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Sample records for oregon cascades final

  1. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.

    1988-10-27

    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  2. US geothermal database and Oregon cascade thermal studies: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.D.; Steele, J.L.; Carter, L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes two tasks of different nature. The first of these tasks was the preparation of a data base for heat flow and associated ancillary information for the United States. This data base is being used as the basis for preparation of the United States portion of a geothermal map of North America. The ''Geothermal Map of North America'' will be published as part of the Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) series of the Geological Society of America. The second of these tasks was to make a geothermal evaluation of holes drilled in the Cascade Range as part of a Department of Energy (DOE)/Industry co-sponsored deep drilling project. This second task involved field work, making temperature logs in the holes, and laboratory work, measuring thermal conductivity measurements on an extensive set of samples from these holes. The culmination of this task was an interpretation of heat flow values in terms of the regional thermal conditions; implications for geothermal systems in the Cascade Range; evaluation of the effect of groundwater flow on the depths that need to be drilled for successful measurements in the Cascade Range; and investigation of the nature of the surface groundwater effects on the temperature-depth curves. 40 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Cascade Mtns. Oregon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-19

    The ground near one of the long-dormant Three Sisters volcanoes in the Cascade Mountains of west-central Oregon has risen approximately 10centimeters in a 10-by-20-km parcel since 1996, meaning that magma or underground lava is slowly flowing into the area, according to a research team from the U.S. Geological Survey. The Three Sisters area -- which contains five volcanoes -- is only about 170 miles from Mount St. Helens, which erupted in 1980. Both are part of the Cascades Range, a line of 27volcanoes stretching from British Columbia in Canada to northern California. This perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER image over digital topography from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset. This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03492

  4. Cascade Mtns. Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The ground near one of the long-dormant Three Sisters volcanoes in the Cascade Mountains of west-central Oregon has risen approximately 10centimeters in a 10-by-20-km parcel since 1996, meaning that magma or underground lava is slowly flowing into the area, according to a research team from the U.S. Geological Survey. The Three Sisters area -- which contains five volcanoes -- is only about 170 miles from Mount St. Helens, which erupted in 1980. Both are part of the Cascades Range, a line of 27volcanoes stretching from British Columbia in Canada to northern California. This perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER image over digital topography from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical

  5. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Along its Oregon segment, the Cascade Range is almost entirely volcanic in origin. The volcanoes and their eroded remnants are the visible magmatic expression of the Cascadia subduction zone, where the offshore Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is subducted beneath North America. Subduction occurs as two lithospheric plates collide, and an underthrusted oceanic plate is commonly dragged into the mantle by the pull of gravity, carrying ocean-bottom rock and sediment down to where heat and pressure expel water. As this water rises, it lowers the melting temperature in the overlying hot mantle rocks, thereby promoting melting. The molten rock supplies the volcanic arcs with heat and magma. Cascade Range volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire, a popular term for the numerous volcanic arcs that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

  6. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Maps

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trimble, John

    2015-12-15

    The maps in this submission include: heat flow, alkalinity, Cl, Mg, SiO2, Quaternary volcanic rocks, faults, and land ownership. All of the Oregon Cascade region. The work was done by John Trimble, in 2015, at Oregon State University.

  7. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Raster Datasets and Models

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes maps of the spatial distribution of basaltic, and felsic rocks in the Oregon Cascades. It also includes a final Play Fairway Analysis (PFA) model, with the heat and permeability composite risk segments (CRS) supplied separately. Metadata for each raster dataset can be found within the zip files, in the TIF images

  8. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  9. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.E.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50{degree}C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110{degree}C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  10. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Faults and Heat Flow maps

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a fault map of the Oregon Cascades and backarc, a probability map of heat flow, and a fault density probability layer. More extensive metadata can be found within each zip file.

  11. Fire severity in intermittent stream drainages, Western Cascade Range, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Jennifer E. Tollefson; Frederick J. Swanson; John H. Cissel

    2004-01-01

    We quantified fire severity patterns within intermittent stream drainages in a recently burned area of the central western Cascades, Oregon. Aerial photographs were used to estimate post fire live canopy cover within streamside and upland zones on the southeast and southwest-facing slopes of 33 watersheds. Live canopy cover did not differ significantly between...

  12. Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring in the Oregon Cascades 2012-2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This dataset contains information from visual encounter surveys conducted between 2012 and 2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort in the Oregon Cascade Mountain Range. We surveyed 91 sites using a rotating frame design in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species' core extant range. Data consist of spotted frog counts aggregated by date, location, and life stage, as well as data on environmental conditions at the time of each survey.

  13. CO[sub 2] degassing in the Oregon Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    James, E.R.; Manga, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Rose, T.P. . Isotope Sciences Div.)

    1999-09-01

    The carbon isotope content of dissolved inorganic carbon was measured for large cold springs in the central Oregon Cascades. Low [sup 14]C activities in some of the springs are interpreted to result from the dissolution of diffuse emissions of magmatic CO[sub 2], even though volcanic activity has not occurred in this area for more than 1300 yr. On the basis of dissolved magmatic carbon concentrations in the springs, the authors infer a diffuse magmatic CO[sub 2] degassing rate of 3.4 [times] 10[sup 5] kg/yr per kilometer of arc for the central Oregon Cascades. The CO[sub 2] flux calculated from estimates of the mean magmatic intrusion rate and experimentally determined values of CO[sub 2] content in melts is consistent with that determined from their measurements of the dissolved CO[sub 2] flux at springs.

  14. CO{sub 2} degassing in the Oregon Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    James, E.R.; Manga, M.; Rose, T.P.

    1999-09-01

    The carbon isotope content of dissolved inorganic carbon was measured for large cold springs in the central Oregon Cascades. Low {sup 14}C activities in some of the springs are interpreted to result from the dissolution of diffuse emissions of magmatic CO{sub 2}, even though volcanic activity has not occurred in this area for more than 1300 yr. On the basis of dissolved magmatic carbon concentrations in the springs, the authors infer a diffuse magmatic CO{sub 2} degassing rate of 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5} kg/yr per kilometer of arc for the central Oregon Cascades. The CO{sub 2} flux calculated from estimates of the mean magmatic intrusion rate and experimentally determined values of CO{sub 2} content in melts is consistent with that determined from their measurements of the dissolved CO{sub 2} flux at springs.

  15. Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1998 supplement.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Henshaw; Sarah E. Greene; Tami Lowry

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography updates the list of publications, abstracts, theses, and unpublished reports included in "Research Publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon, 1948 to 1986" (General Technical Report PNW-GTR-201) and "Research Publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1988 Supplement...

  16. Flow-banded Rhyolite of the Northern Oregon Cascades: Graveyard and Gordon Buttes, Tygh Valley, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westby, E.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most structurally complex areas along the northeastern margin of the Oregon Cascades is in Tygh Valley. Crustal shortening produced folds and extensional tectonics resulted in rifting during the Miocene/Pliocene. Rhyolite, exposed in channel cuts and river canyon, records this transition, summarized in new, more detailed research. Tygh Valley, Oregon, is a synclinal basin bordered by the Tygh Ridge anticline to the north, Mutton Mountains to the south, and the Cascade Range (with Mt. Hood) to the west. The stratigraphy of the basin consists of epi- and volcaniclastic deposits mostly derived from the Cascades Range, in addition to ash flow tuffs and surficial basalt lava flows. Rhyolite lava flows are found at two dome complexes in the Tygh Valley area, Graveyard Butte and Gordon Butte. At Graveyard Butte, the White River has cut a winding canyon 140 meters deep, exposing at its base, a 40-meter thick outcrop of flow-banded rhyolite (73 wt.% SiO2) that laterally extends along the canyon walls for about 1 km. Stratigraphically above the flow-banded rhyolites are locally-erupted Fe-rich andesites (lava flows, agglutinate and other pyroclastic rocks as well as clastic debris), a rhyolitic ash-flow tuff (74 wt.% SiO2) and the 2.7 My basalt lava flows of Juniper Flat. At Gordon Butte, compositionally similar rhyolite lavas are exposed in channel cuts but flows are less constrained on ridge tops due to heavy vegetation. Ongoing age dating experiments will likely reveal a late Miocene/Pliocene age for these rhyolite lava flows. The rhyolite lavas flows at both buttes are chemically nearly indistinguishable but contrast with the stratigraphically younger rhyolitic ash-flow tuff at Graveyard Butte. Rhyolite lavas are richer in Nb and Zr than the younger rhyolitic tuff (Nb 30-40 versus 13 ppm; Zr 490 versus 240 ppm) and share characteristics with much older (~30 Ma) rhyolites of the Western Cascades and John Day Formation of central and eastern Oregon as well as

  17. Geothermal gradient drilling, north-central Cascades of Oregon, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-01-01

    A geothermal gradient drilling program was conducted on the western flank of the north-central Cascade Mountains in Oregon. Six wells were drilled during this program, although in effect seven were drilled, as two wells were drilled at site 3, the second well, however, actually going to a lesser depth than the first. Three of the wells (3, 4, and 5) were drilled in areas which topographically are subject to strong throughflows of ground water. None of these wells reached the regional water table, and all showed essentially isothermal geothermal gradients. The single well which was started essentially at the water table (well 6) shows a linear temperature rise with depth essentially from the top of the well bore. Well No. 2 shows an isothermal gradient down to the level of the regional water table and then shows a linear gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km from the regional water table to total depth.

  18. Change in extent of meadows and shrub fields in the central western cascade Range, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Sadao Takaoka; Frederick J. Swanson

    2008-01-01

    We examined change in areal extent of mountain meadows and fields of deciduous shrubs and conifer saplings in the central western Cascade Range of Oregon, based on analysis of aerial photographs taken in 1946 and 2000. These nonforest vegetation patches are distinctive habitats in dominantly forested landscapes, such as the Cascades, and change in extent of these...

  19. Fire and water: volcanology, geomorphology, and hydrogeology of the Cascade Range, central Oregon

    Treesearch

    Katharine V. Cashman; Natalia I. Deligne; Marshall W. Gannett; Gordon E. Grant; Anne. Jefferson

    2009-01-01

    This field trip guide explores the interactions among the geologic evolution, hydrology, and fluvial geomorphology of the central Oregon Cascade Range. Key topics include the geologic control of hydrologic regimes on both the wet and dry sides of the Cascade Range crest, groundwater dynamics and interaction between surface and groundwater in young volcanic arcs, and...

  20. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  1. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Andria; Cyr, Shirley

    2013-12-31

    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  2. Petrogenesis of Western Cascades Silicic Volcanics Near Sweet Home, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. W.; White, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    Silicic lavas in the Menagerie Wilderness east of Sweet Home, Oregon are Oligocene to Miocene in age and range in composition from dacite (low K) to trachydacite (high K) and rhyolite (medium K). Three distinct silicic centers have been distinguished through a combination of field observation, chemistry and petrography. Phenocryst assemblages in rocks of the centers are plagioclase-hornblende-magnetite (Rooster Rock rhyolite), plagioclase-quartz-magnetite (Soda Fork rhyolite) and quartz-plagioclase-biotite-hornblende-magnetite (Moose Mt. rhyolite). The silicic volcanics in the study area are similar in terms of mineral content and overall chemical composition. Despite this, chemical evidence suggests that the three centers are petrologically unrelated. REE variations and least squares modeling of major element compositions are consistent with fractionation of plagioclase and hornblende. The rhyolites have moderate Eu anomalies and have flat MREE and HREE signatures. Least squares models and bivariate plots of major and trace elements also suggest fractionation of the aforementioned phases for both the andesite to dacite, and dacite to rhyolite steps. Comparisons with similar silicic centers show the Menagerie rocks share affinities with High Cascades rocks thought to have been derived through fractional crystallization (Crater Lake and South Sister). Plots of ratios of incompatible trace elements were utilized to determine if assimilation played some role alongside fractional crystallization in differentiation. Plots of Ba/La vs. Ba, Rb/Zr vs. Rb and Rb/Th vs. Rb show systematic positive increases in the ratios between a plausible parent magma (icelandite) and the rhyolites. These increases are not easily explained by fractional crystallization but can be modeled by assimilation of silicic crust. Overall, it seems likely that the three centers evolved independently through similar petrogenetic processes from an andesitic parent. The most plausible petrogenetic

  3. Oregon Low-Temperature-Resource Assessment Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.; Woller, N.M.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous low-temperature hydrothermal systems are available for exploitation throughout the Cascades and eastern Oregon. All of these areas have heat flow significantly higher than crustal averages and many thermal aquifers. In northeastern Oregon, low temperature geothermal resources are controlled by regional stratigraphic aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group at shallow depths and possibly by faults at greater depths. In southeastern Oregon most hydrothermal systems are of higher temperature than those of northeastern Oregon and are controlled by high-angle fault zones and layered volcanic aquifers. The Cascades have very high heat flow but few large population centers. Direct use potential in the Cascades is therefore limited, except possibly in the cities of Oakridge and Ashland, where load may be great enough to stimulate development. Absence of large population centers also inhibits initial low temperature geothermal development in eastern Oregon. It may be that uses for the abundant low temperature geothermal resources of the state will have to be found which do not require large nearby population centers. One promising use is generation of electricity from freon-based biphase electrical generators. These generators will be installed on wells at Vale and Lakeview in the summer of 1982 to evaluate their potential use on geothermal waters with temperatures as low as 80/sup 0/C (176/sup 0/F).

  4. The Oregon Applied Academics Project: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Donna; Richardson, George B.; Sawyer, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the findings of the Oregon Applied Academics research and development project which spanned three academic years from 2010 through 2013. The overall purpose of the project was to develop and implement a technical math course that would meet graduation requirements and improve student performance. The State of Oregon has been…

  5. CARBON AND NITROGEN POOLS IN OREGON CASCADES FORESTS OVER A SUCCESSIONAL GRADIENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a study to examine impacts of successional and disturbance history on N export from 20 headwater stream systems in the west central Cascades of Oregon, a region of low anthropogenic N inputs, watersheds of differing ages showed a number of significant difference in nutrient ...

  6. SPATIAL FOREST SOIL PROPERTIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MODELING IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate objective of this work is to provide a spatially distributed database of soil properties to serve as inputs to model ecological processes in western forests at the landscape scale. The Central Western Oregon Cascades are rich in biodiversity and they are a fascinati...

  7. Seed zones and breeding zones for white pine in the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Robert K. Campbell; Albert I. Sugano

    1989-01-01

    Provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) in the Cascade Range of western Washington and Oregon. Recommendations were based on genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 115 locations. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth rhythm were assessed in...

  8. Perspectives on climate change, mountain hydrology, and water resources in the Oregon Cascades, USA

    Treesearch

    A.W. Nolin

    2012-01-01

    From both social and environmental perspectives, water is the main connection between highland and lowland processes in mountain watersheds: Water flows downhill while human impacts flow uphill. For example, in the Oregon Cascades mountain range, geology, vegetation, and climate influence the hydrologic connections within watersheds. Geology determines which watersheds...

  9. Influence of volcanic history on groundwater patterns on the west slope of the Oregon High Cascades.

    Treesearch

    A. Jefferson; G. Grant; T. Rose

    2006-01-01

    Spring systems on the west slope of the Oregon High Cascades exhibit complex relationships among modern topography, lava flow geometries, and groundwater flow patterns. Seven cold springs were continuously monitored for discharge and temperature in the 2004 water year, and they were periodically sampled for ?18O, ?D, tritium, and dissolved noble gases. Anomalously high...

  10. CARBON AND NITROGEN POOLS IN OREGON CASCADES FORESTS OVER A SUCCESSIONAL GRADIENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a study to examine impacts of successional and disturbance history on N export from 20 headwater stream systems in the west central Cascades of Oregon, a region of low anthropogenic N inputs, watersheds of differing ages showed a number of significant difference in nutrient ...

  11. Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1988 supplement.

    Treesearch

    T. Blinn; F.J. Swanson; A. McKee

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography updates the list of publications, abstracts, theses, and unpublished reports included in "Research Publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon, 1948 to 1986," General Technical Report PNW-GTR-201. Citations are referenced under appropriate keywords.

  12. Fates of live trees retained in forest cutting units, western Cascade Range, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    P.E. Busby; P. Adler; T.L. Warren; F.J. Swanson

    2006-01-01

    To assess the fate of live trees retained in dispersed patterns across cutting units in the western Cascade Range of Oregon, we conducted repeat surveys (1993 and 2001) of sites cut as early as 1983. Our objectives in this study are to (1) survey survival and mortality of trees retained at the time of harvest, (2) describe temporal patterns of windthrow and other...

  13. Regeneration in mixed conifer shelterwood cuttings in the Cascade Range of eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1979-01-01

    A survey of shelterwood cuttings in mixed conifer forests in the eastern Oregon Cascade Range showed that, on the average, shelterwood units were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural subsequent, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Because of slow invasion by understory vegetation, frequent heavy seed crops, and adequate density of the overstory...

  14. Growth and yield of sitka spruce and western hemlock at Cascade Head Experimental Forest, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Stephen H. Smith; John F. Bell; Francis R. Herman; Thomas. See

    1984-01-01

    A study established in 83-year-old, even-aged stands of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) at Cascade Head Experimental Forest in the Siuslaw National Forest on the Oregon coast traces their development for 33 years. Statistical data collected from 12 permanent...

  15. SPATIAL FOREST SOIL PROPERTIES FOR ECOLOGICAL MODELING IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate objective of this work is to provide a spatially distributed database of soil properties to serve as inputs to model ecological processes in western forests at the landscape scale. The Central Western Oregon Cascades are rich in biodiversity and they are a fascinati...

  16. Realized gains from block-plot coastal Douglas-fir trials in the northern Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    Terrence Z. Ye; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; J. Bradley. St. Clair

    2010-01-01

    Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite--high predicted gain; intermediate--moderate predicted gain; and an...

  17. Climate change impacts on maritime mountain snowpack in the Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    E. Sproles; A.W. Nolin; K. Rittger; T.H. Painter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of projected temperature increases on maritime mountain snowpack in the McKenzie River Basin (MRB; 3041 km2) in the Cascades Mountains of Oregon, USA. We simulated the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent (SWE) in the MRB for the period of 1989–2009 with SnowModel, a spatiallydistributed, process-based...

  18. Preliminary report on the ecology of Armillaria in the East Cascades of Oregon

    Treesearch

    Geral I. McDonald; John W. Hanna; Aaron L. Smith; Helen M. Maffei; Mee-Sook Kim; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger effort to assess the distribution and ecology of Armillaria species throughout western North America, we present preliminary survey results for the East Cascades of Oregon. Surveys and sampling were conducted on 260 0.04-ha plots, which were randomly located across diverse environments and geographic locations. Using DNA-based techniques for the...

  19. Geologic map of Three Sisters volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South Sister, Middle Sister, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North Sister (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle Sister (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South Sister is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South Sister, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist

  20. Testing bedrock incision models: Holocene channel evolution, High Cascades, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Fonstad, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is abundant field evidence that sediment supply controls the incision of bedrock channels by both protecting the bed from incision and providing tools to incise the bed. Despite several theoretical models for sediment-dependent bedrock abrasion, many investigations of natural channel response to climatic, lithologic, or tectonic forcing rely on the stream power model, which does not consider the role of sediment. Here, we use a well-constrained fluvial channel cut into a Holocene lava flow in the High Cascades, Oregon to compare incision predictions of the stream power model and of the full physics of theoretical models for saltation-abrasion incision by bedload and suspended load. The blocky andesite of Collier lava flow erupted from Collier Cone ~1500 years ago, paving over the existing landscape and erasing fine-scale landscape dissection. Since the eruption, a 6 km stream channel has been incised into the lava flow. The channel is comprised of three alluvial reaches with sediment deposits up to 2 m thick and two bedrock gorges with incision of up to 8 m, with larger magnitude incision in the upstream gorge. Abraded forms such as flutes are present in both gorges. Given the low magnitude and duration of modern snowmelt flow in the channel, it is likely that much of the incision was driven by sediment-laden outburst floods from the terminus of Collier Glacier, which is situated just upstream of the lava flow and has produced two outburst floods in the past 100 years. This site is well suited for comparing incision models because of the relatively uniform lithology of the lava flow and our ability to constrain the timing and depth of incision using the undissected lava surface above the channel as an initial condition. Using a simple finite difference scheme with airborne-Lidar-derived pre-incision topography as an initial condition, we predict incision in the two gorges through time with both stream power and sediment-dependent models. Field observations

  1. Geology of the central and northern parts of the Western Cascade Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Dallas L.; Griggs, Allan B.; Schlicker, Herbert G.; Wells, Francis G.; Dole, Hollis M.

    1964-01-01

    This report pt·esents a description of the stratigraphy, structure, and petrology of the volcanic rocks of the central and northern parts of the Western Cascade Range of Oregon. The study is a part of a long-range cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon State Department of Geology and Mineral Industries to prepare a geologic map of Oregon. The map area, about 7,500 square miles, lies in the densely forested western slope of the Cascade Range. It is bounded approximately by lat 43° N. and lat 45°30' N. on the south and north, the crest of the range on the east, and long 123° W. and the edge of the Willamette Valley on the west. The geology, which was mapped by reconnaissance methods, is chiefly based on examination of rock exposures along roads. The Cascade Range in Oregon comprises two physiographic divisions: the Western Cascade Range, which includes a wide, deeply dissected belt of volcanic formations making up the western slope of the range, and the High Cascade Range, which includes chiefly younger cones and lava flows forming the nearly undissected crest of the range. The volcanic rocks of the Western Cascade Range are deformed and partially altered flows and pyroclastic rocks that range in age from late Eocene t·o lute Miocene, as determined chiefly from fossil plants from more than 50 localities. These volcanic rocks overlie or interfinger westward with marine sedimentary rocks, and in the southwestern part of the map area they overlie pre-Tertiary plutonic and metamorphic rocks of the Klamath Mountains.

  2. Implications of volcano-tectonic patterns in the Oregon cascades for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.; Woller, N.M.; Black, G.L.; Evans, S.H.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    Basin and Range and subduction-related processes may have combined to produce voluminous mafic volcanism and very high heat flow in the central Oregon High Cascades during the last 9 m.y. This high rate of volcanism and heat flow prevails south of the Clackamas River right lateral wrench fault zone. South of this zone the volume of mafic volcanic rocks less than 9 m.y. old increases abruptly and regional heat flow increases by at least 20 mW/m/sup 2/. A similar, but larger, increase in volcanism and heat flow characterizes the transition from the Blue Mountain block to the Basin and Range Province at the Brothers right lateral wrench fault zone. A significant amount of the 0 to 9 m.y.B.P. mafic volcanic rock in the Cascades is basalt, with one or all of the following attributes of contemporaneous basalts of the Brothers Fault Zone-Basin and Range province: (1) anomalously high alkali and iron content relative to normal calc-alkaline rocks; (2) diktytaxitic texture with titaniferous groundmass clinopyroxene. This suggests a common petrogenesis for these basalts, perhaps from partial melting related to Basin and Range spreading. Potential operation of two partial melting mechanisms in the Oregon High Cascades may cause a high rate of magmatic heat transferral from mantle regions relative to transferral in the Basin and Range. This means that the High Cascades probably has the highest geothermal potential of any province in Oregon, especially where intercepted by youthful faults. North-south faults which bound a large area of Pliocene to Pleistocene subsidence along the High Cascade axis are good exploration targets. Silicic volcanism at the Brothers Fault zone intersection makes this the best exploration target in Oregon.

  3. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: I. An annotated checklist of fleas.

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Lewis; Chris. Maser

    1981-01-01

    During a trapping survey of small mammals (approximately 3,000 individuals), species of fleas (1,632 specimens) were collected in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon. Host mammals were represented by 15 species—6 insectivores and 9 rodents captured from June through September. The collections extend our knowledge of the fauna of Oregon.

  4. Magmatic Volatiles and Low Pressure Degassing at a Mafic Shield Volcano (Belknap) in the Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordensky, S. P.; Ruscitto, D. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Cashman, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    Cinder cones and shield volcanoes frequently coexist in volcanic fields. Despite their proximity, cinder cones often erupt as monogenetic (single) events, whereas shield volcanoes are polygenetic (multiple eruptive events). Why some vents erupt once for a relatively short period of time (months) but others nearby remain active enough to build up as shields (over hundreds or thousands of years) remains ambiguous. To better understand the magma ascent conditions associated with these disparate eruption styles, we contrast the volatile concentrations within olivine-hosted melt inclusions of tephra deposits from the late-stage eruptions of a mafic shield volcano with those from nearby cinder cones. Belknap Crater is a shield volcano in the Central Oregon High Cascades that grew through repeated eruptions from ~2800 to 1500 years BP (Sherrod et al., 2004). Volatile contents from late-stage ash collected on the flanks of the summit cone range from 0.1 to 2.4 wt% H2O and <50 to 770 ppm CO2. The most volatile-rich inclusions record vapor saturation pressures of ~2 kbar, equivalent to ~7 km depth in the crust, whereas inclusions with the lowest volatile contents indicate very low pressures of formation. Given that the height of the volcano is roughly 540 meters above the surrounding ground level, many of the inclusions with relatively low H2O values and CO2 values, which are often below detection limits, likely reflect olivine crystallization within the volcano itself. In contrast, melt inclusions from nearby short-lived cinder cones (e.g. Collier Cone and 4-in-1 Cone) of similar age, < 2900 years BP, contain 2-4 wt% H2O and 500-1200 ppm CO2. These inclusions lack the low H2O, low CO2 values found at Belknap - even in deposits representing the final stages of explosive activity - and record crystallization at pressures between ~1-2 kbar, equivalent depth of ~4-8 km depth in the crust. H2O-CO2 patterns in inclusions from Belknap are similar to those observed in the late

  5. An investigation of controls on chemical weathering in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Kleber, M.

    2011-12-01

    The steep volcanic terrain on the wet western side of the Cascade Range is likely to support relatively fast chemical weathering rates. In this study we present preliminary data from an investigation of weathering in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, located in the central western Oregon Cascades. The H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest has long been the focus of watershed biogeochemistry and ecosystem studies. Within the forest, 7 small watersheds are gauged, with discharge, stream chemistry, and sediment flux records extending from 1968 to the present. Prior work at this site has focused on understanding the system response to timber harvest, fire, and road-building disturbance. The 6400 hectare landscape of the Andrews forest has been well-characterized for multiple variables, such as climate, aboveground net primary productivity, hydrologic flowpaths and disturbance regimes. Together with the long-term monitoring of stream fluxes, this provides context for our investigation of the controls on weathering processes and rates. We conducted a paired soil sampling regime in order to examine differences in weathering products based on bedrock type (basalt flow, andesite flow, and propylitically altered tuff and breccia), slope aspect, and elevation, in each case holding other soil forming state factors relatively constant. Soils were sampled by horizon down to bedrock or to ~1.5 m depth, and fully characterized including pH, bulk density, and particle size analysis. Fe, Al, Si, and Mn were analyzed on selective wet chemical extraction procedures to examine differences between soils in content of amorphous and crystalline Fe-oxides, allophane, and organo-mineral complexes. XRD analyses of phyllosilicate clay fractions from the deepest 2 horizons of each profile were also performed. Finally, we present bulk chemistry from total soil digestions, in order to assess the overall degree of chemical denudation from the soil profiles, as a function of elevation, slope

  6. Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Czarnomski; David M. Dreher; Kai U. Snyder; Julia A. Jones; Frederick J. Swanson

    2008-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of wood dynamics in stream networks that considers legacies of forest management practices, floods, and debris flows. We combine an observational study of wood in 25 km of 2nd- through 5th-order streams in a steep, forested watershed of the western Cascade Range of Oregon with whole-network studies of forest cutting, roads, and...

  7. Lead-isotopic data from sulfide minerals from the Cascade Range, Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; LeHuray, A.P.; Grant, A.R.; Delevaux, M.H.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Lead-isotopic studies of mineral deposits associated with Tertiary plutons found in the Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington demonstrate a rather uniform isotopic composition in various sulfide minerals ( 206Pb 204Pb = 18.84 to 19.05; 207Pb 204Pb = 15.57 to 15.62; 208Pb 204Pb = 38.49 to 38.74), show less variation than data from the volcanic rocks of the Cascade Range and fall within the mixing array defined by the MORB regression line and continental sediments. An evaluation of the role of crustal assimilation by hydrothermal convection during emplacement was made on five sulfide deposits associated with a single composite batholith, the Cloudy Pass pluton. The Pb-isotopic data and mass balance calculations suggest that only minor amounts of the lead were derived from the overlying Precambrian (?) Swakane Biotite Gneiss during emplacement. The bulk of the metal that occurs in sulfide deposits in the Cascade mineral belt appears to have been derived from subducted continental detritus. The variation of the Pb-isotopic signature of Sulfides from specific districts or deposits suggests that there is a correlation with age and structure of the crust. 206Pb 204Pb is greater than 18.92 in northern Washington and southern Oregon where deposits have intruded Mesozoic or older crust. However, the ore deposits between the northern Oregon border and central Oregon, south of Eugene, have intruded younger crust composed largely of mafic and andesitic volcanic rocks and 206Pb 204Pb lies between 18.84 and 18.92. This region, previously called the Columbia embayment, appears to be underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks. Lead-isotopic data may be used to define the boundaries between discontinuous blocks of Mesozoic crust and Tertiary volcanic cover. ?? 1986.

  8. 76 FR 57659 - Oregon: Final Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 Oregon: Final Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final determination. SUMMARY: The State of Oregon has applied for... Agency (EPA) has reviewed the State of Oregon's application and has made a final determination that...

  9. 75 FR 51099 - Final Supplementary Rules for Public Land in Oregon and Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Final Supplementary Rules for Public Land in Oregon and Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Final Supplementary Rules on the BLM lands in Oregon and Washington. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Oregon State Office is proposing Final...

  10. Tephrostratigraphy of the Deschutes Fm., Central Oregon: Deciphering an Exceptionally Explosive Period of Cascade Arc History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, B. W.; Kent, A. J.; Grunder, A.; Duncan, R. A.; Eungard, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The eruptive history of the Quaternary Cascades arc has been relatively well characterized, however, much less is known about the frequency and sizes of explosive eruptions produced by the pre-Quaternary arc. The Late Neogene Deschutes Fm. of Central Oregon preserves a remarkable volcanic and sedimentary record of the initial stages of High Cascades volcanism following an eastward shift in volcanic activity 7.5 Ma. Extensive fieldwork, 40Ar-39Ar geochronology, and geochemical analyses allow us to reconstruct this unusually explosive phase of the earliest Central Oregon High Cascades. Initial major and trace element correlations using standardized Euclidian distance indicate that there are at least 44 distinct ignimbrites and 34 distinct tephra-fall units contained within the Deschutes Fm. Minimum estimates for the volumes of 14 laterally extensive marker ignimbrites, which range from 1.0 to 12.1 km3 and have a total minimum volume of 72 km3, were calculated using a new ARC GIS based method which linearly interpolates thickness between measured locations. If the 44 other ignimbrites were the size of the smallest marker unit and the tephra-fall volume for all eruptions was 1.5:1 as estimated for the VTTS, a more reasonable estimate may be 580 km3. Plagioclase 40Ar-39Ar ages for the marker ignimbrites indicate that all explosive eruptions occurred within 800 ± 64 k.y. (95% C.I.), between 6.24 ± 0.07 and 5.44 ± 0.04 Ma. Thus, the explosive volcanic production rate of the Central Oregon High Cascades during this time was a minimum of 1.8 km3/m.y./km of arc length, the highest rate in Oregon over at least the last 17 Ma. A more reasonable estimate of 14.5 km3/m.y./km, which includes all tuff volumes, is much higher than the average Quaternary eruption rates estimated for the Cascade arc (1.5-2.5), Alaska Peninsula (0.6-1.0), and the Andean SVZ (1.1-2.0). The unique timing and location of this pulse, approximately 1 m.y. after an eastward shift of the arc axis, and in

  11. 75 FR 918 - Oregon: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oregon: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Oregon has applied to EPA for... comment period closed on December 18, 2009. EPA has decided that the revisions to the Oregon...

  12. Petrologic, tectonic, and metallogenic evolution of the Ancestral Cascades magmatic arc, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; John, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Present-day High Cascades arc magmatism was preceded by ~40 m.y. of nearly cospatial magmatism represented by the ancestral Cascades arc in Washington, Oregon, and northernmost California (United States). Time-space-composition relations for the ancestral Cascades arc have been synthesized from a recent compilation of more than 4000 geochemical analyses and associated age data. Neither the composition nor distribution of ancestral Cascades magmatism was uniform along the length of the ancestral arc through time. Initial (>40 to 36 Ma) ancestral Cascades magmatism (mostly basalt and basaltic andesite) was focused at the north end of the arc between the present-day locations of Mount Rainier and the Columbia River. From 35 to 18 Ma, initial basaltic andesite and andesite magmatism evolved to include dacite and rhyolite; magmatic activity became more voluminous and extended along most of the arc. Between 17 and 8 Ma, magmatism was focused along the part of the arc coincident with the northern two-thirds of Oregon and returned to more mafic compositions. Subsequent ancestral Cascades magmatism was dominated by basaltic andesite to basalt prior to the post–4 Ma onset of High Cascades magmatism. Transitional tholeiitic to calc-alkaline compositions dominated early (before 40 to ca. 25 Ma) ancestral Cascades eruptive products, whereas the majority of the younger arc rocks have a calc-alkaline affinity. Tholeiitic compositions characteristic of the oldest ancestral arc magmas suggest development associated with thin, immature crust and slab window processes, whereas the younger, calc-alkaline magmas suggest interaction with thicker, more evolved crust and more conventional subduction-related magmatic processes. Presumed changes in subducted slab dip through time also correlate with fundamental magma composition variation. The predominance of mafic compositions during latest ancestral arc magmatism and throughout the history of modern High Cascades magmatism probably

  13. Mafic magmatism and associated tectonism of the central High Cascade Range, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on chemical analyses of basaltic core samples obtained from holes drilled at three locations in the mafic platform within the central region of the High Cascade Range (Oregon), as well as of some surface samples to enhance the original data base. Analyses were obtained using a variety of procedures; the most appropriate data commensurate with the technique were selected. The data illustrate the development of the mafic platform in terms of geochemical variations and tectonic configurations required to satisfy petrochemical associations.

  14. Secondary mineralogy of core from geothermal drill hole CTGH-1, High Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1988-01-01

    Geothermal drill hole CTGH-1, located near Breitenbush Hot Springs in the Cascade Mountains of northwest Oregon, was drilled to a depth of 1463 m. The maximum reported temperature at the bottom of the drill hole was 96.4??C. The drill core consists predominantly of basalt to basaltic andesite lava flows, tuffs, and volcanic breccia. Red to orange iron-oxide stained tuffs are at least partly altered to smectite. Vesicles, fractures, and open spaces between breccia fragments are partly to completely filled by secondary minerals. All of the minerals are compatible with the present low-temperature conditions.

  15. Potentiality for obtaining poria disease signatures in the Oregon Cascades from orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A prime photographic signature indicator of an important forest disease was identified in valuable Douglas-fir stands of the Pacific Northwest. The disease signature was verified by a multidisciplinary team of scientists to be the direct result of the Poria weirii root-rot syndrome in the Douglas-fir and hemlock stands of the high Cascades in Oregon. It is readily discernible on small-scale suborbital photography and has good potential for detection from earth-orbiting satellites or remote sensing platforms.

  16. Paleofire severity and vegetation change in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minckley, Thomas A.; Long, Colin J.

    2016-03-01

    Paleoecological research has expanded our knowledge of the relationships between climate, fire and vegetation. Fire can be a significant driver of forest composition and structure change, but identifying and quantifying fire regimes has been elusive. Using high-resolution charcoal analysis and pollen analysis we reconstructed a 13,200-year-old fire and vegetation history from Breitenbush Lake, Oregon, located in the central Cascade Range, USA. Our objective was to examine if fire occurrence and severity may have been a driver of Holocene forest-composition change. The data from this study suggests that while fire can create opportunities for successional process to occur, fire events were not significant catalysts for forest change. Instead, most major transitions at Breitenbush Lake occurred during prolonged fire-free intervals. Our results reinforce the view that climate is the major control of vegetation composition change in the Cascade Range.

  17. Identification of geologic contrasts from landscape dissection pattern: An application to the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Stepinski, Tomasz

    2008-07-01

    This paper demonstrates the plausibility of inferring the spatial variability of geology from topographically derived landscape dissection patterns. This enables surveying large regions for spatial variability in geology, for which direct remote sensing is not feasible, by studying variability in dissection pattern, a feature extracted straight off from digital elevation model data. Dissection pattern is obtained automatically by a novel algorithm, especially designed to delineate the valleys with high accuracy in order to reflect spatial variability in dissection density. The dissection pattern is encapsulated by a continuous map of drainage density, a raster variable best suited for showing spatial variability of dissection. Such a map, constructed for the study area in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA, shows a sharp discontinuity in the dissection pattern, indicating change in underlying geology. Possible factors controlling the dissection pattern such as climate, local and regional slopes, vegetation, and geology are examined, and geology has been found to be the dominant controlling factor. The dissection contrast coincides with the boundary between the Western and High Cascades, two geologic provinces with different rock ages and types. The older and less permeable Western Cascades are associated with denser dissection pattern, whereas the younger and more permeable High Cascades correspond to less dissected pattern. This new mapping method can be applied to locations where topography is the only readily available data, and the generated map could be used to extract previously unknown geologic or environmental information.

  18. Identification of Geologic Contrasts from Landscape Dissection Pattern: an Application to Cascade Range, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2007-12-01

    In this study we demonstrate the plausibility of inferring the spatial variability of geology from topographically derived landscape dissection patterns. This enables surveying large regions for spatial variability in geology, for which direct remote sensing is not feasible, by studying variability in dissection pattern, a feature extracted straight off from remotely sensed topography. Dissection pattern is obtained automatically by a novel algorithm, especially designed to delineate the valleys with high accuracy in order to reflect spatial variability in dissection density. The dissection pattern is encapsulated by a continuous map of drainage density, a raster variable best suited for showing spatial variability of dissection. Such a map, constructed for the study area in the Cascade Range, Oregon, shows a sharp discontinuity in the dissection pattern, indicating change in underlying geology. We also check for climate and the local and regional slopes as possible factors controlling the dissection pattern, but geology has been found to be the dominant controlling factor on the basis of statistical analysis. As it happens the dissection contrast coincides with the boundary between the Western and High Cascades, two geologic provinces with different ages and rock types. Older and less permeable Western Cascades are associated with denser dissection pattern, whereas the younger and more permeable High Cascades correspond to less dissected pattern. We envision applying our mapping method to locations where remotely sensed topography is the only available data, and the generated map could be used to extract previously unknown geologic or environmental information.

