or class III alleles) locus has been associated with adult diseases and with birth size. Therefore, this variant is a potential contributory factor to the reported fetal origins of adult disease. In the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood birth cohort, we have confirmed in the present study the association between the INS VNTR III/III genotype and larger head circumference at birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.23-3.07; P = 0.004) and identified an association with higher cord blood IGF-II levels (P = 0.05 to 0.0001). The genotype association with head circumference was influenced by maternal parity (birth order): the III/III OR for larger head circumference was stronger in second and subsequent pregnancies (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.2-11.5; P = 0.00003) than in first pregnancies (1.2, 0.6-2.2; P = 0.8; interaction with birth order, P = 0.02). During childhood, the III/III genotype remained associated with larger head circumference (P = 0.004) and was also associated with greater BMI (P = 0.03), waist circumference (P = 0.03), and higher fasting insulin levels in girls (P = 0.02). In addition, there were interactions between INS VNTR genotype and early postnatal weight gain in determining childhood BMI (P = 0.001 for interaction), weight (P = 0.005), and waist circumference (P = 0.0005), such that in the approximately 25% of children (n = 286) with rapid early postnatal weight gain, class III genotype-negative children among this group gained weight more rapidly. Our results indicate that complex prenatal and postnatal gene-maternal/fetal interactions influence size at birth and childhood risk factors for adult disease. PMID:15047631

  8. A phylogenomic and molecular markers based analysis of the phylum Chlamydiae: proposal to divide the class Chlamydiia into two orders, Chlamydiales and Parachlamydiales ord. nov., and emended description of the class Chlamydiia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Radhey S; Naushad, Sohail; Chokshi, Chirayu; Griffiths, Emma; Adeolu, Mobolaji

    2015-09-01

    The phylum Chlamydiae contains nine ecologically and genetically diverse families all placed within a single order. In this work, we have completed a comprehensive comparative analysis of 36 sequenced Chlamydiae genomes in order to identify shared molecular characteristics, namely conserved signature insertions/deletions (CSIs) and conserved signature proteins (CSPs), which can serve as distinguishing characteristics of supra-familial clusters within the phylum Chlamydiae. Our analysis has led to the identification of 32 CSIs which are specific to clusters within the phylum Chlamydiae at various phylogenetic depths. Importantly, 17 CSIs and 98 CSPs were found to be specific for the family Chlamydiaceae while another 3 CSI variants and 15 CSPs were specific for a grouping of the families Criblamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and Waddliaceae. These two clusters were also found to be distinguishable in 16S rRNA based phylogenetic trees, concatenated protein based phylogenetic trees, character compatibility based phylogenetic analyses, and on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and average amino acid identity values. On the basis of the identified molecular characteristics, branching in phylogenetic trees, and the genetic distance between the two clusters within the phylum Chlamydiae we propose a division of the class Chlamydiia into two orders: an emended order Chlamydiales, containing the family Chlamydiaceae and the closely related Candidatus family Clavichlamydiaceae, and the novel order Parachlamydiales ord. nov. containing the families Parachlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and Waddliaceae and the Candidatus families Criblamydiaceae, Parilichlamydiaceae, Piscichlamydiaceae, and Rhabdochlamydiaceae. We also include a brief discussion of the reunification of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila.

  9. Names at the rank of class, subclass and order, their typification and current status: Supplementary information to Opinion 79. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The attention of the Judicial Commission was drawn to issues relating to the use of names at the rank of class, subclass and order and the nomenclatural type of names at the rank of class and subclass that were not covered by Opinion 79. The Judicial Commission ruled that names at the rank of class and order proposed by Cavalier-Smith (Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 52, 7-76, 2002) are to be placed on the List of Rejected Names (nomina rejicienda) and the use of names proposed in that publication above the rank of class is to be actively discouraged. In addition a list of names at the rank of class, subclass and order is given where the nomenclatural type, description or circumscription is unclear or where they otherwise appear to be not in accordance with the Rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.

  10. Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System (Bay of Biscay, Spain, northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuna, Álvaro; Ríos, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-eight species of scleractinian corals were collected between 55 and 2,291 m depth during INDEMARES 2010-2012 expeditions to the Avilés Canyon System and the near continental shelf (Bay of Biscay). Most interesting species are described and all depicted. All species were already known from the northeast Atlantic, although some are seldom reported. Deltocyathus eccentricus and Flabellum chunii are northernmost records in the eastern Atlantic, and species first collected from the Bay of Biscay. From a literature review and new records given herein, 31 species of Scleractinia are known from the Avilés Canyon System. Live specimens of six species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the Bay of Biscay and nearby areas, either at shallower depths ( Caryophyllia sarsiae, Monomyces pygmaea, Stephanocyathus nobilis), or deeper depths ( C. atlantica, C. sarsiae, Enallopsammia rostrata, Solenosmilia variabilis). Desmophyllum cristagalli has the widest bathymetric range (551-2,291 m), and Lophelia pertusa is the most widely distributed species (24 stations). Tabulating the number of live species occurring in each 100-m depth interval of the canyon system, highest species richness occurs in the 700-800-, 800-900-, and 1,400-1,500-m depth intervals (11 species). The habitat-forming species L. pertusa and Madrepora oculata were abundant in some stations building well-developed coral banks. Live colonies of the big-sized species S. variabilis and E. rostrata co-occurred at the deepest station sampled that yielded scleractinia (2,291 m).

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic representatives of the invasive Pacific coral species Tubastraea coccinea and T. tagusensis (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae): Implications for species identification.

    PubMed

    Capel, K C C; Migotto, A E; Zilberberg, C; Lin, M F; Forsman, Z; Miller, D J; Kitahara, M V

    2016-09-30

    Members of the azooxanthellate coral genus Tubastraea are invasive species with particular concern because they have become established and are fierce competitors in the invaded areas in many parts of the world. Pacific Tubastraea species are spreading fast throughout the Atlantic Ocean, occupying over 95% of the available substrate in some areas and out-competing native endemic species. Approximately half of all known coral species are azooxanthellate but these are seriously under-represented compared to zooxanthellate corals in terms of the availability of mitochondrial (mt) genome data. In the present study, the complete mt DNA sequences of Atlantic individuals of the invasive scleractinian species Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis were determined and compared to the GenBank reference sequence available for a Pacific "T. coccinea" individual. At 19,094bp (compared to 19,070bp for the GenBank specimen), the mt genomes assembled for the Atlantic T. coccinea and T. tagusensis were among the longest sequence determined to date for "Complex" scleractinians. Comparisons of genomes data showed that the "T. coccinea" sequence deposited on GenBank was more closely related to that from Dendrophyllia arbuscula than to the Atlantic Tubastraea spp., in terms of genome length and base pair similarities. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that the former was misidentified and might actually be a member from the genus Dendrophyllia. In addition, although in general the COX1 locus has a slow evolutionary rate in Scleractinia, it was the most variable region of the Tubastraea mt genome and can be used as markers for genus or species identification. Given the limited data available for azooxanthellate corals, the results presented here represent an important contribution to our understanding of phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the Scleractinia.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic representatives of the invasive Pacific coral species Tubastraea coccinea and T. tagusensis (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae): Implications for species identification.

    PubMed

    Capel, K C C; Migotto, A E; Zilberberg, C; Lin, M F; Forsman, Z; Miller, D J; Kitahara, M V

    2016-09-30

    Members of the azooxanthellate coral genus Tubastraea are invasive species with particular concern because they have become established and are fierce competitors in the invaded areas in many parts of the world. Pacific Tubastraea species are spreading fast throughout the Atlantic Ocean, occupying over 95% of the available substrate in some areas and out-competing native endemic species. Approximately half of all known coral species are azooxanthellate but these are seriously under-represented compared to zooxanthellate corals in terms of the availability of mitochondrial (mt) genome data. In the present study, the complete mt DNA sequences of Atlantic individuals of the invasive scleractinian species Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis were determined and compared to the GenBank reference sequence available for a Pacific "T. coccinea" individual. At 19,094bp (compared to 19,070bp for the GenBank specimen), the mt genomes assembled for the Atlantic T. coccinea and T. tagusensis were among the longest sequence determined to date for "Complex" scleractinians. Comparisons of genomes data showed that the "T. coccinea" sequence deposited on GenBank was more closely related to that from Dendrophyllia arbuscula than to the Atlantic Tubastraea spp., in terms of genome length and base pair similarities. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that the former was misidentified and might actually be a member from the genus Dendrophyllia. In addition, although in general the COX1 locus has a slow evolutionary rate in Scleractinia, it was the most variable region of the Tubastraea mt genome and can be used as markers for genus or species identification. Given the limited data available for azooxanthellate corals, the results presented here represent an important contribution to our understanding of phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the Scleractinia. PMID:27234370

  13. Settlement Effects on Favia fragum (Scleractinia, Faviidae) Exposed to Different Sediment Sources from Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, C.; Randall, C.; Barron, M.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production and urban development in Puerto Rico have increased the rate of sedimentation to the coastal, marine environment, which has the potential to adversely affect coral-reef ecosystems. The processes of settlement and metamorphosis of coral larvae are integral to the maintenance and recovery of coral reefs, yet the effects of sedimentation in Puerto Rico on these processes are not well understood. Planulae from laboratory cultured colonies of Favia fragum were exposed to sediment from shallow, marine habitats of Guánica (Brown Inlet) and Peñuelas (Tallaboa Bay), Puerto Rico to determine how sediment source, concentration, and grain-size affect larval settlement. Planulae were exposed to six concentrations of Guánica and Peñuelas sediment ranging from 20 to 640 mg cm-2 and to a single concentration (20 mg cm-2) of Peñuelas sediment fractioned into five grain-size classes (<32 μm, 33-63 μm, 64-125 μm, 126-250 μm, and 251-500 μm). Larval settlement decreased as the concentration of sediment increased, resulting in a median effective concentration (EC50) of 31.2 mg cm-2 for Guánica sediment and 1.7 mg cm-2 for Peñuelas sediment. There was no apparent effect of sediment grain size on the settlement of planulae exposed to 20 mg cm-2 of Peñuelas sediment. These results suggest that the source of sediment can be an important factor determining the success of coral settlement, and that coral settlement can be inhibited at concentrations of sediment that are below thresholds considered to be protective of reef-building corals.

  14. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  15. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:27321092

  16. [Space-time variation of Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, from shallow bottom in San Jose Island, Gulf of California].

    PubMed

    Holguin Quiñones, Oscar Efraín; González Medina, Felipe de Jesús; Solís Marín, Francisco; Félix Pico, Esteban F

    2008-09-01

    Between the years 1999 and 2000, six expeditions were made to Isla San José, in the Gulf of California. Observations and samples were taken of benthic macroinvertebrates in nine locations. Based on the samples, the specific components of three phyla were determined: Cnidaria (Scleractinia and Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda), and Echinodermata (Echinoidea and Holothuroidea). The abundance of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates was visually estimated through free dives at a depth of between two and six meters along two transects parallel to the coast. A total of 38 taxa in three groups were determined. The most abundant species are Tripneustes depressus (44.9%), Echinometra vanbruntii (18.3%), Phataria unifascialis (8.9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8.0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3.6%). No significant differences between diversity (H'), equity (J) and richness of the species (S) during the months and site of study. The similarity analysis identified two groups from locations of the eastern and western coasts. PMID:19419038

  17. Evidence of a second polymorphic ELA class I (ELA-B) locus and gene order for three loci of the equine major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Bernoco, D; Byrns, G; Bailey, E; Lew, A M

    1987-01-01

    Two antisera, B-442 and R-2046, were produced by immunizing offspring with purified peripheral blood lymphocytes from a parent matched for the ELA-A specificity carried on the unshared haplotype. Absorption analysis demonstrated that these antisera contained at least two families of cytotoxic antibodies, one directed against antigens present on T and B cells, and a second directed preferentially against antigens present on surface Ig positive cells. Immunoprecipitation studies using these antisera demonstrated that both antisera contain antibodies specific for glycoproteins with molecular weights characteristic of class I and class II MHC antigens. In lymphocyte typing tests of unfractionated lymphocytes, only the class I activity was readily detectable since the class II activity killed less than 25% of the cells. Family studies demonstrated that these antisera recognize products of genes linked to the ELA system. Based on two recombinants in an extended family it became apparent that the specificities detected by B-442 and R-2046 are not products of the ELA-A locus, but rather they are products of at least one other locus, defined in this paper as ELA-B. In this family a third recombinant was found between the A blood group system and the ELA-A locus. Based on these three recombinants, the most probable linear relationship of the following genes is: A blood group system/ELA-A/ELA-B.

  18. Linear-noise approximation and the chemical master equation agree up to second-order moments for a class of chemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grima, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that the linear-noise approximation (LNA) agrees with the chemical master equation, up to second-order moments, for chemical systems composed of zero and first-order reactions. Here we show that this is also a property of the LNA for a subset of chemical systems with second-order reactions. This agreement is independent of the number of interacting molecules.

  19. Linear-noise approximation and the chemical master equation agree up to second-order moments for a class of chemical systems.

    PubMed

    Grima, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that the linear-noise approximation (LNA) agrees with the chemical master equation, up to second-order moments, for chemical systems composed of zero and first-order reactions. Here we show that this is also a property of the LNA for a subset of chemical systems with second-order reactions. This agreement is independent of the number of interacting molecules.

  20. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  1. A fourth-order finite-difference method based on non-uniform mesh for a class of singular two-point boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Tariq; Kumar, Manoj

    2001-11-01

    We present a three-point finite-difference method based on non-uniform mesh for a class of singular two-point boundary value problem(x[alpha]y')'=f(x,y)y(0)=A, y(1)=B, 0[less-than-or-equals, slant][alpha]<1.We show that the method, based on non-uniform mesh, provides O(h4)-convergent approximations. This method is illustrated by two numerical examples, one is linear and the other is non-linear.

  2. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Deep-Sea Cup Coral Desmophyllum dianthus by 454 Sequencing and Cross-Species Amplifications in Scleractinia Order.

    PubMed

    Addamo, Anna M; García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Taviani, Marco; Machordom, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated for the first time for the deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. We developed conditions for amplifying 24 markers in 10 multiplex reactions. Three to 16 alleles per locus were detected across 25 samples analyzed from Santa Maria di Leuca coral province (Mediterranean Sea). For the 24 polymorphic loci, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.211 to 0.880 and 0.383 to 0.910, respectively; 3 loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, after null allele and sequential Holm-Bonferroni corrections. These newly isolated microsatellites are very useful genetic markers that provide data for future conservation strategies. Cross-amplification of these microsatellites, tested in 46 coral species, representing 40 genera, and 10 families of the phylum Cnidaria, produced informative allelic profiles for 1 to 24 loci. The utility of extending analyses to cross-species amplifications is also discussed.

  3. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  4. Myospora metanephrops (n. g., n. sp.) from marine lobsters and a proposal for erection of a new order and family (Crustaceacida; Myosporidae) in the Class Marinosporidia (Phylum Microsporidia).

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Small, H J; Moss, J; Shields, J D; Reece, K S; Tuck, I

    2010-10-01

    In this study we describe, the first microsporidian parasite from nephropid lobsters. Metanephrops challengeri were captured from an important marine fishery situated off the south coast of New Zealand. Infected lobsters displayed an unusual external appearance and were lethargic. Histology was used to demonstrate replacement of skeletal and other muscles by merogonic and sporogonic stages of the parasite, while transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of diplokaryotic meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts and spore stages, all in direct contact with the host sarcoplasm. Analysis of the ssrDNA gene sequence from the lobster microsporidian suggested a close affinity with Thelohania butleri, a morphologically dissimilar microsporidian from marine shrimps. Whilst morphological features of the lobster parasite are consistent with members of the family Nosematidae, molecular data place the parasite closer to members of the family Thelohanidae. Due to the contradiction between morphological and molecular taxonomic data, we propose the erection of a new genus in which the lobster parasite is the type species (Myospora metanephrops). Furthermore, we recommend the erection of a new family (Myosporidae) and a new order (Crustaceacida) to contain this genus. The taxonomic framework presented could be further applied to the re-classification of existing members of the Phylum Microsporidia.

  5. Characterization of Three mnp Genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and Report of Additional Class II Peroxidases in the Order Hymenochaetales ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L.; Hibbett, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.13) containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only. PMID:20675443

  6. A key to the genera and species of the transversely-dividing Flabellidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Flabellidae), with a guide to the literature, and the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    The transversely-dividing flabellids consist of five genera (Truncatoflabellum, Placotrochides, Blastotrochus, Placotrochus, and Falcatoflabellum) and 45 species. A dichotomous key is provided for these five genera as well as the species of the genus Truncatoflabellum and Placotrochides, the other three genera being monotypic. A tabular key is also provided for the 38 species of Truncatoflabellum. Two new combinations are suggested (Truncatoflabellum gambierense and Truncatoflabellum sphenodeum) and two new species are described (Truncatoflabellum duncani and Truncatoflabellum mozambiquensis). All but one species are illustrated and accompanied by their known distribution and a guide to the pertinent literature for the species. New records of 19 of the 45 species are listed. The transversely-dividing flabellids range from the Middle Eocene to the Recent at depths of 2-3010 m, and constitute 60% of the 65 known extant species of transversely-dividing Scleractinia. PMID:27006620

  7. A key to the genera and species of the transversely-dividing Flabellidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Flabellidae), with a guide to the literature, and the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The transversely-dividing flabellids consist of five genera (Truncatoflabellum, Placotrochides, Blastotrochus, Placotrochus, and Falcatoflabellum) and 45 species. A dichotomous key is provided for these five genera as well as the species of the genus Truncatoflabellum and Placotrochides, the other three genera being monotypic. A tabular key is also provided for the 38 species of Truncatoflabellum. Two new combinations are suggested (Truncatoflabellum gambierense and Truncatoflabellum sphenodeum) and two new species are described (Truncatoflabellum duncani and Truncatoflabellum mozambiquensis). All but one species are illustrated and accompanied by their known distribution and a guide to the pertinent literature for the species. New records of 19 of the 45 species are listed. The transversely-dividing flabellids range from the Middle Eocene to the Recent at depths of 2–3010 m, and constitute 60% of the 65 known extant species of transversely-dividing Scleractinia. PMID:27006620

  8. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on class size,…

  9. Class Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ever since George Washington opted for the title of president rather than king, Americans have been uncomfortable with the idea of class distinctions. This article presents an interview with Dr. Janet Galligani Casey regarding the idea of class distinctions. Galligani Casey, who grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts,…

  10. 7 CFR 1006.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1006.51 Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. 1006.51 Section 1006.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  11. Utility of shallow-water ATRIS images in defining biogeologic processes and self-similarity in skeletal scleractinia, Florida reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, B.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed remote-sensing instrument acquires high-quality digital photographs in shallow-marine settings within water depths of 15 m. The technology, known as the Along-Track Reef-Imaging System, provides remarkably clear, georeferenced imagery that allows visual interpretation of benthic class (substrates, organisms) for mapping coral reef habitats, as intended. Unforeseen, however, are functions new to the initial technologic purpose: interpr??table evidence for real-time biogeologic processes and for perception of scaled-up skeletal self-similarity of scleractinian microstructure. Florida reef sea trials lacked the grid structure required to map contiguous habitat and submarine topography. Thus, only general observations could be made relative to times and sites of imagery. Degradation of corals was nearly universal; absence of reef fish was profound. However, ???1% of more than 23,600 sea-trial images examined provided visual evidence for local environs and processes. Clarity in many images was so exceptional that small tracks left by organisms traversing fine-grained carbonate sand were visible. Other images revealed a compelling sense, not yet fully understood, of the microscopic wall structure characteristic of scleractinian corals. Conclusions drawn from classifiable images are that demersal marine animals, where imaged, are oblivious to the equipment and that the technology has strong capabilities beyond mapping habitat. Imagery acquired along predetermined transects that cross a variety of geomorphic features within depth limits will ( 1) facilitate construction of accurate contour maps of habitat and bathymetry without need for ground-truthing, (2) contain a strong geologic component of interpreted real-time processes as they relate to imaged topography and regional geomorphology, and (3) allow cost-effective monitoring of regional- and local-scale changes in an ecosystem by use of existing-image global-positioning system coordinates to re

  12. Spatial and size-frequency distribution of Acropora (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) species in Chinchorro Bank, Mexican Caribbean: implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Zepeda, A.; Hernández-Arana, H.; Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    The Mexican Government decreed Chinchorro Bank reef as a Biosphere Reserve in 1996. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and size-frequency distribution of Acropora spp. in order to provide further knowledge and tools to enhance management. A field survey was conducted, within six regions, to locate and measure Acropora patches in the reef lagoon. Density, colony size and living tissue cover of Acropora colonies were evaluated using the line-intercept transect technique, combining direct observations and video transects. The results showed that Acropora spp. was preferentially distributed in the southern regions; where cover and density were high. Based on these results and considering that Acropora spp. produces landscape heterogeneity, which in turn generates shelter for other species, including some of considerable economic importance, then at least the South East region should be considered as a key area for Acropora species conservation, and should be included in the Chinchorro Bank management plan.