  19. INTEGRATING DETAILED SOIL SURVEY AND LANDTYPE MAPPING FOR WATERSHED SCALE ASSESSMENTS IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADE MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the Western Oregon Cascades is one of the most intensely managed and economically important forest regions in North America, a lack of detailed soil information has hindered watershed-scale assessments of forest productivity, water supply, sensitive wildlife species, and...

  20. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny. Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  1. Invertebrates of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascades, Oregon II. an annotated checklist of caddisflies (Trichoptera)

    Treesearch

    N.H. Anderson; G.M. Cooper; D.G Denning

    1982-01-01

    At least 99 species, representing 14 families of Trichoptera, are recorded from the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, near Blue River, Oregon. The collecting sites include a wide diversity of environmental conditions in a 6000-hectare watershed of the western Cascade Range (from 400 to 1 630 meters in altitude and from 1st- to 7th-order streams).

  2. Patterns of conifer tree regeneration following an autumn wildfire event in the western Oregon Cascade Range, USA.

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Larson; Jerry F. Franklin

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire severity and environmental conditions on conifer tree regeneration 11 years after an autumn wildfire in the western Oregon Cascade Range. Conifer tree seedlings, including those of Pseudotsuga menziesii, established promptly and at high densities following fire, in contrast to long establishment periods documented...

  3. Vulnerability of water supply from the Oregon Cascades to changing climate: linking science to users and policy

    Treesearch

    Kathleen A. Farley; Christina Tague; Gordon E. Grant

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvements in understanding biophysical response to climate change, a better understanding of how such changes will affect societies is still needed. We evaluated effects of climate change on the coupled human-environmental system of the McKenzie River watershed in the Oregon Cascades in order to assess its vulnerability. Published empirical and modeling...

  4. INTEGRATING DETAILED SOIL SURVEY AND LANDTYPE MAPPING FOR WATERSHED SCALE ASSESSMENTS IN THE WESTERN OREGON CASCADE MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the Western Oregon Cascades is one of the most intensely managed and economically important forest regions in North America, a lack of detailed soil information has hindered watershed-scale assessments of forest productivity, water supply, sensitive wildlife species, and...

  5. Height growth and site index curves for western white pine in the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Nancy M. Diaz; Gary W. Clendenen

    1990-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves were constructed from stem analyses of mature western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) growing in high-elevation forests of the Cascade Range in the Mount Hood and Gifford Pinchot National Forests of Oregon and Washington, respectively. Alternate systems using reference ages for site index of 50 and...

  6. Sediment Dynamics in the Upper McKenzie River Basin, Central Oregon Cascade Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallman, J. D.; Bowers, R. J.; Cabrera, N. C.; Real de Asua, R.; Wooster, J. K.

    2005-12-01

    Reference and current sediment budgets were developed to evaluate the extent to which hydroelectric dams alter sediment dynamics in the upper McKenzie River basin of central Oregon. The 647 km2 study area straddles the western boundary of the High Cascades graben separating the High Cascades and Western Cascades geologic terrains. Permeable Quaternary volcanics forming the low-gradient High Cascades plateau promote surface hydrologic disconnection, nearly constant discharge controlled by groundwater emergence, and low sediment yield. In contrast, deeply weathered Tertiary volcanics, rugged topography, and a dense network of steep channels in the Western Cascades terrain promote peaked storm responses and high sediment yield by deep-seated mass movement, debris slides, and debris flows. Three independent estimates of sediment yield (application of published surface process rates, extrapolation of regional suspended load and bedload flux rates, and extrapolation of reservoir sedimentation rates) illustrate the dominant role of geologic terrains in determining the longitudinal pattern of sediment supply to the McKenzie River. Average reference yields from High Cascades and Western Cascades sources were 9 t km-2y-1 and 200 t km-2y-1, respectively. Downstream of Trail Bridge Dam, High Cascades sources (241 km2) account for 12% of the total reference yield, while Western Cascades sources (67 km2) account for 62%. Estimates of current sediment yield illustrate the offsetting effects of reservoir sediment trapping and accelerated yield related to forest management. Average current yields from High Cascades and Western Cascades sources were 17 t km-2y-1 and 300 t km-2y-1, respectively. Current yield to the McKenzie River arm of Trail Bridge Reservoir (42 km2 sourced in High Cascades terrain) was 17 t km-2y-1, while current yield to Smith Reservoir (48 km2 sourced in Western Cascades terrain) was 251 t km-2y-1. The relation between hydroelectric project effects and forest

  7. Structurally Controlled Geothermal Systems in the Central Cascades Arc-Backarc Regime, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, Philip E.

    2016-07-31

    The goal of this project has been to analyze available magnetotelluric (MT) geophysical surveys, structural geology based on mapping and LiDAR, and fluid geochemical data, to identify high-temperature fluid upwellings, critically stressed rock volumes, and other evidence of structurally-controlled geothermal resources. Data were to be integrated to create conceptual models of volcanic-hosted geothermal resources along the Central Cascades arc segment, especially in the vicinity of Mt. Jefferson to Three Sisters. LiDAR data sets available at Oregon State University (OSU) allowed detailed structural geology modeling through forest canopy. Copious spring and well fluid chemistries, including isotopes, were modeled using Geo-T and TOUGHREACT software.

  8. Stratigraphic development and hydrothermal activity in the central western Cascade Range, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.L.; Bull, M.K. ); Pollock, J.M. ); Thompson, G.D. )

    1990-11-10

    Two volcanic sequences bounded by erosional unconformities compose the stratigraphy of the North Santiam mining district, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. Diorite, grandodiorite, and leucocratic quartz porphyry dikes, stocks, and sills intrude the breccias, flows, and tuffs of a volcanic center in the older Sardine Formation. Tourmaline-bearing breccia pipes are associated with the porphyritic granodiorite intrusions. An erosional unconformity separates the Sardine Formation from the overlying Elk Lake formation. The alteration patterns in the two formations are consistent with the development of hydrothermal systems during the eruption of each formation. However, the development of the two hydrothermal systems is separated by a period of erosion of the older volcanic pile. Early formation of mineralization that resembles porphyry copper deposits occurred within the Sardine Formation, and later, after eruption of the Elk Lake formation, epithermal veins and alteration developed along faults, fractures, and the margins of dikes in the Sardine Formation.

  9. Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin

    2002-01-01

    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.

  10. Peakflow responses to forest practices in the western cascades of Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beschta, R. L.; Pyles, M. R.; Skaugset, A. E.; Surfleet, C. G.

    2000-06-01

    The effects of clearcut silviculture (road building, clearfelling, cable logging, and site preparation) were evaluated using long-term peakflow records for three small watersheds (60-101 ha) and six large basins (62-640 km2) in the western Cascades of Oregon, USA. After a calibration period, two of the small watersheds were treated while the third remained untreated (control). Analysis indicated that peakflow increases following treatments were dependent upon peakflow magnitude. Peakflow increases averaged approximately 13-16% after treatment for 1-yr recurrence interval events, and 6-9% for 5-yr recurrence interval events. For the six large basins, multiple linear regression analyses of peakflows relative to: (1) peakflow magnitude; and (2) difference in percent area harvested provided mixed results. While significant (p<0.05) relationships were found in half of the analyses, the explained variance (Δr2) due to harvesting was generally small (1-7%).

  11. Diverse primitive magmas in the Cascade arc, Northern Oregon and Southern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrey, R.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Hooper, P.R.; Swanson, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk-rock major- and trace-element composition, petrography and mineral compositions are presented for a diverse suite of 22 primitive mafic lavas in the Cascade Range of northern Oregon and southern Washington. With the exception of an early Western Cascade basalt, all the rocks are younger than 7 Ma. Intensive parameters [F(H2O), f(O2), T, P] for the magmas have been inferred mostly from equilibrium olivine-liquid and plagioclase-liquid relations. Nearly anhydrous, MORB-like, low-K tholeiite was probably derived from relatively high degrees of decompression-induced melting of shallow, depleted, relatively unmetasomatized lithospheric mantle during intra-arc rifting. The degree of partial melting decreases northward along the arc, whereas the depth of average melt generation increases. OIB-like basalt represents deeper, wetter, smaller-degree melts of more enriched asthenospheric mantle, unaffected by subduction. Olivine analcimite resembles the silicate melt considered responsible for within-plate mantle metasomatism. Post-7-Ma subduction-related basalt was derived by low degrees of partial melting of subduction-metasomatized garnet lherzolite, similar to OIB-like basalt source-mantle before modification. The spectrum of subduction-related basalt from cooler and wetter (and slightly more oxidized) absarokite to progressively hotter and drier high-K calc-alkaline basalt and calc-alkaline basalt seems to be due to varying degrees of metasomatism of the deep mantle wedge by relatively cool, wet, LILE-rich absarokitic magmas coming from near the subducted slab. Early Western Cascade basalt is more typically arc-like in its composition and mineralogy, and was probably generated under H2O-rich conditions when more vigorous subduction prevailed. Depleted basaltic andesite may have been generated by low degrees of partial melting of residual harzburgite, possibly formed during the generation of early Western Cascade basalt.

  12. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  13. Volatile budget for an unusual Central Oregon Cascades cinder cone and implications for future activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, L. K.; Wallace, P. J.; Cashman, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    Sand Mountain is one of many hundred mafic vents in the Central Oregon Cascades, and is the largest in a chain consisting of twenty-three mafic cones 30km NNW of the Three Sisters Volcanoes. Sand Mountain represents the maximum probable tephra hazard for mafic activity in Central Oregon because of its unusually large tephra deposit (≥0.9km3), most likely due to interaction with groundwater. To date, no focused analyses have been performed on the volatiles of Sand Mountain. Here we analyze melt inclusions, tephra and lava flows to constrain the volatile budget associated with Sand Mountain with specific focus on the potential impact of future activity on human and livestock populations in Central Oregon. Preliminary analyses of sulfur, chlorine and fluorine in glass show original dissolved volatile contents of 2014 ppm S, 954 ppm Cl and 646 ppm F; these measured abundances translate to a total species budget of 5.54 Mt SO2, 1.35 Mt HCl, and 0.94 Mt HF for the erupted magma (estimated at 0.5 km3 DRE). Comparison of volatile abundances in melt inclusions and matrix glass shows that during eruption, the Sand Mountain magma released 99% of its sulfur, 44% of its chlorine and 35% of its fluorine, equivalent to 5.48 Mt SO2, 0.59 Mt HCl and 0.33 Mt HF. The 1783-1784 AD Laki eruption in Iceland, which had a devastating impact on both proximal and distal populations, showed similar percentages of volatile release, although the total volatile budget was much higher because of the large volume of erupted magma. However, an interesting difference between the Sand Mountain eruption and the Laki eruption is the mechanism of degassing: at Laki, about half of the gas loss occurred during lava flow emplacement; in contrast, at Sand Mountain, the volatile release appears to have been focused in the explosive phase of the eruption, suggesting efficient transfer of gas species with the eruptive plume, which traveled east toward central Oregon. We will test this interpretation by

  14. Numerical simulation of hydrothermal circulation in the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Paulson, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alternate conceptual models to explain near-surface heat-flow observations in the central Oregon Cascade Range involve (1) an extensive mid-crustal magmatic heat source underlying both the Quaternary arc and adjacent older rocks or (2) a narrower deep heat source which is flanked by a relatively shallow conductive heat-flow anomaly caused by regional ground-water flow (the lateral-flow model). Relative to the mid-crustal heat source model, the lateral-flow model suggests a more limited geothermal resource base, but a better-defined exploration target. We simulated ground-water flow and heat transport through two cross sections trending west from the Cascade range crest in order to explore the implications of the two models. The thermal input for the alternate conceptual models was simulated by varying the width and intensity of a basal heat-flow anomaly and, in some cases, by introducing shallower heat sources beneath the Quaternary arc. Near-surface observations in the Breitenbush Hot Springs area are most readily explained in terms of lateral heat transport by regional ground-water flow; however, the deep thermal structure still cannot be uniquely inferred. The sparser thermal data set from the McKenzie River area can be explained either in terms of deep regional ground-water flow or in terms of a conduction-dominated system, with ground-water flow essentially confined to Quaternary rocks and fault zones.

  15. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute Quadrangle, Northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.

    1995-01-01

    This map shows the geology of the central and eastern parts of the Cascade Range in northern Oregon. The Quaternary andesitic stratovolcano of Mount Hood dominates the northwest quarter of the quadrangle, but nearly the entire area is underlain by arc-related volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Cascade Range. Most stratigraphic units were emplaced since middle Miocene time, and all are Oligocene or younger. Despite the proximity of the map area to the Portland metropolitan area, large parts remained virtually unstudied or known only from limited reconnaissance until the late 1970s. A notable exception is the area surrounding Mount Hood, where mapping and chemical analyses by Wise (1969) provided a framework for geologic interpretation. Mapping since 1975 was conducted first to understand the stratigraphy and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Anderson, 1978; Vogt, 1981; J.L. Anderson, in Swanson and others, 1981; Vandiver-Powell, 1978; Burck, 1986) and later to examine the geothermal potential of Mount Hood (Priest and others, 1982). Additional mapping was completed in 1985 for a geologic map of the Cascade Range in Oregon (Sherrod and Smith, 1989). From 1987 to 1990, detailed mapping was conducted in three 15-minute quadrangles on a limited basis (D.R. Sherrod, unpublished mapping) (see fig. 1 for index to mapping). An ongoing volcanic hazards study of Mount Hood by the U.S. Geological Survey (Scott and others, 1994) has provided the catalyst for completing the geologic map of the Mount Hood 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle. As of June 1994, only two broad areas still remain largely unmapped. One of these areas, labeled 'unmapped' on the geologic map, lies in the Salmon River valley south of Zigzag along the west margin of the quadrangle. Although strata of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the Salmon River valley were mapped in detail by Burck (1986), the overlying middle and upper(?) Miocene lava flows, volcaniclastic strata, and intrusions

  16. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.; Pringle, M.K.W. )

    1990-11-10

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 l/s. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 l/s, which corresponds to about 8.2 {times} 10{sup 4} kJ/s of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  17. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s−1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 Ls−1, which corresponds to about 8.2×104 kJ s−1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and technically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m. y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  18. Depth dependence of permeability in the Oregon Cascades inferred from hydrogeologic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic modeling constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Manga, M.

    2004-04-01

    We investigate the decrease in permeability, k, with depth, z, in the Oregon Cascades employing four different methods. Each method provides insight into the average permeability applicable to a different depth scale. Spring discharge models are used to infer shallow (z < 0.1 km) horizontal permeabilities. Coupled heat and groundwater flow simulations provide horizontal and vertical k for z < 1 km. Statistical investigations of the occurrences of earthquakes that are probably triggered by seasonal groundwater recharge yield vertical k for z < 5 km. Finally, considerations of magma intrusion rates and water devolatilization provide estimates of vertical k for z < 15 km. For depths >0.8 km, our results agree with the power law relationship, k = 10-14 m2 (z/1 km)-3.2, suggested by [1999] for continental crust in general. However, for shallower depths (typically z ≤ 0.8 km and up to z ≤ 2) we propose an exponential relationship, k = 5 × 10-13 m2 exp (-z/0.25 km), that both fits data better (at least for the Cascades and seemingly for continental crust in general) and allows for a finite near-surface permeability and no singularity at zero depth. In addition, the suggested functions yield a smooth transition at z = 0.8 km, where their permeabilities and their gradients are similar. Permeabilities inferred from the hydroseismicity model at Mount Hood are about one order of magnitude larger than expected from the above power law. However, higher permeabilities in this region may be consistent with advective heat transfer along active faults, causing observed hot springs. Our simulations suggest groundwater recharge rates of 0.5 ≤ uR ≤ 1 m/yr and a mean background heat flow of Hb ≈ 0.080-0.134 W/m2 for the investigated region.

  19. Governor's Task Force on Juvenile Corrections Alternatives. Recommendations for Oregon's Juvenile Justice System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Governor's Office, Salem.

    This document presents the final report and recommendations of a task force created to study the feasibility of further reducing juvenile training school populations in Oregon. The first section contains an executive summary which briefly reviews the history of Oregon's juvenile justice system and lists findings and recommendations of the task…

  20. Governor's Task Force on Juvenile Corrections Alternatives. Recommendations for Oregon's Juvenile Justice System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Governor's Office, Salem.

    This document presents the final report and recommendations of a task force created to study the feasibility of further reducing juvenile training school populations in Oregon. The first section contains an executive summary which briefly reviews the history of Oregon's juvenile justice system and lists findings and recommendations of the task…

  1. Oregon Pre-Engineering Learning Outcomes Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Langan, Holly; Veach, Darya; Farkas, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The Oregon Pre-engineering Learning Outcomes Project was conducted by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) with grant funding from the Engineering and Technology Industry Council (ETIC). The study sought to improve student preparation and success in pre-engineering programs through the development of the Oregon Pre-engineering Learning…

  2. Measuring forest landscape patterns in the Cascade Range of Oregon, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.; Bradshaw, G. A.; Spies, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a set of spatial statistics to quantify the landscape pattern caused by the patchwork of clearcuts made over a 15-year period in the western Cascades of Oregon. Fifteen areas were selected at random to represent a diversity of landscape fragmentation patterns. Managed forest stands (patches) were digitized and analyzed to produce both tabular and mapped information describing patch size, shape, abundance and spacing, and matrix characteristics of a given area. In addition, a GIS fragmentation index was developed which was found to be sensitive to patch abundance and to the spatial distribution of patches. Use of the GIS-derived index provides an automated method of determining the level of forest fragmentation and can be used to facilitate spatial analysis of the landscape for later coordination with field and remotely sensed data. A comparison of the spatial statistics calculated for the two years indicates an increase in forest fragmentation as characterized by an increase in mean patch abundance and a decrease in interpatch distance, amount of interior natural forest habitat, and the GIS fragmentation index. Such statistics capable of quantifying patch shape and spatial distribution may prove important in the evaluation of the changing character of interior and edge habitats for wildlife.

  3. Composition, complexity, and tree mortality in riparian forests in the central Western Cascades of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acker, Steve A.; Gregory, S.V.; Lienkaemper, G.; McKee, W.A.; Swanson, F.J.; Miller, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Riparian forests contribute to the diversity and function of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To assess some of these contributions, we compared tree composition, stand complexity, and temporal patterns of tree mortality on permanent plots in seven mature and old-growth stands representing upland forests and forests along low- and mid-order streams in the Western Cascade Range of Oregon. We also assessed recruitment of large wood into stream channels due to tree mortality, both by direct measurement and by estimation from tree mortality and location data. Stands differed in composition due to both stream order and successional stage. Stands on mid-order streams had high abundance of hardwood trees and/or Thuja plicata. Stand complexity (variability in tree diameters, tree life-form diversity, and tree species diversity), was high in stands on mid-order streams and in the upland, old-growth stand. Tree mortality was exceptionally high in six of the seven stands in 1996, the year in which the largest flood during the study occurred. However, only in the one stand on an unconstrained reach of a mid-order stream was mortality primarily due to flooding. Estimated recruitment of wood was much higher from the stand on the unconstrained reach than from the other stands on mid-order streams, suggesting that unconstrained reaches may be important for efforts to maintain or restore large wood in streams.

  4. A Rhizocarpon geographicum growth curve for the Cascade Range of Washington and northern Oregon, usa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Michael A.; Schoenenberger, Katherine R.

    2003-09-01

    Lichen thallus measurements from 22 surfaces of known age on Mount Baker, Mount Hood, and Mount Rainier are used to construct a regional Rhizocarpon geographicum growth curve for the Cascade Range of Washington and northern Oregon. Growth rates determined by measuring the largest thallus diameters on the same surfaces at Mount Rainier in 1976 and 2002 are used for comparison with lichenometric data from Mount Baker and Mount Hood. Similar lichen thallus diameter vs age relationships identified in the data from the three mountains suggest the presence of uniform growth rates over the 400-km range. A regional growth curve developed during our study shows three growth phases of successively slower growth: a rapid phase from 8 to 20 yr, a linear phase from 20 to 145 yr, and a slow phase of unknown duration beyond ca. 145 yr. Uncertainty in lichen growth rates beyond 145 yr limits projection of the curve beyond that age; however, the age range of the constrained growth curve covers an important period of recent climate variability. When applied in appropriate settings, our growth curve can be used to determine numeric ages to ±10 yr for surfaces between 20 and 145 years old in areas where other techniques are not applicable or do not provide unique or well-constrained ages.

  5. A comparison of hydrology and channel hydraulics in headwater streams of the Central Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, L. A.; Grant, G.; Lewis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Streams with distinctly different flow regimes can be found within close proximity of each other in the Central Oregon Cascades due to the unique hydrogeology of the region. Spring-fed streams with stable discharge regimes tend to have rectangular cross-sections, uniform grain sizes, and frequent channel-spanning wood. In contrast, flashier surface-runoff channels tend to have more variable cross-sections, a wider grain-size distribution, and woody debris accumulations along channel margins. To examine differences in channel hydraulics, we collected high-resolution 3-D maps of 12 channel reaches from tributaries of the McKenzie and Metolius Rivers, OR. Stream channel maps were then used to run a 2-D channel stability model (MD_SWMS). We also compared stream hydrology using 10+ years of stream gage data. We expect bed particles are mobilized more frequently in spring-fed systems, but the opportunity for channel form development-- which occurs when sediment is mobile and when flow reaches or exceeds the active channel flow--is higher in surface-runoff channels. Therefore, each channel-type is characterized by a unique set of hydraulic processes that lead to observed differences in channel form.

  6. Volatile Contents of Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions From the Central Oregon High Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscitto, D.; Johnson, E.; Wallace, P.; Kent, A.; Mercer, C.; Bindeman, I.

    2007-12-01

    The young (~ 16 Ma) and slowly subducting (~ 5 cm/a NNW) Juan de Fuca plate should be mostly dehydrated at typical arc magma generation depths (~ 100 km) beneath the Central Oregon High Cascades, resulting in small amounts of slab-derived fluids infiltrating the overlying mantle wedge (Green and Harry, 1999; Peacock, 2003). To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed olivine-hosted melt inclusions in mafic tephra deposits from five volcanic centers (Blue Lake Crater, Yapoah Crater, Twin Crater, Palagonite Tuff, and North Sister Volcano) by FTIR, LA-ICPMS, and electron probe to characterize the pre-eruptive volatile contents (H2O, CO2, S, F, Cl) and their relationship to major and trace element compositions. Host olivine phenocrysts (Fo79-84) have δ18O values of 5.35 ±0.2 ‰. The melt inclusions have compositions of 49 - 54 wt. % SiO2 and 4.9 - 5.5 wt. % MgO. H2O contents for the entire dataset vary from ~ 0.2 to 4.0 wt. % and CO2 contents vary from below detection up to 2000 ppm, implying maximum pressures of entrapment between 1.7 and 3.9 kbar during ascent and degassing (Newman and Lowenstern, 2002). Additionally, within-cone averages for inclusions range from 800 - 1500 ppm F, 900 - 1400 ppm S, and 350 - 1000 ppm Cl. For the set of inclusions from each cone, we assume that the highest H2O content is least affected by degassing and therefore represents the minimum amount of H2O in the parent magma. Highly fluid mobile to less fluid mobile element ratios (e.g., Ba/La and Sr/La) correlate positively with maximum H2O/La ratios for Cascades melt inclusions (r2 ~ 0.60; n = 5 volcanic centers). High incompatible element abundances relative to NMORB closely correspond to an EMORB-type source mantle, overprinted with even higher abundances of incompatible and fluid mobile elements (e.g., Ba, U, Pb), resulting in a distinct, negative Nb-Ta anomaly. The volatile data, taken together with olivine δ18O values, trace element abundances and conservative element ratios (e

  7. Extreme flood sensitivity to snow and forest harvest, western Cascades, Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A.; Perkins, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    We examined the effects of snow, event size, basin size, and forest harvest on floods using >1000 peak discharge events from 1953 to 2006 from three small (<1 km2), paired-watershed forest-harvest experiments and six large (60-600 km2) basins spanning the transient (400-800 m) and seasonal (>800 m) snow zones in the western Cascades of Oregon. Retrospectively classified rain-on-snow events delivered 75% more water to soils than rain events. Peak discharges of >10 year rain-on-snow events were almost twice as high as rain peaks in large basins but only slightly higher in small basins. Peak discharges of >1 year rain-on-snow events increased slightly (10%-20%) after logging in small basins, but small basin peaks do not account for the magnitudes of large basin rain-on-snow peak discharges during >1 year floods. In extreme floods, despite very high infiltration capacity, high soil porosity, and steep hillslope gradients, prolonged precipitation and synchronous snowmelt produce rapid, synchronized hydrograph responses to small variations in maximum precipitation intensity. At the large basin scale, forest harvest may increase the area of snowpack and simultaneous snowmelt, especially in elevation zones normally dominated by rain and transient snow, thereby increasing large basin peaks without producing very large percent increases in small basin peaks. Further work is needed to describe water flow paths in melting snowpack, snow cover and the area experiencing snowmelt, synoptic peak discharges, and routing of flood peaks through the stream network during extreme rain-on-snow floods. The evolving structure of the forest on the landscape is a potentially very important factor influencing extreme rain-on-snow floods.

  8. Paleomagnetic rotations and the Cenozoic tectonics of the Cascade Arc, Washington, Oregon, and California

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.E. )

    1990-11-10

    Paleomagnetic results from Cenozoic (62-12 Ma) volcanic rocks of the Cascade arc and adjacent indicate that moderate to large clockwise rotations are an important component of the tectonic history of the arc. Two mechanisms of rotation are suggested by the regional pattern of paleomagnetic rotations. The progressive increase in rotation toward the coast in arc and forearc rocks results from distributed dextral shear, which is likely driven by oblique subduction of oceanic plates to the west. Simple shear rotation is accommodated in the upper crust by strike-slip faulting. The right-lateral Mount St. Helens seismic zone may be an active manifestation of this process. Dextral shear probably obscures a subequal contribution to arc and forearc rotation that is driven by intraarc or backarc extension. This rotation is suggested by the average southward increase in continental margin rotations into the region outboard of the Basin and Range. The southward increase in rotation parallels a change in the arc tectonic regime from largely compressional in northern Washington to extensional in Oregon. Concomitant with this change is a southward increase in the volume of eruptive rocks and the number of basaltic vents in the arc. A progressive eastward shift of the arc volcanic front with time in the rotated arc terrane is the result of the westward pivoting of the arc block in front of a zone of extension since Eocene time. Westward migration of bimodal Basin and Range volcanism since at least 16 Ma is tracking westward rotation of the frontal arc block and growth of the Basin and Range in its wake.

  9. Precipitation-Snowmelt Timing and Snowmelt Augmentation of Large Peak Flow Events, Western Cascades, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, K. S.; Jones, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme rain-on-snow floods are known to result from snowmelt coincident with precipitation, but comparatively little is known about the relative timing of these factors within storm events. Cumulative net snowmelt (hourly, from a snowmelt lysimeter) was plotted against precipitation for 26 large storms (> 1-yr return period) over the period 1991-2012 in the transient snow zone of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascades of Oregon. The relative timing of precipitation and net snowmelt at the hourly time scale was assessed with wavelet coherence. Five precipitation-net snowmelt response categories were identified: flat; persistent melt; persistent snow accumulation; late melt; and late snow accumulation. Persistent melt events were characterized by increasing cumulative net snowmelt and precipitation and had the highest mean peak flow and water available for runoff. Both the persistent melt and persistent snow accumulation categories had large, contiguous regions of significant wavelet coherence at multiple temporal scales, but pulses of precipitation preceded pulses of snowmelt in the persistent melt events, whereas precipitation was absorbed by the snowpack in the persistent accumulation category. A dewpoint temperature consistently above 0.5°C, elevated wind speeds, and a high fraction of precipitation falling as rain in the persistent melt category facilitated rapid snowmelt rates. During the two extreme rain-on-snow events in the sample, snowmelt was significantly synchronized with precipitation at 1-h to 64-h time scales throughout the 10-day event duration. Event categorization and analysis of wavelet coherence between precipitation and snowmelt can help predict peak discharge magnitude.

  10. Differential Effects of Wildfire and Forest Harvest on Snow Hydrology in the Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolin, A. W.; Gleason, K. E.; Roth, T.; Cooper, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Snow hydrology, climate, and forest ecosystems are intricately connected, with snow serving as a key moisture source for forests while forests fundamentally affect snow accumulation and ablation. These connections have important implications for western US water resources and forest management. Forests reduce snow accumulation via canopy interception while ablation is affected via changes in energy balance. We contrast the snow hydrology of undisturbed forests in the Oregon Cascades with those affected by wildfire and forest harvest. When the forest canopy is removed by wildfire or forest harvest it increases total snow accumulation and increases snowmelt rates. After a high-severity wildfire, canopy removal increases light transmission to the snow. The charred standing trees shed burned debris onto the snowpack surface decreasing snow albedo. The net result for the snowpack is much higher absorbed shortwave radiation and earlier/faster melt. Our work shows that the albedo effect can persist for several years after the fire. Forest harvest also reduces the forest canopy but unlike the post-wildfire environment, forest litter decreases. Our measurements and modeling results show that the effects of forest harvest on snow vary with elevation. At our lower-elevation warmer sites, snow persists longer in the open areas than in the forest while at the higher elevation colder sites, snow persists longer in the forest. In addition to our snow hydrology results, we present preliminary hydrologic modeling showing how these differences in snow accumulation and melt rates influence streamflow in watersheds dominated by surface runoff and in those dominated by groundwater flow.

  11. Home range and habitat of western red-backed voles in the Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    R. Thompson; C.C. Chambers; B.C. McComb

    2009-01-01

    Western red-backed voles are endemic to western Oregon and northern California and represent a large proportion of the rodent community in mature Douglas-fir forests. Despite their dominance in these forests, little is known about their selection of home ranges. We radiotracked 23 western red-backed voles in 3 mature, coniferous forest stands in the southern Oregon...

  12. Home range and habitat of western red-backed voles in the Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    Rebecca L. Thompson; Carol L. Chambers; Brenda C. McComb

    2009-01-01

    Western red-backed voles are endemic to western Oregon and northern California and represent a large proportion of the rodent community in mature Douglas-fir forests. Despite their dominance in these forests, little is known about their selection of home ranges. We radiotracked 23 western red-backed voles in three mature, coniferous forest stands in the southern Oregon...

  13. Oregon School Improvement and Professional Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paule, Lynde; And Others

    Oregon's School Improvement and Professional Development Program (SIPD) was created to: (1) assist local district goal achievement; (2) establish site committees to initiate school improvement and shared decision making; and (3) provide professional development opportunities. The following outcomes are evaluated in this report: development of…

  14. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.E.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50[degree]C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110[degree]C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  15. Determination of a Permeability-depth Curve for the Oregon Cascades Employing Numerical, Analytical, and Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Manga, M.

    2003-12-01

    We employ analytical and numerical models as well as statistical methods and signal processing techniques to study both pore-fluid pressure diffusion and coupled groundwater and heat transfer in the subsurface. Both processes are used to infer the large-scale vertical permeability distribution and other hydrogeologic parameters in the Oregon Cascades volcanic arc. Multiple temperature-depth profiles and their deviations from a linear(conductive) relationship provide insight into advective heat transfer and related groundwater flow patterns and velocities. In addition, the coupled modeling approach provides background heat-flow rates of 0.080 < H < 0.130 W/m2 for the study region where heat flow is otherwise typically masked by cold groundwater recharge. We also infer regional scale groundwater recharge rates of about 1 m/year. Statistical, Monte Carlo, and signal processing techniques are used to investigate if seasonal groundwater recharge due to spring snow melt enhances earthquake occurrence after a pressure-diffusion related time lag, during summer. We find statistically-significant cross correlations between groundwater recharge and earthquake occurence at Mt. Hood, Oregon, with a time lag of about 151 days. This phase lag and a mean earthquake depth of about 4.5 km imply an average permeability of about 10-15 to 10-14 m2 for a depth range of about 2 < z < 5 km. Combining the heat-advection study, the hysroseismicity study, and other investigations allows us to infer permeability, k, as a function of depth, z. We suggest approximately log(k) = -13 to log(k)= -18.3 m2 for z=0 to z=12 km, respectively, for the Oregon Cascades. Our results agree with values compiled by Manning and Ingebritsen (Rev. Geophys., 1999) for continental crust in general. However, we suggest an exponental k(z)-curve for z < 0.8 km and a power law relationship for z > 0.8 km.

  16. Frequency and volumes of ignimbrite eruptions following the Late Neogene initiation of the Central Oregon High Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, Bradley W.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Grunder, Anita L.; Duncan, Robert A.

    2017-06-01

    The late Neogene Deschutes Formation of central Oregon preserves a remarkable volcanic and sedimentary record of the initial stages of High Cascades activity following an eastward shift in the locus of volcanism at 7.5 Ma. Numerous ignimbrite and tephra-fall units are contained within the formation, and since equivalent deposits are relatively rare for the Quaternary Cascades, the eruptions of the earliest High Cascade volcanoes were likely more explosive than those of the Quaternary arc. In this study, the timing and frequency of eruptions which produced 14 laterally extensive marker ignimbrites within the Deschutes Formation are established using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar ages for the lowermost (6.25 ± 0.07 Ma) and uppermost (5.45 ± 0.04 Ma) marker ignimbrites indicate that all major explosive eruptions within the Deschutes Formation occurred within a period of 800 ± 54 k.y. (95% confidence interval). Minimum estimates for the volumes of the 14 ignimbrites, using an ArcGIS-based method, range from 1.0 to 9.4 km3 and have a total volume of 62.5 km3. Taken over the 50 km of arc length, the explosive volcanic production rate of the central Oregon High Cascades during Deschutes Formation time was a minimum of 1.8 km3/m.y./km of arc length. By including estimates of the volumes of tephra-fall components, as well as ignimbrites that may have traveled west, we estimate a total volume range, for these 14 eruptions alone, of 188 to 363 km3 ( 121 to 227 km3 DRE), a rate of 4.7-9.1 km3/m.y./km arc length. This explosive volcanic production rate is much higher than the average Quaternary eruption rates, of all compositions, estimated for the entire Cascade arc (1.5-2.5), Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian arc (0.6-1.0), and the Andean southern volcanic zone (1.1-2.0). We suggest that this atypical explosive pulse may result from the onset of regional extension and migration of the magmatic arc, which had the combined effect of increasing

  17. Management experiments for high-elevation agroforestry systems jointly producing matsutake mushrooms and high-quality timber in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    James F. Weigand

    1998-01-01

    Experimental prescriptions compare agroforestry systems designed to increase financial returns from high-elevation stands in the southern Oregon Cascade Range. The prescriptions emphasize alternative approaches for joint production of North American matsutake mushrooms (also known as North American pine mushrooms; Tricholoma magnivelare) and high-...

  18. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    Treesearch

    T. W. Giesen; S. S. Perakis; K. Cromack

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-frr (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western . Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-tenn impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)...

  19. Site index and height growth curves for managed, even-aged stands of white or grand fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    P. H. Cochran

    1979-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations for white or grand fir growing in managed, even-aged pure stands or mixed with other conifers east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are presented. Data were collected in stands where height growth apparently has not been suppressed by high density or top damage.

  20. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An Annotated List of Insects and Other Arthropods

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter

    1991-01-01

    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  1. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods.

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter

    1991-01-01

    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  2. Site index and height growth curves for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    P. H. Cochran

    1979-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziezii (Mirb.) Franco) east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are presented. Data were collected in stands where height growth apparently has not been suppressed by high density or top damage.

  3. Seasonal variation in diel behaviour and habitat use by age 1+ steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Coast and Cascade Range streams in Oregon, U.S.A

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves; Jon B. Grunbaum; Dirk W. Lang

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal diel behaviour of age 1+ steelhead from Coast and Cascade Range streams in Oregon was examined in the field and in laboratory streams. During the summer, fish from both areas were active during the day in natural streams: they held position in the water column in moderate velocities and depths. At night, fish were in slower water, closer to the bottom...

  4. Land development under regulation: comparison between the east and the west sides of the Cascade Range in Oregon, Washington, and California.

    Treesearch

    Seong-Hoo Cho; JunJie Wu; Ralph J. Alig

    2005-01-01

    We compare how socioeconomic factors, physical landscape, profit uncertainty, and local land use policies have affected land development on the east and west sides of the Cascade Range in Oregon, Washington, and California. It is found that the west side has more actively planned and regulated land use than the east side. Consequently, the more intense land use...

  5. Research publications of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Cascade Range, Oregon: 1948 to 1986.

    Treesearch

    A. McKee; G.M. Stonedahl; J.F. Franklin; F.J. Swanson

    1987-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at th H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Willamette National Forest, Oregon, from 1948 to 1986 is presented. Nearly 600 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and abstracts. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  6. Research publications of the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, central Oregon Cascade Range, 1930 to 1993.

    Treesearch

    A. Youngblood

    1995-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of publications resulting from research at the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Deschutes National Forest, in central Oregon from 1930 to 1993 is presented. Over 100 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  7. Lumber recovery of Douglas-fir from the Coast and Cascade Ranges of Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Susan Willits; Thomas D. Fahey

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of lumber recovery studies at four sawmills in western Oregon and western Washington; two dimension mills, one grade mill, and one timber mill were included. Results from individual mills are reported and discussed. The four mills were also combined to approximate "average" conversion of logs to lumber for the region....

  8. Veneer recovery of Douglas-fir from the Coast and Cascade Ranges of Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey; Susan A. Willlts

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of veneer recovery studies at a plywood plant in Oregon and one in Washington. Both mills peeled and clipped to maximize volume and veneer grade recovery, but because they had different objectives and techniques, both volume and grade recovery differed between the two mills. Results for veneer blocks and for woods-length logs are...

  9. Precipitation-snowmelt timing and snowmelt augmentation of large peak flow events, western Cascades, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Keith Jennings; Julia A. Jones

    2015-01-01

    This study tested multiple hydrologic mechanisms to explain snowpack dynamics in extreme rain-on-snow floods, which occur widely in the temperate and polar regions. We examined 26, 10 day large storm events over the period 1992–2012 in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in western Oregon, using statistical analyses (regression, ANOVA, and wavelet coherence) of hourly...

  10. Response of selected cascade glaciers (Washington, Oregon) to climatic change in the late twentieth century (1980-1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Chatelain, E.E.

    1995-07-01

    Alpine glaciers of the Washington and Oregon Cascade Range are particularly sensitive indicators of climatic change. Recent maximum size of these glaciers has coincided with periods of explosive volanism (Krakatoa, 1883; Katmai, 1912). Minimum size has resulted from periods of prolonged regional drought (1933-39). The proximity of elevated temperatures in the 80`s decade and the colossal 1991-92 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (Phillippines) provides a unique opportunity to document resultant efforts of both events on the size, thickness, and terminus positions of Cascade glaciers. Present aerial extents of 1994 and compared with USGS aerial surveys predating the Pinatubo eruptions. Climatic records are examined to determine the extent of localized warming during the pre-eruption period (1977-1991), eruption effects (1991-1994), and present (recovery?). The effects of these local climatic variations are evaluated in light of documented changing glacial dimensions. Observed size modifications may also represent response to insulating rockslide cover, glacial surging, or independent climatic effects of El Nino.

  11. Heat flow from four new research drill holes in the Western Cascades, Oregon, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Scholl, M.A.; Sherrod, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Conceptual models of the thermal structure of the Oregon Cascade Range propose either (1) a narrow zone of magmatic heat sources, flanked by shallow heat-flow anomalies caused by lateral ground-water flow; or (2) a wide zone of magmatic heat sources, with localized, generally negligible ground-water effects. The proposed narrow heat source coincides with the Quaternary volcanic arc, whereas the wider heat source would extend 10-30 km west of the arc. To test the models, four new heat-flow holes were sited west of the Quaternary arc but within the area of the proposed wide heat source. The sites are separated from the Quaternary arc by topographic divides and (or) major river valleys, so that heating by regional-scale ground-water flow seems unlikely. Measured heat flow (76??5 mW mm-2) was significantly lower than the values predicted by interpolation from an existing heat-flow contour map (95??7 mW m-2). The lower values are consistent with a narrow zone of magmatic heat sources. The complete heat-flow data set consists mostly of shallow (100-200 m) data and defines lobate highs around hot-spring groups in the Western Cascades. However, all of the deepest holes in the study area (44??-45??15???N) show hydrologic gradient disturbances extending to depths >200 m, so the shallow data must be extrapolated with caution. ?? 1993.

  12. Potential impact of lava flows on regional water supplies: case study of central Oregon Cascades volcanism and the Willamette Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligne, Natalia; Cashman, Katharine; Grant, Gordon; Jefferson, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Lava flows are often considered to be natural hazards with localized bimodal impact - they completely destroy everything in their path, but apart from the occasional forest fire, cause little or no damage outside their immediate footprint. However, in certain settings, lava flows can have surprising far reaching impacts with the potential to cause serious problems in distant urban areas. Here we present results from a study of the interaction between lava flows and surface water in the central Oregon Cascades, USA, where we find that lava flows in the High Cascades have the potential to cause considerable water shortages in Eugene, Oregon (Oregon's second largest metropolitan area) and the greater Willamette Valley (home to ~70% of Oregon's population). The High Cascades host a groundwater dominated hydrological regime with water residence times on the order of years. Due to the steady output of groundwater, rivers sourced in the High Cascades are a critical water resource for Oregon, particularly in August and September when it has not rained for several months. One such river, the McKenzie River, is the sole source of drinking water for Eugene, Oregon, and prior to the installation of dams in the 1960s accounted for ~40% of late summer river flow in the Willamette River in Portland, 445 river km downstream of the source of the McKenzie River. The McKenzie River has been dammed at least twice by lava flows during the Holocene; depending the time of year that these eruptions occurred, we project that available water would have decreased by 20% in present-day Eugene, Oregon, for days to weeks at a time. Given the importance of the McKenzie River and its location on the margin of an active volcanic area, we expect that future volcanic eruptions could likewise impact water supplies in Eugene and the greater Willamette Valley. As such, the urban center of Eugene, Oregon, and also the greater Willamette Valley, is vulnerable to the most benign of volcanic hazards, lava

  13. Mafic magmatism and associated tectonism of the central high Cascade Range, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.S. )

    1990-11-10

    Volcanism in the central High Cascade Range has been dominated since late Miocene time by the construction of a malif platform of coalescent shield volcanoes within an intra-arc graben that developed in response to extensional plate tectonics. Lithospheric extension along the central Cascade arc is attributed to a decrease in the convergence rate of the Farallon-North American plate system since early Tertiary time. Geochemical variations, compiled from new and existing and basaltic andesites (SiO{sub 2} = 53-60 wt %): (1) early High Cascade high-alumina olivine tholeiitic (HAOT) basalts, (2) normal High Cascade HAOT basalts, (3) Mount Washington (MW) type basaltic andesites, and (4) North Sister (NS) type basaltic andesites. The implication of oceanic mantle beneath the central Cascades is consistent with the existence of the Columbia embayment into which a segment of oceanic lithosphere was compressed and thickened. Relatively high mobile large ion lithophile element and somewhat depleted high field strength elements in the basaltic andesites, considered to be secondary effects to OIB/MORB mantle evolution, are believed to believed to result from interaction of aqueous subduction-derived fluids with evolving magmas or their sources in lower crustal or upper mantle regions. The preponderance of HAOT basalts that exhibit within-plate chemical signatures argues for less input, relative to typical calc-alkaline magmatic arcs, of aqueous fluids due to subduction processes. The petrologic significance of a subduction zone beneath the Cascade arc may be restricted to the tectonic overprinting of an extensional system, caused by a reduction in convergence rate, on a waning of calc-alkaline magmatism. Physical models of the High Cascade subduction system are presented to explain the apparent chemical decoupling between calc-alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism.

  14. Lidar Mapping Documents Post-glacial Faulting West of the High Cascades Axis at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.; Robinson, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Cascades magmatic arc lies mainly within the High Cascades graben system in the state of Oregon. Normal faults of the Klamath graben trend north into Mount Mazama, the volcano whose catastrophic eruption ~7700 cal y BP resulted in collapse of 8x10 km Crater Lake caldera. Geologic mapping of Mount Mazama (Bacon, USGS SIM 2832, 2008) delineated faults of the West Klamath Lake fault zone (WKLFZ) and their northern extensions through Crater Lake National Park west of the caldera. Outcrop patterns implied presence of normal faults farther west but dense conifer forest made discovery of subtle scarps impractical. Closer to the Cascades axis, successively decreasing offsets of mapped Mazama lava flows with decreasing age yielded a long-term vertical slip rate of ~0.3 mm/y on the principal fault segments of the WKLFZ near Crater Lake, where the youngest offset lavas are 35 ka in age. Other workers have found offset lateral moraine crests where Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glaciers crossed the WKLFZ south of Crater Lake. A lidar survey of Crater Lake National Park in 2010 supported by the Oregon Lidar Consortium (Robinson, USGS Data Series 716, 2012) revealed meter-scale, dominantly N-S trending fault scarps with down-to-the-east displacement west of most previously mapped faults at the latitude of Crater Lake, increasing the known width of the fault zone there to as much as 11 km. Fault segments as long as 7-16 km form a semi-continuous system for virtually the entire 32 km N-S extent of lidar coverage. Along the western part of the fault zone, scarp height is as great as ~20 m. Scarp length and height imply that several M>6-7 earthquakes have occurred in late Pleistocene-Holocene time. Field observations show that the ignimbrite of the Mazama climactic eruption banks against or covers scarps. One fault vertically displaces a lateral moraine ~3 m. The moraine contains clasts of ~50 ka andesite and therefore likely dates from the LGM so that the most recent

  15. Subsurface thermal and hydrological changes between forest and clear-cut sites in the Oregon Cascades

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cascades of the US Pacific Northwest are a climatically sensitive area. Projections of continued winter warming in this area are expected to induce a switch from a snow-dominated to a rain-dominated winter precipitation regime with a likely impact on subsurface thermal and h...

  16. Subsurface thermal and hydrological changes between forest and clear-cut sites in the Oregon Cascades

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cascades of the US Pacific Northwest are a climatically sensitive area. Projections of continued winter warming in this area are expected to induce a switch from a snow-dominated to a rain-dominated winter precipitation regime with a likely impact on subsurface thermal and h...

  17. Deuterium values from volcanic glass: A paleoelevation proxy for Oregon's Cascade Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, T. B.; Bershaw, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrated volcanic glass has been used as a proxy to constrain Cenozoic paleoclimate across many of the world's mountain ranges. However, there are concerns that volcanic glass may not preserve the isotopic composition of syndepositional meteoric water. The Cascades are an excellent location to study the validity of hydrated volcanic glass as a paleoenvironmental proxy for several reasons. Moisture is derived from a single oceanic source and falls as orographic precipitation in the Cascades, leading to a characteristic altitude effect, or inverse relationship between elevation and the isotopic composition of meteoric water (δD). In addition, past studies have inferred uplift of the Cascades and an increase in the rain shadow effect since the Eocene through independent methods such as changing fossil assemblages, and other isotopic proxies including carbonates and fossil teeth. In this study, δD values of two hydrated tuff samples are compared: one prior to ( 29 Ma) and one following ( 5 Ma) the onset of High Cascade volcanism. The isotopic composition of these samples are interpreted in the context of modern water across the range to understand the potential of volcanic glass as a proxy for paleoelevation in the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Helium and Carbon Isotope Systematics of Springs in the Separation Creek Drainage System, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon Cascades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B.; Evans, W. C.; Mariner, R. H.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2002-12-01

    In response to recent and on-going uplift in the Separation Creek drainage system, 5 km west of South Sister volcano in the central Oregon Cascades (e.g. Wicks et al., 2001), a hydrogeochemical monitoring project was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the summer of 2001. When compared to existing literature data, we found no significant changes in the helium isotope composition of hot springs located in the vicinity of South Sister volcano, but outside the area of uplift. Nor were there significant changes in fluid chemistry or conductivity of cold springs within the area of uplift. For the latter group, there are no pre-uplift helium or carbon isotope data. Therefore, the implications of the strong magmatic helium and carbon isotope signals measured in two of these samples and their possible relationship to the recent uplift could not be evaluated (Van Soest et al., 2001; Evans et al., 2002). Within the scope of the hydrogeochemical monitoring project, a detailed survey of cold springs in the Separation Creek drainage area was planned for the spring, summer and fall of 2002. Preliminary results for spring 2002 samples suggest a relationship between helium isotope composition and distance from South Sister volcano, but not the center of uplift: 8.6RA at 3 km (from a sample nearest the youngest erupted volcanics), 7.4RA at 5 km (near the center of uplift), 7.0RA at 10 km, 6.8RA at 18 km, and 5.2RA at 25 km from South Sister volcano. The last value is from the hot spring closest to the area of uplift for which there is pre-uplift data and it suggests a constant helium isotope ratio over time (1982-present). The new carbon isotope results confirm the existence of a mixing relationship between deep abiogenic (magmatic) carbon and shallow biogenic carbon that was apparent in the 2001 samples. The carbon isotope results appear to correlate with the Cl and conductivity anomalies in the springs. At this time, whether a similar correlation exists for the helium

  19. Re and Os isotopes of the central Oregon Cascades and along the arc indicate variable homogenization and mafic growth in the deep crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Mariek E.; Grunder, Anita L.; Rowe, Michael C.; Chesley, John T.

    2013-05-01

    The rhenium-osmium isotopic system has the potential to track the maturation of arc crust at lower crustal levels because the 187Os/188Os in magmas is sensitive to the age and composition of crust with which they interact. We here present Re and Os isotopic data for a suite of samples from the extensional central Oregon Cascade arc that includes diverse, primitive (high Mg) basalts and low- and medium-K basaltic andesites from North Sister and Little Brother volcanoes. The basaltic andesites contain higher 187Os/188Os than the two most common basalt types, calc-alkaline basalt and low-K tholeiites (0.17-0.19 vs. 0.14-0.15), indicating interaction with mafic crust. The evolution of 187Os/188Os in the deep crust depends on Re partitioning that in turn depends on sulfide and magnetite stability and oxygen fugacity. We estimate bulk mineral-melt partition coefficients for Re to be ˜4 at fO2 ≈ QFM and ˜10 at fO2 ≈ +1 to +3 ΔQFM in keeping with near liquidus phase equilibria at deep crustal conditions (Mercer and Johnston, 2008) and on fO2 of central Oregon primitive magmas (Rowe et al., 2009). Modeling fractional crystallization of the central Oregon primitive basalts indicates that the deep arc crust is likely to have 187Re/188Os similar to the range measured in North Sister basaltic andesites (˜55-260). The age of the mafic crustal contaminant in the central Oregon Cascades is then estimated to be 9-29 Ma and is younger than the start of Cascade arc volcanism at ˜45 Ma in central Oregon. The range in 187Os/188Os at the Cascade volcanic centers Mt. Lassen and Mt. Adams is greater than is observed for central Oregon arc magmas. We estimate a range in mafic crustal contaminant ages of 8-340 Ma for Mt. Lassen and 0-70 Ma for Mt. Adams and are older than suggested by previous studies (Hart et al., 2002, 2003). Mafic contaminant age ranges reflect the degree to which the crust is homogenized, or the extent to which the composition of the crust is a product of

  20. Comment and response document on the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report contains comments provided by the Oregon Department of Energy and responses to these comments on the final remedial action plan for the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Lakeview, Oregon.

  1. Integrated snow and hydrology modeling for climate change impact assessment in Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safeeq, M.; Grant, G.; Lewis, S.; Nolin, A. W.; Hempel, L. A.; Cooper, M.; Tague, C.

    2014-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW), increasing temperatures are expected to alter the hydrologic regimes of streams by shifting precipitation from snow to rain and forcing earlier snowmelt. How are such changes likely to affect peak flows across the region? Shifts in peak flows have obvious implications for changing flood risk, but are also likely to affect channel morphology, sediment transport, aquatic habitat, and water quality, issues with potentially high economic and environmental cost. Our goal, then, is to rigorously evaluate sensitivity to potential peak flow changes across the PNW. We address this by developing a detailed representation of snowpack and streamflow evolution under varying climate scenarios using a cascade-modeling approach. We have identified paired watersheds located on the east (Metolius River) and west (McKenzie River) sides of the Cascades, representing dry and wet climatic regimes, respectively. The tributaries of these two rivers are comprised of contrasting hydrologic regimes: surface-runoff dominated western cascades and deep-groundwater dominated high-cascades systems. We use a detailed hydro-ecological model (RHESSys) in conjunction with a spatially distributed snowpack evolution model (SnowModel) to characterize the peak flow behavior under present and future climate. We first calibrated and validated the SnowModel using observed temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalent, and manual snow survey data sets. We then employed a multi-objective calibration strategy for RHESSys using the simulated snow accumulation and melt from SnowModel and observed streamflow. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency between observed and simulated streamflow varies between 0.5 in groundwater and 0.71 in surface-runoff dominated systems. The initial results indicate enhanced peak flow under future climate across all basins, but the magnitude of increase varies by the level of snowpack and deep-groundwater contribution in the watershed. Our continuing effort

  2. Fluctuating Eruption Style at Blue Lake Crater, Central Oregon Cascades: Insights from Deposit Granulometry and Componentry and Pyroclast Textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. R.

    2016-12-01

    Blue Lake crater in the central Oregon Cascades is one of the youngest Cascades volcanoes, erupting <3000 years ago. Based on the deep lake-filled crater excavated during the eruption, Blue Lake is commonly classified as a maar. However, little is known about this young eruption. This study focuses on mapping and detailed analyses of components and textures of the pyroclastic deposits to better understand changes in eruption style as the eruption progressed. Based on a new isopach map of the deposit thickness, the volume of erupted material is 4 x 107 m3. The deposits also suggest that the eruption was dominantly magmatic; phreatomagmatic surge deposits (<30 cm thick) occur locally at or near the base of the deposit but are overlain by much thicker scoria fall deposits. Detailed study of the pyroclasts from throughout the deposit reveal more subtle changes in the influence of external water over time. Granulometry from a complete deposit section (130 cm) reveals that the average grain size is finest immediately overlying the basal surge deposits and increases upsection. Componentry from this section shows that lithic and dense clasts are most abundant below and directly above the surges (near the deposit base) and decrease in abundance upsection, where vesicular scoria dominates. High magnification SEM BSE images of tephra clasts from throughout the deposit were obtained in order to better assess the changing role of external water during the eruption. Preliminary assessment of the images reveals that clasts from the eruption initiation have a glassier matrix compared to those upsection, which have a highly microcrystalline matrix, suggesting that early-erupted samples were likely quenched with external water. Taken together, these datasets suggest that the eruption initiated as dominantly phreatomagmatic but then rapidly transitioned to dominantly magmatic for the eruption duration. Further investigation of clast vesicularity and crystallinity will aid in

  3. Change in bedload transport frequency with climate warming in gravel-bed streams of the Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, L. A.; Grant, G.; Lewis, S.; Safeeq, M.

    2014-12-01

    Previous modeling studies have predicted that high flows in the Oregon Cascades will become larger and shift towards earlier in the winter season with climate warming. The impact of those changes on bedload transport frequency and channel morphology remains unknown, however. We examined changes in the timing and magnitude of bedload transport under modeled flow scenarios to identify which rivers draining the Cascades with different hydrologic regimes are most vulnerable to increased frequency of bedload transport. Such increases in the frequency or magnitude of gravel entrainment might lead to disturbance of fragile salmon or bull trout habitat. We calculated bedload transport rates using field measurements of surface sediment size, channel geometry, and channel slope along 14 reaches that included streams with a range of drainage areas and flow regimes (i.e., spring-fed and surface-runoff dominated). Our findings suggest that both spring-fed and surface-runoff streams are vulnerable to predicted changes in the flow regime, but in different ways. Spring-fed streams, characterized by relatively uniform discharge, will likely experience changes in both the timing and magnitude of transport. Spring-fed streams are poised just above the critical transport threshold for a large portion of the year, therefore small changes in the highest flows may lead to marked changes in transport rates. Transport events in surface-runoff streams, which are already characterized by flashy flows, will likely become larger and more frequent. Changes in the frequency and timing of bedload transport in both spring-fed and surface runoff streams will impact bed stability and texture and should be considered for managing these watersheds in the future.

  4. Clackamas 4800-foot thermal gradient hole: Cascade geothermal drilling: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Iovenitti, J.L.; D'Olier, W.L.

    1987-09-30

    Thermal Power Company (Thermal) completed a thermal gradient hole to about 5000 feet (1524 m) total depth in Section 28, Township 8 South, Range 8 East, Willamette Meridian, Marion County, Oregon. The objective was to obtain data for the characterization of the deep hydrothermal regime in the Cascades volcanic region in order to better define its geothermal resource potential. The depth and location of the thermal gradient hole were designed by Thermal to test the basis of the Clackamas geothermal system exploration model developed by Chevron Resources Company.

  5. Longer-term effects of selective thinning on carabid beetles and spiders in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.; Niwa, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Within late-successional forests of the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, abundances of carabid beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) from pitfall traps were compared between stands thinned 16-41 years prior and nearby unthinned stands. Species richness of both taxa were moderate for coniferous forests of this region, with 12 carabid beetle species and >120 spider species collected. No differences in total abundance or species richness were found between stand types for carabid beetles, although abundances of four of the six most common species differed significantly. Pterostichus setosus, the most abundant species collected, was significantly more abundant in unthinned stands, while Omus cazieri, P. lama, and Carabus taedatus were more numerous in thinned stands. In contrast, both total spider abundance and species richness were significantly higher in thinned stands. Hunting spiders within the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae, and the funnel web-building Dictynidae were captured more often in thinned stands while sheet web spiders within Linyphiidae and Hahniidae were more abundant in unthinned stands. The forest floor within unthinned stands was structurally more diverse than in thinned stands, but this did not lead to greater overall abundance or diversity of either carabid beetles or spiders.

  6. Summer lowflow deficits after two decades of forest regeneration in the western Cascades, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, T.; Jones, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    This study explored the long-term response of summer water yields to past forest management practices, specifically the conversion of mature and old growth conifer forests to young forest plantations, in seasonally drought-stressed conifer forests of western Oregon. Results were based on long-term (40 to 50-year) paired watershed experiments in the HJ Andrews Forest in the Willamette National Forest and Coyote Creek in the South Umpqua National Forest. In the third decade after 100 percent clearcutting, streamflows were 30 to 80 percent lower in the young forest than the reference (mature and old forest) watershed during August to November. In the third decade after patch-clearcutting, summer streamflows were 20 to 40 percent lower in the cut watershed compared to the control. In the third decade after a 50 percent overstory thin, almost all summer low flows were within 25 percent of the flows at the control watershed. A 12 percent understory thin in a clearcut watershed during the third decade led to a temporary, minor abatement in summer low flow declines, but within five years, summer low flows from the thinned watershed were similar to those from an adjacent, unthinned forest plantation of similar age. Streamflow deficits emerged as early as March or April and persisted into October and November in the warmer, drier site in southern Oregon (Coyote Creek), whereas summer streamflow deficits emerged later and persisted for fewer weeks in the cooler, wetter Andrews Forest. These findings are consistent with previous studies demonstrating (1) increases in water use in certain conifer species relative to others (e.g. Douglas-fir versus pine); (2) higher water use in young (i.e., 10 to 50- yr-old) compared to old (100 to 250-yr-old) stands of many tree species; and (3) decreased interception capacity of young relative to old forest stands associated with loss of canopy epiphytes. Results appear to be robust, despite gaps in data availability, uncertainties associated

  7. Paleomagnetism of Cascade Range Pliocene-Pleistocene lava flows near McKenzie Bridge, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, C.; Valentine, M. J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine geomagnetic field behavior recorded in a series of Pleistocene lava flows located near McKenzie Bridge, Oregon. Twenty-nine sites, each consisting of at least ten samples from an individual lava flow, were collected during July of 2011 and 2012. Alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization studies reveal twelve normal, four reversed, and nine possible transitional polarities with paleolatitudes less than 60°. Samples from five sites did provided no reliable mean directions due to significant within-site scatter. Out of the twelve normal polarity sites, ten have virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) spread across Russia, and two in the Norwegian Sea. VGPs for three of the transitional samples are located in two of the southern hemisphere patches proposed by Hoffman (1992). Thermal demagnetization studies indicate the bulk of the magnetic signal is held in low titanium magnetite. Polished sections are being prepared for optical examination to confirm the magnetic mineralogy of the samples.

  8. Resource partitioning in two stream salamanders, Dicamptodon tenebrosus and Rhyacotriton cascadae, from the Oregon Cascade Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, Wynn W.; Bury, R. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the potential for resource partitioning between the Coastal giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) and the Cascade torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton cascadae) by examining their diet and microhabitats in forest streams. Larval D. tenebrosus and R. cascadae fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae. We found similar foods in larval and adult R. cascadae and combined these results. Dicamptodon larvae consumed ephemeropteran, plecopteran, and trichopteran larvae in about equal amounts whereas R. cascadae ate more trichopteran and less ephemeropteran larvae than D. tenebrosus. Diet of all R. cascadae overlapped more with smaller than larger sized D. tenebrosus larvae. Comparisons of diets with available foods indicated R. cascadae is more selective or more gape-limited in its feeding habits than D. tenebrosus larvae. The two salamanders differed in use of microhabitats in creeks, which may contribute to their diet differences.

  9. Paleomagnetic rotations and the Cenozoic tectonics of the Cascade Arc, Washington, Oregon, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Cenozoic (62-12 Ma) volcanic rocks of the Cascade Arc and adjacent areas indicate that moderate to large clockwise rotations are an important component of the tectonic history of the arc, Two mechanisms of rotation are suggested. The progressive increase in rotation toward the coast in arc and forearc rocks results from distributed dextral shear, which is likely driven by oblique subduction of oceanic plates to the west. Simple shear rotation is accommodated in the upper crust by strike-slip faulting. A progressive eastward shift of the arc volcanic front with time in the rotated arc terrane is the result of the westward pivoting of the arc block in front of a zone of extension since Eocene time. Westward migration of bimodal Basin and Range volcanism since at least 16 Ma is tracking rotation of the frontal arc block and growth of the Basin and Range in its wake. -from Author

  10. Carbon dynamics in the hyporheic zone of a headwater mountain stream in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson-Rikert, Hayley A.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Haggerty, Roy; Santelmann, Mary V.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated carbon dynamics in the hyporheic zone of a steep, forested, headwater catchment western Oregon, USA. Water samples were collected monthly from the stream and a well network during base flow periods. We examined the potential for mixing of different source waters to explain concentrations of DOC and DIC. We did not find convincing evidence that either inputs of deep groundwater or lateral inputs of shallow soil water influenced carbon dynamics. Rather, carbon dynamics appeared to be controlled by local processes in the hyporheic zone and overlying riparian soils. DOC concentrations were low in stream water (0.04-0.09 mM), and decreased with nominal travel time through the hyporheic zone (0.02-0.04 mM lost over 100 h). Conversely, stream water DIC concentrations were much greater than DOC (0.35-0.7 mM) and increased with nominal travel time through the hyporheic zone (0.2-0.4 mM gained over 100 h). DOC in stream water could only account for 10% of the observed increase in DIC. In situ metabolic processing of buried particulate organic matter as well as advection of CO2 from the vadose zone likely accounted for the remaining 90% of the increase in DIC. Overall, the hyporheic zone was a source of DIC to the stream. We suggest that, in mountain stream networks, hyporheic exchange facilitates the transformation of particulate organic carbon buried in floodplains and transports the DIC that is produced back to the stream where it can be evaded to the atmosphere.

  11. Excess nitrogen in selected thermal and mineral springs of the Cascade Range in northern California, Oregon, and Washington: Sedimentary or volcanic in origin?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Evans, William C.; Presser, T.S.; White, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Anomalous N2/Ar values occur in many thermal springs and mineral springs, some volcanic fumaroles, and at least one acid-sulfate spring of the Cascade Range. Our data show that N2/Ar values are as high as 300 in gas from some of the hot springs, as high as 1650 in gas from some of the mineral springs, and as high as 2400 in gas from the acid-sulfate spring on Mt. Shasta. In contrast, gas discharging from hot springs that contain nitrogen and argon solely of atmospheric origin typically exhibits N2/Ar values of 40-80, depending on the spring temperature. If the excess nitrogen in the thermal and mineral springs is of sedimentary origin then the geothermal potential of the area must be small, but if the nitrogen is of volcanic origin then the geothermal potential must be very large. End-member excess nitrogen (??15N) is +5.3% for the thermal waters of the Oregon Cascades but is only about +1% for fumaroles on Mt. Hood and the acid-sulfate spring on Mt. Shasta. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations are highest for thermal springs associated with aquifers between 120 and 140??C. Chloride is the major anion in most of the nitrogen-rich springs of the Cascade Range, and N2/Ar values generally increase as chloride concentrations increase. Chloride and excess nitrogen in the thermal waters of the Oregon Cascades probably originate in an early Tertiary marine formation that has been buried by the late Tertiary and Quaternary lava flows of the High Cascades. The widespread distribution of excess nitrogen that has been generated in low to moderate-temperature sedimentary environments is further proof of the restricted geothermal potential of the Cascade Range. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between clay mineralogy, hydrothermal metamorphism, and topography in a Western Cascades watershed, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambers, Rebecca K. R.

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates variation in clay mineralogy and its relation to hydrothermal metamorphism, hillslope processes, and topography in the western Cascade Mountains. The study area is the drainage basin of Dorena Lake, a medium-sized (686 km 2) watershed located near Cottage Grove, OR. The Bohemia Mining District is on the southeastern rim of the watershed in a hydrothermally metamorphosed region associated with a set of granodiorite plutons. To characterize large-scale patterns of clay mineral distribution within the watershed, suspended sediments were collected from 43 stream locations. Samples of several metamorphosed and unaffected volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks were collected to help clarify metamorphic reaction processes. One active earthflow was also sampled. X-ray diffraction methods were used to determine the mineralogy of the clay-sized (<2 μm) fraction of the samples. Clay mineralogy varies systematically across the watershed, and the three major stream tributaries carry sediment with distinct mineralogical signatures. Discrete minerals include kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, and illite. Interstratified kaolinite-smectite and chlorite-vermiculite (CV) are also present. The active earthflow and unmetamorphosed rock samples primarily contain smectite. In contrast, metamorphosed rock samples are composed of some combination of illite, interstratified illite-smectite, CV, and chlorite. Examination of clay mineral distribution reveals the effects of hydrothermal metamorphism in the mining district on clay mineralogy, hillslope processes, and landscape development. Compared with most of the watershed, the mining district has steeper slopes and higher elevations and lacks smectite almost entirely. Analyses of metamorphosed bedrock units indicate that smectite originally present in the rocks was converted to nonexpandable clay minerals during metamorphism. Induration of bedrock and loss of expandable clays resulted in thin soils and steep topography

  13. Old Growth Conifer Watersheds in the Western Cascades, Oregon: Sentinels of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, where the majority of precipitation falls during the winter, mountain snowpacks provide an important source of streamflow during the dry summer months when water demands are frequently highest. Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are expected to result in a decline in winter snowpacks in western North America, earlier snowmelt, and subsequently a shift in the timing of streamflows, with an increasing fraction of streamflows occurring earlier in the water year and drier conditions during the summer. Long-term records from headwater watersheds in old growth conifer forest at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJ Andrews), Oregon, provide the opportunity to examine changes in climate, vegetation, and streamflow. Continuous streamflow records have been collected since 1953, 1964, and 1969 from three small (8.5-60 ha) watersheds (WS2, WS8, and WS9). Over the 40- to 50-year period of study, late winter to early summer monthly average minimum temperatures have increased by 1-2°C, and spring snow water equivalent at a nearby Snotel site has declined, but monthly precipitation has remained unchanged. Spring runoff ratios have declined in by amounts equivalent to 0.59-2.45 mm day-1 at WS2, WS8, and WS9, which are comparable to estimated rates of stand-level transpiration from trees in these watersheds. However, winter runoff ratios have not changed significantly at either WS2 or WS9, and have actually decreased at WS8 by 2.43 mm day-1 over the period of record. Furthermore, summer runoff ratios have not changed significantly at either WS8 or WS9, and have increased at WS2 by 0.34 mm day-1 over the period of record. These findings suggest that warming temperatures have resulted in a reduction in spring snowpacks and an earlier onset of evapotranspiration in the spring when soil moisture is abundant, but physiological responses of these conifer forests to water stress and water surplus may mitigate or exceed the expression of a

  14. Volcanic and tectonic evolution of the Cascade volcanic arc, central Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R. )

    1990-11-10

    From 22 to 0 Ma, {sigma}{sub 1} and {sigma}{sub 3} was likely a response to decreasing influence of ENE to NE compression at the Juan de Fuca plate-North American plate (JDFP-NAP) boundary relative to N-S compression and attendant continental extension produced at the Pacific plate (PP)-North American plate boundary. Decreases in orthogonal convergence rate, convergence angle, and length of the convergent margin relative to the NAP-PP transform Ma to 16.9-7.4 Ma, probably reflecting a decrease in convergence rate. Volcanic production increased at 7.4-0 Ma even though convergence rate continued to decrease. The extensional stress regime at 7-0 Ma promoted mafic volcanism that caused the increased volcanic production. Volcanic production is therefore a function of convergence rate and upper plate stress regime. The volcanic front migrated progressively eastward from 35 to 0 Ma as the volcanic belt narrowed. The narrowing was caused primarily by steepening slab dip at depths greater than 100 km. Eastward migration was likely caused by decreasing shallow (0-100 km) slab dip resulting from thinning of the NAP. Uplift of the Western Cascades province in the early Pliocene may have been caused by vigorous flow into the mantle wedge accommodating an increase of free rollback rate of the subducted plate at 4 Ma.

  15. Lava flows vs. surface water: the geologic battle for the upper McKenzie valley, central Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligne, N. I.; Conrey, R. M.; Cashman, K. V.; Grant, G. E.; Amidon, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several thousand years, a battle for the upper McKenzie valley in the central Oregon Cascades has raged between, on one side, lava flows from the Sand Mountain volcanic chain and Belknap volcano, and on the other side, surface water fed by prolific springs. The north-south oriented upper McKenzie valley marks the boundary between the (old) western Cascades and the (active) high Cascades. The McKenzie valley hosted a glacier in the Pleistocene. In the Holocene, the valley has become a natural destination and conduit for both lava flows and surface water: it is downhill from volcanic vents, and as it follows the boundary between low (west) and high (east) porosity terrains, groundwater sourced from the high Cascades is forced to emerge in the valley. New surface age exposure dates, in conjunction with 14C dating, indicate that about 3000 years ago multiple lava flows from the Sand Mountain volcanic chain entered the valley from the east. The entire eruptive episode lasted several hundred years and caused massive disturbances to the ancestral McKenzie river. In the early stages of the eruptive episode, a lava flow dammed the McKenzie river, forming Clear Lake (modern source of the McKenzie river) and drowning a Douglas Fir forest. Relic drowned trees suggest that Clear Lake formed in two stages, as trees tops in the deepest part of the lake are consistently rotted off at a depth of 20 meters below water level, while trees in the shallower parts of the lake are rotted off at the surface. This suggests a paleo-lake level 20 meters below modern levels; lake levels are suspected to have reached modern levels later in the course of the eruptive episode when subsequent Sand Mountain lava flows entered the lake. In the years since the Sand Mountain eruptive episode, the McKenzie river re-established itself by adopting a lava channel. Considerable water also flows through the lava flows, emerging as springs along the river channel. The river also hosts two

  16. The Mafic Holocene Sand Mountain-Nash Crater Chain, Oregon Cascade Range: Preliminary Insights Into Enigmatic Crustal Contamination Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, F. C.; Conrey, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    The ca. 3 ka Sand Mtn-Nash Crater chain is a 10 km long bifurcated cinder cone alignment formed during an intra-arc extensional fissure-style eruption in the central Oregon Cascades. Eruptions began with at least 6 separate basalt flows (MgO 6.5 to 8.8 wt %), followed by several flows of two distinct basaltic andesites. Measurable paleomagnetic secular variation is absent (12 of 13 flows sampled; Duane Champion, pers. comm., 2003), suggesting the eruptions spanned at most a few decades. Nash Crater basaltic andesite is similar to the most common Mt. Washington type mafic lava in the Cascades, while Sand Mtn. basaltic andesite is similar to less common Sr-rich (900-1200 ppm Sr) mafic lava. Both basalt and basaltic andesite typically contain olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts, with rare clinopyroxene. Rare glass-bearing gabbroic xenoliths appear to preserve a record of both assimilation and crystallization of plag-oliv-cpx. Each basalt is unique, but basalts collectively record a wide compositional diversity (e.g., K2O 0.65 - 0.90; Ba 230 - 350; Ba/Sr 0.33 - 0.53), which may result from either source variation and/or crustal assimilation. Sr isotopes range from 0.7031 - 0.7034 in basalt whole rocks (WR), and are positively correlated with Ba/Sr ratio. A similar correlation is found in Sr isotopes from Sand Mtn basaltic andesites (WR), which range from 0.7031 - 0.7033. Preliminary laser ablation sampling of Sr isotopes in Sand Mtn. basaltic andesite plagioclase phenocrysts and groundmass demonstrates equilibrium between WR, groundmass, and crystals, strongly suggesting that compositional variation in at least these lavas was acquired below the plagioclase stability field (i.e., in the lower crust or upper mantle). Variations in the more typical Nash Crater basaltic andesites appear to reflect in part mixing with a Sand Mtn type component. Derivation of basaltic andesites from their co-erupted basalts, suggested by the field relations, is not readily apparent. The

  17. FY 2005 Quantum Cascade Laser Alignment System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2006-01-11

    The Alignment Lasers Task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Project PL211I) is a co-funded project between DOE NA-22 and a Classified Client. This project, which began in the second half of FY03, involved building and delivering a Quantum Cascade (QC) Laser Alignment System to be used for testing the pupil alignment of an infrared sensor by measuring the response from four pairs of diametrically opposed QC lasers. PNNL delivered the system in FY04 and provided technical assistance in FY05 culminating into a successful demonstration of the system. This project evolved from the Laser Development Task of PL211I, which is involved in developing novel laser technology to support development of advanced chemical sensors for detecting the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The laser systems are based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers, a new semiconductor source in the infrared. QC lasers can be tailored to emit light throughout the infrared region (3.5 ? 17 ?m) and have high output power and stability. Thus, these lasers provide an infrared source with superb power and spectral stability enabling them to be used for applications such as alignment and calibration in addition to chemical sensing.

  18. Short-term response of songbirds to experimental thinning of young Douglas-fir forests in the Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan C.; Howlin, Shay; Ganio, L.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial thinning has the potential to increase structural diversity in managed conifer stands and redirect development of young stands towards structure characteristic of late-seral habitats. Thinning to increase diversity, however, is likely to require different strategies than thinning to maximize timber production. To prescribe thinning regimes that will promote diversity, managers need more information on response of wildlife to a range of thinning intensities and patterns. We studied the response of forest songbirds to three different intensities and patterns of thinning in 40-year-old stands dominated by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Oregon Cascades. We estimated densities of songbirds for 2 years before and 4 years after experimental thinning with standard point count methodology. We compared changes in density before and after thinning between each thinning treatment and the control with repeated measures analysis of variance. Thinning increased species richness and the density of 10 species. Furthermore, the frequency of detection of four additional species increased in thinned stands. Thinning decreased the density of five species, but no species was excluded by thinning. Our results were largely consistent with those from other studies of bird response to thinning from different regions of the Pacific Northwest. We conclude that commercial thinning rapidly promotes diversity of breeding songbirds in young, conifer-dominated stands. However, we suggest using a variety of thinning intensities and patterns, ranging from no thinning to very widely spaced residual trees, in order to maximize avian diversity at the landscape scale and structural diversity both within and among stands.

  19. Thinning of young Douglas-fir forests decreases density of northern flying squirrels in the Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Tom; Hagar, Joan C.; McComb, Brenda C.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale commercial thinning of young forests in the Pacific Northwest is currently promoted on public lands to accelerate the development of late-seral forest structure for the benefit of wildlife species such as northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and their prey, including the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). Attempts to measure the impact of commercial thinning on northern flying squirrels have mostly addressed short-term effects (2–5 years post-thinning) and the few published studies of longer-term results have been contradictory. We measured densities of northern flying squirrels 11–13 years after thinning of young (55–65 years) Douglas-fir forest stands in the Cascade Range of Oregon, as part of the Young Stand Thinning & Diversity Study. The study includes four replicate blocks, each consisting of an unthinned control stand and one stand each of the following thinning treatments: Heavy Thin; Light Thin; and Light Thin with Gaps. Thinning decreased density of northern flying squirrels, and squirrel densities were significantly lower in heavily thinned stands than in more lightly thinned stands. Regression analysis revealed a strong positive relationship of flying squirrel density with density of large (>30 cm diameter) standing dead trees and a negative relationship with percent cover of low understory shrubs. Maintaining sufficient area and connectivity of dense, closed canopy forest is recommended as a strategy to assure that long-term goals of promoting late-seral structure do not conflict with short-term habitat requirements of this important species.