  13. Analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of three members of the Montastraea annularis coral species complex (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Hironobu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2005-11-01

    Complete mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two individuals each of Montastraea annularis, Montastraea faveolata, and Montastraea franksi were determined. Gene composition and order differed substantially from the sea anemone Metridium senile, but were identical to that of the phylogenetically distant coral genus Acropora. However, characteristics of the non-coding regions differed between the two scleractinian genera. Among members of the M. annularis complex, only 25 of 16,134 base pair positions were variable. Sixteen of these occurred in one colony of M. franksi, which (together with additional data) indicates the existence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages in this species. Overall, rates of evolution for these mitochondrial genomes were extremely slow (0.03 0.04% per million years based on the fossil record of the M. annularis complex). At higher taxonomic levels, patterns of genetic divergence and synonymous/nonsynonymous substitutions suggest non-neutral and unequal rates of evolution between the two lineages to which Montastraea and Acropora belong.

  14. Nonlinear Optical Properties of X(C6H5)4 (X = B(-), C, N(+), P(+)): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability.

    PubMed

    Gieseking, Rebecca L; Ensley, Trenton R; Hu, Honghua; Hagan, David J; Risko, Chad; Van Stryland, Eric W; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-01

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B(-), C, N(+), and P(+), that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: These systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  15. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  16. Class distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  17. Dehalococcoides mccartyi gen. nov., sp. nov., obligately organohalide-respiring anaerobic bacteria relevant to halogen cycling and bioremediation, belong to a novel bacterial class, Dehalococcoidia classis nov., order Dehalococcoidales ord. nov. and family Dehalococcoidaceae fam. nov., within the phylum Chloroflexi.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Frank E; Yan, Jun; Ritalahti, Kirsti M; Adrian, Lorenz; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Müller, Jochen A; Fullerton, Heather; Zinder, Stephen H; Spormann, Alfred M

    2013-02-01

    characteristics, the organohalide-respiring isolates represent a new genus and species, for which the name Dehalococcoides mccartyi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Isolates BAV1 ( = ATCC BAA-2100  = JCM 16839  = KCTC 5957), FL2 ( = ATCC BAA-2098  = DSM 23585  = JCM 16840  = KCTC 5959), GT ( = ATCC BAA-2099  = JCM 16841  = KCTC 5958), CBDB1, 195(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2266(T)  = KCTC 15142(T)) and VS are considered strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, with strain 195(T) as the type strain. The new class Dehalococcoidia classis nov., order Dehalococcoidales ord. nov. and family Dehalococcoidaceae fam. nov. are described to accommodate the new taxon. PMID:22544797

  18. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  19. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS Class C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section...

  20. Control Class Summaries and Control Class IV from April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-22

    The D0 cryogenic control system is a complicated system with many facets. Because of the large number and variety of features in the system, a series of ongoing control system training seminars, or control classes, were created in order to keep people up to date on the operation of the system. As of the writing of this engineering note, there have been four classes. The original lecture notes from each class can be found in the cryogenic control room at the D0 Assembly Building, or in the Co-op office. This note provides a summary of the first three control classes, and it includes the entire set of notes from the fourth class, which was held in April of 1990. This class was taught by Jeff Wendlandt and Dan Markley. Dan should be consulted for more complete explanations than those given in the notes. The notes are, in fact, more of a reference for someone who has some experience with the system, than they are a training manual. Most of the pages include pictures and printouts of different menus and functions, useful for finding details without searching through the actual program. In general, this note serves as a pointer to the existence of the control class lecture notes, and as an explanation of their overall contents and purpose.

  1. The occurrence of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) on oil and gas platforms in the North Sea: colony growth, recruitment and environmental controls on distribution.

    PubMed

    Gass, Susan E; Roberts, J Murray

    2006-05-01

    This study reports a newly established sub-population of Lophelia pertusa, the dominant reef-framework forming coral species in the north-east Atlantic, on oil and gas platforms in the northern North Sea. L. pertusa was positively identified on 13 of 14 platforms examined using existing oil and gas industry visual inspections. Two platforms were inspected in more detail to examine depth and colony size distributions. We recorded 947 colonies occurring between 59 and 132 m depth that coincides with cold Atlantic water at depths below the summer thermocline in the northern North Sea. We suggest that these colonies provide evidence for a planktonic larval stage of L. pertusa with recruits initially originating from populations in the north-east Atlantic and now self recruiting to the platforms. Size class distribution showed a continuous range of size classes, but with few outlying large colonies. The break between the largest colonies and the rest of the population is considered as the point when colonies began self recruiting to the platforms, resulting in greater colonization success. We present the first documented in situ colony growth rate estimate (26 +/- 5 mm yr(-1)) for L. pertusa based on 15 colonies from the Tern Alpha platform with evidence for yearly recruitment events starting the year the platform was installed. Evidence of contamination from drill muds and cuttings was observed on the Heather platform but appeared limited to regions close to drilling discharge points, where colonies experience partial as well as whole colony mortality.

  2. Does Class Size Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  3. Tepidisphaera mucosa gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic member of the class Phycisphaerae in the phylum Planctomycetes, and proposal of a new family, Tepidisphaeraceae fam. nov., and a new order, Tepidisphaerales ord. nov.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, O L; Merkel, A Yu; Novikov, A A; Baslerov, R V; Toshchakov, S V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A

    2015-02-01

    Three strains of facultatively aerobic, moderately thermophilic bacteria were isolated from terrestrial hot springs in Baikal Lake region and Kamchatka (Russia). Cells of the new isolates were cocci reproducing by binary fission. The temperature range for growth was between 20 and 56 °C and the pH range for growth from pH 4.5 to 8.5, with optimal growth at 47-50 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. The organisms were chemoheterotrophs preferring sugars and polysaccharides as growth substrates. 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains 2842, 2813 and 2918Kr were nearly identical (99.7-100 % similarity) and indicated that the strains belonged to the phylum Planctomycetes. The phylogenetically closest cultivated relatives were Algisphaera agarilytica 06SJR6-2(T) and Phycisphaera mikurensis FYK2301M01(T) with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 82.4 and 80.3 %, respectively. The novel strains differed from them by higher growth temperature, sensitivity to NaCl concentration above 3.0 % and by their cellular fatty acids profile. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological data, strains 2842(T), 2813 and 2918Kr represent a novel genus and species for which we propose the name Tepidisphaera mucosa sp. nov. The type strain is 2842(T) ( = VKM B-2832(T) = JCM 19875(T)). We also propose that Tepidisphaera gen. nov. is the type genus of a novel family, Tepidisphaeraceae fam. nov. and a novel order, Tepidisphaerales ord. nov. PMID:25404483

  4. 7 CFR 1001.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1001.51 Section 1001.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  5. 7 CFR 1033.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1033.51 Section 1033.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1126.51 Section 1126.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  7. 7 CFR 1131.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1131.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1131.51 Section 1131.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1032.51 Section 1032.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  9. 7 CFR 1032.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1032.51 Section 1032.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1001.51 Section 1001.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1124.51 Section 1124.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  12. 7 CFR 1124.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1124.51 Section 1124.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1126.51 Section 1126.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1131.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1131.51 Section 1131.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1033.51 Section 1033.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  16. 7 CFR 1030.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1030.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1030.51 Section 1030.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  17. 7 CFR 1030.51 - Class I differential and price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1030.51 Class I differential and price. The Class I... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class I differential and price. 1030.51 Section 1030.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  18. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  19. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  20. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  1. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  2. Two classes of speculative peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2001-10-01

    Speculation not only occurs in financial markets but also in numerous other markets, e.g. commodities, real estate, collectibles, and so on. Such speculative movements result in price peaks which share many common characteristics: same order of magnitude of duration with respect to amplitude, same shape (the so-called sharp-peak pattern). Such similarities suggest (at least as a first approximation) a common speculative behavior. However, a closer examination shows that in fact there are (at least) two distinct classes of speculative peaks. For the first, referred to as class U, (i) the amplitude of the peak is negatively correlated with the price at the start of the peak (ii) the ensemble coefficient of variation exhibits a trough. Opposite results are observed for the second class that we refer to as class S. Once these empirical observations have been made we try to understand how they should be interpreted. First, we show that the two properties are in fact related in the sense that the second is a consequence of the first. Secondly, by listing a number of cases belonging to each class we observe that the markets in the S-class offer collection of items from which investors can select those they prefer. On the contrary, U-markets consist of undifferentiated products for which a selection cannot be made in the same way. All prices considered in the paper are real (i.e., deflated) prices.

  3. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  4. Law Professors Rule Laptops out of Order in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    The forbidden-laptop zone is territory into which few professors dare tread. Students have been known to protest when laptops are banned from a classroom, and even claim that they are being denied a proper education. Professors who have taken the bold step, though, sound like they've experienced an epiphany. A professor at the University, Don…

  5. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51... C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order.... Each Class C airspace area designated for an airport in subpart C of FAA Order 7400.9U (incorporated...

  6. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51... C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order.... Each Class C airspace area designated for an airport in subpart C of FAA Order 7400.9W (incorporated...

  7. 14 CFR 71.51 - Class C airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class C airspace. 71.51 Section 71.51... C Airspace § 71.51 Class C airspace. The Class C airspace areas listed in subpart C of FAA Order.... Each Class C airspace area designated for an airport in subpart C of FAA Order 7400.9V (incorporated...

  8. On Local Homogeneity and Stochastically Ordered Mixed Rasch Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Svend; Hansen, Mogens; Hansen, Carsten Rosenberg

    2006-01-01

    Mixed Rasch models add latent classes to conventional Rasch models, assuming that the Rasch model applies within each class and that relative difficulties of items are different in two or more latent classes. This article considers a family of stochastically ordered mixed Rasch models, with ordinal latent classes characterized by increasing total…

  9. Pilot Class Testing: Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Washington Foreign Language Program.

    Statistics derived from test score data from the pilot classes participating in the Washington Foreign Language Program are presented in tables in this report. An index accompanies the tables, itemizing the classes by level (FLES, middle, and high school), grade test, language skill, and school. MLA-Coop test performances for each class were…

  10. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  11. The College Literature Class: Observation and Description of Class Sessions on "The Scarlet Letter."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitkpatrick, Carolyn Grinnell

    How seven college teachers and their students discussed Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" is described in order to discover basic information about how different teachers approach the teaching of the same work. All of the classes were surveys of American literature taught by experienced teachers. The 24 class hours were tape-recorded and…

  12. 78 FR 74005 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Grand Forks,...

  13. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  14. Defendants challenge class action certification.

    PubMed

    Dubin, C S; Wadleigh, J

    1995-04-01

    The National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF) and the manufacturers of Anti-Hemophilia Factor Concentrates (AHF) are being sued in a class action case for ignoring and downplaying risks of HIV infection from AHF in order to enhance their financial gain. The defendants in the case, however, have challenged the class action certification. Their Petition for a Writ of Mandamus argues that a class action lawsuit is not an appropriate legal vehicle for this type of case because, among other reasons, it will place an entire industry's survival in the hands of a single jury decision. The two primary challenges to certification by the petition are that 1) it would complicate hemophilia/AIDS litigation and not simplify it, and 2) there is no common definition of negligence throughout state law. With certification in question, it is conceivable, according to attorney David Shrager, "that hundreds or even thousands of additional claims will now be filed in state and Federal courts throughout the country." Essentially, the defense against the Writ argues that the defendants knew in the 1960s of the high risk from known and new viruses in the plasma pools, that they had a duty to reduce such risk, and that they not only failed to withdraw their products from the market, they downplayed the harm done to persons who used contaminated AHF by making misleading statements. The class action trial is scheduled to begin October 2, 1995. PMID:11362336

  15. Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.

  16. Quality control of MHC class I maturation.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Kajsa M; Wang, Ping

    2004-01-01

    Assembly of MHC class I molecules in the ER is regulated by the so-called loading complex (LC). This multiprotein complex is of definite importance for class I maturation, but its exact organization and order of assembly are not known. Evidence implies that the quality of peptides loaded onto class I molecules is controlled at multiple stages during MHC class I assembly. We recently found that tapasin, an important component of the LC, interacts with COPI-coated vesicles. Biochemical studies suggested that the tapa-sin-COPI interaction regulates the retrograde transport of immature MHC class I molecules from the Golgi network back to the ER. Also other findings now propose that in addition to the peptide-loading control, the quality control of MHC class I antigen presentation includes the restriction of export of suboptimally loaded MHC class I molecules to the cell surface. In this review, we use recent studies of tapasin to examine the efficiency of TAP, the LC constitution, ER quality control of class I assembly, and peptide optimization. The concepts of MHC class I recycling and ER retention are also discussed. PMID:14718384

  17. Higher-order generic functions for CLOS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for developing higher-order generic functions within the Common Lisp Object System similar to the ones in Common Lisp for processing sequences. The framework consist of several CLOS classes which define a protocol that allows other classes to inherit default methods for many higher-order generic functions. These generic functions provide an elegant and uniform framework for processing CLOS objects that primarily represent collections of other objects.

  18. 7 CFR 985.104 - Changed classes of spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changed classes of spearmint oil. 985.104 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.104 Changed classes of spearmint oil. Pursuant to § 985.4, the classes of spearmint...

  19. 7 CFR 985.104 - Changed classes of spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changed classes of spearmint oil. 985.104 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.104 Changed classes of spearmint oil. Pursuant to § 985.4, the classes of spearmint...

  20. 7 CFR 985.104 - Changed classes of spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changed classes of spearmint oil. 985.104 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.104 Changed classes of spearmint oil. Pursuant to § 985.4, the classes of spearmint...

  1. 7 CFR 985.104 - Changed classes of spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changed classes of spearmint oil. 985.104 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.104 Changed classes of spearmint oil. Pursuant to § 985.4, the classes of spearmint...

  2. 7 CFR 985.104 - Changed classes of spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changed classes of spearmint oil. 985.104 Section 985... ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.104 Changed classes of spearmint oil. Pursuant to § 985.4, the classes of spearmint...

  3. Changes in Pedagogy: A Qualitative Result of Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; McDermott, Peter; Martin, Glen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of eliminating tracking and instead teaching heterogeneous classes using cooperative learning. Observations of high school classes, interviews with students and teachers, and specimen data found several changes in pedagogy and attitudes, including more student-centered, interactive classes; greater higher-order questioning and…

  4. A Laboratory Model for Studying Response-Class Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabani, Daniel B.; Carr, James E.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2009-01-01

    If the members of a functional response class occur in a predictable order, a response-class hierarchy is said to exist. Although this topic has received some attention in the applied literature, it remains relatively understudied. The purpose of the current investigation was to develop an analogue model of a response-class hierarchy. Children…

  5. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  6. Online, Bigger Classes May Be Better Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In his work as a professor, Stephen Downes used to feel that he was helping those who least needed it. His students at places like the University of Alberta already had a leg up in life and could afford the tuition. When a colleague suggested they co-teach an online class in learning theory at the University of Manitoba, in 2008, Downes welcomed…

  7. Luminosity class of neutron reflectometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshanov, N. K.

    2016-10-01

    The formulas that relate neutron fluxes at reflectometers with differing q-resolutions are derived. The reference luminosity is defined as a maximum flux for measurements with a standard resolution. The methods of assessing the reference luminosity of neutron reflectometers are presented for monochromatic and white beams, which are collimated with either double diaphragm or small angle Soller systems. The values of the reference luminosity for unified parameters define luminosity class of reflectometers. The luminosity class characterizes (each operation mode of) the instrument by one number and can be used to classify operating reflectometers and optimize designed reflectometers. As an example the luminosity class of the neutron reflectometer NR-4M (reactor WWR-M, Gatchina) is found for four operation modes: 2.1 (monochromatic non-polarized beam), 1.9 (monochromatic polarized beam), 1.5 (white non-polarized beam), 1.1 (white polarized beam); it is shown that optimization of measurements may increase the flux at the sample up to two orders of magnitude with monochromatic beams and up to one order of magnitude with white beams. A fan beam reflectometry scheme with monochromatic neutrons is suggested, and the expected increase in luminosity is evaluated. A tuned-phase chopper with a variable TOF resolution is recommended for reflectometry with white beams.

  8. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  9. Overview of the taxonomy of zooxanthellate Scleractinia.

    PubMed

    Veron, John

    2013-11-01

    Coral taxonomy has entered a historical phase where nomenclatorial uncertainty is rapidly increasing. The fundamental cause is mandatory adherence to historical monographs that lack essential information of all sorts, and also to type specimens, if they exist at all, that are commonly unrecognizable fragments or are uncharacteristic of the species they are believed to represent. Historical problems, including incorrect subsequent type species designations, also create uncertainty for many well-established genera. The advent of in situ studies in the 1970s revealed these issues; now molecular technology is again changing the taxonomic landscape. The competing methodologies involved must be seen in context if they are to avoid becoming an additional basis for continuing nomenclatorial instability. To prevent this happening, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) will need to focus on rules that consolidate well-established nomenclature and allow for the designation of new type specimens that are unambiguous, and which include both skeletal material and soft tissue for molecular study. Taxonomic and biogeographic findings have now become linked, with molecular methodologies providing the capacity to re-visit past taxonomic decisions, and to extend both taxonomy and biogeography into the realm of evolutionary theory. It is proposed that most species will ultimately be seen as operational taxonomic units that are human rather than natural constructs, which in consequence will always have fuzzy morphological, genetic, and distribution boundaries. The pathway ahead calls for the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomies, and for website delivery of information that crosses current discipline boundaries.

  10. Overview of the taxonomy of zooxanthellate Scleractinia

    PubMed Central

    Veron, John

    2013-01-01

    Coral taxonomy has entered a historical phase where nomenclatorial uncertainty is rapidly increasing. The fundamental cause is mandatory adherence to historical monographs that lack essential information of all sorts, and also to type specimens, if they exist at all, that are commonly unrecognizable fragments or are uncharacteristic of the species they are believed to represent. Historical problems, including incorrect subsequent type species designations, also create uncertainty for many well-established genera. The advent of in situ studies in the 1970s revealed these issues; now molecular technology is again changing the taxonomic landscape. The competing methodologies involved must be seen in context if they are to avoid becoming an additional basis for continuing nomenclatorial instability. To prevent this happening, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) will need to focus on rules that consolidate well-established nomenclature and allow for the designation of new type specimens that are unambiguous, and which include both skeletal material and soft tissue for molecular study. Taxonomic and biogeographic findings have now become linked, with molecular methodologies providing the capacity to re-visit past taxonomic decisions, and to extend both taxonomy and biogeography into the realm of evolutionary theory. It is proposed that most species will ultimately be seen as operational taxonomic units that are human rather than natural constructs, which in consequence will always have fuzzy morphological, genetic, and distribution boundaries. The pathway ahead calls for the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomies, and for website delivery of information that crosses current discipline boundaries. PMID:24459324

  11. Weighted order statistic classifiers with large rank-order margin.

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R. B.; Hush, D. R.; Theiler, J. P.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe how Stack Filters and Weighted Order Statistic function classes can be used for classification problems. This leads to a new design criteria for linear classifiers when inputs are binary-valued and weights are positive . We present a rank-based measure of margin that can be directly optimized as a standard linear program and investigate its effect on generalization error with experiment. Our approach can robustly combine large numbers of base hypothesis and easily implement known priors through regularization.

  12. The Last Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  13. The Conversation Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  14. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  15. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  16. Teaching Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  17. Class-specific effector functions of therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Virginie; Laffleur, Brice; Cogné, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Physiology usually combines polyclonal antibodies of multiple classes in a single humoral response. Beyond their common ability to bind antigens, these various classes of human immunoglobulins carry specific functions which can each serve specific goals. In many cases, the function of a monoclonal therapeutic antibody may thus be modulated according to the class of its constant domains. Depending on the immunoglobulin class, different functional assays will be used in order to evaluate the functional activity of a monoclonal antibody.

  18. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  19. Molecular signatures for the phylum (class) Thermotogae and a proposal for its division into three orders (Thermotogales, Kosmotogales ord. nov. and Petrotogales ord. nov.) containing four families (Thermotogaceae, Fervidobacteriaceae fam. nov., Kosmotogaceae fam. nov. and Petrotogaceae fam. nov.) and a new genus Pseudothermotoga gen. nov. with five new combinations.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Vaibhav; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-01-01

    All species from the phylum Thermotogae, class Thermotogae, are currently part of a single family, Thermotogaceae. Using genomic data from 17 Thermotogae species, detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses were carried out to understand their evolutionary relationships and identify molecular markers that are indicative of species relationships within the phylum. In the 16S rRNA gene tree and phylogenetic trees based upon two different large sets of proteins, members of the phylum Thermotogae formed a number of well-resolved clades. Character compatibility analysis on the protein sequence data also recovered a single largest clique that exhibited similar topology to the protein trees and where all nodes were supported by multiple compatible characters. Comparative genomic analyses have identified 85 molecular markers, in the form of conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specific for different observed clades of Thermotogae at multiple phylogenetic depths. Eleven of these CSIs were specific for the phylum Thermotogae whereas nine others supported a clade comprising of the genera Thermotoga, Thermosipho and Fervidobacterium. Ten other CSIs provided evidence that the genera Thermosipho and Fervidobacterium shared a common ancestor exclusive of the other Thermotogae and four and eight CSIs in other proteins were specific for the genera Thermosipho and Fervidobacterium, respectively. Two other deep branching clades, one consisting of the genera Kosmotoga and Mesotoga and the other comprising of the genera Petrotoga and Marinitoga, were also supported by multiple CSIs. Based upon the consistent branching of the Thermotogae species using different phylogenetic approaches, and numerous identified CSIs supporting the distinctness of different clades, it is proposed that the class Thermotogae should be divided into three orders (Thermotogales, Kosmotogales ord. nov. and Petrotogales ord. nov.) containing four families (Thermotogaceae, Fervidobacteriaceae

  20. Venture Class Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Provide an introduction to the Launch Services Program, and specifically the strategic initiative that drove the Venture Class Launch Services contracts. Provide information from the VCLS request for proposals, as well as the Agency's CubeSat Launch Initiative.