  20. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zald, Harold S.J.; Spies, Thomas A.; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J.; Olsen, Keith A.; Steel, E. Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Forest carbon (C) density varies tremendously across space due to the inherent heterogeneity of forest ecosystems. Variation of forest C density is especially pronounced in mountainous terrain, where environmental gradients are compressed and vary at multiple spatial scales. Additionally, the influence of environmental gradients may vary with forest age and developmental stage, an important consideration as forest landscapes often have a diversity of stand ages from past management and other disturbance agents. Quantifying forest C density and its underlying environmental determinants in mountain terrain has remained challenging because many available data sources lack the spatial grain and ecological resolution needed at both stand and landscape scales. The objective of this study was to determine if environmental factors influencing aboveground live carbon (ALC) density differed between young versus old forests. We integrated aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data with 702 field plots to map forest ALC density at a grain of 25 m across the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 6369 ha watershed in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. We used linear regressions, random forest ensemble learning (RF) and sequential autoregressive modeling (SAR) to reveal how mapped forest ALC density was related to climate, topography, soils, and past disturbance history (timber harvesting and wildfires). ALC increased with stand age in young managed forests, with much greater variation of ALC in relation to years since wildfire in old unmanaged forests. Timber harvesting was the most important driver of ALC across the entire watershed, despite occurring on only 23% of the landscape. More variation in forest ALC density was explained in models of young managed forests than in models of old unmanaged forests. Besides stand age, ALC density in young managed forests was driven by factors influencing site productivity, whereas variation in ALC density in old unmanaged forests

  1. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA.

    PubMed

    Zald, Harold S J; Spies, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J; Olsen, Keith A; Steel, E Ashley

    2016-04-15

    Forest carbon (C) density varies tremendously across space due to the inherent heterogeneity of forest ecosystems. Variation of forest C density is especially pronounced in mountainous terrain, where environmental gradients are compressed and vary at multiple spatial scales. Additionally, the influence of environmental gradients may vary with forest age and developmental stage, an important consideration as forest landscapes often have a diversity of stand ages from past management and other disturbance agents. Quantifying forest C density and its underlying environmental determinants in mountain terrain has remained challenging because many available data sources lack the spatial grain and ecological resolution needed at both stand and landscape scales. The objective of this study was to determine if environmental factors influencing aboveground live carbon (ALC) density differed between young versus old forests. We integrated aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data with 702 field plots to map forest ALC density at a grain of 25 m across the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 6369 ha watershed in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. We used linear regressions, random forest ensemble learning (RF) and sequential autoregressive modeling (SAR) to reveal how mapped forest ALC density was related to climate, topography, soils, and past disturbance history (timber harvesting and wildfires). ALC increased with stand age in young managed forests, with much greater variation of ALC in relation to years since wildfire in old unmanaged forests. Timber harvesting was the most important driver of ALC across the entire watershed, despite occurring on only 23% of the landscape. More variation in forest ALC density was explained in models of young managed forests than in models of old unmanaged forests. Besides stand age, ALC density in young managed forests was driven by factors influencing site productivity, whereas variation in ALC density in old unmanaged forests

  2. Water limitations on forest carbon cycling and conifer traits along a steep climatic gradient in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L. T.; Law, B. E.

    2015-11-01

    Severe droughts occurred in the western United States during recent decades, and continued human greenhouse gas emissions are expected to exacerbate warming and drying in this region. We investigated the role of water availability in shaping forest carbon cycling and morphological traits in the eastern Cascade Mountains, Oregon, focusing on the transition from low-elevation, dry western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands to higher-elevation, wetter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and grand fir (Abies grandis) forests. We examined 12 sites in mature forests that spanned a 1300 mm yr-1 gradient in mean growing-year climate moisture index (CMIgy ), computed annually (1964 to 2013) as monthly precipitation minus reference evapotranspiration and summed October to September. Maximum leaf area, annual aboveground productivity, and aboveground live tree biomass increased with CMIgy (r2 = 0.67-0.88, P < 0.05), approximately 50-, 30-, and 10-fold along this drier to wetter gradient. Interannual fluctuations in CMI affected the annual radial growth of 91 % of juniper, 51 % of pine, and 12 % of fir individuals from 1964 to 2013. The magnitude of the site-average growth-CMI correlations decreased with increased CMIgy (r2 = 0.53, P < 0.05). All three species, particularly fir, experienced pronounced declines in radial growth from c. 1985 to 1994, coinciding with a period of sustained below-average CMIgy and extensive insect outbreak. Traits of stress-tolerant juniper included short stature, high wood density for cavitation resistance, and high investment in water transport relative to leaf area. Species occupying wetter areas invested more resources in height growth in response to competition for light relative to investment in hydraulic architecture. Consequently, maximum tree height, leaf area : sapwood area

  3. Water limitations on forest carbon cycling and conifer traits along a steep climatic gradient in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L. T.; Law, B. E.

    2015-09-01

    Severe droughts occurred in the western United States during recent decades and continued human greenhouse gas emissions are expected to exacerbate warming and drying in this region. We investigated the role of water availability in shaping forest carbon cycling and morphological traits in the eastern Cascade Mountains, Oregon, focusing on the transition from low-elevation, dry western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands to higher-elevation, wetter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and grand fir (Abies grandis) forests. We examined 12 sites in mature forests that spanned a 1300 mm yr-1 gradient in mean growing-year climate moisture index (CMIgy ), computed annually (1964 to 2013) as monthly precipitation minus reference evapotranspiration and summed October to September. Maximum leaf area, annual aboveground productivity, and aboveground live tree biomass increased with CMIgy (r2 = 0.58-0.85, P < 0.05), approximately 50-, 30-, and 10-fold along this drier to wetter gradient. Interannual fluctuations in CMI affected the annual radial growth of 91 % of juniper, 51 % of pine, and 12 % of fir from 1964 to 2013. The magnitude of the site-average growth-CMI correlations decreased with increased CMIgy (r2 = 0.65, P < 0.05). All three species, particularly fir, experienced pronounced declines in radial growth from ca. 1985 to 1994, coinciding with a period of sustained below-average CMIgy and extensive insect outbreak. Traits of stress-tolerant juniper included short stature, high wood density for cavitation resistance, and high investment in water transport relative to leaf area. Species occupying wetter areas invested more resources in height growth in response to competition for light relative to investment in hydraulic architecture. Correspondingly, maximum tree height, leaf area:sapwood area ratio, and

  4. Effects of Harvest and Roads on In-stream Woody Material in Blue River Basin, Cascade Range, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnomski, N. M.; Dreher, D. M.; Jones, J. A.; Swanson, F. J.

    2003-12-01

    Despite many studies of large wood in streams, few landscape-scale studies have been conducted, and yet the history of forest harvest and road building might be expected to have left a signal on wood patterns in streams. This study examined this question at large (>50 km2) spatial and long (>25 year) temporal scales, based on longitudinal surveys of 25.2 km of stream length in five sub-basins of the Blue River Basin, Cascade Range, Oregon. Six sites, ranging from 1.6 km to 14.1 km in length, were surveyed along 2nd to 5th-order channels on public forest land. Wood volumes, numbers of pieces of large wood, numbers of accumulations and timing of emplacement were determined in the surveys. Survey data were matched with spatial data on harvest and road building practices using GIS. Study streams have undergone distributed patch clearcutting and road construction concentrated during the 1950s and 1960s. The proportions of surveyed stream lengths with harvest and road activities within 40 m was 66% (Cook Creek), 55% (Mack Creek), 53% (Lower Lookout), 37% (McRae Creek and Upper Lookout), and 7% (Quentin Creek). For all study locations combined, 50-m channel segments when there is no harvest or road influence had an average of 356 m3/ha, whereas harvested and roaded areas had from 80 to 157 m3/ha (Bonferroni adjusted p<0.03). Approximately 80% of the wood volume occurred in accumulations. The 5th-order channel (Lower Lookout) had significantly lower wood volumes (109 m3/ha) than all other locations (200-378 m3/ha, Bonferroni adjusted p < 0.05) and significantly lower numbers of large pieces (23 large pieces/ha) compared to all other locations (39 vs. 64 large pieces/ha) (Bonferroni adjusted p<0.008). Thus, the legacy of harvest and road activities conducted in the 1950s and 1960s was still apparent in in-stream wood patterns nearly 40 years later.

  5. Volatile Outputs From Subduction-Related Magmatism in the Oregon Cascades Estimated From Melt Inclusions, Spring Discharges, Heat Flow Data and Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, P.; Ruscitto, D.; Rowe, M.; Kent, A.

    2008-12-01

    Estimates of volatile fluxes provide a primary test for models of magmatism and volatile cycling during subduction in the endmember "hot and dry" Cascadia subduction zone, which is caused by slow convergence (4 cm/a) of the young (~10-12 Ma) Juan de Fuca plate with Western North America. Intra- arc rifting in the Central Oregon segment of the Cascade arc during the past 2 Ma has caused this region to have the highest mafic output along the arc. However, estimates of major volatile (H2O, CO2, S, Cl) fluxes and comparisons with other arcs (e.g. Central America) are not straightforward because there are no passively degassing volcanoes in the area. We estimate volatile outputs for the Central Oregon Cascades by combining data for olivine-hosted melt inclusions with regional heat flow (e.g. Ingebritsen, 1989; Blackwell,1990) and geochronological (Sherrod and Smith, 1990) studies. These flux estimates can be compared with those obtained from spring water studies (e.g. James, 1999; Hurwitz, 2005). This multidisciplinary approach allows us to more accurately constrain volatile fluxes, given that uncertainties in all methods are large and difficult to evaluate. Reported fluxes for Central Oregon springs are 3.4E5 CO2 and 1.5E4 Cl kg/yr/km of arc (James, 1999; Hurwitz, 2005). Melt inclusion data indicate primitive basaltic magmas in the Central Oregon Cascades have 1.0-3.5 wt% H2O, 800-1900 ppm S, and 300-1100 ppm Cl. Assuming global arc magma CO2 contents of ~1 wt% (Wallace, 2005), we estimate H2O/CO2 (1.0-3.5), S/CO2 (0.08-0.19), and Cl/CO2 (0.03-0.11) in magmas, which when combined with spring CO2 estimates, yield an H2O flux of 0.34-1.2E6, a S flux of 2.6-6.5E4, and a Cl flux of 1.0-3.7E4 kg/yr/km of arc. Alternatively, by combining melt inclusion data with magma flux estimates (14-38 km3/Myr/km of arc; Ingebritsen et al. 1989; Sherrod and Smith 1990) we estimate volatile fluxes for H2O: 0.39-5.4E6; S: 0.39-3.9E5; and Cl: 0.16- 2.3E5 kg/yr/km of arc. Given the

  6. Gravity anomalies, Quaternary vents, and Quaternary faults in the southern Cascade Range, Oregon and California: Implications for arc and backarc evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Christiansen, R.L.; Guffanti, M.; Wells, R.E.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, M.A.; Smith, James G.

    1997-01-01

    Isostatic residual gravity anomalies in the southern Cascade Range of northern California and southern Oregon are spatially correlated with broad zones of Quaternary magmatism as reflected by the total volume of Quaternary volcanic products, the distribution of Quaternary vents, and the anomalously low teleseismic P wave velocities in the upper 30 km of crust. The orientation of Quaternary faults also appears to be related to gravity anomalies and volcanism in this area, trending generally north-south within the magmatic regions and northwest-southeast as they enter the neighboring amagmatic zones to the north and south. The relationship between gravity anomalies, vent density, and fault orientations may indicate in a broad sense the strength of the middle and upper crust. The southern Cascade Range occupies a transition zone where horizontal stress is transferred from the northwest-southeast dextral shear of the Walker Lane belt to the east-west extension characteristic of the Cascade arc in central Oregon. Faulting along north-south strikes in the volcanically active areas indicates the east-west extensional stresses in thermally weakened crust, whereas northwest faulting between the volcanically active areas reflects the northwest trending, right lateral shear strain of the Walker Lane belt. The segmentation of the arc reflected in Quaternary magmatism may be caused by differential extension behind crustal blocks of the forearc rotating clockwise with respect to North America. In this view the volcanic centers at Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake volcano, and Lassen Peak in northern California are situated along the southern parts of the trailing edges of two distinct segments of the forearc where additional extension is implied by their differential clockwise rotation. U.S. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Gravity anomalies, Quaternary vents, and Quaternary faults in the southern Cascade Range, Oregon and California: Implications for arc and backarc evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Guffanti, Marianne; Wells, Ray E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.; Smith, James G.

    1997-10-01

    Isostatic residual gravity anomalies in the southern Cascade Range of northern California and southern Oregon are spatially correlated with broad zones of Quaternary magmatism as reflected by the total volume of Quaternary volcanic products, the distribution of Quaternary vents, and the anomalously low teleseismic P wave velocities in the upper 30 km of crust. The orientation of Quaternary faults also appears to be related to gravity anomalies and volcanism in this area, trending generally north-south within the magmatic regions and northwest-southeast as they enter the neighboring amagmatic zones to the north and south. The relationship between gravity anomalies, vent density, and fault orientations may indicate in a broad sense the strength of the middle and upper crust. The southern Cascade Range occupies a transition zone where horizontal stress is transferred from the northwest-southeast dextral shear of the Walker Lane belt to the east-west extension characteristic of the Cascade arc in central Oregon. Faulting along north-south strikes in the volcanically active areas indicates the east-west extensional stresses in thermally weakened crust, whereas northwest faulting between the volcanically active areas reflects the northwest trending, right lateral shear strain of the Walker Lane belt. The segmentation of the arc reflected in Quaternary magmatism may be caused by differential extension behind crustal blocks of the forearc rotating clockwise with respect to North America. In this view the volcanic centers at Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake volcano, and Lassen Peak in northern California are situated along the southern parts of the trailing edges of two distinct segments of the forearc where additional extension is implied by their differential clockwise rotation.

  8. Resource Contingency Program - Oregon : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hermiston Power Project.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA`s Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA`s intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future.

  9. Research publications of the pringle falls experimental forest, central Oregon cascade range, 1930 to 1993. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, A.

    1995-05-01

    An annotated bibliography of publications resulting from research at the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Deschutes National Forest, in central Oregon from 1930 to 1993 is presented. Over 100 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  10. Testing predictions of forest succession using long-term measurements: 100 yrs of observations in the Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Harmon; Robert J. Pabst

    2015-01-01

    Question: Many predictions about forest succession have been based on chronosequences. Are these predictions – at the population, community and ecosystemlevel – consistent with long-termmeasurements in permanent plots? Location: Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco dominated forest in western Oregon, US.Methods: Over a 100-yr period,...

  11. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: III. The Orthoptera (Grasshoppers and Crickets).

    Treesearch

    David C. Lightfoot

    1986-01-01

    An inventory of Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets) at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, near Blue River, Oregon, was conducted to determine the species present and ecological relationships. A key for identification and an annotated list are presented. From qualitative assessments of successional habitat relationships, generalized species associations of forest...

  12. Climate variability, snow, and physiographic controls on storm hydro graphs in small forested basins, western Cascades, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Reed M. Perkins; Julia A. Jones

    2008-01-01

    Large floods are often attributed to the melting of snow during a rain event. This study tested how climate variability, snowpack presence, and basin physiography were related to storm hydrograph shape in three small (2) basins with old-growth forest in western Oregon. Relationships between hydrograph characteristics and precipitation...

  13. Oregon Model Center--Learning Disabilities: Final Report on Products and Activities, 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkin, Abigail B.

    Presented are evaluations of eight 1973-75 objectives of the Oregon Model Center for children with learning disabilities. The center was developed to facilitate expansion of the Educational Evaluation Center, a diagnostic-prescriptive center at Oregon College of Education. Among objectives evaluated are: studying the process of the Education…

  14. Hydrologic Controls on In-Stream Optical Dissolved Organic Matter Characteristics in an Old-Growth Forest of the Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajtha, K.; Lee, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a critical component of the carbon cycle linking terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, yet DOM composition representative of DOM sources at headwater catchments in the western U.S is poorly understood. This study examined the effect of forest management history and hydrologic patterns on DOM chemistry at nine experimental watersheds located in the H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research Experimental Forest of the Oregon Cascades. Stream water samples representing a three-week composite of each watershed were collected between May 2013 and February 2015 (32 events). DOM chemistry was characterized by examining UV and fluorescent properties of stream samples. Specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254; Weishaar et al. 2003), generally indicative of aromaticity, showed the lowest value at the high elevation clear-cut site (watershed 6, 1,030 m) and the highest value at the low elevation clear-cut site (watershed 10, 680 m) throughout the study period. DOM fluorescent components, identified by this study using a multivariate statistical model, Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC), did not differ significantly among experimental watersheds with varying forest management history. However, a protein-like DOM component exhibited temporal variations. Correlation analysis between the protein-like DOM and hydrologic patterns indicate that stream water during dry seasons come from protein-rich groundwater sources. This study shows UV and fluorescent spectroscopy DOM characterization is a viable finger printing method to detect DOM sources in pristine headwater streams at the western Cascades of Oregon where characterization of the stream water source with low DOC and DON concentrations is difficult.

  15. Database for the Geologic Map of Upper Eocene to Holocene Volcanic and Related Rocks of the Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimz, Kathryn; Ramsey, David W.; Sherrod, David R.; Smith, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1979, Earth scientists of the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey have carried out multidisciplinary research in the Cascade Range. The goal of this research is to understand the geology, tectonics, and hydrology of the Cascades in order to characterize and quantify geothermal resource potential. A major goal of the program is compilation of a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanation. This map is one of three in a series that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of rock units distinguished by composition and age; map sheets of the Cascade Range in Washington (Smith, 1993) and California will complete the series. The complete series forms a guide to exploration and evaluation of the geothermal resources of the Cascade Range and will be useful for studies of volcano hazards, volcanology, and tectonics. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic map published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2569 (Sherrod and Smith, 2000). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using ArcInfo GIS. This release also contains files to view or print the geologic map and accompanying descriptive pamphlet from I-2569.

  16. Final environmental impact statement, Coyote Springs Cogeneration Project, Morrow County, Oregon - appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Portland General Electric Company (PGE) has submitted an Application for Site Certification (ASC) to the Oregon Department of Energy for development of the Coyote Springs cogeneration power plant in the Port of Morrow, Oregon. This document includes the appendixes for the Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix topics include the following: A-Wildlife and vegetation surveys; B-EMF Supplement; C-Biological Assessment; D-Oregon DOE proposed order, in the matter of the Application for Site Certificate of Portland General Electric Company; E-Ecological Monitoring Program; F-Air contaminant Discharge permit; G-National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Storm Water Discharge Permit; H-Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan.

  17. Apparent predation by Gray Jays, Perisoreus canadensis, on Long-toed Salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in the Oregon Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, M.P.; Pearl, C.A.; Bury, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    We report observations of Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) appearing to consume larval Long-toed Salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in a drying subalpine pond in Oregon, USA. Corvids are known to prey upon a variety of anuran amphibians, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of predation by any corvid on aquatic salamanders. Long-toed Salamanders appear palatable to Gray Jays, and may provide a food resource to Gray Jays when salamander larvae are concentrated in drying temporary ponds.

  18. Volatile contents of mafic magmas from cinder cones in the Central Oregon High Cascades: Implications for magma formation and mantle conditions in a hot arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscitto, D. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Johnson, E. R.; Kent, A. J. R.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2010-09-01

    The Cascades arc is a warm-slab subduction zone characterized by the slow (3.5 cm/a) subduction of young (< 10 Ma) oceanic crust. Elevated slab temperatures likely result in shallow dehydration beneath the forearc and reduced slab fluid addition to the mantle wedge beneath the volcanic front. Resulting calc-alkaline magmas should contain low volatile abundances relative to arcs with cooler subducting slabs. We test this hypothesis in Central Oregon, the region of the arc that has experienced the highest mafic output over the last 2 Ma. Naturally quenched basalt and basaltic andesite melt inclusions from tephra erupted from monogenetic vents record pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents. After accounting for the effects of degassing, our data show that initial volatile contents from seven calc-alkaline cinder cones range from 1.7 to 3.6 wt.% H 2O, 1200-2100 ppm S and 500-1200 ppm Cl. Ratios reflecting volatiles recycled from the subducted slab (H 2O/Ce ~ 490-1700; S/Nb ~ 110-310; and Cl/Nb ~ 37-190) are elevated above MORB values but are low compared to those from the southern Cascades (Mount Shasta) and other arcs (Mexico, Central America, and Kamchatka). Positive correlations between H 2O, Pb/Ce and Ba/Zr suggest that small additions of a slab-derived component to the mantle wedge are responsible for observed volatile contents. Melt inclusion compositions are evolved (Fo 82-84 host olivines, 5.0-7.2 wt.% MgO) and fractionated from primitive parental magmas by ~ 16% crystallization of predominantly olivine before being trapped as inclusions. Calc-alkaline basaltic and Sr-rich basaltic melts can be generated by 9-11% partial melting of spinel lherzolite. H 2O-rich basaltic andesite melts are highly depleted in incompatible elements and are probably generated from a more depleted mantle source by 12-16% melting. Subarc mantle temperatures inferred from H 2O and trace elements are similar to or slightly warmer than temperatures in other arcs. Additionally

  19. U-series isotope systematics of mafic magmas from central Oregon: Implications for fluid involvement and melting processes in the Cascade arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Euan C.; Asmerom, Yemane

    2011-12-01

    The Cascade arc is the warm-slab subduction zone global end member, where a broad variety of primitive magmas with highly variable slab fluid signatures have erupted in close spatial and temporal proximity. A number of petrogenetic models have been proposed to explain the occurrence of such diverse magmas, but the source(s) of these magmas and the timing of fluid addition to the sub-arc mantle remain controversial. We present uranium-series isotope data ( 238U- 230Th- 226Ra) for eighteen mafic lavas from the Three Sisters region of the central Oregon Cascades, and for a further six lavas from the rear-arc Newberry Volcano. The majority of these samples have geochemical characteristics (e.g. Nb/Zr, Ba/Zr, 87Sr/ 86Sr) consistent with previously described calc-alkaline basalts from this region of the arc, and indicative of limited fluid involvement at some stage in their genesis. Trace element and long-lived radiogenic isotope modeling suggests that this fluid was derived from dehydration of subducting sediments, and was added to an enriched, garnet-bearing mantle wedge source. The trace element systematics of the lavas are consistent with small degree (< 10%) melts of this fluid-modified source. All samples display ( 230Th/ 238U) and ( 226Ra/ 230Th) ≥ 1, similar to values measured in fresh MORB and other parts of the arc. Results of a dynamic melting model support the interpretation that these lavas are small degree melts of an asthenospheric source, and do not allow for a lithospheric mantle source. However, the U-series data do not permit us to determine whether fluid addition was the trigger for melting, or whether the lavas were generated from a secular equilibrium source that had experienced fluid addition > 350 ka prior to melting. Regardless, modern fluid input is limited and melting is dominantly occurring in response to upwelling and decompression.

  20. A Follow-Up Study of the Oregon Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Janet; And Others

    In 1973 the Children's Services Division (Oregon State) initiated a project to reduce the backlog of children in indeterminate status by developing more Permanent alternative placements. This follow-up study evaluates the placements of foster children who returned to their parents, were adopted, or remained in foster care. A literature review…

  1. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  2. THE OREGON EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROJECT, 1959 TO 1963. EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROJECT, FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHEPHERD, JOHN R.

    THE FOUR MAJOR EFFORTS OF THE OREGON EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROJECT WERE SUMMARIZED. THE REPORT (1) RECOUNTED THE HISTORY OF THE RESEARCH EFFORT, (2) SUMMARIZED THE SECONDARY SCHOLARLY PRODUCTS OF THE PROJECT, (3) ABSTRACTED RELATED PRELIMINARY REPORTS, AND (4) PROVIDED GENERALIZATIONS BASED ON DATA COLLECTED DURING THE COURSE OF THE STUDY…

  3. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesen, T.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Cromack, K.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-term impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics within the forest floor (FF, Oe and Oa horizons) and the mineral soil (0-10 cm). Twelve of our stands burned approximately 150 years ago ('young'), and the other 12 burned approximately 550 years ago ('old'). Forest floor mean C and N pools were significantly greater in old stands than young stands (N pools: 1823 ?? 132 kg??ha-1 vs. 1450 ?? 98 kg??ha -1; C pools: 62 980 ?? 5403 kg??ha-1 vs. 49 032 ?? 2965 kg??ha-1, mean ?? SE) as a result of significant differences in FF mass. Forest floor C and N concentrations and C/N ratios did not differ by time since fire, yet potential N mineralization rates were significantly higher in FF of old sites. Old and young mineral soils did not differ significantly in pools, concentrations, C/N ratios, or cycling rates. Our results suggest that C and N are sequestered in FF of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests over long (???400 year) intervals, but that shorter fire return intervals may prevent that accumulation. ?? 2008 NRC.

  4. “Our vanishing glaciers”: One hundred years of glacier retreat in Three Sisters Area, Oregon Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In August 1910, thirty-nine members of the Mazamas Mountaineering Club ascended the peaks of the Three Sisters in central Oregon. While climbing, geologist Ira A. Williams photographed the surrounding scenery, including images of Collier Glacier. One hundred years later, U.S. Geological Survey research hydrologist Jim E. O’Connor matched those documented photographs with present day images — the result of which is a stunning lapse of glacial change in the Three Sister region. O’Connor asserts that “glaciers exist by the grace of climate,” and through a close examination of the history of the region’s glaciers, he provides an intriguing glimpse into the history of geological surveys and glacial studies in the Pacific Northwest, including their connection to significant scientific advances of the nineteenth century. The work of scientists and mountaineers who have monitored and recorded glacier changes for over a century allows us to see dramatic changes in a landscape that is especially sensitive to ongoing climate change.

  5. Oregon Forests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This 39 by 47 km ASTER sub-scene was acquired on May 20, 2000 and shows an area along the west side of the Cascade Range in west central Oregon. Bands 4, 3, and 2 were combined as red, green, and blue. In this composite, snow appears blue, forests are green, and clear-cut areas are orange-pink. The magnitude of logging operations is quite obvious, appearing as a checker board pattern. The image is centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11165

  6. Future snow? A spatial-probabilistic assessment of the extraordinarily low snowpacks of 2014 and 2015 in the Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproles, Eric A.; Roth, Travis R.; Nolin, Anne W.

    2017-02-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, USA, the extraordinarily low snowpacks of winters 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 stressed regional water resources and the social-environmental system. We introduce two new approaches to better understand how seasonal snow water storage during these two winters would compare to snow water storage under warmer climate conditions. The first approach calculates a spatial-probabilistic metric representing the likelihood that the snow water storage of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 would occur under +2 °C perturbed climate conditions. We computed snow water storage (basin-wide and across elevations) and the ratio of snow water equivalent to cumulative precipitation (across elevations) for the McKenzie River basin (3041 km2), a major tributary to the Willamette River in Oregon, USA. We applied these computations to calculate the occurrence probability for similarly low snow water storage under climate warming. Results suggest that, relative to +2 °C conditions, basin-wide snow water storage during winter 2013-2014 would be above average, while that of winter 2014-2015 would be far below average. Snow water storage on 1 April corresponds to a 42 % (2013-2014) and 92 % (2014-2015) probability of being met or exceeded in any given year. The second approach introduces the concept of snow analogs to improve the anticipatory capacity of climate change impacts on snow-derived water resources. The use of a spatial-probabilistic approach and snow analogs provide new methods of assessing basin-wide snow water storage in a non-stationary climate and are readily applicable in other snow-dominated watersheds.

  7. Late Quaternary slip rate and seismic hazards of the West Klamath Lake fault zone near Crater Lake, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Crater Lake caldera is at the north end of the Klamath graben, where this N10??W-trending major Basin and Range structure impinges upon the north-south-trending High Cascades volcanic arc. East-facing normal faults, typically 10-15 km long, form the West Klamath Lake fault zone, which bounds the graben on its west side. The fault zone terminates on the south near the epicentral area of the September 1993 Klamath Falls earthquakes. It continues north past Crater Lake as the Annie Spring fault, which is within ~1 km of the west caldera rim, and Red Cone Spring fault. We have determined a long-term vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr for these two faults using high-precision K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age measurements on offset lava flows ranging in age from ca. 35 to 300 ka. Holocene offset reported by Hawkins et al. and epicenters of eight MW 2 earthquakes in 1994 and 1995 indicate that the West Klamath Lake fautl zone is active. Empirical relations between earthquake magnitudes and scarp heights or fault lengths suggest that the fault zone is capable of producing earthquakes as large as MW 7 1/4 . Earthquakes on these or other faults of the zone could trigger landslides and rockfalls from the walls of the caldera, possibly resulting in large waves on Crater Lake.

  8. Quaternary volcanics from the Broken Top volcano area, Oregon High Cascades: Varied low pressure processes in calc-alkaline magma chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, J.R. . Div. of Science and Math)

    1992-01-01

    Broken Top (BT) is a Quaternary composite volcano in the central Oregon High Cascades. Volcanics in the vicinity of BT range from basalt to rhyodacite with a paucity of andesite. Most pre- and syn-BT lavas were generated through low pressure crystal fractionation (CF) in small, short-lived chambers. Mixing superimposed on CF generally involved magmas with minimal compositional differences. Lavas erupted from BT are dominantly phenocryst-rich bas. andesite which exhibits evidence for a mixing origin. Whole-rock and phenocryst compositions suggest mixing between basalt and andesite. The andesite can be explained by low pressure CF of the basalt. Latest BT activity consisted of bas. andesite, dacite, and rhyodacite lavas which were generated through CF. During BT activity, andesite was produced by CF during rapid sidewall crystallization and ponded at the top of the chamber. Mixing most likely took place during eruptive events, but evidence for a persistent presence of mixed (hybrid) magma in the chamber suggests incomplete evacuation of mixed magma. With time, the andesite layer became less significant due to decreasing rates of sidewall crystallization and/or frequent eruption/replenishment, more widespread crystal settling resulted in eruption of CF-generated bas. andesite and low-Si dacite. Rapid crystallization of dacitic magma followed by buoyant segregation yielded rhyodacite. These processes operating during the latest stages of the BT activity were likely similar to those operating in the short-lived chambers. Paucity of CF-generated andesite is explained by: (1) low density crust which retards andesite ascent, and (2) rapid crystallization over the dacite range. While significant amounts of andesite were produced in the longer-lived BT system, it rarely erupted unmixed.

  9. Interpretation of the provenance of small-scale heterogeneity as documented in a single eruptive unit from Mt. Jefferson, Central Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustunisik, Gokce; Loewen, Matthew W.; Nielsen, Roger L.; Tepley, Frank J.

    2016-08-01

    Mt. Jefferson is a large composite volcano located in the central Oregon Cascades that has erupted a diverse compositional suite of lavas from basalt to rhyodacite (50-72 wt. % SiO2). Individual eruptive units contain multiple populations of plagioclase, and a variety of mafic textural/mineralogical components often preserved as large centimeter to millimeter-sized enclaves. Understanding the processes active in any volcanic center requires that we document the products of those processes. In this contribution, we documented the small-scale compositional diversity within a single eruptive unit at Mt. Jefferson, the Whitewater Creek andesite, in order to answer three questions: (1) what are the characteristics and scale of diversity in a single eruptive unit, (2) what is the provenance of the observed components, and (3) how does that observed small-scale diversity relate to the larger-scale diversity observed between other flows at Mt. Jefferson. Our analyses are based on major, trace element concentrations for phenocrysts, and melt inclusions from a single eruptive unit, the Whitewater Creek andesite which is one of the most heterogeneous units erupted at Mt. Jefferson. We have identified at least four distinct components present at the centimeter scale. These components, identified on the basis of their mineralogy and composition, include three mafic (two pyroxene + plagioclase; plagioclase-hornblende, and olivine-orthopyroxene) and one silicic component (dacitic groundmass). To understand the relationship between the observed textural components and the magma types erupted at Mt Jefferson, equilibrium liquid compositions were calculated from the phenocryst compositions. The range exhibited by those calculated liquids covers much of the entire range represented by the lavas at Mt. Jefferson. However, it is difficult to directly connect them to specific magma types observed at Mt. Jefferson. We attribute our inability to directly link the textural components to

  10. Record of late Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation in the southern Cascade Range. I. Petrological evidence from lacustrine sediment in Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.L.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Rapp, J.; Kerwin, M.W.; Bradbury, J.P.; Colman, S.; Adam, D.

    2004-01-01

    Petrological and textural properties of lacustrine sediments from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, reflect changing input volumes of glacial flour and thus reveal a detailed glacial history for the southern Cascade Range between about 37 and 15 ka. Magnetic properties vary as a result of mixing different amounts of the highly magnetic, glacially generated detritus with less magnetic, more weathered detritus derived from unglaciated parts of the large catchment. Evidence that the magnetic properties record glacial flour input is based mainly on the strong correlation between bulk sediment particle size and parameters that measure the magnetite content and magnetic mineral freshness. High magnetization corresponds to relatively fine particle size and lower magnetization to coarser particle size. This relation is not found in the Buck Lake core in a nearby, unglaciated catchment. Angular silt-sized volcanic rock fragments containing unaltered magnetite dominate the magnetic fraction in the late Pleistocene sediments but are absent in younger, low magnetization sediments. The finer grained, highly magnetic sediments contain high proportions of planktic diatoms indicative of cold, oligotrophic limnic conditions. Sediment with lower magnetite content contains populations of diatoms indicative of warmer, eutrophic limnic conditions. During the latter part of oxygen isotope stage 3 (about 37-25 ka), the magnetic properties record millennial-scale variations in glacial-flour content. The input of glacial flour was uniformly high during the Last Glacial Maximum, between about 21 and 16 ka. At about 16 ka, magnetite input, both absolute and relative to hematite, decreased abruptly, reflecting a rapid decline in glacially derived detritus. The decrease in magnetite transport into the lake preceded declines in pollen from both grass and sagebrush. A more gradual decrease in heavy mineral content over this interval records sediment starvation with the growth of marshes at the margins

  11. Diel fluctuations in summer streamflow depend on stream channel sediment storage and valley-floor vegetation in the forested western Cascades of Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, E. J.; Gustafson, N.; Nelson, M. B.; Ramirez, J. M.; Rodriguez-Cardona, B. M.; Shughrue, C. M.; Jones, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    During summer lowflow conditions, the zone of influence of evapotranspiration (ET) on streamflow is expected to be restricted to a small portion of a watershed, but the nature of the effective contributing area during lowflows is debated. We tested alternative hypotheses about the effective contributing area of ET-induced diel fluctuations in stream discharge based on high-resolution streamflow records since 2000 from eight small, forested watersheds at the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the Western Cascades of Oregon. Using field observations, satellite data, and a mathematical model, we tested the hypothesis that valley floor sediment storage influences the magnitude of diel fluctuations by controlling the area of potential connectivity between shallow groundwater (hyporheic flow) and surface flow. Correlations between minimum stream discharge and maximum air temperature were highest during early summer and wet years in WS1, which has a wide valley floor and high sediment storage. Field surveys and capacitance rod data in WS1 (young forest, alluvial reaches) and WS2 (old growth forest, bedrock reaches) revealed that diel fluctuations in local water tables were synchronized throughout the watersheds, and fluctuations were larger in vegetated alluvial reaches (1 to 2 cm) than in bedrock reaches, which lacked trees (<0.5 cm). Stream channels and tree heights delineated on LiDAR data were combined with published allometric relationships and sapflow data to estimate total transpiration from trees growing only in alluvial reaches; this could account for daily ET estimated from whole-watershed discharge records. Analytical solutions of a simple mathematical model describing the outflow from stream banks as a function of sapflow and hydraulic conductivity indicated that daily maximum and minimum sapflow could produce the fluctuations observed in water table heights in alluvial reaches of the stream channel.

  12. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  13. Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in

  14. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey Coos Bay, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    During the months of August, September, and October of 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over ten (10) areas over northern California and southwestern Oregon. These include the 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles of Roseburg, Medford, Weed, Alturas, Redding, Susanville, Ukiah, and Chico along with the 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ areas of the Coos Bay quadrangle and the Crescent City/Eureka areas combined. This report discusses the results obtained over the Coos Bay, Oregon, map area. Line spacing was generally six miles for east/west traverses and eighteen miles for north/south tie lines over the northern one-half of the area. Traverses and tie lines were flown at three miles and twelve miles respectively over the southern one-half of the area. A total of 16,880.5 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 863.8 line miles are in this quadrangle.

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Medford Quadrangle Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over ten (10) areas over northern California and southwestern Oregon. These include the 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles of Roseburg, Medford, Weed, Alturas, Redding, Susanville, Ukiah, and Chico along with the 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ areas of the Coos Bay quadrangle and the Crescent City/Eureka areas combined. This report discusses the results obtained over the Medford, Oregon, map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of three miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twelve miles apart. A total of 16,880.5 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 2925 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

  16. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Roseburg Quadrangle, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over ten (10) areas over northern California and southwestern Oregon. These include the 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles of Roseburg, Medford, Weed, Alturas, Redding, Susanville, Ukiah, and Chico along with the 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ areas of the Coos Bay quadrangle and the Crescent City/Eureka areas combined. This report discusses the results obtained over the Roseburg, Oregon, map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately eighteen (18) miles apart. A total of 16,880.5 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1596 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

  17. New Lepidoptera records for the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    David G. Grimble; Roy C. Beckwith; Paul C. Hammond

    1993-01-01

    Black-light trap collections in mixed-coniferous forests in eastern Oregon resulted in the identification of one Arctiidae, six Noctuidae, and one Geometridae species not previously known to occur in Oregon. The ranges of 18 other species of Noctuidae, known previously in Oregon from only the Cascade and Coast Ranges, were extended to northeastern Oregon.

  18. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.

    2006-01-01

    basaltic magma intruding the upper crust along the brittle–ductile interface — a process that must occur episodically beneath the Cascade Range but in the past would have escaped detection in the absence of unusual seismicity. We speculate that such intrusive episodes last from days to years and are separated by quiescent periods of decades to centuries. The likelihood that the current episode at Three Sisters will culminate in an eruption is judged to be low, but the impact of an eruption could be great. The USGS has updated its volcano hazards assessment for the Three Sisters region, notified appropriate agencies and the public, and is helping to prepare an emergency coordination and communication plan.

  19. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.

    2006-02-01

    intruding the upper crust along the brittle-ductile interface — a process that must occur episodically beneath the Cascade Range but in the past would have escaped detection in the absence of unusual seismicity. We speculate that such intrusive episodes last from days to years and are separated by quiescent periods of decades to centuries. The likelihood that the current episode at Three Sisters will culminate in an eruption is judged to be low, but the impact of an eruption could be great. The USGS has updated its volcano hazards assessment for the Three Sisters region, notified appropriate agencies and the public, and is helping to prepare an emergency coordination and communication plan.

  20. Microbial transformations in Alkali Lake, Oregon. Final report, 1 Aug 88-31 Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    An examination was made of the terminal metabolic processes in subsurface sediments near West Alkali Lake, Oregon, by performing microbial counts of methanogenic bacteria and isolating the predominant methanogenic culture. This methanogen was characterized and found to be physiologically and phylogenetically different from other described strains, so it represents a previously undescribed species of bacterium, which was named 'Methanohalophilus oregonensis'. In contrast to published descriptions of many other methanogens which have been isolated from hypersaline environments, this one is halotolerant rather than halophilic. Another important characteristic of this organism is that it is capable of catabolizing dimethylsulfide or methanethiol. This ability is important because these methylated sulfur compounds are major conduits by which sulfur moves between the atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Phylogenetic comparisons to known methanogens showed that this strain is closely related to another methanogen, 'Methanolobus siciliae' T4/M which was named but not described.

  1. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at south end of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  2. Detail perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking east at south end of building - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  3. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at north end of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  4. Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at south end of building - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  5. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at center of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  6. 75 FR 3640 - Maupin, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Maupin, Oregon AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Company, requesting the allotment of Channel 244C2 at Maupin, Oregon, as its first local service. A staff.... 73.202 0 2. Section 73.202(b), the Table of FM Allotments under Oregon, is amended by adding...

  7. Field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier. Final report for the Oregon Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsongas, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not wall insulation installed without a vapor barrier causes an increased risk of moisture damage (wood decay) within walls. This report describes the results of one of the first major studies in the country aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. The exterior walls of a total of 96 homes in Portland, Oregon were opened, of which 70 had retrofitted insulation and 26 were uninsulated and were a control group. The types of insulation included urea-formaldehyde foam (44), mineral wool (16), and cellulose (10). In each opened wall cavity the moisture content of wood was measured and insulation and wood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of moisture content and for the determination of the presence of absence of decay fungi. Foam shrinkage was also measured. To evaluate the possible influence of the relative air tightness of the homes, fan depressurization tests were run using a door blower unit. The field and laboratory test results indicating the lack of a moisture damage problem in existing homes with wood siding in climates similar to that of western Oregon are described along with results of a statistical analysis of the data. Related problems of interest to homeowners and insulation installers are noted. The standard operating procedures used throughout the study are discussed, including the home selection process, quantitative and qualitative techniques used to identify wall locations with the highest moisture content, wall opening and data/sample collection methodology, laboratory analysis of samples, data processing and analysis, and applicability of the results. Recommendations for furutre tests are made. Finally, the potential and desirability for future retrofitting of wall insulation is explored.

  8. Oregon Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 39 by 47 km ASTER sub-scene was acquired on May 20, 2000 and shows an area along the west side of the Cascade Range in west central Oregon. Bands 4, 3, and 2 were combined as red, green, and blue. In this composite, snow appears blue, forests are green, and clear-cut areas are orange-pink. The magnitude of logging operations is quite obvious, appearing as a checker board pattern. The image is centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Deep seismic survey extending from Western Washington to Mist Gas Field, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, D.D.

    1992-10-01

    Between October 1988 and September 1990, approximately 217 kilometers of vibroseis seismic reflection data was collected in Washington State. In particular, the profiles were placed to image a body of low resistivity rocks postulated to be marine sediments which were delineated by Stanley using magnetotelluric methods. The low resistivity rocks are known as the Southwestern Washington Cascade Conductor (SWCC). The profile data was processed using standard reflection seismic methods and also state-of-the-art data enhancing and 3-D reconstruction methods. Along with the reflection data, several dynamite refraction profiles and 3 component data were collected. The reflection and refraction data has been interpreted by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and the University of West Virginia. Results of the Lawrence Berkeley and University of West Virginia work are presented in a separate reports. This report summarizes the data acquisition and processing portions of the project.

  10. The Utilization of the Oregon Department of Education Materials by Vocational Teachers in Linn, Benton and Lincoln Counties. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofts, Ada

    Secondary vocational instructors, community college instructors, and career directors in three Oregon counties were interviewed to assess usage of occupational cluster guides, individualized instruction packages, and other curriculum materials developed by the Oregon Department of Education (ODE). Focus was on level and depth of usage, deterrents…

  11. Piloting the Oregon A.I.M. Project: Measuring Progress for Program Evaluation and Accountability. Final Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Pittsburgh Literacy Council, PA.

    A pilot project was conducted to implement the Oregon A.I.M. (Assessment, Instruction, Mastery), a tutor program accountability system developed in Oregon, in 15 volunteer-based programs in Pennsylvania and to make recommendations on the usefulness of this system as a means of collecting and aggregating data on student progress for these and…

  12. Record of middle Pleistocene climate change from Buck Lake, Cascade Range, southern Oregon - Evidence from sediment magnetism, trace-element geochemistry, and pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.; Adam, D.P.; Drexler, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Whitney, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of systematic variations in sediment magnetic properties to changes in pollen assemblages in middle Pleistocene lake sediments from Buck Lake indicates that the magnetic properties are sensitive to changes in climate. Buck Lake is located in southern Oregon just east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Lacustrine sediments, from 5.2 to 19.4 m in depth in core, contain tephra layers with ages of ???300-400 ka at 9.5 m and ???400-470 ka at 19.9 m. In these sediments magnetic properties reflect the absolute amount and relative abundances of detrital Fe-oxide minerals, titanomagnetite and hematite. The lacustrine section is divided into four zones on the basis of magnetic properties. Two zones (19.4-17.4 m and 14.5-10.3 m) of high magnetic susceptibility contain abundant Fe oxides and correspond closely to pollen zones that are indicative of cold, dry environments. Two low-susceptibility zones (17.4-14.5 m and 10.3-5.3 m) contain lesser amounts of Fe oxides and largely coincide with zones of warm-climate pollen. Transitions from cold to warm climate based on pollen are preceded by sharp changes in magnetic properties. This relation suggests that land-surface processes responded to these climate changes more rapidly than did changes in vegetation as indicated by pollen frequencies. Magnetic properties have been affected by three factors: (1) dissolution of Fe oxides, (2) variation in heavy-mineral content, and (3) variation in abundance of fresh volcanic rock fragments. Trace-element geochemistry, employing Fe and the immobile elements Ti and Zr, is utilized to detect postdepositional dissolution of magnetic minerals that has affected the magnitude of magnetic properties with little effect on the pattern of magnetic-property variation. Comparison of Ti and Zr values, proxies for heavy-mineral content, to magnetic properties demonstrates that part of the variation in the amount of magnetite and nearly all of the variation in the amount of hematite are due to

  13. Fish Passage Improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon, Final Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1985-05-01

    This report contains the results and conclusions from the biological assessment and outlines several alternative plans for solving fish passage problems at the dam. A recommended plan, based on consensus of the fisheries agencies and the tribes, is described, and the rationale for that decision is discussed. Data needs for final designs, a tentative construction schedule, and a discussion of operation and maintenance needs are presented.

  14. Soil disturbance and 10-year growth response of coast Douglas-fir on nontilled and tilled skid trails in the Oregon Cascades.

    Treesearch

    Ronald Heninger; William Scott; Alex Dobkowski; Richard Miller; Harry Anderson; Steve. Duke

    2002-01-01

    We (i) quantified effects of skidder yarding on soil properties and seedling growth in a portion of western Oregon, (ii) determined if tilling skid trails improved tree growth, and (iii) compared results with those from an earlier investigation in coastal Washington. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were hand planted at...

  15. Forest statistics for eastern Oregon, 1977.

    Treesearch

    Thomas O. Farrenkopf

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1977 inventory of timber resources in 17 Oregon counties east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Detailed data on forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  16. Columbia Plateau Basin and Fifteenmile Subbasin Water Rights Acquisitons; Oregon Water Trust Combined Work Plan, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Fritz

    2003-12-01

    This is the Final Report submitted regarding Oregon Water Trust's Combined Work Plan for fiscal year 2003, with the contract period April 2002 to May 2003. Of this 12 month period, six month were spent concluding our work for the 2002 irrigation season and six months were spent preparing for the 2003 irrigation season. After this grant was completed, projects were finished with funding from the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program. Many of the 2003 irrigation season successes began in the fall of 2002, when projects were researched and partnerships were developed. Trout Creek Ranch was one of the large successes. During the 2003 irrigation season, 2.6 cfs was leased which led to a permanent instream transfer, protecting critical spawning habitat for summer steelhead in the Deschutes basin. Another success was the Walla Walla Lease Bank project. This project is an agreement between the OWT, the Walla Walla Irrigation District and 11 individual landowners. Through this single year lease, 7.9 cfs of water was legally protected in the Walla Walla River. The Vidando lease on Middle Fork John Day River was renewed for 2 more years, protecting 11.29 cfs. An innovative single year split-season lease was conducted with Voight on Standard Creek in the John Day basin to protect 4.93 cfs. Many other deals were conducted and the total was an impressive 50.43 cfs instream during 2003 and 9.39 cfs pending approval for the 2004 season. Included is a summary of the activities within the Fifteenmile subbasin and the Columbia Plateau basin by quarter and two tables. The summary of activities is broken down by objectives and quarters. The first summarizes the total cfs by type of lease or transfer. The second table lists all the projects by subbasin and provides project type, lease number, cfs, cost of acquisition, partners in the project and funding source.

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  18. MOUNT WASHINGTON WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Edward M.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, Mount Washington Wilderness, Oregon has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. Abundant cinder resources occur in the wilderness, but other large volume cinder deposits are available outside the wilderness and closer to markets. Analysis of the geothermal potential of the High Cascades province cannot be made without data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes which can only be provided by deep drill holes. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas outside the wildernesses of the High Cascades, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the wildernesses could be made.

  19. Bipolar hvdc transmission system study: development of controlled cascade rectifier for insulator testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beausejour, Y.; Rizk, F.A.M.

    1980-08-01

    This project constitutes a continuation of EPRI project 430-1 covering the power supply for insulator pollution testing. The aims of this project are to determine the circuit elements of a controlled cascade rectifier source to perform pollution tests; the effect of the voltage drop and the short-circuit current on the 50% flashover voltage; the reduction of the 50% flashover voltage with increasing pollution severity on insulators; the effect of the dc resistance R/sub dc/ on the 50% flashover voltage; and to study the leakage current behavior during artificial-pollution tests. The circuit elements of a controlled cascade rectifier source were determined on a model circuit and the results were generalized with a computer program. The proper operation of the circuit was verified with a full-scale circuit at 100 kV. The circuit elements of this controlled source were optimized with respect to the estimated total cost of the power supply. Among the major conclusions of the study are the following: a controlled cascade rectifier connected in a voltage doubler arrangement is an adequate power supply for testing insulators under heavy pollution; and the specifications of the hvdc power supply sufficient to determine the 50% flashover voltage of heavily contaminated insulators (ESDD = 0.5 mg/cm/sup 2/) within an accuracy of 5% may be expressed as the power supply should have a voltage drop of less than 5% at the highest current of 2 A, and the short-circuit current at the output of the hvdc source should be higher than 10 A. This refers to the quasi-stationary short-circuit current subsequent to the transient discharge of the smoothing capacitor.

  20. 'Cascade Gold' raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cascade Gold’ is a new gold fruited, floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). It has been evaluated at Puyallup, Wash. in plantings from 1988 to 2008. ...

  1. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for standoff explosives detection : LDRD 138733 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Lisa Anne; Linker, Kevin Lane

    2009-09-01

    Continued acts of terrorism using explosive materials throughout the world have led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially technologies that have a potential for remote or standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the benefit of the possible use of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff explosives detection equipment. Standoff detection of explosives is currently one of the most difficult problems facing the explosives detection community. Increased domestic and troop security could be achieved through the remote detection of explosives. An effective remote or standoff explosives detection capability would save lives and prevent losses of mission-critical resources by increasing the distance between the explosives and the intended targets and/or security forces. Many sectors of the US government are urgently attempting to obtain useful equipment to deploy to our troops currently serving in hostile environments. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff detection systems. This report documents the potential opportunities that Sandia National Laboratories can contribute to the field of QCL development. The following is a list of areas where SNL can contribute: (1) Determine optimal wavelengths for standoff explosives detection utilizing QCLs; (2) Optimize the photon collection and detection efficiency of a detection system for optical spectroscopy; (3) Develop QCLs with broader wavelength tunability (current technology is a 10% change in wavelength) while maintaining high efficiency; (4) Perform system engineering in the design of a complete detection system and not just the laser head; and (5) Perform real-world testing with explosive materials with commercial prototype detection systems.

  2. Preparing Oregon State University to Meet the Research Challenges of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Reese

    2008-10-08

    The OSU Radiation Center requested $100,000 under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership University Readiness program to provide for graduate student support, reactor equipment upgrades, and irradiation support. A portion of the funds requested were used to support the graduate education of a graduate student for a period of one year. The remaining funds were utilized to enhance the irradiation facilities of the Oregon State TRIGA® Reactor as well as to offset the costs of irradiations for initial investigations where grant funding is not available. The focus of this effort was to create an environment that would enhance facilities and equipment at Oregon State University which emphasize GNEP related themes, specifically material science analytical capabilities for the next generation of nuclear reactors. These enhancements included development of a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis analytical capability, digital reactor data logging, electronic dosimetry for researchers, replacement of sample grapples, and irradiation/analytical services.

  3. Predicting height increment of young-growth red fir in California and southern Oregon. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    An equation is given to estimate 10-year height increment for young-growth red fir trees in California and Southern Oregon. The independent variables are the individual tree, stand, and site characteristics significantly related to a tree's height growth. Data used to develop the equation came from stem analysis of 492 trees sampled from 56 stands in the study area. Parameter estimates for the predictive equation were obtained using least-squares linear regression.

  4. Seeking the northern boundary of the Cascade strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fragaria cascadensis K.E. Hummer, an endemic decaploid strawberry species, was described from the Oregon Cascade Mountains in the Pacific North-western United States. Its range occurs near Mt. Hood, the highest peak in the northern Oregon Cascades, in a band of higher elevation sites southwards to n...

  5. An investigation into the utilization of HCMM thermal data for the descrimination of volcanic and Eolian geological units. [Craters of the Moon volcanic field, Idaho; San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona; High Desert, California; and the Cascade Range, California and Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of HCMM data shows that the resolution provided by the thermal data is inadequate to permit the identification of individual lava flows within the volcanic test sites. Thermal data of southern California reveals that dune complexes at Kelso and Algodomes are found to be too small to permit adequate investigation of their structure. As part of the study of the San Francisco volcanic field, marked variations in the thermal properties of the region between Flagstaff and the Utah State border were observed. Several well-defined units within the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateau were recognized and appear to be very suitable for analysis with HCMM, SEASAT and LANDSAT images. Although individual volcanic constructs within the Cascade Range are too small to permit detailed characterization with the thermal data, the regional volcano/tectonic setting offers a good opportunity for comparing the possible thermal distinction between this area and sedimentary fold belts such as those found in the eastern United States. Strong intra-regional variations in vegetation cover were also tentatively identified for the Oregon test site.

  6. THREE SISTERS WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacLeod, Norman S.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon indicated little promise for the occcurrence of metallic mineral resources. Block pumice suitable for commercial uses occurs at an undeveloped claim at Rock Mesa in the wilderness, but numerous other sources occur outside the wilderness closer to markets. A broad area centered around South Sister volcano is among the most favorable targets for geothermal resources in the Oregon Cascade Range, based on the very young age and large volume of silicic volcanic rocks that occur in this area. Deep exploration holes could be drilled in areas outside the wilderness south of South Sister to provide data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes in the southern part of the area most likely to contain geothermal resources.

  7. δ18O and δD of lake waters across the Coast Range and Cascades, central Oregon: Modern insights from hydrologically open lakes into the control of landscape on lake water composition in deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Curtin, T.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing the stable isotopic composition of paleolake water normally requires an assumption of paleotemperature. However, hydrologically open paleolakes with short water residence times may have recorded paleoprecipitation along topographic gradients that are independent of lake water temperature. To identify the environmental and geographic controls on the isotopic composition of lake water, we sampled 22 natural lakes and reservoirs along a longitudinal and elevation gradient from the Pacific Ocean up and over the Coast and Cascade Ranges of central Oregon to the High Lava Plains in 2013 and 2015. The transect spans lakes of different origins, 6 geomorphic regions and an elevation range of 2-1942 m absl. The Coast Range lakes are sand hosted whereas the remaining are bedrock (volcanic and sedimentary) hosted. The lakes are hydrologically open and dominated by meteoric recharge. The water residence time ranges from months to decades. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) in the field, and alkalinity and major cations and anions and stable isotopes of D and O in the lab. The pH ranges from 7 to 9.8 and shows no systematic variation based on substrate type or elevation. The lakes are dilute (avg. TDS = 35.8 ppm) and have low alkalinties (18.9 mg/L CaCO3) except for those in the High Lava Plains (avg. TDS = 337 ppm, alk: 291.2 mg/L CaCO3). In the Coast Range, Na is the major cation on an equivalent basis, reflecting proximity to the ocean. The easternmost lakes within the Coast Range are dominated by Ca, reflecting different drainage basins and substrate type. Lakes in the Western and High Cascades are dominated by Ca. The dominant cation and stable isotopic analyses clearly differentiate waters from different geomorphic regions. The δ18O ranges from -5.7 to -9.3 ‰ (VSMOW), and δD ranges from -37.8 to -63.6 ‰ (VSMOW) in the Coast Range whereas the δ18O ranges from -9.7 to -12.1 ‰ (VSMOW) and δD ranges from -71

  8. Oregon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke Plumes from the B&B Complex Fires, Oregon     View Larger Image ... of smoke originating from the B&B Complex Fires in central Oregon are captured in these September 4, 2003 views from the Multi-angle ...

  9. Cascades Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John

    2008-01-01

    Washington's Mount St. Helens volcano reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other volcanoes of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.

  10. Public health assessment for McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company (Portland), Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon, Region 10. Cerclis No. ORD009020603. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-13

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting site is located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. ATSDR considers the site to have been a public health hazard for former plant workers because of past ingestion exposure to arsenic, creosote, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans at levels of public health concern. The site also poses an ongoing and future public health hazard because people might encounter hazardous chemicals along the shoreline on or near the site at levels that can damage the skin, as was reported to have happened to two boys. Finally, dioxin levels would pose a public health hazard if people subsist on crayfish and suckers contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  11. Cascade Harvest’ red raspberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...

  12. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1957.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1957-01-01

    Severity of 1957 fire weather west of the Cascade Range summit in Oregon and Washington was near the average of the previous 10 years. The season (April 1 through October 31) was slightly more severe than 1956 in western Oregon and about the same as 1956 in western Washington. Spring fire weather was near average severity in both western Washington and western Oregon....

  13. Seasonal species composition of invertebrates in several Oregon streams.

    Treesearch

    Pamela E. Porter; William R. Meehan

    1987-01-01

    The invertebrate communities ofeight Oregon streams were sampled seasonally from 1974 to 1976. Benthic, drift, and two types of aerial-trap samples were collected. Occurrence and percentage composition are summarized by sample type, season, and geographic area (coastal, Cascade, central, and eastern Oregon). Within 276 families, 426 taxa were identified; the 20...

  14. An Ongoing Episode of Magmatic Inflation at the Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range: Inferences from Recent Geodetic and Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, D.; Lisowski, M.; Moran, S. C.; Wicks, C. W.; Poland, M. P.; Endo, E. T.

    2004-12-01

    repeatedly beneath the Cascade Range but in the past would have escaped detection in the absence InSAR observations, unless accompanied by unusual seismicity. The likelihood that the current episode at Three Sisters will culminate in an eruption in the near term is judged to be low, but the impact of an eruption could be great. An updated volcano hazards assessment has been completed, concerned agencies and the public have been notified, and an emergency coordination and communication plan is being prepared.

  15. Fire history and landscape restoration in Douglas-fir ecosystems of western Oregon

    Treesearch

    J. E. Means; J. H. Cissel; F. J. Swanson

    1996-01-01

    For thousands of years fire has been a major, natural disturbance in the forest landscape from the Cascade Range westward to the coast in Oregon and Washington (Agee 1993; Brubaker 1991). Viewing the landscape of the central western Cascades in Oregon from a high point, one can see that fires of variable intensity and areal extent have created a complex mosaic of...

  16. Simulation of water available for runoff in clearcut forest openings during rain-on-snow events in the western Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Heeswijk, Marijke; Kimball, J.S.; Marks, Danny

    1996-01-01

    Rain-on-snow events are common on mountain slopes within the transient-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest. These events make more water available for runoff than does precipitation alone by melting the snowpack and by adding a small amount of condensate to the snowpack. In forest openings (such as those resulting from clearcut logging), the amount of snow that accumulates and the turbulent- energy input to the snowpack are greater than below forest stands. Both factors are believed to contribute to a greater amount of water available for runoff during rain-on-snow events in forest openings than forest stands. Because increased water available for runoff may lead to increased downstream flooding and erosion, knowledge of the amount of snowmelt that can occur during rain on snow and the processes that control snowmelt in forest openings is useful when making land-use decisions. Snow accumulation and melt were simulated for clearcut conditions only, using an enery- balance approach that accounts for the most important energy and mass exchanges between a snowpack and its environment. Meteorological measurements provided the input for the simulations. Snow accumulation and melt were not simulated in forest stands because interception of precipitation processes are too complex to simulate with a numerical model without making simplifying assumptions. Such a model, however, would need to be extensively tested against representative observations, which were not available for this study. Snowmelt simulated during three rain-on-snow events (measured in a previous study in a clearcut in the transient-snow zone of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon) demonstrated that melt generation is most sensitive to turbulent- energy exchanges between the air and the snowpack surface. As a result, the most important climate variable that controls snowmelt is wind speed. Air temperature, however, is a significant variable also. The wind speeds were light, with a maximum of 3

  17. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  18. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  19. LDRD final report on high power broadly tunable Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers for improved chemical species detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.; Fuller, Charles T.; Samora, Sally; Klem, John Frederick; Young, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of our project was to examine a novel quantum cascade laser design that should inherently increase the output power of the laser while simultaneously providing a broad tuning range. Such a laser source enables multiple chemical species identification with a single laser and/or very broad frequency coverage with a small number of different lasers, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based chemical detection systems. In our design concept, the discrete states in quantum cascade lasers are replaced by minibands made of multiple closely spaced electron levels. To facilitate the arduous task of designing miniband-to-miniband quantum cascade lasers, we developed a program that works in conjunction with our existing modeling software to completely automate the design process. Laser designs were grown, characterized, and iterated. The details of the automated design program and the measurement results are summarized in this report.

  20. Experimental Studies of the P-T-H2O Near-Liquidus Phase Relations of Basaltic Andesite From North Sister Volcano, High Oregon Cascades: Constraints on Lower-Crustal Mineral Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. N.; Johnston, A. D.

    2007-05-01

    North Sister Volcano, in the central Oregon High Cascades, is a large, mafic stratovolcano that has erupted a remarkably compositionally limited range of basaltic andesite (53-55 wt.% SiO2) for over 300 ka. Other workers have suggested that these "monotonous" lavas are generated by mantle melts that undergo deep crustal magmatic processes within "deep crustal hot zones" (DCHZ), where the parental melt composition is modified and buffered by reaction with lower-crustal rocks. However, the nature of the lower-arc crust is not well known and a better understanding of the pressure, temperature, composition, and water content of the lower-arc crust is necessary to help constrain these processes. The goal of our study is to elucidate the deep crustal lithology that is involved in the production of mafic arc magmas. We have used hydrous, high pressure experiments to provide P-T-H2O and compositional constraints on the possible lower-crustal mineral assemblages beneath North Sister Volcano. Inverse approach high pressure experiments were conducted using a basaltic andesite from North Sister Volcano, in order to map the water-undersaturated liquidus surface from 5-20 kbar, 1000-1350°C, and 0-15 wt.% H2O. These experiments identify permissible crustal mineral assemblages and compositions with which the North Sister basaltic andesites may have equilibrated in the deep crust before ascent as homogeneous magmas. The liquidus is saturated with plagioclase from 5-15 kbar and 0-5 wt.% H2O, augite from 10-20 kbar at all water contents, garnet above 18 kbar at all water contents, spinel from 5-10 kbar with 10-15 wt.% H2O, and amphibole from 10-20 kbar with 10-15 wt.% H2O. Combining our experimental results with examples of tectonically exposed lower arc crust, trace element geochemistry, geophysical constraints, and melt inclusion volatile contents, we have determined that a mafic granulite at ~12 kbar (~40 km) and 1175°C is the most probable lithology involved in deep crustal

  1. Experimental Studies of the P-T-H2O Near-Liquidus Phase Relations of Basaltic Andesite From North Sister Volcano, Central Oregon Cascades: Constraints on Mid- to Lower-Crustal Mineral Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. N.; Johnston, A. D.

    2005-12-01

    The lavas of North Sister Volcano in the central High Cascades of Oregon are distinctive because of their extremely limited range in compositional variation. They are basaltic andesites with about 53 wt.% SiO2, low incompatible element abundances, and gently negatively sloping REE patterns with La and Lu abundances of about 30X and 10X chondrites, respectively. These characteristics have led others to postulate that the uniformity of these lavas may result from a process whereby precursor lavas are ``buffered'' by reaction with mid- to lower-crustal rocks. The goal of our experiments was to constrain possible mineral assemblages that North Sister magmas may have equilibrated with within the crust beneath this continental arc volcano. Piston- cylinder experiments were run at 5, 10, 15, and 20 kbar with bulk water contents ranging from zero to 10 wt.% using Au75Pd25 capsules and CaF2} /MgO/graphite furnace assemblies. Bulk composition was maintained without need to presaturate the capsules with Fe. The liquidus under anhydrous conditions extends from about 1225°C at 5 kbar to 1355 °C at 20 kbar and is displaced down-temperature from this reference by about 100° and 125 °C respectively with 3 and 5 wt.% H2O. Under anhydrous conditions, plagioclase (An_ {~81) is the liquidus phase between 5 and 15 kbar but is replaced by an assemblage of augite plus garnet at 20 kbar. With 3 wt.% H2O, plagioclase persists on the liquidus to only 10 kbar, and is replaced by augite plus garnet at 15 kbar and garnet alone at 20 kbar. With 5 wt.% H2O, plagioclase is no longer a liquidus phase. Instead, we observe olivine + augite + hercynite-rich spinel at 5 kbar, augite alone between 10 and 15 kbar, and augite + garnet at 20 kbar. Although we have not yet run the series of experiments containing 10 wt.% H2O, we expect amphibole will join the near- liquidus assemblages at low to moderate pressure. Trace element calculations aimed at distinguishing between these possible ``buffering

  2. 1972 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1973-01-01

    The 1972 Oregon timber harvest of 9.6 billion board feet was 602 million board feet (6.7 percent) above the 1971 harvest. Western Oregon's harvest rose 8 percent and eastern Oregon's harvest rose 2 percent.

  3. 77 FR 62442 - Safety Zone; Oregon City Bridge Grand Opening Fireworks Display; Willamette River, Oregon City, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Oregon City Bridge Grand Opening Fireworks Display; Willamette River, Oregon City, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone on the Willamette River between the Oregon City...

  4. Chapter 32: Distribution and Population Estimates of Marbled Murrelets at Sea in Oregon During the Summers of 1992 and 1993

    Treesearch

    Craig S. Strong; Bradford S. Keitt; William R. McIver; Clifford J. Palmer; Ian Gaffney

    1995-01-01

    We used standardized transect techniques to count Marbled Murrelets and other seabird species at sea from a boat and from a low-flying light aircraft along the length of the Oregon coast. The focus of effort was on vessel surveys of the central Oregon coast. In both years, Marbled Murrelets were most abundant in central Oregon, between Cascade Head and Cape Arago. They...

  5. Workforce: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet states that in 2006, a good education is no longer just a way for an individual to get ahead. It is also the best way a state can get ahead -- and therefore a real economic priority. A state must ensure that all of its citizens have access to a college education. In Oregon, a state recovering from the 2000-03 recession, the demand…

  6. 4-wave mixing for phase-matching free nonlinear optics in quantum cascade structures : LDRD 08-0346 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, Dan G.; Yang, Zhenshan; Waldmueller, Ines

    2010-10-01

    Optical nonlinearities and quantum coherences have the potential to enable efficient, high-temperature generation of coherent THz radiation. This LDRD proposal involves the exploration of the underlying physics using intersubband transitions in a quantum cascade structure. Success in the device physics aspect will give Sandia the state-of-the-art technology for high-temperature THz quantum cascade lasers. These lasers are useful for imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and national defense. Success may have other far-reaching consequences. Results from the in-depth study of coherences, dephasing and dynamics will eventually impact the fields of quantum computing, optical communication and cryptology, especially if we are successful in demonstrating entangled photons or slow light. An even farther reaching development is if we can show that the QC nanostructure, with its discrete atom-like intersubband resonances, can replace the atom in quantum optics experiments. Having such an 'artificial atom' will greatly improve flexibility and preciseness in experiments, thereby enhancing the discovery of new physics. This is because we will no longer be constrained by what natural can provide. Rather, one will be able to tailor transition energies and optical matrix elements to enhance the physics of interest. This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring optical nonlinearities in intersubband devices. Experimental and theoretical investigations were made to develop a fundamental understanding of light-matter interaction in a semiconductor system and to explore how this understanding can be used to develop mid-IR to THz emitters and nonclassical light sources.

  7. Designing Student Spaces for Community Colleges: How Four Schools in Oregon Did It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delansky, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Describes how Oregon's Linn-Benton Community College, Lane Community College, Chemeketa Community College, and Portland Community College Cascade recently created areas specifically for their student activities programs. (EV)

  8. Research/Evaluate Restoration of NE Oregon Streams: Effects of Livestock Exclosures (Corridor Fencing) on Riparian Vegetation, Stream Geomorphic Features and Fish Populations; Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, J. Boone

    2002-09-17

    associated riparian functions; (2) a means of determining rates of aquatic habitat improvement; and (3) a basis for projecting future trends of habitat recovery. The proposed research is intended to provide an improved understanding of both the effects and effectiveness of a commonly used habitat enhancement approach in the upper Columbia River Basin. This is the exclusion of domestic livestock from streamside communities and streams via corridor fencing (exclosures). This final report is broken into three separate chapters. The first chapter covers the vegetation change associated with livestock exclusion. The second chapter focuses on the physical geomorphic changes to the streambank and channel. The final chapter covers the response of salmonids and warmwater fishes to livestock exclusion at the spatial scales of exclosures as is commonly constructed today. It is expected that this study will provide an important scientific basis, currently lacking, for understanding the ecological principles of restoration/enhancement of sustainable aquatic habitats for salmonids. Thus, the results of this work are likely to have important ramifications for habitat improvement projects within and beyond the general geographic region of northeastern Oregon.

  9. Potential biomass and logs from fire-hazard-reduction treatments in Southwest Oregon and Northern California

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Jeremy Fried; Peter J. Daugherty; Glenn Christensen; Roger. Fight

    2008-01-01

    The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area comprising northern California, southwestern Oregon, and the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. The policy scenarios, all subject to a stand-scale fire-hazard-reduction effectiveness constraint, included maximize torching index improvement (Max TI), maximize net...

  10. Forest fire weather in eastern Oregon and central Washington in 1960.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer; Howard E. Graham

    1961-01-01

    In 1960, the first analysis of fire season weather was made for forests east of the Cascade Range. Highlights were: The 1960 season was among the most severe since 1939 in eastern Oregon, was more severe than normal in central Washington, and will long be remembered for the rainless lightning storm that hit northeast Oregon with devastating effect the evening of July...

  11. WINDIGO-THIELSEN ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey indicate that the Windigo-Thielsen Roadless Area, in Oregon has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. Abundant cinder deposits occur in the area, but numerous other large volume deposits are available in the region, closer to markets. The geothermal potential of the High Cascades province cannot be realistically evaluated without data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regime that can only be provided by deep drill holes. Several deep holes could be drilled outside the roadless areas of the High Cascades from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the province could be made.

  12. 1971 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1972-01-01

    The 1971 Oregon timber harvest of 9.03 billion board feet was the highest since 1969 when 9.15 billion board feet was harvested. The 1971 total harvest was 13.1 percent above the 1970 figure. Western Oregon's harvest rose 11-5 percent, and eastern Oregon's harvest rose 18.6 percent.

  13. Oregon Educational Technology Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The 1997 Oregon Technology Plan sets a course for Oregon and its Department of Education in using technology to improve student learning, manage resources, and increase accountability. It supports the integration of instructional and administrative technology to help achieve the goals of Oregon's school improvement plan. The Goals of the…

  14. Oregon v. Ashcroft.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Court Decision: 368 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 1118; 2004 May 26 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit agreed with a lower court that a United States Attorney General's directive stating that physician assisted suicide violates the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) and criminalizing conduct authorized by Oregon's Death with Dignity Act was unlawful and unenforceable. The State of Oregon brought a suit challenging a directive issued by United States Attorney General John Ashcroft known as the Ashcroft Directive. The Ninth Circuit held that the Directive violated the language of the CSA, breached Congress' express legislative intent, and exceeded the limits of the Attorney General's statutory authority. The court first found that the regulation of professional medical conduct is traditionally a state power and that the Attorney General may not exercise control over this power because he was not unmistakably and clearly authorized to do so by Congress. The court then held that the Directive violated the plain language of the CSA by exceeding the scope of Federal Authority articulated by the CSA, misconstruing the Attorney General's role under the statute and failing to adhere to instructions in the statute for revoking physician prescription privileges. Finally, the court held that the Attorney General exceeded the scope of his authority because Congress "empowered 'the principal health agency of the the federal government, not the Attorney General, to make medical decisions under the Act."

  15. Public health assessment for east Multnomah County, ground water contamination, Gresham, Multnomah County, Oregon, region 10. Cerclis No. ORD987185030. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The proposed East Mulnomah County Groundwater Contamination National Priorities List (NPL) Site is east of Portland, Oregon. Numerous environmental investigations indicate that the groundwater within the proposed NPL site has been contaminated with various chlorinated organic solvents. Because of the complex hydrogeology within the proposed NPL site, it is not possible to determine precisely when each well became contaminated. Based on the available information, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concludes that the proposed East Multnomah County Groundwater Contamination NPL Site is a public health hazard (past, current, and future). ATSDR representatives made this determination because one contaminated drinking water well has been and is being used by two households.

  16. Health assessment for NL/Gould NPL (National Priorities List) Site, Portland, Oregon, Region 10. CERCLIS No. ORD095003687. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-29

    The NL/Gould National Priorities List (NPL) site is situated near the banks of the Williamette River in the Doane Lake area of Portland, Oregon. Past lead reclamation operations and disposal practices on and around the NL/Gould facility have resulted in the contamination of on-site surface and subsurface soil, lake sediment, and ground water with lead, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium. The NL/Gould NPL site currently poses a threat to public health as a result of the potential for direct ingestion of lead-contaminated soil and direct contact exposure to lead-contaminated soil, sediment, and ground water.

  17. Geothermal segmentation of the Cascade Range in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Muffler, L.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, James G.; Blackwell, D.D.; Weaver, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the crustal thermal regime of the Quaternary Cascades vary systematically along the range. Spatially congruent changes in volcanic vent distribution, volcanic extrusion rate, hydrothermal discharge rate, and regional conductive heat flow define 5 geothermal segments. These segments are, from north to south: (1) the Washington Cascades north of Mount Rainier, (2) the Cascades from Mount Rainier to Mount Hood, (3) the Oregon Cascades from south of Mount Hood to the California border, (4) northernmost California, including Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcano, and (5) the Lassen region of northern California. This segmentation indicates that geothermal resource potential is not uniform in the Cascade Range. Potential varies from high in parts of Oregon to low in Washington north of Mount Rainier.

  18. Slash smoke dispersal over western Oregon...a case study

    Treesearch

    John D. Dell; Franklin R. Ward; Robert E. Lynott

    1970-01-01

    Smoke from slash burns in the Cascade Mountains during a 3-day period ofstable air conditions at lower elevations in October 1969 added little to existing air pollution in the Willamette Valley, in western Oregon. Aerial observations and weather data analysis determined that slash smoke dispersed eastward — away from the Valley. Studies of this type can help improve...

  19. Forest practices and stream flow in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    R. Dennis. Harr

    1976-01-01

    Forest management activities, including roadbuilding, clearcut logging, and broadcast burning, can change certain portions of the forest hydrologic cycle. Watershed studies and other hydrologic research in the Coast and western Cascade Ranges of Oregon have shown that these changes may increase annual water yield up to 62 centimeters, double minimum flows in summer,...

  20. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits for ponderosa pine from the east slopes of the Cascade Range in Oregon was analyzed by using 307 families from 227 locations. Factor scores from three principal components based on seed and seedling traits were related by multiple regression to latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and...

  1. Ponderosa promise: a history of U.S. Forest Service research in central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Les. Joslin

    2007-01-01

    Research interest in the forests of Oregon and Washington east of the Cascade Range can be traced back to 1897, when Fredrick V. Coville of the Division of Forestry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, reconnoitered the Cascade Range Forest Reserve to report on forest growth and sheep grazing there in an 1898 report. Subsequent forest survey in the late 1890s and early...

  2. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs, 25 figs.

  3. Evaluation of 1991-1992 Brood Overwinter-Reared Coho Released from Net Pens in Youngs Bay, Oregon : Final Completion Report Youngs Bay Terminal Fishery Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Funding from Bonneville Power Administration was provided to the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s Fisheries Project to identify and develop terminal fishing opportunities. The 1991 and 1992 brood fingerling coho from Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife hatcheries were successfully reared during the winter period to smolt stage in Youngs Bay utilizing floating net pens. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries during 1991--93 from 2-week net-pen acclimation releases, total accountability of coho adults averaged 40,540 fish, with the Youngs Bay commercial harvest accounting for 39%. With reduced ocean harvest impacts during 1994 and 1995, 92% of 51,640 coho in 1994 and 68% of 23,599 coho in 1995 (based on coded-wire-tag recoveries) were accounted for in the Youngs Bay commercial fishery for combined 2-week and overwinter acclimation net-pen releases. Overwinter net-pen acclimation coho accounted for 35,063 and 15,775 coho adults in 1994 and 1995 with 93% and 68% accountable in the Youngs Bay commercial harvest. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries, less than 1% of the adults resulting from releases at Youngs Bay net pens strayed to hatcheries, while none were recovered on spawning ground surveys during 1991--95. The highest survival rates were observed for 1991 and 1992 brood overwinter coho released in early May. Time of release, not rearing strategy, appears to be the determining factor affecting survival in Youngs Bay.

  4. 76 FR 11404 - Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The State of Oregon has applied for final... Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA has reviewed Oregon's application and made the tentative decision that the...