  1. Class, health and justice.

    PubMed

    Marchand, S; Wikler, D; Landesman, B

    1998-01-01

    Class inequalities in health are intuitively unjust. Although the link between social class and health status has been fully documented, the precise nature of the injustice has not been made clear. Four alternative views are presented, corresponding to four goals: (1) maximizing the sum total of health; (2) equalizing the health status of higher and lower social classes; (3) maximizing the health status of the lowest social class; and (4) maximizing the health status of the sickest individuals in society. The nature of the injustice is further obscured by several theoretical and empirical questions, like the degree and significance of personal responsibility for illness and the relation of the degree of economic inequality to sum total of health.

  2. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  3. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  4. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  5. A class in astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airieau, S. A.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.

  6. Pipeline of Known Chemical Classes of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    d’Urso de Souza Mendes, Cristina; de Souza Antunes, Adelaide Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many approaches are used to discover new antibiotic compounds, one of the most widespread being the chemical modification of known antibiotics. This type of discovery has been so important in the development of new antibiotics that most antibiotics used today belong to the same chemical classes as antibiotics discovered in the 1950s and 1960s. Even though the discovery of new classes of antibiotics is urgently needed, the chemical modification of antibiotics in known classes is still widely used to discover new antibiotics, resulting in a great number of compounds in the discovery and clinical pipeline that belong to existing classes. In this scenario, the present article presents an overview of the R&D pipeline of new antibiotics in known classes of antibiotics, from discovery to clinical trial, in order to map out the technological trends in this type of antibiotic R&D, aiming to identify the chemical classes attracting most interest, their spectrum of activity, and the new subclasses under development. The result of the study shows that the new antibiotics in the pipeline belong to the following chemical classes: quinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides, oxazolidinones, tetracyclines, pleuromutilins, beta-lactams, lipoglycopeptides, polymyxins and cyclic lipopeptides. PMID:27029317

  7. Aeroflex Technology as Class-Y Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook; Agarwal, Shri; Popelar, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Modern space field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices with increased functional density and operational frequency, such as Xilinx Virtex 4 (V4) and S (V5), are packaged in non-hermetic ceramic flip chip forms. These next generation space parts were not qualified to the MIL-PRF-38535 Qualified Manufacturer Listing (QML) class-V when they were released because class-V was only intended for hermetic parts. In order to bring Xilinx V5 type packages into the QML system, it was suggested that class-Y be set up as a new category. From 2010 through 2014, a JEDEC G12 task group developed screening and qualification requirements for Class-Y products. The Document Standardization Division of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has completed an engineering practice study. In parallel with the class-Y efforts, the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program has funded JPL to study potential reliability issues of the class-Y products. The major hurdle of this task was the absence of adequate research samples. Figure 1-1 shows schematic diagrams of typical structures of class-Y type products. Typically, class-Y products are either in ceramic flip chip column grid array (CGA) or land grid array (LGA) form. In class-Y packages, underfill and heat spread adhesive materials are directly exposed to the spacecraft environment due to their non-hermeticity. One of the concerns originally raised was that the underfill material could degrade due to the spacecraft environment and negatively impact the reliability of the package. In order to study such issues, it was necessary to use ceramic daisy chain flip chip package samples so that continuity of flip chip solder bumps could be monitored during the reliability tests. However, none of the commercially available class-Y daisy chain parts had electrical connections through flip chip solder bumps; only solder columns were daisy chained, which made it impossible to test continuity of flip chip solder bumps without using extremely

  8. 76 FR 70919 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... would establish Class E En Route Domestic airspace to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight...

  9. Class Rank Weighs Down True Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining class rank does not help students achieve more or reach higher levels of proficiency. Evidence indicates ranking students may diminish students' motivation. High school educators argue that they are compelled to rank-order graduating students because selective colleges and universities require information about…

  10. A New Class of Pandiagonal Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loly, P. D.; Steeds, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    An interesting class of purely pandiagonal, i.e. non-magic, whole number (integer) squares of orders (row/column dimension) of the powers of two which are related to Gray codes and square Karnaugh maps has been identified. Treated as matrices these squares possess just two non-zero eigenvalues. The construction of these squares has been automated…

  11. Persistence Rates in Day Classes: Fall, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    In order to investigate patterns of persistence in courses taken by day students at Los Angeles City College, class enrollment data were gathered at the end of the third week of the Fall 1978 semester, at the first and second census weeks, and on the last day of the semester. Additionally, the number of students receiving final grades other than W…

  12. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  13. Coming out in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  14. Shrinking Your Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron-Thorpe, Farren L.; Olson, Jo Clay; Davis, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Toys in the classroom was the result of a National Science Foundation grant that brought two engineering graduate students to a middle school math class. The graduate students and teachers collaborated in an effort to enhance students' mathematical learning. An engineering context was theorized as a way to further develop students' understanding…

  15. IQ and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    1980-01-01

    Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)

  16. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  17. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  18. Class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-10-23

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  19. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  20. Microarrays for Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…

  1. Class Attitudes among Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, James F.; Lancaster, Diana M.

    Class attitudes among dental students were studied at Louisiana State University in spring 1986, with attention to attitudes toward leadership, faculty and administration, study habits, labs and clinics, information acquisition, social life, and class unification. Class attitudes became more uniform and deeply held as the classes progressed…

  2. Second-order cascading in third-order nonlinear optical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Gerald R.

    1982-12-01

    Because cascaded second-order processes make substantial qualitative and quanitative differences to the results of third-order nonlinear optical experiments, a formalism for their treatment is presented. The symmetry dictates concerning the occurrence and relationships of magnitudes of cascading are tabulated for the higher symmetry crystal classes. Angular momentum considerations are applied to the situations allowing circularly polarized light waves.

  3. Economy class syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahiar, F; Mohler, S R

    1994-10-01

    A recent case of the "Economy Class Syndrome" is presented, emphasizing the syndrome's aeromedical implications and prevention. The clinical presentation, current modes of prophylaxis and therapy, plus a brief but pertinent historical background, are described. The syndrome is potentially fatal, and the authors stress that the condition needs to be recognized as a preventable hazard of air travel. Adoption of the preventive measures described herein can assist in promoting healthy air travel.

  4. 32 CFR 1633.6 - Consideration of classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of classes. 1633.6 Section 1633.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF CLASSIFICATION § 1633.6 Consideration of classes. Claims of a registrant will be considered in inverse order of the listing of the...

  5. Race and Class in a Culture of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ray; Raley, Jason D.; Seyer-Ochi, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Studies of race, class, and educational risk often proceed in an established but misleading order: First, race is defined as a trait given at birth and turned into trouble by prejudice and unequal conditions; then, class is defined as traits socialized into children with diminished socioeconomic opportunities; finally, risk is treated as the…

  6. Participation in a Master Class: Experiences of Older Amateur Pianists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Although many amateur performers enjoy participating in master classes, we know little about what it means to them. The aim of this paper is to investigate learning in a master class with amateur pianists from an emic perspective in order to increase knowledge and understanding about older music learners engaging with instrumental tuition. The…

  7. 76 FR 35369 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... the Los Angeles VFR Task Force, and the Los Angeles Class B Workgroup. This action would further... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Aviation Administration proposes to amend 14 CFR part 71 as follows: PART 71--DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B,...

  8. Resolution of grass canopy biomass classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of variance methods has been applied to in situ grassland spectral reflectance data in order to determine the classes or levels of total wet biomass that can be resolved spectrally by a single narrow band measurement. Ground-truth clipping of blue grama grass plots was performed immediately following spectral reflectance measurements at 91 wavelength intervals which were 0.005 microns apart over the spectral range from 0.350 to 0.800 microns. It was found that the photographic infrared region of 0.750 to 0.800 microns could be used to distinguish three classes or levels of total wet biomass. Four or five classes, particularly at higher biomass levels, could not be distinguished by this technique.

  9. Type Ibn Supernovae: Not a Single Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet diverse class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. However, unlike the more common Type IIn supernovae, whose interaction with hydrogen-rich circumstellar material has been shown to generate a wide variety of light curve shapes, we find that light curves of Type Ibn supernovae are more homogeneous and faster evolving. Spectroscopically, we find that Type Ibn supernovae divide cleanly into two classes, only one of which resembles the archetypal Type Ibn SN 2006jc. We explore various photometric and spectroscopic parameter spaces in order to characterize these two classes. We consider the possibility that not all objects classified as Type Ibn have the same physical origin.

  10. Class Participation: Promoting In-Class Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Class participation has long been valued by faculty members interested in engaging students in the learning process. This paper discusses class participation and shares participation techniques that promote active student engagement during class meetings. Emphasis is placed on techniques that invite a larger number of students into a course's…

  11. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class-imbalanced data are exacerbated when

  12. How to name and order convex polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Voytekhovsky, Yury L

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a method is suggested for naming any convex polyhedron by a numerical code arising from the adjacency matrix of its edge graph. A polyhedron is uniquely fixed by its name and can be built using it. Classes of convex n-acra (i.e. n-vertex polyhedra) are strictly ordered by their names. PMID:27580206

  13. Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Ann-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

  14. The Class of '34

    PubMed Central

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, including the arrival of antibiotic drugs and the medicare system. Imagesp558-a

  15. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, I.; Hooper, Sean; Lykidis, A; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla L.; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam L; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  16. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  17. Combination Classes and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jaime L.

    2012-01-01

    Using the ECLS-K and considering first graders in single-grade and K-1 and 1-2 combination classes, I discuss the mechanisms underlying the combination-class effect and address the systematic school-, teacher-, and student-level differences that confound estimates of this effect. I find evidence for positive selection into 1-2 classes, but using a…

  18. A Class Traitor in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on his feelings as a working-class transplant into academic culture and the middle class. He draws on his feelings of alienation from the people who surround him and his observations of the cultural subordination necessary to succeed in the middle class world to explain his desire to do more to help other…

  19. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  20. Marx and Dahrendorf on Income Inequality, Class Consciousness and Class Conflict: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Robert V.; Kelley, Jonathan

    The issue addressed by this paper is the lack of empirical research on the class theories of Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf. In order to bridge this gap, data are analyzed on the theoretical and statistical implications of Marx's theory (which focuses on ownership of the means of production) and Dahrendorf's theory (which focuses on authority in…

  1. Multimethod latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Correct and, hence, valid classifications of individuals are of high importance in the social sciences as these classifications are the basis for diagnoses and/or the assignment to a treatment. The via regia to inspect the validity of psychological ratings is the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approach. First, a latent variable model for the analysis of rater agreement (latent rater agreement model) will be presented that allows for the analysis of convergent validity between different measurement approaches (e.g., raters). Models of rater agreement are transferred to the level of latent variables. Second, the latent rater agreement model will be extended to a more informative MTMM latent class model. This model allows for estimating (i) the convergence of ratings, (ii) method biases in terms of differential latent distributions of raters and differential associations of categorizations within raters (specific rater bias), and (iii) the distinguishability of categories indicating if categories are satisfyingly distinct from each other. Finally, an empirical application is presented to exemplify the interpretation of the MTMM latent class model. PMID:26441714

  2. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  3. Functional classes and equivalence relations

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, Murray; Wynne, Constance K.; Maguire, Russell W.; Barnes, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Three adult subjects were taught a set of two-choice simultaneous discriminations, with three positive and three negative stimuli; all possible combinations of positive and negative stimuli yielded nine different pairs. The discriminations were repeatedly reversed and rereversed, the former positive stimuli becoming negative and the former negative stimuli becoming positive. With all subjects, a reversal of the contingencies for one pair of stimuli became sufficient to change their responses to all of the other pairs. The reversals had produced functional stimulus classes. Then, all subjects showed conditional discriminations emerging between members of a functional class; given a sample from one class and comparisons from both classes, they selected the comparison that was in the same class as the sample. Next, 2 of the subjects showed that the within-class conditional relations possessed the symmetric and transitive properties of equivalence relations; after having been taught to relate new stimuli to existing class members, the subjects then matched other class members to the new stimuli. Subsequent tests of two-choice discriminations showed that the conditional discriminations had transferred functional class membership to the new stimuli. The 3rd subject, who did not show equivalence relations among functional class members, was also found to have lost the within-class conditional relations after the equivalence tests. PMID:16812597

  4. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because it was convenient, or to meet a housing need. Regardless of social class status, few couples move in together as a “trial marriage.” Nonetheless, middle-class cohabitors were more likely to have become engaged than their working-class counterparts. Our findings indicate the need to reassess common beliefs regarding the role served by cohabitation and suggest that cohabitation has become another location where family outcomes are diverging by social class. PMID:23504506

  5. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes.

    PubMed

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J

    2011-04-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons-out of financial necessity, because it was convenient, or to meet a housing need. Regardless of social class status, few couples move in together as a "trial marriage." Nonetheless, middle-class cohabitors were more likely to have become engaged than their working-class counterparts. Our findings indicate the need to reassess common beliefs regarding the role served by cohabitation and suggest that cohabitation has become another location where family outcomes are diverging by social class.

  6. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  7. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  8. Network class superposition analyses.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  9. Ordering structured populations in multiplayer cooperation games

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Jorge; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Spatial structure greatly affects the evolution of cooperation. While in two-player games the condition for cooperation to evolve depends on a single structure coefficient, in multiplayer games the condition might depend on several structure coefficients, making it difficult to compare different population structures. We propose a solution to this issue by introducing two simple ways of ordering population structures: the containment order and the volume order. If population structure is greater than population structure in the containment or the volume order, then can be considered a stronger promoter of cooperation. We provide conditions for establishing the containment order, give general results on the volume order, and illustrate our theory by comparing different models of spatial games and associated update rules. Our results hold for a large class of population structures and can be easily applied to specific cases once the structure coefficients have been calculated or estimated. PMID:26819335

  10. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  11. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  12. Anion order in perovskites: a group-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Talanov, M V; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, V M

    2016-03-01

    Anion ordering in the structure of cubic perovskite has been investigated by the group-theoretical method. The possibility of the existence of 261 ordered low-symmetry structures, each with a unique space-group symmetry, is established. These results include five binary and 14 ternary anion superstructures. The 261 idealized anion-ordered perovskite structures are considered as aristotypes, giving rise to different derivatives. The structures of these derivatives are formed by tilting of BO6 octahedra, distortions caused by the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect and other physical effects. Some derivatives of aristotypes exist as real substances, and some as virtual ones. A classification of aristotypes of anion superstructures in perovskite is proposed: the AX class (the simultaneous ordering of A cations and anions in cubic perovskite structure), the BX class (the simultaneous ordering of B cations and anions) and the X class (the ordering of anions only in cubic perovskite structure). In most perovskites anion ordering is accompanied by cation ordering. Therefore, the main classes of anion order in perovskites are the AX and BX classes. The calculated structures of some anion superstructures are reported. Comparison of predictions and experimentally investigated anion superstructures shows coherency of theoretical and experimental results. PMID:26919374

  13. Exploring social class: voices of inter-class couples.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Teresa; Melendez-Rhodes, Tatiana; Althusius, Erin; Hergic, Sara; Sleeman, Gillian; Ton, Nicky Kieu My; Zimpfer-Bak, A J

    2013-01-01

    Social class is not often discussed or examined in-depth in couple and family therapy research and literature even though social class shapes familial relationships and is considered an important variable in marital satisfaction. In this qualitative study, we explored the perceptions of eight couples who made lasting commitments across class lines by asking them about the impact of their social class backgrounds on their relationships. Three categories of themes emerged including: (a) differences and similarities in values and attitudes toward education, work, money, and class awareness/classism, (b) relationship issues involving families of origin, friends, and class-based couple conflict, and (c) differences in economic resources, social capital and privileges/opportunities. Implications for assessment and treatment of couples are included. PMID:25073843

  14. 49 CFR 1241.11 - Annual reports of class I railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual reports of class I railroads. 1241.11... class I railroads. (a) Commencing with reports for the year ended December 31, 1973, and thereafter, until further order, all line-haul railroad companies of class I, as defined in § 1240.1 of this...

  15. 49 CFR 1241.11 - Annual reports of class I railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual reports of class I railroads. 1241.11... class I railroads. (a) Commencing with reports for the year ended December 31, 1973, and thereafter, until further order, all line-haul railroad companies of class I, as defined in § 1240.1 of this...

  16. 49 CFR 1241.11 - Annual reports of class I railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual reports of class I railroads. 1241.11... class I railroads. (a) Commencing with reports for the year ended December 31, 1973, and thereafter, until further order, all line-haul railroad companies of class I, as defined in § 1240.1 of this...

  17. A Study of Instructional Methods Used in Fast-Paced Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    This study involved 15 secondary-level teachers who taught fast-paced classes at a university based summer program and similar regularly paced classes in their local schools in order to examine how teachers differentiate or modify instructional methods and content selections for fast-paced classes. Interviews were conducted with the teachers…

  18. "The University for the Poor": Portrayals of Class in Translated Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Danielle E.; Garrison, Kasey L.; Kimmel, Sue C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scholars of children's literature have been investigating portrayals of females and racial groups for several decades, yet few have examined depictions of social class. Research on social class depictions in children's literature is needed in order to identify books that affirm children's class identities and offer…

  19. 49 CFR 1241.11 - Annual reports of class I railroads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual reports of class I railroads. 1241.11... class I railroads. (a) Commencing with reports for the year ended December 31, 1973, and thereafter, until further order, all line-haul railroad companies of class I, as defined in § 1240.1 of this...

  20. The Class Initiatives of Intelligence Rhetoric: Implications of Racism for Scientific Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that in a society that is not totalitarian, class disparities are enabled institutionally by science. A capital driven nation that associates intelligence with class and race can determine overall quality of life. Thus, perception of intelligence is an extremely powerful tool for reinforcing class. Suggests that in order to be better…

  1. 47 CFR 80.1053 - Prohibition on certification, manufacture, importation, sale or use of Class A, Class B, Class S...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on certification, manufacture... certification, manufacture, importation, sale or use of Class A, Class B, Class S, and INMARSAT-E EPIRBs. The manufacture, importation, or sale in the United States of Class A, Class B, Class S, or INMARSAT-E EPIRBs...

  2. Class Matters in the Interview Setting? Positionality, Situatedness and Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Jody; Ingram, Nicola; Abrahams, Jessie; Beedell, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that despite methodological and analytical advancements in the field of social class research, these developments have not led to a wholehearted discussion about class positionality and situatedness in relation to interviewer-participant dynamics. Despite--or perhaps due to--this methodological gap, there remains an…

  3. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…

  4. New Existence Conditions for Order Complementarity Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, S. Z.

    2009-09-01

    Complementarity problems are mathematical models of problems in economics, engineering and physics. A special class of complementarity problems are the order complementarity problems [2]. Order complementarity problems can be applied in lubrication theory [6] and economics [1]. The notion of exceptional family of elements for general order complementarity problems in Banach spaces will be introduced. It will be shown that for general order complementarity problems defined by completely continuous fields the problem has either a solution or an exceptional family of elements (for other notions of exceptional family of elements see [1, 2, 3, 4] and the related references therein). This solves a conjecture of [2] about the existence of exceptional family of elements for order complementarity problems. The proof can be done by using the Leray-Schauder alternative [5]. An application to integral operators will be given.

  5. Synthesis of higher order nonlinear circuit elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, L. O.; Szeto, E. W.

    1984-02-01

    Higher and mixed-order n-port circuit elements were introduced recently to provide a logically complete formulation for nonlinear circuit theory. In this paper, higher order mutators are defined and used to synthesize these elements. The class of all higher order mutators is shown to form a group under cascade interconnections. Each mutator is realized using only linear capacitors, linear inductors and linear controlled sources. An upper bound on each type of element needed to realize a mutator is also given. Each higher or mixed-order n-port element is realized by cascading approprimate mutators across each port of a nonlinear n-port resistor. The main theorem shows that any higher or mixed-order nonlinear n-port element with a constitutive relation defined on a compact set can be realized using linear capacitors, inductors, and controlled sources, and 2-terminal nonlinear resistors.

  6. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  7. Archform Comparisons between Skeletal Class II and III Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects. PMID:24971597

  8. After order 636

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-02-01

    Through its Order 636, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) completed a restructuring of the natural gas industry. The order severed the last links in the chain linking gas producers to pipeline companies to local gas distribution companies (LDCs) to customers. Before Order 636 took effect, many predicted electric power generation, particularly by cogenerators and independent power producers (IPPs), would be a major growth area for natural gas. In fact, what Order 636 has shown is, that timing is everything, and that it`s difficult to sort out the effect of one agent of change when many others are at work.

  9. Identification and modification of a response-class hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, Joseph S.; Mace, F. Charles; Wohn, Ted; Livezey, Kimberley

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of extinction and negative reinforcement on the latency of response-class members following requests made to a 15-year-old female with moderate mental retardation and autism. A functional analysis showed that the class members (screams, aggression, and self-injury) were escape maintained. Informal observations suggested that these topographies generally occurred in the sequence listed above and therefore may have been hierarchically related. A therapist provided escape from demands contingent on a specific member of the class to determine the effects on the latency of the members' occurrence. Results showed that the latencies occurred in a predictable order. In addition, we expanded the response class to include a vocal response that was functionally equivalent to other members. Findings are discussed regarding the covariation and sequence of response-class members and treatment development. PMID:16795881

  10. CAPEOPEN.NET CLASS LIBRARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cape-Open for .Net class library is a collection of classes that implement the Cape-Open v.1.0 interfaces in the .Net framework. This is a tool to aid process modeling component (PMC) developers in producing CAPE-OPEN compliant objects using the latest version of the Visual S...

  11. Automatic discovery of optimal classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Freeman, Don; Self, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    A criterion, based on Bayes' theorem, is described that defines the optimal set of classes (a classification) for a given set of examples. This criterion is transformed into an equivalent minimum message length criterion with an intuitive information interpretation. This criterion does not require that the number of classes be specified in advance, this is determined by the data. The minimum message length criterion includes the message length required to describe the classes, so there is a built in bias against adding new classes unless they lead to a reduction in the message length required to describe the data. Unfortunately, the search space of possible classifications is too large to search exhaustively, so heuristic search methods, such as simulated annealing, are applied. Tutored learning and probabilistic prediction in particular cases are an important indirect result of optimal class discovery. Extensions to the basic class induction program include the ability to combine category and real value data, hierarchical classes, independent classifications and deciding for each class which attributes are relevant.

  12. Class and SLA: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how class might be brought to the fore as an identity inscription in studies of second language learning, alongside other identity inscriptions such as gender, ethnicity and national identity, which have been the focus of rather more research. It begins by clarifying what is meant by class through a brief discussion of the…

  13. [Modified Class II tunnel preparation].

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1991-05-15

    Tunnel preparations for restoration of Class II carious lesions in primary molars preserve the marginal ridge and minimize sacrifice of healthy tooth substructure. Materials with improved bonding to tooth structure and increase potential for fluoride release allow Class II restorations without "extension for prevention". PMID:1864420

  14. Visions of the Special Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Philip L.; Safford, Elizabeth J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the advent of public school special day-classes for children with disabilities marked a major shift in the service model in the direction of educational and societal inclusion. The different visions of the classes as cluster, clinic, and clearinghouse are explained. (Author/CR)

  15. A Touch of...Class!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  16. Eustace Tilley Comes to Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Of all the reasons to use "The New Yorker" in a college writing class, the most compelling may be that its articles go beyond--well beyond--the five-paragraph model. Why, oh why, did that paradigm become such a fixture in composition courses? Students in the author's writing classes invariably suppose they can compose a quick introduction, add…

  17. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans.…

  18. Tucker2 Hierarchical Classes Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new hierarchical classes model, called Tucker2-HICLAS, for binary three-way three-mode data. As any three-way hierarchical classes model, the Tucker2-HICLAS model includes a representation of the association relation among the three modes and a hierarchical classification of the elements of each mode. A distinctive feature of…

  19. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  20. Class, Identity, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of working with White, working-class teacher education students to explore the "complex social trajectory" (Reay in Women's Stud Int Forum 20(2):225-233, 1997a, p. 19) of class border crossing as they progress through college. Through analysis of a course that I have developed, "Education and the American…

  1. Student Engagement and Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Hunter, Gary L.; Melton, Horace; Goodwin, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    A study is reported that investigates the goals underlying undergraduate students' engagement in their major classes, nonmajor classes, and in extracurricular activities. The qualitative study employs both focus groups and goal-mapping exercises. The results suggest that students tend to focus on utilitarian, attribute-level considerations mainly…

  2. Bioregions and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakthrough, 1985

    1985-01-01

    What bioregions can do to contribute to world order and security is discussed in this newsletter. A bioregion is defined as an identifiable geographical area of interacting life-systems that is relatively self-sustaining in the ever-renewing processes of nature. Articles included are: "Bioregionalism and World Order" (Gerald Mische); "Bioregions:…

  3. Narcissism and birth order.

    PubMed

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  4. A preliminary report on the development of MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2004-07-01

    We describe three MATLAB classes for manipulating tensors in order to allow fast algorithm prototyping. A tensor is a multidimensional or N-way array. We present a tensor class for manipulating tensors which allows for tensor multiplication and 'matricization.' We have further added two classes for representing tensors in decomposed format: cp{_}tensor and tucker{_}tensor. We demonstrate the use of these classes by implementing several algorithms that have appeared in the literature.

  5. Notes on the Comparison Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solt, Stephanie

    This paper investigates the role of comparison classes in the semantics of gradable adjectives in the positive form, focusing on the case where the comparison class is expressed overtly via a for-phrase (e.g. John is tall for a jockey). Two central questions are addressed: what information does the comparison class provide, and how is this information integrated compositionally? It is shown that the standard of comparison invoked by the positive form can be analyzed as a range of values whose width is based on the degree of dispersion in the comparison class. Compositionally, the comparison class can be analyzed as an argument of a null positive morpheme (contra Kennedy [13]), in parallel to recent proposals for the superlative (e.g. Heim [9]). The implications of the analysis for the choice between degree- and delineation-based analyses of gradable adjectives are discussed.

  6. Representation of linear orders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D A; Kim, J O; Sudevan, P

    1984-01-01

    Two binary classification tasks were used to explore the associative structure of linear orders. In Experiment 1, college students classified English letters as targets or nontargets, the targets being consecutive letters of the alphabet. The time to reject nontargets was a decreasing function of the distance from the target set, suggesting response interference mediated by automatic associations from the target to the nontarget letters. The way in which this interference effect depended on the placement of the boundaries between the target and nontarget sets revealed the relative strengths of individual interletter associations. In Experiment 2, students were assigned novel linear orders composed of letterlike symbols and asked to classify pairs of symbols as being adjacent or nonadjacent in the assigned sequence. Reaction time was found to be a joint function of the distance between any pair of symbols and the relative positions of those symbols within the sequence. The effects of both distance and position decreased systematically over 6 days of practice with a particular order, beginning at a level typical of unfamiliar orders and converging on a level characteristic of familiar orders such as letters and digits. These results provide an empirical unification of two previously disparate sets of findings in the literature on linear orders, those concerning familiar and unfamiliar orders, and the systematic transition between the two patterns of results suggests the gradual integration of a new associative structure.

  7. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  8. ASDC Order Tools

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-04-17

    ... users to search our data holdings without logging in to the system. The user, however, must log in before ordering the data. ... Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor II (ACRIM II) Total Solar Irradiance Data Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) data (Selected ...

  9. Mapping Lunar Chemistry with CLASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, P.

    2012-07-01

    The Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft x-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) is planned to be flown on the second Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-2. It aims to map elemental abundance on the lunar surface by measuring X-ray Fluorescence emission when solar x-rays are incident. The primary objective of CLASS is to quantitatively estimate the abundance of the major elements Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe on the lunar surface at a spatial resolution of 25 km. CLASS will be able to detect Mg, Al and Si signatures at this scale even during a low intensity A-class solar flare, quantify abundance from B-class flares and above, and obtain high Z elemental abundance during brighter flares (C-class and above). This instrument is a follow up to C1XS payload flown earlier on Chandrayaan-1, but with enhanced sensitivity and finer spatial resolution. CLASS will also study particle-induced x-ray emission in the lunar orbit. We will discuss the instrument configuration and developmental status.

  10. Is birth order associated with adult mortality?

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S R; Wingard, D L; Edelstein, S L; Criqui, M H; Tucker, J S; Friedman, H S

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether birth order is associated with total or cause-specific adult mortality and whether the association differed by sex, was confounded by age, number of siblings, or socioeconomic status, or was mediated by personality, education, or health behaviors. Teachers throughout California identified intellectually gifted children as part of a prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman. Information on birth order was available on 1162 subjects (85% of cohort) who have since been followed for over 70 years. Cox proportional hazards models indicated that birth order was not associated with adult all-cause, cardiovascular, or cancer mortality. Among women, middle children were more likely than oldest children to die from causes of death other than cardiovascular disease or cancer, although the numbers in this category were small. This study did not provide evidence that birth order is associated with adult mortality in this highly intelligent, middle-class cohort.

  11. The interval order polytope of a digraph

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.; Schulz, A.

    1994-12-31

    Interval orders and their cocomparability graphs, the interval graphs, are of significant importance as structures of solutions for several combinatorial optimization problems. This is due to the fact that each element is associated with an interval, which may be interpreted as a time interval, for example in a schedule, or as a substring in a string of items, for example, a substring of a DNA string in molecular biology. In the talk we show that the interval order polytope of a digraph may serve as a basis for a polyhedral combinatorial approach to this class of problems. We present results on odd cycle and clique based valid inequalities and discuss the complexity of their separation problem. We show that well-known valid inequalities of the linear ordering polytope, as, e.g., Mobius ladder inequalities and fence inequalities obtain a natural interpretation in terms of these inequalities of the interval order polytope.

  12. 'Good palliative care' orders.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, I

    1993-01-01

    A Select Committee of the Parliament of South Australia, considering revisions to legislation governing care of the dying, did not support allowing doctors to assist suicide. They recommended that no liability attach to the provision of reasonable palliative care which happens to shorten life. The Committee affirmed the suggestion that positive open orders to provide 'good palliative care' should replace 'do not resuscitate' orders. PMID:7506978

  13. A Class of Solvable Stopping Games

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Luis H. R.

    2008-12-15

    We consider a class of Dynkin games in the case where the underlying process evolves according to a one-dimensional but otherwise general diffusion. We establish general conditions under which both the value and the saddle point equilibrium exist and under which the exercise boundaries characterizing the saddle point strategy can be explicitly characterized in terms of a pair of standard first order necessary conditions for optimality. We also analyze those cases where an extremal pair of boundaries exists and investigate the overall impact of increased volatility on the equilibrium stopping strategies and their values.

  14. Simplified Design Equations for Class-E Neural Prosthesis Transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Troyk, Philip; Hu, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Extreme miniaturization of implantable electronic devices is recognized as essential for the next generation of neural prostheses, owing to the need for minimizing the damage and disruption of the surrounding neural tissue. Transcutaneous power and data transmission via a magnetic link remains the most effective means of powering and controlling implanted neural prostheses. Reduction in the size of the coil, within the neural prosthesis, demands the generation of a high-intensity radio frequency magnetic field from the extracoporeal transmitter. The Class-E power amplifier circuit topology has been recognized as a highly effective means of producing large radio frequency currents within the transmitter coil. Unfortunately, design of a Class-E circuit is most often fraught by the need to solve a complex set of equations so as to implement both the zero-voltage-switching and zero-voltage-derivative-switching conditions that are required for efficient operation. This paper presents simple explicit design equations for designing the Class-E circuit topology. Numerical design examples are presented to illustrate the design procedure. PMID:23292784

  15. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    PubMed

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  16. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  17. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  18. Consumer Education in Any Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingo, Rosetta F.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are offered of how the classroom teacher can blend consumer education into typewriting, business English, business math, and other classes by intentionally focusing on principles and concepts or by including it incidentally when the opportunity arises. (TA)

  19. Integrals of the Ising Class

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    From an experimental-mathematical perspective we analyze"Ising-class" integrals. Our experimental results involvedextreme-precision, multidimensional quadrature on intricate integrands;thus, highly parallel computation was required.

  20. Wildflower Collecting: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sheila V.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates wildflower collecting as a class project, citing instances of interest in studies of soil composition, growing wildflowers, and increased student motivation toward the subject of botany as basis for the activity. (CP)

  1. Class Sizes and Dissadvantaged Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes a program in which smaller class groups for socially and culturally deprived children resulted in enhanced social attitudes and more responsive, mature behavior in interaction with both adults and peers. (Author/IRT)

  2. Statistical Descriptors of School Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnes, Paul R.

    1972-01-01

    It may be useful in evaluation research to employ the class as the unit of analysis, assessing its syntality by a vector of distribution cumulants or indices for each of several input tests administered. (Author)

  3. Lagrangian systems with higher order constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendra, H.; Grillo, S. D.

    2007-05-01

    A class of mechanical systems subject to higher order constraints (i.e., constraints involving higher order derivatives of the position of the system) are studied. We call them higher order constrained systems (HOCSs). They include simplified models of elastic rolling bodies, and also the so-called generalized nonholonomic systems (GNHSs), whose constraints only involve the velocities of the system (i.e., first order derivatives in the position of the system). One of the features of this kind of systems is that D'Alembert's principle (or its nonlinear higher order generalization, the Chetaev's principle) is not necessarily satisfied. We present here, as another interesting example of HOCS, systems subjected to friction forces, showing that those forces can be encoded in a second order kinematic constraint. The main aim of the paper is to show that every HOCS is equivalent to a GNHS with linear constraints, in a canonical way. That is to say, systems with higher order constraints can be described in terms of one with linear constraints in velocities. We illustrate this fact with a system with friction and with Rocard's model [Dynamique Générale des Vibrations (1949), Chap. XV, p. 246 and L'instabilité en Mécanique; Automobiles, Avions, Ponts Suspendus (1954)] of a pneumatic tire. As a by-product, we introduce some applications on higher order tangent bundles, which we expect to be useful for the study of intrinsic aspects of the geometry of such bundles.

  4. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-03-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data from the whole class. This pedagogical method was reported earlier, and the present article offers a few more examples of such "whole class" laboratories.

  5. Less than a Class Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  6. Finite order variational bicomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitolo, Raffaele

    1999-01-01

    The theory of variational bicomplexes was established at the end of the seventies by several authors [2, 17, 23, 26, 29-32]. The idea is that the operations which take a Lagrangian into its Euler-Lagrange morphism [9, 10, 12, 24] and an Euler-Lagrange morphism into its Helmholtz' conditions of local variationality [1-3, 7, 11, 13, 18, 27] are morphisms of a (long) exact sheaf sequence. This viewpoint overcomes several problems of Lagrangian formulations in mechanics and field theories [21, 28]. To avoid technical difficulties variational bicomplexes were formulated over the space of infinite jets of a fibred manifold. But in this formalism the information relative to the order of the jet where objects are defined is lost.We refer to the recent formulation of variational bicomplexes on finite order jet spaces [13]. Here, a finite order variational sequence is obtained by quotienting the de Rham sequence on a finite order jet space with an intrinsically defined sub-sequence, whose choice is inspired by the calculus of variations. It is important to find an isomorphism of the quotient sequence with a sequence of sheaves of ‘concrete’ sections of some vector bundle. This task has already been faced locally [22, 25] and intrinsically [33] in the case of one independent variable.In this paper, we give an intrinsic isomorphism of the variational sequence (in the general case of n independent variables) with a sequence which is made by sheaves of forms on a jet space of minimal order. This yields new natural solutions to problems like the minimal order Lagrangian corresponding to a locally variational Euler-Lagrange morphism and the search of variationally trivial Lagrangians. Moreover, we give a new intrinsic formulation of Helmholtz' local variationality conditions, proving the existence of a new intrinsic geometric object which, for an Euler-Lagrange morphism, plays a role analogous to that of the momentum of a Lagrangian.

  7. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  8. School Class Size: Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; And Others

    This book synthesizes research evidence to demonstrate that 1) class size is strongly related to pupil achievement; 2) smaller classes are more conducive to improved pupil performance than larger classes; 3) smaller classes provide more opportunities to adapt learning programs to individual needs; 4) pupils in smaller classes have more interest in…

  9. Effects of Problem Order on Accuracy, Preference, and Choice of Multiplication Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Robert L.; Saecker, Lee B.

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 151) completed three in-class mathematics assignments that varied with respect to the order of short, medium, and long multiplication problems, including a short-to-long order, a long-to-short order, and a random order. Problem order within assignments did not significantly affect work accuracy, completion time, or assignment…

  10. Investigating word class effects in first and second languages.

    PubMed

    Furtner, Marco R; Rauthmann, John F; Sachse, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    According to Zyzik in 2009, only a few recent studies have investigated similarities in use of words in comprehension of first languages (L1) and second languages (L2). Furtner, Rauthmann, and Sachse showed a rank order of word classes by frequency of eye-gaze regression when reading other difficult words: nouns, adjectives, closed-class words, verbs. The hypothesis was that a L1-L2 word-class similarity effect between German (L1) and English (L2) would occur, and this was tested with jumbled word reading of English text (wherein letters within words Shave been jumbled) and eye-tracking by 141 participants. Analyses of regressive fixations from one word class to others showed that nouns were regressed most often and there was a rank order of importance among the word classes apparently used to enhance comprehension of other difficult words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, dosed-class words). Thus, previous findings for L1 were largely replicated. Findings are discussed regarding language acquisition.

  11. Persistence to antihypertensive drug classes

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnström, Miriam; Kahan, Thomas; Kieler, Helle; Brandt, Lena; Hasselström, Jan; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Manhem, Karin; Hjerpe, Per; Wettermark, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to study persistence to, and switching between, antihypertensive drug classes and to determine factors associated with poor persistence. This was an observational cohort study. The Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database includes data from medical records, socioeconomic data, filled prescriptions, and hospitalizations from national registries for 75,000 patients with hypertension. Patients included in the study were initiated on antihypertensive drug treatment in primary healthcare in 2006 to 2007. We defined class persistence as the proportion remaining on the initial drug class, including 30 days of gap. Patients with a filled prescription of another antihypertensive drug class after discontinuation of the initial drug, including 30 days of gap, were classified as switchers. Persistence to the various drug classes were compared with that for diuretics. We identified 4997 patients (mean age 60 ± 12 years in men and 63 ± 13 years in women). Out of these, 95 (2%) filled their first prescription for fixed combination therapy and 4902 (98%) for monotherapy, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (37%), angiotensin receptor blockers (4%), beta blockers (21%), calcium channel blockers (8%), and diuretics (28%). Persistence to the initial drug class was 57% after 1 year and 43% after 2 years. There were no differences in persistence between diuretics and any of the other antihypertensive drug classes, after adjustment for confounders. Discontinuation (all adjusted) was more common in men (P = 0.004), younger patients (P < 0.001), those with mild systolic blood pressure elevation (P < 0.001), and patients born outside the Nordic countries (P < 0.001). Among 1295 patients who switched drug class after their first prescription, only 21% had a blood pressure recorded before the switch occurred; and out them 69% still had high blood pressures. In conclusion, there appears to be no difference in drug class

  12. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  13. Word Order in Klamath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Karen

    The word order in Klamath, a Penutian language of southern Oregon, has been described as almost completely "free". The language is examined in terms of the effect of the relative topicality of arguments on their position preceding or following the verb. The database used for this study consisted of seven Klamath texts from Barker (1963): five…

  14. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  15. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  16. Higher-order Multiples.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S

    2015-09-01

    Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.

  17. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  18. Fourth Order Algorithms for Solving Diverse Many-Body Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Forbert, Harald A.; Chen, Chia-Rong; Kidwell, Donald W.; Ciftja, Orion

    2001-03-01

    We show that the method of factorizing an evolution operator of the form e^ɛ(A+B) to fourth order with purely positive coefficient yields new classes of symplectic algorithms for solving classical dynamical problems, unitary algorithms for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, norm preserving algorithms for solving the Langevin equation and large time step convergent Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. Results for each class of problems will be presented and disucss

  19. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  20. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper. PMID:27660531

  1. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.

  2. Universality class in conformal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-07-01

    We develop a new class of chaotic inflation models with spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Observational consequences of a broad class of such models are stable with respect to strong deformations of the scalar potential. This universality is a critical phenomenon near the point of enhanced symmetry, SO(1,1), in case of conformal inflation. It appears because of the exponential stretching of the moduli space and the resulting exponential flattening of scalar potentials upon switching from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame in this class of models. This result resembles stretching and flattening of inhomogeneities during inflationary expansion. It has a simple interpretation in terms of velocity versus rapidity near the Kähler cone in the moduli space, similar to the light cone of special theory of relativity. This effect makes inflation possible even in the models with very steep potentials. We describe conformal and superconformal versions of this cosmological attractor mechanism.

  3. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  4. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  5. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  6. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified...

  7. Disability, disparate impact, and class actions.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michael Ashley; Waterstone, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Following Title VII's enactment, group-based employment discrimination actions flourished due to disparate impact theory and the class action device. Courts recognized that subordination that defined a group's social identity was also sufficient legally to bind members together, even when relief had to be issued individually. Woven through these cases was a notion of panethnicity that united inherently unrelated groups into a common identity, for example, Asian Americans. Stringent judicial interpretation subsequently eroded both legal frameworks and it has become increasingly difficult to assert collective employment actions, even against discriminatory practices affecting an entire group. This deconstruction has immensely disadvantaged persons with disabilities. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), individual employee claims to accommodate specific impairments, such as whether to install ramps or replace computer screens, have all but eclipsed a coherent theory of disability-based disparate impact law. Moreover, the class action device has been virtually nonexistent in disability discrimination employment cases. The absence of collective action has been especially harmful because the realm of the workplace is precisely where group-based remedies are needed most. Specifically, a crucial but overlooked issue in disability integration is the harder-to-reach embedded norms that require job and policy modifications. The Article argues that pandisability theory serves as an analogue to earlier notions of panethnicity and provides an equally compelling heuristic for determining class identity. It shows that pandisability undergirds ADA public service and public accommodation class actions in which individualized remedy assessments have been accepted as part of group-based challenges to social exclusion. The Article also demonstrates that this broader vision of collective action is consistent with the history underlying the class action device. Taking

  8. 75 FR 41075 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Bozeman, MT (75 FR 20321). Interested parties were invited..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  9. 76 FR 28887 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Ozark, MO AGENCY:...