  5. Structure of the Volcanic Vent Distribution of the Cascades Arc from a New Database of Holocene and Pleistocene Volcanism, with Focus on Pre-Caldera Monogenetic Volcanism at Mount Mazana, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, L.; Karlstrom, L.; Ramsey, D. W.; Wright, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, USA,reflects modulation of time-varying mantle melt influx by crustal magmatic plumbing and tectonic forces. The relative contribution of spatio-temporal source variations versus crustal focusing in generating the observed distribution of vents is poorly constrained. To identify patterns in preserved eruptive products and validate models for crustal magma transport we have assembled the most complete database of Cascades volcanism to date. Our database contains >2900 volcanic vent locations from the Holocene and Pleistocene, and includes vent types, ages, and major element geochemistry of eruptive products from the Holocene and Pleistocene. Bulk geochemistry is obtained from USGS Professional Papers and the American Volcanic and Intrusive Rock Database (NAVDAT). We also include arc-wide heat flow data, modeled ambient noise crustal seismic tomography and crust thickness interpolated to each vent. We perform spectral clustering on vent locations to define volcanic centers for the Holocene and Pleistocene. Centers found through Spectral Clustering reproduce the major loci of volcanism in the Cascades, and show time-varying structure in the number, type and distribution eruptions. There is significant North-South variation in vent type and distribution that correlates with variations in heat flow, bulk silica content and average crustal shear velocity. Although precise eruption ages for the complete dataset are not yet available, Mount Mazama, OR, has a well-resolved time/composition/volume/location history of eruptions <400 ka that allow for further analysis. The spatial distribution of Mazamaeruptive units does not follow a Poisson distribution when well resolved in time, but rather clusters around an evolved center that exhibits progressively more evolved eruptive products in time. Monogenetic eruptions preceding the 7.8 ka Crater Lake eruption define a spatial and temporal pattern that is

  6. 1967 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1968-01-01

    Oregon's timber harvest was 8.4 billion board feet in 1967, 6.3 percent below the 1966 harvest. The total private harvest declined 7 percent in 1967 with a 153-million-board-foot (4.3-percent) decrease in western Oregon and a 138-million-board-foot (22.7-percent) drop in eastern Oregon. Forest industries had the greatest decline in production of all owners; their...

  7. 1968 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1969-01-01

    Oregon's 1968 timber harvest of 9.74 billion board feet was the largest since 1952, when a record 9.80 billion board feet was produced. Public agencies' harvests increased 25.0 percent in western Oregon and 4.1 percent in eastern Oregon for a total increase of 19.1 percent, 864.9 million board feet above the public harvest in 1967. National Forests had the...

  8. 1969 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1970-01-01

    The 1969 Oregon timber harvest of 9.15 billion board feet was 6.1 percent below the 1968 16-year peak of 9.74 billion board feet. In western Oregon, the 1969 harvest was down 9.1 percent with public production and private production off 10.8 and 7.2 percent, respectively. By contrast, log harvest in eastern Oregon rose 5 percent, with private production up 13.2 percent...

  9. 1975 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1975 Oregon timber harvest declined to its lowest level since 1961 with a harvest of 7.37 billion board feet, 991 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the 1974 harvest. The harvest was down in both western Oregon (823 million board feet, 13.2 percent) and eastern Oregon (168 million board feet, 7.7 percent). For the first time since 1961, the harvest on private...

  10. Nest observations of the long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Benton County, Oregon, with notes on their food habits

    Treesearch

    Richard T. Reynolds

    1970-01-01

    A nesting pair of long-eared owls was found 10 miles north of Corvallis, Benton County, Oregon, on 24 April, 1969. The pair was observed and photographed until 30 May, when the young left the nest. This is the third record of nesting Asio otus west of the Oregon Cascades. Gabrielson and Jewett (1940) reported that Pope collected eggs from a nest...

  11. Longitudinal load and cascading failure risk assessment (CASE): Bonneville Power Administration`s 230/500-kV Longview-Olympia transmission line. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorp, M.

    1998-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Cascading Failure Risk Assessment (CASE) methodology was used to determine extreme event, unbalanced loads on Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 230/500-kV, single circuit, Longview-Olympia transmission line and to identify the cascading potential of the line under five different loading conditions. More specifically, BPA wanted to evaluate the cascading potential of the Type 2L, Type 2A1, and Type 238M tangent structures which comprise a significant portion of the line. While other cascading assessment methods primarily focus on the magnitude of the unbalanced loads acting on the first structure from the initiating event, EPRI`s CASE method incorporates the dynamic response and damping characteristics of the transmission line to determine the unbalanced longitudinal loads at any structure away from the initiating failure event. The CASE application constituted an investigation into the nature of the extreme loads that are expected to occur on the 230/500-kV Longview-Olympia transmission line during a cascading failure and the corresponding dynamic response. The goals of the investigation were: to quantify unbalanced longitudinal loads acting on structures adjacent to the broken insulator, shield wire, or conductor failure as well as down-line structures; and to assess the cascading potential of the Longview-Olympia transmission line by considering the energy dissipation at successive spans and supports. The results of the CASE method showed that BPA`s longitudinal loading criteria for the Type 2L, 2A1, and 238 M lattice towers satisfy BPA`s containment failure design philosophy with the addition of fiber optic cable. BPA`s longitudinal loading criteria applied simultaneously with extreme ice or wind does not provide adequate strength to prevent a cascade of less than ten towers.

  12. Longitudinal load and cascading failure risk assessment (CASE): Tennessee Valley Authority`s 161-kV Lowndes-West Point transmission line. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostendorp, M.

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Cascading Failure Risk Assessment (CASE) methodology was used to determine extreme event, unbalanced loads on Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) 161-kV, single circuit, Lowndes-West Point transmission line and to identify the cascading potential of the line under five different loading conditions. More specifically, TVA wanted to evaluate the cascading potential of the Type HS-1G and BHS-1G tangent structures which comprise the majority of the line. While other cascading assessment methods primarily focus on the magnitude of the unbalanced loads acting on the first structure from the initiating event, EPRI`s CASE method incorporates the dynamic response and damping characteristics of the transmission line to determine the unbalanced longitudinal loads at any structure away from the initiating failure event. The CASE application constituted an investigation into the nature of the extreme loads that are expected to occur on the 161-kV Lowndes-West Point transmission line during a cascading failure and the corresponding dynamic response. The goals of the investigation were: to quantify unbalanced longitudinal loads acting on structures adjacent to the broken insulator, shield wire, or conductor failure as well as down-line structures; to assess the cascading potential of the Lowndes-West Point transmission line by considering the energy dissipation at successive spans and supports. The results of the CASE method indicate that the lack of longitudinal strength of the Type HS-1G and BHS-1G steel pole H-frame coupled with the dynamic characteristics of the Lowndes-West Point line was likely to result in a cascading failure for the more severe initiating event and load case combinations.

  13. Lyme disease in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Doggett, J Stone; Kohlhepp, Sue; Gresbrink, Robert; Metz, Paul; Gleaves, Curt; Gilbert, David

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of Lyme disease in Oregon is calculated from cases reported to the Oregon State Health Division. We reviewed the exposure history of reported cases of Lyme disease and performed field surveys for infected Ixodes pacificus ticks. The incidence of Lyme disease correlated with the distribution of infected I. pacificus ticks.

  14. Oregon: Biscuit Wildfire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... during a record-breaking heat wave, the Biscuit Fire became Oregon's largest wildfire of the past century. Between mid July and early September 2002, it consumed almost 500,000 acres in outhern Oregon and northern California. This image pair from the Multi-angle Imaging ...

  15. Oregon Trail Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The road to the U.S. West, known as the Oregon Trail, had its first real traffic in 1843 when a group of about 1000 people left Independence, Missouri and traveled west. This teacher's guide contains short descriptions of the main landmarks and stopping points that were significant along the northwest portion of the Oregon Trail. The guide is…

  16. 1970 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.

  17. Oregon Early Options Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    This report examines current policies and practices in regard to Oregon high school student participation in college courses and programs. A total of 112 of Oregon's public and private high schools responded to a January 1998 mailed survey concerning early college options programs and policies. It was found that an estimated 6,660 students were…

  18. Oregon Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhre, Martin

    A Survey of Oregon libraries was conducted to supply current background information on libraries. This information was needed for a long range plan to develop libraries in Oregon which is required by Public Law 91-600. In addition, the details about specific libraries are needed to evaluate applications for federal funds and to evaluate the…

  19. Biological science in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Fishing is an important part of Oregon's culture. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research in Oregon for many years to provide information that can be used by managers to help keep fish and other parts of the ecosystem healthy. Below are examples of some of WFRC's studies.

  20. Instructional Innovation in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Educational Coordinating Council, Salem.

    In 1969 the 55th Legislative Assembly established the Oregon Program of Grants for the Improvement of Undergraduate Instruction. The Legislature directed that the program be administered by the Oregon Educational Coordinating Council and provided for an Advisory Committee to guide the Council. All public higher education institutions were eligible…

  1. Volatile emissions from Cascade cinder cone eruptions: Implications for future hazard assessments in the Central and Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, L. K.; Wallace, P. J.; Cashman, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    An abundance of hazardous effects including ash fall out, basaltic lava flows and poisonous volcanic gas have been documented at active volcanic centers (e.g. Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand; Bebbington and Cronin 2011) and have been inferred using tools such as geologic mapping and geochemical analyses for prehistoric eruptions (e.g. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua; Hill et al. 1995; McKnight and Williams 1997). The Cascades volcanic history is also dominated by prehistoric eruptions; however the associated hazards have yet to be studied in-depth. Short recurrence rates of cinder cone volcanism (1x10-5 to 5x10-4 events/yr; Smid et al. 2009) likely intensify the probability of human experience with cinder cone hazards. Hence, it is important to understand the effects that cinder cone volcanism can have on communities near the Cascades. In this study, we estimate volatile fluxes of prehistoric Cascade cinder cone eruptions by analyzing olivine-hosted melt inclusions and rapidly quenched tephra matrix glass. The melt inclusions provide pre-eruptive volatile concentrations whereas tephra groundmass glass provides post-eruptive volatile concentrations. By comparing initial and final concentrations we can determine the amounts of sulfur, chlorine and fluorine released into the atmosphere. We have analyzed S, Cl and F concentrations in melt inclusions from cinder cones in the Central Oregon Cascades (Collier Cone, Yapoah Crater, Four-in-One Fissure, Garrison Butte) and in Northern California near Mt. Lassen (Cinder Cone, Basalt of Old Railroad Grade, Basalt of Highway 44). Analyses of volatiles in melt inclusions and matrix glasses were done using the Cameca SX100 electron microprobe at the University of Oregon. Melt inclusions and matrix glass were run under 15kV, 50nA, and 10μm-beam conditions. For F analyses, a use of an LTAP crystal and relatively long counting times (160 sec. on peak) resulted in good analytical precision. Preliminary results for melt inclusions from

  2. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  3. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  4. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project, South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project on the South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1953, 1965, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Cougar Project extensively altered or affected 3096 acres of land and river in the McKenzie River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1587 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 195 acres of riparian hardwoods. Impacts resulting from the Cougar Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the effected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Cougar Project. Loses or grains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  5. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.; Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  6. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  7. Columbia/Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report. Appendix 5A: Oregon Cutting Systems and Warn Industries, Inc. Basic Math/Shop Math and Computer Basics. Instructors' Reports and Sample Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Scott

    Workplace literacy projects were established at Warn Industries, a winch and hubcap maker, and Oregon Cutting Systems (OCS), a producer of cutting edges supplying the timber industry by Clackamas Community College (Oregon). At Warn, project staff developed functional context materials, delivered instruction to a math class, and implemented a basic…

  8. Columbia/Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report. Appendix 5B: Oregon-Washington Carpenters Employers Apprenticeship and Training Trust Fund--Carpenter Apprentice Program. Shop Math. Instructors' Reports and Sample Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie; And Others

    Oregon-Washington Carpenters/Employers Apprenticeship and Training Trust, the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners Local 247, and Associated General Contractors cooperated with Mt. Hood Community College (Oregon) in a workplace literacy program. A drop-in learning center was operated at the Carpenter Training Center to provide support in…

  9. VNI version 4.1. Simulation of high-energy particle collisions in QCD: Space-time evolution of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}...A + B collisions with parton-cascades, cluster-hadronization, final-state hadron cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, K.; Longacre, R.; Srivastava, D.K.

    1999-02-01

    VNI is a general-purpose Monte-Carlo event-generator, which includes the simulation of lepton-lepton, lepton-hadron, lepton-nucleus, hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. It uses the real-time evolution of parton cascades in conjunction with a self-consistent hadronization scheme, as well as the development of hadron cascades after hadronization. The causal evolution from a specific initial state (determined by the colliding beam particles) is followed by the time-development of the phase-space densities of partons, pre-hadronic parton clusters, and final-state hadrons, in position-space, momentum-space and color-space. The parton-evolution is described in terms of a space-time generalization of the familiar momentum-space description of multiple (semi)hard interactions in QCD, involving 2 {r_arrow} 2 parton collisions, 2 {r_arrow} 1 parton fusion processes, and 1 {r_arrow} 2 radiation processes. The formation of color-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons, on the other hand, is treated by using a spatial criterion motivated by confinement and a non-perturbative model for hadronization. Finally, the cascading of produced prehadronic clusters and of hadrons includes a multitude of 2 {r_arrow} n processes, and is modeled in parallel to the parton cascade description. This paper gives a brief review of the physics underlying VNI, as well as a detailed description of the program itself. The latter program description emphasizes easy-to-use pragmatism and explains how to use the program (including simple examples), annotates input and control parameters, and discusses output data provided by it.

  10. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape.

    Treesearch

    Peter H. Morrison; Frederick J. Swanson

    1990-01-01

    Fire history from years 1150 to 1985 was reconstructed by analyzing forest stands in two 1940-hectare areas in the central-western Cascade Range of Oregon. Serving as records for major fire episodes, these stands revealed a highly variable fire regime. The steeper, more dissected, lower elevation Cook-Quentin study area experienced more frequent fires (natural fire...

  11. A coarse wood dynamics model for the Western Cascades.

    Treesearch

    K. Mellen; A. Ager

    2002-01-01

    The Coarse Wood Dynamics Model (CWDM) analyzes the dynamics (fall, fragmentation, and decomposition) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) snags and down logs in forested ecosystems of the western Cascades of Oregon and Washington. The model predicts snag fall, height loss and decay,...

  12. Earthquake history of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Although situated between two States (California and Washington) that have has many violent earthquakes, Oregon is noticeably less active seismically. the greatest damage experienced resulted from a major shock near Olympia, Wash., in 1949. During the short history record available (since 1841), 34 earthquakes of intensity V, Modified Mercalli Scale, or greater have centered within Oregon or near its borders. Only 13 of the earthquakes had an intensity above V, and many of the shocks were local. However, a 1936 earthquake in the eastern Oregon-Washington region caused extensive damage and was felt over an area of 272,000 square kilometers. 

  13. Newberry Volcano—Central Oregon's Sleeping Giant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Stovall, Wendy K.; Ramsey, David W.; Ewert, John W.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Hidden in plain sight, Oregon's massive Newberry Volcano is the largest volcano in the Cascades volcanic arc and covers an area the size of Rhode Island. Unlike familiar cone-shaped Cascades volcanoes, Newberry was built into the shape of a broad shield by repeated eruptions over 400,000 years. About 75,000 years ago a major explosion and collapse event created a large volcanic depression (caldera) at its summit. Newberry last erupted about 1,300 years ago, and present-day hot springs and geologically young lava flows indicate that it could reawaken at any time. Because of its proximity to nearby communities, frequency and size of past eruptions, and geologic youthfulness, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are working to better understand volcanic activity at Newberry and closely monitor the volcano for signs of unrest.

  14. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  15. An inverted AlGaAs/GaAs patterned-Ge tunnel junction cascade concentrator solar cell. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1991--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasubramanian, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes work to develop inverted-grown Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As/GaAs cascades. Several significant developments are reported on as follows: (1) The AM1.5 1-sun total-area efficiency of the top Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As cell for the cascade was improved from 11.3% to 13.2% (NREL measurement [total-area]). (2) The ``cycled`` organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth (OMVPE) was studied in detail utilizing a combination of characterization techniques including Hall-data, photoluminescence, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. (3) A technique called eutectic-metal-bonding (EMB) was developed by strain-free mounting of thin GaAs-AlGaAs films (based on lattice-matched growth on Ge substrates and selective plasma etching of Ge substrates) onto Si carrier substrates. Minority-carrier lifetime in an EMB GaAs double-heterostructure was measured as high as 103 nsec, the highest lifetime report for a freestanding GaAs thin film. (4) A thin-film, inverted-grown GaAs cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 active-area efficiency of 20.3% was obtained. This cell was eutectic-metal-bonded onto Si. (5) A thin-film inverted-grown, Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As/GaAs cascade with AM1.5 efficiency of 19.9% and 21% at 1-sun and 7-suns, respectively, was obtained. This represents an important milestone in the development of an AlGaAs/GaAs cascade by OMVPE utilizing a tunnel interconnect and demonstrates a proof-of-concept for the inverted-growth approach.

  16. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  17. Magnitude and frequency of floods in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, David Dell; Hubbard, Larry L.; Hubbard, Lawrence E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods is presented for unregulated streams in western Oregon. Equations relating flood magnitude to basin characteristics were developed for exceedance probabilities of 0.5 to 0.01 (2- to 100-year recurrence intervals). Separate equations are presented for four regions: Coast, Willamette, Rogue-Umpqua, and High Cascades. Also presented are values of flood discharges for selected exceedance probabilities and of basin characteristics for all gaging stations used in the analysis. Included are data for 230 stations in Oregon, 6 stations in southwestern Washington, and 3 stations in northwestern California. Drainage areas used in the analysis range from 0.21 to 7,280 square miles. Also included are maximum discharges for all western Oregon stations used in the analysis. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Electromagnetic cascades in pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, J. K.; Harding, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of pair photon cascades initiated by high energy electrons above a pulsar polar cap is simulated numerically. The calculation uses the energy of the primary electron, the magnetic field strength, and the period of rotation as parameters and follows the curvature radiation emitted by the primary, the conversion of this radiation e(+) - e(-) pairs in the intense fields, and the quantized synchrotron radiation by the secondary pairs. A recursive technique allows the tracing of an indefinite number of generations using a Monte Carlo method. Gamma ray and pair spectra are calculated for cascades in different parts of the polar cap and with different acceleration models. It is found that synchrotron radiation from secondary pairs makes an important contribution to the gamma ray spectrum above 25 MeV, and that the final gamma ray and pair spectra are insensitive to the height of the accelerating region, as long as the acceleration of the primary electrons is not limited by radiation reaction.

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Point of Entry/Point of Use Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Oregon Institute of Technology at Klamath Falls, OR - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) at Klamath Falls, OR. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness...

  20. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Point of Entry/Point of Use Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Oregon Institute of Technology at Klamath Falls, OR - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) at Klamath Falls, OR. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness...

  1. Justice and the moral acceptability of rationing medical care: the Oregon experiment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R M; Drought, T

    1992-02-01

    The Oregon Basic Health Services Act of 1989 seeks to establish universal access to basic medical care for all currently uninsured Oregon residents. To control the increasing cost of medical care, the Oregon plan will restrict funding according to a priority list of medical interventions. The basic level of medical care provided to residents with incomes below the federal poverty line will vary according to the funds made available by the Oregon legislature. A rationing plan such as Oregon's which potentially excludes medically necessary procedures from the basic level of health care may be just, for the right to publically-sponsored medical care is restricted by opposing rights of private property. However, the moral acceptability of the Oregon plan cannot be determined in the absence of knowing the level of resources to be provided. Finally, Oregon to date has failed to include the individuals being rationed in discussions as to how the scarce resources are to be distributed.

  2. 75 FR 18107 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub (Oregonichthys crameri); Correction AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), published a final rule to designate critical habitat for the Oregon chub (Oregonichthys crameri... INFORMATION: Background Our March 10, 2010, final rule (75 FR 11010) to designate critical habitat for the...

  3. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  4. Collective Bargaining--Oregon Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Eldon G.

    The implications of the mandatory collective bargaining law in Oregon, House Bill 2263, are described in a case history of Lane Community College. In addition, problems that have emerged as a result of collective bargaining in Oregon are listed. (DB)

  5. The Impact of Geologic Heterogeneity on Stream Temperatures in the McKenzie River, Oregon: Implications for Climate Change and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, M. J.; Tague, C.; Grant, G. E.; Jefferson, A.; Lewis, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Stream temperature is recognized as an important component of water quality for aquatic life; less well understood is how the regional geologic setting controls stream temperature regimes. The McKenzie River watershed in western Oregon exhibits significant differences in geology and rock age between two contiguous volcanic provinces: the Plio-Pleistocene High Cascades and the Tertiary Western Cascades. Streamflow regimes from spring-fed streams originating in basins underlain by fractured and permeable High Cascade rocks have more gradual recession curves and higher baseflow unit discharges than surface-flow dominated Western Cascade streams. We examined corresponding differences in temperature between these two regions. Using spatial regime regressions, we analyzed stream temperature data from 56 sites within the McKenzie watershed. Streams with a majority contributing area composed of High Cascade rocks are colder and are less sensitive to air temperature fluctuations than Western Cascade streams during the July-September baseflow period. Based on site-specific air-stream temperature regressions, High Cascade spring-fed streams are less likely, given future air temperature increases, to exceed EPA stream temperature recommendations for chinook salmon and bull trout habitat. Finally, stream temperature for four surface-dominated and four spring-fed streams was modeled using a predictive heat budget model \\(SSTemp\\) to examine potential effects of a clearcut on stream temperatures. Model results show that spring-fed streams were less affected by this land use simulation than surface-dominated streams. However, slight perturbations to spring-fed streams may have cumulative effects on downstream reaches.

  6. Timber resource statistics for Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Sally Campbell; Paul Dunham; David. Azuma

    2004-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for all ownerships in Oregon. Data were collected as part of several statewide multiresource inventories, including those conducted by the Pacific Northwest Region (Region 6) on National Forest System lands in Oregon, by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on BLM lands in western Oregon, and by the Pacific...

  7. Rural Oregon Community Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M.; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

  8. Oregon Social Sciences Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The study of the social sciences includes: history, civics, geography, and economics to prepare students for responsible citizenship. The Oregon state standards for social sciences sets out common curriculum goals, content standards, information for Benchmark 1 (grade three), Benchmark 2 (grade five), Benchmark 3 (grade eight), and Certificate of…

  9. Oregon State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

  10. The Oregon Walkabout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale

    1974-01-01

    Too often American schools aim to satisfy the self-actualizing and higher-level needs in Maslow's hierarchy, while ignoring survival and security needs. The new State curriculum seeks to correct that deficit. To graduate, an Oregon student in the Class of 1978 will be expected to demonstrate the competencies to function effectively on the job, as…

  11. Oregon hydrologic landscape regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals who spend time working with streams intuitively come to understand that stream hydrologic and ecological characteristics are related to the attributes of the watersheds in which they occur. This is easy to see in Oregon with its large climatic and geologic variations ...

  12. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  13. Oregon School Counselor Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    School counselors are expected to play a vital role in reforms called for in the Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century (HB 3565). A study was designed to develop a profile of school counselors which includes information about their current job responsibilities, expected responsibilities in the future school reform context, training needs,…

  14. Umpqua River Entrance, Oregon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In a letter from the Portland District dated 28 March 1975, subject: ’Tidal Hydraulics Committee Services - Umpqua River Entrance, Oregon,’ the...Committee on Tidal Hydraulics was requested to assist in the evaluation of navigation problems at the entrance to the Umpqua River. As a result, the 80th

  15. 1965 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1966-01-01

    Oregon maintained its high level of timber harvest in 1965 with an output of 9.4 billion board feet. This was the first time since 1926 that production remained unchanged in 2 consecutive years. The harvest from private lands remained stable at 4 billion feet, or 43 percent of the total. Forest industry's cut declined 2 percent (83 million board feet) from 1964,...

  16. Analysis of deep seismic reflection and other data from the southern Washington Cascades. Final report, September 15, 1992--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Johnson, S.Y.; Nuccio, V.F.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes results of a synthesis of geological, geological, geophysical and geochemical data from a largely volcanic rock covered region in southwestern Washington that has been identified as a underlain by thick marine sedimentary rocks. The work was funded by the Deep Source Gas projects at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The subproject which resulted in this report is centered in the Branch of Geophysics, US Geological Survey (USGS) has involved one task focused on the application of geophysical methods to the study of phenomena associated with fossil and active subduction zones and non-subduction suture zones that may have deeply emplaced sedimentary rocks. This report represents a summary synthesis of several geophysical and geological data sets. The Southern Washington Cascades Conductor (SWCC) has been examined using several types of data in addition to MT, seismic, magnetic, and gravity Specific geological mapping tasks have been completed trough funding by the Department of Energy and the USGS in the western part of the proposed basin near Morton, WA. Other regional geological studies using wells and outcrops done as part of the USGS Evolution of Sedimentary Basins programs have added information that constraint the possible nature of the SWCC rocks and their tectonic setting. Recently, evaluation of patterns of seismicity in the SWCC region has demonstrated the likelihood of several parallel and step-over strike-slip faults that may have produced the proposed basin or altered its geometry. In addition, the seismicity patterns trace the axis of key anticlinal structures and thrusts.

  17. Health assessment for Boise Cascade (BC) National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Fridley, Anoka County, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND053417515. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    Boise Cascade is a 183-acre National Priorities List Site located in Anoka County, Fridley, Minnesota. The site was used by the Minnesota and Ontario Paper Company, which operated a plant for the treatment of wood with chemical preservatives (reportedly creosote and pentachlorophenol) between approximately 1921-1961. The site was used for wood storage and for the disposal of plant waste. Present owners of the site include Onan Corporation, which owns 133 acres. Approximately 3,000 people live within 4,000 feet of the site. Sampling and analysis of on-site soil and ground water revealed a number of contaminants commonly associated with wood-treating operations including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol. The highest levels of contaminants were found on the Onan property. Remediation was completed in 1986. Remedial actions included excavating and disposing of contaminated soil, placing clean fill in excavated areas, extracting and treating contaminated ground water, surrounding the site with a security fence, and monitoring of air, ground water, and surface water within the site vicinity.

  18. Documentation of meteorological data from the coniferous forest biome primary station in Oregon.

    Treesearch

    R.H. Waring; H.R. Holbo; R.P. Bueb; R.L. Fredriksen

    1978-01-01

    As part of the International Biological Program, a primary meteorological station was installed in the west-central Cascade Range of Oregon. Short-wave solar radiation, air temperature, dewpoint temperature, windspeed, and precipitation are recorded continuously. Climatic data are summarized in a daily record available from May 11, 1972, to date. This report details...

  19. Modeling early forest succession following clear-cutting in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen; Mark E. Harmon

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, the process of conifer development after stand-replacing disturbance has important implications for many forest processes (e.g., carbon storage, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity). This paper examines conifer development in the Coast Range Province and Western Cascades Province of Oregon using repeat interpretation of historic aerial...

  20. Differences in Townsend's chipmunk populations between second- and old-growth forests in western Oregon

    Treesearch

    D.K. Rosenberg; R.G. Anthony

    1993-01-01

    Because Townsend's chipmunks (Tomias townsendii) may be important in maintaining natural ecosystem processes in forests in the central Oregon Cascade Range, we compared their population characteristics in young second-growth and old-growth forests. We live-trapped Townsend's chipmunks in 5 young (30-60 yr old) second-growth and 5 old-...

  1. Regeneration outlook on BLM lands in the Southern Oregon Cascades.

    Treesearch

    William I. Stein

    1981-01-01

    A survey of cutover timberland in the Butte Falls and Dead Indian areas showed that most partial cuts were moderately or well-stocked with natural regeneration. Clearcuts in the Butte Falls area were also well stocked, primarily with planted ponderosa pine; but many in the Dead Indian area were not. Advance regeneration was an important stocking component in partial...

  2. Final Technical Report on DOE Awards DE-FG03 94ER61918, DE-FG06 94ER61918 to Oregon Health Sciences University, September 15, 1994 - September 29, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Krages, Kathryn Pyle

    1999-11-23

    This report describes the activities conducted with DOE funds at Oregon Health Sciences University between 9/15/94 and 9/29/99. The activities fall into four major categories: Information Technology, Information Services and Support, Medical Informatics and Outcomes Research, and collaboration with other institutions. The focus of these activities was to implement and maintain a regional healthcare information network.

  3. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  4. 77 FR 50914 - Anchorage; Change to Cottonwood Island Anchorage, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ..., Columbia River, Oregon and Washington AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On..., Oregon and Washington. (a) * * * (10) Cottonwood Island Anchorage. The waters of the Columbia...

  5. 78 FR 24346 - Modification of VOR Federal Airway V-595, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ..., Oregon AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) Federal airway V-595 in Oregon due to the scheduled... FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify V-595 in...

  6. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Oregon-Washington pear marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of processed...

  7. 76 FR 21299 - Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program: Public Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 281 Oregon: Tentative Approval of State Underground Storage Tank Program: Public... relating to the State of Oregon's application for final approval of its Underground Storage Tank...

  8. Libraries in Oregon: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/oregon.html Libraries in Oregon To use the sharing features on this page, ... 97201 503-552-1542 http://library.nunm.edu/ Oregon College of Oriental Medicine Library 75 NW Couch ...

  9. A field guide to Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenson, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; McKay, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon at the intersection of the Cascade Range and the High Lava Plains. Its lavas range in age from ca. 0.5 Ma to late Holocene. Erupted products range in composition from basalt through rhyolite and cover ~3000 km2. The most recent caldera-forming eruption occurred ~80,000 years ago. This trip will highlight a revised understanding of the volcano's history based on new detailed geologic work. Stops will also focus on evidence for ice and flooding on the volcano, as well as new studies of Holocene mafic eruptions. Newberry is one of the most accessible U.S. volcanoes, and this trip will visit a range of lava types and compositions including tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalt flows, cinder cones, and rhyolitic domes and tuffs. Stops will include early distal basalts as well as the youngest intracaldera obsidian flow.

  10. On the Oregon trail.

    PubMed

    Kitzhaber, J; Kemmy, A M

    1995-10-01

    On the eve of the 21st century, governments around the world are struggling to resolve the dual problems of health care cost and access. My own experience in addressing these issues as they manifest themselves in the US, and particularly in the state of Oregon, convinces me that successful health care reform, anywhere in the world, must sooner or later grapple with two questions: what are we buying with our health care dollars, and how do these expenditures relate to health?

  11. 1966 Oregon timber harvest.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1967-01-01

    The 1966 Oregon timber harvest totaled 8.9 billion board feet, 5 percent less than the harvest in 1965. During 1966, the total public timber harvest declined 10 percent to 4.8 billion board feet. The uncut volume of public timber under contract at the end of 1966 was 7.6 billion board feet, up 1.3 billion board feet from 1965's year end total. National Forest...

  12. 1964 Oregon log production.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1965-01-01

    The production of logs in Oregon in 1964 was 9.4 billion board feet, or nearly 9 percent above 1963. This year, 1964, had the third highest level of log production in history, exceeded only in 1955 and in 1952. The proportion of total cut from private lands fell to 43 percent, even though the total private cut increased 6 percent over that in 1963. Forest industry,...

  13. The Oregon Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Zachariah J

    2004-09-01

    The OHP has been successful in its goal of decreasing the number of uninsured in the state of Oregon and providing them with quality medical care at an affordable rate. When the plan started, nearly one-third of those individuals falling at or below the federal poverty level had no health insurance, and the plan has provided for these individuals. Furthermore, approximately 18% of all Oregonians had no health insurance in 1990. In 1997, the uninsured population fell to about 8%3. Also, the prioritization list has established an effective basic Medicaid benefit package that could be used by other state Medicaid programs and by insurance companies. Also, the use of Managed Care Plans and setting priorities for health care services has made the cost of health care for more customers affordable. The OHP is not perfect and will always be in a constant state of flux, because of changes in the financial state of Oregon and/or changes in the health care needs of the state. Therefore, the OHP will need to be continually evaluated on periodic bases for any needed changes. However, the state of Oregon should be commended for their attempt to explore uncharted waters, and to try to find an answer to the Nation's biggest health care concern/problem, which is to provide medical coverage for everyone in an affordable manner.

  14. OR State Profile. Oregon: Oregon State Assessment System (OSAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Oregon State Assessment System. Its purpose is to assess proficiency in the Essential Skills for the purpose of earning a regular or modified high school diploma. Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills is also used for federal accountability purposes under No Child Left Behind. [For the main report,…

  15. Cascades frog conservation assessment

    Treesearch

    Karen Pope; Catherine Brown; Marc Hayes; Gregory Green; Diane Macfarlane

    2014-01-01

    The Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) is a montane, lentic-breeding amphibian that has become rare in the southern Cascade Range and remains relatively widespread in the Klamath Mountains of northern California. In the southern Cascades, remaining populations occur primarily in meadow habitats where the fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, and habitat...

  16. Southern cascades bioregion

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner; Alan H. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The Cascade Range extends from British Columbia, Canada, south to northern California where it meets the Sierra Nevada. The Southern Cascades bioregion in California is bounded on the west by the Sacramento Valley and the Klamath Mountains, and on the east by the Modoc Plateau and Great Basin. The bioregion encompasses the Southern Cascades section of Miles and Goudey...

  17. Direct utilization of geothermal heat in cascade application to aquaculture and greenhouse systems at Navarro College. Final report, March 1, 1979-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.

    1984-09-01

    This final report documents the Navarro College geothermal use project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE. The six-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessment; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analysis; and public awareness programs. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 130/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private sector economic incentives currently exist which encourage commercial development of this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, aquacultural and agricultural heating uses, and fruit and vegetable dehydration; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluids' scaling and corrosion characteristics can be avoided through proper analysis and design.

  18. Hispanics in Oregon's Workforce, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Brenda; Wood, Mary

    This report describes the Latino workforce in Oregon, outlining employment, income, education, and unemployment data. A brief history of Hispanics in the state notes that most of Oregon's Hispanics are of Mexican origin and that the state's Hispanic population grew 66 percent between 1990 and 1997. The history of migrant agricultural labor in…

  19. Forest statistics for northwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Melvin E. Metcalf; John W. Hazard

    1964-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the latest reinventory of 10 counties in northwest Oregon: Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill. This block of counties is one of 10 such blocks set up in the States of Oregon and Washington by the Forest Survey to facilitate orderly reinventories of the timber...

  20. Forest statistics for southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John W. Hazard; Melvin E. Metcalf

    1964-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the latest reinventory of five counties in southwest Oregon: Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine. This block of five counties is one of 10 such blocks set up in the States of Oregon and Washington by the Forest Survey to facilitate orderly reinventories of the timber resources. Each block will be reinventoried at 10-...

  1. Oregon Pupil Transportation Manual, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This manual provides school bus drivers and school officials with pertinent material relating to safe and efficent school transportation. Chapter I presents the laws governing pupil transportation. Oregon motor vehicle laws are identified by an ORS (Oregon Revised Statute) number, and pupil transportation regulations are identified by an OAR…

  2. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  3. Influence of Channel Geomorphology on Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Matter in a Cascade Mountain Stream

    Treesearch

    Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan G. Steinman

    1989-01-01

    Retention of particulate and dissolved nutrients in streams is a major determinant of food avail-ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow valley...

  4. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements are... them from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Oregon Revised Statutes, section 694.036 on...

  5. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements are... them from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Oregon Revised Statutes, section 694.036 on...

  6. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements are... them from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Oregon Revised Statutes, section 694.036 on...

  7. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements are... them from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Oregon Revised Statutes, section 694.036 on...

  8. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements are... them from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Oregon Revised Statutes, section 694.036 on...

  9. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  10. KALMIOPSIS WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Miller, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, geophysical field and laboratory, and mine and prospect studies conducted in the Kalmiopsis Wilderness, Oregon indicate that areas within and immediately adjacent to the wilderness have substantiated mineral-resource potential. The types of mineral resources which occur in these areas include massive sulfide deposits containing copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold; podiform chromite deposits; laterite deposits containing nickel, cobalt, and chromium; lode gold deposits; and placer gold deposits. Past production from existing mines is estimated to have been at least 7000 troy oz of gold, 4000 long tons of chromite, and few tens of tons of copper ore.

  11. Growth and diet of fish in Waldo Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Nicola L.; Liss, W.J.; Ziller, Jeffrey S.; Wade, M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Waldo Lake, located in the Oregon Cascades, is considered to be one of the most dilute lakes in the world. Even with low nutrient concentrations and sparse populations of zooplankton, introduced fish in the lake are large in size and in good condition when compared to fish from other lakes. This apparent anomaly is due to the availability of benthic macroinvertebrates. Taxa found in the stomach contents offish captured in Waldo Lake consist primarily of Chironomidae larvae and pupae, Trichoptera larvae and pupae, amphipods, Ephemeroptera larvae, and Odonata larvae.

  12. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  13. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  14. Role of selection versus historical isolation in racial differentiation of ponderosa pine in southern Oregon: an investigation of alternative hypotheses.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen; Nancy L. Mandel; Jan E. Aagaard

    2001-01-01

    Continuous populations identified as Pacific and North Plateau races of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. Laws. ex C. Laws.) are parapatric along the crest of the Cascade Range in southern Oregon. A 3-year common-garden study of bud phenology and seedling vigor was performed to estimate the nature and magnitude of differentiation between races, to...

  15. Integrating natural disturbances and management activities to examine risks and opportunities in the central Oregon landscape analysis

    Treesearch

    Miles A. Hemstrom; James Merzenich; Theresa Burcsu; Janet Ohmann; Ryan Singleton

    2010-01-01

    We used state and transition models to integrate natural disturbances and management activities for a 275 000-ha landscape in the central Oregon Cascades. The landscape consists of a diverse mix of land ownerships, land use allocations, and environments. Three different management scenarios were developed from public input: (1) no management except wildfire suppression...

  16. South Cascade Glacier bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, A.G.; Fulk, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    South Cascade Glacier, in Washington State, resides in a well-defined basin with mainly unglacierized divides making it ideal for most glaciological and hydrological studies. This bibliography is divided into three cateogories: (1) studies done about South Cascade Glacier specifically; (2) studies that use data from South Cascade Glacier but do not focus on or give insight to the glacier itself; and (3) instrumentation studies and non-glacier projects including snow studies done in the basin. (ACR)

  17. Electrophilic and nucleophilic enzymatic cascade reactions in biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ueberbacher, Barbara T; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    The biosynthesis of cyclic terpenoids and polyethers involves enzyme-initiated cascade reactions for ring formation. While the former are obtained by electrophilic cascades through carbenium ions as intermediates, cyclic polyethers are formed by nucleophilic cascade reactions of (poly)epoxide precursors. These mechanistically complementary pathways follow common principles via (i) triggering of the cascade by forming a reactive intermediate ('initiation'), (ii) sequential 'proliferation' of the cyclization and finally (iii) 'termination' of the cascade. As analyzed in this concept paper, the multiplicity of precursors, combined with various initiation and termination routes and kinetically favored or disfavored cyclization modes accounts for the enormous diversity in cyclic terpenoid and polyether scaffolds. Although the essential role of enzymes in the triggering of these cascades is reasonably well understood, remarkably little is known about their influence in proliferation reactions, especially those implying kinetically disfavored (anti-Markovnikov and anti-Baldwin) routes. Mechanistic analysis of enzymatic cascade reactions provides biomimetic strategies for natural product synthesis.