  10. Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation

    SciTech Connect

    Vil'danova, V F; Mukminov, F Kh

    2013-11-30

    Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  11. 78 FR 25384 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... establish Class E airspace at Immokalee, FL (78 FR 6262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1051. Interested parties were...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  12. 77 FR 60660 - Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk,...

  13. 76 FR 34576 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Waynesboro, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...) to amend Class E airspace at Eagle's Nest Airport, Waynesboro, VA (75 FR 14820) Docket No. FAA-2010..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  14. Adding Interactivity to a Non-Interative Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Krichen, Jack

    2004-01-01

    The IT 3050 course at Capella University is an introduction to fundamental computer networking. This course is one of the required courses in the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology program. In order to provide a more enriched learning environment for learners, Capella has significantly modified this class (and others) by infusing it…

  15. MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping : source code.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2004-10-01

    We present the source code for three MATLAB classes for manipulating tensors in order to allow fast algorithm prototyping. A tensor is a multidimensional or Nway array. This is a supplementary report; details on using this code are provided separately in SAND-XXXX.

  16. 78 FR 25382 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Griffin-Spalding County Airport, Griffin, GA (78 FR 6261... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  17. 76 FR 36285 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Approach Procedures developed for Brunswick Executive Airport. This enhances the safety and...

  18. Solutions of a Class of Duffing Oscillators with Variable Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Pilar G.; Kuru, Şengül; Negro, Javier; Nieto, Luis M.

    2011-07-01

    The solutions of a class of nonlinear second-order differential equations with a cubic term in the dependent variable being related to Duffing oscillators are obtained by means of the factorization technique. The Lagrangian, the Hamiltonian and the constant of motion are also found through a correspondence with an autonomous system. A physical example is worked out in this frame.

  19. 75 FR 59934 - Amendment to Class E Airspace; Smithfield, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... amendment of the Class E airspace published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 43817). This... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  20. High School Students' Emotional Experiences in Mathematics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Sierra, Gustavo; González, María del Socorro García

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative research is to identify Mexican high school students' emotional experiences in mathematics classes. In order to obtain the data, focus group interviews were carried out with 22 students. The data analysis is based on the theory of the cognitive structure of emotions, which specifies the eliciting conditions for each…

  1. 77 FR 5170 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Jackson, MI AGENCY:...

  2. 78 FR 14651 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Goldsboro, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace in the Goldsboro, NC area (77 FR... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  3. A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a comprehensive phylogeny derived from 5 genes, nucSSU, nucLSU rDNA, TEF1, RPB1 and RPB2, for 355 isolates and 41 families (6 newly described in this volume) in Dothideomycetes. All currently accepted orders in the class is represented for the first time. Subclass Pleosporomycetidae is ex...

  4. Teaching Service Modelling to a Mixed Class: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Jeremiah D.; Purvis, Martin K.

    2015-01-01

    Service modelling has become an increasingly important area in today's telecommunications and information systems practice. We have adapted a Network Design course in order to teach service modelling to a mixed class of both the telecommunication engineering and information systems backgrounds. An integrated approach engaging mathematics teaching…

  5. Between order and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, James P.

    2012-01-01

    What is a pattern? How do we come to recognize patterns never seen before? Quantifying the notion of pattern and formalizing the process of pattern discovery go right to the heart of physical science. Over the past few decades physics' view of nature's lack of structure--its unpredictability--underwent a major renovation with the discovery of deterministic chaos, overthrowing two centuries of Laplace's strict determinism in classical physics. Behind the veil of apparent randomness, though, many processes are highly ordered, following simple rules. Tools adapted from the theories of information and computation have brought physical science to the brink of automatically discovering hidden patterns and quantifying their structural complexity.

  6. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  7. 77 FR 17362 - Proposed Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... an extension to a Class D or E surface area at Bellingham International Airport. This action... airspace and Class E airspace designated as surface area to meet current standards for IFR departures and... Class E airspace designated as an extension to a Class D or E surface area, and, therefore, would...

  8. 76 FR 64233 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ..., published on August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048), amends Class D airspace, Class E surface airspace, Class E..., the Class E airspace descriptions as published in the Federal Register of August 25, 2011 (76 FR 53048) (FR Doc. 2011-21663) for Natrona County International Airport, Casper, WY, is corrected under...

  9. Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Reiichiro

    2016-08-01

    We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.

  10. Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Reiichiro

    2016-10-01

    We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.

  11. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  12. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  13. Teaching a Large Undergraduate Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowbridge, Norma

    1975-01-01

    A professor describes how she teaches large undergraduate classes by dividing the group into smaller groups and including: weekly films or audiovisual aids, weekly sessions with smaller groups, definite reading material, independent study, and a multiple evaluation system. (Author/PG)

  14. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  15. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  16. The class analysis of poverty.

    PubMed

    Wright, E O

    1995-01-01

    To understand more fully the nature of poverty it must be viewed as the result, in part, of inherent features of the social system. The author describes four general approaches to explaining poverty: poverty as a result of inherent individual attributes, as the by-product of contingent individual characteristics, as a by-product of social causes, and as a result of inherent properties of the social system. He then elaborates a class exploitation analysis of poverty by explaining how economic oppression, economic exploitation, and class generate a social system in which poverty plays a crucial functional role. The general problem of poverty must be broken down into two subproblems: poverty generated inside exploitative relations (the working poor) and poverty generated by nonexploitative oppression (the underclass). A class analysis of poverty argues that significant numbers of privileged people have a strong, positive material interest in maintaining poverty. Poverty can be reduced in the United States only through popular mobilization of pressure that challenges the power of the dominant classes.

  17. Emerging Scholars: Class of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Valerie; Oguntoyinbo, Lekan; Davis, Crystal D.; Hawkins, B. Denise; Lum, Lydia; Cooper, Kenneth; Pluviose, David; Pember, Mary Annette; Watson, Jamal Eric; Nealy, Michelle J.; Hernandez, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This article presents "Diverse"'s 2011 Emerging Scholars. This year's class of award-winning academics consists of twelve gifted and passionate scholars who make their mark with relevant, impactful scholarship. The 2011 Emerging Scholars are: (1) Dr. Guillermina G. Nunez-Mchiri; (2) Dr. Ashlesh Murthy; (3) Charles O. Anderson; (4) Chekesha M.…

  18. A Touch of...Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtel, Claudine, Ed.; Amyot, Denise, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A series of class activities for French instruction includes uses of the telephone book, tape recordings, advertising, word and pattern games, and creation of a radio program. Suggestions for instruction of Canadian natives include games for animal, body, and clothing vocabulary. (MSE)

  19. Exploring Class-Based Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David; Corona, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that language, culture and identity researchers need to take the intersectionality of identity inscriptions seriously and, further to this, that an intersectional approach which emanates from an interest in social class provides a productive way to examine the lives and experience of individuals living in multicultural societies.…

  20. ALTERNATIVES FOR CLASS A BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation reviews the pathogenic microorganisms that may be found in sewage sludge and commonly employed Class A processes for controlling them including advanced digestion, alkaline treatment and heat drying. How extensively the processes are used as well as issues and co...

  1. Linguistics in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Robert C., Jr.

    Designed for secondary school English teachers who want to help their students develop enthusiasm for words, their histories, and the way language structures words to produce meaning, this paper offers suggestions for a program of study employing dictionary projects and personal experience. The paper describes making a class dictionary of teen…

  2. Social Class and School Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…

  3. Creating Presentations on ICT Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on the creation of presentations on ICT classes. The first part highlights the most important steps when creating a presentation. The main idea is, that the computer presentation shouldn't consist only from the technological part, i.e. the editing of the presentation in a computer program. There are many steps before and after…

  4. Communication Repair and Response Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W.

    2004-01-01

    A communicative repair has been defined as the ability to persist in communication and to modify, repeat, or revise a signal when the initial communication attempt failed. From an operant perspective, initial communicative acts and communicative repairs can be considered members of a response class in which each response produces the same outcome.…

  5. Social Class Differences in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick

    "Language and Poverty," a volume published in 1970 that dealt with various topics concerning language and social class differences, argued that in educational programs for the children of the poor it is important not to confuse differences with deficits. It indicated that poor children had adequate language structures and skills for their…

  6. Class Meetings in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are often frustrated when a student behaves in a way that compromises the learning environment for the entire group. Inappropriate behavior may vary from kicking a ball across the room rather than returning it under the net, to consistent wisecracking during class. When such behavior is limited to one or two students, individual…

  7. Multiple Functions in Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Brian; Keenan, Mickey

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of training a "drawing" response to each of three stimuli in a 5-member equivalence class. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were an arbitrary word, a shape, or a mathematical symbol. Subjects then were trained to draw a separate component of a stickman at each of the 3 stimuli. Subsequent tests for function…

  8. The Hidden Injuries of Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Richard; Cobb, Jonathan

    The book examines the effect of class barriers on blue collar workers by mirroring occupational/ethnic backgrounds of the white manual-laboring population in the Boston area through urban anthropological observations as well as 150 in-depth interviews conducted in 1969-70. It mainly reflects the experience of middle-aged, third generation American…

  9. Class Struggle in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Dan; Leiblum, Mishy

    2008-01-01

    Public higher education has undergone a process similar to that in the national polity: a one-sided struggle by those with power to shape the institution to be more market driven, more focused on what will generate (non-state) revenues, more dominated by top administrators, and less concerned about the working class and people of color. This…

  10. 77 FR 71131 - Implementation of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012; Establishment of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 64 Implementation of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012... registry for public safety answering points (PSAPs) as required by the ``Middle Class Tax Relief and Job...) conforms to the RFA. A. Need for, and Objectives of, the Order 20. The ``Middle Class Tax Relief and...

  11. Class Action Suits against Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesibov, Laurie

    1984-01-01

    If a suit is brought as a class action, either plaintiff or defendant may move to uphold or challenge class certification. If neither does so, the court decides whether the action may be maintained as a class suit. Prerequisites for class certification from Rule 23 (Federal Rules of Civil Procedure) are explained. (TE)

  12. SOCIAL CLASS AND CHILD-REARING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHESS, STELLA; AND OTHERS

    THE BEHAVIORAL NORMS OF LOWER CLASS DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN ARE DIFFERENT FROM CHILDREN IN MORE MIDDLE CLASS GROUPS. THE BEHAVIOR OF LOWER CLASS CHILDREN IS INFLUENCED NOT ONLY BY GENERAL SOCIAL CLASS AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND BUT ALSO BY SUCH SPECIFIC INTRACLASS VARIABLES AS FAMILY ENVIRONMENT. THE PRESENT ABSENCE IN THE LITERATURE AND IN PRACTICE…

  13. Gender and the Construction of Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Joan

    Only by recognizing that class is not gender neutral can the processes of class formation and reproduction be understood. Class is defined as a process in which human beings take an active part, rather than a structure of categories into which individuals may be inserted. Gender organizes or structures class in many different ways. For example,…

  14. Class-Size Effects in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Heinesen, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    We analyze class-size effects on academic achievement in secondary school in Denmark exploiting an institutional setting where pupils cannot predict class size prior to enrollment, and where post-enrollment responses aimed at affecting realized class size are unlikely. We identify class-size effects combining a regression discontinuity design with…

  15. Making the Introductory Journalism Class Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorway, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that beginning journalism classes teach multiple skills, including law, decision-making, interpersonal communication, interviewing, and critical thinking. Outlines how to convince administrators of the need for beginning journalism classes, and how to develop an effective class. Lists philosophy and course goals for one such class. (PM)

  16. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  17. Order without design.

    PubMed

    Kurakin, Alexei

    2010-04-14

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents.

  18. Birth order and myopia

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A.; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L.; Williams, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in 4 subject groups. Methods Subject groups were participants in 1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N=4,401), 2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N=1,959), 3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N=1,344), and 4) Israeli Defense Force recruitment candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N=888,277). Main outcome: Odds ratio (OR) for myopia in first born versus non-first born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first born versus fourth or higher born comparison than for the first born versus second/third born comparison (P<0.001) and (b) with increasing myopia severity (P<0.001). Conclusions Across all studies, the increased risk of myopia in first born individuals was low (OR <1.3). Indeed, only the studies with >4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism. PMID:24168726

  19. Class E/F switching power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor); Rutledge, David B. (Inventor); Kee, Scott David (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention discloses a new family of switching amplifier classes called class E/F amplifiers. These amplifiers are generally characterized by their use of the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) phase correction technique to eliminate of the loss normally associated with the inherent capacitance of the switching device as utilized in class-E amplifiers, together with a load network for improved voltage and current wave-shaping by presenting class-F.sup.-1 impedances at selected overtones and class-E impedances at the remaining overtones. The present invention discloses a several topologies and specific circuit implementations for achieving such performance.

  20. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites. PMID:20521040

  1. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites.

  2. Distributed One-Class Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Enrique; Peteiro-Barral, Diego; Berdiñas, Bertha Guijarro; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed one-class classification approach based on an extension of the ν-SVM method, thus permitting its application to Big Data data sets. In our method we will consider several one-class classifiers, each one determined using a given local data partition on a processor, and the goal is to find a global model. The cornerstone of this method is the novel mathematical formulation that makes the optimization problem separable whilst avoiding some data points considered as outliers in the final solution. This is particularly interesting and important because the decision region generated by the method will be unaffected by the position of the outliers and the form of the data will fit more precisely. Another interesting property is that, although built in parallel, the classifiers exchange data during learning in order to improve their individual specialization. Experimental results using different datasets demonstrate the good performance in accuracy of the decision regions of the proposed method in comparison with other well-known classifiers while saving training time due to its distributed nature. PMID:26173907

  3. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). OF 347, Order for Supplies or Services. OF 347, prescribed in 53.213(f), (or an approved agency form) may be used to place orders...

  4. Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

  5. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Class A station may be assigned, operating with power of 50 kW: 640, 650, 660, 670, 700, 720, 750, 760, 770, 780, 820, 830, 840, 870, 880, 890, 1020, 1030, 1040, 1100, 1120, 1160, 1180, 1200, and 1210 kHz..., 1530, 1540, 1550, and 1560 kHz. Note: Until superseded by a new agreement, protection of the...

  6. FDM Video Classe: Modes d'emploi pour la classe (FDM Video Class: Classroom Uses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacco, Marcella Di Giura

    1996-01-01

    Content and design of the videotape series FDM Video Classe, produced by the journal "Le francais dans le monde," are described and classroom uses suggested. The materials are from authentic television programs, selected to illustrate aspects of French culture. It is suggested that the teacher also provide students with supporting materials that…

  7. Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Cardiac Compressor; Reclassification of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Aids. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-05-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify external cardiac compressors (ECC) (under FDA product code DRM), a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls). FDA is also creating a separate classification regulation for a subgroup of devices previously included within this classification regulation, to be called cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) aids, and reclassifying these devices from class III to class II for CPR aids with feedback and to class I for CPR aids without feedback. PMID:27224965

  8. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  9. The formation of linked perceptual classes.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Lanny; Matneja, Priya; Varelas, Antonios; Belanich, James; Fitzer, Adrienne; Shamoun, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Multiple-exemplar training with stimuli in four domains induced two new fill-based (A1' and A2') and satellite-image-based (B1' and B2') perceptual classes. Conditional discriminations were established between the endpoints of the A1' and B1' classes as well as the A2' and B2' classes. The emergence of linked perceptual classes was evaluated by the performances occasioned by nine cross-class probes that contained fill variants as samples and satellite variants as comparisons, along with nine other cross-class probes that consisted of satellite variants as samples and fill variants as comparisons. The 18 probes were first presented serially and then concurrently. Class-consistent responding indicated the emergence of linked perceptual classes. Of the linked perceptual classes, 70% emerged during the initial serial test. An additional 20% of the linked perceptual classes emerged during the subsequently presented concurrent test block. Thus, linked perceptual classes emerged on an immediate or delayed basis. Linked perceptual classes, then, share structural and fuctional similarities with equivalence classes, generalized equivalence classes, cross-modal classes, and complex maturally occurring categories, and may clarify processes such as intersensory perception. PMID:12507004

  10. The formation of linked perceptual classes.

    PubMed

    Fields, Lanny; Matneja, Priya; Varelas, Antonios; Belanich, James; Fitzer, Adrienne; Shamoun, Kim

    2002-11-01

    Multiple-exemplar training with stimuli in four domains induced two new fill-based (A1' and A2') and satellite-image-based (B1' and B2') perceptual classes. Conditional discriminations were established between the endpoints of the A1' and B1' classes as well as the A2' and B2' classes. The emergence of linked perceptual classes was evaluated by the performances occasioned by nine cross-class probes that contained fill variants as samples and satellite variants as comparisons, along with nine other cross-class probes that consisted of satellite variants as samples and fill variants as comparisons. The 18 probes were first presented serially and then concurrently. Class-consistent responding indicated the emergence of linked perceptual classes. Of the linked perceptual classes, 70% emerged during the initial serial test. An additional 20% of the linked perceptual classes emerged during the subsequently presented concurrent test block. Thus, linked perceptual classes emerged on an immediate or delayed basis. Linked perceptual classes, then, share structural and fuctional similarities with equivalence classes, generalized equivalence classes, cross-modal classes, and complex maturally occurring categories, and may clarify processes such as intersensory perception.

  11. Invariant Higher-Order Variational Problems II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Holm, Darryl D.; Meier, David M.; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Vialard, François-Xavier

    2012-08-01

    Motivated by applications in computational anatomy, we consider a second-order problem in the calculus of variations on object manifolds that are acted upon by Lie groups of smooth invertible transformations. This problem leads to solution curves known as Riemannian cubics on object manifolds that are endowed with normal metrics. The prime examples of such object manifolds are the symmetric spaces. We characterize the class of cubics on object manifolds that can be lifted horizontally to cubics on the group of transformations. Conversely, we show that certain types of non-horizontal geodesic on the group of transformations project to cubics. Finally, we apply second-order Lagrange-Poincaré reduction to the problem of Riemannian cubics on the group of transformations. This leads to a reduced form of the equations that reveals the obstruction for the projection of a cubic on a transformation group to again be a cubic on its object manifold.

  12. Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Pacemaker Pulse Generator Devices; Reclassification of Pacing System Analyzers. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-04-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify external pacemaker pulse generator (EPPG) devices, which are currently preamendments class III devices (regulated under product code DTE), into class II (special controls) and to reclassify pacing system analyzers (PSAs) into class II (special controls) based on new information and subject to premarket notification. This final order also creates a separate classification regulation for PSAs and places single and dual chamber PSAs, which are currently classified with EPPG devices, and triple chamber PSAs (TCPSAs), which are currently postamendments class III devices, into that new classification regulation. PMID:27101641

  13. Oligorotaxane Radicals under Orders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A strategy for creating foldameric oligorotaxanes composed of only positively charged components is reported. Threadlike components—namely oligoviologens—in which different numbers of 4,4′-bipyridinium (BIPY2+) subunits are linked by p-xylylene bridges, are shown to be capable of being threaded by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) rings following the introduction of radical-pairing interactions under reducing conditions. UV/vis/NIR spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations suggest that the reduced oligopseudorotaxanes fold into highly ordered secondary structures as a result of the formation of BIPY•+ radical cation pairs. Furthermore, by installing bulky stoppers at each end of the oligopseudorotaxanes by means of Cu-free alkyne–azide cycloadditions, their analogous oligorotaxanes, which retain the same stoichiometries as their progenitors, can be prepared. Solution-state studies of the oligorotaxanes indicate that their mechanically interlocked structures lead to the enforced interactions between the dumbbell and ring components, allowing them to fold (contract) in their reduced states and unfold (expand) in their fully oxidized states as a result of Coulombic repulsions. This electrochemically controlled reversible folding and unfolding process, during which the oligorotaxanes experience length contractions and expansions, is reminiscent of the mechanisms of actuation associated with muscle fibers. PMID:27163033

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthastrea maxima (Cnidaria, Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Vacherie, Benoît; Benzoni, Francesca; Barbe, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scleractinian coral Acanthastrea maxima has been obtained, representing the first sequenced mitogenome of a member of the Lobophylliidae. The mitochondrial genome is 18,278  bp in length, the longest sequence among the robust corals sequenced mitogenome to date. The overall GC composition (33.7%) and the gene arrangement are similar to those of the other scleractinian corals, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (rnl and rns) and 2 tRNA genes (tRNA-Met and tRNA-Trp). All genes except tRNA-Trp, atp8, cox1, tRNA-Met and rnl are engulfed by a large group I intron in the nad5 gene. A second group I intron of 1077 bp in length is inserted in the cox1 gene and it encodes a putative homing endonuclease. There are four regions of gene overlaps totalling 22 bp and nine intergenic spacer regions for a total of 2220 bp, of which the cox3-cox2 region may correspond to the putative control region.