  18. Timber resources of northwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Mary A. Mei

    1979-01-01

    This report presents statistics from a 1976 timber resource inventory of 10 counties in northwest Oregon: Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill. Tables presented are of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest.

  19. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  20. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  1. OLALLIE ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Neumann, Terry R.

    1984-01-01

    The Olallie Roadless Area, Oregon, is devoid of mines and mineral prospects, and a mineral-resource evaluation of the area did not identify any mineral-resource potential. There is no evidence that fossil fuels are present in the roadless area. Nearby areas in Clackamas, Marion, Jefferson, and Wasco Counties are characterized by higher-than-normal heat flow and by numerous thermal springs, some of which have been partly developed. this may indicate that the region has some, as yet undefined, potential for the development of geothermal energy. Lack of thermal springs or other evidence of localized geothermal anomalies within the roadless area may be the result of masking by young, nonconductive rock units and by the flooding out and dilution of rising thermal waters by cool meteoric water.

  2. An update of Quaternary faults of central and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, Ray J.; Fletcher, D.K.; Weldon, E.M.; Scharer, K.M.; McCrory, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. We have updated the eastern portion of our previous active fault map of Oregon (Pezzopane, Nakata, and Weldon, 1992) as a contribution to the larger USGS effort to produce digital maps of active faults in the Pacific Northwest region. The 1992 fault map has seen wide distribution and has been reproduced in essentially all subsequent compilations of active faults of Oregon. The new map provides a substantial update of known active or suspected active faults east of the Cascades. Improvements in the new map include (1) many newly recognized active faults, (2) a linked ArcInfo map and reference database, (3) more precise locations for previously recognized faults on shaded relief quadrangles generated from USGS 30-m digital elevations models (DEM), (4) more uniform coverage resulting in more consistent grouping of the ages of active faults, and (5) a new category of 'possibly' active faults that share characteristics with known active faults, but have not been studied adequately to assess their activity. The distribution of active faults has not changed substantially from the original Pezzopane, Nakata and Weldon map. Most faults occur in the south-central Basin and Range tectonic province that is located in the backarc portion of the Cascadia subduction margin. These faults occur in zones consisting of numerous short faults with similar rates, ages, and styles of movement. Many active faults strongly correlate with the most active volcanic centers of Oregon, including Newberry Craters and Crater Lake.

  3. Theory of cascade refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quack, Hans H.

    2012-06-01

    The maximum difference between the warm and cold temperature of a refrigeration cycle is limited by properties of the refrigerant and/or losses associated with the transport of the refrigerant. For larger temperature differences, one has to arrange several refrigeration cycles "above" each other, each cycle spanning a certain temperature difference. This approach is called cascade refrigeration and has played an important role in the history of cryogenics. For a theory of cascade refrigeration it is helpful to define a general one-stage non-reversible refrigeration step and to visualize it within the temperature-entropy diagram. Then one can combine several one-stage cycles to a cascade. There exist two types of cascades: "Full" cascades, where all entropy gains of a lower stage are transferred to the next higher temperature stage, and "partial" cascades, where each single cycle goes up to ambient temperature, where a part of the entropy gain is removed, and only the rest of the entropy gain is transferred to the next higher temperature stage. In cryogenic refrigeration "partial" cascades are generally more efficient than "full" cascades.

  4. Distribution of hypertension and renal disease in Oregon.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, W E; Knudsen, J C; Porter, G A

    1975-01-01

    Expecting to find agreement between the geographic distribution of hypertension and renal disease, we developed regional mortality rates for 1950-72 and prevalence rates for a Selective Service cohort born in 1939-41 and examined during 1957-69. For this purpose the State's counties were grouped into eight geographically homogeneous regions. The general decline in hypertension mortality was most pronounced in Portland, Oregon's major urban center. However, the decline halted during 1968-72 in the southern Cascade region which has become an area of relatively higher risk within the State. During these 23 years nephritis mortality fell, kidney infection mortality was stable, and both syndromes showed peak mortality in other, different regions of the State. The geographic pattern of hypertension prevalence among the draftee cohort resembled the 1963-67 hypertension mortality pattern, but more recent morbidity data are needed to confirm the southern Cascade region's recent change to a high-risk area. Of 529 draftees with diagnosed hypertension, only 35 percent of the cases were previously known, only 7 percent has had any previous treatment, and only 7 percent were associated with known renal conditions. Among 521 registrants with a history of renal disorders, the prevalence of hypertension was increased for all categories of renal disease but was significantly high only for those with a history of glomerulonephritis. To date in Oregon we have found no evidence that renal disorders are major determinants of hypertension morbidity or mortality. PMID:803695

  5. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for ponderosa pine in central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1994-07-01

    The report includes an adaptive genetic variation in seed and seedling traits for ponderosa pine from the east slopes of the Cascade Range in Oregon which was analyzed by using 307 families from 227 locations. Factor scores from three principal components based on seed and seedling traits were related by multiple regression to latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect of the seed sources and by classification analysis to seed zone and 300-meter elevation band within zone. A provisional transfer risk equation and tentative new seed zones were delineated to guide seed transfer in artificial regeneration.

  6. Genetic variation and seed transfer guidelines for lodgepole pine in Central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    Pine cones were collected from 272 trees at 189 locations uniformly distributed over the east slopes of the Oregon Cascade Range and Warner Mountains. Variation in seed and seedling traits was related to (1) seed source latitude, distance from the Cascade crest, elevation, slope, and aspect in multiple regression analyses; and (2) seed zone and elevation band in classification analyses. Provisional seed transfer guidelines are presented. These include a regression equation for guiding seed transfer and estimating transfer risk, and a new outline of fixed seed zones.

  7. Forest dynamics in Oregon landscapes: evaluation and application of an individual-based model.

    PubMed

    Busing, Richard T; Solomon, Allen M; McKane, Robert B; Burdick, Connie A

    2007-10-01

    The FORCLIM model of forest dynamics was tested against field survey data for its ability to simulate basal area and composition of old forests across broad climatic gradients in western Oregon, USA. The model was also tested for its ability to capture successional trends in ecoregions of the west Cascade Range. It was then applied to simulate present and future (1990-2050) forest landscape dynamics of a watershed in the west Cascades. Various regimes of climate change and harvesting in the watershed were considered in the landscape application. The model was able to capture much of the variation in forest basal area and composition in western Oregon even though temperature and precipitation were the only inputs that were varied among simulated sites. The measured decline in total basal area from tall coastal forests eastward to interior steppe was matched by simulations. Changes in simulated forest dominants also approximated those in the actual data. Simulated abundances of a few minor species did not match actual abundances, however. Subsequent projections of climate change and harvest effects in a west Cascades landscape indicated no change in forest dominance as of 2050. Yet, climate-driven shifts in the distributions of some species were projected. The simulation of both stand-replacing and partial-stand disturbances across western Oregon improved agreement between simulated and actual data. Simulations with fire as an agent of partial disturbance suggested that frequent fires of low severity can alter forest composition and structure as much or more than severe fires at historic frequencies.

  8. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image from August 14, 2002, shows the burn scar associated with the enormous blaze. The visualization uses ASTER's 30-meter-resolution, short-wave infrared bands to minimize smoke contamination and enhance the burn scar, which appears purple amid green vegetation. Actively burning areas of the fire appear very light purple. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire, which was 390, 276 acres as of Friday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained. Credit: This image was acquired on an expedited basis as part of NASA Wildfire Response Team activities. Image courtesy Mike Abrams, Simon Hook, and the ASTER team at EROS Data Center DAAC.

  9. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image from August 14, 2002, shows the burn scar associated with the enormous blaze. The visualization uses ASTER's 30-meter-resolution, short-wave infrared bands to minimize smoke contamination and enhance the burn scar, which appears purple amid green vegetation. Actively burning areas of the fire appear very light purple. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire, which was 390, 276 acres as of Friday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained. Credit: This image was acquired on an expedited basis as part of NASA Wildfire Response Team activities. Image courtesy Mike Abrams, Simon Hook, and the ASTER team at EROS Data Center DAAC.

  10. 5. VIEW OF UPPER AND LOWER CASCADE BRIDGES AND CASCADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER AND LOWER CASCADE BRIDGES AND CASCADE CREEK FROM 100 YARDS WEST OF THE ROSTRUM (ROCK FORMATION ON SOUTH SIDE OF MERCED RIVER). HIGHWAY 140 IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. HIGHWAY 120, THE BIG OAK FLAT ROAD CROSSES FRAME JUST ABOVE CENTER. - Cascade Creek Bridge, Spanning Cascade Creek on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. 27 CFR 9.229 - Elkton Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elkton Oregon. 9.229... Elkton Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Elkton Oregon... of part 4 of this chapter, “Elkton Oregon” and “Elkton OR” are terms of viticultural significance....

  12. 27 CFR 9.229 - Elkton Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elkton Oregon. 9.229... Elkton Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Elkton Oregon... of part 4 of this chapter, “Elkton Oregon” and “Elkton OR” are terms of viticultural significance....

  13. 77 FR 23791 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of OREGON dated 04/02/2012... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Marion. Contiguous Counties: Oregon:...

  14. Teenage Suicide in Oregon 1983-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Portland.

    During the 3-year period from 1983 through 1985, 80 Oregon teenagers intentionally took their own lives, making suicide second only to accidents as the leading cause of death among Oregon teenagers. Data on suicides committed by individuals between the ages of 10 and 19 were retrieved from death certificates on file with the Oregon Health Division…

  15. Report on Graduate Education in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mater, Jean; And Others

    A Citizens Advisory Committee--a blue ribbon commission--reviewed graduate education in the Oregon State System of Higher Education, focusing on the priorities, needs, and resources of the state. With respect to employment and research needs of Oregon and the nation as justification for graduate programs in Oregon, conclusions include the…

  16. Population structure of Phytophthora ramorum in Oregon

    Treesearch

    Simone Prospero; Jennifer Britt; Niklaus Grünwald; Everett Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is infecting plants in Oregon forests and nurseries. In this study, we analyzed the population structure of the P. ramorum in Oregon from 2001 to 2004 using microsatellites. The P. ramorum population in Oregon is characterized by low genetic diversity, significant genetic differences between...

  17. Teenage Suicide in Oregon 1983-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Portland.

    During the 3-year period from 1983 through 1985, 80 Oregon teenagers intentionally took their own lives, making suicide second only to accidents as the leading cause of death among Oregon teenagers. Data on suicides committed by individuals between the ages of 10 and 19 were retrieved from death certificates on file with the Oregon Health Division…

  18. Forests of western Oregon: an overview.

    Treesearch

    Sally Campbell; Dave Azuma; Dale. Weyermann

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides highlights of forest inventories and surveys from 1993 to 2000. It presents both traditional and nontraditional information about western Oregon’s forests.The amount of forest land in western Oregon has changed little since the earliest inventory in 1930. About 80 percent of western Oregon is forested. Fifty tree species were tallied in forest...

  19. Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

    1988-01-01

    Newberry Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7-0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data. -Authors

  20. Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

    1988-09-10

    Newberry, Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.

  1. Electrical structure of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the volcano (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank locations. The volcano sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of the Pelican Butte area, S. Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, C.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Cascade mountain range consists of a linear chain of composite volcanoes extending from British Columbia to northern California. The volcanic rocks of the Cascades range in age from Miocene to Holocene. They are believed to result from subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate. The area studied is located in the southeastern Oregon Cascades, near Fish Lake, Oregon. Little formal mapping of this area has been done. The purpose of the project was to describe the volcanic units in a seven square mile map area located on the southwestern flank of Pelican Butte. Pelican Butte is a large eruptive center northeast of Mt. McLoughlin. Its summit has been dated at 0.54 Ma + 0.05 Ma. The rocks range in composition from basalts to andesites. Outcrops are generally blocky flows, some of which are associated with pyroclastic material. The overall mineralogy consists of plagioclase feldspar, olivine, [+-] clinopyroxene, [+-] orthopyroxene. In order to investigate genetic relationships between basaltic and andesitic compositions, incompatible elements were plotted on a Cartesian coordinate system. On such a plot, ratios of incompatible elements remain constant among units whose source is the same. A La/Ba plot shows two distinct groups (andesites and basalts) which represent two distinct magmatic sources. The ratios of light REE's, CeN/LaN, however, are within error for all compositions. This suggests a similar mantle source for both basalts and andesites. The increase in Ba in the andesitic compositions may indicate crustal contamination of the mantle source. The trends within compositional groups probably result from crystal fractionation but no fractionation evidence exists between compositional groups.

  3. Natural tree regeneration and coarse woody debris dynamics after a forest fire in the western Cascade Range

    Treesearch

    Martin J. Brown; Jane Kertis; Mark H. Huff

    2013-01-01

    We monitored coarse woody debris dynamics and natural tree regeneration over a 14-year period after the 1991 Warner Creek Fire, a 3631-ha (8,972-ac) mixed severity fire in the western Cascade Range of Oregon. Rates for tree mortality in the fire, postfire mortality, snag fall, and snag fragmentation all showed distinct patterns by tree diameter and species, with...

  4. Biocatalysis: Chiral cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T.

    2015-12-01

    Racemic or enantiomerically pure alcohols can be converted with high yield into enantiopure chiral amines in a one-pot redox-neutral cascade process by the clever combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase and an appropriate amine dehydrogenase.

  5. Potential hydrologic effects of developing coal and other geoenergy resources in Oregon: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sidle, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Geoenergy resources in Oregon, in addition to coal, include noncommercial deposits of oil shale, natural gas, and geothermal heat. Commercial quantities of natural gas were discovered at Mist in northwestern Oregon in 1979. Gas presently is being produced from five wells and additional exploratory drilling is underway. More than 2 million acres of Oregon land is under lease for petroleum and natural gas exploration, mostly in the Astoria embayment-Willamette syncline, central (Oregon) Paleozoic-Mesozoic basin, and eastern Tertiary nonmarine basin. The Cascade Range and eastern Oregon contain sizable resources of geothermal heat, of which a small part has been developed for space heating at Klamath Falls and Lakeview. Thirteen Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's) comprising 432,000 acres have been identified, 422,000 acres are currently leased for geothermal development. KGRA's judged to have potential for generation of electrical power are Newberry Crater, Crump Geyser, and Alvord Desert. No adverse hydrologic effects have been noted to date from coal or other geoenergy exploration or development in Oregon, and no effects are expected if federal and state regulations are adhered to. The southwestern Oregon coals would have to be mined by underground methods. Potential hydrologic impacts would be local increases in sedimentation, turbidity, and mineralization of surface and ground water. Water-quality degradation, including both thermal pollution and increased concentrations of dissolved minerals, could result from geothermal development. Other potential problems include land subsidence and consumptive use of water associated with both coal and geothermal development. 53 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Oregon's experience: evaluating the record.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ronald A

    2009-03-01

    Prior to passage of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, opponents of assistance in dying argued that legalization would have serious harmful consequences. Specifically, they argued that the quality and availability of palliative care would decline, that the harms of legalization would affect certain vulnerable groups disproportionately, that legal assisted dying could not be confined to the competent terminally ill who voluntarily request assistance, and that the practice would result in frequent abuses. Data from Oregon's decade-long experience decisively refute the first three predictions. As to abuses, the record is not quite as clear, but if an appropriate framework for analysis is utilized, the most reasonable conclusion is that the risks of abuse do not outweigh the benefits of legalization. To the extent projected harmful consequences are relevant to the debate over legalization, Oregon's experience argues in favor of legalization of assistance in dying.

  7. The nitrogen cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway J.N.; Aber J.D.; Erisman J.W.; Seitzinger S.P.; Howarth R.W.; Cowling E.B.; Cosby B.J.

    2003-04-01

    Human production of food and energy is the dominant continental process that breaks the triple bond in molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and creates reactive nitrogen (Nr) species. Circulation of anthropogenic Nr in Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere has a wide variety of consequences, which are magnified with time as Nr moves along its biogeochemical pathway. The same atom of Nr can cause multiple effects in the atmosphere, in terrestrial ecosystems, in freshwater and marine systems, and on human health. We call this sequence of effects the nitrogen cascade. As the cascade progresses, the origin of Nr becomes unimportant. Reactive nitrogen does not cascade at the same rate through all environmental systems; some systems have the ability to accumulate Nr, which leads to lag times in the continuation of the cascade. These lags slow the cascade and result in Nr accumulation in certain reservoirs, which in turn can enhance the effects of Nr on that environment. The only way to eliminate Nr accumulation and stop the cascade is to convert Nr back to nonreactive N{sub 2}.

  8. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development plans. (5) Formulation and

  9. Lee v. State of Oregon.

    PubMed

    1995-08-03

    The U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon found unconstitutional the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, which allows a terminally ill patient to obtain a doctor's prescription for a fatal drug dosage in order to commit suicide. The court held that the state law, which classified competent terminally ill patients as a group and established procedures for them to opt for assisted suicide, was not rationally related to any legitimate state interest for purposes of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Ammendment. The law did not ensure rational and voluntary decision making by the terminally ill.

  10. Indians In Oregon Today. Oregon Middle School - High School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Floy

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this publication is to provide current, accurate information to teachers and students about the Indian tribes living in the state of Oregon. Too often information about Indian tribes is stereotypic, inaccurate, and outdated. A number of Indian tribes have worked on the development of this document, using the "Oregon…

  11. Cascading failure and robustness in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Smart, Ashley G; Amaral, Luis A N; Ottino, Julio M

    2008-09-09

    We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in the metabolic networks of Escherichia coli, Methanosarcina barkeri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a cascading failure model based on a topological flux balance criterion. We find that, compared to appropriate null models, the metabolic networks are exceptionally robust. Furthermore, by decomposing each network into rigid clusters and branched metabolites, we demonstrate that the enhanced robustness is related to the organization of branched metabolites, as rigid cluster formations in the metabolic networks appear to be consistent with null model behavior. Finally, we show that cascading in the metabolic networks can be described as a percolation process.

  12. Cascading failure and robustness in metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Ashley G.; Amaral, Luis A. N.; Ottino, Julio M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in the metabolic networks of Escherichia coli, Methanosarcina barkeri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a cascading failure model based on a topological flux balance criterion. We find that, compared to appropriate null models, the metabolic networks are exceptionally robust. Furthermore, by decomposing each network into rigid clusters and branched metabolites, we demonstrate that the enhanced robustness is related to the organization of branched metabolites, as rigid cluster formations in the metabolic networks appear to be consistent with null model behavior. Finally, we show that cascading in the metabolic networks can be described as a percolation process. PMID:18765805

  13. FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

    2009-03-30

    Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

  14. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  15. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Oregon have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecoregi...

  16. Oregon's forest products industry: 1988.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of all primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1988. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of...

  17. Oregon's forest products industry: 1982.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1982. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tabular presentations include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed, and...

  18. Oregon's forest products industry: 1985.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Franklin R. Ward

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent survey of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1985. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature...

  19. Oregon's forest products industry: 1994.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed,...

  20. Oregon's forest products industry: 1992.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in. Oregon for 1992. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer and plywood; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of...

  1. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oregon Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oregon state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  2. Oregon Agriculture I Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package was developed to be used as a guide for high school vocational agriculture teachers in Oregon preparing a curriculum to meet local community/regional needs. A second goal of this curriculum is to eliminate sex-bias or sex-role stereotyping in vocational agriculture classes. The curriculum contains 20 units. Topics covered…

  3. Timber resources of southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Patricia M. Bassett

    1979-01-01

    This report presents statistics from a 1973 inventory of timber resources of Douglas County and from a 1974 inventory of timber resources of Coos, Curry, Jackson, and Josephine Counties, Oregon. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality.

  4. Oregon Agriculture I Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package was developed to be used as a guide for high school vocational agriculture teachers in Oregon preparing a curriculum to meet local community/regional needs. A second goal of this curriculum is to eliminate sex-bias or sex-role stereotyping in vocational agriculture classes. The curriculum contains 20 units. Topics covered…

  5. Lee v. State of Oregon.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M M

    1996-01-01

    HELD: Oregon's Death with Dignity Act, Measure 16, which legalizes physician-assisted suicide for certain terminally ill persons, violates the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution. Measure 16 fails to withstand even the lowest level of judicial scrutiny because the disparate treatment afforded the class of terminally ill persons does not further any legitimate state interest.

  6. Oregon Schools Begin Inspection, Cleanup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for environmental health inspections in schools. Reports on the results of a survey of Clackamas County (Oregon) school kitchens, in relation to a high incidence of hepatitis A. Describes the variety of violations found and urges that schools no longer be exempt from state health division regulations. (TW)

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oregon Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oregon state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  8. Oregon's forest products industry: 1976.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard; Bruce A. Hiserote

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent canvas of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1976. Tabular presentation includes characteristics of the industry log consumption and disposition of mill residues. Accompanying the tables is a descriptive analysis of conditions and trends in the industry.

  9. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Oregon have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecoregi...

  10. Oregon Schools Begin Inspection, Cleanup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for environmental health inspections in schools. Reports on the results of a survey of Clackamas County (Oregon) school kitchens, in relation to a high incidence of hepatitis A. Describes the variety of violations found and urges that schools no longer be exempt from state health division regulations. (TW)

  11. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  12. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  13. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  14. Lakeview, Oregon, Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Linard, Joshua; Hall, Steve

    2016-03-01

    9.1 Compliance Summary The Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I Disposal Site was inspected September 16 and 17, 2015. Other than some ongoing concern with erosion-control rock riprap degradation, the disposal cell was in good condition. Some minor fence repairs and vegetation removal, and minor erosion repair work along the west site fence is planned. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up or contingency inspection. Disposal cell riprap is evaluated annually to ensure continued long-term protection of the cell from erosion during a severe precipitation event. Degradation of the rock riprap was first observed at the site in the mid-1990s. Rock gradation monitoring of the riprap on the west side slope has been performed as part of the annual inspection since 1997 to determine the mean diameter (D50) value. As prescribed by the monitoring procedure, the rock monitoring is routinely conducted at random locations. However, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) request, the 2015 rock monitoring approach deviated from the normal procedure by using a pre-established monitoring grid in a subset area of the west side slope. This changed the monitoring approach from random sampling to biased sampling. The D50 value measured during the 2015 gradation monitoring is 2.39 inches, which falls below the original D50 design size range of 2.7–3.9 inches for the Type B size side slope riprap. At NRC’s request, rock durability monitoring was added to the gradation monitoring in 2009 to monitor durability by rock type. Results of the 2015 durability monitoring showed that74 percent of the total rock sampled is durability class code A rock with an assigned durability class of “highly durable” or durability class code B “durable” rock, and that over 90 percent of the 3-inch or larger rock is durability class code A or B. The rock durability

  15. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  16. The ecology and management of moist mixed-conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington: a synthesis of the relevant biophysical science and implications for future land management

    Treesearch

    Peter Stine; Paul Hessburg; Thomas Spies; Marc Kramer; Christopher J. Fettig; Andrew Hansen; John Lehmkuhl; Kevin O' Hara; Karl Polivka; Peter Singleton; Susan Charnley; Andrew Merschel; Rachel. White

    2014-01-01

    Land managers in the Pacific Northwest have reported a need for updated scientific information on the ecology and management of mixed-conifer forests east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Of particular concern are the moist mixed-conifer forests, which have become drought-stressed and vulnerable to high-severity fire after decades of human disturbances...

  17. Development of GaN/AlGaN Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-19

    AFOSR-Taiwan Nanoscience Initiative Project Final Report Project Title Development of GaN /AlGaN Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser...DATES COVERED 14-06-2007 to 13-06-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of GaN -Based Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the GaN /AlGaN active region for terahertz quantum cascade lasers using MOCVD system based on the quantum cascade structure proposed by Prof. Greg Sun

  18. Hadron cascades produced by electromagnetic cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, T.M.; Ranft, J.

    1986-12-01

    A method for calculating high energy hadron cascades induced by multi-GeV electron and photon beams is described. Using the EGS4 computer program, high energy photons in the EM shower are allowed to interact hadronically according to the vector meson dominance (VMD) model, facilitated by a Monte Carlo version of the dual multistring fragmentation model which is used in the hadron cascade code FLUKA. The results of this calculation compare very favorably with experimental data on hadron production in photon-proton collisions and on the hadron production by electron beams on targets (i.e., yields in secondary particle beam lines). Electron beam induced hadron star density contours are also presented and are compared with those produced by proton beams. This FLUKA-EGS4 coupling technique could find use in the design of secondary beams, in the determination high energy hadron source terms for shielding purposes, and in the estimation of induced radioactivity in targets, collimators and beam dumps.

  19. Resonant Cascaded Downconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Weedbrook, Christian; Parrett, Ben; Kheruntsyan, Karen; Drummond, Peter; Pooser, Raphael C; Pfister, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We analyze an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in which cascaded down-conversion occurs inside a cavity resonant for all modes but the initial pump. Due to the resonant cascade design, the OPO presents two {chi}{sup (2)}-level oscillation thresholds that are therefore much lower than for a {chi}{sup (3)} OPO. This is promising for reaching the regime of an effective third-order nonlinearity well above both thresholds. Such a {chi}{sup (2)} cascaded device also has potential applications in frequency conversion to far-infrared regimes. But, most importantly, it can generate novel multipartite quantum correlations in the output radiation, which represent a step beyond squeezed or entangled light. The output can be highly non-Gaussian and therefore not describable by any semiclassical model. In this paper, we derive quantum stochastic equations in the positive-P representation and undertake an analysis of steady-state and dynamical properties of this system.

  20. Critical Mandelbrot Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, Julien; Kupiainen, Antti; Nikula, Miika; Saksman, Eero; Webb, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We study Mandelbrot's multiplicative cascade measures at the critical temperature. As has been recently shown by Barral et al. (C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 350:535-538, 2012), an appropriately normalized sequence of cascade measures converges weakly in probability to a nontrivial limit measure. We prove that these limit measures have no atoms and give bounds for the modulus of continuity of the cumulative distribution function of the measure. Using the earlier work of Barral and Seuret (Adv Math 214:437-468, 2007), we compute the multifractal spectrum of the measures. We also extend the result of Benjamini and Schramm (Commun Math Phys 289:653-662, 2009), in which the KPZ formula from quantum gravity is validated for the high temperature cascade measures, to the critical and low temperature cases.

  1. Cascade reactions catalyzed by metal organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2014-09-01

    Cascade or tandem reactions where two or more individual reactions are carried out in one pot constitute a clear example of process intensification, targeting the maximization of spatial and temporal productivity with mobilization of minimum resources. In the case of catalytic reactions, cascade processes require bi-/multifunctional catalysts that contain different classes of active sites. Herein, we show that the features and properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these solids very appropriate materials for the development of catalysts for cascade reactions. Due to composition and structure, MOFs can incorporate different types of sites at the metal nodes, organic linkers, or at the empty internal pores, allowing the flexible design and synthesis of multifunctional catalysts. After some introductory sections on the relevance of cascade reactions from the point of view of competitiveness, sustainability, and environmental friendliness, the main part of the text provides a comprehensive review of the literature reporting the use of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts for cascade reactions including those that combine in different ways acid/base, oxidation/reduction, and metal-organic centers. The final section summarizes the current state of the art, indicating that the development of a first commercial synthesis of a high-added-value fine chemical will be a crucial milestone in this area.

  2. Harmonic cascade FEL designs for LUX

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.; Wurtele, J.; Corlett, J.N.; Fawley, W.M.; Zholents, A.; Wan, W.

    2004-07-16

    LUX is a design concept for an ultrafast X-ray science facility, based on an electron beam accelerated to GeV energies in are circulating linac. Included in the design are short duration (200 fs or shorter FWHM) light sources using multiple stages of higher harmonic generation, seeded by a 200-250 nm laser of similar duration. This laser modulates the energy of a group of electrons within the electron bunch; this section of the electron bunch then produces radiation at a higher harmonic after entering a second, differently tuned undulator. Repeated stages in a cascade yield increasing photon energies up to 1 keV. Most of the undulators in the cascade operate in the low-gain FEL regime. Harmonic cascades have been designed for each pass of the recirculating linac up to a final electron beam energy of 3.1 GeV. For a given cascade, the photon energy can be selected over a wide range by varying the seed laser frequency and the field strength in the undulators. We present simulation results using the codes GENESIS and GINGER, as well as the results of analytical models which predict FEL performance. We discuss lattice considerations pertinent for harmonic cascade FELs, as well as sensitivity studies and requirements on the electron beam.

  3. A Neogene structural dome in the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, N.; Coleman, R. G.

    1985-04-01

    Regional structural doming of Neogene age has affected rocks of the Klamath and Cascade mountains near the California-Oregon border. Evidence for this is seen in (1) subannular outcrop patterns of pre-Cretaceous lithotectonic units, (2) a crude pattern of radially oriented high-angle faults, (3) tilted Jurassic plutons, (4) tilted Cretaceous to Miocene strata, and (5) various geomorphological features. The age of doming is constrained by a major middle Miocene to earliest Pliocene angular unconformity within the Cascade Mountains and uplifted upper Miocene marine beds on the western edge of the Klamath Mountains. Uplift and doming may be the result of shortening in the Cascade fore-arc region or, more speculatively, the recent accretion of subducted material to the North American plate beneath the Klamath Mountains. *Present addresses: Mortimer, Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B4, Canada; Coleman, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025

  4. Collisional Cascades Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hilke; Pan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Collisional cascades are believed to be the primary mechanism operating in circumstellar dusty debris disks, and are thought to be important in the Kuiper and Asteroid belt. Collisional cascades transfer mass via destructive collisions from larger bodies to smaller ones. Their widespread occurrence and potential importance in understanding planet formation and planet-disk interactions have motivated detailed studies of collisional cascades. The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. We relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan & Sari (2005) can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. These differences in the size distribution power law index are very important when estimating the total disk mass, including larger bodies, by extrapolating from the observed dust masses. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies in, for example, extrasolar debris disks may constrain the total mass in large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies

  5. Triangular rogue wave cascades.

    PubMed

    Kedziora, David J; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Akhmediev, Nail

    2012-11-01

    By numerically applying the recursive Darboux transformation technique, we study high-order rational solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation that appear spatiotemporally as triangular arrays of Peregrine solitons. These can be considered as rogue wave cascades and complement previously discovered circular cluster forms. In this analysis, we reveal a general parametric restriction for their existence and investigate the interplay between cascade and cluster forms. As a result, we demonstrate how to generate many more hybrid rogue wave solutions, including semicircular clusters that resemble claws.

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Courtesy of Oregon Historical Society, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Courtesy of Oregon Historical Society, Photo from 'West Shore' VILLIARD HALL, 1886, DEADY HALL, 1876. - University of Oregon, Deady Hall, University of Oregon Campus, Eugene, Lane County, OR

  7. SCHLUMBERGER SOUNDING RESULTS OVER THE NEWBERRY VOLCANO AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Schlumberger soundings were made in the Newberry volcano area of Oregon to categorize the electrical properties of possible Cascade geothermal systems. An east-west geoelectric cross section constructed from the interpreted soundings shows a low-resistivity zone in the caldera, that corresponds to the increase in thermal gradient observed in a U. S. Geological Survey test well. Another low resistivity zone about 600 m deep is present just to the west of the caldera boundary. A north-south geoelectric cross section shows the configuration of the western low-resistivity zone. Maps of interpreted resistivity at depths of 750 and 1000 m show that the main low resistivity area west of the caldera has two tongues, one oriented easterly and the other oriented southerly.

  8. Howling about Trophic Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalewski, David

    2012-01-01

    Following evolutionary theory and an agriculture model, ecosystem research has stressed bottom-up dynamics, implying that top wild predators are epiphenomenal effects of more basic causes. As such, they are assumed expendable. A more modern co-evolutionary and wilderness approach--trophic cascades--instead suggests that top predators, whose…

  9. Quantum Cascade Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    predicted small linewidth enhancement factor of QC lasers was measured in outside collaboration ( Prof . Shun-Lien Chuang at UIUC) and confirmed to be...Gmachl, Michael C. Wanke, Federico Capasso, Albert L. Hutchinson, Deborah L. Sivco, Sung- Nee G. Chu, and Alfred Y. Cho “Surface plasmon quantum cascade

  10. Cascaded thermoacoustic devices

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2003-12-09

    A thermoacoustic device is formed with a resonator system defining at least one region of high specific acoustic impedance in an acoustic wave within the resonator system. A plurality of thermoacoustic units are cascaded together within the region of high specific acoustic impedance, where at least one of the thermoacoustic units is a regenerator unit.

  11. Inflation from flux cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guido; Gobbetti, Roberto; Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie L.

    2013-10-01

    When electric-type flux threads compact extra dimensions, a quantum nucleation event can break a flux line and initiate a cascade that unwinds many units of flux. Here, we present a novel mechanism for inflation based on this phenomenon. From the 4D point of view, the cascade begins with the formation of a bubble containing an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, but the vacuum energy inside the bubble is initially only slightly reduced, and subsequently decreases gradually throughout the cascade. If the initial flux number Q0 ≳ O (100), during the cascade the universe can undergo N ≳ 60 efolds of inflationary expansion with gradually decreasing Hubble constant, producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations with amplitude and tilt consistent with observation, and a potentially observable level of non-Gaussianity and tensor modes. The power spectrum has a small oscillatory component that does not decay away during inflation, with a period set approximately by the light-crossing time of the compact dimension(s). Since the ingredients are fluxes threading compact dimensions, this mechanism fits naturally into the string landscape, but does not appear to suffer from the eta problem or require fine-tuning (beyond the usual anthropic requirement of small vacuum energy after reheating).

  12. Howling about Trophic Cascades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalewski, David

    2012-01-01

    Following evolutionary theory and an agriculture model, ecosystem research has stressed bottom-up dynamics, implying that top wild predators are epiphenomenal effects of more basic causes. As such, they are assumed expendable. A more modern co-evolutionary and wilderness approach--trophic cascades--instead suggests that top predators, whose…

  13. Imaging the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Oregon using teleseismic P wave residuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.A.; Iyer, H.M.; Dawson, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Images the Juan de Fuca plate in southern Oregon using seismic tomography. P wave travel time residuals from a 366-km-long seismic array operated in southern Oregon in 1982 are inverted. The southeast striking array extended from the Coast ranges to the Modoc Plateau and crossed the High Cascades at Crater Lake, Oregon. Three features under the array were imaged: one high-velocity zone and two low-velocity zones. The high-velocity zone is 3-4% faster than the surrounding upper mantle. It dips steeply at 65?? to the east beneath the Cascade Range and extends down to at least 200 km. It is proposed that this high-velocity feature is subducted Juan de Fuca plate. Two low-velocity zones were also imaged, both of which are 3-4% slower than the surrounding earth structure. The southeastern low-velocity zone may be caused by partially molten crust underlying the Crater Lake volcano region. -from Authors

  14. Detecting long-term hydrological patterns at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.L.; Silsbee, D.G.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    1999-01-01

    Tree-ring chronologies for mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) were used to reconstruct the water level of Crater Lake, a high-elevation lake in the southern Cascade Range of Oregon. Reconstructions indicate that lake level since the late 1980s has been lower than at any point in the last 300 years except the early 1930s to mid 1940s. Lake level was consistently higher during the Little Ice Age than during the late 20th century; during the late 17th century, lake level was up to 9 m higher than recent (1980s and 1990s) low levels, which is consistent with paleoclimalic reconstructions of regional precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, instrumental data available for the 20th century suggest that there are strong teleconnections among atmospheric circulation (e.g., Pacific Decadal Oscillation), tree growth, and hydrology in southern Oregon. Crater Lake is sensitive to interannual, interdecadal and intercentenary variation in precipitation and atmospheric circulation, and can be expected to track both short-term and longterm variation in regional climatic patterns that may occur in the future.

  15. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. L.; Malone, S. D.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2011-03-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust.

  16. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Indians of Oregon; A Bibliography of Materials in the Oregon State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Leroy, Ed.

    Over 1300 publications are cited in this bibliography on the American Indians of Oregon. The citations represent the Oregon State Library collection of materials on Indians of the Pacific Northwest. Although the emphasis is on Indians of Oregon, materials about the Indians of California, Idaho, Montana, Washington, and British Columbia are cited…

  18. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  19. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  20. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  1. Lee v. State of Oregon.

    PubMed

    1994-12-27

    The U.S. District Court, District of Oregon, granted the plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction to Measure 16, a ballot measure passed by Oregon voters that authorizes physician-assisted suicide for the terminally ill. The plaintiffs were physicians, terminally ill patients, and residential care facilities, and they sued the state, challenging the constitutionality of Measure 16. The court held that (1) the plaintiffs had standing; (2) serious questions were presented as to whether the measure violated the plaintiffs' freedom of association, freedom of religion, due process, and equal protection rights; and (3) the balance of hardships favored the plaintiffs. The public interest in protecting vulnerable citizens from irreparable harm of death was held to be greater than the hardship to terminally ill patients who want physician-assisted suicide to be immediately available.

  2. Notes on the distribution of Oregon bats.

    Treesearch

    Chris Maser; Stephen P. Cross

    1981-01-01

    Distributional data are given for 15 species of bats known to occur in Oregon: Antrozous pallidus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Lasiurus cinereus, Myotis californicus, M. evotis, ...

  3. Emplacement of Holocene silicic lava flows and domes at Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanoes, California and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2017-07-19

    This field guide for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly 2017 focuses on Holocene glassy silicic lava flows and domes on three volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Oregon and California: Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanoes. Although obsidian-rich lava flows have been of interest to geologists, archaeologists, pumice miners, and rock hounds for more than a century, many of their emplacement characteristics had not been scientifically observed until two very recent eruptions in Chile. Even with the new observations, several eruptive processes discussed in this field trip guide can only be inferred from their final products. This makes for lively debates at outcrops, just as there have been in the literature for the past 30 years.Of the three volcanoes discussed in this field guide, one (South Sister) lies along the main axis defined by major peaks of the Cascade Range, whereas the other two lie in extensional tectonic settings east of the axis. These two tectonic environments influence volcano morphology and the magmatic and volcanic processes that form silicic lava flows and domes. The geomorphic and textural features of glass-rich extrusions provide many clues about their emplacement and the magma bodies that fed them.The scope of this field guide does not include a full geologic history or comprehensive explanation of hazards associated with a particular volcano or volcanic field. The geochemistry, petrology, tectonics, and eruption history of Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanic centers have been extensively studied and are discussed on other field excursions. Instead, we seek to explore the structural, textural, and geochemical evolution of well-preserved individual lava flows—the goal is to understand the geologic processes, rather than the development, of a specific volcano.

  4. Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

    2014-01-01

    The Three Fingered Jack debris flow is one of several that have issued from moraine-dammed lakes in the Oregon Cascade Range. A thorough summary of those lakes and the hazards associated with them was published in 2001, based largely on fieldwork by Jim O’Connor and Jasper Hardison in the early 1990s. Described here are details of the 2012 event, an update to the O’Connor story begun earlier.