  15. Comparative embryology of eleven species of stony corals (Scleractinia).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Nami; Mezaki, Takuma; Nozawa, Yoko; Nakano, Yoshikatsu; Lien, Yi-Ting; Fukami, Hironobu; Hayward, David C; Ball, Eldon E

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of coral reproduction and development is needed because corals are threatened in many ways by human activity. Major threats include the loss of their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium) caused by rising temperatures (bleaching), reduced ability to calcify caused by ocean acidification, increased storm severity associated with global climate change and an increase in predators caused by runoff from human agricultural activity. In spite of these threats, detailed descriptions of embryonic development are not available for many coral species. The current consensus is that there are two major groups of stony corals, the "complex" and the "robust". In this paper we describe the embryonic development of four "complex" species, Pseudosiderastrea tayamai, Galaxea fascicularis, Montipora hispida, and Pavona Decussata, and seven "robust" species, Oulastrea crispata, Platygyra contorta, Favites abdita, Echinophyllia aspera, Goniastrea favulus, Dipsastraea speciosa (previously Favia speciosa), and Phymastrea valenciennesi (previously Montastrea valenciennesi). Data from both histologically sectioned embryos and whole mounts are presented. One apparent difference between these two major groups is that before gastrulation the cells of the complex corals thus far described (mainly Acropora species) spread and flatten to produce the so-called prawn chip, which lacks a blastocoel. Our present broad survey of robust and complex corals reveals that prawn chip formation is not a synapomorphy of complex corals, as Pavona Decussata does not form a prawn chip and has a well-developed blastocoel. Although prawn chip formation cannot be used to separate the two clades, none of the robust corals which we surveyed has such a stage. Many robust coral embryos pass through two periods of invagination, separated by a return to a spherical shape. However, only the second of these periods is associated with endoderm formation. We have therefore termed the first invagination a pseudo-blastopore. PMID:24367633

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of disc coral Turbinaria peltata (Scleractinia, Dendrophylliidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Tian, Peng; Lin, Rongcheng; Lan, Wenlu; Niu, Wentao; Zheng, Xinqing

    2016-01-01

    To date, no complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome of Dendrophylliidae are yet available. In our study, the entire mitochondrial nucleotide sequence was determined for the Dendrophylliidae species Turbinaria peltata. The sequence was 18,966 bp in length and contained thirteen protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), two transfer RNA genes (tRNA(Met) and tRNA(Trp)) and a putative control region locating between Cyt b and ND2. The overall base composition of the mitogenome was 25.6% A, 37.4% T, 23.5% G, and 13.5% C, with a high AT content of 63%, indicating an obvious anti-guanine bias. It shared 93.7%, 87% and 84.8 % mitogenome sequence with Goniopora columna, Acropora robusta and Euphyllia ancora, respectively.

  17. Growing a strong middle class.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An important mission for the country is achieving sustainability while strengthening the middle class. American leadership and innovation can play a critical role in defining the interconnectedness of our economy and environment-and in unlocking, harnessing, and advancing green technologies. The State of Maryland has launched a Green Jobs Initiative focused on attracting green businesses, working with existing businesses to adopt sustainable practices, promoting clean energy research and use, and training the work force for ne, green-collar jobs. PMID:19608500

  18. Superposition rules for higher order systems and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, J. F.; Grabowski, J.; de Lucas, J.

    2012-05-01

    Superposition rules form a class of functions that describe general solutions of systems of first-order ordinary differential equations in terms of generic families of particular solutions and certain constants. In this work, we extend this notion and other related ones to systems of higher order differential equations and analyse their properties. Several results concerning the existence of various types of superposition rules for higher order systems are proved and illustrated with examples extracted from the physics and mathematics literature. In particular, two new superposition rules for the second- and third-order Kummer-Schwarz equations are derived.

  19. Student Preferences for Electronically-Assisted Options in a Community College Introductory Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Tucker, Sherri N.

    In order to determine student attitudes and the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction, an introductory psychology class at Northern Arizona University participated in a study identifying which students preferred such instruction, and whether it made a difference in class performance. The sample consisted of 165 students, predominantly…

  20. The role of certain Post classes in Boolean network models of genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Shmulevich, Ilya; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Dougherty, Edward R; Astola, Jaakko; Zhang, Wei

    2003-09-16

    A topic of great interest and debate concerns the source of order and remarkable robustness observed in genetic regulatory networks. The study of the generic properties of Boolean networks has proven to be useful for gaining insight into such phenomena. The main focus, as regards ordered behavior in networks, has been on canalizing functions, internal homogeneity or bias, and network connectivity. Here we examine the role that certain classes of Boolean functions that are closed under composition play in the emergence of order in Boolean networks. The closure property implies that any gene at any number of steps in the future is guaranteed to be governed by a function from the same class. By means of Derrida curves on random Boolean networks and percolation simulations on square lattices, we demonstrate that networks constructed from functions belonging to these classes have a tendency toward ordered behavior. Thus they are not overly sensitive to initial conditions, and damage does not readily spread throughout the network. In addition, the considered classes are significantly larger than the class of canalizing functions as the connectivity increases. The functions in these classes exhibit the same kind of preference toward biased functions as do canalizing functions, meaning that functions from this class are likely to be biased. Finally, functions from this class have a natural way of ensuring robustness against noise and perturbations, thus representing plausible evolutionarily selected candidates for regulatory rules in genetic networks. PMID:12963822

  1. Teachers and the Emotional Dimensions of Class in Resource-Affected Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pini, Barbara; Price, Robin; McDonald, Paula

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a "cultural turn" in the study of class has resulted in a rich body of work detailing the ways in which class advantage and disadvantage are emotionally inscribed and embodied in educational settings. To date, however, much of this literature has focused on the urban sphere. In order to address this gap in the literature, this…

  2. Enhancing Student Preparedness for Class through Course Preparation Assignments: Preliminary Evidence from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, William Henry; Rodgers, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Student preparation for class is an integral part of the college learning experience. In order to incentivize student preparation outside class, professors have employed such techniques as reflection papers, quizzes, and group discussion, to name but a few. This article explores the benefits of using a technique known as "course preparation…

  3. Inquiry into Identity: Teaching Critical Thinking through a Study of Race, Class, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Martha

    2012-01-01

    In Inquiry into Identity: Race, Class, and Gender (RCG), an eighth grade social studies class, the students' stories serve as springboards for higher-order learning. Through sharing personal experiences and listening to one another respectfully, students form a learning community in which deep, critical thinking naturally emerges. They gain…

  4. Class Construction: White Working-Class Student Identity in the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freie, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    "Class Construction" explores class, racial, and gender identity construction among white, working-class students. Delving into River City High School, Freie asks what happens to the adolescent children of working-class families when economic changes such as globalization and technological advancements have altered the face of working-class jobs.…

  5. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Division No. (if any) Name of class or division 49 CFR reference for definitions None Forbidden materials... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard... classes and index to hazard class definitions. The hazard class of a hazardous material is...

  6. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePlus

    ... order; DNR; DNR order; Advance care directive - DNR; Health care agent - DNR; Health care proxy - DNR; End-of-life - DNR; Living ... medical order written by a doctor. It instructs health care providers not to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) ...

  7. 49 CFR 453.3 - Detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detention orders and other orders. 453.3 Section 453.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.3 Detention orders and other orders. (a) The terms of...

  8. Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.

    2015-03-10

    In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.

  9. Exponential order statistic models of software reliability growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Failure times of a software reliabilty growth process are modeled as order statistics of independent, nonidentically distributed exponential random variables. The Jelinsky-Moranda, Goel-Okumoto, Littlewood, Musa-Okumoto Logarithmic, and Power Law models are all special cases of Exponential Order Statistic Models, but there are many additional examples also. Various characterizations, properties and examples of this class of models are developed and presented.

  10. A generalization of Chetaev's principle for a class of higher order nonholonomic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendra, Hernán; Ibort, Alberto; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David

    2004-07-01

    The constraint distribution in nonholonomic mechanics has a double role. On the one hand, it is a kinematic constraint, that is, it is a restriction on the motion itself. On the other hand, it is also a restriction on the allowed variations when using D'Alembert's principle to derive the equations of motion. We will show that many systems of physical interest where D'Alembert's principle does not apply can be conveniently modeled within the general idea of the principle of virtual work by the introduction of both kinematic constraints and variational constraints as being independent entities. This includes, for example, elastic rolling bodies and pneumatic tires. Also, D'Alembert's principle and Chetaev's principle fall into this scheme. We emphasize the geometric point of view, avoiding the use of local coordinates, which is the appropriate setting for dealing with questions of global nature, like reduction.

  11. The evolution of the thyroid hormone distributor protein transthyretin in the order insectivora, class mammalia.

    PubMed

    Prapunpoj, P; Richardson, S J; Fumagalli, L; Schreiber, G

    2000-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism in all vertebrates. Transthyretin is one of the extracellular proteins with high affinity for thyroid hormones which determine the partitioning of these hormones between extracellular compartments and intracellular lipids. During vertebrate evolution, both the tissue pattern of expression and the structure of the gene for transthyretin underwent characteristic changes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the position of Insectivora in the evolution of transthyretin in eutherians, a subclass of Mammalia. Transthyretin was identified by thyroxine binding and Western analysis in the blood of adult shrews, hedgehogs, and moles. Transthyretin is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, similar to the situation for other adult eutherians, birds, and diprotodont marsupials, but different from that for adult fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes, and Australian polyprotodont marsupials. For the characterization of the structure of the gene and the processing of mRNA for transthyretin, cDNA libraries were prepared from RNA from hedgehog and shrew livers, and full-length cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced. Sections of genomic DNA in the regions coding for the splice sites between exons 1 and 2 were synthesized by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The location of splicing was deduced from comparison of genomic with cDNA nucleotide sequences. Changes in the nucleotide sequence of the transthyretin gene during evolution are most pronounced in the region coding for the N-terminal region of the protein. Both the derived overall amino sequences and the N-terminal regions of the transthyretins in Insectivora were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those found in marsupials, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Also, the pattern of transthyretin precursor mRNA splicing in Insectivora was more similar to that in other eutherians than to that in marsupials, reptiles, and birds. Thus, in contrast to the marsupials, with a different pattern of transthyretin gene expression in the evolutionarily "older" polyprotodonts compared with the evolutionarily "younger" diprotodonts, no separate lineages of transthyretin evolution could be identified in eutherians. We conclude that transthyretin gene expression in the liver of adult eutherians probably appeared before the branching of the lineages leading to modern eutherian species.

  12. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  13. Solving Second-Order Differential Equations with Variable Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmer, A., III; Costa, G. B.

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed in which an analytical solution is obtained for certain classes of second-order differential equations with variable coefficients. By the use of transformations and by repeated iterated integration, a desired solution is obtained. This alternative method represents a different way to acquire a solution from classic power…

  14. Fifth-order susceptibility unveils growth of thermodynamic amorphous order in glass-formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, S.; Bauer, Th.; Michl, M.; Biroli, G.; Bouchaud, J.-P.; Loidl, A.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Tourbot, R.; Wiertel-Gasquet, C.; Ladieu, F.

    2016-06-01

    Glasses are ubiquitous in daily life and technology. However, the microscopic mechanisms generating this state of matter remain subject to debate: Glasses are considered either as merely hyperviscous liquids or as resulting from a genuine thermodynamic phase transition toward a rigid state. We show that third- and fifth-order susceptibilities provide a definite answer to this long-standing controversy. Performing the corresponding high-precision nonlinear dielectric experiments for supercooled glycerol and propylene carbonate, we find strong support for theories based on thermodynamic amorphous order. Moreover, when lowering temperature, we find that the growing transient domains are compact—that is, their fractal dimension df = 3. The glass transition may thus represent a class of critical phenomena different from canonical second-order phase transitions for which df < 3.

  15. Obligate Ordered Binding of Human Lactogenic Cytokines*

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jeffery L.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 cytokines bind two receptors to create an active heterotrimeric complex. It has been argued that ligand binding to their receptors is an ordered process, but a structural mechanism describing this process has not been determined. We have previously described an obligate ordered binding mechanism for the human prolactin/prolactin receptor heterotrimeric complex. In this work we expand this conceptual understanding of ordered binding to include three human lactogenic hormones: prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. We independently blocked either of the two receptor binding sites of each hormone and used surface plasmon resonance to measure human prolactin receptor binding kinetics and stoichiometries to the remaining binding surface. When site 1 of any of the three hormones was blocked, site 2 could not bind the receptor. But blocking site 2 did not affect receptor binding at site 1, indicating a requirement for receptor binding to site 1 before site 2 binding. In addition we noted variable responses to the presence of zinc in hormone-receptor interaction. Finally, we performed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses where receptor binding at subsaturating stoichiometries induced changes in FRET signaling, indicative of binding-induced changes in hormone conformation, whereas at receptor:hormone ratios in excess of 2:1 no additional changes in FRET signaling were observed. These results strongly support a conformationally mediated obligate-ordered receptor binding for each of the three lactogenic hormones. PMID:20427283

  16. 77 FR 32895 - Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Bellingham, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Regulations (14 CFR) Part 71 by modifying Class D airspace and Class E airspace designated as surface area to... or E surface area. This action is necessary for the safety and management of aircraft departing and.../Facility Directory. Paragraph 6002 Class E airspace designated as surface areas. * * * * * ANM WA...

  17. 78 FR 62498 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace, Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Class E airspace designated as surface area. The geographic coordinates of the airport also would be... extension to Class D surface area would be modified from the 4.3-mile radius of the airport to 8 miles... modification eliminates the need for Class E airspace designated as surface area, and, therefore, would...

  18. Topology in Ordered Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Toyoki; Oda, Migaku; Asano, Yasuhiro; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2006-08-01

    .]. Nanofibers of hydrogen storage alloy / I. Saita ... [et al.]. Synthesis of stable icosahedral quasicrystals in Zn-Sc based alloys and their magnetic properties / S. Kashimoto and T. Ishimasa. One-armed spiral wave excited by eam pressure in accretion disks in Be/X-Ray binaries / K. Hayasaki and A. T. Okazaki -- IV. Topological defects and excitations. Topological excitations in the ground state of charge density wave systems / P. Monceau. Soliton transport in nanoscale charge-density-wave systems / K. Inagaki, T. Toshima and S. Tanda. Topological defects in triplet superconductors UPt3, Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol], etc. / K. Maki ... [et al.]. Microscopic structure of vortices in type II superconductors / K. Machida ... [et al.]. Microscopic neutron investigation of the Abrikosov state of high-temperature superconductors / J. Mesot. Energy dissipation at nano-scale topological defects of high-Tc superconductors: microwave study / A. Maeda. Pressure induced topological phase transition in the heavy Fermion compound CeAl[symbol] / H. Miyagawa ... [et al.]. Explanation for the unusual orientation of LSCO square vortex lattice in terms of nodal superconductivity / M. Oda. Local electronic states in Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]CaCu[symbol]O[symbol] / A. Hashimoto ... [et al.] -- V. Topology in quantum phenomena. Topological vortex formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of alkali-metal atoms / M. Nakahara. Quantum phase transition of [symbol]He confined in nano-porous media / K. Shirahama, K. Yamamoto and Y. Shibayama. A new mean-field theory for Bose-Einstein condensates / T. Kita. Spin current in topological cristals / Y. Asano. Antiferromagnetic defects in non-magnetic hidden order of the heavy-electron system URu[symbol]Si[symbol] / H. Amitsuka, K. Tenya and M. Yokoyama. Magnetic-field dependences of thermodynamic quantities in the vortex state of Type-II superconductors / K. Watanabe, T. Kita and M. Arai. Three-magnon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in quantum ferrimagnets of topological

  19. An Explorer-Class Astrobiology Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Greene, Thomas; Allamandola, Louis; Arno, Roger; Bregman, Jesse; Cox, Sylvia; Davis, Paul K.; Gonzales, Andrew; Haas, Michael; Hanel, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe a potential new Explorer-class space mission, the AstroBiology Explorer (ABE), consisting of a relatively modest dedicated space observatory having a 50 cm aperture primary mirror which is passively cooled to T less than 65 K, resides in a low-background orbit (heliocentric orbit at 1 AU, Earth drift-away), and is equipped with a suite of three moderate order (m approx. 10) dispersive spectrographs equipped with first-order cross-dispersers in an "echellette" configuration and large format (1024xl024 pixel) near- and mid-IR detector arrays cooled by a modest amount of cryogen. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The observational program of this mission would make fundamental scientific progress in each of the key areas of the cosmic history of molecular carbon, the distribution and chemistry of organic compounds in the diffuse and dense interstellar media, and the evolution of ices and organic matter in young planetary systems. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting an approximately one year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micrometers spectral range at spectral resolutions of R greater than or equal to 1000 of approximately 1000 galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, and young star planetary systems.

  20. Automatic firearm class identification from cartridge cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Mann, Christopher J.; Bingham, Philip R.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2011-03-01

    We present a machine vision system for automatic identification of the class of firearms by extracting and analyzing two significant properties from spent cartridge cases, namely the Firing Pin Impression (FPI) and the Firing Pin Aperture Outline (FPAO). Within the framework of the proposed machine vision system, a white light interferometer is employed to image the head of the spent cartridge cases. As a first step of the algorithmic procedure, the Primer Surface Area (PSA) is detected using a circular Hough transform. Once the PSA is detected, a customized statistical region-based parametric active contour model is initialized around the center of the PSA and evolved to segment the FPI. Subsequently, the scaled version of the segmented FPI is used to initialize a customized Mumford-Shah based level set model in order to segment the FPAO. Once the shapes of FPI and FPAO are extracted, a shape-based level set method is used in order to compare these extracted shapes to an annotated dataset of FPIs and FPAOs from varied firearm types. A total of 74 cartridge case images non-uniformly distributed over five different firearms are processed using the aforementioned scheme and the promising nature of the results (95% classification accuracy) demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  1. Three classes of Martian rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this portion of the 360-degree color gallery pan, looking to the northeast, the colors have been exaggerated to highlight the differences between rocks and soils. Visible are the downwind sides of rocks, not exposed to wind scouring like Barnacle Bill (which faces upwind). There is a close correspondence between the shapes and colors of the rocks. Three general classes of rocks are recognized: large rounded rocks with weathered coatings, small gray angular rocks lacking weathered coatings, and flat white rocks. The large rounded rocks in the distance, marked by the red arrows, are comparable to Yogi. Spectral properties show that these rocks have a highly weathered coating in addition to a distinctive shape. A second population of smaller, angular rocks (blue arrows) in the foreground have unweathered surfaces even on the downwind side, except where covered on their tops by drift. These are comparable to Barnacle Bill. They may have been emplaced at the site relatively recently, perhaps as ejecta from an impact crater, so they have not had time to weather as extensively as the larger older rocks. The third kind of rock (white arrows) is white and flat, and includes Scooby Doo in the foreground and a large deposit in the background called Baker's Bank. The age of the white rock relative to the other two classes is still being debated. One representative rock of each class (Yogi, Barnacle Bill, and Scooby Doo) has been measured by the rover.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  2. Locational distribution of gene functional classes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Michael C; Clare, Amanda; King, Ross D

    2007-01-01

    Background We are interested in understanding the locational distribution of genes and their functions in genomes, as this distribution has both functional and evolutionary significance. Gene locational distribution is known to be affected by various evolutionary processes, with tandem duplication thought to be the main process producing clustering of homologous sequences. Recent research has found clustering of protein structural families in the human genome, even when genes identified as tandem duplicates have been removed from the data. However, this previous research was hindered as they were unable to analyse small sample sizes. This is a challenge for bioinformatics as more specific functional classes have fewer examples and conventional statistical analyses of these small data sets often produces unsatisfactory results. Results We have developed a novel bioinformatics method based on Monte Carlo methods and Greenwood's spacing statistic for the computational analysis of the distribution of individual functional classes of genes (from GO). We used this to make the first comprehensive statistical analysis of the relationship between gene functional class and location on a genome. Analysis of the distribution of all genes except tandem duplicates on the five chromosomes of A. thaliana reveals that the distribution on chromosomes I, II, IV and V is clustered at P = 0.001. Many functional classes are clustered, with the degree of clustering within an individual class generally consistent across all five chromosomes. A novel and surprising result was that the locational distribution of some functional classes were significantly more evenly spaced than would be expected by chance. Conclusion Analysis of the A. thaliana genome reveals evidence of unexplained order in the locational distribution of genes. The same general analysis method can be applied to any genome, and indeed any sequential data involving classes. PMID:17397552

  3. A class of integrable metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Batista, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    In four dimensions, the most general metric admitting two commuting Killing vectors and a rank-two Killing tensor can be parametrized by ten arbitrary functions of a single variable. We show that picking a special vierbein, reducing the system to eight functions, implies the existence of two geodesic and share-free, null congruences, generated by two principal null directions of the Weyl tensor. Thus, if the spacetime is an Einstein manifold, the Goldberg-Sachs theorem implies it is Petrov type D, and by explicit construction, is in the Carter class. Hence, our analysis provides a straightforward connection between the most general integrable structure and the Carter family of spacetimes.

  4. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.404 Class deviations. Where deviations from the FAR or AGAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for authority to...

  5. 48 CFR 401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.404 Class deviations. Where deviations from the FAR or AGAR are considered necessary for classes of contracts, requests for authority to...

  6. Does Class Size Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; Down, A. Graham

    1979-01-01

    Argues that study findings indicate that lowered class size increases student achievement and improves school attitudes. Counter argument indicates there is little educational payoff and great monetary expense in small reductions in class size. (RH)

  7. "Middle Class Aura" in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Charles; Bennett, Carson

    1977-01-01

    Selected perceptions of college educational psychology students toward middle class values evident during their secondary education experience, called by Charnovsky the "middle class aura", are presented, along with their own attitudes toward those values. (MJB)

  8. 7 CFR 30.5 - Class.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.5 Class... by differences in varieties, soil and climatic conditions, and the methods of cultivation,...

  9. 7 CFR 30.5 - Class.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.5 Class... by differences in varieties, soil and climatic conditions, and the methods of cultivation,...

  10. 7 CFR 30.5 - Class.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.5 Class... by differences in varieties, soil and climatic conditions, and the methods of cultivation,...

  11. Social Movements, Class, and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    Social movements in South Africa, often organized around class-related issues, provide rich material to illustrate how class, intertwined with other social categories, shapes organizational and educational practices.

  12. Modelling Symmetry Classes 233 and 432.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutch, Steven I.

    1986-01-01

    Offers instructions and geometrical data for constructing solids of the enantiomorphous symmetry classes 233 and 432. Provides background information for each class and highlights symmetrical relationships and construction patterns. (ML)

  13. 7 CFR 30.5 - Class.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.5 Class. One of the major divisions of leaf tobacco based on the distinct characteristics of the tobacco...

  14. FDA Bolsters Warnings about Class of Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160078.html FDA Bolsters Warnings About Class of Antibiotics Fluoroquinolones such as Cipro, Levaquin should be reserved ... it's strengthening label warnings on a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones because the drugs can lead to ...

  15. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... parties on behalf of all respondents if: (1) The class is so numerous or geographically dispersed that..., and the difficulties likely to be encountered in the management of a class action, as well as...

  16. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... parties on behalf of all respondents if: (1) The class is so numerous or geographically dispersed that..., and the difficulties likely to be encountered in the management of a class action, as well as...

  17. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... parties on behalf of all respondents if: (1) The class is so numerous or geographically dispersed that..., and the difficulties likely to be encountered in the management of a class action, as well as...

  18. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... parties on behalf of all respondents if: (1) The class is so numerous or geographically dispersed that..., and the difficulties likely to be encountered in the management of a class action, as well as...

  19. 16 CFR 1025.18 - Class actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... parties on behalf of all respondents if: (1) The class is so numerous or geographically dispersed that..., and the difficulties likely to be encountered in the management of a class action, as well as...

  20. Equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices and their similarity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Gullo, N.; Vittadello, L.; Bazzan, M.; Dell'Anna, L.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate, theoretically and experimentally, the properties of Fibonacci lattices with arbitrary spacings. Different from periodic structures, the reciprocal lattice and the dynamical properties of Fibonacci lattices depend strongly on the lengths of their lattice parameters, even if the sequence of long and short segment, the Fibonacci string, is the same. In this work we show that by exploiting a self-similarity property of Fibonacci strings under a suitable composition rule, it is possible to define equivalence classes of Fibonacci lattices. We show that the diffraction patterns generated by Fibonacci lattices belonging to the same equivalence class can be rescaled to a common pattern of strong diffraction peaks thus giving to this classification a precise meaning. Furthermore we show that, through the gap labeling theorem, gaps in the energy spectra of Fibonacci crystals belonging to the same class can be labeled by the same momenta (up to a proper rescaling) and that the larger gaps correspond to the strong peaks of the diffraction spectra. This observation makes the definition of equivalence classes meaningful also for the spectral and therefore dynamical and thermodynamical properties of quasicrystals. Our results apply to the more general class of quasiperiodic lattices for which similarity under a suitable deflation rule is in order.

  1. A class of energy-based ensembles in Tsallis statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekar, R.; Naina Mohammed, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    A comprehensive investigation is carried out on the class of energy-based ensembles. The eight ensembles are divided into two main classes. In the isothermal class of ensembles the individual members are at the same temperature. A unified framework is evolved to describe the four isothermal ensembles using the currently accepted third constraint formalism. The isothermal-isobaric, grand canonical and generalized ensembles are illustrated through a study of the classical nonrelativistic and extreme relativistic ideal gas models. An exact calculation is possible only in the case of the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. The study of the ideal gas models in the grand canonical and the generalized ensembles has been carried out using a perturbative procedure with the nonextensivity parameter (1 - q) as the expansion parameter. Though all the thermodynamic quantities have been computed up to a particular order in (1 - q) the procedure can be extended up to any arbitrary order in the expansion parameter. In the adiabatic class of ensembles the individual members of the ensemble have the same value of the heat function and a unified formulation to described all four ensembles is given. The nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic ideal gases are studied in the isoenthalpic-isobaric ensemble, the adiabatic ensemble with number fluctuations and the adiabatic ensemble with number and particle fluctuations.

  2. 48 CFR 1501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 1501.404 Section 1501.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.404 Class deviations. Requests for class deviations to the FAR and the EPAAR shall...

  3. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  4. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. (3) When an HCA knows that a proposed class deviation will be required on a permanent basis, the...

  5. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. Prior to approving a class deviation to the FAR, the SPE will consult...). (2) A class deviation to the GSAR must be forwarded by the cognizant HCA to GSA's SPE for approval. (3) When an HCA knows that a proposed class deviation will be required on a permanent basis, the...

  6. Predicting Latent Class Scores for Subsequent Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Janne; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Larsen, Klaus Groes

    2012-01-01

    Latent class regression models relate covariates and latent constructs such as psychiatric disorders. Though full maximum likelihood estimation is available, estimation is often in three steps: (i) a latent class model is fitted without covariates; (ii) latent class scores are predicted; and (iii) the scores are regressed on covariates. We propose…

  7. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  8. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  9. Reducing Class Size To Increase Student Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottes, Christine R.

    Reducing class size was considered an important element in a revised health course at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania). However, reducing class size to approximately 15 students per class would require 38 sections, more than the health faculty could handle. To recruit additional instructors, the course was marketed to faculty and administrators…

  10. Class Size & School Size. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Class size is one of the most researched and heavily debated topics in American public education. Currently, at least 25 states have initiated class size reduction (CSR) programs. In the past twenty years, several major studies have been conducted which indicate that smaller class sizes produce an increase in student achievement as well as greater…

  11. How Consistent Are Class Size Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2011-01-01

    Thus far researchers have focused on computing average differences in student achievement between smaller and larger classes. In this study, the author focus on the distribution of the small class effects at the school level and compute the inconsistency of the small class effects across schools. The author use data from Project STAR to estimate…

  12. Flipping Quantitative Classes: A Triple Win

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, William; Wuensch, Karl L.

    2016-01-01

    In the "flipped" class, students use online materials to learn what is traditionally learned by attending lectures, and class time is used for interactive group learning. A required quantitative business class was taught as a flipped classroom in an attempt to improve student satisfaction in the course and reduce the "transactional…

  13. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.207 Class determinations. (a) The General Counsel may make and issue a class determination under this section if he finds that— (1) EPA possesses, or is obtaining, related... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class determinations. 2.207 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 512.16 - Class determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class determinations. 512.16 Section 512.16... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION Agency Determination § 512.16 Class determinations. (a) The Chief Counsel may issue class determinations of categories of...

  15. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  16. Give Your Technology Program a Little "Class"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vengersammy, Ormilla

    2009-01-01

    The Orange County Library System (OCLS) began to offer basic technology classes in July 2000. The computers were funded through a grant awarded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Over time, the library staff noticed that the demand for the classes increased, so the offering of classes also increased. When the author arrived at OCLS, her main…

  17. Novel Class of Spider Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Fedorova, Irina M.; Maleeva, Ekaterina E.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Efimova, Svetlana S.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Schagina, Ludmila V.; Feofanov, Alexei V.; Magazanik, Lev G.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2010-01-01

    Venom of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium (Miturgidae) was found unique in terms of molecular composition. Its principal toxic component CpTx 1 (15.1 kDa) was purified, and its full amino acid sequence (134 residues) was established by protein chemistry and mass spectrometry techniques. CpTx 1 represents a novel class of spider toxin with modular architecture. It consists of two different yet homologous domains (modules) each containing a putative inhibitor cystine knot motif, characteristic of the widespread single domain spider neurotoxins. Venom gland cDNA sequencing provided precursor protein (prepropeptide) structures of three CpTx 1 isoforms (a–c) that differ by single residue substitutions. The toxin possesses potent insecticidal (paralytic and lethal), cytotoxic, and membrane-damaging activities. In both fly and frog neuromuscular preparations, it causes stable and irreversible depolarization of muscle fibers leading to contracture. This effect appears to be receptor-independent and is inhibited by high concentrations of divalent cations. CpTx 1 lyses cell membranes, as visualized by confocal microscopy, and destabilizes artificial membranes in a manner reminiscent of other membrane-active peptides by causing numerous defects of variable conductance and leading to bilayer rupture. The newly discovered class of modular polypeptides enhances our knowledge of the toxin universe. PMID:20657014

  18. A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, C.L.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Boehm, E.W.A.; Burgess, T.I.; de Gruyter, J.; de Hoog, G.S.; Dixon, L.J.; Grube, M.; Gueidan, C.; Harada, Y.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hirayama, K.; Hosoya, T.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Jones, E.B.G.; Kohlmeyer, J.; Kruys, Å.; Li, Y.M.; Lücking, R.; Lumbsch, H.T.; Marvanová, L.; Mbatchou, J.S.; McVay, A.H.; Miller, A.N.; Mugambi, G.K.; Muggia, L.; Nelsen, M.P.; Nelson, P.; Owensby, C A.; Phillips, A.J.L.; Phongpaichit, S.; Pointing, S.B.; Pujade-Renaud, V.; Raja, H.A.; Plata, E. Rivas; Robbertse, B.; Ruibal, C.; Sakayaroj, J.; Sano, T.; Selbmann, L.; Shearer, C.A.; Shirouzu, T.; Slippers, B.; Suetrong, S.; Tanaka, K.; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wood, A.R.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Yonezawa, H.; Zhang, Y.; Spatafora, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive phylogeny derived from 5 genes, nucSSU, nucLSU rDNA, TEF1, RPB1 and RPB2, for 356 isolates and 41 families (six newly described in this volume) in Dothideomycetes. All currently accepted orders in the class are represented for the first time in addition to numerous previously unplaced lineages. Subclass Pleosporomycetidae is expanded to include the aquatic order Jahnulales. An ancestral reconstruction of basic nutritional modes supports numerous transitions from saprobic life histories to plant associated and lichenised modes and a transition from terrestrial to aquatic habitats are confirmed. Finally, a genomic comparison of 6 dothideomycete genomes with other fungi finds a high level of unique protein associated with the class, supporting its delineation as a separate taxon. PMID:20169021

  19. Fabrication of 4-meter class astronomical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, M. J.; Kim, D. W.; Oh, C. J.; Novak, M. J.; Burge, J. H.

    2010-07-01

    The 8-meter mirror production capacity at the University of Arizona is well known. As the Arizona Stadium facility is occupied with giant mirrors, we have developed capability for grinding, polishing, and testing 4-m mirrors in the large optics shop in the College of Optical Sciences. Several outstanding capabilities for optics up to 4.3 meters in diameter are in place: A 4.3-m computer controlled grinding and polishing machine allows efficient figuring of steeply aspheric and nonaxisymmetric surfaces. Interferometry (IR and visible wavelengths) and surface profilometry making novel use of a laser tracker allows quick, accurate in-process measurements from a movable platform on a 30-m vertical tower. A 2-meter class flat measured with a 1-m vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism system; stitching of 1-m sub-apertures provides complete surface data with the technology ready for extension to the 4 m level. These methods were proven successful by completion of several optics including the 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope primary mirror. The 10 cm thick ULE substrate was ground and polished to 16 nm rms accuracy, corresponding to 80% encircled energy in 0.073 arc-second, after removing low order bending modes. The successful completion of the DCT mirror demonstrates the engineering and performance of the support system, ability to finish large aspheric surfaces using computer controlled polishing, and accuracy verification of surface measurements. In addition to the DCT mirror, a 2-meter class flat was produced to an unprecedented accuracy of <10 nm-rms, demonstrating the combined 1-m Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism measurement techniques.

  20. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  1. Universality classes for unstable crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Sofia; Misbah, Chaouqi; Politi, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Universality has been a key concept for the classification of equilibrium critical phenomena, allowing associations among different physical processes and models. When dealing with nonequilibrium problems, however, the distinction in universality classes is not as clear and few are the examples, such as phase separation and kinetic roughening, for which universality has allowed to classify results in a general spirit. Here we focus on an out-of-equilibrium case, unstable crystal growth, lying in between phase ordering and pattern formation. We consider a well-established 2+1-dimensional family of continuum nonlinear equations for the local height h(x,t) of a crystal surface having the general form ∂th(x,t)=-∇.[j(∇h)+∇(∇2h)]: j (∇h) is an arbitrary function, which is linear for small ∇h, and whose structure expresses instabilities which lead to the formation of pyramidlike structures of planar size L and height H. Our task is the choice and calculation of the quantities that can operate as critical exponents, together with the discussion of what is relevant or not to the definition of our universality class. These aims are achieved by means of a perturbative, multiscale analysis of our model, leading to phase diffusion equations whose diffusion coefficients encapsulate all relevant information on dynamics. We identify two critical exponents: (i) the coarsening exponent, n, controlling the increase in time of the typical size of the pattern, L ˜tn; (ii) the exponent β, controlling the increase in time of the typical slope of the pattern, M ˜tβ, where M ≈H/L. Our study reveals that there are only two different universality classes, according to the presence (n =1/3, β =0) or the absence (n =1/4, β >0) of faceting. The symmetry of the pattern, as well as the symmetry of the surface mass current j (∇h) and its precise functional form, is irrelevant. Our analysis seems to support the idea that also space dimensionality is irrelevant.

  2. Middle Class Tax Cut Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2012-07-17

    07/18/2012 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 457. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. The character strengths of class clowns

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by

  4. The character strengths of class clowns.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers. PMID:25324796

  5. The character strengths of class clowns.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  6. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of Nasolacrimal Compression Device. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the nasolacrimal compression device into class I (general controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class I (general controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27295735

  7. Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Iontophoresis Device Intended for Any Other Purposes. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-07-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify iontophoresis devices intended for any other purposes, which are preamendments class III devices (regulated under product code EGJ), into class II (special controls) and to amend the device identification to clarify that devices intended to deliver specific drugs are not considered part of this regulatory classification. PMID:27459751

  8. On the differentiability order of horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeghy, D.

    2016-06-01

    Let M be a time oriented Lorentzian manifold and H\\subset M a horizon. We will show that the differentiability order of the horizon can change only once along a generator, i.e. the following holds. If γ :I\\to H is a generator, thus, an inextendable past directed light-like geodesic on the horizon, where I=(α ,β ) or [α ,β ), then there exists a unique parameter {t}0\\in [α ,β ] and a positive integer k≥slant 1 such that the following is true. The horizon H is exactly of class {C}k at γ (t), for every t\\in ({t}0,β ), moreover H is only differentiable, but not of class {C}1 at every point γ (t), for which t\\in (α ,{t}0]. Moreover, if γ (α ) is the endpoint of only one generator then for a suitable space-like submanifold R\\subset H the first cut point of R along γ is γ (α ). Furthermore, all the points γ (t), for which t\\in [α ,{t}0], are non-injectivity points of R along γ . Moreover, if H is smooth at an interior point of γ, then H is smooth at every point of γ. MSC 53C50

  9. Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

  10. Order of Verdict Consideration and Decision Rule Effects on Mock Jury Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaye, Imafidon M.

    A study investigated the effects of order verdict consideration and decision rule on jury verdicts. After reading the summary of an actual trial, 240 mock jurors drawn from undergraduate communications classes were randomly assigned to six-member juries. Jury assignments were made under two verdict orders (ascending and descending order of…

  11. A Latent Class Analysis of Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    While there has been an escalating trend in the number of smokeless tobacco uses, mainly snuff, in the United States, it is unclear whether smokeless tobacco users are a homogenous class. The present investigation examines this question and identifies subtypes of smokeless tobacco users in order to better understand the characteristics of these individuals and guide appropriate intervention. Data on smokeless tobacco users (N = 2504) derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was employed. A range of antisocial behaviors, from reflecting non-violent deviant acts, irresponsibility, and a disengaged lifestyle, to aggression and violence were used to estimate the number of subtypes of smokeless tobacco users using latent class analysis. Four latent classes emerged: Normative Class (50.2 %), Deviant Class (21.9 %), Disengaging Class (17.2 %), and Antisocial Class (10.5 %). Logistic regression shows that major depression, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder were associated with Deviant Class (OR's from 2.0 to 10.5). The same array of psychiatric disorders and general anxiety disorder were associated with greater odds of membership in the Disengaging Class (OR's from 2.6 to 7.4). Aforementioned psychiatric disorders and illicit drug use disorder were associated with the Antisocial Class (OR's from 3.8 to 38.1). Findings indicate that smokeless tobacco users are a heterogeneous population that may benefit from differential intervention strategies.

  12. A Latent Class Analysis of Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    While there has been an escalating trend in the number of smokeless tobacco uses, mainly snuff, in the United States, it is unclear whether smokeless tobacco users are a homogenous class. The present investigation examines this question and identifies subtypes of smokeless tobacco users in order to better understand the characteristics of these individuals and guide appropriate intervention. Data on smokeless tobacco users (N = 2504) derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was employed. A range of antisocial behaviors, from reflecting non-violent deviant acts, irresponsibility, and a disengaged lifestyle, to aggression and violence were used to estimate the number of subtypes of smokeless tobacco users using latent class analysis. Four latent classes emerged: Normative Class (50.2 %), Deviant Class (21.9 %), Disengaging Class (17.2 %), and Antisocial Class (10.5 %). Logistic regression shows that major depression, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder were associated with Deviant Class (OR's from 2.0 to 10.5). The same array of psychiatric disorders and general anxiety disorder were associated with greater odds of membership in the Disengaging Class (OR's from 2.6 to 7.4). Aforementioned psychiatric disorders and illicit drug use disorder were associated with the Antisocial Class (OR's from 3.8 to 38.1). Findings indicate that smokeless tobacco users are a heterogeneous population that may benefit from differential intervention strategies. PMID:26864269

  13. Disconjugacy of fourth-order equations on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulaev, R. Ch

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops the theory of disconjugacy of fourth-order equations on geometric graphs which arises in modelling rod structures. The disconjugacy of an equation is defined in terms of a special fundamental system of solutions of the homogeneous equation. The disconjugacy property is shown to be related to the positivity property of the Green's functions for certain classes of boundary value problems for a fourth-order equation on a graph. A maximum principle for a fourth-order equation on a graph is formulated, and some properties of differential inequalities are proved. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  14. Order and Disorder in Short Block Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.

    2015-03-01

    Block polymers have captivated the interest of scientists and engineers for more than half a century. The phase behavior of this class of self-assembling soft material is well understood in the limit of infinite molecular weight, based on the self-consistent mean-field theory pioneered by Leibler. At practical molecular sizes, typically around N ~ 1000 repeat units, fluctuation effects become highly significant in the vicinity of the order disorder transition. One-loop corrections to mean-field theory, first described by Brazovski and applied to block polymers by Fredrickson and Helfand, are not expected to be applicable in this limit. Moreover, the drive towards ever smaller domain dimensions, and the opportunity to circumvent transport limitations associated with entanglements, have motivated experiments with yet lower molecular weight block polymers, N less than 100. This presentation will describe the consequences of fluctuations and the equilibrium structural properties of short model AB diblock polymers in the symmetric (f = 1/2) and asymmetric (f --> 0) regimes above and below the order-disorder transition. The consequences of fluctuations and access to equilibrium states will be described in the 1-dimensional stripped (lamellar) phase and the ordering of point particles in 3-dimensions, respectively. As N --> 1 computer simulation with realistic molecular detail becomes feasible presenting exciting opportunities to compliment the associated theoretical challenges. Research in collaboration with Sangwoo Lee, Chris Leighton and Timothy Gillard and Supported by NSF-DMR-1104368.

  15. LETTER: Effects of mobility on ordering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2009-11-01

    Models of ordering dynamics allow us to understand natural systems in which an initially disordered population homogenizes some traits via local interactions. The simplest of these models, with wide applications ranging from evolutionary to social dynamics, are the Voter and Moran processes, usually defined in terms of static or randomly mixed individuals that interact with a neighbor to copy or modify a discrete trait. Here we study the effects of diffusion in Voter/Moran processes by proposing a generalization of ordering dynamics in a metapopulation framework, in which individuals are endowed with mobility and diffuse through a spatial structure represented as a graph of patches upon which interactions take place. We show that diffusion dramatically affects the time to reach the homogeneous state, independently of the underlying network's topology, while the final consensus emerges through different local/global mechanisms, depending on the mobility strength. Our results highlight the crucial role played by mobility in ordering processes and set up a general framework that allows its effect to be studied on a large class of models, with implications in the understanding of evolutionary and social phenomena.

  16. High order WENO scheme for computational cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Ishani

    2010-11-01

    This doctoral dissertation is concerned with the formulation and application of a high order accurate numerical algorithm suitable in solving complex multi dimensional equations and the application of this algorithm to a problem in Astrophysics. The algorithm is designed with the aim of resolving solutions of partial differential equations with sharp fronts propagating with time. This high order accurate class of numerical technique is called a Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory (WENO) method and is well suited for shock capturing in solving conservation laws. The numerical approximation method, in the algorithm, is coupled with high order time marching as well as integration techniques designed to reduce computational cost. This numerical algorithm is used in several applications in computational cosmology to help understand questions about certain physical phenomena which occurred during the formation and evolution of first generation stars. The thesis is divided broadly in terms of the algorithm and its application to the different galactic processes. The first chapter deals with the astrophysical problem and offers an introduction to the numerical algorithm. In chapter 2 we outline the mathematical model and the various functions and parameters associated with the model. We also give a brief description of the relevant physical phenomena and the conservation laws associated with them. In chapter 3, we give a detailed description of the higher order algorithm and its formulation. We also highlight the special techniques incorporated in the algorithm in order to make it more suitable for handling cases which are computationally intensive. In the later chapters, 4-7, we explore in detail the physical processes and the different applications of our numerical scheme. We calculate different results such as the time scale of a temperature coupling mechanism, radiation and intensity changes etc. Different tests are also performed to illustrate the stability and

  17. A Novel Way to Relate Ontology Classes

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Ami T.; Jinwala, Devesh C.