  5. Transonic Cascade Measurements to Support Analytical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RECEIVED JUL 0 12005 FINAL REPORT FOR: AFOSR GRANT F49260-02-1-0284 TRANSONIC CASCADE MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT ANALYTICAL MODELING Paul A. Durbin ...PAD); 650-723-1971 (JKE) durbin @vk.stanford.edu; eaton@vk.stanford.edu submitted to: Attn: Dr. John Schmisseur Air Force Office of Scientific Research...both spline and control points for subsequent wall shape definitions. An algebraic grid generator was used to generate the grid for the blade-wall

  6. Volcano hazards in the Three Sisters region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, William E.; Iverson, R.M.; Schilling, S.P.; Fisher, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three potentially active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. Two types of volcanoes exist in the Three Sisters region and each poses distinct hazards to people and property. South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top, major composite volcanoes clustered near the center of the region, have erupted repeatedly over tens of thousands of years and may erupt explosively in the future. In contrast, mafic volcanoes, which range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater, are typically short-lived (weeks to centuries) and erupt less explosively than do composite volcanoes. Hundreds of mafic volcanoes scattered through the Three Sisters region are part of a much longer zone along the High Cascades of Oregon in which birth of new mafic volcanoes is possible. This report describes the types of hazardous events that can occur in the Three Sisters region and the accompanying volcano-hazard-zonation map outlines areas that could be at risk from such events. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the

  7. A cascade thermoacoustic engine.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D L; Swift, G W

    2003-10-01

    A cascade thermoacoustic engine is described, consisting of one standing-wave stage plus two traveling-wave stages in series. Most of the acoustic power is produced in the efficient traveling-wave stages. The straight-line series configuration is easy to build and allows no Gedeon streaming. The engine delivers up to 2 kW of acoustic power, with an efficiency (the ratio of acoustic power to heater power) of up to 20%. An understanding of the pressure and volume-velocity waves is very good. The agreement between measured and calculated powers and temperatures is reasonable. Some of the measured thermal power that cannot be accounted for by calculation can be attributed to Rayleigh streaming in the two thermal buffer tubes with the largest aspect ratios. A straightforward extension of this work should yield cascade thermoacoustic engines with efficiencies of around 35-40% of the Carnot efficiency.

  8. Ground-water hydrology of the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Terrence D.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Woodcock, Douglas; Herrera, Nora B.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The Willamette Basin encompasses a drainage of 12,000 square miles and is home to approximately 70 percent of Oregon's population. Agriculture and population are concentrated in the lowland, a broad, relatively flat area between the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Annual rainfall is high, with about 80 percent of precipitation falling from October through March and less than 5 percent falling in July and August, the peak growing season. Population growth and an increase in cultivation of crops needing irrigation have produced a growing seasonal demand for water. Because many streams are administratively closed to new appropriations in summer, ground water is the most likely source for meeting future water demand. This report describes the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system, and addresses the effects of ground-water development. This study defines seven regional hydrogeologic units in the Willamette Basin. The highly permeable High Cascade unit consists of young volcanic material found at the surface along the crest of the Cascade Range. Four sedimentary hydrogeologic units fill the lowland between the Cascade and Coast Ranges. Young, highly permeable coarse-grained sediments of the upper sedimentary unit have a limited extent in the floodplains of the major streams and in part of the Portland Basin. Extending over much of the lowland where the upper sedimentary unit does not occur, silts and clays of the Willamette silt unit act as a confining unit. The middle sedimentary unit, consisting of permeable coarse-grained material, occurs beneath the Willamette silt and upper sedimentary units and at the surface as terraces in the lowland. Beneath these units is the lower sedimentary unit, which consists of predominantly fine-grained sediments. In the northern part of the basin, lavas of the Columbia River basalt unit occur at the surface in uplands and beneath the basin-fill sedimentary units. The Columbia River basalt unit contains multiple

  9. Superconducting cascade electron refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Camarasa-Gómez, M.; Giazotto, F.; Di Marco, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Courtois, H.

    2014-05-12

    The design and operation of an electronic cooler based on a combination of superconducting tunnel junctions is described. The cascade extraction of hot-quasiparticles, which stems from the energy gaps of two different superconductors, allows for a normal metal to be cooled down to about 100 mK starting from a bath temperature of 0.5 K. We discuss the practical implementation, potential performance, and limitations of such a device.

  10. Information cascade on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barabási-Albert (BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters-herders and independents-and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discuss the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade transition prevails when herder effects are stronger than the super-normal transition. In the BA and fitness models, the critical point of the information cascade transition is the same as that of the random network model. However, the critical point of the super-normal transition disappears when these two models are used. In conclusion, the influence of networks is shown to only affect the convergence speed and not the information cascade transition. We are therefore able to conclude that the influence of hubs on voters' perceptions is limited.

  11. Maxwellian cascade model

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.

    1989-11-01

    A model for gamma-ray cascade de-excitation of a nucleus derived from the Maxwellian energy distribution function but imposing energy conservation was investigated. Energy distributions and multiplicities and their averages were found over a range of nuclear temperatures and excitation energies appropriate to neutron capture. The model was compared to existing measurements for tantalum, a case where the level density was high and thus a good approximation to the model. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Public acceptance of disturbance-based forest management: a study of the Blue River Landscape Strategy in the Central Cascades Adaptive Management Area.

    Treesearch

    Bruce Shindler; Angela L. Mallon

    2009-01-01

    This report examines public perspectives on disturbance-based management conducted in the central Cascade Range in Oregon as part of the Blue River Landscape Strategy. A mail survey to local residents was used to describe the public’s understanding of this form of management, identify perceived associated risks and potential barriers to implementation, and the overall...

  13. Cascade ICF power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-05-20

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO/sub 2/. The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor.

  14. Nested Canalyzing, Unate Cascade, and Polynomial Functions.

    PubMed

    Jarrah, Abdul Salam; Raposa, Blessilda; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2007-09-15

    This paper focuses on the study of certain classes of Boolean functions that have appeared in several different contexts. Nested canalyzing functions have been studied recently in the context of Boolean network models of gene regulatory networks. In the same context, polynomial functions over finite fields have been used to develop network inference methods for gene regulatory networks. Finally, unate cascade functions have been studied in the design of logic circuits and binary decision diagrams. This paper shows that the class of nested canalyzing functions is equal to that of unate cascade functions. Furthermore, it provides a description of nested canalyzing functions as a certain type of Boolean polynomial function. Using the polynomial framework one can show that the class of nested canalyzing functions, or, equivalently, the class of unate cascade functions, forms an algebraic variety which makes their analysis amenable to the use of techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra. As a corollary of the functional equivalence derived here, a formula in the literature for the number of unate cascade functions provides such a formula for the number of nested canalyzing functions.

  15. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  16. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  17. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oregon. 81.338 Section 81.338... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.338 Oregon. Oregon—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot...

  18. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oregon. 81.338 Section 81.338... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.338 Oregon. Oregon—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot...

  19. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oregon. 81.338 Section 81.338... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.338 Oregon. Oregon—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot...

  20. 76 FR 18288 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... State of Oregon (FEMA-1964- DR), dated 03/25/2011. Incident: Tsunami Wave Surge. Incident Period:...

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  2. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oregon. 81.338 Section 81.338... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.338 Oregon. Oregon—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and Secondary) Designated area Does not meet primary...

  3. 77 FR 14853 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... State of Oregon (FEMA-4055- DR), dated 03/02/2012. Incident: Severe Winter Storm, Flooding,...

  4. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  5. The Oregon Career and Technical Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Steven; Richards, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Oregon educators, policymakers, and business people are working together to increase the number and quality of Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs in secondary and postsecondary institutions. CTE is an integral component of Oregon's education and workforce development system and prepares students for careers in areas ranging from the…

  6. 76 FR 11835 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... State of Oregon (FEMA-1956- DR), dated 02/17/2011. Incident: Severe Winter Storm, Flooding,...

  7. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  8. 50 CFR 32.56 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oregon. 32.56 Section 32.56 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL... Oregon. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing, and are listed...

  9. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  10. Steller Cove. Oregon Zoo Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kristin

    The goal of this teacher guide is to promote education by providing resources and information to aid classroom teachers in using the Oregon Zoo as an educational setting. The unit also emphasizes the integration of science, mathematics, reading, writing, speaking, and problem solving. It is designed for grades 3-5 and is based on the Oregon State…

  11. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  12. Oregon Migrant Health Project, 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    The 1970 annual report on the Oregon Migrant Health Project discusses health services for migrant agricultural workers and their families (approximately 30,000 individuals) who worked and lived temporarily in various Oregon counties. As noted, some 9,000 of the 30,000 migrants were estimated to be in need of some type of medical service. Thus, the…

  13. Oregon Community Colleges Profile, 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Office of Community Coll. Services.

    This profile describes the 16 Oregon Community Colleges and their students, personnel, finances, facilities, and programs and services for the 1991-92 academic year. First, the address, phone number, and president of each college is listed and a map is provided showing the college's location in Oregon. Next, tables of data on students are…

  14. Steller Cove. Oregon Zoo Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kristin

    The goal of this teacher guide is to promote education by providing resources and information to aid classroom teachers in using the Oregon Zoo as an educational setting. The unit also emphasizes the integration of science, mathematics, reading, writing, speaking, and problem solving. It is designed for grades 3-5 and is based on the Oregon State…

  15. Forest statistics for west central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John W. Hazard; Melvin E. Metcalf

    1965-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the latest reinventory of four counties centrally located in western Oregon: Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn. This block of four counties is one of 10 such blocks set up in the States of Oregon and Washington by the Forest Survey to facilitate orderly reinventories of the timber resources. Each block will be reinventoried at...

  16. Oregon School Bond Manual. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Office of School District Services.

    Given that purchasers of Oregon school bonds rely on recommendations of accredited bond attorneys, this document is designed to assist school districts in complying with state statutes regulating the issuance of school bond issues in order that attorney opinions may be favorable. Six initial steps toward a bond sale and Oregon laws regarding bonds…

  17. Oregon School Bond Manual. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    To help school districts comply with Oregon's school bond laws, this manual provides guidelines for school district attorneys and personnel in the issuance and sale of school district bonds. The manual deals with the three primary types of Oregon school district borrowings: (1) general obligation bonds; (2) tax and revenue anticipation notes; and…

  18. Discrimination and the Oregon Educator. Eighth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Standards and Practices Commission, Salem, OR.

    This booklet describes in general terms the various federal and state laws, rules, and regulations about which Oregon teachers must knowledgeable. Knowledge of laws prohibiting discrimination is required by Oregon Revised Statute 342.123. The Teacher Standards and Practices Commission permits applicants for licensure to demonstrate knowledge of…

  19. Natural History of Oregon Coast Mammals

    Treesearch

    Chris Maser; Bruce R. Mate; Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness

    1981-01-01

    The book presents detailed information on the biology, habitats, and life histories of the 96 species of mammals of the Oregon coast. Soils, geology, and vegetation are described and related to wildlife habitats for the 65 terrestrial and 31 marine species. The book is not simply an identification guide to the Oregon coast mammals but is a dynamic portrayal of their...

  20. Epidemiology of Phytophthora ramorum in Oregon

    Treesearch

    E.M. Hansen; A. Kanaskie; E.M. Goheen; N. Osterbauer; W. Sutton

    2006-01-01

    We are studying how P. ramorum survives and spreads in Oregon tanoak forests. The Oregon outbreak is similar to the epidemic in redwood-tanoak forests of California, with several important differences, however. The disease is confined to scattered stands within a 12 m2 area, and it is subject to an ongoing eradication effort....

  1. Timber resource statistics for central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    John M. Berger

    1968-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the third inventory of the timber resources of nine counties in central Oregon: Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Sherman, Wasco, and Wheeler. This block of nine counties is one of 10 such blocks set up in the States of Oregon and Washington by the Forest Survey to facilitate orderly reinventories of the...

  2. On the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this lesson, students work with primary documents and latter-day photographs to recapture the experience of traveling on the Oregon Trail. The learning objectives of the lesson are: (1) to learn about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) to evaluate a historical re-enactment in light of documentary evidence; and (3) to synthesize…

  3. Oregon Migrant Health Project, 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    The 1970 annual report on the Oregon Migrant Health Project discusses health services for migrant agricultural workers and their families (approximately 30,000 individuals) who worked and lived temporarily in various Oregon counties. As noted, some 9,000 of the 30,000 migrants were estimated to be in need of some type of medical service. Thus, the…

  4. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  5. Dissolved Oxygen Data for Coos Estuary (Oregon)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is the transmittal of dissolved oxygen data collected in the Coos Estuary, Oregon to Ms. Molly O'Neill (University of Oregon), for use in her studies on the factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved oxygen in this estuary. These d...

  6. Oregon University System Fact Book 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This compendium of narrative and statistical information is an overview of the Oregon University System (OUS) and is the last Fact Book published under the auspices of the Oregon University System. The introduction includes a mission statement, a listing of OUS campuses and centers, a roster of the members of the State Board of Higher Education,…

  7. Snow Peak, Oregon: Latest Miocene low-K tholeiite volcanism in the Cascadia forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, A. K.; Nielsen, R. L.; Kent, A. J. R.; Rowe, M. C.; Duncan, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Snow Peak, Oregon, is a moderate size basaltic shield volcano (50-52 wt.% SiO2, > 7.4 km3) located within the forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone, ~ 50 km west of the current arc front. Herein we present new whole rock geochemistry, mineral chemistry and 11 new 40Ar/39Ar ages, together with petrologic modeling that allow us to constrain the timing and origin of volcanism. In contrast to previous K-Ar ages that suggested volcanism occurred at ~ 3 Ma, our new 40Ar/39Ar ages show that Snow Peak formed between 5.3 and 6 million years ago. The volcano lies unconformably on ~ 30 Ma volcanic rocks of the Western Cascades. Volcanism occurred over a total duration of < 0.5-1 Ma, and at eruption rates (~ 0.008-0.013 km3/ka), lower than those observed in large Cascade shield volcanoes. Snow Peak lavas derived from a single, or restricted set of primary magma compositions and evolved via crystal fractionation of olivine + pyroxene + plagioclase over a range of pressures equivalent to crustal depths of ~ 3-35 km, consistent with fractionation occurring primarily during crustal transit or residence. The most evolved Snow Peak lava can be produced by ~ 50% crystallization from a primary magma with > 14 wt.% MgO. Snow Peak lavas have trace element characteristics transitional between the calc-alkaline basalt (CAB) and low-K tholeiite (LKT) primary magma types recognized throughout the Cascade Range, but are closer to LKT and are classified as such. Estimates based on phase equilibria models and plagioclase hygrometers suggest that the primary magmas contained moderate amounts of water (1.5-2 wt.%), consistent with LILE/HFSE ratios that are greater than MORB values. Snow Peak is part of a widespread suite of LKT magmas that erupted between 5-8 Ma throughout the central Oregon Cascade Range in response to intra-arc rifting, and Snow Peak shows that LKT magmatism at this time extended well into the forearc of the central Oregon Cascade Range. Overall LKT magmas of this age occur

  8. 78 FR 8016 - Establishment of the Elkton Oregon Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 9 RIN 1513-AB88 Establishment of the Elkton Oregon...-acre ``Elkton Oregon'' viticultural area in Douglas County, Oregon. The viticultural area lies totally within the Umpqua Valley viticultural area and the multi-county Southern Oregon viticultural area....

  9. Forest dynamics in Oregon landscapes: Evaluation and application of an individual-based model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, R.T.; Solomon, A.M.; McKane, R.B.; Burdick, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The FORCLIM model of forest dynamics was tested against field survey data for its ability to simulate basal area and composition of old forests across broad climatic gradients in western Oregon, USA. The model was also tested for its ability to capture successional trends in ecoregions of the west Cascade Range. It was then applied to simulate present and future (1990-2050) forest landscape dynamics of a watershed in the west Cascades. Various regimes of climate change and harvesting in the watershed were considered in the landscape application. The model was able to capture much of the variation in forest basal area and composition in western Oregon even though temperature and precipitation were the only inputs that were varied among simulated sites. The measured decline in total basal area from tall coastal forests eastward to interior steppe was matched by simulations. Changes in simulated forest dominants also approximated those in the actual data. Simulated abundances of a few minor species did not match actual abundances, however. Subsequent projections of climate change and harvest effects in a west Cascades landscape indicated no change in forest dominance as of 2050. Yet, climate-driven shifts in the distributions of some species were projected. The simulation of both stand-replacing and partial-stand disturbances across western Oregon improved agreement between simulated and actual data. Simulations with fire as an agent of partial disturbance suggested that frequent fires of low severity can alter forest composition and structure as much or more than severe fires at historic frequencies. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Landslide assessment of Newell Creek Canyon, Oregon City, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Growney, L.; Burris, L.; Garletts, D.; Walsh, K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    A study has been conducted in Newell Creek Canyon near Oregon City, Oregon, T3S, T2S, R2E. A landslide inventory has located 53 landslides in the 2.8 km[sup 2] area. The landslides range in area from approximately 15,000m[sup 2] to 10m[sup 2]. Past slides cover an approximate 7% of the canyon area. Landslide processes include: slump, slump-translational, slump-earthflow and earthflow. Hard, impermeable clay-rich layers in the Troutdale Formation form the failure planes for most of the slides. Slopes composed of Troutdale material may seem to be stable, but when cuts and fills are produced, slope failure is common because of the perched water tables and impermeable failure planes. Good examples of cut and fill failures are present on Highway 213 which passes through Newell Creek Canyon. Almost every cut and fill has failed since the road construction began. The latest failure is in the fill located at mile-post 2.1. From data gathered, a slope stability risk map was generated. Stability risk ratings are divided into three groups: high, moderate and low. High risk of slope instability is designated to all landslides mapped in the slide inventory. Moderate risk is designated to slopes in the Troutdale Formation greater than 8[degree]. Low risk is designated to slopes in the Troutdale Formation less than 8[degree].

  11. Geologic assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources of the Western Oregon and Washington Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Le, P.A.; ,

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geology-based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States, focusing on the distribution, quantity, and availability of oil and natural gas resources. The USGS has completed an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in western Oregon and Washington (USGS Western Oregon and Washington Province 5004). The province includes all of Oregon and Washington north of the Klamath Mountains and west of the crest of the Cascade Range, and extends offshore to the 3-mi limit of State waters on the west and to the International Boundary in the Straits of Juan de Fuca and Canada on the north. It measures about 450 mi north-south and 50 to 160 mi east-west, encompassing more than 51,000 mi2. The assessment of the Western Oregon and Washington Province is geology based and used the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The geologic elements of a TPS include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (quality and distribution), and traps for hydrocarbon accumulation. Using these geologic criteria, two conventional and one unconventional (continuous) total petroleum systems were defined, with one assessment unit (AU) in each TPS: (1) the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite TPS and the Western Oregon and Washington Conventional Gas AU, (2) the Tertiary Marine TPS and the Tertiary-Marine Gas AU, and (3) the Tertiary Coalbed Gas TPS and the Eocene Coalbed Gas AU, in which a cell-based methodology was used to estimate coalbed-gas resources.

  12. Environmental Settings of Selected Streams Sampled for Mercury in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Amanda H.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 through 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted studies investigating mercury biogeochemistry and food-web bioaccumulation in eight streams from three distinct geographic areas of the United States. These streams varied greatly in environmental characteristics, including land-cover, hydrologic, climatic, and chemical characteristics. They ranged from a clear-water, high-gradient, low-percentage wetland stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, to an urban stream near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to a low-gradient, blackwater stream draining the Okefenokee and Pinhook Swamps along the Georgia-Florida border. This report summarizes the environmental settings of these eight streams.

  13. Geologic map of the Bend 30- x 60-minute quadrangle, central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Taylor, Edward M.; Ferns, Mark L.; Scott, William E.; Conrey, Richard M.; Smith, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This map presents the stratigraphic and structural setting of volcanic and sedimentary strata deposited during the past 35 million years across 4,430 km2 in central Oregon. Snowfall in the Cascade Range (west part of map area) recharges important aquifers in the Deschutes basin (central part of map). The area includes the majestic peaks of the Three Sisters volcanoes, where continued eruptions of basalt and rhyolite in the past 3,000 years indicate an ongoing volcanic hazard. The Sisters fault zone, with several potentially active faults, traverses the map from southeast to northwest.

  14. COMPACT CASCADE IMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Lippmann, M.

    1964-04-01

    A cascade particle impactor capable of collecting particles and distributing them according to size is described. In addition the device is capable of collecting on a pair of slides a series of different samples so that less time is required for the changing of slides. Other features of the device are its compactness and its ruggedness making it useful under field conditions. Essentially the unit consists of a main body with a series of transverse jets discharging on a pair of parallel, spaced glass plates. The plates are capable of being moved incremental in steps to obtain the multiple samples. (AEC)

  15. The Ufm1 Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Jens; Liebau, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (Ufm1) is a posttranslational modifier that belongs to the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) family. Ufm1 is present in nearly all eukaryotic organisms, with the exception of fungi. It resembles ubiquitin in its ability to be ligated to other proteins, as well as in the mechanism of ligation. While the Ufm1 cascade has been implicated in endoplasmic reticulum functions and cell cycle control, its biological role still remains poorly understood. In this short review, we summarize the current state of Ufm1 research and its potential role in human diseases, like diabetes, ischemic heart disease and cancer. PMID:24921187

  16. 78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 7, 2013, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/ b/a Oregon LNG) (Oregon LNG), 8100 NE Parkway Drive, Suite 165, Vancouver, WA 98662, filed in Docket No. CP9-6-001...

  17. 78 FR 3879 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment... Ranger District. The Fox Canyon Cluster project area is located approximately 35 miles east of Prineville... within the Big Summit Cluster Allotment Management Plans Final Environmental Impact Statement (Record...

  18. 78 FR 53581 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Oregon Spotted Frog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa), as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to this species. The effect of this regulation is to add this species to the list of Endangered and Threatened wildlife under the...

  19. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to volcanoes of the Cascades Arc in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.; Clynne, Michael A.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Ryan-Davis, Juliet

    2017-08-15

    The California Cascades field trip is a loop beginning and ending in Portland, Oregon. The route of day 1 goes eastward across the Cascades just south of Mount Hood, travels south along the east side of the Cascades for an overview of the central Oregon volcanoes (including Three Sisters and Newberry Volcano), and ends at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Day 2 and much of day 3 focus on Medicine Lake Volcano. The latter part of day 3 consists of a drive south across the Pit River into the Hat Creek Valley and then clockwise around Lassen Volcanic Center to the town of Chester, California. Day 4 goes from south to north across Lassen Volcanic Center, ending at Burney, California. Day 5 and the first part of day 6 follow a clockwise route around Mount Shasta. The trip returns to Portland on the latter part of day 6, west of the Cascades through the Klamath Mountains and the Willamette Valley. Each of the three sections of this guidebook addresses one of the major volcanic regions: Lassen Volcanic Center (a volcanic field that spans the volcanic arc), Mount Shasta (a fore-arc stratocone), and Medicine Lake Volcano (a rear-arc, shield-shaped edifice). Each section of the guide provides (1) an overview of the extensive field and laboratory studies, (2) an introduction to the literature, and (3) directions to the most important and accessible field localities. The field-trip sections contain far more stops than can possibly be visited in the actual 6-day 2017 IAVCEI excursion from Portland. We have included extra stops in order to provide a field-trip guide that will have lasting utility for those who may have more time or may want to emphasize one particular volcanic area.

  20. Crossover behavior in driven cascades.

    PubMed

    Burridge, James

    2013-09-01

    We propose a model which explains how power-law crossover behavior can arise in a system which is capable of experiencing cascading failure. In our model the susceptibility of the system to cascades is described by a single number, the propagation power, which measures the ease with which cascades propagate. Physically, such a number could represent the density of unstable material in a system, its internal connectivity, or the mean susceptibility of its component parts to failure. We assume that the propagation power follows an upward drifting Brownian motion between cascades, and drops discontinuously each time a cascade occurs. Cascades are described by a continuous state branching process with distributional properties determined by the value of the propagation power when they occur. In common with many cascading models, pure power-law behavior is exhibited at a critical level of propagation power, and the mean cascade size diverges. This divergence constrains large systems to the subcritical region. We show that as a result, crossover behavior appears in the cascade distribution when an average is performed over the distribution of propagation power. We are able to analytically determine the exponents before and after the crossover.

  1. Iowa and Eugene, Oregon, orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, the commitment of orthopaedic surgeons to basic and clinical research and evaluation of treatment outcomes has made possible remarkable improvements in the care of people with injuries and diseases of the limbs and spine. A group of Oregon orthopaedic surgeons has had an important role in these advances, especially in the orthopaedic specialties of sports medicine and hip reconstruction. Since Don Slocum (Iowa Orthopaedic Resident, 1934-1937), started practice in Eugene, Oregon, in 1939, three orthopaedic surgeons, Denny Collis, Craig Mohler and Paul Watson, who received their orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, and three orthopaedic surgeons, Stan James, Tom Wuest and Dan Fitzpatrick, who received their undergraduate, medical school and orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, have joined the group Dr. Slocum founded. These individuals, and their partners, established and have maintained a successful growing practice that serves the people of the Willamette valley, but in addition, they have made important contributions to the advancement of orthopaedics.

  2. Food handler assessment in Oregon.

    PubMed

    DeBess, Emilio E; Pippert, Eric; Angulo, Frederick J; Cieslak, Paul R

    2009-04-01

    This survey reports on the knowledge and practices of 407 food handlers (FHs) working at 67 randomly selected restaurants in Washington and Marion counties in Oregon. During April-September 2000, a 28-question survey distilled from a longer survey obtained from the Oregon Food Handler Certification Program was administered in writing. FHs present at the time of visit were surveyed regarding their knowledge of food safety and prevention of foodborne illness. The average score on the FH survey was 68%. Of the 407 participants, 84% were line staff and 16% were managers, 56% were women and 44% men, 68% were English-speaking Whites, 19% were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, 9% were Asian, and 42% had some college education. Managers scored 74%, while line staff scored 67%. Women scored 69%, and men scored 66%. Non-Hispanic Whites scored 72%, and Spanish-speaking Hispanics scored 54%. FH staff who reported some college education scored 73%, and those who did not report any college education scored 64%. Those with a food handlers card (FHC) scored 69%, while those without an FHC scored 63%. The results demonstrate a lack of food-safety knowledge among FHs that may result in the transmission of foodborne pathogens to the public during food preparation. Survey scores emphasize the need for educational programs to improve workers' knowledge of foodborne diseases and their transmission. The scores also illustrate the need for Spanish language education in food safety in these two counties.

  3. Iowa and Eugene, Oregon, Orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, the commitment of orthopaedic surgeons to basic and clinical research and evaluation of treatment outcomes has made possible remarkable improvements in the care of people with injuries and diseases of the limbs and spine. A group of Oregon orthopaedic surgeons has had an important role in these advances, especially in the orthopaedic specialties of sports medicine and hip reconstruction. Since Don Slocum (Iowa Orthopaedic Resident, 1934-1937), started practice in Eugene, Oregon, in 1939, three orthopaedic surgeons, Denny Collis, Craig Mohler and Paul Watson, who received their orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, and three orthopaedic surgeons, Stan James, Tom Wuest and Dan Fitzpatrick, who received their undergraduate, medical school and orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, have joined the group Dr. Slocum founded. These individuals, and their partners, established and have maintained a successful growing practice that serves the people of the Willamette valley, but in addition, they have made important contributions to the advancement of orthopaedics. PMID:14575262

  4. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2012-05-31

    Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

  5. Quantum dot cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an unambiguous quantum dot cascade laser based on InGaAs/GaAs/InAs/InAlAs heterostructure by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode and two-step strain compensation active region design. The prototype generates stimulated emission at λ ~ 6.15 μm and a broad electroluminescence band with full width at half maximum over 3 μm. The characteristic temperature for the threshold current density within the temperature range of 82 to 162 K is up to 400 K. Moreover, our materials show the strong perpendicular mid-infrared response at about 1,900 cm-1. These results are very promising for extending the present laser concept to terahertz quantum cascade laser, which would lead to room temperature operation. PACS 42.55.Px; 78.55.Cr; 78.67.Hc PMID:24666965

  6. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  7. Distribution of late Cenozoic volcanic vents in the Cascade Range: volcanic arc segmentation and regional tectonic considerations ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Weaver, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Spatial, temporal, and compositional distributions of c4000 volcanic vents formed since 16 Ma in Washington, Oregon, N California, and NW Nevada illustrate the evolution of volcanism related to subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate system and extension of the Basin and Range province. Vent data were obtained from published map compilations and include monogenetic and small polygenetic volcanoes in addition to major composite centers. On the basis of the distribution of 2821 vents formed since 5 Ma, the Cascade Range is divided into 5 segments, with vents of the High Lava Plains along the northern margin of the Basin and Range province in Oregon forming a sixth segment. Some aspects of the Cascade Range segmentation can be related to gross structural features of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate.-from Authors

  8. Deep crustal structure of the Cascade Range and surrounding regions from seismic refraction and magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, W.D.; Mooney, W.D.; Fuis, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    Several regional seismic refraction and magnetotelluric (MT) profiles have been completed across the Cascade Range and surrounding geologic provinces in California, Oregon, and Washington. Analysis of three MT and two seismic refraction profiles in Oregon and a coincident MT and refraction profile in northern California show a high degree of correlation between resistivity and velocity models. The main feature that is evident in both data sets is a highly conductive (2-20 ohm m) zone that occurs at depths of 6-20 km and largely within a midcrustal velocity layer of 6.4-6.6 km/s, overlying a lower crust with velocities of 7.0-7.4 km/s. Accretionary structures in the southern Washington Cascades have been shown to be related to stress release in the area of Mount St. Helens. In order to explain the similar structures in the MT and refraction models for Oregon and California, a model is proposed involving the effects of metamorphic zonation to produce the velocity structure, combined with metamorphically produced fluids and partial melt to produce the deep conductor. -from Authors

  9. Overview of the structure and geothermal potential of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence from a broad range of geological and geophysical investigations of Newberry volcano in Central Oregon suggests the presence of a small magma body beneath the summit caldera. Drilling has encountered temperatures indicative of a hydrothermal system above the hypothesized magma body. On the basis of hydrothermal mineralogy the temperature of the hydrothermal system is at or near its maximum value, indicating that the hydrothermal system is young. Basaltic underplating is postulated to replenish the magma body. The results of interdisciplinary studies at Newberry Volcano document that young, silicic volcanism in the Cascade Range can have geothermal potential. These results should be applied with caution to the rest of the Cascade Range because of the strong influence of Basin and Range extensional tectonics on Newberry Volcano's style of volcanism. -Author

  10. Preliminary Geologic Map of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Ramsey, D. W.; Jensen, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Calvert, A. T.

    2010-12-01

    The late Pleistocene and Holocene rear-arc Newberry Volcano is located in central Oregon east of the Cascades arc axis. Total area covered by the broad, shield-shaped edifice and its accompanying lava field is about 3,200 square kilometers, encompassing all or part of 38 U.S.G.S. 1:24,000-scale quadrangles. Distance from the northernmost extent of lava flows to the southernmost is about 115 km; east-west maximum width is less than 50 km. A printed version of the preliminary map at its intended publication scale of 1:50,000 is 8 ft high by 4 ft wide. More than 200 units have been identified so far, each typically consisting of the lava flow(s) and accompanying vent(s) that represent single eruptive episodes, some of which extend 10’s of kilometers across the edifice. Vents are commonly aligned north-northwest to north-northeast, reflecting a strong regional tectonic influence. The largest individual units on the map are basaltic, some extending nearly 50 km to the north through the cities of Bend and Redmond from vents low on the northern flank of the volcano. The oldest and most distal of the basalts is dated at about 350 ka. Silicic lava flows and domes are confined to the main edifice of the volcano; the youngest rhyolite flows are found within Newberry Caldera, including the rhyolitic Big Obsidian Flow, the youngest flow at Newberry Volcano (~1,300 yr B.P.). The oldest known rhyolite dome is dated at about 400 ka. Andesite units (those with silica contents between 57% and 63%) are the least common, with only 13 recognized to date. The present 6.5 by 8 km caldera formed about 75 ka with the eruption of compositionally-zoned rhyolite to basaltic andesite ash-flow tuff. Older widespread silicic ash-flow tuffs imply previous caldera collapses. Approximately 20 eruptions have occurred at Newberry since ice melted off the volcano in latest Pleistocene time. The mapping is being digitally compiled as a spatial geodatabase in ArcGIS. Within the geodatabase, feature

  11. Numerical analysis and FORTRAN program for the computation of the turbulent wakes of turbomachinery rotor blades, isolated airfoils and cascade of airfoils. Final Report - Ph.D. Thesis Mar. 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, C.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1982-01-01

    Turbulent wakes of turbomachinery rotor blades, isolated airfoils, and a cascade of airfoils were investigated both numerically and experimentally. Low subsonic and incompressible wake flows were examined. A finite difference procedure was employed in the numerical analysis utilizing the continuity, momentum, and turbulence closure equations in the rotating, curvilinear, and nonorthogonal coordinate system. A nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system was developed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical calculation. Three turbulence models were employed to obtain closure of the governing equations. The first model was comprised to transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and the rate of energy dissipation, and the second and third models were comprised of equations for the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation and Reynolds stresses, respectively. The second model handles the convection and diffusion terms in the Reynolds stress transport equation collectively, while the third model handles them individually. The numerical results demonstrate that the second and third models provide accurate predictions, but the computer time and memory storage can be considerably saved with the second model.

  12. Cascading dynamics with local weighted flow redistribution in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuzhuo

    2013-07-01

    We study load cascading dynamics in a system composed of coupled interdependent networks while adopting a local weighted flow redistribution rule. We find that when the intra- or inter-connectivity increases, robustness against the cascade of load failures in the symmetrically coupled interdependent networks increases. In addition, when a failed link has to first split its flow asymmetrically to its neighbouring link groups according to the link types, even though there exists an optimal split, the robustness is lowered in contrast with the non-split situation. Furthermore, the optimal weighting mechanism in an isolated network no longer holds in interdependent networks. Finally, robustness against the cascade of load failures is not guaranteed to increase by making the distribution of the degree of intra-connectivity broader. We confirm these phenomena by theoretical analysis based on mean-field theory. Our findings might have great implications for preventing load-failure-induced local cascades in symmetrically coupled interdependent networks.

  13. Seed rain and seed bank of third- and fifth-order streams on the western slope of the Cascade Range.

    Treesearch

    Janice M. Harmon; Jerry F. Franklin

    1991-01-01

    We compared the composition and density of the on-site vegetation, seed bank, and seed rain of three geomorphic and successional surfaces along third- and fifth-order streams on the western slope of the central Cascade Range in Oregon.The on-site vegetation generally was dominated by tree species, the seed bank by herb species, and the seed rain by tree and...

  14. Crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete in Oregon. Summary report. Report for 1985-94

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, E.; Peters, W.

    1995-07-01

    Over the last nine years, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has constructed 13 projects using crumb rubber modifiers (CRM) in asphalt concrete pavements using both the wet and dry process. State and federal legislation may require the use of recycled rubber in asphalt concrete, therefore, the Oregon Department of Transportation is interested in determining the most cost -effective crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete. The report includes a literature review on the use of crumb rubber modifiers in asphalt concrete pavement; a review on non-ODOT CRM paving projects constructed by Oregon counties and cities; and the Washington Department of Transportation. In additon, the report summarizes the data collected on all CRM hot mix asphalt concrete pavement projects constructed by ODOT. The ODOT information includes background constitution, cost, and performance data for each of the test and control sections. Finally, the future activities of the project are reviewed.

  15. The Cascade Forestry Service Nursery

    Treesearch

    Don Westefer

    2002-01-01

    Cascade Forestry Service, Inc., is a private reforestation nursery and service company that has grown from a shoestring operation into an employee-owned company that both produces reforestation trees and assists landowners with forestry development and management. The Northeastern Forest and Conservation Nursery Association has proven instrumental in Cascade Forestry...

  16. Cascade sample matrix inversion arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Timothy; Essman, Joseph

    It is shown that if a narrowband adaptive array is partitioned and processed as a cascade of adaptive arrays, computational complexity is reduced and performance is only slightly degraded. The sample matrix inversion (SMI) and covariance matrix estimation are discussed. Cascade SMI complexity is examined. Simulation results are presented.

  17. Plenty of Deep Long-Period Earthquakes Beneath Cascade Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. L.; Malone, S. D.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) records and locates earthquakes within Washington and Oregon, including those occurring at 10 Cascade volcanic centers. In an earlier study (Malone and Moran, EOS 1997), a total of 11 deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes were reported beneath 3 Washington volcanoes. They are characterized by emergent P- and S- arrivals, long and ringing codas, and contain most of their energy below 5 Hz. DLP earthquakes are significant because they have been observed to occur prior to or in association with eruptions at several volcanoes, and as a result are inferred to represent movement of deep-seated magma and associated fluids in the mid-to-lower crust. To more thoroughly characterize DLP occurrence in Washington and Oregon, we employed a two-step algorithm to systematically search the PNSN’s earthquake catalogue for DLP events occurring between 1980 and 2008. In the first step we applied a spectral ratio test to the demeaned and tapered triggered event waveforms to distinguish long-period events from the more common higher frequency volcano-tectonic and regional tectonic earthquakes. In the second step we visually analyzed waveforms of the flagged long-period events to distinguish DLP earthquakes from long-period rockfalls, explosions, shallow low-frequency events, and glacier quakes. We identified 56 DLP earthquakes beneath 7 Cascade volcanic centers. Of these, 31 occurred at Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greater than at the other volcanoes in our study. The other 6 volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Glacier Peak (5), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Mount Hood (1), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLP events were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano. The events are 10-40 km deep and have an average magnitude of around 1.5 (Mc), with both the largest and deepest DLPs occurring beneath Mount Baker. Cascade DLP earthquakes occur mostly as

  18. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  19. Dynamics of cavitating cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, A. J.; Brennen, C.; Kim, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Brief accounts of the theoretical research conducted on the unsteady cavitation characteristics of liquid rocket engine turbopumps are reported. The objective is to produce estimates of the cavitation compliance and other unsteady characteristics which could then be used in analysis of the pogo instability. Blade cavitation is the particular pheonomenon which is investigated and line arized free streamline methods were employed in both quasistatic and complete dynamic cascade analyses of the unsteady flow. The simpler quasistatic analysis was applied to particular turbopumps but yielded values of compliances significantly smaller than those indirectly obtained from experiments. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The complete dynamic analysis presents a new problem in fundamental hydrodynamics and, though the basic solution is presented, numerical results have not as yet been obtained.

  20. Unsteady turbulence cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5 /3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935), 10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.