    2015-01-01

    The existing ontologies in the semantic web typically have anonymous union and intersection classes. The anonymous classes are limited in scope and may not be part of the whole inference process. The tools, namely, the pellet, the jena, and the protégé, interpret collection classes as (a) equivalent/subclasses of union class and (b) superclasses of intersection class. As a result, there is a possibility that the tools will produce error prone inference results for relations, namely, sub-, union, intersection, equivalent relations, and those dependent on these relations, namely, complement. To verify whether a class is complement of other involves utilization of sub- and equivalent relations. Motivated by the same, we (i) refine the test data set of the conference ontology by adding named, union, and intersection classes and (ii) propose a match algorithm to (a) calculate corrected subclasses list, (b) correctly relate intersection and union classes with their collection classes, and (c) match union, intersection, sub-, complement, and equivalent classes in a proper sequence, to avoid error prone match results. We compare the results of our algorithms with those of a candidate reasoner, namely, the pellet reasoner. To the best of our knowledge, ours is a unique attempt in establishing a novel way to relate ontology classes. PMID:25984560

  18. A novel way to relate ontology classes.

    PubMed

    Choksi, Ami T; Jinwala, Devesh C

    2015-01-01

    The existing ontologies in the semantic web typically have anonymous union and intersection classes. The anonymous classes are limited in scope and may not be part of the whole inference process. The tools, namely, the pellet, the jena, and the protégé, interpret collection classes as (a) equivalent/subclasses of union class and (b) superclasses of intersection class. As a result, there is a possibility that the tools will produce error prone inference results for relations, namely, sub-, union, intersection, equivalent relations, and those dependent on these relations, namely, complement. To verify whether a class is complement of other involves utilization of sub- and equivalent relations. Motivated by the same, we (i) refine the test data set of the conference ontology by adding named, union, and intersection classes and (ii) propose a match algorithm to (a) calculate corrected subclasses list, (b) correctly relate intersection and union classes with their collection classes, and (c) match union, intersection, sub-, complement, and equivalent classes in a proper sequence, to avoid error prone match results. We compare the results of our algorithms with those of a candidate reasoner, namely, the pellet reasoner. To the best of our knowledge, ours is a unique attempt in establishing a novel way to relate ontology classes.

  19. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior

    PubMed Central

    Piff, Paul K.; Stancato, Daniel M.; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed. PMID:22371585

  20. Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Côté, Stéphane; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-11-01

    Recent research suggests that lower-class individuals favor explanations of personal and political outcomes that are oriented to features of the external environment. We extended this work by testing the hypothesis that, as a result, individuals of a lower social class are more empathically accurate in judging the emotions of other people. In three studies, lower-class individuals (compared with upper-class individuals) received higher scores on a test of empathic accuracy (Study 1), judged the emotions of an interaction partner more accurately (Study 2), and made more accurate inferences about emotion from static images of muscle movements in the eyes (Study 3). Moreover, the association between social class and empathic accuracy was explained by the tendency for lower-class individuals to explain social events in terms of features of the external environment. The implications of class-based patterns in empathic accuracy for well-being and relationship outcomes are discussed. PMID:20974714

  1. HLA class I expression in bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, T; Pedrajas, G; Cozar, J M; Garrido, A; Vicente, J; Tallada, M; Garrido, F

    2003-10-01

    HLA class I molecules are frequently lost in a large variety of human carcinomas, possibly because of T-cell immune selection of major histocompatibility complex class I deficient tumor variants. We report that this phenomenon is also a frequent event in bladder carcinomas. Of a total of 72 bladder carcinomas, 72% of the tumors had at least one alteration in HLA class I expression. These altered HLA class I phenotypes were classified as total HLA class I loss (25%; phenotype I); HLA-A or/and HLA-B locus-specific loss (12%; phenotype III); and HLA class I allelic loss (35%; phenotype II or IV). Comparison of histopathological parameters with HLA class I expression showed a statistically significant relationship with the degree of differentiation and tumor recurrence.

  2. A class of exact classical solutions to string theory.

    PubMed

    Coley, A A

    2002-12-31

    We show that the recently obtained class of spacetimes for which all of the scalar curvature invariants vanish (which can be regarded as generalizations of pp-wave spacetimes) are exact solutions in string theory to all perturbative orders in the string tension scale. As a result the spectrum of the theory can be explicitly obtained, and these spacetimes are expected to provide some hints for the study of superstrings on more general backgrounds. Since these Lorentzian spacetimes suffer no quantum corrections to all loop orders they may also offer insights into quantum gravity.

  3. 76 FR 9965 - Amendment of Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Easton, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D airspace at Easton, MD (75 FR... Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area, and, therefore, will be removed for... Designated as Surface Areas. * * * * * AEA MD E2 Easton, MD Easton Airport/Newnam Field, MD (Lat. 38...

  4. Are Small Classes Better? Understanding Relationships between Class Size, Classroom Processes and Pupils' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedder, David

    2006-01-01

    Twelve years ago Blatchford and Mortimore's authoritative review of class size research appeared in this journal. They concluded that a major problem with class size research was the lack of detailed studies of complex classroom processes that might mediate class size effects on pupils' learning. This article reviews two UK class size reviews and…

  5. 47 CFR 73.26 - Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional channels; Class B and Class D stations. 73.26 Section 73.26 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.26 Regional channels; Class B and Class...

  6. Cosmology of Modified (but second order) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, Tomi S.

    2010-01-01

    This is a brief review of applications of extended gravity theories to cosmology, in particular to the dark energy problem. Generically extensions of gravity action involve higher derivative terms, which can result in ghosts and instabilities. We consider three ways to circumvent this: Chern-Simons terms, first order variational principle and nonlocality. We consider some recent cosmological applications within these three classes of modified gravity models avoiding introduction of extra degrees of freedom. The viable parameter space can be very efficiently bounded by taking into account cosmological constraints from all epochs in addition to bounds from Solar system tests and stability considerations. We make some new remarks concerning so called algebraic scalar-tensor theories, biscalar reformulation of nonlocal actions involving the inverse d'Alembertian, and a possible covariant formulation holographic cosmology with nonperturbative gravity.

  7. Olson Order of Quantum Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2016-07-01

    M.P. Olson, Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 28, 537-544 (1971) showed that the system of effect operators of the Hilbert space can be ordered by the so-called spectral order such that the system of effect operators is a complete lattice. Using his ideas, we introduce a partial order, called the Olson order, on the set of bounded observables of a complete lattice effect algebra. We show that the set of bounded observables is a Dedekind complete lattice.

  8. World class care at Kaiser?

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1995-12-01

    ACT UP, charging Kaiser Permanente with substandard treatment of people with AIDS, has presented the company with a list of demands. The demands include faster patient access to their own doctors and to specialists, lengthening patient hospital stays when appropriate, offering viral testing to HIV-positive individuals, paying for human growth hormone to treat wasting syndrome, allowing patients to quickly switch doctors, and helping more patients enroll in clinical trials outside the Kaiser system. The San Francisco AIDS Foundation also signed the protest and urged Kaiser to reevaluate its policy on offering primary prophylaxis for CMV disease and MAC to people with AIDS who have low CD4 T-cell counts. Kaiser responds that it gives its HIV-infected patients world-class care.

  9. General class of braneworld wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-03-15

    The brane cosmology scenario is based on the idea that the Universe is a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. In this work, a general class of braneworld wormholes is explored with R{ne}0, where R is the four dimensional Ricci scalar, and specific solutions are further analyzed. A fundamental ingredient of traversable wormholes is the violation of the null energy condition (NEC). However, it is the effective total stress-energy tensor that violates the latter, and in this work, the stress-energy tensor confined on the brane, threading the wormhole, is imposed to satisfy the NEC. It is also shown that in addition to the local high-energy bulk effects, nonlocal corrections from the Weyl curvature in the bulk may induce a NEC violating signature on the brane. Thus, braneworld gravity seems to provide a natural scenario for the existence of traversable wormholes.

  10. Construction and maintenance procedure recommendations for proposed federal guidelines of safe havens for vehicles carrying Class A or Class B explosives

    SciTech Connect

    1985-02-10

    This document focuses on the design, construction, and maintenance of commercial safe havens operated by truck stops. In the context of this document, the term `safe haven` describes a designated area for parking motor vehicles transporting Class A or Class B explosives. Its objective is to inculcate acceptable construction practices and maintenance procedures in the organization of commercial safe havens in order to insure public safety.

  11. Structural order in glassy water.

    PubMed

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Sciortino, Francesco; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-06-01

    We investigate structural order in glassy water by performing classical molecular dynamics simulations using the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model of water. We perform isochoric cooling simulations across the glass transition temperature at different cooling rates and densities. We quantify structural order by orientational and translational order metrics. Upon cooling the liquid into the glassy state, both the orientational order parameter Q and translational order parameter tau increase. At T=0 K, the glasses fall on a line in the Q-tau plane or order map. The position of this line depends only on density and coincides with the location in the order map of the inherent structures (IS) sampled upon cooling. We evaluate the energy of the IS, eIS(T), and find that both order parameters for the IS are proportional to eIS. We also study the structural order during the transformation of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) upon isothermal compression and are able to identify distinct regions in the order map corresponding to these glasses. Comparison of the order parameters for LDA and HDA with those obtained upon isochoric cooling indicates major structural differences between glasses obtained by cooling and glasses obtained by compression. These structural differences are only weakly reflected in the pair correlation function. We also characterize the evolution of structural order upon isobaric annealing, leading at high pressure to very-high density amorphous ice (VHDA). PMID:16089741

  12. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  13. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  14. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  15. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  16. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A...

  17. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  18. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  19. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of Strabismus Detection Device. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-09-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the strabismus detection device into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the strabismus detection device's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27658316

  20. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the magnetic surgical instrument system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27658314

  1. Medical devices; neurological devices; classification of the transcranial magnetic stimulator for headache. Final order.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the transcranial magnetic stimulator for headache into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the transcranial magnetic stimulator for headache classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:25016622

  2. Medical Devices; Obstetrical and Gynecological Devices; Classification of the Intravaginal Culture System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the intravaginal culture system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the intravaginal culture system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26742184

  3. Medical Devices; Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Classification of the Prostate Lesion Documentation System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-11-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the prostate lesion documentation system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the prostate lesion documentation system classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26595945

  4. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Internal Tissue Marker. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the internal tissue marker into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the internal tissue marker's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26245004

  5. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Internal Tissue Marker. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the internal tissue marker into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the internal tissue marker's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  6. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the magnetic surgical instrument system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  7. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Oral Electronic Vision Aid. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-09-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the oral electronic vision aid into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the oral electronic vision aid's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  8. Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of the Thermal System for Insomnia. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-07-11

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the thermal system for insomnia into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the thermal system for insomnia's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27400464

  9. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Diurnal Pattern Recorder System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-05-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the diurnal pattern recorder system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the diurnal pattern recorder system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27236873

  10. Medical devices; physical medicine devices; classification of the powered exoskeleton. Final order.

    PubMed

    2014-02-24

    : The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the powered exoskeleton into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the powered exoskeleton's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:25735053

  11. Medical Devices; Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Classification of the Prostate Lesion Documentation System. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-11-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the prostate lesion documentation system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the prostate lesion documentation system classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  12. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  13. The latent classes of subclinical ADHD symptoms: convergences of multiple informant reports.

    PubMed

    Kóbor, Andrea; Takács, Ádám; Urbán, Róbert; Csépe, Valéria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct latent class analysis on the Hyperactivity scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to identify distinct subgroups of subclinical ADHD in a multi-informant framework. We hypothesized a similar structure between teachers and parents, and differences in symptom severity across latent classes. Data was collected from a non-referred sample of children aged 8-13 years. We performed latent class analyses on parent (n = 383) and teacher (n = 391) ratings of the Hyperactivity scale items from both versions of the questionnaire. Those children who had ratings from both informants (n = 272) were included in the cross-informant analyses, in which the similar or equivalent classes across raters were determined. A three-class solution for parent report and a five-class solution for teacher report emerged in the subsample of boys. For girls, a three-class structure for parents and a four-class structure for teachers were optimal. Besides non-symptomatic groups, mild and severe combined classes, mild inattentive-impulsive classes, and among boys, a mild hyperactive-impulsive class was obtained. The cross-informant analyses demonstrated that quite similar subgroups were detached regardless of informant; however, the teacher classes were somewhat more elaborated. The results are in line with the previous latent class analytic studies, and support the combination of dimensional and categorical approaches. The importance of milder symptoms and sub-threshold ADHD categories are emphasized for the fields of neuropsychology, neuroscience, and education, as well as for diagnosis and personalized treatment.

  14. What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  15. Oil and gas: Oilfield class actions

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The use of class actions is getting alot of attention in the oilfield. Plaintiffs have filed class actions challenging two of the most rooted industry practices, oil posted prices and deregulated natural gas affiliate deduction and charges. The classes will include tens or hundreds of thousands of plaintiffs and may transform two of the industry`s most settled practices. The emotions surrounding the class action risk obscuring the fact that it is an old and oft-used tool in oilfield litigation. The class action {open_quotes}provides a means by which, where a large group of persons are interested in a matter, one or more may sue or be sued as representatives of the class without needing to join every member of the class.{close_quotes} The procedure avoids waste by combining scattered disputes, even if some injured might sue individually, and it enables plaintiffs who could not afford to sue to be represented anyway. The lawyers draw their fees from any recovery. Almost all oilpatch class actions are brought to resolve a {open_quotes}common question{close_quotes} under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 23(b)(3) or state counterparts. The rule`s {open_quotes}opt-out{close_quotes} provisions give class actions a tremendous boost because members stay in unless they take steps to get out. This article discusses present and future class actions.

  16. 7 CFR 1005.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price. 1005.51 Section 1005.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GRAYSON 21085 0.20 KY GREEN 21087 0.20 KY HANCOCK 21091 0.10 KY HARDIN 21093 0.10 KY HARLAN 21095 0.50...

  17. 75 FR 76924 - Modification of Class D and E Airspace, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Flagstaff, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to a Class D or E surface area at Flagstaff Pulliam... remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to a Class D or E surface area at Flagstaff, AZ and to... Class D or Class E surface area. * * * * * AWP AZ E4 Flagstaff, AZ Paragraph 6005 Class E airspace...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  3. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  8. THE Ch-CLASS ASTEROIDS: CONNECTING A VISIBLE TAXONOMIC CLASS TO A 3 μm BAND SHAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2015-12-15

    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3 μm region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H{sub 2}O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3 μm band shapes in the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the “Pallas-type” spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2 to 4 μm spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3 μm band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch class is defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, this demonstrates that the 0.7 μm band serves not only as a proxy for the presence of a band in the 3 μm region, but specifically for the presence of Pallas-type bands. There is some evidence for a correlation between band depth at 2.95 μm and absolute magnitude and/or albedo. However, we find only weak correlations between 2.95 μm band depth and semimajor axis. The connection between band depths in the 0.7 and 3 μm regions is complex and in need of further investigation.

  9. PHYSLIB: A C++ tensor class library

    SciTech Connect

    Budge, K.G.

    1991-10-09

    C++ is the first object-oriented programming language which produces sufficiently efficient code for consideration in computation-intensive physics and engineering applications. In addition, the increasing availability of massively parallel architectures requires novel programming techniques which may prove to be relatively easy to implement in C++. For these reasons, Division 1541 at Sandia National Laboratories is devoting considerable resources to the development of C++ libraries. This document describes the first of these libraries to be released, PHYSLIB, which defines classes representing Cartesian vectors and (second-order) tensors. This library consists of the header file physlib.h, the inline code file physlib.inl, and the source file physlib.C. The library is applicable to both three-dimensional and two-dimensional problems; the user selects the 2-D version of the library by defining the symbol TWO D in the header file physlib.h and recompiling physlib.C and his own code. Alternately, system managers may wish to provide duplicate header and object modules of each dimensionality. This code was produced under the auspices of Sandia National Laboratories, a federally-funded research center administered for the United States Department of Energy on a non-profit basis by AT T. This code is available to US citizens, and institutions under research, government use and/or commercial license agreements.

  10. Stability and synchronization of memristor-based fractional-order delayed neural networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Wu, Ranchao; Cao, Jinde; Liu, Jia-Bao

    2015-11-01

    Global asymptotic stability and synchronization of a class of fractional-order memristor-based delayed neural networks are investigated. For such problems in integer-order systems, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is usually constructed, whereas similar method has not been well developed for fractional-order nonlinear delayed systems. By employing a comparison theorem for a class of fractional-order linear systems with time delay, sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of fractional memristor-based delayed neural networks is derived. Then, based on linear error feedback control, the synchronization criterion for such neural networks is also presented. Numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  11. Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA, Dwingeloo /NRAO, Socorro /Caltech /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-05-31

    We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.

  12. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  13. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  14. Characteristic classes of Q-manifolds: Classification and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovich, S. L.; Mosman, E. A.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    A Q-manifold M is a supermanifold endowed with an odd vector field Q squaring to zero. The Lie derivative LQ along Q makes the algebra of smooth tensor fields on M into a differential algebra. In this paper, we define and study the invariants of Q-manifolds called characteristic classes. These take values in the cohomology of the operator LQ and, given an affine symmetric connection with curvature R, can be represented by universal tensor polynomials in the repeated covariant derivatives of Q and R up to some finite order. As usual, the characteristic classes are proved to be independent of the choice of the affine connection used to define them. The main result of the paper is a complete classification of the intrinsic characteristic classes, which, by definition, do not vanish identically on flat Q-manifolds. As an illustration of the general theory we interpret some of the intrinsic characteristic classes as anomalies in the BV and BFV-BRST quantization methods of gauge theories. An application to the theory of (singular) foliations is also discussed.

  15. Terminology modeling for an enterprise laboratory orders catalog.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Goldberg, Howard; Pabbathi, Deepika; Wright, Adam; Goldman, Debora S; Van Putten, Cheryl; Barley, Amanda; Rocha, Roberto A

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory test orders are used in a variety of clinical information systems at Partners HealthCare. At present, each site at Partners manages its own set of laboratory orders with locally defined codes. Our current plan is to implement an enterprise catalog, where laboratory test orders are mapped to reference terminologies and codes from different sites are mapped to each other. This paper describes the terminology modeling effort that preceded the implementation of the enterprise laboratory orders catalog. In particular, we present our experience in adapting HL7's "Common Terminology Services 2 - Upper Level Class Model" as a terminology metamodel for guiding the development of fully specified laboratory orders and related services. PMID:20351950

  16. Surface melting of electronic order.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S. B.; Liu, X.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P. J.; Mitchell, J. F.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We report temperature-dependent surface x-ray scattering studies of the orbital ordered surface in La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. We find that as the bulk ordering temperature is approached from below the thickness of the interface between the electronically ordered and electronically disordered regions at the surface grows, though the bulk correlation length remains unchanged. Close to the transition, the surface is so rough that there is no well-defined electronic surface, despite the presence of bulk electronic order. That is, the electronic ordering at the surface has melted. Above the bulk transition, long-range ordering in the bulk is destroyed but finite-sized isotropic fluctuations persist, with a correlation length roughly equal to that of the low-temperature in-plane surface correlation length.

  17. Spin density wave order, topological order, and Fermi surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir; Berg, Erez; Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Schattner, Yoni

    2016-09-01

    In the conventional theory of density wave ordering in metals, the onset of spin density wave (SDW) order coincides with the reconstruction of the Fermi surfaces into small "pockets." We present models which display this transition, while also displaying an alternative route between these phases via an intermediate phase with topological order, no broken symmetry, and pocket Fermi surfaces. The models involve coupling emergent gauge fields to a fractionalized SDW order, but retain the canonical electron operator in the underlying Hamiltonian. We establish an intimate connection between the suppression of certain defects in the SDW order and the presence of Fermi surface sizes distinct from the Luttinger value in Fermi liquids. We discuss the relevance of such models to the physics of the hole-doped cuprates near optimal doping.

  18. New class of neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

  19. Class IIc or Circular Bacteriocins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; van Belkum, Marco J.; Vederas, John C.

    The circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria represent a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides. These bacteriocins display enhanced stability compared to linear bacteriocins, which arises from their characteristic circular backbone. Currently, eight unique circular bacteriocins have been identified, and analysis of their gene clusters indicates that they likely utilize complex mechanisms for maturation and secretion, as well as for immunity. These bacteriocins target the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells, leading to pore formation that results in loss of ions, dissipation of membrane potential, and ultimately, cell death. Structural studies suggest that despite variation in their sequences, most of these bacteriocins likely adopt a common three-dimensional architecture, consisting of four or five tightly packed helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. There are many mysteries surrounding the biosynthesis of these peptides, particularly in regard to the mechanism by which they are cyclized. Elucidation of such a mechanism may provide exciting new approaches to the bioengineering of new, stable, and antimicrobially active circular peptides.

  20. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.